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Sample records for assessment uri hydroelectric

  1. Environmental Impact Assessment: Uri hydroelectric power project on River Jhelum in Kashmir, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is an Initial Aquatic Environmental Impact Assessment of the Uri Hydroelectric Power Project on River Jhelum in Kashmir, India. It includes the Terms of Reference of the assessment, a discussion on biodiversity and threats to it, the environmental indicators used to monitor and predict the impacts, a description of the physical, chemical and biological prerequisites of the River Jhelum ecosystem, a description of the survey sites chosen, and an overview of the present fish and bottom fauna. Finally, there are sections on the potential impacts on biota of the Uri Project and a list of proposals for how mitigating and enhancing measures could be enforced

  2. Environmental Impact Assessment: Uri hydroelectric power project on River Jhelum in Kashmir, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyman, L.

    1995-09-01

    This report is an Initial Aquatic Environmental Impact Assessment of the Uri Hydroelectric Power Project on River Jhelum in Kashmir, India. It includes the Terms of Reference of the assessment, a discussion on biodiversity and threats to it, the environmental indicators used to monitor and predict the impacts, a description of the physical, chemical and biological prerequisites of the River Jhelum ecosystem, a description of the survey sites chosen, and an overview of the present fish and bottom fauna. Finally, there are sections on the potential impacts on biota of the Uri Project and a list of proposals for how mitigating and enhancing measures could be enforced

  3. Normanskill Hydroelectric Facility Feasibility Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besha, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the feasibility of installing a hydroelectric generating facility at an existing dam of the Normanskill Reservoir in NY. Evaluation of the hydrologic, technical, economic, legal, instrumental and environmental factors led to the conclusion that the project is feasible and advantageous. The proposed project has a present worth net cost of $3,099,800. The benefit cost ratio is 2.36. It is estimated that the proposed hydroelectric generating facility at the French's Mills site, City of Watervliet Reservoir will replace approximately 6,000 barrels of foreign oil per year. (LCL)

  4. Feasibility assessment, Lowell Hydroelectric Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    The results are presented of a feasibility analysis for hydroelectric generating facilities on the Merrimack River at Lowell, Massachusetts. The projected facility would utilize the existing Pawtucket Dam and a portion of the existing Northern Canal. The project was examined for economic, engineering, and environmental viability, and the results are favorable. The owners intend to proceed to the next step of negotiating a firm power purchase agreement.

  5. Chicopee Hydroelectric Project. Feasibility assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    The results of a feasibility analysis for hydroelectric generating facilities at the Chicopee Falls Dam in Chicopee, Massachusetts are presented. The project has been examined for economic, engineering, and environmental viability. The projected facility controls a 714 square mile drainage area and would utilize 16 feet of gross head developed by the Chicopee Falls Dam and an additional 10 feet of head at the site of a former dam 580 feet downstream. The plant would generate 9,000,000 kWh of electricity annually with an installed capacity of 1600 kW. Project cost is estimated, based upon a preliminary design effort, to be $4,053,750 at 1978 price levels. This yields a capital cost per kilowatt of $2534. It was assumed that this program would be implemented by the award of a fixed price contract to design, construct and turn over to the buyer on a turnkey basis the hydroelectric facility described herein. The site is typical of many in New England. The dam is soundly constructed and there are no factors to indicate that installation of hydropower at the dam would increase flood risk or cause other changes that would place insurance costs in a special category. The city has placed no value upon property or water rights so that the projected costs reflect only improvements to the site. Environmental impacts of the proposed development have been judged to be minor, and negative impacts seem to be balanced by several favorable effects. The feasibility of the Chicopee project has been measured against difficult criteria. The method used to assign a value to power produced by the hydroelectric project is disadvantageous to the project but is to the advantage of CMLP's customers.

  6. Risk assessment method of major unsafe hydroelectric project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU ZhongRu; SU HuaiZhi; GUO HaiQing

    2008-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of major unsafe hydroelectric projects and the data from field detection, in situ monitoring, and regular safety inspection, the funda- menial principles of operation risk assessment are proposed in this paper. Mean- while, a three layer hierarchical system is constructed, and an improved analytical hierarchical process combining genetic algorithm and analytical hierarchical process is established, with corresponding program. The operation risk of some unsafe dam was assessed with the principles, method and program presented in this paper and the major factors which would affect the operation of the dam were pointed out.

  7. Risk assessment method of major unsafe hydroelectric project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of major unsafe hydroelectric projects and the data from field detection, in situ monitoring, and regular safety inspection, the funda-mental principles of operation risk assessment are proposed in this paper. Mean-while, a three layer hierarchical system is constructed, and an improved analytical hierarchical process combining genetic algorithm and analytical hierarchical process is established, with corresponding program. The operation risk of some unsafe dam was assessed with the principles, method and program presented in this paper and the major factors which would affect the operation of the dam were pointed out.

  8. Assessment and statistics of Brazilian hydroelectric power plants: Dam areas versus installed and firm power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian relief, predominantly composed by small mountains and plateaus, contributed to formation of rivers with high amount of falls. With exception to North-eastern Brazil, the climate of this country are rainy, which contributes to maintain water flows high. These elements are essential to a high hydroelectric potential, contributing to the choice of hydroelectric power plants as the main technology of electricity generation in Brazil. Though this is a renewable source, whose utilized resource is free, dams must to be established which generates a high environmental and social impact. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact caused by these dams through the use of environmental indexes. These indexes are ratio formed by installed power with dam area of a hydro power plant, and ratio formed by firm power with this dam area. In this study, the greatest media values were found in South, Southeast, and Northeast regions respectively, and the smallest media values were found in North and Mid-West regions, respectively. The greatest encountered media indexes were also found in dams established in the 1950s. In the last six decades, the smallest indexes were registered by dams established in the 1980s. These indexes could be utilized as important instruments for environmental impact assessments, and could enable a dam to be established that depletes an ecosystem as less as possible. (author)

  9. Urie Bronfenbrenner (1917-2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceci, Stephen J

    2006-01-01

    Presents an obituary for Urie Bronfenbrenner (1917-2005). Before Urie Bronfenbrenner, child psychologists studied the child, sociologists the family, anthropologists the society, economists the economic framework, and political scientists the structure. As the result of Urie's extension of the concept of the ecology of human development, these environments--from the family to economic and political structures--are viewed as part of the life course, embracing both childhood and adulthood. Bronfenbrenner, widely regarded as one of the world's leading scholars in developmental psychology, child rearing, and human ecology--the interdisciplinary domain he helped popularize--died at his home in Ithaca, New York, on September 25, 2005, at the age of 88. He was the Jacob Gould Sherman Professor Emeritus of Human Development and of Psychology at Cornell University, where he spent most of his professional career. A brief biography of Bronfenbrenner is followed by an overview of his published work, his theories and other influential accomplishments.

  10. Interview with Professor Urie Bronfenbrenner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercogliano, Chris; Leue, Mary

    1996-01-01

    Urie Bronfenbrenner, professor emeritus at Cornell University, discusses how changing American values have shaped an antifamily and individualistic society, and along with increasingly high rates of poverty, single parenthood, and violence, have negatively impacted families, children, and education. Also discusses declining literacy rates, school…

  11. The urgency of assessing the greenhouse gas budgets of hydroelectric reservoirs in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2013-08-01

    Already the largest generator of hydroelectricity, China is accelerating dam construction to increase the share of hydroelectricity in its primary energy mix to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Here, we review the evidence on emissions of GHGs, particularly methane, from the Three Gorges Reservoir, and argue that although the hydroelectric reservoirs may release large amounts of methane, they contribute significantly to greenhouse gas reduction by substitution of thermal power generation in China. Nonetheless, more systematic monitoring and modelling studies on greenhouse gas emissions from representative reservoirs are necessary to better understand the climate impact of hydropower development in China.

  12. A modelling methodology for assessing the impact of climate variability and climatic change on hydroelectric generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new methodology relating basic climatic variables to hydroelectric generation was developed. The methodology can be implemented in large or small basins with any number of hydro plants. The method was applied to the Sacramento, Eel and Russian river basins in northern California where more than 100 hydroelectric plants are located. The final model predicts the availability of hydroelectric generation for the entire basin provided present and near past climate conditions, with about 90% accuracy. The results can be used for water management purposes or for analyzing the effect of climate variability on hydrogeneration availability in the basin. A wide range of results can be obtained depending on the climate change scenario used. (Author)

  13. Environment and hydroelectricity colloquium - Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document proposes a synthesis of a colloquium dedicated to the interactions between hydroelectric installations and the environment. The four sessions respectively addressed the impacts of hydroelectric installations on ecosystems and more particularly on pisciculture populations (strategies for migration restoration, development of fish-friendly turbines), the sedimentary management of hydroelectric installations, the implementation of the Water Framework European Directive (Austrian experience, biological assessment criteria), and examples of environmental integration of existing or projected installations

  14. Assessment of the feasibility of recommissioning the French Landing Hydroelectric Facility in Van Buren Township, Michigan. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    The results of a study of the feasibility of recommissioning a small, low-head hydroelectric facility in southeastern Michigan are presented. The study concludes that there are several cost-effective designs for recommissioning the site, based on the use of vertical turbines and the sale of power to nearby industrial markets. In terms of the bulk sale of power to the local electric utility, no cost-effective alternatives were found to exist. A major burden on project cost-effectiveness was found to be the relatively large costs for structural repairs to the dam and powerhouse needed to insure safe operation and on adequate service life. From an engineering standpoint it was found that the items of equipment needed to recommission the site are readily available from both US and foreign manufacturers. A variety of hydraulic turbine designs could be successfully adapted to the existing powerhouse, without extensive new construction. It was determined that the production capacity of the facility had an important influence on the cost-effectiveness of the project. A detailed benefit/cost analysis was conducted to identify the optimum facility size in terms of incremental costs and revenues. A detailed environmental assessment using an impact matrix methodology concluded that the development of the facility for hydroelectric generation would have important positive environmental consequences related to improved impoundment and flow management techniques as well as enhanced public safety due to structural repairs to the dam. The institutional and regulatory implications of developing the site for hydroelectric generation were found to be significant but manageable.

  15. The Application of Traits-Based Assessment Approaches to Estimate the Effects of Hydroelectric Turbine Passage on Fish Populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cada, Glenn F [ORNL; Schweizer, Peter E [ORNL

    2012-04-01

    One of the most important environmental issues facing the hydropower industry is the adverse impact of hydroelectric projects on downstream fish passage. Fish that migrate long distances as part of their life cycle include not only important diadromous species (such as salmon, shads, and eels) but also strictly freshwater species. The hydropower reservoirs that downstream-moving fish encounter differ greatly from free-flowing rivers. Many of the environmental changes that occur in a reservoir (altered water temperature and transparency, decreased flow velocities, increased predation) can reduce survival. Upon reaching the dam, downstream-migrating fish may suffer increased mortality as they pass through the turbines, spillways and other bypasses, or turbulent tailraces. Downstream from the dam, insufficient environmental flow releases may slow downstream fish passage rates or decrease survival. There is a need to refine our understanding of the relative importance of causative factors that contribute to turbine passage mortality (e.g., strike, pressure changes, turbulence) so that turbine design efforts can focus on mitigating the most damaging components. Further, present knowledge of the effectiveness of turbine improvements is based on studies of only a few species (mainly salmon and American shad). These data may not be representative of turbine passage effects for the hundreds of other fish species that are susceptible to downstream passage at hydroelectric projects. For example, there are over 900 species of fish in the United States. In Brazil there are an estimated 3,000 freshwater fish species, of which 30% are believed to be migratory (Viana et al. 2011). Worldwide, there are some 14,000 freshwater fish species (Magurran 2009), of which significant numbers are susceptible to hydropower impacts. By comparison, in a compilation of fish entrainment and turbine survival studies from over 100 hydroelectric projects in the United States, Winchell et al. (2000

  16. Assessment of Heavy Metals in Water, Sediment, and Fishes of a Large Tropical Hydroelectric Dam in Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siong Fong Sim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bakun Hydroelectric Dam in Sarawak is one of the world highest concrete rock filled dams. This paper reports the heavy metals concentrations in water, sediment, and fishes of Bakun Dam. Water and sediment samples were collected from 11 stations and 6 fish species were caught. The samples were digested with open acid digestion and the metals contents were analysed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer and mercury analyser. The method was validated based on certified reference materials. A higher concentration of Fe and Mn was detected in downstream water with significant longitudinal variation. Cu, Zn, and Hg were present in trace amount. All elements analysed were consistently found in sediment with no risk of contamination. For fish, Hemibagrus planiceps was characterised by higher affinity for Hg accumulation. The concentrations detected in all fish species were within the permissible guideline of 0.5 mg/kg. The health risk assessment suggested that Barbonymus schwanenfeldii, Puntioplites waandersii, Cyclocheilichthys apogon, and Hemibagrus planiceps were characterised by hazard index > 1 implying possible adverse effects. The amount of fish recommended for adults and children was in the range of 500–775 g/week and 33–135 g/week, respectively.

  17. Medico-ecological study and health impact assessment of hydro-electric projects in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this studies were to determine i) if there was any potential health risks in terms of spread of vector-borne and other communicable diseases resulting from the changes in the environment due to creation of large bodies of water as consequence of the construction of dams, ii) diseases of public health importance in populations affected by such projects. Nine pre-impoundment studies had been carried out and potential impact of the change in environment on discases and health of the affected populations in each areas was evaluated. Risk of infections to the dam construction workers also assessed. Recommendations on mitigation measures were made for each situation so that adequate provisions could be made to improve the health conditions of these populations especially those who would be resettled as a result of impoundment . Prevention and control measures on transmission of infection, including vector control were proposed. The potential medico-ecological hazards encountered by immigrants and visitors to the area on completion of the hydro project were also envisaged

  18. Assessment of Heavy Metals in Water, Sediment, and Fishes of a Large Tropical Hydroelectric Dam in Sarawak, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Siong Fong Sim; Teck Yee Ling; Lee Nyanti; Norliza Gerunsin; Yiew Ee Wong; Liang Ping Kho

    2016-01-01

    Bakun Hydroelectric Dam in Sarawak is one of the world highest concrete rock filled dams. This paper reports the heavy metals concentrations in water, sediment, and fishes of Bakun Dam. Water and sediment samples were collected from 11 stations and 6 fish species were caught. The samples were digested with open acid digestion and the metals contents were analysed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer and mercury analyser. The method was validated based on certified reference materials....

  19. Small hydroelectric engineering practice

    CERN Document Server

    Leyland, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Small Hydroelectric Engineering Practice is a comprehensive reference book covering all aspects of identifying, building, and operating hydroelectric schemes between 500 kW and 50 MW. In this range of outputs there are many options for all aspects of the scheme and it is very important that the best options are chosen.As small hydroelectric schemes are usually built against a limited budget it is extremely important that the concept design is optimum and every component is designed to maximise the benefi t and minimise the cost. As operating costs are often a high proportion of the income it i

  20. Assessment Planning and Evaluation of Renewable Energy Resources: an Interactive Computer Assisted Procedure. [hydroelectricity, biomass, and windpower in the Pittsfield metropolitan region, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, T. W.; Fabos, J. G.; Macdougall, E. B.

    1982-01-01

    Adaptation and derivation were used to develop a procedure for assessing the availability of renewable energy resources on the landscape while simultaneously accounting for the economic, legal, social, and environmental issues required. Done in a step-by-step fashion, the procedure can be used interactively at the computer terminals. Its application in determining the hydroelectricity, biomass, and windpower in a 40,000 acre study area of Western Massachusetts shows that: (1) three existing dam sites are physically capable of being retrofitted for hydropower; (2) each of three general areas has a mean annual windspeed exceeding 14 mph and is conductive to windpower; and (3) 20% of the total land area consists of prime agricultural biomass while 30% of the area is prime forest biomass land.

  1. Hydroelectricity and territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On our river territories, the development of renewable energy and the restoration of the quality of the aquatic ecosystems both illustrate the need to reconcile the different usages of water resources while still guaranteeing proper functioning of the ecosystems. Hydroelectricity is the crux of the problem. Because of its mountainous hydrographic network and its favourable hydrology, the Adour-Garonne basin witnessed large-scale development of its hydroelectric potential throughout the 20. century. Approaching the question of hydroelectricity from the point of view of the river territories puts all the challenges facing them into their true perspective. Two distinct examples in the Adour-Garonne basin illustrate the partnership between the Water Agency and the local authorities in the Garonne and Dordogne basins: on the Garonne River, reconciling water usages with the maintenance of adequate water levels at times of drought; on the Dordogne River, reducing the impact of the hydro-peaking. (authors)

  2. Underground pumped hydroelectric storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.; Kannberg, L.D.

    1984-07-01

    Underground pumped hydroelectric energy storage was conceived as a modification of surface pumped storage to eliminate dependence upon fortuitous topography, provide higher hydraulic heads, and reduce environmental concerns. A UPHS plant offers substantial savings in investment cost over coal-fired cycling plants and savings in system production costs over gas turbines. Potential location near load centers lowers transmission costs and line losses. Environmental impact is less than that for a coal-fired cycling plant. The inherent benefits include those of all pumped storage (i.e., rapid load response, emergency capacity, improvement in efficiency as pumps improve, and capacity for voltage regulation). A UPHS plant would be powered by either a coal-fired or nuclear baseload plant. The economic capacity of a UPHS plant would be in the range of 1000 to 3000 MW. This storage level is compatible with the load-leveling requirements of a greater metropolitan area with population of 1 million or more. The technical feasibility of UPHS depends upon excavation of a subterranean powerhouse cavern and reservoir caverns within a competent, impervious rock formation, and upon selection of reliable and efficient turbomachinery - pump-turbines and motor-generators - all remotely operable.

  3. Assessment of Diversity, Distribution, Conservation Status and Preparation of Management Plan for Medicinal Plants in the Catchment Area of Parbati Hydroelectric Project Stage -Ⅲ in Northwestern Himalaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.S. Samant; Jitendra S. Butola; Aman Sharma

    2007-01-01

    The developmental activities, particularly the construction of hydroelectric projects are causing a great loss of biodiversity in the Indian Himalayan Region. The Himachal Pradesh, a part of IHR is well known for the development of hydroelectric projects.The Parbati H.E. Project is amongst the major projects of the State. The different stages of the project are all causing loss of biodiversity of the area.Stage Ⅲ of the Parbati H.E. Project is a run of the river scheme on the Sainj River downstream of Power House of Parbati H.E. Project Stage Ⅱ. The project shall utilize regulated discharge of Parbati H.E.Project Stage Ⅱ and inflow of River Sainj for power generation, and has been contemplated as a peaking station operating in tandem with Stage Ⅱ. The present study has been undertaken to see the impact of hydroelectric project on the biodiversity, particularly on medicinal plants. A total of 104 species of medicinal plants, belonging to different life forms, i.e.,trees (23 spp.), shrubs (22 spp.), herbs (57 spp.) and ferns (2 spp.) were recorded. The species have been analyzed and studied for their distribution,classification, altitudinal zones, part (s) used,indigenous uses, nativity, endemism and rarity.Different parts of these species, such as whole plants,roots (including rhizomes and tubers), leaves, flowers,fruits, seeds, stems, barks, spikes, nuts and insect galls are used by the inhabitants for curing various diseases and ailments. 30 species are native to the Himalayan region, 9 species native to the Himalayan region and adjacent countries also and 65 species are non-natives. 9 species are near endemics. Considering the whole Himalaya as a biogeographic unit (sensu lato),the near endemics are endemic to the Himalaya.Among these species, Zanthoxylum armatum is categorized as Endangered and Valeriana wallichii as Vulnerable. Hedychium spicatum, Rhus javanica,Berberis lycium, Thalictrum foliolossum, Salvia lanata, Rubia cordifolia and Bergenia

  4. Feasibility assessment of the water energy resources of the United States for new low power and small hydro classes of hydroelectric plants: Appendix B - Assessment results by state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Douglas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Water energy resource sites identified in the resource assessment study reported in Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low Power Resources, DOE/ID-11111, April 2004 were evaluated to identify which could feasibly be developed using a set of feasibility criteria. The gross power potential of the sites estimated in the previous study was refined to determine the realistic hydropower potential of the sites using a set of development criteria assuming they are developed as low power (less than 1 MWa) or small hydro (between 1 and 30 MWa) projects. The methodologies for performing the feasibility assessment and estimating hydropower potential are described. The results for the country in terms of the number of feasible sites, their total gross power potential, and their total hydropower potential are presented. The spatial distribution of the feasible potential projects is presented on maps of the conterminous U.S. and Alaska and Hawaii. Results summaries for each of the 50 states are presented in Appendix B. The results of the study are also viewable using a Virtual Hydropower Prospector geographic information system application accessible on the Internet at: http://hydropower.inl.gov/prospector.

  5. Projects for small hydro-power installations in the Canton of Uri, Switzerland; Kanton Uri. Projekte fuer Kleinwasserkraftwerke - Vorstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-11-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) on a preliminary study presents and discusses small-hydro projects at three locations in the Swiss Canton of Uri. Three of originally six potential locations were selected for further investigation. Factors such as the usable quantities of water available at the locations are discussed. The projects Brunnital, Gruonbach and Palanggenbach are discussed in detail. Water quantities and various components of the installations such as water intakes, de-sanding installations, pressure conduits, machine houses and tailrace channels are described, as is the electro-mechanical equipment proposed. Also, environmental aspects are dealt with. Annual electricity production and economic viability are further topics covered in the report.

  6. 76 FR 61689 - Sutton Hydroelectric Company, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Sutton Hydroelectric Company, LLC Notice of Site Visit On February 6, 2008, Sutton Hydroelectric Company, LLC (Sutton Hydroelectric) filed a notice of intent and...

  7. The impact of climate change on hydro-electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydroelectricity is a clean and renewable energy source for many countries, and is expected to play an important role in future energy supplies. However, the impact of climatic change on hydroelectricity resources is not yet understood. This study provided a critical review of current methods used to determine the potential impacts of climatic change on hydroelectric power production. General circulation models (GCMs) are used to predict future climate conditions under various greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenarios. Statistical techniques are then used to down-scale GCM outputs to the appropriate scales needed for hydrological models, which are then used to simulate the effects of climatic change at regional and local scales. Outputs from the models are then used to develop water management models for hydroelectric power production. Observed linear trends in annual precipitation during the twentieth century were provided. The theoretical advantages and disadvantages of various modelling techniques were reviewed. Risk assessment strategies for Hydro-Quebec were also outlined and results of the study will be used to guide research programs for the hydroelectric power industry. refs., tabs., figs

  8. Forced response analysis of hydroelectric systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alligné, S.; Silva, P. C. O.; Béguin, A.; Kawkabani, B.; Allenbach, P.; Nicolet, C.; Avellan, F.

    2014-03-01

    At off-design operating points, Francis turbines develop cavitation vortex rope in the draft tube which may interact with the hydraulic system. Risk resonance assessment by means of eigenmodes computation of the system is usually performed. However, the system response to the excitation source induced by the cavitation vortex rope is not predicted in terms of amplitudes and phase. Only eigenmodes shapes with related frequencies and dampings can be predicted. Besides this modal analysis, the risk resonance assessment can be completed by a forced response analysis. This method allows identifying the contribution of each eigenmode into the system response which depends on the system boundary conditions and the excitation source location. In this paper, a forced response analysis of a Francis turbine hydroelectric power plant including hydraulic system, rotating train, electrical system and control devices is performed. First, the general methodology of the forced response analysis is presented and validated with time domain simulations. Then, analysis of electrical, hydraulic and hydroelectric systems are performed and compared to analyse the influence of control structures on pressure fluctuations induced by cavitation vortex rope.

  9. Assessment of spermatogenesis and plasma sex steroids in a seasonal breeding teleost: a comparative study in an area of influence of a tributary, downstream from a hydroelectric power dam, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, Fabricio F T; Thomé, Ralph G; Arantes, Fabio P; Castro, Antonio Carlos S; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

    2012-12-01

    River damming and building of hydroelectric power plants interrupt the reproductive migration routes and change the major physicochemical parameters of water quality, with drastic consequences for populations of migratory fishes. The goal of this study was to evaluate proliferation and cell death during spermatogenesis and serum profiles of sex steroids in Prochilodus argenteus, from the São Francisco River, downstream from the Três Marias Dam. A total of 257 adult males were caught quarterly during a reproductive cycle in two sites: the first 34 km of the river after the dam (site 1) and the second 34-54 km after the dam (site 2), after the confluence with a tributary, the Abaeté River. Seasonal changes in the testicular activity associated with morphometric analyses of germ cells as well as proliferation and testicular apoptosis support a more active spermatogenesis in fish from site 2, where higher levels of sex steroids and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were also found. In site 1, fish presented low serum levels of testosterone, 17β-estradiol and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone and a low GSI during gonadal maturation. Spermatogonial proliferation (PCNA) and apoptosis (TUNEL) were more elevated in fish from site 1, but spermatocytes were mainly labelled in fish from site 2. Overall, these data demonstrate changes in testicular activity and plasma sex steroids in a neotropical teleost fish living downstream from a hydroelectric dam, supplying new data on fish reproduction in regulated rivers. Moreover, morphometric analyses associated with sex steroids profiles provide reliable tools to assess fish spermatogenesis under environmental stress conditions.

  10. Analysis of URI nuclear interaction with RPB5 and components of the R2TP/prefoldin-like complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Mita

    Full Text Available Unconventional prefoldin RPB5 Interactor (URI was identified as a transcriptional repressor that binds RNA polymerase II (pol II through interaction with the RPB5/POLR2E subunit. Despite the fact that many other proteins involved in transcription regulation have been shown to interact with URI, its nuclear function still remains elusive. Previous mass spectrometry analyses reported that URI is part of a novel protein complex called R2TP/prefoldin-like complex responsible for the cytoplasmic assembly of RNA polymerase II. We performed a mass spectrometry (MS-based proteomic analysis to identify nuclear proteins interacting with URI in prostate cells. We identified all the components of the R2TP/prefoldin-like complex as nuclear URI interactors and we showed that URI binds and regulates RPB5 protein stability and transcription. Moreover, we validated the interaction of URI to the P53 and DNA damage-Regulated Gene 1 (PDRG1 and show that PDRG1 protein is also stabilized by URI binding. We present data demonstrating that URI nuclear/cytoplasmic shuttling is affected by compounds that stall pol II on the DNA (α-amanitin and actinomycin-D and by leptomycin B, an inhibitor of the CRM1 exportin that mediates the nuclear export of pol II subunits. These data suggest that URI, and probably the entire R2TP/prefoldin-like complex is exported from the nucleus through CRM1. Finally we identified putative URI sites of phosphorylation and acetylation and confirmed URI sites of post-transcriptional modification identified in previous large-scale analyses the importance of which is largely unknown. However URI post-transcriptional modification was shown to be essential for URI function and therefore characterization of novel sites of URI modification will be important to the understanding of URI function.

  11. Analysis of URI Nuclear Interaction with RPB5 and Components of the R2TP/Prefoldin-Like Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Paolo; Savas, Jeffrey N.; Ha, Susan; Djouder, Nabil; Yates, John R.; Logan, Susan K.

    2013-01-01

    Unconventional prefoldin RPB5 Interactor (URI) was identified as a transcriptional repressor that binds RNA polymerase II (pol II) through interaction with the RPB5/POLR2E subunit. Despite the fact that many other proteins involved in transcription regulation have been shown to interact with URI, its nuclear function still remains elusive. Previous mass spectrometry analyses reported that URI is part of a novel protein complex called R2TP/prefoldin-like complex responsible for the cytoplasmic assembly of RNA polymerase II. We performed a mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic analysis to identify nuclear proteins interacting with URI in prostate cells. We identified all the components of the R2TP/prefoldin-like complex as nuclear URI interactors and we showed that URI binds and regulates RPB5 protein stability and transcription. Moreover, we validated the interaction of URI to the P53 and DNA damage-Regulated Gene 1 (PDRG1) and show that PDRG1 protein is also stabilized by URI binding. We present data demonstrating that URI nuclear/cytoplasmic shuttling is affected by compounds that stall pol II on the DNA (α-amanitin and actinomycin-D) and by leptomycin B, an inhibitor of the CRM1 exportin that mediates the nuclear export of pol II subunits. These data suggest that URI, and probably the entire R2TP/prefoldin-like complex is exported from the nucleus through CRM1. Finally we identified putative URI sites of phosphorylation and acetylation and confirmed URI sites of post-transcriptional modification identified in previous large-scale analyses the importance of which is largely unknown. However URI post-transcriptional modification was shown to be essential for URI function and therefore characterization of novel sites of URI modification will be important to the understanding of URI function. PMID:23667685

  12. Social and environmental impacts of the James Bay hydroelectric project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book, which is an analysis and not an advocacy, examines the anatomy of the controversy that has swirled around the James Bay project - the La Grande and Great Whale projects combined - from the 1970s to the 1990s, and seeks, in the process, to determine whether there are lessons that can be learned from such an analysis that are applicable to other cases as well as to James Bay itself. The contributors are interested, at one and the same time, in finding ways to integrate the knowledge of natural scientists and social scientists to deepen the understanding of human/environment relations and to link science and policy to encourage a productive dialogue between practitioners and scholars in this increasingly important area of inquiry. The contributor's papers include the following: introduction to the issues; hydroelectric power development at James Bay: establishing a frame of reference; James Bay: environmental considerations for building large hydroelectric dams and reservoirs in Quebec; elevated mercury in fish as a result of the James Bay hydroelectric power development: perception and reality; the Cree people of James Bay: assessing the social impacts of hydroelectric dams and reservoirs; culture, social change, and Cree opposition to the James Bay hydroelectric development; and the impact of James Bay hydroelectric development on the art and craft of the James Bay Cree. The authors of the volume have attempted to stand back and examine just a few of these issues from the perspective of a variety of disciplines, and their purpose is to inform and stimulate thoughtful consideration by providing an overall perspective that might might serve to broaden the context in which specific issues can be debated. refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  13. Wildlife Impact Assessment and Summary of Previous Mitigation Related to Hydroelectric Projects in Montana, Phase 1, Volume Two (B), Clark Fork River Projects, Cabinet Gorge and Noxon Rapids Dams, Operator, Washington Water Power Company.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Marilyn

    1984-06-01

    This report documents best available information concerning the wildlife species impacted and the degree of the impact. A target species list was developed to focus the impact assessment and to direct mitigation efforts. Many non-target species also incurred impacts but are not discussed in this report. All wildlife habitats inundated by the two reservoirs are represented by the target species. It was assumed the numerous non-target species also affected will be benefited by the mitigation measures adopted for the target species. Impacts addressed are limited to those directly attributable to the loss of habitat and displacement of wildlife populations due to the construction and operation of the two hydroelectric projects. Secondary impacts, such as the relocation of railroads and highways, and the increase of the human population, were not considered. In some cases, both positive and negative impacts were assessed; and the overall net effect was reported. The loss/gain estimates reported represent impacts considered to have occurred during one point in time except where otherwise noted. When possible, quantitative estimates were developed based on historical information from the area or on data from similar areas. Qualitative loss estimates of low, moderate, or high with supporting rationale were assessed for each species or species group.

  14. Methodologies for Assessing the Cumulative Environmental Effects of Hydroelectric Development of Fish and Wildlife in the Columbia River Basin, Volume 1, Recommendations, 1987 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stull, Elizabeth Ann

    1987-07-01

    This volume is the first of a two-part set addressing methods for assessing the cumulative effects of hydropower development on fish and wildlife in the Columbia River Basin. Species and habitats potentially affected by cumulative impacts are identified for the basin, and the most significant effects of hydropower development are presented. Then, current methods for measuring and assessing single-project effects are reviewed, followed by a review of methodologies with potential for use in assessing the cumulative effects associated with multiple projects. Finally, two new approaches for cumulative effects assessment are discussed in detail. Overall, this report identifies and reviews the concepts, factors, and methods necessary for understanding and conducting a cumulative effects assessment in the Columbia River Basin. Volume 2 will present a detailed procedural handbook for performing a cumulative assessment using the integrated tabular methodology introduced in this volume. 308 refs., 18 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. Wildlife Impact Assessment and Summary of Previous Mitigation Related to Hydroelectric Projects in Montana, Volume One, Libby Dam Project, Operator, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yde, Chris A.

    1984-10-01

    This assessment addresses the impacts to the wildlife populations and wildlife habitats due to the Libby Dam project on the Kootenai River and previous mitigation of these losses. The current assessment documents the best available information concerning the impacts to the wildlife populations inhabiting the project area prior to construction of the dam and creation of the reservoir. Many of the impacts reported in this assessment differ from those contained in the earlier document compiled by the Fish and Wildlife Service; however, this document is a thorough compilation of the available data (habitat and wildlife) and, though conservative, attempts to realistically assess the impacts related to the Libby Dam project. Where appropriate the impacts resulting from highway construction and railroad relocation were included in the assessment. This was consistent with the previous assessments.

  16. Private affairs [Canon del Pato hydroelectric project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The privatisation of the electric power industry in Peru has caused growth in its hydroelectric generation capacity. Increased interest in hydroelectric power, based on economic considerations, had led to decision on upgrading the two main hydropower plants which will provide almost 100 MW of extra capacity over a three year period, and provide competitively priced electric power. (UK)

  17. Feasibility Assessment of Water Energy Resources of the United States for New Low Power and Small Hydro Classes of Hydroelectric Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas G. Hall

    2006-01-01

    Water energy resource sites identified in the resource assessment study reported in Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low Power Resources, DOE/ID-11111, April 2004 were evaluated to identify which could feasibly be developed using a set of feasibility criteria. The gross power potential of the sites estimated in the previous study was refined to determine the realistic hydropower potential of the sites using a set of development criteria assuming they are developed as low power (less than 1 MW) or small hydro (between 1 and 30 MW) projects. The methodologies for performing the feasibility assessment and estimating hydropower potential are described. The results for the country in terms of the number of feasible sites, their total gross power potential, and their total hydropower potential are presented. The spatial distribution of the feasible potential projects is presented on maps of the conterminous U.S. and Alaska and Hawaii. Results summaries for each of the 50 states are presented in an appendix. The results of the study are also viewable using a Virtual Hydropower Prospector geographic information system application accessible on the Internet at: http://hydropower.inl.gov/prospector.

  18. Feasibility assessment of the water energy resources of the United States for new low power and small hydro classes of hydroelectric plants: Main report and Appendix A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Douglas G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Reeves, Kelly S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Brizzee, Julie [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lee, Randy D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Carroll, Gregory R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sommers, Garold L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Water energy resource sites identified in the resource assessment study reported in Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low Power Resources, DOE/ID-11111, April 2004 were evaluated to identify which could feasibly be developed using a set of feasibility criteria. The gross power potential of the sites estimated in the previous study was refined to determine the realistic hydropower potential of the sites using a set of development criteria assuming they are developed as low power (less than 1 MWa) or small hydro (between 1 and 30 MWa) projects. The methodologies for performing the feasibility assessment and estimating hydropower potential are described. The results for the country in terms of the number of feasible sites, their total gross power potential, and their total hydropower potential are presented. The spatial distribution of the feasible potential projects is presented on maps of the conterminous U.S. and Alaska and Hawaii. Results summaries for each of the 50 states are presented in an appendix. The results of the study are also viewable using a Virtual Hydropower Prospector geographic information system application accessible on the Internet at: http://hydropower.inl.gov/prospector.

  19. The hydroelectric power market in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work makes a synthesis of the hydroelectric power market, of its present day capacity in the world, and of its perspectives of development in the future. The first part treats of the hydroelectric facilities and of the market of hydroelectric power plants. It presents the technology used and the different types of plants, the evolution of their geographical setting and the future potentialities of development. The second part deals with the competitiveness of this industry with respect to: the energy policy stakes, the profitability, the energy independence of countries, the regulation of power networks and the environmental impacts. (J.S.)

  20. Hoopa Valley Small Scale Hydroelectric Feasibility Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis Miller

    2009-03-22

    This study considered assessing the feasibility of developing small scale hydro-electric power from seven major tributaries within the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation of Northern California (http://www.hoopa-nsn.gov/). This study pursued the assessment of seven major tributaries of the Reservation that flow into the Trinity River. The feasibility of hydropower on the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation has real potential for development and many alternative options for project locations, designs, operations and financing. In order to realize this opportunity further will require at least 2-3 years of intense data collection focusing on stream flow measurements at multiple locations in order to quantify real power potential. This also includes on the ground stream gradient surveys, road access planning and grid connectivity to PG&E for sale of electricity. Imperative to this effort is the need for negotiations between the Hoopa Tribal Council and PG&E to take place in order to finalize the power rate the Tribe will receive through any wholesale agreement that utilizes the alternative energy generated on the Reservation.

  1. Simplified matrix for assessment to environmental impacts on small hydroelectric power plants (SHP); Matriz simplificada para avaliar impactos ambientais em pequenas centrais hidreletricas (PCH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Tania A.P. de Souza; Dupas, Francisco Antonio [Universidade Federal de Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Recursos Naturais]. E-mails: taniabarbosa@unifei.edu.br; dupas@unifei.edu.br

    2006-07-01

    This work intends to study the methodologies used by EIA and proposes the adaptation of a simplified matrix for the assessment of environmental impacts regarding small hydropower plants. A case study of Ninho da Aguia SHP, located in the city of Delfim Moreira, MG, was used for elaborating the matrix. The methodology used the analysis of all the negative impacts and they were given combined weight based on a pre-established impact scale. The weights that were given to each impact were distributed according to the combination of features presented in the referred EIA. The results attained show that the environmental damage is reduced by 45% when the mitigating measures suggested by the EIA and by the analysis carried out by this study are applied. Besides, this preliminary proposal will make it possible for the process of getting an environmental license to be accelerated. Today, this process is considered as an investment inhibitor because of its slowness caused by the environmental organs that analyze these studies. Also, it may be used as initial guidelines regarding the environmental cost of the implementation of the enterprise. The proposed matrix shows itself as efficient because it is easy to be used and it is a useful tool for the analysis of projects that will be implemented.

  2. Optimal control of hydroelectric facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guangzhi

    This thesis considers a simple yet realistic model of pump-assisted hydroelectric facilities operating in a market with time-varying but deterministic power prices. Both deterministic and stochastic water inflows are considered. The fluid mechanical and engineering details of the facility are described by a model containing several parameters. We present a dynamic programming algorithm for optimizing either the total energy produced or the total cash generated by these plants. The algorithm allows us to give the optimal control strategy as a function of time and to see how this strategy, and the associated plant value, varies with water inflow and electricity price. We investigate various cases. For a single pumped storage facility experiencing deterministic power prices and water inflows, we investigate the varying behaviour for an oversimplified constant turbine- and pump-efficiency model with simple reservoir geometries. We then generalize this simple model to include more realistic turbine efficiencies, situations with more complicated reservoir geometry, and the introduction of dissipative switching costs between various control states. We find many results which reinforce our physical intuition about this complicated system as well as results which initially challenge, though later deepen, this intuition. One major lesson of this work is that the optimal control strategy does not differ much between two differing objectives of maximizing energy production and maximizing its cash value. We then turn our attention to the case of stochastic water inflows. We present a stochastic dynamic programming algorithm which can find an on-average optimal control in the face of this randomness. As the operator of a facility must be more cautious when inflows are random, the randomness destroys facility value. Following this insight we quantify exactly how much a perfect hydrological inflow forecast would be worth to a dam operator. In our final chapter we discuss the

  3. The environment and the hydroelectric in Amazonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some aspects about social and environmental impacts due to the hydroelectric power plants constructed in Amazonia region are presented, including considerations of energy planning and management with international example. (C.G.C.)

  4. 77 FR 24949 - Red River Lock & Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Project; BOST4 Hydroelectric LLC; Notice of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Red River Lock & Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Project; BOST4 Hydroelectric LLC... affected by issuance of a license for the proposed Red River Lock & Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Project No... Hydroelectric LLC, as applicant for the proposed Red River Lock & Dam No. 4 Project No. 12757, is invited...

  5. The Vision of Urie Bronfenbrenner: Adults Who Are Crazy about Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendtro, Larry K.

    2006-01-01

    Urie Bronfenbrenner (1917-2005) was a pioneer in studying the behavior of children in their natural life space of family, school, peer group, and community. His concept of the ecology of human development is transforming practice for effective work with children and youth. Bronfenbrenner's research highlights the power of human relationships to…

  6. Hiilangaay Hydroelectric Project – Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twitchell, Sara [HDR, Omaha, NE (United States); Stimac, Michael [HDR, Omaha, NE (United States); Lang, Lisa [Haida Corporation, Hydaburg, AK (United States); Witwer, Doreen [Haida Corporation, Hydaburg, AK (United States); Jameson, Vincent [Haida Corporation, Hydaburg, AK (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The Hiilangaay Hydroelectric Project (“Hiilangaay” or the “Project”) is a 5-megawatt hydroelectric resource currently under construction on Prince of Wales Island (POW), Alaska, approximately ten miles east of Hydaburg. The objective of the Project is to interconnect with the existing transmission grid on Prince of Wales Island, increasing the hydroelectric generation capability by 5 MW, eliminating the need for diesel generation, increasing the reliability of the electrical system, and allowing the interconnected portion of the island to have 100 percent renewable energy generation. Pre-construction activities including construction planning, permit coordination and compliance, and final design have made it possible to move forward with construction of the Hiilangaay Project. Despite repeated delays to the schedule, persistence and long-term planning will culminate in the construction of the Project, and make Prince of Wales Island independent of diesel-fueled energy

  7. Hydroelectric structures studies using 3-dimensional methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrell, T.R.; Jones, G.V.; Toner, C.K. (Southern Electric International, Birmingham, AL (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Deterioration and degradation of aged, hydroelectric project structures can significantly affect the operation and safety of a project. In many cases, hydroelectric headworks (in particular) have complicated geometrical configurations, loading patterns and hence, stress conditions. An accurate study of such structures can be performed using 3-dimensional computer models. 3-D computer models can be used for both stability evaluation and for finite element stress analysis. Computer aided engineering processes facilitate the use of 3-D methods in both pre-processing and post-processing of data. Two actual project examples are used to emphasize the authors' points.

  8. Hydroelectric rent and precipitation variability: the case of Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norway is about to reorganize its electricity production sector from a predominantly administered one to one which is based on market prices and principles of efficiency. The objective of this paper is to model the energy sector and to measure the size of hydro rent before and after the reorganization. We construct a regionally diversified and integrated equilibrium model of production, transmission and distribution of hydroelectricity. Particular attention is paid to the role of precipitation variability for the size and regional variation of hydro rent. We consider alternative routes for assessing the size of hydro rent in a long-run perspective. (author)

  9. What share for hydroelectricity in France?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document gathers 10 presentations (articles) given at the 2. meeting on hydroelectricity, held at Grenoble on May 2004. The papers present some examples of realizations in the domain of small-hydropower, the R and D in progress and some recent advances in hydraulic engineering, the safety and quality aspects, and the environmental impacts and sustainable development of hydroelectric power: 1 - examples of small hydropower plants in France and in progress at SOGREAH (T. Bongrand); 2 - the pico-power plants implemented on drinkable water networks (E. Bouvier); 3 - MINI-AQUA: the mini-hydro solution (M. Francois); 4 - Grenoble and the Alpine valley, pole of hydraulic and hydroelectric competences (J.M. Martin); 5 - history and R and D (B. Tardieu); 6 - advances in engineering for a forefront industry (M. Vogien); 7 - improvement of hydraulic safety (P. Cruchon); 8 - a ISO 14001 certification experience in the domain of hydroelectricity (A. Gariel); 9 - the Rhone river development, reserved flow rate and sustainable development (L. Levasseur); 10 - small hydropower: impact and integration (J.P. Mallet). (J.S.)

  10. Consideraciones educativas de la perspectiva ecológica de Urie Bronferbrenner

    OpenAIRE

    Gifre Monreal, Mariona; Esteban Guitart, Moisès

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo de este artículo es presentar las bases teóricas y algunas aplicaciones contemporáneas de la teoría de Urie Bronfenbrenner. En primer lugar, se describe su biografía. Posteriormente, se explica su teoría ecología, su modelo “Proceso-Persona-Contexto-Tiempo” (PPCT) y su reciente aproximación bioecológica. A continuación, exponemos algunas consideraciones educativas de su teoría. Más específicamente, destacamos seis temas basados en algunas ideas de Bronfenbrenner: 1) la relación en...

  11. A URI 4-NODE QUADRILATERAL ELEMENT BY ASSUMED STRAIN METHOD FOR NONLINEAR PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jinyan; CHEN Jun; LI Minghui

    2004-01-01

    In this paper one-point quadrature "assumed strain" mixed element formulation based on the Hu-Washizu variational principle is presented. Special care is taken to avoid hourglass modes and volumetric locking as well as shear locking. The assumed strain fields are constructed so that those portions of the fields which lead to volumetric and shear locking phenomena are eliminated by projection, while the implementation of the proposed URI scheme is straightforward to suppress hourglass modes. In order to treat geometric nonlinearities simply and efficiently, a corotational coordinate system is used. Several numerical examples are given to demonstrate the performance of the suggested formulation, including nonlinear static/dynamic mechanical problems.

  12. Downstream effects of a hydroelectric reservoir on aquatic plant assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernez, Ivan; Haury, Jacques; Ferreira, Maria Teresa

    2002-03-16

    Macrophytes were studied downstream of the Rophémel hydroelectric dam on the River Rance (Côtes d'Armor Department, western France) to assess the effects of hydroelectric functioning on river macrophyte communities. We studied ten representative sections of the hydro-peaking channel on five occasions in 1995 and 1996, on a 15-km stretch of river. Floristic surveys were carried out on sections 50 m in length, and genera of macroalgae, species of bryophyta, hydrophytes, and emergent rhizophytes were identified. For the aquatic bryophytes and spermatophytes section of our study, we compared our results with 19th century floristic surveys, before the dam was built. During the vegetative growth period, the hydro-peaking frequency was low. The plant richness was highest near the dam. The macrophyte communities were highly modified according to the distance to the dam. The frequency and magnitude of hydro-peaking was related to the aquatic macrophyte richness in an Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis position. However, the results of the eco-historical comparison with 19th century floristic surveys point to the original nature of the flora found at the site. Some floral patterns, seen during both periods and at an interval of 133 years, were indicative of the ubiquity of the aquatic flora and of the plants" adaptability. This demonstrates the importance of taking river basin history into account in such biological surveys.

  13. Downstream Effects of a Hydroelectric Reservoir on Aquatic Plant Assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bernez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophytes were studied downstream of the Rophémel hydroelectric dam on the River Rance (Côtes d’Armor Department, western France to assess the effects of hydroelectric functioning on river macrophyte communities. We studied ten representative sections of the hydro-peaking channel on five occasions in 1995 and 1996, on a 15-km stretch of river. Floristic surveys were carried out on sections 50 m in length, and genera of macroalgae, species of bryophyta, hydrophytes, and emergent rhizophytes were identified. For the aquatic bryophytes and spermatophytes section of our study, we compared our results with 19th century floristic surveys, before the dam was built. During the vegetative growth period, the hydro-peaking frequency was low. The plant richness was highest near the dam. The macrophyte communities were highly modified according to the distance to the dam. The frequency and magnitude of hydro-peaking was related to the aquatic macrophyte richness in an Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis position. However, the results of the eco-historical comparison with 19th century floristic surveys point to the original nature of the flora found at the site. Some floral patterns, seen during both periods and at an interval of 133 years, were indicative of the ubiquity of the aquatic flora and of the plants’ adaptability. This demonstrates the importance of taking river basin history into account in such biological surveys.

  14. Hydroelectricity - An Answer To Energy Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois-Xausa, Maryse; Havard, David; Czerwinski, Francois; Teller, Olivier

    2010-09-15

    The energy challenges of the next 30 years appear daunting and, in certain cases, in conflict with one another. Their complexity is such that one solution alone cannot provide a full answer. It is nevertheless equally clear that hydro-electricity, being renewable, proven, highly efficient, storable and with still very significant resource potential, possesses a unique combination of attributes which will aid decision-makers to plan and execute energy development with confidence.

  15. Emissions from hydroelectric reservoirs and comparison of hydroelectricity, natural gas and oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When reservoirs are created, a small fraction of the flooded organic matter decomposes into humic acids, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrogen, phosphorus, and other elements. The major greenhouse gases produced are CO2 and CH4. For northern projects, Canadian studies on emissions from hydroelectric reservoirs have reached similar conclusions: Emissions, including methane, are less than 35 kg CO2 equivalent per MWh. Using a typical project in northern Quebec as the basis for analysis, none of the studies dispute the considerable advantages of hydroelectricity regarding greenhouse gas emissions. Taking into account all components of energy systems, emissions of greenhouse gases from natural-gas power plants are 24 to 26 times greater than emissions from hydroelectric plants. The Freshwater Institute, in an article published in Ambio suggests that emissions from hydroelectric plants could be a significant source of greenhouse gases. This conclusion does not apply to most hydroelectric projects for two reasons: First, the Freshwater Institute's studies concerned flooded peatlands and shallow reservoirs that are not typical of most hydro projects; and second, the Institute analyzed a hydro project with a ratio of flooded area to energy production that is 6 to 10 times higher than typical projects in Canada. 7 refs, 4 tabs

  16. Evaluation of the Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Hydroelectricity Generation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhil Kadiyala

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from different hydroelectricity generation systems by first performing a comprehensive review of the hydroelectricity generation system life cycle assessment (LCA studies and then subsequent computation of statistical metrics to quantify the life cycle GHG emissions (expressed in grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt hour, gCO2e/kWh. A categorization index (with unique category codes, formatted as “facility type-electric power generation capacity” was developed and used in this study to evaluate the life cycle GHG emissions from the reviewed hydroelectricity generation systems. The unique category codes were labeled by integrating the names of the two hydro power sub-classifications, i.e., the facility type (impoundment (I, diversion (D, pumped storage (PS, miscellaneous hydropower works (MHPW and the electric power generation capacity (micro (µ, small (S, large (L. The characterized hydroelectricity generation systems were statistically evaluated to determine the reduction in corresponding life cycle GHG emissions. A total of eight unique categorization codes (I-S, I-L, D-µ, D-S, D-L, PS-L, MHPW-µ, MHPW-S were designated to the 19 hydroelectricity generation LCA studies (representing 178 hydropower cases using the proposed categorization index. The mean life cycle GHG emissions resulting from the use of I-S (N = 24, I-L (N = 8, D-µ (N = 3, D-S (N = 133, D-L (N = 3, PS-L (N = 3, MHPW-µ (N = 3, and MHPW-S (N = 1 hydroelectricity generation systems are 21.05 gCO2e/kWh, 40.63 gCO2e/kWh, 47.82 gCO2e/kWh, 27.18 gCO2e/kWh, 3.45 gCO2e/kWh, 256.63 gCO2e/kWh, 19.73 gCO2e/kWh, and 2.78 gCO2e/kWh, respectively. D-L hydroelectricity generation systems produced the minimum life cycle GHGs (considering the hydroelectricity generation system categories with a representation of at least two cases.

  17. Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleeson, L.

    1991-12-01

    The US Department of Energy Field Office, Idaho, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program was initiated in conjunction with the restoration of three power generating plants in Idaho Falls, Idaho, following damage caused by the Teton Dam failure on June 5, 1976. There were many parties interested in this project, including the state and environmental groups, with different concerns. This report was prepared by the developer and describes the design alternatives the applicant provided in an attempt to secure the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission license. Also included are correspondence between the related parties concerning the project, major design alternatives/project plan diagrams, the license, and energy and project economics.

  18. Sub-Saharan hydroelectric power development potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Though evidencing a power demand which is amongst the lowest in the world, the sub-Saharan regions of Africa are blessed with an enormous hydroelectric power resource potential, which, if suitably developed and tapped, may become a source of economic electric energy for Europe. With the aid of numerous statistical supply and demand data, this paper surveys the marketing potential of this energy source in Africa. The analysis of future development prospects is carried out with reference to the local socio-economic framework

  19. Methods for generating hydroelectric power development alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Shoou-yuh; Liaw, Shu-liang; Sale, M.J.; Railsback, S.F.

    1989-01-01

    Hydropower development on large rivers can result in a number of environmental impacts, including potential reductions in dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations. This study presents a methodology for generating different hydropower development alternatives for evaluation. This methodology employs a Streeter-Phelps model to simulate DO, and the Bounded Implicit Enumeration algorithm to solve an optimization model formulated to maximize hydroelectric energy production subject to acceptable DO limits. The upper Ohio River basin was used to illustrate the use and characteristics of the methodology. The results indicate that several alternatives which meet the specified DO constraints can be generated efficiently, meeting both power and environmental objectives. 17 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. A ABORDAGEM ECOLÓGICA DE URIE BRONFENBRENNER EM ESTUDOS COM FAMÍLIAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Martins

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Este texto apresenta como a abordagem teórica recente de Urie Bronfenbrenner contribui para os estudos com crianças e famílias. Leva em consideração a importância de estabelecer-se uma conexão clara e consistente entre a teoria utilizada e os métodos empregados para se chegar a dados fidedignos na pesquisa em contextos naturais. O artigo aponta para uma reflexão sobre os vários aspectos a serem apontados em estudos com famílias e crianças em diferentes contextos naturais. A teoria ecológica e sistêmica de Bronfenbrenner apresenta possibilidades para o pesquisador analisar aspectos da pessoa em desenvolvimento, do contexto em que vive e dos processos interativos que influenciam o próprio desenvolvimento humano, em determinados períodos de tempo.

  1. The adventure of hydroelectricity must continue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravel, C.

    1997-12-31

    An interview with Andre Caille, president and CEO of Hydro-Quebec was presented. The interview focussed on the hydroelectric potential of Hydro-Quebec and open access to the American wholesale market. Hydro-Quebec has the capability to produce 160 to 170 terawatt hours of energy per year which is enough to meet all of Quebec`s needs and to export 12 to 15 per cent. According to M. Caille, research in the field of superconductivity would significantly benefit Hydro-Quebec, since the utility is responsible for 107,000 kilometers of transmission lines. If transmission line losses along those lines could be reduced, power stations could be built even farther from markets. With respect to pricing, Hydro-Quebec continues to sell electricity at regulated prices in Quebec, however, export prices to the U.S. are market driven.

  2. The adventure of hydroelectricity must continue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An interview with Andre Caille, president and CEO of Hydro-Quebec was presented. The interview focussed on the hydroelectric potential of Hydro-Quebec and open access to the American wholesale market. Hydro-Quebec has the capability to produce 160 to 170 terawatt hours of energy per year which is enough to meet all of Quebec''s needs and to export 12 to 15 per cent. According to M. Caille, research in the field of superconductivity would significantly benefit Hydro-Quebec, since the utility is responsible for 107,000 kilometers of transmission lines. If transmission line losses along those lines could be reduced, power stations could be built even farther from markets. With respect to pricing, Hydro-Quebec continues to sell electricity at regulated prices in Quebec, however, export prices to the U.S. are market driven

  3. Influence of a Small Hydroelectric Power Station on the River Ecosystem.

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Valero; Xana Álvarez; Juan Picos

    2014-01-01

    To assess the effects of the Small Hydroelectric Power Station (SHP) on the fluvial ecosystem, some environmental values are required to measure. This work provides acharacterization of the water quality status in a river stretch around a SHP plant on river Mandeo, (NW Spain), for three years after its construction. The ecological and chemicalstatus of the water and the ecological quality of the riparian habitat was analyzed and comparing with the water quality requirements. The results showe...

  4. The hydroelectric power - an alternative to the nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the place of hydroelectric power in the energy balance of Europe from 1990 through 2050. It is shown that while the European potential of hydroelectric power is at present almost exhausted in the western countries (100 % in Norway, 86 % in France, 85 % in Germany, 80 % in Switzerland) in Romania this factor amounts up to 39 % only. The authors discuss arguments pro and against to hydroelectric power especially from an environmental and socio-economical point of view. A special attention is paid to the microhydroelectric power potential which is locally profitable as it does not imply large capital investments while its environmental impact is nonsignificant. 4 tabs., 4 figs

  5. Changes in soil organic matter compositrion after introduction of riparian vegetation on shores of hydroelectric reservoires (Southeast of Brazil)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alcantara, de F.A.; Buurman, P.; Curi, N.; Furtini Neto, A.E.; Lagen, van B.; Meijer, E.M.

    2004-01-01

    This work is part of a research program with the general objective of evaluating soil sustainability in areas surrounding hydroelectric reservoirs, which have been planted with riparian forest. The specific aims were: (i) to assess if and how the soil organic matter (SOM) chemical composition has ch

  6. National hydroelectric power resources study. Preliminary inventory of hydropower resources. Volume 3. Mid-Continent region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-07-01

    The US Corps of Engineers' assessment of the nation's hydroelectric resources provides a current and comprehensive estimate of the potential for incremental or new generation at existing dams and other water resource projects, as well as for undeveloped sites in the US. The demand for hydroelectric power is addressed and various related policy and technical considerations are investigated to determine the incentives, constraints, and impacts of developing hydropower to meet a portion of the future energy demands. The comprehensive data represent the effort of the Corps of Engineers based on site-specific analysis and evaluation. Summary tables include estimates of the potential capacity and energy at each site in the inventory. The number of sites and potential capacity in each state are identified, but specific detailed information is included for sites in Colorado, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming.

  7. Dam safety review, classification of dams for the Novia Scotia Power Inc. Black River hydroelectric system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alderman, Aaron; Small, Andy [AMEC Earth and environmental, Fredericton, (Canada); O' Neil, Ellis [Nova Scotia Power Inc., Halifax, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    In 2009, AMEC was retained by Nova Scotia Power Inc. (NSPI) to conduct a dam safety review of the dams that are part of the Black River Hydroelectric System. This paper presented the results of this dam classification exercise which was carried out for the Bear River hydroelectric system in Nova Scotia, based on the 2007 Canadian Dam Association (CDA) dam safety guidelines. Flood mapping and dam-break analysis were performed for events ranging from the 1:100 year to PMF flood events, including cascading events. These results were used to draw up a classification of the dams. Associated design criteria were then developed. Following the assessment of the dam sites, conclusions and recommendations were discussed. The recommendations were presented in terms of regular maintenance items and reconstruction items, which are now used by NSPI to determine the party responsible for undertaking the recommendation and for evaluation of the maintenance and reconstruction schedules.

  8. Guidelines for the environmental impact statement for the proposed Great Whale River Hydroelectric Project. Backgorund information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The guidelines presented on the preparation of the environmental impact statement for the Great Whale hydroelectric project by Hydro-Quebec stipulated a project justification, description of the biophysical and social environments, a project description, and that the assessment must address project impacts, mitigative and compensatory measures, environmental surveillance, monitoring, and long-term management programs. Background information presented in this document provides technical notes on the guidelines and the environmental assessment process, a glossary of terms, and biographical notes. The technical notes address guideline structure, project justification, native knowledge, evaluation issues, cumulative impacts, and the assessment and review process

  9. Guidelines for the environmental impact statement for the proposed Great Whale River Hydroelectric Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The guidelines presented on the preparation of the environmental impact statement for the Great Whale hydroelectric project by Hydro-Quebec stipulated a project justification, description of the biophysical and social environments, a project description, and that the assessment must address project impacts, mitigative and compensatory measures, environmental surveillance, monitoring, and long-term management programs. Background information presented in this document provides technical notes on the guidelines and the environmental assessment process, a glossary of terms, and biographical notes. The technical notes address guideline structure, project justification, native knowledge, evaluation issues, cumulative impacts, and the assessment and review process

  10. Power market liberalisation: an opportunity for the hydroelectricity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses the future of hydroelectricity in the light of the ongoing liberalisation of the European power market. Compared to fossil electricity, hydroelectricity is a renewable energy source, has a limited impact on the environment, is able to meet strong variations of power demand, but is a little bit more costly. Hydroelectric companies expect the introduction of a quality label for their product as well as the increasing awareness of consumers for environmental aspects to become strong incentives for them to subscribe on green energy despite its higher cost. The cost difference will also be partly reduced by the introduction of a pollution tax on fossil energy sources. Figures on hydroelectricity capacity production, currently and in the near future, in the countries surrounding the Alps are presented. As an example, the business strategy of a Swiss electricity utility is shortly described

  11. Canton hydroelectric project: feasibility study. Final report, appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    These appendices contain legal, environmental, regulatory, technical and economic information used in evaluating the feasibility of redeveloping the hydroelectric power generating facilities at the Upper and Lower Dams of the Farmington River at Collinsville, CT. (LCL)

  12. Impacts of the operation of existing hydroelectric developments on fishery resources in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main features of 46 hydroelectric dams and diversions in British Columbia are reviewed, and available information on the inland sport fish resources within and below the impoundments are summarized. The projects are collectively responsible for ca 95% of the electrical power used in the province. The characteristics detailed include water license and operational constraints, electrical generation, enhancement facilities, operational regime, physical and chemical environment, downstream system, sportfish populations, and recreational fishery. All the hydroelectric impoundments reviewed, with the possible exceptions of some small headponds, support sport fish populations. Recreational angling quality is considered good for about one quarter of impoundments for which information is available. Low population density is the dominant reason for poor angling quality. Drawdowns exceeding 10 m annually and/or low water retention times are significant impediments to sport fish stock densities. Recommended measures to improve sport fishery resources in and below hydroelectric impoundments include evaluation of the efficiency of ongoing compensation programs, improvement to impact assessment procedures to ensure adequate documentation of pre- and post-impoundment conditions, and enhancement of several systems through stock or nutritional supplementation. 161 refs., 95 figs., 9 tabs

  13. An environmental overview of the Cat Arm hydroelectric development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cat Arm Dam hydroelectric development in Newfoundland comprises 10 dams, three tunnels, two canals and a 127 MW powerhouse. The scheme develops 127 MW from 380.5 m of head and comprises: ten dams of varying heights up to 53 m; a bathtub type overflow spillway 330 m in length; a 230 m long inverted U-shaped diversion tunnel; an 800 m long, inverted U-shaped low pressure forebay tunnel; two bog and rock cut tunnels leading to and from the forebay tunnels; a surface powerhouse containing two Pelton turbines; and a 178 km long, 230 kV transmission line. An overview is provided of the environmental assessment, project impacts, and cost of environmental protection associated with the project. Impacts were centered around fish and aquatic life in the created reservoir and downstream of the powerhouse, loss of ungulate (moose and caribou) habitat due to flooding, loss of forestry resources due to flooding, and the disturbance of land during construction. The overall cost of environmental protection was $7,977,000, only 2% of the total project cost. 17 refs., 1 tab

  14. Sustainable siting procedure of small hydroelectric plants: The Greek experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsoutsos, Theocharis; Maria, Efpraxia; Mathioudakis, Vassilis [Technical University of Crete, University Campus, GR 73100 Chania (Greece)

    2007-05-15

    This paper aims to present the procedure under which a sustainable plant, like a small hydroelectric plant (SHP), can be installed and deployed, especially in countries with complicated administrative and legislative systems. Those must be defined by the rules that characterize sustainable spatial planning, which aims at the environmental protection, the insurance of better living conditions and finally at the economic development within the frame of the principle of sustainability and its three basic dimensions: social, economical and environmental. The main principles of spatial planning are accepted from the jurisprudence of the Hellenic Council of State, either as an appropriate condition for the protection of important ecosystems or as specific expression of the principle of prevention of environmental damage. In this framework it is accepted that the development is experienced, initially to a total and general planning, whose essential part is the assessment and modification of distributed land uses. Besides, the main characteristics of the siting of SHPs and the criteria demanded for their smooth integration and operation are presented. (author)

  15. Adaptability and resilience predict with „youth homeless” group in local system on prevention in context of Urie Bronfenbrenner developmental ecological model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Michel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article includes the analysis of possibility specific adaptability and resilience predict with „youth homeless” group in Local System of Prevention in context of Urie Bronfenbrenner developmental ecological model.

  16. 3-Methylthiopropionic Acid Ethyl Ester, Isolated from Katsura-uri (Japanese pickling melon, Cucumis melo var. conomon), Enhanced Differentiation in Human Colon Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Yasushi; Nakayama, Yuko; Ando, Hitomi; Tanaka, Atsuo; Matsuo, Tomoaki; Okamoto, Shigehisa; Upham, Brad L; Chang, Chia-Cheng; James E Trosko; Park, Eun Young; Sato, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    The fully ripened fruit of Katsura-uri Japanese pickling melon (Cucumis melo var. conomon) has rarely been used for food because the midripened fruit is utilized for making pickles, but the fully ripened fruit is no longer valuable for pickles due to the fruit body being too soft. We have considered the utilization of the fully ripened Katsura-uri fruit that may be used for nonpickling products, particularly if the fully ripened fruit demonstrated health benefits such as anticarcinogenic prop...

  17. Development methodologies for the assessment of impacts of small scale hydroelectric power plant projects on migratory fish; Desenvolvimento metodologico para avaliacao de impactos de empreendimentos hidreletricos de pequeno porte sobre peixes migradores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Lucas Goncalves da; Barradas, Jose Ricardo de Souza [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Biodiversidade e Ecologia], E-mail: lucas.silva@pucrs.br

    2009-10-15

    Dams influence directly the process of fish migration. Assessing the impact of these infrastructure and direct research for that purpose minimize environmental impacts resulting from projects on biodiversity. Through computer models and probability logistic regressions of occurrence that take into account geomorphologic parameters (elevation and basin area) was obtained a standard distribution model of migratory fishes species in the upper Uruguay river basin (RS/SC) with high calibration (84.39% of adherence). The computational modelling significantly increases the knowledge about methodologies for evaluate environmental impacts caused by small and large dams and applicability in other basins. (author)

  18. Controversies on Energy: Fossil, hydroelectric, nuclear, renewable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Switzerland, energy policy was the subject of several referendums and decision takings in the past few decades. This book explains the numerous aspects to be considered when choosing a strategy which should warrant in the future a sufficient and safe access to energy, with a special emphasis on electric power. There is a tight, but not linear, coupling between the price of energy and the economic development. The pollution of environment induced by the use of fossil energy jeopardizes the survival of our Earth planet. Modeling the effects of the pollution is difficult and inaccurate because of complex feedbacks. In order to conciliate development progress, energy and environment, technology is needed but at the same time involves risks. In order to warrant the life quality in the long run, it is necessary to move to a sustainable development, which implies technological progress and changing the individual behaviours. The safety of the energy supply is warranted by diversifying the energy sources. But accurately define the mid and long term goals and also adapt the instruments which should enable their achievement, is a very demanding task. Privatising the electricity production and distribution networks leads in principle to increasing competition, but the electricity price becomes very variable with huge daily and seasonal fluctuations. To date, Switzerland counts 900 electric utilities. Opening the electricity market induces concentration and company merges. To promote an energy strategy, it is necessary to face in a lump the technological, economical and social realities. In the long run, renewable energies: small-scale hydroelectric power plants, biomass, wind, photovoltaics, geothermal energy, should have an important share in electricity production. In the mid term, natural gas and nuclear reactors will be used as transition energy sources. But all electric power plants, whenever nuclear or gas, or even renewable (as for instance wind power plants) must

  19. Wildlife Impact Assessment and Summary of Previous Mitigation Related to Hydroelectric Projects in Montana, Phase I, Volume Two (A), Clark Fork Projects, Thompson Falls Dam, Operator, Montana Power Company.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Marilyn

    1984-03-27

    The Thompson Falls Dam inundated approximately 347 acres of wildlife habitat that likely included conifer forests, deciduous bottoms, mixed conifer-deciduous forests and grassland/hay meadows. Additionally, at least one island, and several gravel bars were inundated when the river was transformed into a reservoir. The loss of riparian and riverine habitat adversely affected the diverse wildlife community inhabiting the lower Clark Fork River area. Quantitative loss estimates were determined for selected target species based on best available information. The loss estimates were based on inundation of the habitat capable of supporting the target species. Whenever possible, loss estimates bounds were developed by determining ranges of impacts based on density estimates and/or acreage loss estimates. Of the twelve target species or species groups, nine were assessed as having net negative impacts. 86 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. URI Program Final Report FY 2001 Grant for the University of Florida Training Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the URI program is to upgrade and improve university nuclear research and training reactors and to contribute to strengthening the academic community's nuclear engineering infrastructure. It should be noted that the proposed UFTR facility instrumentation and equipment can generally be subdivided into three categories: (1) to improve reactor operations, (2) to improve existing facility/NAA Laboratory operations, and (3) to expand facility capability. All of these items were selected recognizing the objectives of the University Reactor Instrumentation Program to respond to the widespread needs in the academic reactor community for modernization and improvement of research and training reactor facilities, especially at large and diverse institutions such as the University of Florida. These needs have been particularly pressing at the UFTR which is the only such research and training reactor in the State of Florida which is undergoing rapid growth in a variety of technical areas. As indicated in Table 2, the first item is a security system control panel with associated wiring and detectors. The existing system is over 30 years old and has been the subject of repeated maintenance over the past 5 years. Some of its detection devices are no longer replaceable from stock. Modifications made many years ago make troubleshooting some parts of the system such as the backup battery charging subsystem essentially impossible, further increasing maintenance frequency to replace batteries. Currently, various parts of the system cable trays remain open for maintenance access further degrading facility appearance. In light of relicensing plans, this item is also a key consideration for housekeeping appearance considerations. The cost of a replacement ADEMCO Vista 20 security system including turnkey installation by a certified vendor was to be $2,206. Replacement of this system was expected to save up to 5 days of maintenance per year, decrease security alarm response

  1. Report on the renewal of the hydro-electric concessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The administrative procedures of the renewable of the hydro-electric concessions in France is a real problem, leading to too long time of the case files examination. This mission aimed to identify the technical and financial criteria on which the decision maker will base his choice to give the concessions renewal. This report exposes the evaluation and the recommendations of the mission. The first part establishes an evaluation of the situation of the hydro-electric concessions and the today renewal procedures. The second part presents a analysis of this situation and the recommendations. The last part brings the conclusions. (A.L.B.)

  2. 76 FR 81929 - South Carolina Public Service Authority; Notice of Workshop for Santee Cooper Hydroelectric Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... Cooper Hydroelectric Project On May 26 and November 8, 2011, Commission staff met with representatives of...), licensee for the Santee-Cooper Hydroelectric Project No. 199, to discuss what is needed to complete...

  3. 76 FR 22393 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Cancellation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy... and Wildlife Service for the proposed Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project....

  4. 77 FR 47628 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy... Management Act and the Federal Power Act), on the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric...

  5. 78 FR 26358 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy...), on the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project. e. All local, state, and federal...

  6. Hydrologic Simulations Driven by Satellite Rainfall to Study the Hydroelectric Development Impacts on River Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan B. Le

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the impact of hydroelectric dams on the discharge and total suspended solids (TSS concentration in the Huong River basin in Vietnam. The analysis is based on hydrologic and sediment transport simulations by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model driven by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM 3B42V6 rainfall data, from January 2003 through December 2010. An upstream sub-basin not affected by the hydroelectric dams was used for model calibration. The calibration results indicate good agreement between simulated and observed daily data (0.67 Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, 0.82 Pearson correlation coefficient. The calibrated model for discharge and TSS simulation is then applied on another major sub-basin and then the whole Huong River basin. The simulation results indicate that dam operation in 2010 decreased downstream discharge during the rainy season by about 35% and augmented it during the dry season by about 226%. The downstream TSS concentration has decreased due to the dam operation but the total sediment loading increased during the dry season and decreased during the rainy season. On average, the dam construction and operation affected the pattern of discharge more than that of the sediment loading. Results indicate that SWAT, driven by remotely sensed inputs, can reasonably simulate discharge and water quality in ungauged or poorly gauged river basins and can be very useful for water resources assessment and climate change impact studies in such basins.

  7. Environmental Licensing for Hydroelectric Projects in Brazil : A Contribution to the Debate, Volume 1, Summary Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    This study points out that hydroelectric plants will continue to play a prominent role in the Brazilian electric matrix. A significant portion of the potential hydroelectric plants of the country is located in the Amazon, environmentally sensitive region. The licensing of hydroelectric projects in Brazil is considered a major obstacle for the expanding the capacity of generating electricit...

  8. Current Status and Future Prospects of Hydroelectricity Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Technical standardization is very essential to electricity industry, which plays an active role in many aspects including technology standardization, secure and economic operation of power systems, environment protection, technological progress, and improvement of enterprises' management. This paper introduces the current status of hydroelectricity standardization, summarizes the progress and achievements, and then points out the development direction and working target in the future.

  9. Current Status and Future Prospects of Hydroelectricity Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yongdong

    2010-01-01

    @@ Technical standardization is very essential to electricity industry, which plays an active role in many aspects including technology standardization, secure and economic operation of power systems, environment protection, technological progress, and improvement of enterprises' management. This paper introduces the current status of hydroelectricity standardization, summarizes the progress and achievements, and then points out the development direction and working target in the future.

  10. Joint Venture Modes of Water Conservancy and Hydroelectric Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiding Chen; Zhudi Sheng

    2013-01-01

    With the long construction period, the giant scope and complex technology, water conservancy and hydroelectric engineering construction has large investment. In the fully competitive water conservancy and hydropower project construction contracting market, it is almost impossible for a company to contract with a water conservancy and hydropower project independently. Therefore, water conservancy and hydropower project construction can be contracted by several construction companie...

  11. Feasibility determination of low head hydroelectric power development at existing sites: Mousam River Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of low head hydroelectric power development at existing sites along the Mousam River in southeastern Maine was studied. The following areas were investigated: determination of available energy; development of restoration concepts; environmental studies; historical and archeological studies; assessment of civil construction requirements; geotechnical and geologic assessment of existing dams; assessment of turbine alternatives; assessment of generator and utility interface alternatives; economic analysis; and restoration concept evaluation and selection. The results of the hydropower evaluation showed that: of the seven sites evaluated, only four can be considered economically feasible for refurbishment at this time; the use of used and/or rebuilt equipment is more economically attractive than new equipment; the cost of equipment at each site was of the same order as the cost of the dam reconstruction; and the cost of fuel prices will be the determining feature of whether the sites should be reconstructed.

  12. A UK guide to intake fish-screening regulations, policy and best practice with particular reference to hydroelectric power schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnpenny, A.W.H.; Struthers, G.; Hanson, P.

    1998-07-01

    A review of fish screening regulations in England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland is presented, and a summary of findings on screening legislation is given. The views of hydroelectric scheme developers, owners and operators are considered, and recommendations including the development of a risk assessment procedure are discussed. Fish screening technology, bypasses and other escape routes, and common fault in screen design and operation are examined, and guidance to Best Practice is given. (UK)

  13. Zumbro Hydroelectric Project: installation of third unit. Feasibility assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, James V.

    1979-03-01

    The feasibility of adding a third generating unit at an existing hydro power plant near Rochester, Minn. was examined considering the economic, technical, and environmental aspects. Installation of the unit, aiming at an Oct. 1983 completion date, is recommended. (LCL)

  14. An initiative to improve adherence to evidence-based guidelines in the treatment of URIs, sinusitis, and pharyngitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Alweis

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Upper respiratory infections, acute sinus infections, and sore throats are common symptoms that cause patients to seek medical care. Despite well-established treatment guidelines, studies indicate that antibiotics are prescribed far more frequently than appropriate, raising a multitude of clinical issues. Methods: The primary goal of this study was to increase guideline adherence rates for acute sinusitis, pharyngitis, and upper respiratory tract infections (URIs. This study was the first Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA cycle in a quality improvement program at an internal medicine resident faculty practice at a university-affiliated community hospital internal medicine residency program. To improve guideline adherence for respiratory infections, a package of small-scale interventions was implemented aimed at improving patient and provider education regarding viral and bacterial infections and the necessity for antibiotics. The data from this study was compared with a previously published study in this practice, which evaluated the adherence rates for the treatment guidelines before the changes, to determine effectiveness of the modifications. After the first PDSA cycle, providers were surveyed to determine barriers to adherence to antibiotic prescribing guidelines. Results: After the interventions, antibiotic guideline adherence for URI improved from a rate of 79.28 to 88.58% with a p-value of 0.004. The increase of adherence rates for sinusitis and pharyngitis were 41.7–57.58% (p=0.086 and 24.0–25.0% (p=0.918, respectively. The overall change in guideline adherence for the three conditions increased from 57.2 to 78.6% with the implementations (p<0.001. In planning for future PDSA cycles, a fishbone diagram was constructed in order to identify all perceived facets of the problem of non-adherence to the treatment guidelines for URIs, sinusitis, and pharyngitis. From the fishbone diagram and the provider survey, several potential

  15. Mines as lower reservoir of an UPSH (Underground Pumping Storage Hydroelectricity): groundwater impacts and feasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodeux, Sarah; Pujades, Estanislao; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-04-01

    The energy framework is currently characterized by an expanding use of renewable sources. However, their intermittence could not afford a stable production according to the energy demand. Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (PSH) is an efficient possibility to store and release electricity according to the demand needs. Because of the topographic and environmental constraints of classical PSH, new potential suitable sites are rare in countries whose topography is weak or with a high population density. Nevertheless, an innovative alternative is to construct Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants by using old underground mine works as lower reservoir. In that configuration, large amount of pumped or injected water in the underground cavities would impact the groundwater system. A representative UPSH facility is used to numerically determine the interactions with surrounding aquifers Different scenarios with varying parameters (hydrogeological and lower reservoir characteristics, boundaries conditions and pumping/injection time-sequence) are computed. Analysis of the computed piezometric heads around the reservoir allows assessing the magnitude of aquifer response and the required time to achieve a mean pseudo-steady state under cyclic solicitations. The efficiency of the plant is also evaluated taking the leakage into the cavity into account. Combining these two outcomes, some criterions are identified to assess the feasibility of this type of projects within potential old mine sites from a hydrogeological point of view.

  16. Drought Impacts on Reservoir Storage and Hydro-electricity Production in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Melo, D. D.; Yin, L.; Wendland, E.

    2015-12-01

    Brazilian hydroelectric plants (HP) generate ~85% of the total electricity in the country (138 GW). More than half of the number largest reservoirs are located in the Southeast/Midwest region, where ~50% of the population (~100 million) lives. The 2014 drought raised several questions about the resilience of the water sources when several urban centers, including Brazilian's largest metropolis (São Paulo, 20 million people), had their water supply threatened. Such drought also affected reservoirs of hydroelectric plants. This study assesses how the storage and, thus the electricity generation, in 14 of the largest reservoirs were affected by drought events within the past 20 years. We computed the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) to identify rainfall anomalies throughout the analyzed period. To evaluate the impacts on surface water, we assessed the changes in total (surface+ subsurface) runoff and soil moisture from Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) and in Total Water Storage (TWS) from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite data. We evaluated the anomalies and significance of the changes in reservoir storage (RS) and electricity generation. The results show that severe dry years (-1.5 resilience in the future.

  17. The yeast prefoldin-like URI-orthologue Bud27 associates with the RSC nucleosome remodeler and modulates transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirón-García, María Carmen; Garrido-Godino, Ana Isabel; Martínez-Fernández, Verónica; Fernández-Pevida, Antonio; Cuevas-Bermúdez, Abel; Martín-Expósito, Manuel; Chávez, Sebastián; de la Cruz, Jesús; Navarro, Francisco

    2014-09-01

    Bud27, the yeast orthologue of human URI/RMP, is a member of the prefoldin-like family of ATP-independent molecular chaperones. It has recently been shown to mediate the assembly of the three RNA polymerases in an Rpb5-dependent manner. In this work, we present evidence of Bud27 modulating RNA pol II transcription elongation. We show that Bud27 associates with RNA pol II phosphorylated forms (CTD-Ser5P and CTD-Ser2P), and that its absence affects RNA pol II occupancy of transcribed genes. We also reveal that Bud27 associates in vivo with the Sth1 component of the chromatin remodeling complex RSC and mediates its association with RNA pol II. Our data suggest that Bud27, in addition of contributing to Rpb5 folding within the RNA polymerases, also participates in the correct assembly of other chromatin-associated protein complexes, such as RSC, thereby modulating their activity.

  18. Risk factors for the presence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in domestic water-holding containers in areas impacted by the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project, Laos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiscox, A.F.; Kaye, A.; Vongphayloth, K.; Banks, I.; Piffer, M.; Khammanithong, P.; Sananikhom, P.; Kaul, S.; Hill, N.; Lindsay, S.W.; Brey, P.T.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed risk factors for vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses near a new hydroelectric project, Nam Theun 2, in Laos. Immature stages of Aedes aegypti were found only in sites within 40 km of the urban provincial capital, but Aedes albopictus was found throughout. Aedes aegypti pupae were m

  19. Comparison of Gross Greenhouse Gas Fluxes from Hydroelectric Reservoirs in Brazil with Thermopower Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerio, J. P.; Dos Santos, M. A.; Matvienko, B.; dos Santos, E.; Rocha, C. H.; Sikar, E.; Junior, A. M.

    2013-05-01

    Widespread interest in human impacts on the Earth has prompted much questioning in fields of concern to the general public. One of these issues is the extent of the impacts on the environment caused by hydro-based power generation, once viewed as a clean energy source. From the early 1990s onwards, papers and studies have been challenging this assumption through claims that hydroelectric dams also emit greenhouse gases, generated by the decomposition of biomass flooded by filling these reservoirs. Like as other freshwater bodies, hydroelectric reservoirs produce gases underwater by biology decomposition of organic matter. Some of these biogenic gases are effective in terms of Global Warming. The decomposition is mainly due by anaerobically regime, emitting methane (CH4), nitrogen (N2) and carbon dioxide (CO2). This paper compare results obtained from gross greenhouse fluxes in Brazilian hydropower reservoirs with thermo power plants using different types of fuels and technology. Measurements were carried in the Manso, Serra da Mesa, Corumbá, Itumbiara, Estreito, Furnas and Peixoto reservoirs, located in Cerrado biome and in Funil reservoir located at Atlantic forest biome with well defined climatologically regimes. Fluxes of carbon dioxide and methane in each of the reservoirs selected, whether through bubbles and/or diffusive exchange between water and atmosphere, were assessed by sampling. The intensity of emissions has a great variability and some environmental factors could be responsible for these variations. Factors that influence the emissions could be the water and air temperature, depth, wind velocity, sunlight, physical and chemical parameters of water, the composition of underwater biomass and the operational regime of the reservoir. Based in this calculations is possible to conclude that the large amount of hydro-power studied is better than thermopower source in terms of atmospheric greenhouse emissions. The comparisons between the reservoirs studied

  20. Digital Modeling and Visualization of Hydroelectric Engineering Geoinformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Donghai; ZHONG Denghua; LI Mingchao

    2006-01-01

    To describe the spatial tendency and complex relationship of geological structures, a digital modeling based on geographic information system and the visualization of hydroelectric engineering geology information are presented. The functions of information visual query, spatial cutting,section drawing, and coupled analysis with hydraulic structures are realized. The geologic model can match the attribute data with the shape data of geological structures, and organize the information for spatial query and analysis of the 3D model. With an application in Laxiwa hydroelectric project on the upriver of Huanghe River, the method provides a 3D parallel section view and query results of geoinformation, and 3D section views of geoinformation along axis of spillway tunnel, and along the 5th axis with underground structures, respectively.

  1. Impact of the reservoir of Paraibuna Hydroelectric Power Plant, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely Franco Siqueira Lima

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Artificial reservoirs for hydroelectric power plants cause significant environment and social changes. This paper describes the construction of a geospatial database with information on the impacts caused by the Paraibuna hydroelectric power plant since its construction. CBERS-2 and Landsat 5 and 7 images were included in the database, and then, analyzed to provide information on land cover and land use for a period of 31 years. Information provided by São Paulo Energy Company (CESP and the Paraíba do Sul Water Basin Management Association (AGEVAP was integrated into this database. Interactive database queries allow the assessment of changes in the local economy around the reservoir, changes in land cover, loss of historical and environmental assets and also the actions of the energy company to minimize the plant and reservoir impacts. This database provides information that helps analyzing the potential and limits of Paraibuna Power Plant and addresses the impacts to the natural landscape and to the social and economic resources of the affected region.

  2. The development of advanced hydroelectric turbines to improve fish passage survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cada, Glenn F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2001-09-01

    Recent efforts to improve the survival of hydroelectric turbine-passed juvenile fish have explored modifications to both operation and design of the turbines. Much of this research is being carried out by power producers in the Columbia River basin (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the public utility districts), while the development of low impact turbines is being pursued on a national scale by the U.S. Department of Energy. Fisheries managers are involved in all aspects of these efforts. Advanced versions of conventional Kaplan turbines are being installed and tested in the Columbia River basin, and a pilot scale version of a novel turbine concept is undergoing laboratory testing. Field studies in the last few years have shown that improvements in the design of conventional turbines have increased the survival of juvenile fish. There is still much to be learned about the causes and extent of injuries in the turbine system (including the draft tube and tailrace), as well as the significance of indirect mortality and the effects of turbine passage on adult fish. However, improvements in turbine design and operation, as well as new field, laboratory, and modeling techniques to assess turbine-passage survival, are contributing toward resolution of the downstream fish passage issue at hydroelectric power plants.

  3. Power and dignity: the social consequences of hydro-electric development for the James Bay Cree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The social impact that large-scale hydro-electric development has on the Cree of James Bay following the construction of the La Grande Complex was discussed. Many environmental changes were brought about by dam construction. The project, which also involved the first settlement (the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement) directed at extinguishing aboriginal title to land and natural resources in Canada, resulted in several relocations of Cree communities. In addition to compensation, the Agreement included a formal procedure for environmental and social impact assessment for development projects. However, there was little commitment, as a matter of corporate or government policy, to monitoring any of the social impacts. This paper is a preliminary response to an appeal for attention to be focused on the social consequences of hydro-electric development for the Cree in James Bay. Data from social service files indicate that the rapid centralization of the James Bay Cree into structured communities led to social instability in the villages, reflected by high frequencies in suicide, neglect of children, vandalism and drug and alcohol abuse. The material presented here is expected to serve as a warning that in further developing the far North of Quebec the pace of social change in Cree society will have to be slowed down to avoid social destruction of the native communities. 15 refs., 2 tabs

  4. Accumulation of total mercury and methyl mercury in insect larvae of hydroelectric reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bioaccumulation of both total mercury (Hg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) concentrations in insect larvae of hydroelectric reservoirs and natural lakes in northern Quebec were studied. Sampling was carried out during a four year study at the James Bay La Grande hydroelectric complex. The objective was to assess the influence of flooding history of lake sediments, flooded podzol, or peat on Hg accumulation in benthic invertebrates. Mean total Hg and MeHg concentrations in insect larvae from the reservoirs were found to be 3-5 times higher than in larvae from natural lakes. The large variability in Hg concentrations could be related to feeding behavior and substrate type. It was suggested that factors other than MeHg content of flooded soils may affect the accumulation of these compounds in insects. Suspended particulate matter (SPM) eroded from flooded soils and bacterial activity could also indirectly transfer MeHg from flooded soils to insect larvae. Since insects constitute a major part of the food chain, they are also an important source of total Hg and MeHg contamination in fishes. 57 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  5. Open system architecture for condition based maintenance applied to a hydroelectric power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaya, E.J.; Alvares, A.J. [University of Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Mechanical and Mechatronic Dept.], Emails: eamaya@unb.br, alvares@AlvaresTech.com; Gudwin, R.R. [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Computer Engineering and Industrial Automation Dept.], E-mail: gudwin@dca.fee.unicamp.br

    2009-07-01

    The hydroelectric power plant of Balbina is implementing a condition based maintenance system applying an open, modular and scalable integrated architecture to provide comprehensive solutions and support to the end users like operational and maintenance team. The system called SIMPREBAL (Predictive Maintenance System of Balbina) is advocate of open standards, in particular through collaborative research programmers. In the developing is clearly understands the need for both, industry standards and a simple to use software development tool chain, supporting the development of complex condition based maintenance systems with multiple partners. The Open System Architecture for Condition Based Maintenance (OSA-CBM) is a standard that consider seven hierarchic layers that represent a logic transition or performed data flow from the data acquisition layer, through the intermediates layers as signal processing, condition monitor, health assessment, prognostics and decision support, to arrive to the presentation layer. SIMPREBAL is being implementing as an OSA-CBM software framework and tool set that allows the creation of truly integrated, comprehensive maintenance solutions through the internet. This paper identifies specific benefits of the application of the OSA-CBM in comprehensive solutions of condition based maintenance for a hydroelectric power plant. (author)

  6. Hydroelectric power plants. 2. enl. ed. Wasserkraftanlagen; Klein- und Kleinstkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palffy, S.O.; Brada, K.; Hartenstein, R.; Mueller, U.; Nowotny, G.; Partzsch, P.; Roemer, K.H.; Schlimgen, W.; Tratz, D.; Walcher, H.

    1994-01-01

    Small-scale power plants in the range below 500 kW make an important contribution to power generation. The book contains practical information on hydroelectric power plants, criteria for turbine selection, electric equipment, and the Ossberger turbine. Problems concerning taxation and energy and water legislation are gone into. Also discussed are economic criteria during acquisition, new construction, and modernisation for the purpose of electric power generation and grid power supply. (DG). 174 figs.

  7. P(URI)fying Novel Drivers of NASH and HCC: A Feedforward Loop of IL17A via White Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Achim; Heikenwalder, Mathias

    2016-07-11

    How obesity and metabolic syndrome trigger non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains elusive. In this issue, Gomes and colleagues describe that nutrient surplus induces hepatic URI expression, triggering genotoxicity and IL17A expression, thus leading to insulin resistance, NASH, and HCC. IL17A signaling blockers might become a readily translatable therapy.

  8. The pURI family of expression vectors: a versatile set of ligation independent cloning plasmids for producing recombinant His-fusion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiel, José Antonio; de Las Rivas, Blanca; Mancheño, José Miguel; Muñoz, Rosario

    2011-03-01

    A family of restriction enzyme- and ligation-independent cloning vectors has been developed for producing recombinant His-tagged fusion proteins in Escherichia coli. These are based on pURI2 and pURI3 expression vectors which have been previously used for the successful production of recombinant proteins at the milligram scale. The newly designed vectors combines two different promoters (lpp(p)-5 and T7 RNA polymerase Ø10), two different endoprotease recognition sites for the His₆-tag removal (enterokinase and tobacco etch virus), different antibiotic selectable markers (ampicillin and erythromycin resistance), and different placements of the His₆-tag (N- and C-terminus). A single gene can be cloned and further expressed in the eight pURI vectors by using six nucleotide primers, avoiding the restriction enzyme and ligation steps. A unique NotI site was introduced to facilitate the selection of the recombinant plasmid. As a case study, the new vectors have been used to clone the gene coding for the phenolic acid decarboxylase from Lactobacillus plantarum. Interestingly, the obtained results revealed markedly different production levels of the target protein, emphasizing the relevance of the cloning strategy on soluble protein production yield. Efficient purification and tag removal steps showed that the affinity tag and the protease cleavage sites functioned properly. The novel family of pURI vectors designed for parallel cloning is a useful and versatile tool for the production and purification of a protein of interest. PMID:21055470

  9. Feasibility of determination of low-head hydroelectric power development at existing sites. Dan River hydroelectric development. Feasibility report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, S. J.; Sinclair, J. P.

    1979-04-01

    The results of a study to determine the feasibility of redeveloping the hydroelectric power potential of the Dan River in Danville, Virginia, are reported. Redeveloping the power potential would involve refurbishing and/or rehabilitating the existing power plant at the Schoolfield Dam and building a new power facility at the Union Street Dam downstream of the Schoolfield Dam. The technical, economic, environmental, and safety aspects were evaluated and indicate that, for the present, this development is not economically feasible. (LCL)

  10. An estimation of the capacity to produce hydrogen by wasted hydroelectric energy for the three largest Brazilian hydroelectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilha, Janine C.; Trindade, Leticia G. da; Souza, Roberto F. de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. of Chemistry], Email: janine@iq.ufrgs.br; Miguel, Marcelo [Itaipu Binacional, Foz do Iguacu, PR (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The use of water wasted in hydroelectric plants as normalization dam excess, which constitute a hydrodynamic potential useful to generate electric energy which can be subsequently used to produce hydrogen and its subsequent consumption in fuel cells has been considered as an alternative for hydraulic energy-rich countries like Brazil. The case is examined in which all the water wasted in the hydroelectric plants, spilled by dam gates to maintain acceptable water levels, from the 3 largest Brazilian hydroelectric plants was used to produce hydrogen. During the year of 2008, the electric energy produced from this utilization would have been equivalent to 52.8 TWh, an amount that corresponds to an increase of ca. 15% of the total electric energy produced in the country. Furthermore, if this amount of hydrogen was used in the replacement of internal combustion vehicles by fuel cells, this would have prevented the production of 2.26 x 10{sup 7} ton of Co{sub 2} per year. This plan would also significantly decrease production and release of greenhouse gases. (author)

  11. Stock participation in hydroelectric projects; Hacia una participacion accionaria en los proyectos hidroelectricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Scott S. [Universidad Metropolitana, Iztapalapa (Mexico). Dept. de Antropologia

    1996-12-31

    This work talks about the way the hydroelectric companies deal with the moving of people for reservoir construction. It happens trough an authoritarian way without a previous communication with the people that will be moved what make them resist. The proposal of author is make people that will be affected by the hydroelectric construction participate in the benefices it will generate. It happened in the construction of hydroelectric project in Pangue, Chile, with good results

  12. Will initiatives to promote hydroelectricity consumption be effective? Evidence from univariate and panel LM unit root tests with structural breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines whether initiatives to promote hydroelectricity consumption are likely to be effective by applying univariate and panel Lagrange Multiplier (LM) unit root tests to hydroelectricity consumption in 55 countries over the period 1965–2011. We find that for the panel, as well as about four-fifths of individual countries, that hydroelectricity consumption is stationary. This result implies that shocks to hydroelectricity consumption in most countries will only result in temporary deviations from the long-run growth path. An important consequence of this finding is that initiatives designed to have permanent positive effects on hydroelectricity consumption, such as large-scale dam construction, are unlikely to be effective in increasing the share of hydroelectricity, relative to consumption of fossil fuels. - Highlights: • Applies unit root tests to hydroelectricity consumption. • Hydroelectricity consumption is stationary. • Shocks to hydroelectricity consumption result in temporary deviations from the long-run growth path

  13. Study on safety operation for large hydroelectric generator unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Z. G.; Cui, T.; Zhou, L. J.; Zhi, F. L.; Wang, Z. W.

    2012-11-01

    Hydroelectric generator unit is a complex mechanical system which is composed of hydraulic turbine and electric generator. Rotary system is supported by the bearing bracket and the reinforced concrete structures, and vibration problem can't be avoided in the process of operating. Many large-scale hydroelectric units have been damaged because of the vibration problem in recent years. As the increase of the hydraulic turbine unit capacity and water head, the safe operation of hydraulic turbine has become a focus research in many countries. The operating characteristics of the hydraulic turbine have obvious differences at different working conditions. Based on the combination of field measurement and theoretical calculation, this paper shows a deep research on the safe operation of a large-scale Francis turbine unit. Firstly, the measurements of vibration, swing, pressure fluctuation and noise were carried out at 4 different heads. And also the relationships between vibrations and pressure fluctuations at different heads and working conditions were analysed deeply. Then the scientific prediction of safe operation for the unit at high head were done based on the CFD numerical calculation. Finally, this paper shows the division of the operating zone for the hydroelectric unit. According to the experimental results (vibrations, swings, pressure fluctuations and noise) as well as the theoretical results, the operating zone of the unit has been divided into three sections: prohibited operating zone, transition operating zone and safe operating zone. After this research was applied in the hydropower station, the security and economic efficiency of unit increased greatly, and enormous economic benefits and social benefits have been obtained.

  14. Beyond carbon: Quantifying environmental externalities as energy for hydroelectric and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Together, hydroelectric and nuclear power account for roughly 30% of all electricity generated on earth. Both technologies are often presented as answers to the dual challenge of meeting ever-increasing global energy demand while meeting stricter GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions targets. Indeed, the last two decades have witnessed a great deal of research on the life cycle GHG emissions of these technologies. On the basis of carbon intensity, the general consensus is that these technologies are more efficient than all other technologies of similar scale (e.g. coal, natural gas). However, hydroelectric and nuclear power come with environmental costs that sit outside the boundaries of traditional energy-based accounting methods, including water consumption, land change, and waste generation. We provide a novel framework that integrates energy and environmental life cycle assessment techniques so that dissimilar impacts can be more equitably assessed. The analysis considers diffusion- and centrifuge-based nuclear technologies, as well as reservoir and run-of-river hydropower. Results suggest that these resources are substantially less efficient (in our examples, anywhere from 5 to 85%) when key externalities are included. In the conclusion, we reflect on the benefits of using a physics-based method of measuring the externalities of power generation. - Highlights: • Hydro and nuclear power have multiple environmental impacts beyond GHG emissions. • Non-GHG externalities include water consumption, land change, waste, and safety. • We quantify life cycle externalities by estimating the energy needed to mitigate them. • EF (efficiency factors) [MWhe/MWhth] decrease when mitigation energy is included. • EFs fall by 5–85% when impacts are internalized, depending on technology type

  15. Relationship Analysis of the Correlated Factors between Unintentional Inj ury and Family Envi-ronment of College Students%大学生意外伤害与环境相关因素的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈思思; 周乐山

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨大学生意外伤害与环境因素的关系,为预防和控制大学生意外伤害的发生提供参考依据.方法采用自编调查表和环境量表中文版(the family environment scale-Chinese version,FES-CV)对71例意外伤害大学生和匹配的71例未发生意外伤害学生的环境因素进行评定,运用t检验、χ2检验、条件 Logistic 回归等分析意外伤害与环境相关因素的关系.结果病例组与对照组在成绩、是否独生、喝酒情况、家庭月收入、教育方式方面差异有统计学意义(均P<0.05).FES-CV8个维度中病例组的亲密度、情感表达得分高于对照组(均P<0.05).多因素分析显示是否独生、家庭月收入、亲密度是大学生意外伤害的主要影响因素(均P<0.05).结论应根据意外伤害大学生的环境特征采取相应的干预措施,以降低大学生意外伤害的发生率.%Objective To discuss the relationships between unintentional injury and family environment in college students,so as to provide references for preventing and controlling unintentional inj ury of college students.Methods By using self-designed questionnaire and the Family Environment Scale Chinese version to assess 7 1 inj ured and matched 7 1 uninj ured cases’s family environment factors and then analyze the rela-tionships between unintentional inj ury and family environment relevant factors by using T test and condi-tional Logistic regression.Results There were statistic significances of grades,whether the only child in the family,drinking situation,family monthly income and education style between two groups of students (all P<0.05).FES-CV scale of score of intimacy and emotional expression in case group were higher than which in control group (all P<0.05).Multivariate analysis showed that whether the only child in the fami-ly,family monthly income and intimacy were the maj or influencing factors of unintentional inj ury of college students (all P<0

  16. Development of a 1 D hydrodynamic habitat model for the Hippopotamus amphibious as basis for sustainable exploitation of hydroelectric power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manful, D. Y.; Kaule, G.; Wieprecht, S.; Rees, J.; Hu, W.

    2009-12-01

    Hydroelectric Power (HEP) is proving to be a good alternative to carbon based energy. In the past hydropower especially large scale hydro attracted significant criticism as a result of its impact on the environment. A new breed of hydroelectric dam is in the offing. The aim is to have as little a footprint as possible on the environment in both pre and post construction phases and thus minimize impact on biodiversity whilst producing clean renewable energy. The Bui dam is 400 MW scheme currently under development on the Black Volta River in the Bui national park in Ghana. The reservoir created by the Bui barrage is expected to impact (through inundation) the habitat of two species of hippos know to exist in the park, the Hippopotamus amphibius and the Choeropsis liberiensis. Computer-based models present a unique opportunity to assess quantitatively the impact of the new reservoir on the habitat of the target species in this case the H. amphibious. Until this undertaking, there were very few studies documenting the habitat of the H. amphibious let alone model it. The work and subsequent presentation will show the development of a habitat model for the Hippopotamus amphibius. The Habitat Information retrieval Program based on Streamflow Analysis, in short HIPStrA, is a one dimensional (1D) in-stream, spatially explicit hybrid construct that combines physico-chemical evidence and expert knowledge to forecast river habitat suitability (Hs) for the Hippopotamus amphibius. The version of the model presented is specifically developed to assess the impact of a reservoir created by a hydroelectric dam on potential dwelling areas in the Bui gorge for hippos. Accordingly, this version of HIPStrA simulates a special reservoir suitability index (Rsi), a metric that captures the”hippo friendliness” of any lake or reservoir. The impact of measured and simulated flood events as well as low flows, representing extreme events is also assessed. Recommendations are made for the

  17. Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Demonstration Project. Pennsylvania Hydroelectric Development Corporation Flat Rock Dam: Project summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleeson, L.

    1991-12-01

    The US Department of Energy Field Office, Idaho, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program was initiated in conjunction with the restoration of three power generating plants in Idaho Falls, Idaho, following damage caused by the Teton Dam failure on June 5, 1976. There were many parties interested in this project, including the state and environmental groups, with different concerns. This report was prepared by the developer and describes the design alternatives the applicant provided in an attempt to secure the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission license. Also included are correspondence between the related parties concerning the project, major design alternatives/project plan diagrams, the license, and energy and project economics.

  18. Mercury accumulation in bats near hydroelectric reservoirs in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syaripuddin, Khairunnisa; Kumar, Anjali; Sing, Kong-Wah; Halim, Muhammad-Rasul Abdullah; Nursyereen, Muhammad-Nasir; Wilson, John-James

    2014-09-01

    In large man-made reservoirs such as those resulting from hydroelectric dam construction, bacteria transform the relatively harmless inorganic mercury naturally present in soil and the submerged plant matter into toxic methylmercury. Methylmercury then enters food webs and can accumulate in organisms at higher trophic levels. Bats feeding on insects emerging from aquatic systems can show accumulation of mercury consumed through their insect prey. In this study, we investigated whether the concentration of mercury in the fur of insectivorous bat species was significantly higher than that in the fur of frugivorous bat species, sampled near hydroelectric reservoirs in Peninsular Malaysia. Bats were sampled at Temenggor Lake and Kenyir Lake and fur samples from the most abundant genera of the two feeding guilds-insectivorous (Hipposideros and Rhinolophus) and frugivorous (Cynopterus and Megaerops) were collected for mercury analysis. We found significantly higher concentrations of total mercury in the fur of insectivorous bats. Mercury concentrations also differed significantly between insectivorous bats sampled at the two sites, with bats from Kenyir Lake, the younger reservoir, showing higher mercury concentrations, and between the insectivorous genera, with Hipposideros bats showing higher mercury concentrations. Ten bats (H. cf. larvatus) sampled at Kenyir Lake had mercury concentrations approaching or exceeding 10 mg/kg, which is the threshold at which detrimental effects occur in humans, bats and mice. PMID:24840106

  19. Are hydroelectric reservoirs significant sources of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates suggest that, per unit of energy produced, greenhouse-gas flux to the atmosphere from some hydroelectric reservoirs may be significant compared to greenhouse-gas emission by fossil-fuelled electricity generation. Greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) are produced during bacterial decomposition of flooded peat and forest biomass. The amount emitted will be positively related to the area flooded. Early data from hydroelectric reservoirs in northern Canada support this hypothesis. Our hypothesis is based primarily on two of our past studies which show that both upland forests and peatlands are sites of intense microbial decomposition and greenhouse-gas production when they become covered with water. During the summer of 1992, the first preliminary data were obtained that support our hypothesis. At 12 sampling locations on the LaGrande II-BoydSakami Reservoir complex in northern Quebec, both the CO2 and CH4 were found to be evading to the atmosphere. CO2 concentrations were 2-3 times above atmospheric equilibrium at all sampling sites. This is in contrast to two large lakes, Nipigon and Superior, where CO2 was being absorbed from the atmosphere throughout the ice-free season. Surface CH4 concentrations were 0.05-1.1 μmol L-1 with most sites having concentrations higher than in natural, stratified Canadian shield lakes. Further measurements are required to determine annual fluxes. (19 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.)

  20. Hydro-Electric Facilities, (Municpality Name) Hydro-electric Facility, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Lafayette County Land Records.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Hydro-Electric Facilities dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of 2005. It is...

  1. 76 FR 58837 - Notice of Intent to Accept Proposals, Select Lessee, and Contract for Hydroelectric Power...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... Power Development at Caballo Dam, Rio Grande Project, New Mexico AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior... consider proposals for non-Federal development of hydroelectric power at Caballo Dam, a feature of the Rio...-Federal entity to develop hydroelectric power at Caballo Dam. DATES: A written proposal and seven...

  2. Status Review of Wildlife Mitigation at Columbia Basin Hydroelectric Projects, Oregon Facilities, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedrossian, Karen L.

    1984-08-01

    The report presents a review and documentation of existing information on wildlife resources at Columbia River Basin hydroelectric facilities within Oregon. Effects of hydroelectric development and operation; existing agreements; and past, current and proposed wildlife mitigation, enhancement, and protection activities were considered. (ACR)

  3. 78 FR 25263 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy... Power Act), on the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project. e. All local, state, and...

  4. 77 FR 43280 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy... Management Act and the Federal Power Act), on the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project. e....

  5. Ecological impact from large constructions of hydroelectric power plants in Parana River, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis over environmental impacts on Parana River as a result of the hydroelectric power plants construction is presented. Hydroelectric dams, also including the planned ones, are showing during the explanation, and biologic aspects are discussed. 30 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  6. 3-Methylthiopropionic acid ethyl ester, isolated from Katsura-uri (Japanese pickling melon, Cucumis melo var. conomon), enhanced differentiation in human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yasushi; Nakayama, Yuko; Ando, Hitomi; Tanaka, Atsuo; Matsuo, Tomoaki; Okamoto, Shigehisa; Upham, Brad L; Chang, Chia-Cheng; Trosko, James E; Park, Eun Young; Sato, Kenji

    2008-05-14

    The fully ripened fruit of Katsura-uri Japanese pickling melon ( Cucumis melo var. conomon) has rarely been used for food because the midripened fruit is utilized for making pickles, but the fully ripened fruit is no longer valuable for pickles due to the fruit body being too soft. We have considered the utilization of the fully ripened Katsura-uri fruit that may be used for nonpickling products, particularly if the fully ripened fruit demonstrated health benefits such as anticarcinogenic properties. The phytochemical extract from the fully ripened fruit of Katsura-uri Japanese pickling melon was purified via a bioassay-guided fractionation scheme, which was based on the induction of differentiation in a RCM-1 human colon cancer cell line. On the criteria of two differentiation markers (duct formation and alkaline phosphatase activity), the most potent fraction contained a compound identified as 3-methylthiopropionic acid ethyl ester, based on GC retention time, EI-MS, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR spectra. Previously, the role of 3-methylthiopropionic acid ethyl ester was considered as an odor producing compound in many fruits, but this study indicates potential medical benefits of this compound. PMID:18426216

  7. Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity using Abandoned Works (open pits and deep mines)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujades, E.; Willems, T.; Bodeux, S.; Orban, P.; Dassargues, A.

    2015-12-01

    Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (PSH) is a good alternative to increase the efficiency of power plants, which cannot regulate the amount of electricity generated according to the demand (wind, solar or even nuclear power plants). PSH plants, which consist in two reservoirs located at different heights (upper and lower), can store energy during low demand periods (pumping water from the lower to the upper reservoir) and generate electricity during the high demand peaks (falling water from the upper to the lower reservoir). Given that the two reservoirs must be located at different heights, PSH plants cannot be constructed in flat regions. Nevertheless, in these regions, an alternative could be to use abandoned underground works (open pits or deep mines) as lower reservoirs to construct Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants. To select the best place to construct a plant, two considerations must be taken into account regarding the interaction between UPSH plants and groundwater: 1) the alteration of the natural conditions of aquifers and 2), the efficiency of the plant since the electricity generated depends on the hydraulic head inside the underground reservoir. Obviously, a detailed numerical model must be necessary before to select a location. However, a screening methodology to reject the most disadvantageous sites in a short period of time would be useful. Groundwater flow impacts caused by UPSH plants are analyzed numerically and the main variables involved in the groundwater evolution are identified. The most noticeable effect consists in an oscillation of the groundwater. The hydraulic head around which groundwater oscillates, the magnitude of the oscillations and the time to achieve a "dynamic steady state" depend on the boundaries, the parameters of the aquifer and the characteristics of the underground reservoir. A screening methodology is proposed to assess the main impacts caused in aquifers by UPSH plants. Finally, the efficiency

  8. Proliferation of Hydroelectric Dams in the Andean Amazon and Implications for Andes-Amazon Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.

    2012-01-01

    Due to rising energy demands and abundant untapped potential, hydropower projects are rapidly increasing in the Neotropics. This is especially true in the wet and rugged Andean Amazon, where regional governments are prioritizing new hydroelectric dams as the centerpiece of long-term energy plans. However, the current planning for hydropower lacks adequate regional and basin-scale assessment of potential ecological impacts. This lack of strategic planning is particularly problematic given the intimate link between the Andes and Amazonian flood plain, together one of the most species rich zones on Earth. We examined the potential ecological impacts, in terms of river connectivity and forest loss, of the planned proliferation of hydroelectric dams across all Andean tributaries of the Amazon River. Considering data on the full portfolios of existing and planned dams, along with data on roads and transmission line systems, we developed a new conceptual framework to estimate the relative impacts of all planned dams. There are plans for 151 new dams greater than 2 MW over the next 20 years, more than a 300% increase. These dams would include five of the six major Andean tributaries of the Amazon. Our ecological impact analysis classified 47% of the potential new dams as high impact and just 19% as low impact. Sixty percent of the dams would cause the first major break in connectivity between protected Andean headwaters and the lowland Amazon. More than 80% would drive deforestation due to new roads, transmission lines, or inundation. We conclude with a discussion of three major policy implications of these findings. 1) There is a critical need for further strategic regional and basin scale evaluation of dams. 2) There is an urgent need for a strategic plan to maintain Andes-Amazon connectivity. 3) Reconsideration of hydropower as a low-impact energy source in the Neotropics. PMID:22529979

  9. Proliferation of hydroelectric dams in the Andean Amazon and implications for Andes-Amazon connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Finer

    Full Text Available Due to rising energy demands and abundant untapped potential, hydropower projects are rapidly increasing in the Neotropics. This is especially true in the wet and rugged Andean Amazon, where regional governments are prioritizing new hydroelectric dams as the centerpiece of long-term energy plans. However, the current planning for hydropower lacks adequate regional and basin-scale assessment of potential ecological impacts. This lack of strategic planning is particularly problematic given the intimate link between the Andes and Amazonian flood plain, together one of the most species rich zones on Earth. We examined the potential ecological impacts, in terms of river connectivity and forest loss, of the planned proliferation of hydroelectric dams across all Andean tributaries of the Amazon River. Considering data on the full portfolios of existing and planned dams, along with data on roads and transmission line systems, we developed a new conceptual framework to estimate the relative impacts of all planned dams. There are plans for 151 new dams greater than 2 MW over the next 20 years, more than a 300% increase. These dams would include five of the six major Andean tributaries of the Amazon. Our ecological impact analysis classified 47% of the potential new dams as high impact and just 19% as low impact. Sixty percent of the dams would cause the first major break in connectivity between protected Andean headwaters and the lowland Amazon. More than 80% would drive deforestation due to new roads, transmission lines, or inundation. We conclude with a discussion of three major policy implications of these findings. 1 There is a critical need for further strategic regional and basin scale evaluation of dams. 2 There is an urgent need for a strategic plan to maintain Andes-Amazon connectivity. 3 Reconsideration of hydropower as a low-impact energy source in the Neotropics.

  10. Share of hydro-electric power in the world energy balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotillon, J. (Electricite de France, 75 - Paris)

    1982-01-01

    The following are discussed: the consequences of the differing nature of renewable and non-renewable energy sources, the outlook for hydro-electric power generation by the years 2000 and 2050, whether the distance to sites is a handicap, whether the development of micro-stations is difficult, pumping vis-a-vis conventional hydro-electric facilities, the scale of equipment and the main channels for the transmission of water power. The trend of energy, electricity and hydro-electric power since the beginning of the century are compared: four times more capacity than that of the hydro-electric developments built to date must be harnessed. In addition, the share of hydroelectric in electricity generation in 1971 is the same as the planned share of nuclear power generation in 1990.

  11. Further tests of changes in fish escape behavior resulting from sublethal stresses associated with hydroelectric turbine passage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryon, Michael G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cada, Glenn F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Smith, John G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Fish that pass through a hydroelectric turbine may not be killed directly, but may nonetheless experience sublethal stresses that will increase their susceptibility to predators (indirect mortality). There is a need to develop reliable tests for indirect mortality so that the full consequences of passage through turbines (and other routes around a hydroelectric dam) can be assessed. The most commonly used laboratory technique for assessing susceptibility to predation is the predator preference test. This report evaluates the field application of a new technique that may be valuable for assessing indirect mortality, based on changes in a behavioral response to a startling stimulus (akin to perceiving an approaching predator). The study compared the behaviors of 70 fish passed through the turbine and another 70 under control conditions (either transferred from the holding tank or injected into the Alden loop downstream of turbine). The resulting image files were analyzed for a variety of behavioral measures including: presence of a startle response, time to first reaction, duration of reaction, time to formation of the maximum C-shape, time to completion of the C-shape, completeness of the C-shape, direction of turn, and degree of turn. The data were evaluated for statistical significance and patterns of response were identified.

  12. Hydroelectric developments in Nunavik : update on impact benefit agreements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aatami, P. [Makivik Corp., Makivik, NF (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The Partnership Agreement on Economic and Community Development in Nunavik is intended to accelerate development of natural resources in Nunavik and promote autonomy of the Inuit regional organizations. This can be accomplished through hydroelectric projects, mining, sport hunting, outfitting and tourism. In recent years, activities in these domains have raised fundamental questions pertaining to the advantages and disadvantages of resource development. The role that the Impact Benefit Agreement has on business opportunities has been examined more closely. The results of the Impact Benefit Agreement and its implication for the Cree Nation and hydro development in untapped regions of northern Quebec were described along with the role of the parties in financing future projects. An overview of the costs, benefits and considerations for hydro opportunities in northern Quebec was presented with reference to the electricity grid and the incentives for large investment. 1 fig.

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions from Brazil’s Amazonian hydroelectric dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnside, Philip M.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical dams are often falsely portrayed as ‘clean’ emissions-free energy sources. The letter by de Faria et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 10 124019) adds to evidence questioning this myth. Calculations are made for 18 dams that are planned or under construction in Brazilian Amazonia and show that emissions from storage hydroelectric dams would exceed those from electricity generation based on fossil fuels. Fossil fuels need not be the alternative, because Brazil has vast potential for wind and solar power as well as opportunities for energy conservation. Because dam-building is rapidly shifting to humid tropical areas, where emissions are higher than in other climatic zones, the impact of these emissions needs to be given proper weight in energy-policy decisions.

  14. Hydrogen-based industry from remote excess hydroelectricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines synergies, opportunities and barriers associated with hydrogen and excess hydro-electricity in remote areas. The work is based on a case study that examined the techno-economic feasibility of a new hydrogen-based industry using surplus/off-peak generating capacity of the Taltson Dam and Generating Station in the Northwest Territories, Canada. After evaluating the amount and cost of hydrogen that could be produced from the excess capacity, the study investigates three hydrogen utilization scenarios: (1) merchant liquid or compressed hydrogen, (2) hydrogen as a chemical feedstock for the production of hydrogen peroxide, (3) methanol production from biomass, oxygen and hydrogen. Hydrogen peroxide production is the most promising and attractive strategy in the Fort Smith context. The study also illustrates patterns that recur in isolated sites throughout the world. (Author)

  15. Study of the Time Response of a Simulated Hydroelectric System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simani, S.; Alvisi, S.; Venturini, M.

    2014-12-01

    This paper addresses the design of an advanced control strategy for a typical hydroelectric dynamic process, performed in the Matlab and Simulink environments. The hydraulic system consists of a high water head and a long penstock with upstream and downstream surge tanks, and is equipped with a Francis turbine. The nonlinear characteristics of hydraulic turbine and the inelastic water hammer effects were considered to calculate and simulate the hydraulic transients. With reference to the control solution, the proposed methodology relies on an adaptive control designed by means of the on-line identification of the system model under monitoring. Extensive simulations and comparison with respect to a classic hydraulic turbine speed PID regulator show the effectiveness of the proposed modelling and control tools.

  16. Study of the Time Response of a Simulated Hydroelectric System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses the design of an advanced control strategy for a typical hydroelectric dynamic process, performed in the Matlab and Simulink environments. The hydraulic system consists of a high water head and a long penstock with upstream and downstream surge tanks, and is equipped with a Francis turbine. The nonlinear characteristics of hydraulic turbine and the inelastic water hammer effects were considered to calculate and simulate the hydraulic transients. With reference to the control solution, the proposed methodology relies on an adaptive control designed by means of the on-line identification of the system model under monitoring. Extensive simulations and comparison with respect to a classic hydraulic turbine speed PID regulator show the effectiveness of the proposed modelling and control tools

  17. Woodruff Narrows low head hydroelectric power plant feasibility determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-01

    Woodruff Narrows Reservoir, owned by the State of Utah, was built in 1961 as an irrigation reservoir. The reservoir outlet works and spillway are in need of repair, and plans have been made to enlarge the reservoir from its present capacity of 28,000 acre-feet to 53,200 acre-feet when these repairs are made. The purpose of this study was to determine if it is feasible to add hydropower facilities when the reservoir is repaired and enlarged. A computer simulation model based on mean monthly values, utilizing 26 years of recorded streamflow into the reservoir, was used to determine the mean annual energy potential for the following configurations: (1) present dam, (2) the proposed enlarged dam, (3) a new dam at the lower site with a maximum head of 65 feet, and (4) a new dam at the lower site which would store water to the same elevation as the proposed enlarged dam. Results of the simulation study show that maximum power capacities are respectively 2.1, 3.0, 3.9, and 4.5 megawatts. The marketing potential for this electric power, cost estimates and financial analysis, and environmental, social, and regulatory aspects of the proposed hydropower facilities were evaluated. The results showed the addition of hydroelectric power development at the Woodruff Narrows site would have minimal social and environmental effects on the area, would result in little or no changes in the present patterns of water and land use, income, population, and employment and would not result in any significant changes of the social structure or characteristics of the area. However, hydroelectric power development at the Woodruff Narrows site is not economically feasible at the present time. (LCL)

  18. RECOVERY OF AN OXISOL DEGRADED BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF A HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseane Carina Borges de Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The removal of thick layers of soil under native scrubland (Cerrado on the right bank of the Paraná River in Selvíria (State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil for construction of the Ilha Solteira Hydroelectric Power Plant caused environmental damage, affecting the revegetation process of the stripped soil. Over the years, various kinds of land use and management systems have been tried, and the aim of this study was to assess the effects of these attempts to restore the structural quality of the soil. The experiment was conducted considering five treatments and thirty replications. The following treatments were applied: stripped soil without anthropic intervention and total absence of plant cover; stripped soil treated with sewage sludge and planted to eucalyptus and grass a year ago; stripped soil developing natural secondary vegetation (capoeira since 1969; pastureland since 1978, replacing the native vegetation; and soil under native vegetation (Cerrado. In the 0.00-0.20 m layer, the soil was chemically characterized for each experimental treatment. A 30-point sampling grid was used to assess soil porosity and bulk density, and to assess aggregate stability in terms of mean weight diameter (MWD and geometric mean diameter (GMD. Aggregate stability was also determined using simulated rainfall. The results show that using sewage sludge incorporated with a rotary hoe improved the chemical fertility of the soil and produced more uniform soil pore size distribution. Leaving the land to develop secondary vegetation or turning it over to pastureland produced an intermediate level of structural soil quality, and these two treatments produced similar results. Stripped soil without anthropic intervention was of the lowest quality, with the lowest values for cation exchange capacity (CEC and macroporosity, as well as the highest values of soil bulk density and percentage of aggregates with diameter size <0.50 mm, corroborated by its lower

  19. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level in New Jersey are described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC is discussed. New Jersey follows the riparian theory of water law. Following an extensive discussion of the New Jersey water law, New Jersey regulatory law and financial considerations regarding hydroelectric power development are discussed.

  20. Analysis of Environmental Issues Related to Small-Scale Hydroelectric Development V: Instream Flow Needs for Fishery Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, James M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sale, Michael J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1981-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance to developers of small-scale hydroelectric projects on the assessment of instream flow needs. While numerous methods have been developed to assess the effects of stream flow regulation on aquatic biota in coldwater streams in the West, no consensus has been reached regarding their general applicability, especially to streams in the eastern United States. This report presents and reviews these methods (Section 2.0), which is intended to provide the reader with general background information that is the basis for the critical evaluation of the methods (Section 3.0). The strategy for instream flow assessment presented in Section 4.0 is, in turn, based on the implicit assumptions, data needs, costs, and decision-making capabilities of the various methods as discussed in Section 3.0.

  1. Final Technical Report - Modernization of the Boulder Canyon Hydroelectric Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taddeucci, Joe [Dept. of Public Works, Boulder, CO (United States). Utilities Division

    2013-03-29

    The Boulder Canyon Hydroelectric Project (BCH) was purchased by the City of Boulder, CO (the city) in 2001. Project facilities were originally constructed in 1910 and upgraded in the 1930s and 1940s. By 2009, the two 10 MW turbine/generators had reached or were nearing the end of their useful lives. One generator had grounded out and was beyond repair, reducing plant capacity to 10 MW. The remaining 10 MW unit was expected to fail at any time. When the BCH power plant was originally constructed, a sizeable water supply was available for the sole purpose of hydroelectric power generation. Between 1950 and 2001, that water supply had gradually been converted to municipal water supply by the city. By 2001, the water available for hydroelectric power generation at BCH could not support even one 10 MW unit. Boulder lacked the financial resources to modernize the facilities, and Boulder anticipated that when the single, operational historical unit failed, the project would cease operation. In 2009, the City of Boulder applied for and received a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) grant for $1.18 million toward a total estimated project cost of $5.155 million to modernize BCH. The federal funding allowed Boulder to move forward with plant modifications that would ensure BCH would continue operation. Federal funding was made available through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. Boulder determined that a single 5 MW turbine/generator would be the most appropriate capacity, given the reduced water supply to the plant. Average annual BCH generation with the old 10 MW unit had been about 8,500 MW-hr, whereas annual generation with a new, efficient turbine could average 11,000 to 12,000 MW-hr. The incremental change in annual generation represents a 30% increase in generation over pre-project conditions. The old turbine/generator was a single nozzle Pelton turbine with a 5-to-1 flow turndown and a maximum turbine/generator efficiency of 82%. The new unit is a

  2. Probabilistic streamflow forecasting for hydroelectricity production: A comparison of two non-parametric system identification algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Saket; Sharma, Ashish

    2014-05-01

    This study is motivated by the need to robustly specify, identify, and forecast runoff generation processes for hydroelectricity production. It atleast requires the identification of significant predictors of runoff generation and the influence of each such significant predictor on runoff response. To this end, we compare two non-parametric algorithms of predictor subset selection. One is based on information theory that assesses predictor significance (and hence selection) based on Partial Information (PI) rationale of Sharma and Mehrotra (2014). The other algorithm is based on a frequentist approach that uses bounds on probability of error concept of Pande (2005), assesses all possible predictor subsets on-the-go and converges to a predictor subset in an computationally efficient manner. Both the algorithms approximate the underlying system by locally constant functions and select predictor subsets corresponding to these functions. The performance of the two algorithms is compared on a set of synthetic case studies as well as a real world case study of inflow forecasting. References: Sharma, A., and R. Mehrotra (2014), An information theoretic alternative to model a natural system using observational information alone, Water Resources Research, 49, doi:10.1002/2013WR013845. Pande, S. (2005), Generalized local learning in water resource management, PhD dissertation, Utah State University, UT-USA, 148p.

  3. 76 FR 18747 - Teton Power Funding, LLC; Topsham Hydro Partners Limited Partnership; Topsham Hydroelectric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Teton Power Funding, LLC; Topsham Hydro Partners Limited Partnership... Power Funding, LLC (transferor), Topsham Hydro Partners Limited Partnership, Topsham Hydroelectric... River in Sagadahoc, Cumberland, and Androscoggin counties, Maine. Applicants seek Commission approval...

  4. Small scale hydroelectric power potential in Nevada: a preliminary reconnaissance survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, G.F.; Fordham, J.W.; Richard, K.; Loux, R.

    1981-04-01

    This preliminary reconnaissance survey is intended to: develop a first estimate as to the potential number, location and characteristics of small-scale (50 kW to 15 MW) hydroelectric sites in Nevada; provide a compilation of various Federal and state laws and regulations, including tax and financing regulations, that affect small-scale hydroelectric development and provide information on sources of small-scale hydroelectric generation hardware and consultants/ contractors who do small scale hydroelectric work. The entire survey has been conducted in the office working with various available data bases. The site survey and site evaluation methods used are described, and data are tabulated on the flow, power potential, predicted capital expenditures required, etc. for 61 potential sites with measured flows and for 77 sites with derived flows. A map showing potential site locations is included. (LCL)

  5. Caxingo - a promising model for integrating the hydroelectric work camps to the site communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The social and economical impacts caused by the hydroelectric work camps in the sites where the hydroelectric will be constructed are studied, analysing the great supply of works when the hydroelectric is been constructed face to the reduction one when the works are concluded; the neglect by the State in providing medical and educational assistances to the neighbour populations; the appearance of a commerce in the neighbour areas; the employer stableness in the camp after the pension and the lack by the neighbour cities of a social and economical substructure to offer to the population, that come with the hydroelectric construction. A new solution for these problems is presented in the Xingo camp, where the camp will be as a district of city near to the work, with community services provide by the State and the needful substructure to its construction and the equipment provide by the concessionaire. (C.G.C.). 1 fig

  6. Determination of transit time in the hydraulic system of the San Gaban II hydroelectric plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work determines the hydraulic behavior of waters from different lakes (Pauchinta, Parinajota and Suytococha) which feed the San Gaban II Hydroelectric Plant across the Corani and Macusani rivers through the transit time to the headwater dam

  7. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are examined. The introductory section examines the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and concludes with an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. Additional sections cover acquisition; liability; Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection; energy utilities; local regulations; incidental impacts; financial considerations; and sources of information. In Kentucky, many of the impacts have not been implemented with regard to small-scale hydroelectric energy, since in Kentucky most electricity is coal-generated and any hydroelectric power that does exist, is derived from TVA or the Army Corp of Engineer projects.

  8. Raptor observations associated with Terror Lake hydroelectric project: 1984 annual progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Raptors in the vicinity of the Terror Lake Hydroelectric Project (TLHP) were studied to determine the effects of project construction and operation on nesting and...

  9. A parallel between the impacts of hydroelectric and thermoelectric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation of the environmental impacts of hydroelectric and thermoelectric power plants using the Leopold method is presented. The evaluation includes impacts on the physical, biological and socio-economic sectors. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Raptor observations associated with Terror Lake Hydroelectric Project: 1983 annual progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The report discusses the modification to both bald eagles and rough-legged hawk nesting behavior seen in the Terror Lake Hydroelectric Project area during 1983. A...

  11. The impacts of wind power integration on sub-daily variation in river flows downstream of hydroelectric dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Jordan D; Patino-Echeverri, Dalia; Characklis, Gregory W

    2014-08-19

    Due to their operational flexibility, hydroelectric dams are ideal candidates to compensate for the intermittency and unpredictability of wind energy production. However, more coordinated use of wind and hydropower resources may exacerbate the impacts dams have on downstream environmental flows, that is, the timing and magnitude of water flows needed to sustain river ecosystems. In this paper, we examine the effects of increased (i.e., 5%, 15%, and 25%) wind market penetration on prices for electricity and reserves, and assess the potential for altered price dynamics to disrupt reservoir release schedules at a hydroelectric dam and cause more variable and unpredictable hourly flow patterns (measured in terms of the Richards-Baker Flashiness (RBF) index). Results show that the greatest potential for wind energy to impact downstream flows occurs at high (∼25%) wind market penetration, when the dam sells more reserves in order to exploit spikes in real-time electricity prices caused by negative wind forecast errors. Nonetheless, compared to the initial impacts of dam construction (and the dam's subsequent operation as a peaking resource under baseline conditions) the marginal effects of any increased wind market penetration on downstream flows are found to be relatively minor.

  12. The impacts of wind power integration on sub-daily variation in river flows downstream of hydroelectric dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Jordan D; Patino-Echeverri, Dalia; Characklis, Gregory W

    2014-08-19

    Due to their operational flexibility, hydroelectric dams are ideal candidates to compensate for the intermittency and unpredictability of wind energy production. However, more coordinated use of wind and hydropower resources may exacerbate the impacts dams have on downstream environmental flows, that is, the timing and magnitude of water flows needed to sustain river ecosystems. In this paper, we examine the effects of increased (i.e., 5%, 15%, and 25%) wind market penetration on prices for electricity and reserves, and assess the potential for altered price dynamics to disrupt reservoir release schedules at a hydroelectric dam and cause more variable and unpredictable hourly flow patterns (measured in terms of the Richards-Baker Flashiness (RBF) index). Results show that the greatest potential for wind energy to impact downstream flows occurs at high (∼25%) wind market penetration, when the dam sells more reserves in order to exploit spikes in real-time electricity prices caused by negative wind forecast errors. Nonetheless, compared to the initial impacts of dam construction (and the dam's subsequent operation as a peaking resource under baseline conditions) the marginal effects of any increased wind market penetration on downstream flows are found to be relatively minor. PMID:25061693

  13. Hydroacoustic modelling and numerical simulation of unsteady operation of hydroelectric systems

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolet, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    Hydropower represented in 1999 19% of the world electricity production and the absolute production is expected to grow considerably during the next 30 years. Francis turbines play a major role in the hydroelectric production due to their extended range of application. Due to the deregulated energy market, hydroelectric power plants are increasingly subjecting to off design operation, start-up and shutdown and new control strategies. Consequently, the operation of Francis turbine power plants ...

  14. Hydroacoustic modelling and numerical simulation of unsteady operation of hydroelectric systems

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolet, Christophe; Avellan, François; SIMOND, Jean-Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Hydropower represented in 1999 19% of the world electricity production and the absolute production is expected to grow considerably during the next 30 years. Francis turbines play a major role in the hydroelectric production due to their extended range of application. Due to the deregulated energy market, hydroelectric power plants are increasingly subjecting to off design operation, start-up and shutdown and new control strategies. Consequently, the operation of Francis turbine power plants ...

  15. Variability in methane ebullition in several tropical hydroelectric reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurelio dos Santos, Marco; Pinguelli Rosa, Luiz; Matvienko, Bohdan; Oliveira dos Santos, Ednaldo; Sikar, Elizabeth; Manoel Portilho Bentes Junior, Ayr

    2013-04-01

    Research on ebullition from natural water bodies has been performed since the 1970s but in the case of hydropower reservoirs studies are more recent. Ebullition of methane was measured in eight hydroelectric reservoirs operated by Furnas Centrais Elétricas in tropical regions of Brazil. In a wide range of age, size, and shape, seven reservoirs are located in central and southeastern Brazil in a biome known as Cerrado and another one is located in an highly industrialized region in the Atlantic forest region. Samples were taken during three climatic seasons in each reservoir: at the beginning of the rainy season (November), at the end of the rainy season (March-April), and during the dry season (July-August). Bubbling emissions gas exchanges at the water-air interface were determined in reservoir surface considering distinct sites. The ebullitive emissions were determined using 0.75 m2 funnels placed 30 cm below the surface in several places in the reservoirs in depths varying from 5 to 20 m. Funnels were deployed at each sampling station for 24 hours. Emissions were interpolated to the whole reservoir by weighting for reservoir morphometry.

  16. Influence of environmental factors on mercury release in hydroelectric reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, K.; Therien, N.

    1991-04-01

    Due to increased mercury concentrations in fish in hydro-electric reservoirs after flooding, a study was carried out to evaluate the release and transformation of mercury due to vegetation and soil flooded as a result of reservoir creation. Samples of vegetation and soils were immersed in water and concentrations of total mercury, methylmercury and nutrients were followed. The effects of anoxia, pH and temperature on release and transformation were examined. An existing dynamic model of decomposition of flooded materials in reservoirs was modified to include mercury release and transformation, and was calibrated to the experimental data. Amounts of mercury released by the different substrates was of the same order of magnitude. Tree species contributed to the greatest amounts of methylmercury per unit biomass, but the biomass used for these was twigs and foliage. Soil released significant amounts of mercury, but methylation was very low. The model was able to fit well for all substrates except lichen. The model can be adapted to proposed reservoirs to predict nutrient and mecury release and transformation. 175 refs., 38 figs., 38 tabs.

  17. Culinary and pressure irrigation water system hydroelectric generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, Cory [Water Works Engineers, Pleasant Grove City, UT (United States)

    2016-01-29

    Pleasant Grove City owns and operates a drinking water system that included pressure reducing stations (PRVs) in various locations and flow conditions. Several of these station are suitable for power generation. The City evaluated their system to identify opportunities for power generation that can be implemented based on the analysis of costs and prediction of power generation and associated revenue. The evaluation led to the selection of the Battle Creek site for development of a hydro-electric power generating system. The Battle Creek site includes a pipeline that carries spring water to storage tanks. The system utilizes a PRV to reduce pressure before the water is introduced into the tanks. The evaluation recommended that the PRV at this location be replaced with a turbine for the generation of electricity. The system will be connected to the utility power grid for use in the community. A pelton turbine was selected for the site, and a turbine building and piping system were constructed to complete a fully functional power generation system. It is anticipated that the system will generate approximately 440,000 kW-hr per year resulting in $40,000 of annual revenue.

  18. Water consumption from hydroelectricity in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubert, Emily A.

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the relationship between water and energy systems is important for effective management of both resources. Improved data availability has made more comprehensive modeling of hydropower and its water use possible, even as droughts and climate change have made questions about reservoir evaporation responsiveness more timely. This work makes three main contributions: first, it presents national and regional estimates of gross evaporation and evaporation net of evapotranspiration from local land cover ("net evaporation") for U.S. hydroelectricity, arguing that net evaporation is more consistent with other measures of energy-related water intensity; second, it introduces and validates a method for estimating system-wide evaporation based on primary purpose allocation that reduces data requirements by two orders of magnitude; and third, it makes available for public use a full Penman-Monteith model with multiple built-in sensitivity analyses. Based on this model, the U.S. hydropower system consumes an estimated average of 1.7 m3 of net freshwater per GJ electricity produced (11 m3/GJ gross).

  19. Counter rotating type hydroelectric unit suitable for tidal power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanemoto, T [Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Sensui 1-1, Tobata, Kitakyushu 804-8550 (Japan); Suzuki, T, E-mail: turbo@tobata.isc.kyutech.ac.j [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Sensui 1-1, Tobata, Kitakyushu 804-8550 (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    The counter rotating type hydroelectric unit, which is composed of the axial flow type tandem runners and the peculiar generator with double rotational armatures,was proposed to utilize effectively the tidal power. In the unit, the front and the rear runners counter drive the inner and the outer armatures of the generator, respectively. Besides, the flow direction at the rear runner outlet must coincide with the flow direction at the front runner inlet, because the angular momentum through the rear runner must coincides with that through the front runner. That is, the flow runs in the axial direction at the rear runner outlet while the axial inflow at the front runner inlet. Such operations are suitable for working at the seashore with rising and falling tidal flows, and the unit may be able to take place of the traditional bulb type turbines. The tandem runners were operated at the on-cam conditions, in keeping the induced frequency constant. The output and the hydraulic efficiency are affected by the adjustment of the front and the blade setting angles. The both optimum angles giving the maximum output and/or efficiency were presented at the various discharges/heads. To promote more the tidal power generation by this type unit, the runners were also modified so as to be suitable for both rising and falling flows. The hydraulic performances are acceptable while the output is determined mainly by the trailing edge profiles of the runner blades.

  20. Final Technical Report - Modernization of the Boulder Canyon Hydroelectric Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taddeucci, Joe [Dept. of Public Works, Boulder, CO (United States). Utilities Division

    2013-03-29

    The Boulder Canyon Hydroelectric Project (BCH) was purchased by the City of Boulder, CO (the city) in 2001. Project facilities were originally constructed in 1910 and upgraded in the 1930s and 1940s. By 2009, the two 10 MW turbine/generators had reached or were nearing the end of their useful lives. One generator had grounded out and was beyond repair, reducing plant capacity to 10 MW. The remaining 10 MW unit was expected to fail at any time. When the BCH power plant was originally constructed, a sizeable water supply was available for the sole purpose of hydroelectric power generation. Between 1950 and 2001, that water supply had gradually been converted to municipal water supply by the city. By 2001, the water available for hydroelectric power generation at BCH could not support even one 10 MW unit. Boulder lacked the financial resources to modernize the facilities, and Boulder anticipated that when the single, operational historical unit failed, the project would cease operation. In 2009, the City of Boulder applied for and received a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) grant for $1.18 million toward a total estimated project cost of $5.155 million to modernize BCH. The federal funding allowed Boulder to move forward with plant modifications that would ensure BCH would continue operation. Federal funding was made available through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. Boulder determined that a single 5 MW turbine/generator would be the most appropriate capacity, given the reduced water supply to the plant. Average annual BCH generation with the old 10 MW unit had been about 8,500 MW-hr, whereas annual generation with a new, efficient turbine could average 11,000 to 12,000 MW-hr. The incremental change in annual generation represents a 30% increase in generation over pre-project conditions. The old turbine/generator was a single nozzle Pelton turbine with a 5-to-1 flow turndown and a maximum turbine/generator efficiency of 82%. The new unit is a

  1. Counter rotating type hydroelectric unit suitable for tidal power station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemoto, T.; Suzuki, T.

    2010-08-01

    The counter rotating type hydroelectric unit, which is composed of the axial flow type tandem runners and the peculiar generator with double rotational armatures,was proposed to utilize effectively the tidal power. In the unit, the front and the rear runners counter drive the inner and the outer armatures of the generator, respectively. Besides, the flow direction at the rear runner outlet must coincide with the flow direction at the front runner inlet, because the angular momentum through the rear runner must coincides with that through the front runner. That is, the flow runs in the axial direction at the rear runner outlet while the axial inflow at the front runner inlet. Such operations are suitable for working at the seashore with rising and falling tidal flows, and the unit may be able to take place of the traditional bulb type turbines. The tandem runners were operated at the on-cam conditions, in keeping the induced frequency constant. The output and the hydraulic efficiency are affected by the adjustment of the front and the blade setting angles. The both optimum angles giving the maximum output and/or efficiency were presented at the various discharges/heads. To promote more the tidal power generation by this type unit, the runners were also modified so as to be suitable for both rising and falling flows. The hydraulic performances are acceptable while the output is determined mainly by the trailing edge profiles of the runner blades.

  2. The Manitoba Hydro-Electric Board 50. annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the financial statements for The Manitoba Hydro-Electric Board (Manitoba Hydro) for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2001. Manitoba Hydro was proud to report no electricity rate increase for the period 2000-2001, a feat realized for the fifth consecutive year for most customer groups. Financial and production highlights were first presented, followed by the vision mission and goals of Manitoba Hydro. Manitoba Hydro serves 403 000 customers in the province with electric energy, and 248 000 customers with natural gas service mainly in the south of the province. Electricity export sale agreements are in place with more than 35 utilities and marketers in the United States, Ontario and Saskatchewan. Self-renewing waterpower is used to generate the bulk of the electricity. The transmission and distribution lines stretch over 100 000 kilometres. Manitoba Hydro is the fourth largest energy utility in Canada based on capital assets. A review of the year was presented, as well as a brief historical overview of Manitoba Hydro. The financial review section discussed the management report, the Auditor's report. Included in this section were various statement sheets, namely the consolidated statement of income and retained earnings, consolidated balance sheet, consolidated statement of cash flows, followed by some notes to the consolidated financial statements. Consolidated financial statistics and operating statistics - 10-year overview were presented. A brief presentation of the Board members and senior officers ended this report. tabs. figs

  3. Vermont Marble Company, Proctor, Vermont: Otter Creek hydroelectric feasibility report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-02-01

    Vermont Marble Company (VMCO) owns and operates four hydroelectric projects in a 50-mile reach of Otter Creek in west central Vermont. This study concerns three of the installations - Center Rutland, Beldens, and Huntington Falls. The fourth site is known as Proctor and will be studied separately. All four plants operate as run-of-river stations, and the limited reservoir storage capacity places severe limitations on any other type of operation. The plants are presently operating at much lower outputs than can be obtained, because they do not use the available discharge and head. The results show that, under the assumptions made in this study, Beldens and Huntington Falls can be economically improved. The rehabilitation of the Center Rutland plant did not look economically attractive. However, the improvement of Center Rutland should not be eliminated from further consideration, because it could become economically attractive if the cost of energy starts escalating at a rate of around 10% per year. The study included a brief appraisal of the existing generating facilities and condition of existing concrete structures, a geological reconnaissance of the sites, analysis of the power potential, flood studies, technical and economic investigations and comparative evaluations of the alternatives for developing the streamflow for power generation, selection of the most suitable alternative, financial analysis, preparation of drawings, and preparation of detailed quantity and cost estimates.

  4. The La Grande hydroelectric development - James Bay, Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pare, J-J.; Levay, J.

    1997-10-01

    An historical overview of the James Bay Hydroelectric Power Development in northern Quebec was provided. The account touches upon the foundation of the Societe d`energie de la Baie James, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Hydro-Quebec. It describes the La Grande Complex, and provides a brief summary of the site investigation, the geological and geotechnical considerations, the rock excavation, the construction of embankments and dikes, and nature of the bedrock and overburden foundations. Some of the more interesting problems that arose during the construction such as the settling of the crest in the protective islands surrounding the instruments at some of the dam sites were outlined. Leakage under some of the La Grande 3 low head dikes near the end of the reservoir filling period and the degradation of some of the riprap protection of the Phase One embankments were also described. The solutions designed to overcome these problems were also part of the account of this major mega development project that promoted Quebec into the ranks of the major hydro energy producers in North America. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs., photos.

  5. Joint Venture Modes of Water Conservancy and Hydroelectric Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiding Chen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available With the long construction period, the giant scope and complex technology, water conservancy and hydroelectric engineering construction has large investment. In the fully competitive water conservancy and hydropower project construction contracting market, it is almost impossible for a company to contract with a water conservancy and hydropower project independently. Therefore, water conservancy and hydropower project construction can be contracted by several construction companies together, to play each company's strengths, lower offer, improve project quality, shorten the construction period and win the competition. In this paper, we started from the definition of Joint Venture, summed up the forms of Joint Venture in water conservancy and hydropower engineering, proposed that the JV modes can be divided into domestic and international union, tight mode, half-tight mode, loose mode, incorporation and consortium. Furthermore, we analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of Joint Venture. Put forward that the JV can relieve the owner from interfacial administrative work, reduce risk of engineering, and raise the success rate of engineering contract, improve the correctness of price and increase the opportunity of project contracting, Learn from other members, enhance technology and management and make full use of idle resources

  6. Environmental mitigation at hydroelectric projects. Volume 2, Benefits and costs of fish passage and protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.; Sommers, G.L. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cada, G.F.; Jones, D.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dauble, D.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Hunt, R.T. [Hunt (Richard) Associates, Inc., Concord, NH (United States); Costello, R.J. [Northwest Water Resources Advisory Services (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This study examines envirorunental mitigation practices that provide upstream and downstream fish passage and protection at hydroelectric projects. The study includes a survey of fish passage and protection mitigation practices at 1,825 hydroelectric plants regulated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to determine frequencies of occurrence, temporal trends, and regional practices based on FERC regions. The study also describes, in general terms, the fish passage/protection mitigation costs at 50 non-Federal hydroelectric projects. Sixteen case studies are used to examine in detail the benefits and costs of fish passage and protection. The 16 case studies include 15 FERC licensed or exempted hydroelectric projects and one Federally-owned and-operated hydroelectric project. The 16 hydroelectric projects are located in 12 states and range in capacity from 400 kilowatts to 840 megawatts. The fish passage and protection mitigation methods at the case studies include fish ladders and lifts, an Eicher screen, spill flows, airburst-cleaned inclined and cylindrical wedgewire screens, vertical barrier screens, and submerged traveling screens. The costs, benefits, monitoring methods, and operating characteristics of these and other mitigation methods used at the 16 case studies are examined.

  7. Influence of a Small Hydroelectric Power Station on the River Ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Valero

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To assess the effects of the Small Hydroelectric Power Station (SHP on the fluvial ecosystem, some environmental values are required to measure. This work provides acharacterization of the water quality status in a river stretch around a SHP plant on river Mandeo, (NW Spain, for three years after its construction. The ecological and chemicalstatus of the water and the ecological quality of the riparian habitat was analyzed and comparing with the water quality requirements. The results showed that there were notsignificant differences between sampling points (before and after of the plant, as well as a stabilization of the parameters within two years after the construction of the Station,achieving conditions ecologically compatible. We concluded that the construction of the SHP plant caused an adverse effect in the ecosystem, which was subsequently improved.Highly positive results from the point of view of their contribution as a source of renewable energy.Keywords: Biological index, physicochemical, SHP plant, riparian forest quality index

  8. Dams in the Amazon: Belo Monte and Brazil's hydroelectric development of the Xingu River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnside, Phillip M

    2006-07-01

    Hydroelectric dams represent major investments and major sources of environmental and social impacts. Powerful forces surround the decision-making process on public investments in the various options for the generation and conservation of electricity. Brazil's proposed Belo Monte Dam (formerly Kararaô) and its upstream counterpart, the Altamira Dam (better known by its former name of Babaquara) are at the center of controversies on the decision-making process for major infrastructure projects in Amazonia. The Belo Monte Dam by itself would have a small reservoir area (440 km2) and large installed capacity (11, 181.3 MW), but the Altamira/Babaquara Dam that would regulate the flow of the Xingu River (thereby increasing power generation at Belo Monte) would flood a vast area (6140 km2). The great impact of dams provides a powerful reason for Brazil to reassess its current policies that allocate large amounts of energy in the country's national grid to subsidized aluminum smelting for export. The case of Belo Monte and the five additional dams planned upstream (including the Altamira/Babaquara Dam) indicate the need for Brazil to reform its environmental assessment and licensing system to include the impacts of multiple interdependent projects. PMID:16738820

  9. Pingston hydroelectric project - stage 2 project report : volume 1 of 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office has reviewed an application by Canadian Hydro Developers (B.C.) Inc., to develop the Pingston Hydroelectric Project, a run-of-river facility, located 60 km south of Revelstoke, British Columbia. The review includes an evaluation of any social and environmental impacts, including the effects on migratory birds, small mammals, amphibians, fish, wildlife, water quality, noise and visual aspects, that would be associated with the project. One consideration in selecting the project site was its ease of access along existing roadways and close proximity to power lines, another, the absence of any potential effects on fish and fish habitat. The project is also expected to have a negligible effect on water quality- related matters such as sediment transport, nutrient trapping in the headpond, and movement of large organic debris through the system. The project will not impact on archaeological resources, offers a renewable supply of energy and represents an overall positive effect on air quality for British Columbia. BC Hydro has committed to providing electrical interconnection to the main grid. 9 refs., 5 tabs., 14 figs., 9 appendices

  10. National hydroelectric power resources study. Preliminary inventory of hydropower resources. Volume 1. Pacific Northwest region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-07-01

    The preliminary inventory and analysis procedures provide a comprehensive assessment of the undeveloped hydroelectric power potential in the US and determines which sites merit more thorough investigation. Over 5400 existing structures have been identified as having the physical potential to add hydropower plants or increase hydropower output thereby increasing our present hydropower capacity from a total of 64,000 MW to 158,000 MW and our energy from 280,000 GWH to 503,000 GWH. While the physical potential for this increase is clearly available, some of these projects will undoubtedly not satisfy more-detailed economic analysis as well as the institutional and environmental criteria which will be imposed upon them. Summary tables include estimates of the potential capacity and energy at each site in the inventory. In some cases, individual projects may be site alternatives to others in the same general location, when only one can be considered for hydropower development. The number of sites per state is identified, but specific information is included for only the sites in Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington in this first volume.

  11. River flow maintenance turbine for Milner Hydroelectric Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, J.L.; Holveck, W.H.; Gokhman, A. [and others

    1995-12-31

    The Milner Hydroelectric Project on the Snake River in Idaho was commissioned in 1992. The project included renovation of an existing dam, which was built to supply irrigation water to a canal system, construction of a new spillway, and the addition of a new powerhouse. The forebay of the main powerhouse is located on a combination power and irrigation canal, approximately 3500 feet (1070 m) from the dam, with a short tailrace returning the water to the river. There are two Kaplan turbines installed in the main powerhouse, rated at 1000 cfs and 4000 cfs respectively at a net head of 150 feet. The FERC license required that a target flow of 200 cfs be released from the dam to maintain a stream flow between the dam and the powerhouse. In order to utilize this flow, a small powerhouse was constructed at the toe of the dam. The site conditions favored a vertical axial flow turbine, with a net head of 56 feet. As the flow is constant and the head is fairly constant, a fixed geometry turbine was selected, to be controlled solely by the intake gate. Due to the higher head, the main powerhouse can generate more power per unit of flow than can the bypass turbine. Therefore, it is undesirable for the discharge of the bypass turbine to be any greater than required by the license. Also, the release flow is determined by a river gauge, the accuracy of which is unknown, but assumed to be within five percent. In order to meet these two requirements, the turbine was specified to have manually adjustable runner blades to obtain the required release flow of 200 cfs at any head between 55 and 58 feet.

  12. The Hydroelectric Business Unit of Ontario Power Generation Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The focus of this presentation was on the generation and sale of electricity. Prior to deregulation, companies that generated electricity had a readily available customer base to whom the electricity could be sold. The author discussed some of the changes affecting the industry as a result of deregulation of the electricity market in Ontario: the increasing number of companies, as well as the increased number of generators supplying power within the province. Currently 85 per cent of the generation in Ontario is met by Ontario Power Generation (OPG) and this percentage will decrease through de-control. De-control can be achieved in a variety of ways, either through the sale of assets, leases, asset swaps. The market rules dictate that OPG not control in excess of 35 per cent of the generation supply in Ontario, OPG is examining the situation. New supply being constructed or new interconnections with neighboring markets could affect the total assets that would have to be de-controlled. OPG has a mix of generation that includes hydroelectric, fossil, and nuclear, as well as a single wind turbine. Green power, defined as electricity generation deemed less intrusive environmentally than most traditional generation, includes wind, water, landfill gas, solar and others, and could affect the mix of generation. It is expected that there will be a niche market for green power, especially when one considers the reduction in emissions. It could represent a viable option for smaller startup companies, as less capital is required. The options for selling the power, either to the spot market or by entering into a bilateral contract with another customer, were explained

  13. Cut-off wall construction at the Peribonka hydroelectric project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouellette, C.; Morency, J.Y.; Bigras, A.; Hammamji, Y. [Hydro-Quebec Equipment, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Gagne, B. [SNC-Lavalin, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Rattue, A. [SNC-Lavalin, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Energy Division

    2007-07-01

    The Peribonka hydroelectric development, located in Quebec includes a 80 metre high dam and two dikes consisting of zoned earth and rock fills with a till core, an underground power house, a diversion tunnel and a spillway. The project is in its final stages of construction and presented several challenges related to the presence of a deep canyon under the river bed filled with alluvial sand, gravel, cobbles and boulders. The design included an approximately 10 metre high working platform in the river and the construction of a plastic concrete cut-off wall down to bedrock. The construction of a 116 metre deep single cut-off wall that is at the limit of precedent in terms of present knowledge and equipment capacity was the main challenge for the project. In addition, a 52 metre deep plastic concrete cut-off wall was built under a dyke. This conference discussed the cut-off wall construction experience, as well as the challenges encountered and how they were addressed. The paper presented a description of the site conditions and the scope of the work, as well as the typical specifications of the cut-offs. The paper also provided an overview of an extensive quality control program that was implemented for all phases of the project construction and results of the project. Last, the paper described the challenges, problems encountered and the modifications from the initial design and specifications. It was concluded that the topography at the Peribonka dam site showed a deep narrow gully filled with alluvial material comprising sand, gravel, cobbles and boulders. Elaborate quality control was essential to ensure that excavation and concreting were done to satisfactory standards. 4 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs.

  14. Swift Creek Hydroelectric Project rehabilitation, Swift Creek Power Company, Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to re-evaluate and update the original environmental analysis of the Swift Crook Hydroelectric Project rehabilitation. That analysis and the decision to allow the proponent toproceed with the project as described in the EA alternatives 3, 4, and 5 was completed an May 8, 1981. Since that decision, no action has been taken and no special-use permit has ever been issued. The Bridger-Trton National Forest completed a Forest Plan in March of 1990 which sets current direction for all lands within the Forest and new and significant issues pertaining to the amount of water to be bypassed have been raised by the public in response to this proposed project. The original proponent, Lower Valley Power and Light, sold the project and existing facilities to Swift Crack Power Company Inc. in 1984. Swift Crock Power Company has submitted a proposal to rehabilitate the existing power generation facility in Swift Creek Canyon, which will involve some significant construction and alteration of the river corridor. Theyhave also submitted an application for relicense to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission who has asked for the Forest Service to comment on the application and to submit recommended conditions for approval (4e requirements). The proposed rehabilitation of existing facilities includes replacement of the existing damaged penstock (pipe) with a new, larger one; dredging two existing reservoirs and removal, refurbishment, and reinstallation of the turbines and generators in the two powerhouses with relocation and reconstruction of the lower powerhouse that is located on privately owned land below the Forest boundary

  15. A system for environmental monitoring of hydroelectric reservoirs in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arley Souza

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental monitoring of aquatic systems is an important tool to support policy makers and environmental managers’ decisions. Long-term, continuous collection of environmental data is fundamental to the understanding of an aquatic system. This paper aims to present the integrated system for environmental monitoring (SIMA, a long-term temporal series system with a web-based archive for limnological and meteorological data. The following environmental parameters are measured by SIMA: chlorophyll-a ( , water surface temperature (ºC, water column temperature by a thermistor string (ºC, turbidity (NTU, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration (mg L-1, electric conductivity (µS cm-1, wind speed (ms-1 and direction (º, relative humidity (%, shortwave radiation (Wm-2 and barometric pressure (hPa. The data were collected in a preprogrammed time interval (1 hour and were transmitted by satellite in quasi-real time for any user within 2500 km of the acquisition point. So far, 11 hydroelectric reservoirs are being monitored with the SIMA buoy. Basic statistics (mean and standard deviation and an example of the temporal series of some parameters were displayed at a database with web access. However, sensor and satellite problems occurred due to the high data acquisition frequency. Sensors problems occurred due to the environmental characteristics of each aquatic system. Water quality sensors rapidly degrade in acidic waters, rendering the collected data invalid. Data is also rendered invalid when sensors become infested with periphyton. Problems occur with the satellites’ reception of system data when satellites pass over the buoy antenna. However, the data transfer at some inland locations was not completed due to the satellite constellation position. Nevertheless, the integrated system of water quality and meteorological parameters is an important tool in understanding the aquatic system dynamic. It can also be used to create hydrodynamics models of

  16. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric projects in Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are discussed. The discussion is designed to aid the developer in the determination of which permits, licenses, and laws of the state must be secured or complied with for the development of a project. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The introductory section examines the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and concludes with an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. Specific sections that follow are: Massachusetts Water Law; Licensing, Permitting, and Review Procedures; Indirect Considerations (by departments); Department of Public Utilities Regulation of Privately Owned Electric Utilities; Massachusetts Municipal Wholesale Electric Company; Miscellaneous Legal Issues Relating to Low-Head Hydroelectric Power; and Financial Considerations.

  17. Optimal operation of cascaded hydroelectric power plants in the power market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡兴国; 马平; 林士颖

    2004-01-01

    An improved network flow algorithm, which includes the minimum cost network flow and the same period network flow, is proposed to solve the optimization of cascaded hydroelectric power plants in a competitive electricity market. The typical network flow is used to find the feasible flow and add the discharge water to different cascaded hydroelectric power plants at the same step. The same period network flow is used to find the optimal flow and add the power output at a different step. This new algorithm retains the advantages of the typical network flow, such as simplicity and ease of realization. The result of the case analysis indicates that the new algorithm can achieve high calculation precision and can be used to calculate the optimal operation of cascaded hydroelectric power plants.

  18. Interrelations of the Caroni River Basin ecosystems and hydroelectric power projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, L.C.; Gorzula, S.

    The Caroni is the river with the greatest hydroelectric potential in Venezuela. Large scale hydroelectric projects produce environmental impacts upstream from the dam, due to the formation of an artificial lake, and downstream from the dam, by regulating the river's flow rate. The useful life of a dam for the production of hydroelectricity depends on the rate at which it fills up with sediments, and it's efficiency depends on the maintenance of the hydrological and limnological conditions upon which it was designed. These parameters must be monitored for the duration of the project, and any changes in them must be evaluated. Both environmental impact evaluation and river basin management require basic data about the ecosystems that make up the river basin. However, both the type and detail of the required research to produce base line data must be defined carefully.

  19. Modeling and Simulation Research on Lightning Over-voltage of 500kV Hydroelectric Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Wang-jun

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Lightning over-voltage amplitude of equipments on different branch nodes of the arterials has been obtained after the modeling and simulation analysis based on the EMTP (electromagnetic transients program were done on the lightning over-voltage of a 500kV hydroelectric station was with the system’s worst working condition (single-line, single-transforming, and the line tower on the near side of 500kv hydroelectric station’s GIS was struck by lightning. Thus, precise data have been acquired to select suitable equipments and verify the resisting lightning performance of the station. Finally, reasonable measures (such as reducing pulse resistance of line tower are proposed to improve the comprehensive lightning resisting level of hydroelectric stations.

  20. The little hydro-electricity: the boosting?; Petit hydraulique: la relance?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunier, S. [Helianthe, Espace Information Energie de l' Ain (France); Najac, C. [Groupement de Producteurs d' Energie Hydroelectrique, 75 - Paris (France); Roussel, A.M. [Electricite Autonome Francaise (EAF), 92 - Le Plessis Robinson (France); Claustre, R [Comite de Liaison Energies Renouvelables (CLER), 93 - Montreuil (France); Baril, D. [Delegue Regional du Conseil Superieur de la Peche, Languedoc Roussillon, PACA, Corse (France); Marty, D.; Lefevre, P. [Hydro-M, 31 - Toulouse (France); Arnould, M. [WWF - Programme Rivieres vivantes, 42 - Saint-Etienne (France)

    2007-05-15

    The hydraulic energy could be easily developed in France to reach the objectives of the european directive on the renewable energies. This development can be assured by the construction of power plants perfectly integrated in their environment and respecting the rivers and assured also by the increase of the capacities of existing power plants as it is allowing by the new regulations. This document presents the place and the capacity of the hydro-electricity in France, the implementing of a green electricity, the existing regulation, the river biological continuation, the ecosystems and the little hydro-electricity and the example of the hydro-electric power plant of Scey-sur-Saone. (A.L.B.)

  1. The determinants of cost efficiency of hydroelectric generating plants: A random frontier approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Carlos P. [Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestao, Technical University of Lisbon, Rua Miguel Lupi, 20, 1249-078 Lisbon (Portugal); Peypoch, Nicolas [GEREM, IAE, University of Perpignan Via Domitia, 52 avenue Paul Alduy, F-66860 Cedex Perpignan cedex (France)

    2007-09-15

    This paper analyses the technical efficiency in the hydroelectric generating plants of a main Portuguese electricity enterprise EDP (Electricity of Portugal) between 1994 and 2004, investigating the role played by increase in competition and regulation. A random cost frontier method is adopted. A translog frontier model is used and the maximum likelihood estimation technique is employed to estimate the empirical model. We estimate the efficiency scores and decompose the exogenous variables into homogeneous and heterogeneous. It is concluded that production and capacity are heterogeneous, signifying that the hydroelectric generating plants are very distinct and therefore any energy policy should take into account this heterogeneity. It is also concluded that competition, rather than regulation, plays the key role in increasing hydroelectric plant efficiency. (author)

  2. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are discussed. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area, and the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC is examined. In Pennsylvania, there are 3 methods by which rights in water may be acquired: riparian ownership, prescription, and condemnation. These are discussed.

  3. Least cost addition of power from hydroelectrical developments: Maximizing existing assets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, Lafontant; Briand, Marie-Helene; Veilleux, Rheaume

    2010-09-15

    Hydroelectric developments built in the early 1900's are nearing their useful lifespan and require significant rehabilitation in order to meet modern safety and performance criteria. Also, global increasing energy costs represent a strong incentive for operators to find low-cost, environment-friendly solutions while increasing energy generation at existing facilities. Projects promoting innovative ways of recycling existing developments are great examples of sustainable development and represent win-win solutions for population and hydropower industry alike. The proposed presentation describes successful projects consisting in the rehabilitation or addition of power to existing hydroelectric. These recycling projects are very attractive from both economic and environmental.

  4. 世界水电开发展望%Perspective of hydroelectric development in the world

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭大本

    2001-01-01

    从资源利用和环境保护角度,论述了世界水电开发的现状和优势,就大力开发以水电为主的清洁能源提出了建议。%This article discussed the status and superiority of hydroelectric development in the world from resource development and environmental protection perspective.A few suggestions were made on developing the clean energies among which hydroelectric energy plays the major role.

  5. 76 FR 6612 - Lock Hydro Friends Fund XLIII; FFP Missouri 14, LLC; Solia 4 Hydroelectric, LLC; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock Hydro Friends Fund XLIII; FFP Missouri 14, LLC; Solia 4 Hydroelectric... Hydroelectric, LLC--Project No. 13767-000 2. FFP Missouri 14, LLC--Project No. 13758-000 3. Lock Hydro...

  6. 75 FR 62531 - Alabama Power Company; Project No. 349-150-Alabama Martin Dam Hydroelectric Project; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Alabama Power Company; Project No. 349-150--Alabama Martin Dam Hydroelectric... of Historic Places at the Martin Dam Hydroelectric Project. The Programmatic Agreement, when executed.... Dr. James Kardatzke Bureau of Indian Affairs Eastern Regional Office 545 Marriott Drive, Suite...

  7. 77 FR 12280 - FFP Missouri 17, LLC BOST2 Hydroelectric, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing Priority for Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Missouri 17, LLC BOST2 Hydroelectric, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing... priority is as follows: 1. BOST2 Hydroelectric, LLC, Project No. 13826-000. 2. FFP Missouri 17,...

  8. 77 FR 10740 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XVIII, Upper Hydroelectric, LLC, FFP Project 95, LLC, Riverbank Hydro No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XVIII, Upper Hydroelectric, LLC, FFP Project 95... Friends Fund XVIII for Project No. 14261-000, Upper Hydroelectric, LLC for Project No. 14268-000,...

  9. Potential hydroelectric power. Vertical turbine: spillway combine Broadwater Dam. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willer, D.C.

    1979-04-23

    A feasibility study was made of the hydroelectric power potential at Broadwater Dam in western Montana. Two alternative configurations for the potential project were evaluated and the economics of four possible sources of project funding were assessed. The configurations analyzed were an apron-mounted configuration, in which the turbine-generator units are located on the downstream apron of the existing dam, and a conventional configuration, in which the units are located in a new powerhouse adjacent to the existing dam. The funding sources considered were the Department of Energy loan program, the United States Bureau of Reclamation PL-984 loan program and conventional revenue bonds, both taxable and tax-exempt. The optimal project alternative was determined to be the apron-mounted configuration. The final choice of funding would be dependent on the power purchaser. It was shown that, regardless of the configuraton or funding source selected, the project would be feasible. The cost of the apron-mounted configuration, which would consist of four turbine-generator units for a total installed capacity of 9.76 MW, was estimated as $13,250,000 with financing provided by either a PL-984 loan or tax-exempt bonds. The cost per installed kilowatt was therefore $1,350, and the cost per kilowatt-hour was 19.6 mills. The average annual energy was estimated to be 56.44 million kWh, the equivalent of approximately 87,000 barrels of oil per y. It is therefore recommended that the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation proceed with the project and that discussions be initiated with potential power purchasers as soon as possible.

  10. Mercury methylation rates of biofilm and plankton microorganisms from a hydroelectric reservoir in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, L; Castelle, S; Schäfer, J; Blanc, G; Maury-Brachet, R; Reynouard, C; Jorand, F

    2010-02-15

    The Petit-Saut ecosystem is a hydroelectric reservoir covering 365km(2) of flooded tropical forest. This reservoir and the Sinnamary Estuary downstream of the dam are subject to significant mercury methylation. The mercury methylation potential of plankton and biofilm microorganisms/components from different depths in the anoxic reservoir water column and from two different sites along the estuary was assessed. For this, reservoir water and samples of epiphytic biofilms from the trunk of a submerged tree in the anoxic water column and from submerged branches in the estuary were batch-incubated from 1h to 3 months with a nominal 1000ng/L spike of Hg(II) chloride enriched in (199)Hg. Methylation rates were determined for different reservoir and estuarine communities under natural nutrient (reservoir water, estuary freshwater) and artificial nutrient (culture medium) conditions. Methylation rates in reservoir water incubations were the highest with plankton microorganisms sampled at -9.5m depth (0.5%/d) without addition of biofilm components. Mercury methylation rates of incubated biofilm components were strongly enhanced by nutrient addition. The results suggested that plankton microorganisms strongly contribute to the total Hg methylation in the Petit-Saut reservoir and in the Sinnamary Estuary. Moreover, specific methylation efficiencies (%Me(199)Hg(net)/cell) suggested that plankton microorganisms could be more efficient methylating actors than biofilm consortia and that their methylation efficiency may be reduced in the presence of biofilm components. Extrapolation to the reservoir scale of the experimentally determined preliminary methylation efficiencies suggested that plankton microorganisms in the anoxic water column could produce up to 27mol MeHg/year. Taking into account that (i) demethylation probably occurs in the reservoir and (ii) that the presence of biofilm components may limit the methylation efficiency of plankton microorganisms, this result is

  11. Hydroelectric construction project on the Sheldrake River at Riviere-au-Tonnerre : public inquiry report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Societe d'Energie Riviere Sheldrake Inc. has proposed the construction of a hydroelectric facility on the Sheldrake River at Riviere-au-Tonnerre in the regional municipality of Minganie in Quebec. The project involves the construction of a headrace canal, intake, tunnel, powerhouse, access roads, electrical transmission line, spillway, weir and a bridge over the Sheldrake River. The proposed development was subject to an environmental evaluation process and public consultation. Quebec's environmental public hearing board held a public hearing on the draft development of the project to hear the concerns and views of the public and stakeholders. The hearing focused on a number issues, such as reasons for the project, its location and socio-economic impacts. The cumulative environmental effects of the project were also examined. The primary concerns were the economic repercussions of the project and its effect on tourism and fish, including salmon. The Board determined that the project would create jobs in a region affected by unemployment and the decay of its municipalities and that it would stimulate the local and regional economy. However, the Board determined that changes to the project are required to minimize impacts on the natural environment. The project proponent must monitor instream flows to ensure that fish passage facilities meet regulations. In addition, since the proposed project crosses 3 bogs, the developer must compensate for lost wetlands. A 10-year follow-up is required to assess the recovery of these environments. The developer must also maintain the aesthetic quality of the Courbe du Sault Falls in order to maintain the eco-tourism in the region. refs., figs.

  12. 77 FR 47058 - Middle Fork American River Hydroelectric Project Placer County Water Agency; Notice of Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Middle Fork American River Hydroelectric Project Placer County Water Agency... comments on the draft environmental impact statement for the Middle Fork American River Project No....

  13. Hydroelectric power plant Irape - viability studies; Usina hidroeletrica Irape - estudos de viabilidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serran, F.P.; Assumpcao, M.G.

    1994-06-01

    The socio-environmental analysis of the feasibility studies from Irape Hydroelectric Power Plant in Minas Gerais State-Brazil was described including three main questions: the regional insertion mentioning the social conflicts, the social communication program and the basic strategic; the reduction of water volume downstream; the development of programs on the Basic Project Stage.

  14. 78 FR 45918 - Application for Presidential Permit; Soule River Hydroelectric Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... transmission line across the United States border with Canada. DATES: Comments, protests, or motions to... alternating current (HVAC) hydroelectric transmission line that is to originate on the Soule River, on... Katherine.Konieczny@hq.doe.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The construction, operation, maintenance,...

  15. The Victoria Project, Sri Lanka: Victoria Power-Station. [Hydroelectric power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creber, B. (Sir Alexander Gibb and Partners (GB))

    1991-04-01

    The Victoria Hydroelectric Power-Station forms part of the Victoria Project on the Mahaweli Ganga in Sri Lanka and it provides the country's largest single power source. The Paper describes the planning, design and construction of the civil engineering works, including problems encountered, and also describes, in outline, the electrical and mechanical works. (Author).

  16. Determining generator parameters of Camargos hydroelectric power plant through frequency response measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Sebastiao E.M. de; Padua Guarini, Antonio de [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Joao A. de; Valgas, Helio M.; Pinto, Roberto del Giudice R. [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This work describes the results of the set frequency response tests performed in the generator number 2, 6.9 kV, 25 MVA, of Camargos hydroelectric power plant, CEMIG, and the parameters relatives to determined structures of model. This tests are unpublished in Brazil. (author) 7 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. 75 FR 19989 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for Drought Management Planning at the Kerr Hydroelectric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Final Environmental Impact Statement for Drought Management Planning at the Kerr... Management Planning at the Kerr Hydroelectric Project, Flathead Lake, Montana, is now available for public review and comment. DATES: The BIA will issue a final decision on drought management planning at the...

  18. Introduction to construction and operation of smallest-size hydro-electric power-stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Switzerland there exists a substantial potential for small hydroelectric power plants. The report deals with technology, environmental compatibility, and efficiency of such installations, gives examples of existing plants, and gives advice on the promotion and financing as well as the advancement of their planning. figs., tabs

  19. 77 FR 9231 - FFP Missouri 17, LLC; BOST2 Hydroelectric, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit Drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Missouri 17, LLC; BOST2 Hydroelectric, LLC; Notice Announcing... Parish, Louisiana. The applications were filed by FFP Missouri 17, LLC for Project No. 13824- 000...

  20. 75 FR 77862 - FFP Missouri 16, LLC, Solia 9 Hydroelectric, LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Missouri 16, LLC, Solia 9 Hydroelectric, LLC; Notice of Competing... Competing Applications December 7, 2010. On August 6, 2010, FFP Missouri 16, LLC (FFP) and Solia 9... owners' express permission. FFP's Mississippi Lock and Dam 15 Project (Project No. 13825-000)...

  1. 76 FR 15971 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy... Eagle Crest Energy as part of its on-going Section 7 Endangered Species Act consultation efforts. e....

  2. 76 FR 22699 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy... Eagle Crest Energy as part of its on-going Section 7 Endangered Species Act consultation efforts. e....

  3. Status Review of Wildlife Mitigation, Columbia Basin Hydroelectric Projects, Columbia River Mainstem Facilities, 1984 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howerton, Jack; Hwang, Diana

    1984-11-01

    This report reviews the status of past, present, and proposed future wildlife planning and mitigation programs at existing hydroelectric projects in the Columbia River Basin. The project evaluations will form the basis for determining any needed remedial measures or additional project analysis. Each hydropower facility report is abstracted separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  4. Carbon emission as a function of energy generation in hydroelectric reservoirs in Brazilian dry tropical biome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most energy generation globally is fueled by coal and oil, raising concerns about greenhouse gas emissions. Hydroelectric reservoirs are anthropogenic aquatic systems that occur across a wide geographical extent, and, in addition to their importance for energy production, they have the potential to release two important greenhouse gases (GHGs), carbon dioxide and methane. We report results from an extensive study of eight hydroelectric reservoirs located in central and southeastern tropical Brazil. In the Brazilian dry tropical biome reservoirs, emissions (in tons of CO2 Eq. per MW h) varied from 0.01 to 0.55, and decreased with reservoir age. Total emissions were higher in the reservoir lake when compared to the river downstream the dam; however, emissions per unit area, in the first kilometer of the river after the dam, were higher than that in the reservoir. The results showed, despite higher carbon emissions per energy production in the youngest reservoirs, lower emission from hydroelectric reservoirs from the studied region in relation to thermo electrical supply, fueled by coal or fossil fuel. The ratio emission of GHG per MWh produced is an important parameter in evaluating the service provided by hydroelectric reservoir and for energy planning policies. - Highlights: ► Hydroelectric reservoirs construction is growing worldwide. ► The effect of hydropower reservoir in the carbon cycle is dependent on environment characteristics. ► Carbon emissions per energy production are higher in the youngest tropical savannah reservoirs. ► Methane emissions decrease with reservoir age in tropical savannah reservoirs. ► In general, the effect of hydropower in the carbon cycle is lower than other energy sources

  5. Systematic Review on Child Chiqiao Qingre Granules for Treating URI%小儿豉翘清热颗粒治疗小儿上呼吸道感染的系统评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈路佳; 唐榕; 刘立立; 胡正波

    2013-01-01

    Objective To systematically evaluate the effect and safety of Child Chiqiao Qingre Granules for treating child upper respiratory infection (URI).Methods The randomized controlled trials (RCT) of Child Chiqiao Qingre Granules for treating URI were retrieved from the Cochrane Library (Issue 2,2012),EMbase,PubMed,CBM,CNKI and VIP(from establish to July 2012).Two reviewers independently retrieved RCTs according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria,and assessed the methodological quality of included trials for extracting the data.The obtained data were analyzed by the RevMan 5.14 software.Results Twelve RCTs involving 1 609 patients were ultimately identified.The meta-analysis results showed that the effective rate of Child Chiqiao Qingre Granules was superior to that of ribavirin [RR =1.19,95% CI(1.15,1.23),P < 0.01];the defervescence duration of Child Chiqiao Qingre Granules was shorter than that of ribavirin [MD=-18.47,95% CI (-24.00,-12.94),P < 0.01];the symptom remission of Child Chiqiao Qingre Granules was superior to that of ribavirin (P < 0.01);the immune indexes of Child Chiqiao Qingre Granules were superior to those of ribavirin 1 (P < 0.01),the differences showing statistical significance.The incidence rate of adverse reactions in Child Chiqiao Qingre Granules was lower than that in ribavirin[OR =0.32,95% CI (0.02,5.22),P=0.42] without statistical difference between them.Conclusion The meta-analysis results indicate that Child Chiqiao Qingre Granules for treating children URI is effective with good safety.Howerver,due to the quality disunity of included studies,this conclusion need more large sample size,high-quality RCTs to confirm.%目的 系统评价小儿豉翘清热颗粒治疗小儿上呼吸道感染的疗效及安全性.方法 计算机检索Cochrane图书馆(2012年第2期)、EMBase、PubMed、中国期刊全文数据库(CNKI)、中国生物医学文献数据库(CBM)、中文科技期刊全文数据库(VIP)(各数据库检

  6. Evaluation of melioration area damage on the river Danube caused by the hydroelectric power plant 'Djerdap 1' backwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajic, P; Andjelic, L; Urosevic, U; Polomcic, D

    2014-01-01

    Construction of the hydroelectric power plant (HPP) 'Djerdap 1' formed a backwater effect on the Danube and its tributaries, which had an inevitable influence on groundwater level, causing it to rise and thus creating additional threats to all melioration areas on more than 300 km of the Danube riversides, as well as on the riversides of its tributaries: the Sava (100 km) and the Tisa (60 km). In this paper, the HPP 'Djerdap 1' backwater effect on some characteristic melioration areas (34 in all) has been analyzed. In most of these areas intensive agricultural activity has always been present. An assessment of agricultural production damage was carried out by complex hydrodynamic calculations (60 calculation profiles) for different backwater regimes, with the aim to precisely quantify the HPP 'Djerdap 1' backwater effect on groundwater piezometric levels. Combining them with complex agroeconomic analyses, the aim is to quantify agricultural production damage and to consider the perspective of melioration area users. This method, which combines two different, but compatible, aspects of the melioration area threat assessment (hydrodynamic and agroeconomic), may present a quality base for further agricultural production threat assessment on all melioration areas on the Danube riversides, with the final aim to consider the economic effects and the importance of its further protection. PMID:25051487

  7. Antimutagenic; differentiation-inducing; and antioxidative effects of fragrant ingredients in Katsura-uri (Japanese pickling melon; Cucumis melo var. conomon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yasushi; Watanabe, Shinpei; Kageyama, Minami; Shirota, Keiko; Shirota, Koji; Amano, Hisashi; Kashimoto, Tadahiro; Matsuo, Tomoaki; Okamoto, Shigehisa; Park, Eun Young; Sato, Kenji

    2010-12-21

    Six fragrant ingredients were identified in fully-ripened Katsura-uri (Japanese pickling melon; Cucumis melo var. conomon). Four of them were sulfur-containing compounds [methylthioacetic acid ethyl ester (MTAE), acetic acid 2-methylthio ethyl ester (AMTE), 3-methylthiopropionic acid ethyl ester (MTPE), and acetic acid 3-methylthio propyl ester (AMTP)]; and the others were benzyl acetate and eugenol. The newly identified MTAE and AMTP possessed antimutagenic activity as determined by their ability to inhibit the UV-induced mutation in repair-proficient E. coli B/r WP2. MTAE and MTPE (esters with thiocarbonic acid and alkyl alcohol) induced the differentiation of human colon cancer cells (RCM-1 cells), but AMTE and AMTP (esters with carbonic acid and thioalkyl alcohol) did not. A specific thioester motif containing a thiocarbonic acid and alkyl alcohol correlated with these compounds ability to induce differentiation. AMTE, MTPE, AMTP, and eugenol had higher oxygen radical absorbing capacity than the antioxidative vitamin, ascorbic acid. The quantity of MTPE, AMTP and eugenol increased 49-fold, >1175-fold and 11-fold, respectively, in the fully-ripened fruit as compared to the mid-ripened fruit. PMID:20801232

  8. Modelo bioecológico de Urie Bronfenbrenner e inserção ecológica: uma metodologia para investigar famílias rurais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Graciela Vestena Zillmer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tiene como objetivo relatar la experiencia en la utilización de la metodología de Inserción Ecológica y el Modelo Bioecológico del Desarrollo Humano de Urie Bronfenbrenner y su aplicación en la investigación con familias que habitan el medio rural y experimentan el cáncer. La inserción ecológica involucró el monitoreo de tres familias del área rural que tenían uno de sus miembros en tratamiento de quimioterapia en el Servicio Oncológico del Hospital Escuela de la Universidad Federal de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. La utilización del Modelo y de la Inserción posibilitó la comprensión de los procesos que involucran la familia rural en el acto de cuidar personas con cáncer. Entendemos que la enfermería, por ser una profesión comprometida con el cuidado que va más allá de lo biológico, cuando analiza los fenómenos a través de los cuatro núcleos del modelo (persona, proceso, contexto y tiempo impulsará acciones de cuidado centradas en la singularidad de cada familia.

  9. La educación ambiental en la básica primaria : perspectivas desde la Teoría Ecológica de Urie Bronfenbrenner = The environmental education in the elementary school : perspectives from the Ecology Theory of Urie Bronfenbrenner

    OpenAIRE

    Cano Sterling, Laura Catalina

    2012-01-01

    Este trabajo investigativo presenta los procesos que se vienen realizando en educación ambiental y la manera como estos están influyendo en el desarrollo integral de los niños, en dos entornos, uno urbano con un grupo de 2º y uno rural con niños de 3º, haciendo un análisis riguroso bajo la perspectiva de la Teoría Ecológica de Urie Bronfenbrenner, desde aquí se establecen las características de la educación ambiental en cada uno de los sistemas seriados de la teoría ecológica, partiendo d...

  10. A Wildlife Habitat Protection, Mitigation and Enhancement Plan for Eight Federal Hydroelectric Facilities in the Willamette River Basin: Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, S.K.

    1987-05-01

    The development and operation of eight federal hydroelectric projects in the Willamette River Basin impacted 30,776 acres of prime wildlife habitat. This study proposes mitigative measures for the losses to wildlife and wildlife habitat resulting from these projects, under the direction of the Columbia River Basin (CRB) Fish and Wildlife Program. The CRB Fish and Wildlife Program was adopted in 1982 by the Northwest Power Planning Council, pursuant to the Northwest Power Planning Act of 1980. The proposed mitigation plan is based on the findings of loss assessments completed in 1985, that used a modified Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) to assess the extent of impact to wildlife and wildlife habitat, with 24 evaluation species. The vegetative structure of the impacted habitat was broken down into three components: big game winter range, riparian habitat and old-growth forest. The mitigation plan proposes implementation of the following, over a period of 20 years: (1) purchase of cut-over timber lands to mitigate, in the long-term, for big game winter range, and portions of the riparian habitat and old-growth forest (approx. 20,000 acres); (2) purchase approximately 4,400 acres of riparian habitat along the Willamette River Greenway; and (3) three options to mitigate for the outstanding old-growth forest losses. Monitoring would be required in the early stages of the 100-year plan. The timber lands would be actively managed for elk and timber revenue could provide O and M costs over the long-term.

  11. 76 FR 22128 - Notice of Intent To Accept Proposals, Select One Lessee, and Contract for Hydroelectric Power...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... cost should include all investment costs such as the cost of studies to determine feasibility, NEPA... the investment; also, the annual operation, maintenance, and replacement expense for the hydropower... hydroelectric power development. The Department will prioritize projects that appropriately balance...

  12. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric potential in Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are discussed. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory in the area, and the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC is examined. The initial obstacle that all developers confront in Wisconsin is obtaining the authority to utilize the bed, banks, and flowing water at a proposed dam site. This involves a determination of ownership of the stream banks and bed and the manner of obtaining either their title or use; and existing constraints with regard to the use of the water. Wisconsin follows the riparian theory of water law.

  13. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy in Indiana are examined. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. An examination is made of the Federal-state relationships with the aim of creating a more orderly understanding of the vagaries of the system. The introductory chapter examines the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and concludes with an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. The Indiana water law; direct and indirect regulations; the Public Service Commission of Indiana; and financial considerations are examined.

  14. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small-scale hydroelectric power in Rhode Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are discussed. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area, and the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC is examined. In Rhode Island, any private rights in the flowing waters of a river or stream depend upon ownership of the abutting land. It appears Rhode Island follows the reasonable use theory of riparian law. The Department of Environmental Management is the most significant administrative agency with regard to dam construction, alteration, and operation in the state of Rhode Island.

  15. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Connecticut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric power in Connecticut are discussed. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area and this dual system is examined from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. Connecticut follows the riparian theory of water law. Under this theory of the water law, private rights in rivers and streams are confined to the use of flowing water. A riparian proprietor does not own the water that flows by his estate. Licensing, permitting, and review procedures are discussed followed by discussion on public utilities regulation and indirect considerations.

  16. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric potential in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The introductory section examines the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of the hydroelectric development, and concludes with an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. The first obstacle which every developer in Illinois must confront is obtaining authority to utilize the river bed, banks, and flowing water at the proposed site. This involves determination of ownership of the stream banks and bed and the manner of obtaining either their title or use; and existing constraints with regard to the use of the water. Illinois follows the riparian theory of water law. Following the detailed discussion of the water law, direct and indirect regulations and financial considerations are discussed.

  17. A borrow pit converted into a wetland : a hydroelectric project case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapointe, S.; Vadeboncoeur, C.; Grimard, M. [Hydro-Quebec Equipment, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    As part of an environmental impact study that was carried out on the Peribonka hydroelectricity project, an innovative compensation measure was developed for Hydro-Quebec to meet its commitment to mitigating the impact of the project on sensitive components of the environment. A wetland complex was created in a borrow pit that had been used for the extraction of materials needed for building the Peribonka hydroelectric dam. A wetland encompassing nearly 40 hectares was established within a boreal forest. The wetland project was initiated in 2005 and completed in the fall of 2008. The excavated areas were reshaped to create sections of marshland and shallow water. To make the wetland hospitable to waterfowl and a number of other animal species, a plant revitalization program was also established.

  18. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level is described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The introductory section examines the regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and concludes with an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. A developer must obtain title or interest to a streambed from the proper riparian owners. Ohio provides assistance to an electric company in this undertaking by providing it with the power of eminent domain in the event it is unable to reach a purchase agreement with the riparian proprietors. The Ohio Water Law is discussed in detail, followed by discussions: Licensing, Permitting, and Review Procedures; Indirect Considerations; Ohio Public Utilities Commission; Ohio Department of Energy; Incidental Provision; and Financial Considerations.

  19. Does the creation of a boreal hydroelectric reservoir result in a net change in evaporation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, Ian B.; Tremblay, Alain; Pelletier, Luc; Tardif, Simon; Turpin, Christian; Nugent, Kelly A.

    2016-09-01

    Estimates of water consumption from hydroelectricity production are hampered by a lack of common methodological approaches. Studies typically use gross evaporation estimates which do not take into account the evaporative water loss from the pre-flooded ecosystems that would occur without the presence of a reservoir. We evaluate the net change in evaporation following the creation of a hydroelectric reservoir located in the Canadian boreal region. We use a direct measurement technique (eddy covariance) over four different ecosystems to evaluate the pre- and post-flood landscape water flux over a five-year period. The net effect of reservoir creation was to increase evaporation over that of the pre-flooded ecosystem. This change was dependent both on management and differences in the timing of the evaporation with nighttime and autumn contributing strongly to the reservoir evaporation. Managed reduction of water level, and thus the evaporating area, reduced the evaporation.

  20. Installation of a Low Flow Unit at the Abiquiu Hydroelectric Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Q. Richardson

    2012-06-28

    Final Technical Report for the Recovery Act Project for the Installation of a Low Flow Unit at the Abiquiu Hydroelectric Facility. The Abiquiu hydroelectric facility existed with two each 6.9 MW vertical flow Francis turbine-generators. This project installed a new 3.1 MW horizontal flow low flow turbine-generator. The total plant flow range to capture energy and generate power increased from between 250 and 1,300 cfs to between 75 and 1,550 cfs. Fifty full time equivalent (FTE) construction jobs were created for this project - 50% (or 25 FTE) were credited to ARRA funding due to the ARRA 50% project cost match. The Abiquiu facility has increased capacity, increased efficiency and provides for an improved aquatic environment owing to installed dissolved oxygen capabilities during traditional low flow periods in the Rio Chama. A new powerhouse addition was constructed to house the new turbine-generator equipment.

  1. Synanthropy of mosquitoes and sand flies near the Aimorés hydroelectric power plant, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, R A; Ursine, R L; Nunes, F P; Morais, D H; Araújo, H S

    2012-12-01

    The environmental changes resulting from the construction of hydroelectric dams may affect the fauna of insect vectors and consequently the epidemiology of the diseases they transmit. This work examined the mosquito and sand fly fauna in the area of the Aimorés hydroelectric power plant, analyzing the seasonal distribution and the degree of species synanthropy in different ecotopes. Between November, 2008 and September, 2009, entomological captures were performed with the help of HP light traps in the rural, urban, and forest areas of Aimorés, Ituêta, Resplendor, and Baixo Guandu counties. The fauna proved to be quite diversified. Twenty-two species of mosquitoes and 11 species of sand flies were found. Culex quinquefasciatus was predominant among mosquitoes (76.7%), while Lutzomyia intermedia prevailed among sand flies (34.5%). Some of the captured species have medical interest. Supported by the high degree of synanthropy, those species reinforce the need for epidemiological surveillance.

  2. Small-scale hydroelectric power in the Pacific Northwest: new impetus for an old energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    Energy supply is one of the most important issues facing Northwestern legislators today. To meet the challenge, state legislatures must address the development of alternative energy sources. The Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Policy Project of the National Conference of State Legislators (NCSL) was designed to assist state legislators in looking at the benefits of one alternative, small-scale hydro. Because of the need for state legislative support in the development of small-scale hydroelectric, NCSL, as part of its contract with the Department of Energy, conducted the following conference on small-scale hydro in the Pacific Northwest. The conference was designed to identify state obstacles to development and to explore options for change available to policymakers. A summary of the conference proceedings is presented.

  3. Hydroelectricity and ecological considerations. Falsification of the environmental reality by the opponents of hydropower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Giziński

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Opponents of hydroelectricity claim falsely that hydrotechnical development of the Lower Vistula River constitutes implementation of Edward Gierek’s concept of bringing only environmental damage1. Statements on the negative environmental impact of constructing small hydroelectric power stations (SHPS are equally groundless. Permanent protests against the construction of dams and river damming, regardless of the motivations and will of protesters, increase energy dependence on Russia, and preserves the poor, post-Bierut hydrological situation2. The main fallacy made by hydropower opponents is the alternative treatment of power and environmental purposes. Environmental errors consist in continuous omission of even the most obvious positive ecological effects of constructing river dams and – what is especially reprehensible – inventing non-existent threats, e.g. lethal concentration of toxic heavy metals in deposits of the Włocławek Reservoir or the detrimental impact of warming up water in stage of falls on the fish population below the dam.

  4. Efficiency analysis of hydroelectric generating plants: A case study for Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Carlos Pestana [Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestao, Technical University of Lisbon, Rua Miguel Lupi, 20, 1249-078 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2008-01-15

    This paper estimates changes in total productivity, breaking this down into technically efficient change and technological change, by means of data envelopment analysis (DEA) applied to the hydroelectric energy generating plants of EDP - the Portugal Electricity Company. The aim of this procedure is to seek out those best practices that will lead to improved performance in the energy market. We rank the plants according to their change in total productivity for the period 2001-2004, concluding that some plants experienced productivity growth while others experienced a decrease in productivity. The implications arising from the study are that EDP should adopt an internal benchmark management procedure in order to evaluate the relative position of each hydroelectric generating plant and to adopt managerial strategies designed to catch up with the frontier of 'best practices'. As the frontier is shifting along the time, constant efforts are needed in this respect along the time. (author)

  5. Efficiency analysis of hydroelectric generating plants: a case study for Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestana Barros, C. [Technical University of Lisbon (Portugal). Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestao

    2008-01-15

    This paper estimates changes in total productivity, breaking this down into technically efficient change and technological change, by means of data envelopment analysis (DEA) applied to the hydroelectric energy generating plants of EDP - the Portugal Electricity Company. The aim of this procedure is to seek out those best practices that will lead to improved performance in the energy market. We rank the plants according to their change in total productivity for the period 2001-2004, concluding that some plants experienced productivity growth while others experienced a decrease in productivity. The implications arising from the study are that EDP should adopt an internal benchmark management procedure in order to evaluate the relative position of each hydroelectric generating plant and to adopt managerial strategies designed to catch up with the frontier of ''best practices''. As the frontier is shifting along the time, constant efforts are needed in this respect along the time. (author)

  6. Distribution of Major and Trace Elements in a Tropical Hydroelectric Reservoir in Sarawak, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, Siong Fong; Ling, Teck Yee; Nyanti, Lee; Ean Lee, Terri Zhuan; Mohd Irwan Lu, Nurul Aida Lu; Bakeh, Tomy

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the metals content in water, sediment, macroalgae, aquatic plant, and fish of Batang Ai Hydroelectric Reservoir in Sarawak, Malaysia. The samples were acid digested and subjected to atomic absorption spectrometry analysis for Na, K, Mn, Cr, Ni, Zn, Mg, Fe, Sn, Al, Ca, As, Se, and Hg. The total Hg content was analysed on the mercury analyser. Results showed that metals in water, sediment, macroalgae, aquatic plant, and fish are distinguishable, with sediment and biota sample...

  7. Generation Planning Methodology Based on Load Factor for Hydroelectric Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Süleyman Hakan Sevilgen; Hasan Hüseyin Erdem

    2014-01-01

    Major parameters affecting the generation capacity of hydroelectric plants are resource regime, reservoir geometry, and water head together with flow rate and efficiency. For the same resource regime and flow rate, water head can be altered depending on generation planning. By means of holding water in the reservoir and consequent increase in head can lead to boost power generation. In this paper, a method to compare two different operational styles has been identified; a plant operating with...

  8. Hydroelectric Dams: The First Responses from Giant Otters to a Changing Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Analice Maria Calaça; Odair José Faedo; Fabiano Rodrigues de Melo

    2016-01-01

    The construction of hydroelectric dams has been cited as one of the threats faced by giant otter populations in their distribution areas. However, studies evaluating the impact of reservoirs on these populations are scarce and often restricted to results about the post-filling period. In this study, we present distribution and behavioral data from giant otter populations living in the Teles Pires River and tributaries, located in the municipality of Paranaíta in the State of Mato Grosso, Braz...

  9. Ecological improvements to hydroelectric power plants under EEG. Guidance to environmental verifiers and water rights authorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of hydropower as a renewable form of energy is experiencing a renaissance due to the energy transition in Bavaria. The fishery evaluate not uncritically this development, because hydroelectric plants generally normally represent a considerable intervention in water and therefore in the habitat of the fish. In this case it should be noted that just often not even the minimum requirements of ecology are fulfilled at existing plants according to the Federal Water Act.

  10. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric in West Virginia at the state level are described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The introductory section examines the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and concludes with an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by FERC. The development of small-scale hydroelectric energy depends on the selection of a site which will produce sufficient water power capacity to make the project economically attractive to a developer. In West Virginia, the right to use the flowing waters of a stream, creek, or river is appurtenant to the ownership of the lands bordering the watercourse. The lands are known as riparian lands. The water rights are known as riparian rights. Thus, the first obstacle a developer faces involves the acquisition of riparian lands and the subsequent right to the use of the water. The water law in West Virginia is discussed in detail followed by discussions on direct and indirect regulations; continuing obligations; financial considerations; and interstate organizations.

  11. Manual for development of small scale hydroelectric projects by public entities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    This manual is designed to provide guidance to towns, cities, counties and other political subdivisions which are interested in undertaking or participating in small scale hydroelectric (SSH) development within or close to their territorial boundaries. The manual is primarily directed to those political subdivisions which either own or have access to a site, are interested in exploring the prospects for development of the site and do not have longstanding experience in the electric power development. For purposes of this manual a small scale hydroelectric project is a project of 25 to 30 MWs or less and utilizes an existing dam or structure or utilizes the site characteristics of partially breached dams or structures. As the reader will observe from the discussion that follows, several incentives under federal and state law have been implemented which favor small scale hydroelectric development at existing sites. This manual is designed to assist political subdivisions in taking advantage of these incentives and devising strategies for development. The manual will provide information to political subdivisions as to what to expect in the development process and the kinds of informed questions to ask of paid advisers. The manual, however, cannot be and should not be used as a substitute for competent advice and assistance from experienced lawyers, engineers, accountants and financing experts.

  12. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are discussed. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area, and the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC is examined. The first step the small scale hydroelectric developer must take is that of acquiring title to the real property comprising the development site. The real estate parcel must include the requisite interest in the land adjacent to the watercourse, access to the underlying streambed and where needed, the land necessary for an upstream impoundment area. Land acquisition may be effectuated by purchase, lease, or grant by the state. In addition to these methods, New York permits the use of the eminent domain power of the state for public utilities under certain circumstances.

  13. Use of mediation to resolve the dispute over low-head hydroelectric development at Swan Lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, D.

    1980-08-01

    In 1978, the Maine Hydroelectric Development Corporation announced that the company planned to renovate five dams on the Goose River near Belfast, Maine to generate electricity. The most important part of the plan involved the use of the first of the dams, at the lower end of Swan Lake, to regulate the flow of water to the downstream dams. For Maine Hydro, management of the Swan Lake dam could make an otherwise marginal proposal lucrative. However, Swan Lake is vitally important to the residents of Swanville. The town was so concerned about the impact of this proposed hydroelectric project that it petitioned the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to deny Maine Hydro's application on the grounds that it would damage the environment, reduce property values and eliminate recreational opportunities for its citizens. This report was written by the mediator of the dispute and represents the views and behavior of the parties as the mediator understood them. It is intended to present the mediator's observations in a way which will inform and assist others who may someday face a difficult situation like the one the Town of Swanville and Maine Hydroelectric Development Corporation faced, and successfully resolved, in the spring and summer of 1979.

  14. The ethics of hydroelectric power; Energie aus Wasserkraft - ein ethisches Anliegen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeller, A.

    2003-07-01

    Hydroelectric power is the most important of all renewable energy sources. About two thirds of Germany's renewable power is generated in hydroelectric power plants. Worldwide, about 2,300 thousand million kWh per annum are generated from hydroelectric power, which is equivalent to 400 nuclear power stations. There are still reserves in the range of 15,000 thousand kWh per annum awaiting exploitation. Even in Germany, only two thirds of the total available potential are used. [German] Die Wasserkraft ist die bedeutendste unter den erneuerbaren Energien. Von ihr stammen ueber zwei Drittel des regenerativ erzeugten Stroms in Deutschland. Weltweit werden derzeit durch die Wasserkraft pro Jahr rund 2300 Milliarden kWh erzeugt; dies entspricht der Energieproduktion von 400 Kernkraftwerken. Riesige Wasserkraftreserven mit rund 15 000 Milliarden kWh/Jahr liegen noch brach. Auch in Deutschland gibt es erhebliche Reserven, denn die Ressource Wasserkraft ist erst zu etwa zwei Dritteln des technisch nutzbaren Potenzials erschlossen. (orig.)

  15. 3D integrated modeling approach to geo-engineering objects of hydraulic and hydroelectric projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Aiming at 3D modeling and analyzing problems of hydraulic and hydroelectric en-gineering geology,a complete scheme of solution is presented. The first basis was NURBS-TIN-BRep hybrid data structure. Then,according to the classified thought of the object-oriented technique,the different 3D models of geological and engi-neering objects were realized based on the data structure,including terrain class,strata class,fault class,and limit class;and the modeling mechanism was alterna-tive. Finally,the 3D integrated model was established by Boolean operations be-tween 3D geological objects and engineering objects. On the basis of the 3D model,a series of applied analysis techniques of hydraulic and hydroelectric engineering geology were illustrated. They include the visual modeling of rock-mass quality classification,the arbitrary slicing analysis of the 3D model,the geological analysis of the dam,and underground engineering. They provide powerful theoretical prin-ciples and technical measures for analyzing the geological problems encountered in hydraulic and hydroelectric engineering under complex geological conditions.

  16. 3D integrated modeling approach to geo-engineering objects of hydraulic and hydroelectric projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG DengHua; LI MingChao; LIU Jie

    2007-01-01

    Aiming at 3D modeling and analyzing problems of hydraulic and hydroelectric engineering geology, a complete scheme of solution is presented. The first basis was NURBS-TIN-BRep hybrid data structure. Then, according to the classified thought of the object-oriented technique, the different 3D models of geological and engineering objects were realized based on the data structure, including terrain class,strata class, fault class, and limit class; and the modeling mechanism was alternative. Finally, the 3D integrated model was established by Boolean operations between 3D geological objects and engineering objects. On the basis of the 3D model,a series of applied analysis techniques of hydraulic and hydroelectric engineering geology were illustrated. They include the visual modeling of rock-mass quality classification, the arbitrary slicing analysis of the 3D model, the geological analysis of the dam, and underground engineering. They provide powerful theoretical principles and technical measures for analyzing the geological problems encountered in hydraulic and hydroelectric engineering under complex geological conditions.

  17. Environmental management in the Hydro-Electric Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tasmanian Hydro Electric Commission (HEC) is a large and diverse organization, providing electricity generation, transmission, distribution and retail services throughout Tasmania. It is a significant manager of Tasmania's land and water resources and, as a consequence, has important environmental responsibilities. This paper outlines the background to conflict with the environmental movement over power generation development projects in south western Tasmania and the development of an environmental policy. As part of the environmental policy, the HEC has prepared environmental reviews, audits and risk assessment and is currently developing and implementing a comprehensive environmental management system. The HEC sees the introduction of the environmental management system as demonstrating a commitment to continuing environmental improvement and in establishing itself as a Tasmanian and national leader in the area of environmental management. 1 tab., 2 figs., 4 refs

  18. Wind energy and Swiss hydroelectric power; Windenergie und schweizerischer Wasserkraftpark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, W.; Baur, M. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Fritz, W.; Zimmer, Ch.; Feldmann, J. [Consentec GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Haubrich, H.-J.; Dany, G.; Schmoeller, H.; Hartmann, T. [Institut fuer Elektrische Anlagen und Energiewirtschaft RWTH Aachen (IAEW), Aachen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made to analyse the possible changes in the European electricity supply system, in particular with reference to the increasing amount of wind-generated electricity. Also, the role of peak-power and the optimisation potential for Swiss hydropower was examined. The part to be played by Swiss wind power in the future and the government's sustainability strategy is also looked at. The report looks at electricity dealing in the European context and introduces a method of assessment for Swiss hydropower. The report's conclusions and recommendations cover the increasing importance of energy storage in hydropower schemes, the question if grid capacity is sufficient under the new conditions, the market liberalisation question and possible ecological problems that may be encountered.

  19. Underground pumped storage hydroelectricity using abandoned works (deep mines or open pits) and the impact on groundwater flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujades, Estanislao; Willems, Thibault; Bodeux, Sarah; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-09-01

    Underground pumped storage hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants using open-pit or deep mines can be used in flat regions to store the excess of electricity produced during low-demand energy periods. It is essential to consider the interaction between UPSH plants and the surrounding geological media. There has been little work on the assessment of associated groundwater flow impacts. The impacts on groundwater flow are determined numerically using a simplified numerical model which is assumed to be representative of open-pit and deep mines. The main impact consists of oscillation of the piezometric head, and its magnitude depends on the characteristics of the aquifer/geological medium, the mine and the pumping and injection intervals. If an average piezometric head is considered, it drops at early times after the start of the UPSH plant activity and then recovers progressively. The most favorable hydrogeological conditions to minimize impacts are evaluated by comparing several scenarios. The impact magnitude will be lower in geological media with low hydraulic diffusivity; however, the parameter that plays the more important role is the volume of water stored in the mine. Its variation modifies considerably the groundwater flow impacts. Finally, the problem is studied analytically and some solutions are proposed to approximate the impacts, allowing a quick screening of favorable locations for future UPSH plants.

  20. Dynamic hydrologic economic modeling of tradeoffs in hydroelectric systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Jordan D.

    Hydropower producers face a future beset by unprecedented changes in the electric power industry, including the rapid growth of installed wind power capacity and a vastly increased supply of natural gas due to horizontal hydraulic fracturing (or "fracking"). There is also increased concern surrounding the potential for climate change to impact the magnitude and frequency of droughts. These developments may significantly alter the financial landscape for hydropower producers and have important ramifications for the environmental impacts of dams. Incorporating wind energy into electric power systems has the potential to affect price dynamics in electricity markets and, in so doing, alter the short-term financial signals on which dam operators rely to schedule reservoir releases. Chapter 1 of this doctoral dissertation develops an integrated reservoir-power system model for assessing the impact of large scale wind power integration of hydropower resources. Chapter 2 explores how efforts to reduce the carbon footprint of electric power systems by using wind energy to displace fossil fuel-based generation may inadvertently yield further impacts to river ecosystems by disrupting downstream flow patterns. Increased concern about the potential for climate change to alter the frequency and magnitude of droughts has led to growing interest in "index insurance" that compensates hydropower producers when values of an environmental variable (or index), such as reservoir inflows, crosses an agreed upon threshold (e.g., low flow conditions). Chapter 3 demonstrates the need for such index insurance contracts to also account for changes in natural gas prices in order to be cost-effective. Chapter 4 of this dissertation analyzes how recent low natural gas prices (partly attributable to fracking) have reduced the cost of implementing ramp rate restrictions at dams, which help restore sub-daily variability in river flows by limiting the flexibility of dam operators in scheduling

  1. Comparative studies of the global ecological state variation of the aquatic environment in the Crişuri Hydrographic Space between 2007 and 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Sion

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative study regarding the evolution across time of the quality of aquatic eco-systems in the Crişuri Hydrographic Space (CHS, between 2007 and 2009. Having as a goal a real and complete image of the quality of the environment in the CHS, the ecological monitoringconducted was meant to observe the structure of the aquatic communities (macrozoobenthos, microphytobenthos, phytoplankton and the biotope characteristics (physical and chemical parameters of water: pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, CBO5, CCO-Mn, CCO-Cr, nitrites, nitrates, phosphates, amonium, chlorophyll “a”, chlorides, sulphates, fix residues, As, Hg, Cu, Zn, Mn, phenols, detergents etc. The choosing of the monitoring sections, their identification and geographical position were accomplished in 2006. The basic criterion in the choice of the monitoring sections was the identification of all aspects that can influence the quality state of the waters. The monitoring of the quality state of the waters in the CHS was conducted in 40 sections, both on the main courses and their affluents, over a 3-year period. After the results of the analyses of physico-chemical and biological samples were obtained, the categorization of the prelevation sections in quality classes followed; depending on these classes, the modelation of the global ecological states of the watercourses in the CHS was realized by means of mapping techniques (GIS. Most of the monitoring sections were in the good ecological state category. The very good ecological state was determined only for those sections upstream all polluting sources. Nevertheless, some of the prelevation points exceeded both physico-chemically and biologically the limits of the good quality state, entering the category of moderate quality state. No watercourse in the CHS was determined for poor or bad quality state. Generally, a “preservation” of the quality state of the waters from one year to the following was

  2. Feasibility of determination of low-head hydroelectric power development at existing sites. Big Blue River Co-dependent Hydroelectric Development: feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wacker, H. Steve; Feuerberg, Stan; Lawrence, John D.; Pal, Parimal C.; Trick, Dr., William T.

    1979-03-01

    The technical, economic, environmental, safety, and financial aspects of redeveloping 7 dam sites in Nebraska for hydroelectric power generation were studied. The Big Blue River Co-dependent Hydroelectric Development was found to be a technically feasible concept, for both redevelopment and in some cases rehabilitation of seven existing sites. The proposed redevelopment project will include seven installations with a recommended nominally rated redeveloped capacity of 3920 kW ranging from 120 kW at the northernmost site in Seward County to 1500 kW at Barneston. The average annual gross generation expected from the seven redeveloped sites totals 11,555,000 kWh. It is estimated that the total cost of redevelopment of these seven sites will be $14,090,000 at 1979 price levels, providing power at an average levelized cost of about 5.3 cents per kWh based on 7% cost of money, a mid-1983 commissioning date, and allowing for funds during construction and cost escalation over a 30-year period. Rehabilitation of original installations at Crete, Dewitt, Blue Springs and Barneston is technically feasible for a total installed capacity of 1415 kW with annual average gross generation of 6,675,000 kWh. The total cost of this rehabilitation is estimated as $3,372,000 at 1979 price levels, or about 2.4 cents per kWh, levelized on a similar basis. Rehabilitation of the Barneston site alone for an installed capacity of 760 kW and annual generation of 3,581,000 kWh is both technically and economically feasible. The total estimated cost of this alternative is $668,000, providing power at a cost of about 1.9 cents per kWh at 1979 price levels. The benefit-cost ratio for Barneston rehabilitation is estimated as 1.23.

  3. Multibeam sonar (DIDSON) assessment of American shad (Alosa sapidissima) approaching a hydroelectric dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Ann B.; Bailey, Michael M.; Zydlewski, Joseph; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the fish community approaching the Veazie Dam on the Penobscot River, Maine, prior to implementation of a major dam removal and river restoration project. Multibeam sonar (dual-frequency identification sonar, DIDSON) surveys were conducted continuously at the fishway entrance from May to July in 2011. A 5% subsample of DIDSON data contained 43 793 fish targets, the majority of which were of Excellent (15.7%) or Good (73.01%) observation quality. Excellent quality DIDSON targets (n = 6876) were apportioned by species using a Bayesian mixture model based on four known fork length distributions (river herring (alewife,Alosa psuedoharengus, and blueback herring, Alosa aestivalis), American shad, Alosa sapidissima) and two size classes (one sea-winter and multi-sea-winter) of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). 76.2% of targets were assigned to the American shad distribution; Atlantic salmon accounted for 15.64%, and river herring 8.16% of observed targets. Shad-sized (99.0%) and salmon-sized (99.3%) targets approached the fishway almost exclusively during the day, whereas river herring-sized targets were observed both during the day (51.1%) and at night (48.9%). This approach demonstrates how multibeam sonar imaging can be used to evaluate community composition and species-specific movement patterns in systems where there is little overlap in the length distributions of target species.

  4. Assessment of Natural Stream Sites for Hydroelectric Dams in the Pacific Northwest Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas G. Hall; Kristin L. Verdin; Randy D. Lee

    2012-03-01

    This pilot study presents a methodology for modeling project characteristics using a development model of a stream obstructing dam. The model is applied to all individual stream reaches in hydrologic region 17, which encompasses nearly all of Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. Project site characteristics produced by the modeling technique include: capacity potential, principal dam dimensions, number of required auxiliary dams, total extent of the constructed impoundment boundary, and the surface area of the resulting reservoir. Aggregated capacity potential values for the region are presented in capacity categories including total, that at existing dams, within federal and environmentally sensitive exclusion zones, and the balance which is consider available for greenfield development within the limits of the study. Distributions of site characteristics for small hydropower sites are presented and discussed. These sites are screened to identify candidate small hydropower sites and distributions of the site characteristics of this site population are presented and discussed. Recommendations are made for upgrading the methodology and extensions to make the results more accessible and available on a larger scale.

  5. Summary of the New England conference on legal and institutional incentives to small-scale hydroelectric development (Boston Massachusetts, January 30-31, 1979)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    The New England Conference on Legal and Institutional Incentives to Small Scale Hydroelectric Development examined the legal and institutional problems confronting small-scale hydroelectric potential of the northeast. Representatives from DOE, FERC, state legislatures, state public service commissions, private developers, and environmental groups attempted to evaluate the state of hydroelectric development in New England. The meeting began with an introductory panel followed by workshops addressing four topics: Federal regulatory systems, state regulatory systems, the economics of small-scale hydroelectric development, and systems dynamics and the systems dynamics model. Comments by the Honorable Georgiana H. Sheldon, FERC, are presented.

  6. Ex post Evaluation of the Impact of the Environmental Mitigation Measures for the Porce II Hydroelectric Power Plant Project Title: Evaluación ex-post del impacto de las medidas de mitigación ambiental en el Proyecto Hidroeléctrico Porce II

    OpenAIRE

    Verónica González

    2011-01-01

    This evaluation helps to address the need in literature on Environmental Impact Assessment during the monitoring of operations and ex post evaluations. It helps to develop innovative methodologies for ex post environmental assessments for both the IDB and borrowers. The evaluation uses environmental monitoring data for infrastructure projects through an analysis of indicators and their long-term trends. In general, the evaluation results indicate that the Porce II Hydroelectric project's miti...

  7. Sanitary risks related to the installation of hydroelectric turbines on drinking water networks; Hydroelectricite: les risques sanitaires pour l'adduction d'eau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelli, A. [Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments - AFSSA, DERNS - Unite d' Evaluation des Risques Lies a l' Eau - UERE, 94 - Maisons Alfort (France); Montiel, A.; Cabillic, P.J.; Fourrier, P.; Levi, Y.; Potelon, J.L.; Welte, B. [Comite d' Experts Specialise Eaux de l' AFSSA, 94 - Maisons Alfort (France); Fourrier, P. [Autorite de Surete Nucleaire 75 - Paris (France); Levi, Y. [Paris-11 Univ., Faculte de Pharmacie, Lab. Sante Publique Environnement, 91 - Orsay (France); Potelon, J.L. [Ecole des Hautes Etudes de Sante Publique - EHESP, 35 - Rennes (France); Welte, B. [Eau de Paris, 75 (France)

    2010-11-15

    With the notion of sustainable development gaining ground, practices aimed at saving water and energy are more and more frequent, particularly the installation of hydroelectric turbine on drinking water networks. It is essential in this case that the water quality should not be deteriorated, and the water supply for consumption and fire protection has to be prioritized over energy production. Thus, a sanitary risk assessment must be done and actions to control the described critical points have to be taken. The installation of a turbine is an additional risk whereas it is not necessary for drinking water production and distribution. As a consequence, a quality management system including the turbine and additional quality water monitoring should be carried out. (authors)

  8. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric potential in Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level is described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The first obstacle which any developer must confront in Michigan is obtaining the authority to utilize the river bed, banks, and flowing water at a proposed dam site. This involves a determination of ownership of the stream banks and bed, and the manner of obtaining either their title or use; and existing constraints with regard to the use of the water. Michigan follows the riparian theory of water law. The direct regulation; indirect regulation; public utilities regulation; financing; and taxation are discussed.

  9. Surface finishing in hydroelectric power plants; Veredeln von Laufrad-Oberflaechen in Wasserkraftanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, Marion

    2010-07-01

    Flow optimized high performance surfaces of the rotor disks are prerequisite to reach high conversion efficiencies in hydroelectric power plants. The surface treatment can be performed using cold metal transfer (CMT) arc welding techniques developed by Fronius International GmbH, Wels, Austria. This technique yields significantly improved results with respect to energy, time and material savings compared to MIG welding or thermal spraying. Water-contact components, sealing and sliding surfaces are cladded using high-performance stainless materials. The CMT process is mainly used by Andritz Hydro Ravensburg for cladding purposes.

  10. A model of sturgeon distribution under a dam of a hydro-electric power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is dedicated to the question of passage of sturgeon through a dam of a hydro-electric power plant (HPP) during spawning migrations. A model of distribution of water velocity in the tail water of HPP was constructed. On the basis of this model a model of sturgeon distribution under a dam of HPP was created. The latter model was analyzed numerically in conformity with the largest HPP on the Volga river-Volgograd's HPP (Russia). The results of analysis allowed estimation of sturgeon passage from the tail water to the head race. Measures for increase of effectiveness of this process were elaborated

  11. Grid system operation of thermal and hydro-electric power stations in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deriaz, J.

    1985-01-01

    Up to about 20 years ago electricity supply in Switzerland was almost exclusively based on hydro-electric power. The commissioning of the 300 MW oil-fired unit at Chavalon sur Vouvry in 1964/1965 was followed by the development of nuclear power stations which culminated in 1984 with the completion of Leibstadt nuclear power station. The energy from storage power plants is ideally suited to the large fluctuations in daily demand, whilst the construction of dams and long sub-terranean tunnels requires substantially higher capital costs than for a thermal power station. The different operating conditions resulting from this, summer/winter and day/night are described.

  12. Status Review of Wildlife Mitigation, Columbia Basin Hydroelectric Projects, Washington Facilities (Intrastate) Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howerton, Jack

    1984-11-01

    This report was prepared for BPA in fulfillment of section 1004 (b)(1) of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980, to review the status of past, present, and proposed future wildlife planning and mitigation program at existing hydroelectric projects in the Columbia River Basin. The project evaluations will form the basis for determining any needed remedial measures or additional project analysis. Projects addressed are: Merwin Dam; Swift Project; Yale Project; Cowlitz River; Boundary Dam; Box Canyon Dam; Lake Chelan; Condit Project; Enloe Project; Spokane River; Tumwater and Dryden Dam; Yakima; and Naches Project.

  13. Management Strategy for Hydroelectric Project Toro 2: Knowing and enhancing natural resources sustainably

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pereira Chaves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to understand and sustainably enhance the biological and ecological resources of the Hydroelectric Project of Toro 2, thus; a research was carried out to inventory the presence of birds, mammals and plants, in order to know if the site qualifies as a biological tourist attraction, as well as to know the opinion of local people. It is proposed the sustainable uses of natural resources, through a strategy of use, management and conservation of the ecosystems.

  14. Environmental impact statement for the proposed Great Whale River Hydroelectric Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidelines are presented on the preparation of the environmental impact statement for the Great Whale hydroelectric project by Hydro-Quebec. The statement must include a project justification, description of the biophysical and social environments, a project description, and must address project impacts, mitigative and compensatory measures, environmental surveillance, monitoring, and long-term management programs. Appendices include a memorandum of understanding, list of members of the review bodies, list of briefs submitted at the public scoping hearings, and a list of public comments on the draft guidelines. 17 figs

  15. A probabilistic approach to evaluate the exploitation of the geographic situation of hydroelectric plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sant' Anna, Leonardo A.F.P. [EPE (Brazil)], E-mail: leonardo.santanna@epe.gov.br; Sant' Anna, Annibal Parracho [Escola de Engenharia - UFF, Rua Passo da Patria, 156 bl. D sl. 309 Niteroi, RJ 24210-240 (Brazil)], E-mail: tppaps@vm.uff.br

    2008-07-15

    A procedure to evaluate efficiency in the exploitation of the geographic situation of hydroelectric plants is developed here. It is based on the probabilistic composition of criteria. A comparison of 80 plants is carried out, with volume of water flow at the location and transmission rates paid measuring the potential of the geographic situation and installed power and assured energy measuring the employment of such potential. An analysis based on a new index of quality of approximation and a new measure of importance derived from Shapley value is used to select the criteria that enter a second stage of the efficiency evaluation.

  16. A probabilistic approach to evaluate the exploitation of the geographic situation of hydroelectric plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sant' Anna, Leonardo A.F.P.; Sant' Anna, Annibal Parracho [Escola de Engenharia - UFF, Rua Passo da Patria, 156 bl. D sl. 309 Niteroi, RJ 24210-240 (Brazil)

    2008-07-15

    A procedure to evaluate efficiency in the exploitation of the geographic situation of hydroelectric plants is developed here. It is based on the probabilistic composition of criteria. A comparison of 80 plants is carried out, with volume of water flow at the location and transmission rates paid measuring the potential of the geographic situation and installed power and assured energy measuring the employment of such potential. An analysis based on a new index of quality of approximation and a new measure of importance derived from Shapley value is used to select the criteria that enter a second stage of the efficiency evaluation. (author)

  17. Strategies to lower methyl mercury concentrations in hydroelectric reservoirs and lakes: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailman, Mariah; Stepnuk, Lisa; Cicek, Nazim; Bodaly, R A Drew

    2006-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish in lakes are elevated due to increased global cycling of Hg. A special case of elevated Hg concentrations in fish occurs in new hydroelectric reservoirs because of increased rates of converting Hg in the environment into methyl mercury (MeHg). People and wildlife that eat fish from hydroelectric reservoirs have an elevated risk of accumulating too much MeHg. Demand for electrical energy is leading to the creation of new reservoirs. In 2005, Canada derived 60% of its electricity from hydroelectric reservoirs. As a result, hydroelectric companies and governing agencies are exploring strategies to lower MeHg contamination. Strategies may involve lowering the source of Hg before flooding, the rate of Hg methylation, or MeHg bioaccumulation and biomagnification. Possible strategies reviewed in this article include selecting a site to minimize impacts, intensive fishing, adding selenium, adding lime to acidic systems, burning before flooding, removing standing trees, adding phosphorus, demethylating MeHg by ultraviolet light, capping and dredging bottom sediment, aerating anoxic bottom sediment and waters, and water level management. A preventative strategy is to limit the flooded area, especially wetland areas. Flooded upland areas that contain less carbon produce MeHg for a shorter time than wetland areas. Run-of-the-river reservoirs contain lower MeHg concentrations than reservoirs that flood vast areas, at the cost of exporting MeHg downstream. Managing water levels to flush systems during times of peak MeHg production may have benefits for the reservoir, but also transports MeHg downstream. Intensive fishing can lower MeHg in food webs by increasing fish growth rate. Additions of selenium can lower MeHg bioaccumulation, but the mechanisms are not well established and excess selenium causes toxicity. Liming can lower fish Hg concentrations in lakes acidified with sulphuric and nitric acid. Burning before flooding can lower the

  18. Risk Analysis Simulation Model of Economic Evaluation in Hydroelectric Engineering Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Cunbin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we propose a risk analysis simulation model for economic evaluation of hydroelectric engineering project. This model takes annual energy outputs as risk elements. It submits to Pearson-III distribution similar with the annual runoff. Take data from three typical years to estimate the distribution parameters and then yearly benefits can be simulated in given period. By discounting all the annual benefits to their present values and summing them up, the total benefit present value is worked out. Simulating the process for a large number of times, the probability distribution is obtained. And the Net Present Value (NPV distribution can be figured out as well.

  19. Influence of early cognitive behavior intervention on psychology of patients with traumatic brain inj ury%早期认知行为干预对颅脑损伤病人心理的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴玲玲; 孙建芳; 孙洁瑾; 郭慧洁; 王吉平

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To probe into the influence of early cognitive behavior intervention on psychological state of the patients with traumatic brain injury.Methods:A total of 110 cases of craniocerebral injury patients in de-partment of neurosurgery were randomly divided into intervention group and control group based on random number table,5 5 cases in each.The patients in control group received routine psychological care.In addition,the patients in intervention group received early cognitive behavior interventions.The patients were assessed by u-sing Early Psychological Scale of Trauma Patients before intervention and one week after intervention.The pa-tients received the followed up at 3 months and 6 months after discharge and filled the questionnaire of PTSD (PCL C).Results:At one week after intervention,the anxiety,depression and total score of early psychological assessment scale in intervention group were lower than that in control group,and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05);at 3 months and 6 months,the PCL C score of patients in intervention group was lower than that of patients in control group,the difference between groups was statistically significant(P<0.05).Con-clusion:Early cognitive behavioral intervention can effectively improve the level of psychological stress in pa-tients with traumatic brain inj ury,relieve anxiety and depression,improve the symptoms of post traumatic stress disorder syndrome,PTSD.%[目的]探讨早期认知行为干预对颅脑损伤病人心理的影响。[方法]选取神经外科颅脑损伤病人110例按随机数字表分为干预组和对照组各55例,干预组在常规心理护理方法的基础上实施早期认知行为干预,对照组给予常规心理护理。在入组时及干预1周后应用意外创伤病人早期心理他评量表进行评估,出院3个月及6个月随访病人并填写创伤后应激障碍检查量表平民版(PCL C)。[结果]干预1周后,干预组早期心理他评量表焦

  20. Standardization of electric projects of small hydroelectric power plants; Padronizacao de projetos eletricos de pequenas centrais hidreletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Roberth dos Santos

    2002-07-01

    This work presents a standardizing proposal for Electrical Projects of small hydroelectric central and it has as objective to optimize some solutions for the most cases, considering the great diversity of options. The development of the dissertation is the result of several real cases of projects of hydroelectric centrals. Besides the projects, several bibliographies about the case which is being studied were researched, taking into consideration the entire proposal presented to the respective authors and, finally, as synthesis to all observations made in that study, the presentation of an optimized solution for the job of the electrical components and a proposal for the estimate of costs of those components. The conclusions of this work present a favorable result because they offer an initial proposal for the standardizing of information considered extremely important for the carrying out of a project of hydroelectric central. (author)

  1. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small-scale hydroelectric power in Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy in Virginia are described. The state regulatory system does not comprise final authority; the Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. This dual system is a function of the federalist nature of our government. The introductory section examines the dual system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and inquires into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. The use of a natural-surface watercourse in Virginia is governed generally by the doctrine of riparian rights. Riparian rights is a system of water rights based on ownership of land bordering on a natural stream or watercourse. For land to be considered riparian to a stream, that land must be located on the watershed of that portion of the stream. The theory of riparian rights followed in Virginia is one of reasonable use. Under the reasonable-use doctrine, each riparian owner has an equal right to the reasonable use of the water running naturally through or by his land for any useful purpose. The water must continue to run after such use without material diminution or alteration and without pollution.

  2. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in New Hampshire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area and the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC is examined. The first step any developer must take is that of acquiring the real estate parcel. The step involves acquisition in some manner of both river banks, the river bed, and where necessary the land needed for the upstream impoundment area. The developer must acquire the river banks to be considered a riparian owner. Classification as a riparian is important for only a use of water by a riparian owner is deemed a reasonable use and hence legal. Apart from acquisition by sale, lease, or gift, New Hampshire law permits a number of other methods. In part use of these methods will depend on whether the developer is the state, a municipality, a private corporation, or a public utility. Provided the developer avails himself of the five (5) megawatts exemption, his main regulatory agency will be the Water Resources Board. However, the state is not free from the problems of legal uncertainty inherent in determinations of reasonableness.

  3. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level in Maryland are described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The dual regulatory system is examined with the aim of creating a more orderly understanding of the vagaries of the system, focusing on the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. In Maryland, by common law rule, title to all navigable waters and to the soil below the high-water mark of those waters is vested in the state as successor to the Lord Proprietary who had received it by grant from the Crown. Rights to non-navigable water, public trust doctrine, and eminent domain are also discussed. Direct and indirect regulations, continuing obligations, loan programs, and regional organizations are described in additional sections.

  4. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Delaware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are discussed. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area, and the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC is examined. In Delaware, a watercourse is not to be confused with surface water. Each gives rise to certain riparian rights, but the law makes certain distinctions between the two. The presence of both surface waters and watercourses give rise to private and public rights related to the presence of the water. Some of these rights are vested in riparian owners. Recent Delaware case law has described the riparian owner as one who owns land on the bank of a river, or who is owner of land along, bordering upon, bounded by, fronting upon, abutting, or adjacent and contiguous to and in contact with a river. But, ownership of the bank does not give the riparian ownership of the water. Some law cases are cited to discuss the laws in Delaware.

  5. National hydroelectric power resources study. Preliminary inventory of hydropower resources. Volume 2. Pacific Southwest region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-07-01

    The estimates of existing, incremental, and the undeveloped hydropower potential for all states in the various regions of the country are presented. In the Pacific Southwest region, the maximum physical potential for all sites exceeds 33,000 MW of capacity with an estimated average annual energy greater than 85,000 GWH. By comparison, these values represent about 6% of the total potential capacity and hydroelectric energy generation estimated for the entire US. Of the total capacity estimated for the region, 9900 MW has been installed. The remainder (23,200 MW) is the maximum which could be developed by upgrading and expanding existing projects (6000 MW) and by installing new hydroelectric power capacity at all potentially feasible, undeveloped sites (17,200 MW). Small-scale facilities account for less than 4% of the region's total installed capacity, but another 600 MW could be added to these and other small water resource projects. In addition, 600 MW could be installed at potentially feasible, undeveloped small-scale sites. The small-scale resource varies considerably, with the states of California and Utah having the largest potential for incremental development at existing projects in the Pacific Southwest region. States comprising the Southwest are Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada, and Utah.

  6. National hydroelectric power resources study. Preliminary inventory of hydropower resources. Volume 6. Northeast region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-07-01

    In the Northeast region, the physical potential for all sites exceeds 33,000 MW of capacity with an estimated average annual energy of some 153,000 GWH. By comparison, the available data represent about 6% of the total capacity and 11% of the hydroelectric energy potential estimated for the entire US. Of the total capacity estimated for the region, 6100 MW has been installed. The remainder (27,200 MW, excluding the undeveloped capacity in the New England States) is the maximum which could be developed by upgrading and expanding existing projects (18,700 MW), and by installing new hydroelectric power capacity at all potentially feasible, undeveloped sites (8500 MW). Small-scale facilities account for about 15% of the region's total installed capacity, but another 1800 MW could be added to these and other small water-resource projects. In addition, 500 MW could be installed at potentially feasible, undeveloped small-scale sites. The small-scale resource varies considerably, with the states of New York, Maine, and New Hampshire having the largest potential for incremental development at existing projects in the Northeast region. West Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, New York, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, Vermont, and Maine comprise the Northeast region.

  7. National hydroelectric power resources study. Preliminary inventory of hydropower resources. Volume 4. Lake Central region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-07-01

    The estimates of existing, incremental and the undeveloped hydropower potential for all states in the various regions of the country are presented. In the Lake Central region, the maximum physical potential for all sites exceeds 26,000 MW with an estimated average annual energy of more than 75,000 GWH. By comparison, these values represent about 5% of both the total potential capacity and hydroelectric energy estimated for the entire US. Of the total capacity estimated for the region, 2600 MW has been installed. The remainder (23,600 MW) is the maximum which could be developed by upgrading and expanding existing projects (15,800 MW), and by installing new hydroelectric power capacity at all potentially feasible, undeveloped sites (7800 MW). Small-scale facilities account for some 24% of the region's total installed capacity, but another 900 MW could be added to these and other small water-resource projects. In addition, 900 MW could be installed at potentially feasible, undeveloped small-scale sites. The small-scale resource varies considerably, with the states of Michigan and Wisconsin having the largest potential for incremental development at existing projects in the Lake Central region. This Lake Central region is composed of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, and Iowa.

  8. Hydroelectric development project of the Magpie dam on the Magpie River: Investigation and public hearing report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public hearings were held by Quebec's Bureau d'audiences publiques sur l'environnement (BAPE) concerning a proposed hydroelectric development project on the Magpie River in Quebec's Minganie Region. The proposed hydroelectric power plant is to be developed and managed by Hydromega Services Inc. and constructed by Aecon Group Ltd. The project consists of reconstructing a power plant and dam at an existing site that was constructed in 1961 but which has been decommissioned since 1989. The installed capacity of the proposed power plant is 40.6 MW. The drop height for the dam is 21.25 metres. The issues that were addressed during the hearings included the opinions and suggestion of the participants regarding energy provisions, regional development and ecological protection. One of the main concerns facing this project is the loss of spectacular rapids currently used by rafters. The Commission noted that the rapids cannot be saved without significant modification to the design of the project. However, the flooding associated with the project would facilitate fishermen, canoeists and kayakers, thereby preserving the recreational and tourism attributes of the Magpie River. The Commission also noted that the local economic repercussions of the project would benefit the population of the Minganie Region which has a high unemployment rate. Any ecological impacts may be controlled by relevant attenuation measures and follow-up. It was concluded that the proposed project could contribute modestly to meeting the anticipated growth in energy demand in Quebec. refs., figs

  9. Halting hydro: A review of the socio-technical barriers to hydroelectric power plants in Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nepal has 83,000 MW (megawatts) of exploitable hydropower resources. Yet the country has tapped less than 650 MW of this potential and hydroelectricity meets less than 1% of total national energy consumption. This article explores why. Using a mixed methods approach consisting of semi-structured research interviews, site visits, and a literature review, it explores the various factors impeding the use of small-scale and medium-sized hydroelectric power stations in Nepal. It begins by laying out the research methods for the study along with a concept known as the social science systems approach, or socio-technical systems theory. This theory supposes that the barriers to any technology from reaching commercialization are simultaneously social, consisting of values, attitudes, regulations, and price signals, as well as technical. The study then evaluates a 'seamless web' of these types of barriers facing hydropower systems in Nepal. It concludes by offering lessons for policymakers and scholars concerned about Nepal as well as energy policy more generally. -- Highlights: → Nepal has 83,000 MW (megawatts) of exploitable hydropower resources, but has tapped less than 650 MW. → Some barriers to hydro in Nepal are social, consisting of values, attitudes, regulations, and price signals. → Other barriers are technical, involving challenges related to hydrology, dam design, and maintenance.

  10. Tazimina Hydroelectric Project, Iliamna, Alaska Final Technical and Construction Cost Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HDR Alaska, Inc.

    1998-11-01

    The Iliamna-Newhalen-Nondalton Electric Cooperative (INNEC) provides electrical power to three communities of the same names. These communities are located near the north shore of Iliamna Lake in south-central Alaska approximately 175 miles southwest of Anchorage. These communities have a combined population of approximately 600 residents. There is no direct road connection from these villages to larger population centers. Electric power has been generated by INNEC since 1983 using diesel generators located in the community of Newhalen. Fuel for these generators was transported up the Kvichak River, an important salmon river, and across Iliamna Lake. In dry years the river is low and fuel is flown into Iliamna and then trucked five miles into Newhalen. The cost, difficult logistics and potential spill hazard of this fuel was a primary reason for development of hydroelectric power in this area. A hydroelectric project was constructed for these communities, starting in the spring of 1996 and ending in the spring of 1998. The project site is at Tazimina Falls about 9 miles upstream of the confluence of the Tazimina River and the Newhalen River. The project has an installed capacity of 824 kilowatts (kW) and is expandable to 1.5 megawatts (MW). The project is run-of-the-river (no storage) and uses the approximately 100 feet of natural head provided by the falls. The project features include a channel control sill, intake structure, penstock, underground powerhouse, tailrace, surface control building, buried transmission line and communication cable, and access road.

  11. A model for the data extrapolation of greenhouse gas emissions in the Brazilian hydroelectric system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinguelli Rosa, Luiz; Aurélio dos Santos, Marco; Gesteira, Claudio; Elias Xavier, Adilson

    2016-06-01

    Hydropower reservoirs are artificial water systems and comprise a small proportion of the Earth’s continental territory. However, they play an important role in the aquatic biogeochemistry and may affect the environment negatively. Since the 90s, as a result of research on organic matter decay in manmade flooded areas, some reports have associated greenhouse gas emissions with dam construction. Pioneering work carried out in the early period challenged the view that hydroelectric plants generate completely clean energy. Those estimates suggested that GHG emissions into the atmosphere from some hydroelectric dams may be significant when measured per unit of energy generated and should be compared to GHG emissions from fossil fuels used for power generation. The contribution to global warming of greenhouse gases emitted by hydropower reservoirs is currently the subject of various international discussions and debates. One of the most controversial issues is the extrapolation of data from different sites. In this study, the extrapolation from a site sample where measurements were made to the complete set of 251 reservoirs in Brazil, comprising a total flooded area of 32 485 square kilometers, was derived from the theory of self-organized criticality. We employed a power law for its statistical representation. The present article reviews the data generated at that time in order to demonstrate how, with the help of mathematical tools, we can extrapolate values from one reservoir to another without compromising the reliability of the results.

  12. Fish mercury increase in Lago Manso, a new hydroelectric reservoir in tropical Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylander, Lars D; Gröhn, Janina; Tropp, Magdalena; Vikström, Anna; Wolpher, Henriette; de Castro E Silva, Edinaldo; Meili, Markus; Oliveira, Lázaro J

    2006-10-01

    It has been frequently demonstrated that mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish rise in newly constructed hydroelectric reservoirs in the Northern Hemisphere. In the present work, we studied whether similar effects take place also in a tropical upland reservoir during impoundment and discuss possible causes and implications. Total Hg concentrations in fish and several soil and water parameters were determined before and after flooding at Rio Manso hydroelectric power plant in western Brazil. The Hg concentrations in soil and sediment were within the background levels in the region (22-35 ng g(-1) dry weight). There was a strong positive correlation between Hg and carbon and sulphur in sediment. Predatory fish had total Hg concentrations ranging between 70 and 210 ng g(-1) f.w. 7 years before flooding and between 72 and 755 ng g(-1) f.w. during flooding, but increased to between 216 and 938 ng g(-1) f.w. in the piscivorous and carnivorous species Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, cachara, and Salminus brasiliensis, dourado, 3 years after flooding. At the same time, concentrations of organic carbon in the water increased and oxygen concentrations decreased, indicating increased decomposition and anoxia as contributing to the increased Hg concentrations in fish. The present fish Hg concentrations in commonly consumed piscivorous species are a threat to the health of the population dependent on fishing in the dam and downstream river for sustenance. Mercury exposure can be reduced by following fish consumption recommendations until fish Hg concentrations decrease to a safe level.

  13. Phillips Hydroelectric Project: feasibility study. Final report. [East Branch, Croton River, near Croton Falls, NY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    This report investigates the economic, engineering, and environmental aspects of installing new hydroelectric turbine-generating units at locations immediately downstream to the existing forebay and adjacent to the existing lower powerhouse. The specific site involves the East Branch of the Croton River at the Croton Falls Executive Park site owned by Walter T. Phillips, Jr. The report appraises the condition of the existing facilities (power was generated at the site from the late 1800's to 1956), presents the redevelopment alternatives, analyzes the power and energy potential of the site, develops streams of project costs and revenues, addresses the legal and institutional aspects and develops an implementation plan for the project. The report studied six alternatives involving three manufacturers of hydroelectric turbine generating equipment and four methods of marketing the power and energy. The range of installed capacities investigated varied from 130 to 462 kW based on a net head of 20 to 40 feet. The corresponding average annual energy generation potential ranged from 785,000 to 2,096,000 kWh, and the range of available capacity for the winter months of November, December, January, February, March, and April varied from 88 to 282 kW.

  14. Report on the renewal of the hydro-electric concessions; Rapport sur le renouvellement des concessions hydroelectriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-15

    The administrative procedures of the renewable of the hydro-electric concessions in France is a real problem, leading to too long time of the case files examination. This mission aimed to identify the technical and financial criteria on which the decision maker will base his choice to give the concessions renewal. This report exposes the evaluation and the recommendations of the mission. The first part establishes an evaluation of the situation of the hydro-electric concessions and the today renewal procedures. The second part presents a analysis of this situation and the recommendations. The last part brings the conclusions. (A.L.B.)

  15. The net GHG (CO2, CH4 and N2O) footprint of a newly impounded subtropical hydroelectric reservoir: Nam Theun 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Chandrashekhar; Guérin, Frédéric; Delon, Claire; Pighini, Sylvie; Vongkhamsao, Axay; Descloux, Stéphane; Chanudet, Vincent; Tardif, Raphael; Godon, Arnaud; Guédant, Pierre; Galy-Lacaux, Corinne; Zouiten, Cyril; Oliva, Priscia; Audry, Stéphane; Serça, Dominique

    2013-04-01

    There is a rising concern over the contribution of hydroelectric reservoirs to global anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions. We present here the first comprehensive assessment of GHGs footprint associated with the creation of the Nam Theun 2 (NT2) hydroelectric reservoir in subtropical region of the Lao People's Democratic Republic. This assessment is the results of a monthly monitoring that have been conducted over 4 year (2008-to date). The carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) sources and sinks were quantified before and after impoundment, which began in May 2008. Before impoundment, the landscape to be flooded was a sink of carbon dioxide (-73 ± 225 Gg CO2eq yr-1),roughly neutral in terms of methane (7 ± 11 Gg CO2eq yr-1), and a source of nitrous oxide (345 ± 158 Gg CO2eq yr-1). After impoundment, total CO2 and CH4 emissions increased and N2O emissions decreased. For the year 2010, CO2 (791 ± 54 Gg CO2eq yr-1) and CH4 (644 ± 124 Gg CO2eq yr-1) contributed equally to the total gross GHG emissions from NT2 (54 and 43% for CO2 and CH4, respectively) whereas N2O contributed only 3% (47 ± 29 Gg CO2eq yr-1). The GHG emissions remained constant in 2011. Our results indicate that most of the GHG (around 90%) were emitted from reservoir water surface and the drawdown area, and only 10% were emitted by degassing at the turbines and from diffusive emissions downstream of the turbines and the dam, a percentage lower than reported for other hydroelectric reservoirs. With a total emissions of 1482 ± 207 and 1298 ± 200 Gg CO2eq yr-1 for year 2010 and 2011, gross NT2 emissions are about an order of magnitude higher than pre-impoundment emissions (276 ± 393 Gg CO2eq yr-1). With a net GHG emissions of 1203 ± 601 (2010) and 1022 ± 594 (2011) Gg CO2eq yr-1, and an annual power generation of about 6 TWh, GHG emission factor equal to 0.20 (2010) and 0.17 (2011) Mg CO2eq MWh-1 for NT2 which is up to five times lower than the emission factor

  16. Project final report: Energetic planning focusing small scale hydroelectric power plants; Relatorio final. Projeto planejamento energetico com enfase em pequenas centrais hidreletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Yara dos Santos

    1994-12-31

    Considering the increasing need for a better utilization of the Brazilian hydric resources, a deeper analysis of small scale hydroelectric power plants has been demanding. This work presents a case study of energetic planning based upon small scale hydroelectric power plants in a district of Amazon state - North Brazil 8 refs., 11 figs., 19 tabs.

  17. Environmental Impact Report from Santa Rita Hydroelectric Power Plant (Minas Gerais State - Brazil): technical strategic for its elaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The steps for developing the technical strategies used on the elaboration of Environmental Impact Report from Santa Rita Hydroelectric Power Plant, Minas Gerais State, are described, including the influence area, technical requirements, impact identification, technical selection of mitigative measures, impact meaning and strategy for evaluating the identified impacts. (C.G.C.)

  18. SMOOTHING THE PEAKS: GRIDSHARE SMART GRID TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE BROWNOUTS ON MICRO-HYDROELECTRIC MINI-GRIDS IN BHUTAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Village scale micro-hydroelectric systems in countries like Bhutan, Thailand, Peru, Laos and China provide renewable electricity to thousands of self-reliant communities in remote locations. While promising, many of these systems are plagued by a common problem: brownouts occu...

  19. 77 FR 13317 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XVIII, Upper Hydroelectric, LLC, FFP Project 95, LLC, Riverbank Hydro No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XVIII, Upper Hydroelectric, LLC, FFP Project 95...+ Hydro Friends Fund XVIII: Project No. 14261-000. 2. Riverbank Hydro No. 25, LLC: Project No....

  20. Analysis of Environmental Issues Related to Small-Scale Hydroelectric Development II: Design Consideration for Passing Fish Upstream Around Dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrandt, S. G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bell, M. C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Anderson, J. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Richey, E. P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Parkhurst, Z. E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1980-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide general information for use by potential developers of small scale hydroelectric projects that will include facilities to pass migrating fish upstream around dams. The document is not intended to be a textbook on design of fish passage facilities, but rather to be a general guide to some factors that are important when designing such facilities.

  1. 75 FR 75999 - Lock + Hydro Friends Fund XlVI; FFP Missouri 17, LLC; Solia 3 Hydroelectric, LLC; Three Rivers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... 3 Hydroelectric, LLC; Three Rivers Hydro, LLC; Hildebrand Hydro, LLC; Notice of Competing..., and Three Rivers Hydro LLC, and on May 19 Hildebrand Hydro, filed applications, pursuant to section 4... of Engineers (Corps) Hildebrand Lock & Dam located on the Monongahela River in Monongahela...

  2. 75 FR 9201 - Kilarc-Cow Creek Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Intention To Prepare an Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Kilarc-Cow Creek Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Intention To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement February 19, 2010. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) has...

  3. 25 YEARS EXPERIENCES OF CHINA MADE SMALL HYDROELECTRIC UNITS WITH USA MADE DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY INSTALLED IN USA AND CENTRAL AMERICA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DR.ALEXANDERA

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-five years ago America's small hydroelectric power generations were reactivated by private, municipal, and local governments to utilize the renewable energy from the small hydro sties available 10,000 existing dams, small rivers and/or streams, and energy recovery facilities at many water transmission and delivery systems.

  4. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Vermont

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level in Vermont are discussed. The dual regulatory system involving state and Federal governments is discussed followed by discussions on property interests; direct regulation by the Public Service Board; indirect regulation; and financial considerations. An initial step required of any developer is that of real property acquisition. Ordinarily this involves acquiring the stream bed, land along the stream banks, and land needed for the impoundment reservoir. Ownership of land along the stream banks places the developer in the position of a riparian owner. This status is important in that only riparian owners are entitled to a reasonable use of the flowing water. In addition to acquisition by sale, lease, or gift, Vermont law allows certain developers to acquire property via eminent domain. Some general rules which have evolved as riparian law and applied in Vermont are discussed.

  5. Hydroelectric power plants. Small-scale plants; 3. ed.; Wasserkraftanlagen. Klein- und Kleinstkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palffy, S.O.; Brada, K. [Ceske Vysoke Uceni Technicke, Prague (Czechoslovakia); Hartenstein, R. [Energie-Versorgung Schwaben AG, Stuttgart (Germany); Mueller, U. [Ingenieurbuero Maggia, Locarno (Switzerland); Nowotny, G. [WKA Anlagenbau GmbH, Heidenheim/Brenz (Germany); Partzsch, P. [Ossberger-Turbinenfabrik GmbH und Co., Weissenburg (Germany); Roemer, K.H.; Schlimgen, W.; Tratz, D.; Walcher, H. [Walcher-Elektronik, Steuerungstechnik, Transformatoren, Eichenzell (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Small-scale power plants in the range below 500 kW make an important contribution to power generation. The book contains practical information on hydroelectric power plants, criteria for turbine selection, electric equipment, and the Ossberger turbine. Problems concerning taxation and energy and water legislation are gone into. Also discussed are economic criteria during acquisition, new construction, and modernisation for the purpose of electric power generation and grid power supply. (DG) 174 figs. [Deutsch] Klein- und Kleinstkraftwerke mit Leistungen unterhalb von 500 kW bilden einen wertvollen Aspekt der Energienutzung. Praxisnah werden die Wasserkraftanlagen, Auswahlkriterien der Turbinen, die elektrische Ausruestung und speziell die Ossberger-Turbine beschrieben. Ergaenzend sind steuerliche, energie- und wasserrechtliche Fragen sowie Kriterien der Wirtschaftlichkeit bei Erwerb, Neubau oder Modernisierung zwecks Stromerzeugung und Einspeisung in das oeffentliche Netz behandelt. (DG)

  6. Methane emission and oxygen consumption in the hydroelectric dam of Petit Saut in French Guyana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methane emissions from the hydroelectric dam of Petit-Saut, in French Guyana, were measured over a 20-months period. Since the beginning of the reservoir filling (January 1994), 300 km2 of tropical forest have been submerged. Biological CH4 oxidation, in the surface water of the lake and in the river downstream of the dam, lead to an intense 02 consumption. Emissions of CH4 by diffusion into the atmosphere or by degassing of the water released into the river as well as the stock of dissolved gas in the lake, and their temporal dynamics, were studied. Maximum emissions of 700 t (CH4) per day were attained in February 1994, corresponding to maximum dissolved CH4 concentrations of 14 mg l-1 in the water column. Total emissions since January 1994, were calculated from the whole data set. (authors). 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  7. Maintenance and operation of a hydroelectric unit of energy in a power system using virtual reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Sousa, Marcos Paulo Alves [Federal University of Para, Faculty of Engineering Computing, Augusto Correa Street, No. 1, Belem, Para (Brazil); Emilio Goeldi Museum, Service Data Processing Department, Perimetral Avenue No. 1901, Belem, Para (Brazil); Filho, Manoel Ribeiro; Nunes, Marcus Vinicius Alves; Lopes, Andrey da Costa [Federal University of Para, Faculty of Engineering Computing, Augusto Correa Street, No. 1, Belem, Para (Brazil)

    2010-07-15

    This paper presents a new approach to training for hydroelectric unit of energy (HUE) by using virtual reality Non-immersive techniques. The software offers two modules of training: maintenance and operation. The first module, maintenance, uses the learning approach based on practice and offers different training levels, divided into three modes: automatic, guided, and exploratory, in which these modes are accessed according to the acquired degree of knowledge by the trainee in relation to maintenance procedures. The second module, allows the trainee to visualize the operation of HUE during a certain event as the electromechanical dynamics of the turbine-generator assemblage in the virtual world by the visualization of several requisite conditions before the startup-shutdown procedure of HUE. (author)

  8. Demonstration of scroll motor advantages for ultra low-head hydroelectric power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, J. E.; Diekmann, J. T.

    1982-02-01

    The potential advantages of an ultra low head hydroelectric power generator utilizing a scroll motor were investigated. The model scroll motor was designed, built, and tested at fluid heads up to 10 ft and speeds up to 270 RPM. The maximum shaft power output of the motor was 400 W. Hydraulic power was converted to shaft power with efficiencies between 30% and 40% with maximum efficiency achieved at a 10 ft head at 175 RPM. Internal leakage losses and friction in the speed increasing gear box as accounting for 50 to 75% of the power losses were identified. Design modifications in the prototype are recommended to reduce these losses. Further efficiency improvements are projected for larger sizes of scroll hydraulic motors. Improvements are recommended for the laboratory model to reduce leakage and speed increaser losses.

  9. Draft guidelines for the environmental impact study of the Great-Whale hydroelectric project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The draft guidelines on the preparation of Hydro-Quebec's environmental and social impact statement for the proposed Great Whale River hydroelectric project are detailed. The guidelines cover project justification, description of the biophysical and social environments, project description, impacts of the project, mitigative measures, residual impacts and compensatory measures, environmental monitoring and follow-up programs. The proponent is asked to provide the justification for the project, including its general rationale, and to evaluate the long-term impact of the project. In justifying the project, the proponent should present energy demand and supply scenarios in sufficient detail to demonstrate the need for the project within the context of sustainable development. Long term impacts on the ecosystems of James Bay and Hudson Bay must be examined, as well as broad ecosystemic impacts such as those on the boreal forest, the tundra, as well as such considerations as global warming and changes in biological and cultural diversity

  10. A holistic approach towards optimal planning of hybrid renewable energy systems: Combining hydroelectric and wind energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimas, Panagiotis; Bouziotas, Dimitris; Efstratiadis, Andreas; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2014-05-01

    Hydropower with pumped storage is a proven technology with very high efficiency that offers a unique large-scale energy buffer. Energy storage is employed by pumping water upstream to take advantage of the excess of produced energy (e.g. during night) and next retrieving this water to generate hydro-power during demand peaks. Excess energy occurs due to other renewables (wind, solar) whose power fluctuates in an uncontrollable manner. By integrating these with hydroelectric plants with pumped storage facilities we can form autonomous hybrid renewable energy systems. The optimal planning and management thereof requires a holistic approach, where uncertainty is properly represented. In this context, a novel framework is proposed, based on stochastic simulation and optimization. This is tested in an existing hydrosystem of Greece, considering its combined operation with a hypothetical wind power system, for which we seek the optimal design to ensure the most beneficial performance of the overall scheme.

  11. Socio-economic and Environmental Implications of the Hydroelectric Projects in Uttarakhand Himalaya, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with detailed analysis of the fiasco created by the Tehri High Dam in Uttarakhand, India, particularly in terms of resettlement and rehabilitation of the local inhabitants. Aspects pertaining to the environmental issues are also discussed. Currently, the river valleys in Uttarakhand state of India are the targets of increasing hydroelectric projects. Virtually all rivers are being exploited for generating environmental friendly power. Having being learned the hard lesson from Tehri Dam, it has been decided to opt for suchschemes in which comparatively little submergenceand tempering with the fragile eco-systems is involved.However, our observations suggest that even in such schemes if due care is not taken they may turn out to be a failure.

  12. Hydroelectric feasibility study: Chubb River Sites, Village of Lake Placid, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This study was performed to determine if the re-installation and re-activation of hydroelectric generating facilities at the Mill Pond and Power Pond dams in the Village of Lake Placid, N.Y. would be technically, environmentally, and economically feasible. The study includes a description and evaluation of the conditions of the existing facilities, an estimate of the potential generation at the two sites, a review of regulatory requirements, an economic analysis, and an implementation schedule for installing the facilities. The results show that the installation of new generating equipment within the existing powerhouse may be economically advantageous. Installation of generating facilities at the Mill Pond site would be uneconomical due to low head, aesthetic, environmental costraints, and therefore, is not recommended. The benefits which would be realized by installing equipment at the powerhouse are long term and station operation would initially have to be subsidized for a number of years. (LCL)

  13. Dynamic simulation and optimization approach to construction diversion of hydraulic and hydroelectric projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG DengHua; LI MingChao; HUANG Wei; LIU Yong

    2009-01-01

    To solve the engineering and scientific problems in construction diversion and its simulation analysis,a complete scheme is presented. Firstly, the complex constraint relationship was analyzed among main buildings, diversion buildings and flow control. Secondly, the time-space relationship model of construction diversion system and the general block diagram-oriented simulation model of diversion process were set up. Then, the corresponding numerical simulation method and 3D dynamic visual simulation method were put forward. Further, the simulation and optimization platform of construction diversion control process was developed, integrated with simulation modeling, computation and visualization. Finally, these methods were applied to a practical project successfully, showing that the modeling process is convenient, the computation and the visual analysis can be coupled effectively,and the results conform to practical state. They provide new theoretical principles and technical measures for analyzing the control problems encountered in construction diversion of hydraulic and hydroelectric engineering under complex conditions.

  14. Dynamic simulation and optimization approach to construction diversion of hydraulic and hydroelectric projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    To solve the engineering and scientific problems in construction diversion and its simulation analysis, a complete scheme is presented. Firstly, the complex constraint relationship was analyzed among main buildings, diversion buildings and flow control. Secondly, the time-space relationship model of construction diversion system and the general block diagram-oriented simulation model of diversion process were set up. Then, the corresponding numerical simulation method and 3D dynamic visual simulation method were put forward. Further, the simulation and optimization platform of construction diversion control process was developed, integrated with simulation modeling, computation and visualization. Finally, these methods were applied to a practical project successfully, showing that the modeling process is convenient, the computation and the visual analysis can be coupled effectively, and the results conform to practical state. They provide new theoretical principles and technical measures for analyzing the control problems encountered in construction diversion of hydraulic and hydroelectric engineering under complex conditions.

  15. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae on wild animals from the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo B Labruna

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available From June 2000 to June 2001, a total of 741 ticks were collected from 51 free-living wild animals captured at the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, located alongside an approximately 180 km course of the Paraná river, between the states of São Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul, comprising 9 species of 3 genera: Ambly-omma (7 species, Boophilus (1 and Anocentor (1. A total of 421 immature Amblyomma ticks were reared in laboratory until the adult stage, allowing identification of the species. A. cajennense was the most frequent tick species (mostly immature stages collected on 9 host species: Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla,Cerdocyon thous, Puma concolor,Tayassu tajacu, Mazama gouazoubira,Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris,Alouatta caraya, Cebus apella. Other tick species were less common, generally restricted to certain host taxa.

  16. Monitoring of Downstream Salmon and Steelhead at Federal Hydroelectric Facilities, 1995 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinson, Rick D.; Graves, Richie J.; Langeslay, Michael J. (Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Environmental and Technical Services Division, Portland, OR)

    1996-12-01

    The seaward migration of juvenile salmonids was monitored by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) at Bonneville and John Day Dams on the Columbia river in 1995. The NMFS Smolt Monitoring Project is part of a larger Smolt Monitoring Program (SMP) coordinated by the Fish Passage Center (FPC) for the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority. This program focuses on protecting, mitigating, and enhancing fish populations affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric power plants on the Columbia River. The purpose of the SMP is to monitor the migration of the juvenile salmonid stocks in the Columbia basin and make flow and spill recommendations designed to facilitate fish passage. Data are also used for travel time, migration timing, and relative run size analysis. The purpose of the NMFS portion of the program is to provide FPC with species and project specific real time data from John Day and Bonneville Dams.

  17. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of a Hydroelectric Installation at the Jeddo Mine Drainage Tunnel. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, J. O.; Mosey, G.

    2013-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Jeddo Tunnel discharge site for a feasibility study of renewable energy potential. The purpose of this report is to assess technical and economic viability of the site for hydroelectric and geothermal energy production. In addition, the report outlines financing options that could assist in the implementation of a system.

  18. Turbulence at Hydroelectric Power Plants and its Potential Effects on Fish.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cada, Glenn F.; Odeh, Mufeed

    2001-01-01

    The fundamental influence of fluid dynamics on aquatic organisms is receiving increasing attention among aquatic ecologists. For example, the importance of turbulence to ocean plankton has long been a subject of investigation (Peters and Redondo 1997). More recently, studies have begun to emerge that explicitly consider the effects of shear and turbulence on freshwater invertebrates (Statzner et al. 1988; Hart et al. 1996) and fishes (Pavlov et al. 1994, 1995). Hydraulic shear stress and turbulence are interdependent natural fluid phenomena that are important to fish, and consequently it is important to develop an understanding of how fish sense, react to, and perhaps utilize these phenomena under normal river flows. The appropriate reaction to turbulence may promote movement of migratory fish or prevent displacement of resident fish. It has been suggested that one of the adverse effects of flow regulation by hydroelectric projects is the reduction of normal turbulence, particularly in the headwaters of reservoirs, which can lead to disorientation and slowing of migration (Williams et al. 1996; Coutant et al. 1997; Coutant 1998). On the other hand, greatly elevated levels of shear and turbulence may be injurious to fish; injuries can range from removal of the mucous layer on the body surface to descaling to torn opercula, popped eyes, and decapitation (Neitzel et al. 2000a,b). Damaging levels of fluid stress can occur in a variety of circumstances in both natural and man-made environments. This paper discusses the effects of shear stress and turbulence on fish, with an emphasis on potentially damaging levels in man-made environments. It defines these phenomena, describes studies that have been conducted to understand their effects, and identifies gaps in our knowledge. In particular, this report reviews the available information on the levels of turbulence that can occur within hydroelectric power plants, and the associated biological effects. The final section

  19. 78 FR 41056 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment BOST5 Hydroelectric LLC... by the Corps. Staff prepared a multi-project environmental assessment (EA), which analyzes...

  20. 护理人员锐器伤与工作满意度关系分析%An analysis on the relationship between medical sharp inj uries and j ob satisfaction among nursing staff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于双杰; 李文玉; 邹艳艳; 张晨

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨护理人员锐器伤的相关因素及其与工作满意度的相关性,为制定有效的预防和干预对策提供依据。方法采用分层随机抽样方法,以新疆某三甲医院护理人员189人作为研究对象。将人口学资料、职业暴露和工作满意度编成问卷进行回顾性调查。结果锐器伤发生率为70.4%,工龄短、学历和职称低的护理人员锐器伤发生率高,次数多为2~5次;大多护理人员防护行为欠佳,知识主要来自学校教育;有过锐器伤的护理人员工作满意度低,工作满意度低的易发生锐器伤。结论除应加强护生岗前培训和职业防护管理外,还要通过提高护理人员工作满意度来减少锐器伤的发生。%Objective To investigate the risk factors of the medical sharp injuries and the correlation with job satisfaction among the nursing staff in one tertiary hospital in Xinjiang for the prevention-consciousness enhancement and the reduction of the occurrence of occupational exposure.Methods A cluster random sampling was adopted to investigate 189 cases with questionnaire surveys on general status,occupational exposure and overall j ob satisfaction during one year.Results The occurrence rate of sharp inj uries was 70.4% among 189 nursing staff and the nursing staff with shorter working time,lower education and tech-nical titles had more sharps inj uries,averagely 2-5 times.Most of the nursing staff had poor protective behavior,with some knowledge mainly from school education.The nurse staff with sharp injuries had lower job satisfaction and the nurse staff with lower j ob satisfaction was prone to the sharp inj uries.Conclusion The pre-service training of nursing students and the management of occupational protection should be further strengthened, and it is suggested to improve the nursing j ob satisfaction to reduce the occurrence of sharp inj uries.

  1. Further Tests of Changes in Fish Escape Behavior Resulting from Sublethal Stresses Associated with Hydroelectric Turbine Passage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryon, M.G.

    2004-10-20

    Fish that pass through a hydroelectric turbine may not be killed directly, but may nonetheless experience sublethal stresses that will increase their susceptibility to predators (indirect mortality). There is a need to develop reliable tests for indirect mortality so that the full consequences of passage through turbines (and other routes around a hydroelectric dam) can be assessed. The most commonly used laboratory technique for assessing susceptibility to predation is the predator preference test. In this report, we evaluate the field application of a new technique that may be valuable for assessing indirect mortality, based on changes in a behavioral response to a startling stimulus (akin to perceiving an approaching predator). The behavioral response is a rapid movement commonly referred to as a startle response, escape response, or C-shape, based on the characteristic body position assumed by the fish. When viewed from above, a startled fish bends into a C-shape, then springs back and swims away in a direction different from its original orientation. This predator avoidance (escape) behavior can be compromised by sublethal stresses that temporarily stun or disorient the fish. Initial studies demonstrated that turbulence created in a small laboratory tank can alter escape behavior. As a next step, we converted our laboratory design to a more portable unit, transported it to Alden Research Laboratory in Holden, Massachusetts, and used it to test fish that passed uninjured through a pilot-scale turbine runner. Rainbow trout were either passed through the turbine or exposed to handling stresses, and their behavior was subsequently evaluated. Groups of five fish were given a startle stimulus (a visual and pressure wave cue) and filmed with a high-speed (500 frames per s) video camera. The reactions of each group of fish to the startle stimulus were filmed at nominally 1-, 5-, and 15-min post-exposure. We compared the behaviors of 70 fish passed through the turbine

  2. A performance overview about fire risk management in the Brazilian hydroelectric generating plants and transmission network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Dayse [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Dept. de Engenharia de Producao, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2004-01-01

    : scenario identification and consequence analysis. It was based on fire dynamics principles, structure engineering and data. The relevant data includes CIGRE failure data, fire accident reports and CHESF maintenance experience on equipment. The analysis focus is on the difficulties that the hydroelectric plants and the transmission sector in Brazil have in tackling fire protection. They make no allusion to the need to take the fire risks that could lead to some type of impact in the interconnected network into consideration. It is hoped that the performance analysis in this study will shed some light on our ability to anticipate unwanted interactions along a hydroelectric plant or substation life circle. (Author)

  3. Semidiurnal and seasonal variations in methane (CH4) emissions from a subtropical hydroelectric reservoir (Nam Theun 2 Reservoir) measured by eddy covariance technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Chandrashekhar; Serça, Dominique; Tardif, Raphael; Demarty, Maud; Descloux, Stéphane; Chanudet, Vincent; Guédant, Pierre; Guérin, Frédéric

    2013-04-01

    Hydroelectric reservoirs have globally been identified as a significant source of methane (CH4) to the atmosphere, especially in the tropics. Assessing these emissions and their variations at small and large time scale represent important scientific challenges. In this context, the objectives of this work are (i) to compare different methodologies used to assess CH4 emissions. (ii) to determine the temporal variations in these emissions at different scales i.e. from daily to seasonal, and link these variations to environmental controlling factors. Measurements of CH4 emissions were made in a recently impounded (May 2008) subtropical hydroelectric reservoir, Nam Theun 2 (NT2), in Lao PDR, Asia. The sampling strategy included three different types of flux measurement techniques: floating chambers (FC), submerged funnels (SF), and the eddy covariance technique (EC). Flux measurements were carried out during four field campaigns conducted between May 2009 and June 2011. Eddy covariance system, composed by a 3D sonic anemometer coupled with a DLT-100 fast methane analyzer (Los Gatos Inc®), was deployed on a mast erected in a large surface of open water. Diffusive and bubbling fluxes were measured using respectively the FC and the SF techniques within the footprint of the EC station. Results from the four field campaigns show individual EC fluxes (30min) varying over 4 orders of magnitude (from 0.01 to 102 mmol.m-2.day-1). Individual diffusive fluxes measured by floating chambers ranged between 0.2 and 3.2 mmol.m-2.day-1. Bubbling fluxes were found to be highly sporadic, with individual daily flux values varying from 0 to 102 mmol.m-2.day-1. For all field campaigns, EC fluxes were very consistent with the sum of the two terms measured independently (diffusive fluxes + bubbling fluxes = EC fluxes), indicating that the eddy covariance system picked-up both diffusive and bubbling emissions from the reservoir, which is a very new and encouraging result for further studies

  4. Flow-Induced Pulsation and Vibration in Hydroelectric Machinery Engineer’s Guidebook for Planning, Design and Troubleshooting

    CERN Document Server

    Dörfler, Peter; Coutu, André

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1970’s, an increasing amount of specialized research has focused on the problems created by instability of internal flow in hydroelectric power plants. However, progress in this field is hampered by the inter­disciplinary nature of the subject, between fluid mechanics, structural mechanics and hydraulic transients. Flow-induced Pulsation and Vibration in Hydroelectric Machinery provides a compact guidebook explaining the many different underlying physical mechanisms and their possible effects.   Typical phenomena are described to assist in the proper diagnosis of problems and various key strategies for solution are compared and considered with support from practical experience and real-life examples. The link between state-of the-art CFD computation and notorious practical problems is discussed  and quantitative data is provided on  normal levels of vibration and pulsation so realistic limits can be set for future projects. Current projects are also addressed as the possibilities and limitatio...

  5. Status Review of Wildlife Mitigation at 14 of 27 Major Hydroelectric Projects in Idaho, 1983-1984 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Robert C.; Mehrhoff, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act and wildlife and their habitats in the Columbia River Basin and to compliance with the Program, the wildlife mitigation status reports coordination with resource agencies and Indian Tribes. developed the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program development, operation, and maintenance of hydroelectric projects on existing agreements; and past, current, and proposed wildlife factual review and documentation of existing information on wildlife meet the requirements of Measure 1004(b)(l) of the Program. The mitigation, enhancement, and protection activities were considered. In mitigate for the losses to those resources resulting from the purpose of these wildlife mitigation status reports is to provide a resources at some of the Columbia River Basin hydroelectric projects the river and its tributaries. To accomplish this goal, the Council were written with the cooperation of project operators, and in within Idaho.

  6. Executive summary: legal obstacles and incentives to small-scale hydroelectric development in the six middle atlantic states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The executive summary describes the relationship of Federal law and regulation to state law and regulation of small-scale hydroelectric facilities, highlighting important features of the constitutional, statutory, case law, and regulations of each of the six middle atlantic states (Maryland, Delaware, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Virginia). Water law, direct and indirect regulation, and financial considerations for each state are presented. A flow diagram of regulation of small dams in each state is also included.

  7. Spatial Distribution of Fragmentation by Diversion-Typed Hydroelectric Plant Exploitation in East Baoxing Catchment from 1999 to 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Huang; Li Zheng; Dongchuan Wang; Wengang Chen; Qianqian Wang

    2015-01-01

    In the Southwest Mountain areas, successive hydroelectric plant exploitation by humans on Baoxing River can exert a significant impact on regional landscape composition and structure. Taking East Baoxing River Catchment as the study area, the authors developed a method combining Moving Window based Calculation and Spatial Correlation Analysis to analyze the relationship between fragmentation and related spatial factors at a local scale, aiming to examine the spatial distribution rule of the l...

  8. A model optimization for pre-dispatch among the hydroelectric generator unities; Um modelo de otimizacao para pre-despacho entre as unidades geradoras de hidreletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colnago, Glauber R.; Correia, Paulo B. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mails: grcolnago@fem.unicamp.br; pcorreia@fem.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    This work proposes a mixed integer nonlinear programming model to pre-dispatch of a hydroelectric power plant. In the model we want to minimize the losses in the electricity generation with conditions of electricity demand, operational prohibited zones and units' efficiency data. The Xingo Hydroelectric Power Plant was utilized in the mode tests. The solver used was Lingo 8.0. (author)

  9. Impact of hydroelectric projects on river environment: Analysis of water quality changes in Ningxia Reach of Yellow River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Dongpo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the relationship between hydroelectric projects and the river environment is analyzed. Recently, the large-scale regulation of runoff by large hydroelectric projects in the Ningxia Reach of the Yellow River has altered natural runoff processes, causing an increase in the probability of low discharge and an overall adjustment of riverbed evolution and river characteristics. During low-flow years, the combined effects of these two changes can weaken the self-purification capacity and reduce the water environmental capacity of the river. This is one of the main reasons for the recent decrease of water quality in the Ningxia Reach. This research shows that it is necessary to implement river training projects to maintain stable flow paths, not only for adjusting river regimes and for flood control, but also for increasing the self-purification capacity and the water environmental capacity of the river. Methods and proposals for coordinating the operation of hydroelectric projects with the protection of the river environment are presented in the interest of promoting sustainable development.

  10. Impact of hydroelectric projects on river environment: Analysis of water quality changes in Ningxia Reach of Yellow River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Dongpo; Lu Ruili; Song Yongjun; Yan Jun

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the relationship between hydroelectric projects and the river environment is analyzed. Recently, the large-scale regulation of runoff by large hydroelectric projects in the Ningxia Reach of the Yellow River has altered natural runoff processes, causing an increase in the probability of low discharge and an overall adjustment of riverbed evolution and river characteristics. During low-flow years, the combined effects of these two changes can weaken the self-purification capacity and reduce the water environmental capacity of the river. This is one of the main reasons for the recent decrease of water quality in the Ningxia Reach. This research shows that it is necessary to implement river training projects to maintain stable flow paths, not only for adjusting river regimes and for flood control, but also for increasing the self-purification capacity and the water environmental capacity of the river. Methods and proposals for coordinating the operation of hydroelectric projects with the protection of the river environment are presented in the interest of promoting sustainable development.

  11. URiNER iNKONTiNANS SORUNU, EPiDEMiYOLOJiSi VE iNKONTiNANSLI HASTANIN TANI AMACIYLA DEGERLENDiRiLMESi

    OpenAIRE

    KIZILKAYA BEJİ, Doç.Dr.Nezihe

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARYThe Problem Of Urinary Incontinance, It's Epidemiology And Assessment Of TheIncontinent Patient For The Diagnosis:      Urinary incontinence is defined as the involuntary loss of urine which is objectively demostrable and a social or hygienic problem. It can affect people of all ages, across the lifespan. Although prevalence increases with age, incontinence is also a problem for younger people, especially women. Incontinence can have adverse physical, psychological, social and economic...

  12. Small-scale hydroelectric power in the southeast: new impetus for an old energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The Southeastern conference, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power: New Impetus for an Old Energy Source, was convened to provide a forum for state legislators and other interested persons to discuss the problems facing small-scale hydro developers, and to recommend appropriate solutions to resolve those problems. During the two-day meeting state legislators and their staffs, along with dam developers, utility and industry representatives, environmentalists and federal/state officials examined and discussed the problems impeding small-scale hydro development at the state level. Based upon the problem-oriented discussions, alternative policy options were recommended for consideration by the US Department of Energy, state legislatures and the staff of the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). Emphasis was placed on the legal, institutional, environmental and economic barriers at the state level, as well as the federal delays associated with licensing small-scale hydro projects. Whereas other previously held conferences have emphasized the identification and technology of small-scale hydro as an alternative energy source, this conference stressed legislative resolution of the problems and delays in small-scale hydro licensing and development. Panel discussions and workshops are summarized. Papers on the environmental, economic, and legal aspects of small-scale hydropower development are presented. (LCL)

  13. Downstream movement of mature eels in a hydroelectric reservoir in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watene, E.M.; Boubee, J.A.T.; Haro, A.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates the behavior of migrant eels as they approached the Patea hydroelectric dam on the West Coast of the North Island, New Zealand. Seventeen mature migrant eels (870-1,240 mm; 2,000-6,380 g) were implanted with coded acoustic transmitters and released. Their movements in the reservoir were monitored for 14 months with stationary data logging and manual tracking receivers. The downstream migration of sexually maturing eels was found to occur mainly at night, usually during, or immediately after, rainfall events. Eels tended to travel at the surface, within the upper 4 m of the water column, at speeds ranging from 16 to 89 cm/s. Upon reaching the headrace, eels typically spent time searching, presumably for an unobstructed downstream route. In order to aid downstream passage of eels at the Patea Dam, power station operators began spillway opening trials during peak migration periods. Although this allowed some migrant eels to safely pass over the dam, information on the relative effectiveness and cost of this method over other possible mitigation methods is still required. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2003.

  14. Determination of methane emissions in three hydroelectric dams in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Herrera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The emission fluxes of methane (CH4 across air–water interface were measured in three hydroelectric dams in Costa Rica (Brasil, Nuestro Amo and Cote Lake during three years cycle (2009-2011, using the floating static chamber technique. Samples were taken during one week, both day and night time, through four campaigns per year. For the methane flux determination the water surface was divided in a 4x4 grid equally spaced. During this period, CH4 fluxes showed average values that ranged from 759 – 4282 (Brasil, 77 – 733 (Nuestro Amo and 10,9 – 44,2 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 (Cote Lake, respectively. The fluxes of CH4 showed both strong seasonal and diurnal variations. CH4 emission rate was highest in dry season and there was a significant difference for CH4 emissions between day and night, the ratios between nighttime to daytime methane flux increased from 0,35 to 0,72, 0,43 to 0,64 for Brasil and Nuestro Amo, respectively in this season. CH4 emission was correlated positively with soil temperature, water table and chlorophyll a water concentrations.

  15. Hydroelectric power plants. Small-scale plants; 4. ed.; Wasserkraftanlagen. Klein- und Kleinstkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palffy, S.O.; Brada, K. [Ceske Vysoke Uceni Technicke, Prague (Czechoslovakia); Hartenstein, R. [Energie-Versorgung Schwaben AG, Stuttgart (Germany); Mueller, U. [Ingenieurbuero Maggia, Locarno (Switzerland); Nowotny, G. [WKA Anlagenbau GmbH, Heidenheim/Brenz (Germany); Partzsch, P. [Ossberger-Turbinenfabrik GmbH und Co., Weissenburg (Germany); Roemer, K.H.; Schlimgen, W.; Tratz, D.; Walcher, H. [Walcher-Elektronik, Steuerungstechnik, Transformatoren, Eichenzell (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Small-scale power plants in the range below 500 kW make an important contribution to power generation. The book contains practical information on hydroelectric power plants, criteria for turbine selection, electric equipment, and the Ossberger turbine. Problems concerning taxation and energy and water legislation are gone into. Also discussed are economic criteria during acquisition, new construction, and modernisation for the purpose of electric power generation and grid power supply. (DG) [Deutsch] Dieses Buch gibt praxisbezogen Auskunft fuer all jene, die - eine Wasserkraftanlage fuer Energietransformation und -verwendung im eigenen Betrieb errichten oder erwerben wollen - eine Wasserkraftanlage schon besitzen oder erwerben moechten, die aber modernisiert und evtl. vergroessert werden soll - eine bisher stillgelegte Anlage wieder in Betrieb nehmen wollen (hierbei ist in der Regel ebenfalls eine Modernisierung notwendig) - eine Wasserkraftanlage zur Stromerzeugung und Einspeisung in das oeffentliche Netz nutzen wollen. Inhalt: Einfuehrung in die theoretischen Grundlagen - Auswahlkriterien - Elektrische Ausruestungen - Gesamtplanung - die Ossberger Turbine - Energierechtliche Probleme - Wirtschaftlichkeitskriterien - Steuerliche Fragen bei Errichtung, Erwerb und Modernisierung - Aufrechterhaltung vorhandener alter Wasserrechte bei Modernisierung von Klein- und Kleinstkraftwerken. (orig.)

  16. On the performance of nondestructive testing methods in the hydroelectric turbine industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welded joints of turbine runners are one of the most critical parts of Francis turbines due to the presence of welding discontinuity and high stress. Because of thermal cycles, solidification, cooling distortion and residual stresses, welded joints always include discontinuities of different types and sizes. Some specific parameters will limit welding flaw dimensions in some or all direction based on the joint geometry, material and welding procedure. If discontinuities of critical size remain undetected, fatigue cracks might initiate and propagate in these zones because of dynamic in-service stresses leading to high repair costs and long down times. Therefore, reliable NDT methods and good knowledge of the probability of occurrence of welding flaws is important for fatigue life estimations. Every NDT method has its weaknesses; therefore, even after meticulous inspections it is likely for some discontinuities of critical sizes to remain in the welded joint. Our objective is to clarify the probability of detection and occurrence of different types of welding flaws in hydroelectric turbine runners. Furthermore, an overview of current nondestructive inspection methods and their capability in characterizing flaw dimensions will be discussed. Finally, advanced NDT techniques, for the characterization of welded joints integrity, will be proposed

  17. Distribution of Major and Trace Elements in a Tropical Hydroelectric Reservoir in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Siong Fong; Ling, Teck Yee; Nyanti, Lee; Ean Lee, Terri Zhuan; Mohd Irwan Lu, Nurul Aida Lu; Bakeh, Tomy

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the metals content in water, sediment, macroalgae, aquatic plant, and fish of Batang Ai Hydroelectric Reservoir in Sarawak, Malaysia. The samples were acid digested and subjected to atomic absorption spectrometry analysis for Na, K, Mn, Cr, Ni, Zn, Mg, Fe, Sn, Al, Ca, As, Se, and Hg. The total Hg content was analysed on the mercury analyser. Results showed that metals in water, sediment, macroalgae, aquatic plant, and fish are distinguishable, with sediment and biota samples more susceptible to metal accumulation. The distributions of heavy metals in water specifically Se, Sn, and As could have associated with the input of fish feed, boating, and construction activities. The accumulation of heavy metals in sediment, macroalgae, and aquatic plant on the other hand might be largely influenced by the redox conditions in the aquatic environment. According to the contamination factor and the geoaccumulation index, sediment in Batang Ai Reservoir possesses low risk of contamination. The average metal contents in sediment and river water are consistently lower than the literature values reported and well below the limit of various guidelines. For fishes, trace element Hg was detected; however, the concentration was below the permissible level suggested by the Food and Agriculture Organization. PMID:27437493

  18. Hydroelectricity, land use and water managing; Hidroelectricidad, uso del suelo y manejo del agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Canet, Lourdes [Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Aplica, S. A., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This document deals with the importance of determining the vocation of the geographic site where it is pretended to execute a hydroelectric project, since it is necessary to asses various alternative sites, in order to select the most appropriate, where the environmental impacts be less, without forgetting for a minute the ecological criteria for its final selection. Unfortunately there are not environmental studies of periodic continuation departing from the commissioning of a dam, since this studies would permit to know the real environmental impacts in order to solve them later [Espanol] Este documento trata la importancia de determinar la vocacion del lugar geografico donde se pretende llevar a cabo un proyecto hidroelectrico, ya que es necesario evaluar diversos lugares alternativos, con objeto de elegir el mejor, donde los impactos ambientales sean menores, sin olvidar en ningun momento los criterios ecologicos para su eleccion definitiva. Lamentablemente no hay estudios ambientales de seguimiento periodicos a partir de que una presa se encuentre en operacion, ya que estos estudios permitirian conocer realmente los impactos ambientales para poder solucionarlos posteriormente

  19. Development of an HTS hydroelectric power generator for the hirschaid power station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Ruben; Lewis, Clive; Eugene, Joseph; Ingles, Martin

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes the development and manufacture of a 1.7MW, 5.25kV, 28pole, 214rpm hydroelectric power generator consisting of superconducting HTS field coils and a conventional stator. The generator is to be installed at a hydro power station in Hirschaid, Germany and is intended to be a technology demonstrator for the practical application of superconducting technology for sustainable and renewable power generation. The generator is intended to replace and uprate an existing conventional generator and will be connected directly to the German grid. The HTS field winding uses Bi-2223 tape conductor cooled to about 30K using high pressure helium gas which is transferred from static cryocoolers to the rotor via a bespoke rotating coupling. The coils are insulated with multi-layer insulation and positioned over laminated iron rotor poles which are at room temperature. The rotor is enclosed within a vacuum chamber and the complete assembly rotates at 214rpm. The challenges have been significant but have allowed Converteam to develop key technology building blocks which can be applied to future HTS related projects. The design challenges, electromagnetic, mechanical and thermal tests and results are presented and discussed together with applied solutions.

  20. Fitzsimmons run-of-river hydroelectric project : threading a needle through an Olympic venue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, C.; Humphries, R. [Golder Associates Ltd., Squamish, BC (Canada); Tremblay, C. [RSW Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Yamamoto, S. [Ledcor CMI, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper outlined a hydro-electric project that is currently being constructed in the Resort Municipality of Whistler, British Columbia. The Fitzsimmons Creek project is a 7.5 MW run-of-river hydro project that will operate beside a bobsleigh track built for for the 2010 Olympic games. The project is comprised of a 248 m head drop on the creek with a 3.4 km penstock to a powerhouse equipped with a vertical Pelton turbine with a design flow of 4 m{sup 3} per second. The intake and spillway structures were located in a narrow section of the creek where a high sediment load is required to pass over the structure during flood conditions. Part of the penstock is being installed in a narrow access road between the bobsleigh track and the slope down to the creek. Vertical micro-piles are being used for slope stabilization. The powerhouse has been positioned at the base of a steep slope away from the potential outwash flooding from landslides. The difference in elevation between the intake and powerhouse is approximately 250 m. It was concluded that despite the design challenges of the project, no disturbances to the Olympic bobsleigh infrastructure have occurred as a result of the project. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Overview of, and demands on, small hydroelectric turbines; Kleinwasserturbinen, Ueberblick und Anforderungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lein, G. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Stroemungsmechanik und Hydraulische Stroemungsmaschinen

    1997-12-31

    The report deals with some aspects of small hydroelectric turbines which the reporter`s experience has proved to be relevant. Although this experience derives in part from larger units, most of it holds true also of small turbines. The report does not restrict itself to the high-tech conditions of central Europe. A brief overview of turbine types is given. Questions of the choice and construction of turbines, and questions relating to guarantees and their verification are discussed. Some important standards, norms and guidelines which apply to small turbines are pointed out. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im folgenden Bericht werden einige Aspekte von Kleinwasserturbinen angesprochen, die nach der Erfahrung des Berichters von Wichtigkeit sind. Wenn diese Erfahrungen auch zum Teil an groesseren Einheiten gewonnen wurden, so sind sie doch ueberwiegend auch fuer Kleinturbinen gueltig. Der Bericht beschraenkt sich dabei nicht auf Verhaeltnisse in unserem hochtechnisierten mitteleuropaeischen Raum. Nach einem kurzen Ueberblick ueber die Turbinentypen werden Fragen der Turbinenauswahl und -konstruktion und der Garantien und deren Nachweis angesprochen. Schliesslich wird eine Uebersicht ueber einige wichtige Standards, Normen und Richtlinien, die auf Kleinturbinen angewendet werden koennen, gegeben. (orig.)

  2. Impacts of hydroelectric dams on alluvial riparian plant communities in eastern Brazilian Amazonian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEANDRO VALLE FERREIRA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The major rivers of the Amazon River basin and their biota are threatened by the planned construction of large hydroelectric dams that are expected to have strong impacts on floodplain plant communities. The present study presents forest inventories from three floodplain sites colonized by alluvial riparian vegetation in the Tapajós, Xingu and Tocantins River basins in eastern Amazonian. Results indicate that tree species of the highly specialized alluvial riparian vegetation are clearly distinct among the three river basins, although they are not very distinct from each other and environmental constraints are very similar. With only 6 of 74 species occurring in all three inventories, most tree and shrub species are restricted to only one of the rivers, indicating a high degree of local distribution. Different species occupy similar environmental niches, making these fragile riparian formations highly valuable. Conservation plans must consider species complementarily when decisions are made on where to place floodplain forest conservation units to avoid the irreversible loss of unique alluvial riparian vegetation biodiversity.

  3. Distribution of Major and Trace Elements in a Tropical Hydroelectric Reservoir in Sarawak, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyanti, Lee; Ean Lee, Terri Zhuan; Mohd Irwan Lu, Nurul Aida Lu

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the metals content in water, sediment, macroalgae, aquatic plant, and fish of Batang Ai Hydroelectric Reservoir in Sarawak, Malaysia. The samples were acid digested and subjected to atomic absorption spectrometry analysis for Na, K, Mn, Cr, Ni, Zn, Mg, Fe, Sn, Al, Ca, As, Se, and Hg. The total Hg content was analysed on the mercury analyser. Results showed that metals in water, sediment, macroalgae, aquatic plant, and fish are distinguishable, with sediment and biota samples more susceptible to metal accumulation. The distributions of heavy metals in water specifically Se, Sn, and As could have associated with the input of fish feed, boating, and construction activities. The accumulation of heavy metals in sediment, macroalgae, and aquatic plant on the other hand might be largely influenced by the redox conditions in the aquatic environment. According to the contamination factor and the geoaccumulation index, sediment in Batang Ai Reservoir possesses low risk of contamination. The average metal contents in sediment and river water are consistently lower than the literature values reported and well below the limit of various guidelines. For fishes, trace element Hg was detected; however, the concentration was below the permissible level suggested by the Food and Agriculture Organization. PMID:27437493

  4. On the performance of nondestructive testing methods in the hydroelectric turbine industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibzadeh Boukani, H.; Viens, M.; Tahan, S. A.; Gagnon, M.

    2014-03-01

    Welded joints of turbine runners are one of the most critical parts of Francis turbines due to the presence of welding discontinuity and high stress. Because of thermal cycles, solidification, cooling distortion and residual stresses, welded joints always include discontinuities of different types and sizes. Some specific parameters will limit welding flaw dimensions in some or all direction based on the joint geometry, material and welding procedure. If discontinuities of critical size remain undetected, fatigue cracks might initiate and propagate in these zones because of dynamic in-service stresses leading to high repair costs and long down times. Therefore, reliable NDT methods and good knowledge of the probability of occurrence of welding flaws is important for fatigue life estimations. Every NDT method has its weaknesses; therefore, even after meticulous inspections it is likely for some discontinuities of critical sizes to remain in the welded joint. Our objective is to clarify the probability of detection and occurrence of different types of welding flaws in hydroelectric turbine runners. Furthermore, an overview of current nondestructive inspection methods and their capability in characterizing flaw dimensions will be discussed. Finally, advanced NDT techniques, for the characterization of welded joints integrity, will be proposed.

  5. Hydroelectric development and translocation of Galaxias brevipinnis: a cloud at the end of the tunnel?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, J. M.; Closs, G. P. [Otago Univ., Dept. of Zoology, Dunedin (New Zealand); Shirley, M. [Sinclair Knight Merz, Victoria (Australia)

    2002-01-01

    This study aims to determine the genetic status of Murray River Galaxias brevipinnis, a small salmoniform freshwater fish in southeastern Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand and associated island, which is an aggressive migrant that is able to penetrate long distances. Determining the genetic status would make it possible to discriminate between conflicting hypotheses explaining the origin of this species. If a human-mediated translocation scenario is supported, the study may have implications for hydroelectric developments in general. Alternatively, if Murray River G. brevipinnis are shown to be native to this drainage, the opportunity exists to identify significant units of biodiversity for conservation. DNA analysis data assembled by these authors are consistent with the translocation hypothesis but are generally inconsistent with a natural origin Murray River G. brevipinnis. It is concluded that this human-mediated translocation represents a risk to native fauna. The most significant risk is the danger of hybridization between translocated G. brevipinnis and native G. olidus. 39 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  6. Tazimina hydroelectric project, Iliamna, Alaska. Final technical and construction cost report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Iliamna-Newhalen-Nondalton Electric Cooperative (INNEC) provides electrical power to three communities of the same names. These communities are located near the north shore of Iliamna Lake in south-central Alaska approximately 175 miles southwest of Anchorage. A hydroelectric project was constructed for these communities, starting in the spring of 1996 and ending in the spring of 1998. The project site is on the Tazimina River about 12 miles northeast of Iliamna Lake. The taximina River flows west from the Aleutian Range. The project site is at Tazimina Falls about 9 miles upstream of the confluence of the Tazimina River and the Newhalen River. The project has an installed capacity of 824 kilowatts (kW) and is expandable to 1.5 megawatts (MW). The project is run-of-the-river (no storage) and uses the approximately 100 feet of natural head provided by the falls. The project features include a channel control sill, intake structure, penstock, underground powerhouse, tailrace, surface control building, buried transmission line and communication cable, and access road.

  7. The market of new electric energies. Wind, solar, biomass, hydroelectricity: which perspectives by 2015?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report highlights the consequences of the modification of the energy economic environment, the main trends of the sector, and predictable evolutions. A first part presents the situation of the French market of new electric energy sources in 2011 and its perspectives by 2015 for hydroelectricity, wind energy, photovoltaic energy, and biomass-based energy (production capacities, installations to be connected, electricity production and its share in electricity consumption), and discusses the main challenges faced by the profession. The second part proposes a comparison between these new energies and nuclear energy in terms of economic structure (number of companies, staff, turnover, public investment, and so on), synthetic sheets of the different renewable sectors, and an overview of the World and European markets of new electric energies. The third part identifies the existing actors. The fourth part analyses growth brakes and drivers (French energy policy, economic context for the 2011-2015 period, other factors which have influence on the market). The fifth part proposes a large set of economic and financial indicators for 200 actors of the sector

  8. Feasibility determination of hydroelectric power generation at Patillas Reservoir, Puerto Rico. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huetter, J.J. Jr.

    1979-02-01

    The overall feasibility of retrofit for hydroelectric power generation at the Patillas Reservoir, an existing impoundment located near the town of Patillas, Puerto Rico, was studied. The scope of work and project intent is limited to establishing valid acceptance or non-acceptance criteria for this specific site as an example of power generation potential at existing dams of relatively low head (less than or equal to 20 m) in the United States. Information is included on hydrologic conditions at the site, retrofit plant design, economic analysis, environmental, legal, social and institutional aspects, and availability of plant equipment. It is concluded that generation of hydropower at Patillas is entirely practical and uncomplicated from an engineering viewpoint, has no adverse environmental effects and is economically justifiable for the island of Puerto Rico. The final agency or contractor roles for development are reasonably well-established. There are no prohibitory laws or regulations concerning this development. In fact, according to Puerto Rico legislation, such hydropower developments appear to be mandated. The installed capacity of the site ranges from 665 kW to approximately 1500 kW depending on extent of development of the available options. (LCL)

  9. Hydroelectric microcentrals for small consumption centers; Microcentrales hidroelectricas para pequenos centros de consumo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeles A, V. H.; Espino C, F. P. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Buitron Sanchez, H. C. [Programa de Ahorro de Energia para el Sector Electrico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    The utilization of alternate energy sources (wind power, solar and hydro to small scale) represents an option for the rural electrification. This paper analyzes the case of hydro microgeneration, for this purpose the mechanical and electrical fitting are mainly discussed. For the mechanical re-equipment the turbine types that can be used are fundamentally presented and how they can be selected. As to the electrical re-equipment the different types of electric generators are discussed, as well as the form of selecting them, the operation, the control and the protection in the hydroelectric microcentrals. [Espanol] La utilizacion de fuentes alternas de energia (eolica, solar e hidraulica a pequena escala) representan una alternativa para la electrificacion rural. Este trabajo trata del caso de la microgeneracion hidraulica para la cual se discuten principalmente, alternativas para el equipamiento mecanico y electrico. Para el equipamiento mecanico se presentan fundamentalmente los tipos de turbinas que pueden ser utilizadas y como se pueden seleccionar. En cuanto al equipo electrico se manejan los diferentes tipos de generadores, la forma de seleccionarlos, la operacion, el control y la proteccion en las microcentrales hidroelectricas.

  10. Inexpensive cross-flow hydropower turbine at Arbuckle Mountain Hydroelectric Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-07-01

    This report documents the first three and half years of operation and maintenance on the Arbuckle Mountain Hydroelectric Project. Located on a flashy mountain stream in northern California, the project was designed, built and tested through a Cooperative Agreement between the US DOE and OTT Engineering, Inc. (OTT). The purpose of the Agreement is to build and intensively test an inexpensive American-made cross-flow turbine and to provide information to the DOE on the cost, efficiency, operation, and maintenance of the unit. It requires that OTT document for DOE a summary of the complete operating statistics, operation and maintenance cost, and revenues from power sales for a two-year operating period. Several unique events occurred between the initial start-up (December 1986) and the beginning of the 1989 generation season (October 1988) that delayed the first year's full operation and provided unique information for a demonstration project of this type. Accordingly, this report will discuss certain major problems experienced with the design, operation and maintenance, and energy production, as well as the operation and maintenance costs and value of the power produced for the first three and half years of operation. 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Examining the cost efficiency of Chinese hydroelectric companies using a finite mixture model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper evaluates the operational activities of Chinese hydroelectric power companies over the period 2000–2010 using a finite mixture model that controls for unobserved heterogeneity. In so doing, a stochastic frontier latent class model, which allows for the existence of different technologies, is adopted to estimate cost frontiers. This procedure not only enables us to identify different groups among the hydro-power companies analysed, but also permits the analysis of their cost efficiency. The main result is that three groups are identified in the sample, each equipped with different technologies, suggesting that distinct business strategies need to be adapted to the characteristics of China's hydro-power companies. Some managerial implications are developed. - Highlights: ► This paper evaluates the operational activities of Chinese electricity hydric companies. ► This study uses data from 2000 to 2010 using a finite mixture model. ► The model procedure identifies different groups of Chinese hydric companies analysed. ► Three groups are identified in the sample, each equipped with completely different “technologies”. ► This suggests that distinct business strategies need to be adapted to the characteristics of the hydric companies

  12. Problems of hydroelectric development at existing dams: an analysis of institutional, economic, and environmental restraints in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.J.; Green, L.L.

    1979-04-01

    The methodology that has been developed to analyze the impact of possible government actions on the development of small-scale hydroelectric power in the United States is described. The application of the methodology to a specific region of the United States is also described. Within the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland (PJM) region, the methodology has been used to evaluate the significance of some of the existing institutional and economic constraints on hydroelectric development at existing dams. The basic process for the analysis and evaluation is estimation of the hydroelectric energy that can be developed for a given price of electricity. Considering the present constraints and a geographical region of interest, one should be able to quantify the potential hydroelectric energy supply versus price. Estimates of how the supply varies with possible changes in governmental policies, regulations, and actions should assist the government in making decisions concerning these governmental functions relative to hydroelectric development. The methodology for estimating the hydroelectric supply at existing dams is included.

  13. Temporal variation in fish community in the tailrace at Três Marias Hydroelectric Dam, São Francisco River, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Coelho Loures

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Damming rivers to generate hydroelectric energy causes a series of changes in the environment, including impacts on the ichthyofauna. Knowledge of the fish community immediately downstream from a hydroelectric dam can help to reduce the negative effects of dam operation, such as fish entrance into the draft tube during turbines maintenance. We evaluated the temporal variation in fish community composition and abundance, near Três Marias Hydroelectric Dam (TMD, and its relationship with abiotic variables. Samples (n = 18 were carried out using gill nets in the tailrace of the dam, over the course of a hydrological year, at six time points during a 24-hour period. Abiotic data were also sampled to assess the relationship with the biotic data. In the tailrace, Characiformes showed the highest richness, while Siluriformes were the most abundant. Of the 33 species sampled, six were migratory. The fish community was significantly different between the dry and wet seasons, with higher abundances during the wet season. In the wet season, the frequency of migratory species in the community rose from 0.7 to 18.3%, and Pimelodus maculatus accounted for 14.5% of the overall abundance. We observed that Characiformes captures occurred mainly in the morning, with peak activity between 5:00 and 9:00 h. Siluriformes showed greater nocturnal activity and were largely captured between 17:00 and 21:00 h. Synchronizing operational maneuvers that represent high risk to the fish with periods of low abundance in the tailrace, i.e., during months of low precipitation, may be a measure to reduce the impact of the operation on the downstream fish community.O barramento de rios para implantação de hidrelétricas causa uma série de modificações no ambiente, gerando impactos sobre a ictiofauna. O conhecimento sobre a comunidade de peixes encontrada imediatamente à jusante pode auxiliar na redução de impactos gerados pela sua operação. Assim, avaliamos as varia

  14. 早期肠内营养对大鼠胃缺血再灌注损伤的影响%The Effects of Early Enteral Nutrition on Rats Gastric Ischemia Reperfusion Inj ury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴利; 谢乙明; 刘银娣

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨早期肠内营养对大鼠胃缺血-再灌注损伤(gastric ischemia-reperfusion inj ury,GI-RI)的影响及主要作用机制。方法建立大鼠GI-RI模型,将实验动物采用随机数字表法分为早期肠内营养组(early enteral nutrition,EEN)、单纯损伤组(I)和正常对照组(C),肉眼计数胃黏膜损伤指数、光镜下行病理评分、采用比色法检测胃黏膜脂质过氧化物丙二醛(male-ic dialdehvde,MDA)含量和血清超氧化物歧化酶(superoxide dismutase,SOD)活力,并观察大鼠的体质量变化。结果 EEN组和 I组的胃黏膜溃疡指数、病理评分、MDA含量、体质量下降值在 GI-RI后明显高于对照组(P<0.05),SOD活力明显低于对照组(P<0.05)。EEN组和 I组比较,除6 h以外的各时间点,EEN组胃黏膜损伤指数、MDA含量、体质量下降值均明显低于I组(P<0.05),SOD活力高于I组(P<0.01)。72 h病理评分EEN组低于I组(P<0.05)。结论早期肠内营养能明显减轻大鼠缺血-再灌注后的胃黏膜损伤,其可能机制是通过促进机体氧化与抗氧化平衡实现的。%Objective To investigate the effects of early enteral nutrition on rats gastric ischemia reperfu-sion inj ury.Methods Setting GI-RI mode,and the rats were randomly divided into 3 groups:early enteral nutrition group(EEN group),injury group(I group),and control group(C group).Gastric mucosal injury index,light microscope pathological score,gastric mucous membrane lipid peroxide MDA and vitality of serum superoxide dismutase was tested by using colorimetric method,and body mass change were observed.Results The gastric mucosal inj ury index,pathological score,the content of MDA,the value of weight loss in both EEN group and inj ury group were higher than those in control group after GI-RI (P<0.05).Meanwhile,the activity of SOD were lower than control group (P<0.05).The gastric mucosal injury index

  15. Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geoff Brindley

    2005-01-01

    @@ Introduction TERMINOLOGY AND KEY CONCEPTS The term assessment refers to a variety of ways of collecting information on a learner's language ability or achievement. Although testing and assessment are often used interchangeably, the latter is an umbrella term encompassing measurement instruments administered on a ‘one-off’ basis such as tests, as well as qualitative methods of monitoring and recording student learning such as observation, simulations of project work. Assessment is also distinguished from evaluation which is concerned with the overall language programme and not just with what individual students have learnt. Proficiency assessment refers to the assessment of general language abilities acquired by the learner independent of a course of study.This kind of assessment is often done through the administration of standardised commercial language-proficency tests. On the other hand, assessment of achievement aims to establish what a student had learned in relation to a particular course or curriculum (thus frequently carried out by the teacher) .Achievement assesssment may be based either on the specific content of the course or on the course objectives (Hughes 1989).

  16. Minidoka Dam Wildlife Impact Assessment: Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Robert C.; Meuleman, G. Allyn

    1989-03-01

    A wildlife impact assessment has been developed for the US Bureau of Reclamation's Minidoka Dam and Reservoir in south central Idaho. This assessment was conducted to fulfill requirements of the Fish and Wildlife Program. Specific objectives of this study included the following: select target wildlife species, and identify their current status and management goals; estimate the net effects on target wildlife species resulting from hydroelectric development and operation; recommend protection, mitigation, and enhancement goals for target wildlife species affected by hydroelectric development and operation; and consult and coordinate impact assessment activities with the Northwest Power Planning Council, Bonneville Power Administration, US Bureau of Reclamation, Bureau of Land Management, Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee, and other entities expressing interest in the project. 62 refs., 2 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. Energy optimization through probabilistic annual forecast water release technique for major storage hydroelectric reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the important decisions to be made by the management of hydroelectric power plant associated with major storage reservoir is to determine the best turbine water release decision for the next financial year. The water release decision enables firm energy generated estimation for the coming financial year to be done. This task is usually a simple and straightforward task provided that the amount of turbine water release is known. The more challenging task is to determine the best water release decision that is able to resolve the two conflicting operational objectives which are minimizing the drop of turbine gross head and maximizing upper reserve margin of the reservoir. Most techniques from literature emphasize on utilizing the statistical simulations approach. Markovians models, for example, are a class of statistical model that utilizes the past and the present system states as a basis for predicting the future [1]. This paper illustrates that rigorous solution criterion can be mathematically proven to resolve those two conflicting operational objectives. Thus, best water release decision that maximizes potential energy for the prevailing natural inflow is met. It is shown that the annual water release decision shall be made in such a manner that annual return inflow that has return frequency smaller than critical return frequency (fc) should not be considered. This criterion enables target turbine gross head to be set to the well-defined elevation. In the other words, upper storage margin of the reservoir shall be made available to capture magnitude of future inflow that has return frequency greater than or equal to f c. A case study is shown to demonstrate practical application of the derived mathematical formulas

  18. NOVEL TSUNAMI BARRIERS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS FOR HYDROELECTRIC ENERGY STORAGE, FISH FARMING, AND FOR LAND RECLAMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans J. Scheel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The tsunami hazard can be mitigated if the destructive waves generated from earthquakes and landslides can be reflected by a stable submerged vertical barrier before striking coastal communities or important structures. Building such deep walls by conventional submarine technology is difficult. The present study describes the principle and the erection of such submarine defensive walls by a relatively simple efficient and economic technology. This technology is based on lowering high- strength steel fences with horizontal anchors, or two parallel steel fences with distance holders, into the sea and fixing them with rocks deposited from top. Dredged material like gravel or sand can be used for additional filling. This Tsunami-Flooding Barrier (TFB extends a few meters above sea level and carries on top a concrete supply and service road protected on both sides against storm waves by concrete walls. Replaceable surge stoppers (parapets, wave return walls prevent overtopping and erosion of the seaward barrier face. The TFBs protect the coastline against tsunami and the highest storm waves from hurricanes, but also can provide protection from oil spills or other contaminations from the ocean and thus protect flora, fauna, coral reefs and beaches. Channels and gates allow navigation and can be closed quickly upon a tsunami or storm warning. The construction costs can be eventually compensated by using the reservoirs between coast and barriers for hydroelectric energy storage (using pump-turbines in the barriers or for fish-farming, or alternatively the reservoir can be filled with rocks, rubble, gravel, sand and covered with soil in order to reclaim new land. Tidal energy can be generated by installing turbines within these barriers. Also, this submarine architecture may be applied to protect pillars of bridges and offshore platforms, and for erecting “roads” into the sea to connect near-shore platforms and wind-parks with the coast and

  19. NEURAL CASCADED WITH FUZZY SCHEME FOR CONTROL OF A HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Selwin Mich Priyadharson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel design for flow and level control in a hydroelectric power plant using Programmable Logic Controller (PLC-Human Machine Interface (HMI and neural cascaded with fuzzy scheme is proposed. This project will focus on design and development of flow and level controller for small scale hydro generating units by implementing gate control based on PLC-HMI with the proposed scheme. The existing control schemes have so many difficulties to manage intrinsic time delay, nonlinearity due to uncertainty of the process and frequent load changes. This study presents the design of neuro controllers to regulate level, cascaded with fuzzy controller to control flow in gate valve to the turbine. A prototype model is fabricated in the laboratory as experimental setup for flow and level control and real time simulation studies were carried out using PID and neural cascaded with fuzzy scheme. The designed prototype model is fabricated with 5 levels in the upper tank and 2 levels in the lower tank. Based on the outputs of the level sensors from the upper and lower tanks, the ladder logic is actuated. This project work uses PLC of Bernecker and Rainer (B and R Industrial Automation inbuilt with 20 digital inputs and provides 12 potential free outputs to control the miniaturized process depicted in this work. Finally, the performance of the proposed neural cascaded with fuzzy scheme is evaluated by simulation results by comparing with conventional controllers output using real time data obtained from the hydro power plant. The advantages of the proposed neural cascaded with fuzzy scheme over the existing controllers are highlighted.

  20. Potential Coastal Pumped Hydroelectric Energy Storage Locations Identified using GIS-based Topographic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, R.; Barnhart, C. J.; Benson, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    Large-scale electrical energy storage could accommodate variable, weather dependent energy resources such as wind and solar. Pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHS) and compressed energy storage area (CAES) have life cycle energy and financial costs that are an order of magnitude lower than conventional electrochemical storage technologies. However PHS and CAES storage technologies require specific geologic conditions. Conventional PHS requires an upper and lower reservoir separated by at least 100 m of head, but no more than 10 km in horizontal distance. Conventional PHS also impacts fresh water supplies, riparian ecosystems, and hydrologic environments. A PHS facility that uses the ocean as the lower reservoir benefits from a smaller footprint, minimal freshwater impact, and the potential to be located near off shore wind resources and population centers. Although technologically nascent, today one coastal PHS facility exists. The storage potential for coastal PHS is unknown. Can coastal PHS play a significant role in augmenting future power grids with a high faction of renewable energy supply? In this study we employ GIS-based topographic analysis to quantify the coastal PHS potential of several geographic locations, including California, Chile and Peru. We developed automated techniques that seek local topographic minima in 90 m spatial resolution shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM) digital elevation models (DEM) that satisfy the following criteria conducive to PHS: within 10 km from the sea; minimum elevation 150 m; maximum elevation 1000 m. Preliminary results suggest the global potential for coastal PHS could be very significant. For example, in northern Chile we have identified over 60 locations that satisfy the above criteria. Two of these locations could store over 10 million cubic meters of water or several GWh of energy. We plan to report a global database of candidate coastal PHS locations and to estimate their energy storage capacity.

  1. Fish passage mitigation of impacts from hydroelectric power projects in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cada, G.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.

    1996-10-01

    Obstruction of fish movements by dams continues to be the major environmental issue facing the hydropower industry in the US. Dams block upstream migrations, which can cut off adult fish form their historical spawning grounds and severely curtail reproduction. Conversely, downstream-migrating fish may be entrained into the turbine intake flow and suffer turbine-passage injury or mortality. Hydroelectric projects can interfere with the migrations of a wide variety of fish. Maintenance, restoration or enhancement of populations of these species may require the construction of facilities to allow for upstream and downstream fish passage. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), by law, must give fish and wildlife resources equal consideration with power production in its licensing decisions, must be satisfied that a project is consistent with comprehensive plans for a waterway (including fisheries management plans), and must consider all federal and state resource agency terms and conditions for the protection of fish and wildlife. As a consequence, FERC often requires fish passage mitigation measures as a condition of the hydropower license when such measures are deemed necessary for the protection of fish. Much of the recent research and development efforts of the US Department of Energy`s Hydropower Program have focused on the mitigation of impacts to upstream and downstream fish passage. This paper descries three components of that effort: (1) a survey of environmental mitigation measures at hydropower sites across the country; (2) a critical review of the effectiveness of fish passage mitigation measures at 16 case study sites; and (3) ongoing efforts to develop new turbine designs that minimize turbine-passage mortality.

  2. Impact on the aquatic environment of hydro-peaking in hydroelectric plants; Impact sur le milieu aquatique de la gestion par eclusees des usines hydroelectriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabaton, C.; Lauters, F.; Valentin, S.

    1996-12-31

    There are a number of types of hydroelectric installations on French rivers. Some of these intermittently turbine water stored in dammed reservoirs, in order to use available reserves at the most opportune moment for power generation. These plants, run under `hydro-peaking` management procedures, cause variations in discharge in river sections downstream of the restitution, on a daily or weekly scale. To answer questions concerning the impact of such variations in discharge on the aquatic environment, EDF launched a research program aimed at describing and better understanding the physical and biological phenomena related to hydro-peaking and assessing the possible impact of this type of plant management on French streams. Seven sites subjects to hydro-peaking were studied on rivers with mean flow rates lower than 20 m{sup 3}/s (which corresponds to over 65 % of EDF hydro-peaking sites). Four themes in particular were examined: hydraulic characterization of hydro-peaking, modifications in thermal regime and water quality, response of benthic invertebrates and response of fish populations to hydro-peaking. For fish as well as for invertebrates, the role of the base discharge - in the absence of peaking flow - and that of the morphology of the river bed (and, in particular, the presence of shelter for fish) during periods of strong discharge were clearly highlighted. Impact assessment requires a precise diagnosis of the state of biocenoses. To carry out such a diagnosis, one must reason in terms of species, life phase (particularly the most sensitive phases) and population structure as well as the type of stream and the faunizone involved. A risk assessment is possible by means of simultaneous study of the morphology of the river bed and the response of the signal generated by hydro-peaking in terms of hydrology and physical characteristics downstream of the restitution. (authors). 25 refs.

  3. 照顾者反应对脑外伤患者残障接受度的影响%Effect of Caregiver Reaction to the Disability Acceptance of Traumatic Brain Inj ury Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑卫萍; 孙君红

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解脑外伤患者残障接受度现状及其照顾者的反应,并探讨照顾者反应对患者残障接受度的影响。方法便利选取2012年1月至2014年1月在温岭市第一人民医院脑外科就诊的221例脑外伤患者及其主要照顾者,调查患者的残障接受度及照顾者反应,采用分层回归分析法探讨照顾者反应对脑外伤患者残障接受度的影响。结果(1)脑外伤患者残障接受度总分为(159.48±34.71)分,其中低接受度占28.51%、中接受度占54.75%、高接受度占16.74%。(2)不同残障接受度患者的健康问题、时间安排受打扰、经济问题、家庭支持缺乏和自尊评分比较,差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05)。(3)残障接受度总分及各维度得分与照顾者反应中的健康问题、时间安排受打扰、经济问题、家庭支持缺乏均呈显著负相关(均P<0.05);残障接受度总分及各维度得分与照顾者反应中的自尊呈显著正相关(均P<0.05)。分层回归分析显示,照顾者反应中的家庭支持缺乏、经济问题、自尊和时间安排受打扰是脑外伤患者残障接受度的影响因素。结论所调查的脑外伤患者残障接受度处于中等偏下水平,照顾者反应是影响患者残障接受度的重要因素。%Objective To understand the disability acceptance and reaction of caregiver of brain injury patients,and explore the effect of caregiver reaction on the disability acceptance in patients with traumatic brain injury.Methods 221 patients with traumatic brain injury and its main caregivers were selected to explore patient’s disability acceptance and reaction of caregivers by using hierarchical regression analysis to discuss the effect of caregiver reaction to disability acceptance in patients with traumatic brain inj ury. Results (1)The total score of disability acceptance was (159.48±34.71)in patients with traumatic brain

  4. Anthropic contribution on pollution in hydroelectric reservoirs: the case of Sao Simao's hydroelectric power plant - GO/MG, Brazil; Contribuicao antropica na poluicao de reservatorios hidreletricos: o caso da Usina Hidreletrica de Sao Simao - GO/MG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Gizele Araujo Borba da

    2010-02-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of anthropogenic pollution in hydroelectric reservoirs through a case study of the Sao Simao Hydropower. The literature relates the problem of eutrophication with the addition of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) in excess, resulting in water pollution. Through data for both tributary rivers and the reservoir, it was found that the Sao Simao dam presents a framework for eutrophication. We made an analysis to see which tributary rivers were the main sources of nutrients released into the waters of the reservoir and a survey of possible human activities that are contributing to the intake of nutrients in these tributaries. (author)

  5. Technological solutions of decentralized generation of hydroelectricity for those demands that cannot be attended by conventional electric with centralized generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Signoretti, Valdir Tesche; Veras, Carlos Alberto Gurgel Rudi; Els, Henri Van [Universidade de Brasilia, Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Faculdade de Tecnologia. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: gurgel@unb.br

    2010-07-01

    A source of energy stable and reliable and of acceptable cost is a basic requisite for the development of a given region can give-if full. Access to energy is important basis of human existence, essential to the satisfaction of basic needs such as food, clothing, and housing and also of mobility and communication. However, the dependency world burning of fossil fuels for energy generation and supply of a demand constantly increasing, both in industrialized countries and those in development, already threatening the ecological stability of the Earth. At the same time, conflicts by distribution of the last reserves these resources non-renewable threaten significantly to civil society. Adding to the breakneck speed in which humanity consumes the energetic sources and the obvious devastation of nature has an unequal distribution in consumption and access to energy. Renewable sources and energy efficiency are viable and necessary, especially because they can be the key to reduce wastefulness and extend the access to energy. In this way, there is a significant influence on economic and social inclusion of population excluded, generating employment and income with costs local and global environmental reduced compared to traditional forms and unsustainable generation and use of energy. This work is a study involving issues related to rural electrification from hydroelectricity, especially related to those isolated communities of the Amazon region that are lacking this form of energy, presented a general review since the origins of hydroelectricity in Brazil, as well as a national panorama electric exclusion as well as a scenario Amazon's supply of electricity. Finally presenting-if the main technologies available for hydroelectric generation for these isolated communities. (author)

  6. MODELING AND STUDY OF HYDROELECTRIC GENERATING SETS OF SMALL HYDRO POWER PLANTS WITH FREQUENCY-CONTROLLED PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Mustafayev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the hydroelectric generating sets of small HPPs with Pelton turbines employ as their generating units conventional synchronous generators with electromagnetic excitation. To deal with the torque pulsatile behaviour, they generally install a supplementary flywheel on the system shaft that levels the pulsations. The Pelton turbine power output is adjusted by the needle changing water flow in the nozzle, whose advancement modifies the nozzle area and eventually – the flow. They limit the needle full stroke time to 20–40 sec. since quick shutting the nozzle for swift water flow reduction may result in pressure surges. For quick power adjustment so-called deflectors are employed, whose task is retraction of water jets from the Pelton turbine buckets. Thus, the mechanical method of power output regulation requires agreement between the needle stroke inside the turbine nozzles and the deflector. The paper offers employing frequency-controlled synchronous machines with permanent magnets qua generating units for the hydroelectric generating sets of small HPPs with Pelton turbines. The developed computer model reveals that this provides a higher level of adjustability towards rapid-changing loads in the grid. Furthermore, this will replace the power output mechanical control involving the valuable deflector drive and the turbine nozzle needles with electrical revolution rate and power output regulation by a frequency converter located in the generator stator circuit. Via frequency start, the controllable synchronous machine ensures stable operation of the hydroelectric generating set with negligibly small amount of water (energy carrier. Finally, in complete absence of water, the frequency-relay start facilitates shifting the generator operation to the synchronous capacitor mode, which the system operating parameter fluctograms obtained through computer modeling prove. 

  7. Monitoring of surge tanks in hydroelectric power plants using fuzzy control; Ueberwachung von Wasserschloessern in Wasserkraftwerken mit Fuzzy-Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, J.C.

    2000-07-01

    Surge tanks are used to reduce pressure variations caused by fluid transients in high-head hydroelectric power plants. Occasionally load increases have to be limited to prevent the surge tank from draining due to excessive demands of flow. A control concept based on fuzzy logic was developed for governing the load changes of hydroelectric power plants. In order to achieve an optimal control behaviour and simultaneously to avoid the draining of surge tanks, the speed of load increases is automatically adjusted by a fuzzy conclusion depending on the height and the gradient of the water level in the surge tank, the reservoir level and the sum of load increases. The hydroelectric power plant Achensee of Tiroler Wasserkraftwerke AG in Austria is taken as an example to demonstrate the characteristics of the control concept. In comparison with a conventional control concept, the operation of load increases using the fuzzy concept proves to be more flexible and unrestricted. (orig.) [German] Ein Wasserschloss dient zur Verminderung von Druckschwankungen im Wasserfuehrungssystem von Hochdruckanlagen. Gelegentlich muss man die Lastaufnahme so beschraenken, dass das Wasserschloss nicht durch uebermaessige Wasserentnahme leerlaeuft. Fuer die Leistungsregelung eines Wasserkraftwerks wurde ein Konzept entwickelt, das auf der Fuzzy-Control in Verbindung mit der klassischen Regelung beruht. Um ein optimales Regelverhalten zu erhalten und gleichzeitig das Leerlaufen des Wasserschlosses zu vermeiden, wird die Geschwindigkeit der Lastaufnahme in Abhaengigkeit von der Hoehenkote und dem Gradienten des Wasserschlosspegels, dem Pegel des Oberwassers und der Groesse der geforderten Lasterhoehung automatisch eingestellt. Die Untersuchung erfolgt am Beispiel des Achenseekraftwerkes der Tiroler Wasserkraftwerke AG, Oesterreich. Im Vergleich mit einer konventionellen Regelung ergibt sich mit dem Fuzzy-Konzept eine flexiblere und freizuegigere Lastaufnahme. (orig.)

  8. Case study analysis of the legal and institutional obstacles and incentives to the development of the hydroelectric power of the Boardman River at Traverse City, Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    An analytic description of one decision-making process concerning whether or not to develop the hydroelectric potential of the Boardman River is presented. The focus of the analysis is on the factor that the developers considered, or should consider in making a responsible commitment to small-scale hydroelectric development. Development of the Boardman River would occur at the five dam sites. Two existing dams, owned by the county, previously generated hydroelectricity, as did a third before being washed out. One dam has never been utilized. It is owned by the city which also owns the washed-out area. The study concludes that hydroelectric power is feasible at each. Grand Traverse County and Traverse City would engage in a joint venture in developing the resource. Chapter I presents a detailed description of the developers, the river resource, and the contemplated development. Chapter II is an analysis of the factors affecting the decision making process. Chapter III summarizes the impact of the more significant barriers and incentives and presents recommendations that, if implemented, will favorably affect decisions to develop small-scale hydroelectric generation capability.

  9. Feasibility study on the demonstrative test on the hybrid mini hydroelectric power generation technology. 2; Hybrid gata mini suiryoku hatsuden gijutsu ni kakawaru jissho shiken kanosei chosa. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    A study was made for the purpose of electrification of unelectrified zones of the mountainous areas in developing countries using extremely small hydroelectric power facilities. The target for this project is a development of a micro hydroelectric power system with a size of about 5kW, which is estimated regarding that 1 village has 80 houses and each house needs electricity of 60W. In the study, the low-head system using a weir of irrigation channels in Subang pref. of West Java state was selected by the evaluation of access, stability of flow rate, natural conditions, etc. The hydroelectric power plant is of a flow-in method in which water is taken from the left bank and is injected/discharged to the downstream of the left bank. As the hybrid complementary power source, hybrid battery with a two-hour charging time at peak and a capacity of 3.5kWh was considered. When estimating the construction cost of the hybrid micro hydroelectric power system and equalizing by durable years, the operational cost per kW is 15 times higher than the benefits which local people receive. It was judged to be difficult to say that the micro hydroelectric power system is economically feasible. It was predicted that the financial profit during the demonstrative test is good, according to a trial calculation of income from power rates and the operational cost. 18 refs., 90 figs., 53 tabs.

  10. Project finance of hydroelectric power plants in Brazil; 'Project finance' de usinas hidroeletricas no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro Filho, Valfredo de Assis; Ramos, Maria Olivia de Souza [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the modality of project finance of financing of enterprises, which is the main modality of structuring of hydroelectric projects in Brazil. In the discussion will be highlighted the importance of contracts EPC (Engineering, Search and Construction) in the structuring of project finances. This financing model has particular characteristics related to risk sharing and financial flexibility that enable the financing of projects with long-term capital, however, due to participation of various actors and the nature of the structure of project finance, the negotiation and drafting of contracts are always very complex.

  11. Experience of Minas Gerais Energetic Company (CEMIG) in feasibility studies from hydroelectric power plants: energetic-economic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experience of Minas Gerais Energetic Company (CEMIG) - Brazil, on the use of dimensioning methodology for hydroelectric power plant from the Coordinated Group of Planning System was described, showing the problems with its use and the solutions, mainly the reservoir and the dimension of installed potential. It was concluded that the calculation procedures of the marginal costs for dimensioning, so as to become these costs more representative in future structure of the Brazilian generator park and less dependent to the oscillation due to conjuncture problems, must be re-evaluated. (C.G.C.). 7 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  12. Water quality assessment of fifth-order tributaries of the reservoir at the Marechal Mascarenhas de Morais Hydroelectric Power Station in the Rio Grande watershed (State of Minas Gerais, Brazil Avaliação da qualidade da água dos afluentes de quinta ordem do reservatório da Usina Hidrelétrica de Marechal Mascarenhas de Morais na bacia hidrográfica do médio rio Grande (Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas de Pádua Andrade

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study assessed the water quality from the springs and river mouths of the fifth-order tributaries which compose the reservoir of Marechal Mascarenhas de Morais HPS in the middle Rio Grande watershed, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods: It has been studied 14 tributaries distributed in the reservoir, two points for tributary - spring and river mouth. Eighteen limnological variables added to the Rapid Assessment Protocol and Trophic Level Index were evaluated. The benthic macroinvertebrates had been collected by the use of a granulometric sieve and a Petersen-type sampler. Results: The cluster analysis of limnological data revealed the existence of two tributary groups. Group I consisted of eutrophic tributaries degraded by human activities, while group II exhibited good water quality and well-preserved environments. Group I was divided into two subgroups, Ia tributaries were characterized by being altered by human activities, while the Ib subgroup was composed of highly impacted tributaries. By ordering the PCA, it can be observed spatial segregation of groups, where the most polluted tributaries were separated from those which are better preserved. A total of 8,987 individuals belonging to 36 families of macroinvertebrates were identified. The family Chironomidae was the most abundant. There was no significant difference in total abundance and the richness of macroinvertebrates taxa inhabiting springs, by those who inhabiting the river mouths. Conclusions: It was noticed that most of the tributaries which supply and composes the reservoir are already degraded and have low quality water. It is observed that the human presence drastically affected water quality and faunal composition of tributaries. Thus, it is necessary a complementary study of the tributaries in working with issues related to reservoirs, as these components have direct influence on the water quality and composition of these lentic environments.Objetivos: O trabalho avaliou

  13. Atmospheric nitrogen deposition budget in a subtropical hydroelectric reservoir (Nam Theun II case study, Lao PDR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adon, Marcellin; Galy-Lacaux, Corinne; Serça, Dominique; Guerin, Frederic; Guedant, Pierre; Vonghamsao, Axay; Rode, Wanidaporn

    2016-04-01

    With 490 km² at full level of operation, Nam Theun 2 (NT2) is one of the largest hydro-reservoir in South East Asia. NT2 is a trans-basin hydropower project that diverts water from the Nam Theun river (a Mekong tributary) to the Xe Ban Fai river (another Mekong tributary). Atmospheric deposition is an important source of nitrogen (N), and it has been shown that excessive fluxes of N from the atmosphere has resulted in eutrophication of many coastal waters. A large fraction of atmospheric N input is in the form of inorganic N. This study presents an estimation of the atmospheric inorganic nitrogen budget into the NT2 hydroelectric reservoir based on a two-year monitoring (July 2010 to July 2012) including gas concentrations and precipitation. Dry deposition fluxes are calculated from monthly mean surface measurements of NH3, HNO3 and NO2 concentrations (passive samplers) together with simulated deposition velocities, and wet deposition fluxes from NH4+ and NO3- concentrations in single event rain samples (automated rain sampler). Annual rainfall amount was 2500 and 3160 mm for the two years. The average nitrogen deposition flux is estimated at 1.13 kgN.ha-1.yr-1 from dry processes and 5.52 kgN.ha-1.yr-1 from wet ones, i.e., an average annual total nitrogen flux of 6.6 kgN.ha-1.yr-1 deposited into the NT2 reservoir. The wet deposition contributes to 83% of the total N deposition. The nitrogen deposition budget has been also calculated over the rain tropical forest surrounding the reservoir. Due to higher dry deposition velocities above forested ecosystems, gaseous dry deposition flux is estimated at 4.0 kgN.ha-1.yr-1 leading to a total nitrogen deposition about 9.5 kgN.ha-1.yr-1. This result will be compared to nitrogen deposition in the African equatorial forested ecosystems in the framework of the IDAF program (IGAC-DEBITS-AFrica).

  14. New social movements and political process: The politics of hydroelectric power in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Luzia M.

    This dissertation analyzes the mobilization and impact of the ecology movement mobilizing against and challenging hydroelectric power plants in the Alps. It argues that the political process model is the most fruitful framework for such a study, linking a political system's structural constraints and opportunities to movement action via organizational resources. The mobilization process resulting in movement impact is conceived as an interactive process among social movements, authorities, other opponents, and potential counter movements. The case study method is then used to analyze three action campaigns launched against hydro power plants in Graubunden since the 1970s: Ilanz I and II, Greina, and Curciusa. In terms of the movement's narrow goal of preventing a plant, Ilanz I and II is a failure, Greina a success, and Curciusa ambiguous. Yet the author defines movement impact more broadly, including procedural, reactive and proactive substantive impact, and structural impact, changes in the alliance/conflict system, and social learning. Based on the evidence from the case studies, these factors affect movement outcome positively: visibility in the media and framing the debate, adjusting the target level and movement repertoire to the opportunity structure and the spatial concentration of the issue, proactivity, and organizational resources with a well developed division of labor, internal communication, and a non-partisan alliance system at all levels. There are two main conceptual contributions. First, the author analyzes the political opportunity structure at all levels of the federal polity--the national, cantonal, and communal--as well as the interplay among the levels. The fact that the cantonal and communal levels exhibit more elements of closure than the national level helps explain differences in movements' organizational resources, movement repertoire, targeting of movement action, and thus movement impact. Second, the author develops the spatial

  15. Numerical dynamic analysis of Chiti single arch dam related to hydroelectric power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasi, H. [Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseini, Y.; Jalaly, H. [Ab-Niru Consulting Engineers, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aghajani, K. [Elam Univ., Elam (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    The Chiti dam is a single arch hydroelectric power generation dam located on the Taloogh River in Iran. This paper provided details of the response spectrum method used to design the optimal load conditions and slope of the dam in relation to earthquake protection. The amount of horizontal earthquake acceleration at the dam site was determined based on local calculations of scenarios of an operating basis earthquake (OBE), a maximum design earthquake (MDE) and a maximum credible earthquake (MCE). The response spectrum was defined with 5 per cent damping as the basis of the earthquake calculation. Hydrodynamic pressure was applied in loadings and the dam was analyzed with and without the effect of hydrodynamic pressure. The compressive strength of the concrete was considered as 28 MPa, and the properties of bed rock were determined on geotechnical and geological studies. Hydrodynamic pressure was calculated based on upstream water levels in the reservoir of the arch dam and applied to the model as added mass. The model also considered the weight of the dam body, uplift pressure, and heat changes in stable conditions. The hydrodynamic pressure of water was applied as additional mass to the upstream face of the arch dam. The additional mass was determined based on dam height. The dynamic analysis of the dam was performed using response spectrum data. The model analysis was performed with and without the effect of hydrodynamic pressure. The 3-D model of the dam body was made using the ANSYS finite element program which combined the response spectrum method with temperature load, uplift pressure and water pressure parameters. Results showed that the maximum displacement of the dam body for the various earthquake levels measured was 11.6, 14, and 15.6 mm respectively. The response spectrum analysis performed with hydrodynamic pressure showed displacement values of 22.4, 24.8, and 26.4 mm. Stress and strain values obtained by the model were within allowable amount for

  16. Executive summary: legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric potential in the seven mid-western states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The relationship of Federal law and regulation to state law and regulation of small-scale hydroelectric facilities is described. Important features of the constitutional law, statutory law, case law, and regulations of each of the 7 mid-western states (Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio, West Virginia, and Wisconsin) are highlighted. The introductory section examines the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, i.e., the law of pre-emption, and the application of this law to the case of hydroelectric development and regulation of water resources. A state-by-state synopsis of these important provisions of the laws of the states that have a bearing on small-scale hydroelectric development is presented.

  17. Report on the workshop examining the potential effects of hydroelectric development on Beluga of the Nelson River Estuary, Winnipeg, Manitoba, November 6 and 7, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary is presented of discussions and conclusions at a workshop held to examine the potential effects of hydroelectric development on beluga whales of the Nelson River estuary in Manitoba. Background information is provided on the estuary, beluga whales and their use of arctic and subarctic estuaries, and hydroelectric development on the Nelson River. Potential impacts of such development on the whales are reviewed in the categories of direct effects of changes in physical-chemical conditions (temperature and discharge), indirect effects of disturbances mediated through the food chain, and effects on socioeconomic conditions that may affect beluga whales. Since the biology of beluga whales and other phenomena of interest in this study are poorly known, recommendations are made for research and monitoring activities in the Nelson River estuary. In general, the workshop participants felt that changes in the estuary due to hydroelectric development would not be large enough to affect beluga whales strongly. 34 refs., 1 fig

  18. Environmental costs associated to the electric generation: hydroelectric versus natural gas thermoelectric; Custos ambientais associados a geracao eletrica: hidreletricas versus termeletricas a gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Marcelo de Miranda

    2001-01-15

    This works presents the methodologies for valuation of the environmental costs resulting from the main damages of the cycles of electric energy arrange through hydroelectric and natural gas thermoelectric. Initially theoretical concepts are established, embracing: the description of the valuation methodologies, the possible ways of damages internalization in the value of the products, the environmental impacts of hydroelectric and natural gas thermoelectric in these fuel cycles, and the methodologies that can be applied for value the main damages caused by the impacts. Then case studies are developed, with application of the methodologies in the hydroelectric plants of Simplicio and Serra da Mesa, and in the thermoelectric complex composed for RioGen and RioGen Merchant plants. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for a better future application in Brazil of the valuation methodologies are presented. (author)

  19. Feasibility of determination of low-head hydroelectric power development at existing sites: North Hartland Dam Project. Feasibility report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-03-01

    The feasibility of constructing a low-head hydroelectric power plant at the North Hartland Dam in Vermont was investigated. Evaluation of technical, economic, environmental, safety, and regulatory aspects led to the conclusion that the North Hartland Dam Hydroelectric Project is a technically feasible concept. The proposed project will have a recommended 6000 kW nominally rated capacity at a 52 ft turbine design head and 1680 cfs demand flow. The gross generation expected from the project is 11,980,000 kWh per year. It is estimated that the project will cost $8,997,000 at 1978 price levels, with no allowance for funds during construction. The project will provide peaking power at a levelized cost of about 41 mills per kWh at 1979 price levels, based on 7% cost of money, a 1985 commissioning date, and allowing for funds during construction and cost escalation over a 30 y period. The benefit-cost ratio compared with an equivalent oil-based generation source over a similar period is estimated as 1.06. (LCL)

  20. Hydroelectric power generation in an Alpine basin: future water-energy scenarios in a run-of-the-river plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongio, Marco; Avanzi, Francesco; De Michele, Carlo

    2016-08-01

    We investigate scenarios of hydroelectric power generation for an Alpine run-of-the-river plant in 2050. To this end, we include a conversion from streamflow to energy in a hydrological model of the basin, and we introduce a set of benchmark climate scenarios to evaluate expected future production. These are a "future-like-present" scenario assuming future precipitation and temperature inputs to be statistically equivalent to those observed during the recent past at the same location, a "warmer-future" scenario, which considers an additional increase in temperature, and a "liquid-only" scenario where only liquid precipitation is admitted. In addition, two IPCC-like climatic scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) are considered. Uncertainty in glaciers' volume is accounted by initializing the hydrological model with two different inventories of glaciers. Ensemble results reveal that 1) an average decrease between -40% and -19% of hydroelectric power generation in 2050 is predicted at the plant considered (with respect to present condition); 2) an average decrease between -20% and -38% of cumulative incoming streamflow volume at the plant is also predicted, again with respect to present condition; 3) these effects are associated with a strong average decrease of the volume of glaciers (between -76% and -96%, depending on the initial value considered). However, Monte Carlo simulations show that results are also prone to high uncertainties. Implications of these results for run-of-the-river plants are discussed.

  1. Juvenile competitive bottleneck in the production of brown trout in hydroelectric reservoirs due to intraspecific habitat segregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resource utilization and growth of brown trout were studied in four deep (mean depths 16.2 - 37.5 m) Norwegian hydroelectric reservoirs by benthic and pelagic gillnet sampling. In all the reservoirs supplementary stockings are carried out. The brown trout were spatially segregated according to size as the habitat use of small individuals (< 180-220 mm) was completely restricted to benthic habitats, whereas larger individuals mainly utilized the upper strata of pelagic waters. It is argued that the pelagic habitat is the more rewarding, and that small-sized brown trout are forced into the less favourable benthic habitat through social interactions with larger specimens. This is supported by an increase in growth of brown trout from their third to fifth year of life, which seems to be related to the shift from benthic to pelagic behaviour. It is also argued that the conditions for small-sized brown trout may be a bottleneck in the capacity to produce brown trout in hydroelectric reservoirs with limited benthic feeding conditions, despite ample access to food in pelagic habitats. When evaluating the possibility of increasing the yield of brown trout through supplementary stockings, it is therefore important to consider food and growth conditions for all age and size groups of brown trout. In reservoirs with poor benthic feeding conditions it may be necessary to stock with brown trout of sizes that are large enough to utilize pelagic habitat, to avoid the limiting benthic living stage. (Author)

  2. Evaluation for turbine implementation for a micro hydroelectric power plant; Avaliacao para implantacao de uma turbina para uma microcentral hidreletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Gilberto Manoel; Halmeman, Maria Cristina Rodrigues; Oliveira, Franciene Gois [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Energia na Agricultura; Seraphim, Odivaldo Jose [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Dep. de Engenharia Rural

    2008-07-01

    In this work it was analyzed the viability technical and economical of turbines to micro hydroelectric headquarters as an alternative to consumers not served by electric energy in isolated areas. It was used a experimental methods to create an estimative and a evaluation of the hydroelectric potential, through hydrological criteria in the area and, thus, be able to note if there is viability for its use. Some kinds of turbines made by the national industry were verified, analyzing the technical and economical characteristics and in function of the hydro energetic-conditions of the area. The results shoed that a micro-headquarters serves the necessities and expectations of the owner at the electric energy supply. It was noted that the expenses are smaller comparing to the other expenses know in the literature, from national factories. Even though the limiting factor is the distance from the production to the consumer, the potency of 18.4 kw was enough to satisfy the local necessities. The installation of de micro headquarters will bring enhances and facilities by the fact that it represents a big social importance for the area. (author)

  3. Ohotnitshi prostorõ : [jutud] / Aleksandr Uris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uris, Aleksandr

    2005-01-01

    Sisu: Ohhotnitshi prostorõ : (Iz tsikla "Lavka") ; Naivnõi tshelovek : (K trilogii "Milõje") ; Pridurok ; Fokusnik ; Klondaik dlja apatshei : (Iz tsikla "Datshnõje istorii") ; Konets sezona ; Deshovoje kino

  4. Report on the development perspectives of the hydroelectric production in France; Rapport sur les perspectives de developpement de la production hydroelectrique en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-03-15

    This report, presented to the Ministry of the Economy, the Finances and the Industry, has been realized by the high ranking of the sustainable development of the Ministry. It presents the synthesis of the working group study at the second half year 2005 and proposes to the Ministry some practical actions to develop the hydroelectric production in France. After a presentation of the hydro electric-power challenges and potential, the author discusses the regulatory context of the hydroelectric power development, the conditions of this development and proposes some actions. (A.L.B.)

  5. Effect of Portable Vacuum Sealing Drainage Device in Blast Inj ury Wounds Drainage%便携式封闭负压引流装置对家猪爆炸伤模型创面的引流效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杏玲芝; 张华; 王东红; 焦耿军; 王云

    2014-01-01

    目的:评估自制的便携式封闭负压引流(vacuum sealing drainage,VSD)装置对家猪爆炸伤模型创面的引流效果。方法遴选市售健康5~6个月龄家猪4头,雌雄各半,体质量35~40 kg,将雷管植入双侧后肢肌肉组织发达处,制造8个爆炸创面,配对分成观察组和对照组。在室外暴露创面4 h后进行清创,观察组给予彻底清创,VSD装置处理;对照组彻底清创后,无菌纱布覆盖。分别于暴露创面4h,治疗3、7d后对伤口大体判断疗效,观察白细胞、表皮生长因子的变化。结果爆炸4h后,两组实验对象白细胞、表皮生长因子的变化差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);治疗3、7 d后,观察组白细胞、表皮生长因子明显高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。观察组伤口大体判断疗效观察较对照组创面清洁、无异味,触之易出血,创面有大量的颗粒状肉芽组织,创面周缘无明显的水肿和继发性坏死组织。结论自制便携式封闭负压引流装置在家猪爆炸创面愈合方面效果显著,且装置体积小、携带方便,可进一步应用于临床护理实践验证。%Objective To evaluate the effect of new patent of self-made portable vacuum sealing drainage device in animal experiment blast inj ury wounds drainage.Methods 4 pigs with two male and two female, body weight 35~40 kg were selected and implant the detonator in the developed muscle tissue of hind limbs,and made 8 blast inj ury wound,and paring into observation group and control group.The wounds were exposed outdoor and debride the wounds after 4 h.The observation group was given thorough debridement with VSD treatment;the control group was treated with sterile gauze covered after thorough debridement.The wounds healing situation and the change of white blood cells,epidermal growth factor were observed respectively at 4h after wounds exposed,3d and 7d after treatment

  6. Design and performance of radio telemetry systems for assessing juvenile fish passage at three hydroelectric dams: Chapter 6.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman, John W.; Hockersmith, Eric; Stevenson, John R.; Adams, Noah S.; Beeman, John W.; Eiler, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Telemetry provides a powerful and flexible tool for studying fish and other aquatic animals, and its use has become increasingly commonplace. However, telemetry is gear intensive and typically requires more specialized knowledge and training than many other field techniques. As with other scientific methods, collecting good data is dependent on an understanding of the underlying principles behind the approach, knowing how to use the equipment and techniques properly, and recognizing what to do with the data collected. This book provides a road map for using telemetry to study aquatic animals, and provides the basic information needed to plan, implement, and conduct a telemetry study under field conditions. Topics include acoustic or radio telemetry study design, tag implantation techniques, radio and acoustic telemetry principles and case studies, and data management and analysis.

  7. The influence of the Gilgel-Gibe hydroelectric dam in Ethiopia on caregivers' knowledge, perceptions and health-seeking behaviour towards childhood malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duchateau Luc

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria remains the most important public health problem in tropical and subtropical areas. Mothers' or caregivers' ability to recognize childhood malaria-related morbidity is crucial as knowledge, attitudes and health seeking behavior of caregivers towards childhood malaria could influence response to signs of the disease. Methods A total of 1,003 caregivers in 'at-risk' villages in close proximity to the Gilgel-Gibe hydroelectric dam in south-western Ethiopia, and 953 caregivers in 'control' villages further away from the dam were surveyed using structured questionnaires to assess their knowledge, perceptions and health seeking behaviour about childhood malaria. Results Malaria (busa was ranked as the most serious health problem. Caregivers perceived childhood malaria as a preventable ('at-risk' 96%, 'control' 86% and treatable ('at-risk' 98% and 'control' 96% disease. Most caregivers correctly associated the typical clinical manifestations with malaria attacks. The use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs was mentioned as a personal protective measure, whereas the role of indoor residual spraying (IRS in malaria prevention and control was under-recognized. Most of the caregivers would prefer to seek treatment in health-care services in the event of malaria and reported the use of recommended anti-malarials. Conclusion Health education to improve knowledge, perceptions and health-seeking behaviour related to malaria is equally important for caregivers in 'at risk' villages and caregivers in 'control' villages as minimal differences seen between both groups. Concluding, there may be a need of more than one generation after the introduction of the dam before differences can be noticed. Secondly, differences in prevalence between 'control' and 'at-risk' villages may not be sufficient to influence knowledge and behaviour.

  8. Active tectonics and Holocene versus modern catchment erosion rates at 300 MW Baspa II hydroelectric power plant (NW Himalaya, India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganits, Erich; Grasemann, Bernhard; Gier, Susanne; Hofmann, Christa-Charlotte; Janda, Christoph; Bookhagen, Bodo; Preh, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    The Baspa River is one of the most important tributaries to the Sutlej River in the NW Himalaya (India). Its catchment is 1116 km2 in size, ranges from c. 6400 m asl to 1770 m asl and contains India's largest private hydroelectric facility, the 300 MW Baspa II. Geologically, the hydroelectric installation is located in the Higher Himalayan Crystalline, just above the active Karcham Normal Fault, which is reactivating the Early Miocene Main Central Thrust, one of the principal Himalayan faults. The area is seismically active and mass-movements are common. Around 8200 yrs BP the Baspa was dammed by a rock-avalanche dam, leading to the formation of the originally c. 260 m deep palaeo-lake Sangla palaeo-lake. Detailed sedimentological investigations and radiocarbon dating indicate that the palaeo-lake was completely filled with sediments until c. 5100 yrs BP. This makes the Sangla palaeo-lake to a very rare example of a mass-movement dam with very long duration and its lacustrine sediments represent a valuable archive for geological processes and environmental proxies within the Baspa catchment during the c. 3100 years of its existence - which are the aim of our study. At least 5 levels of soft-sediment deformation have been recorded in the exposed part of the lacustrine sediments of Sangla palaeo-lake, including brecciated laminae, overturned laminae, folds, faults and deformation bands, separated by undeformed deposits. They are interpreted as seismites, indicating at least 5 earthquakes within 2500 years strong enough to cause liquefaction. The 300 MW Baspa II hydro-electric power plant has been built exactly on top of this palaeo-lake. This special location represents a very rare possibility to evaluate the short-term, river load and hydrological parameters measured during the planning and operational stages of Baspa II with the long-term parameters gained from the palaeo-lake sediments from the catchment. This data show that the Mid-Holocene erosion rates of the

  9. Federal legal obstacles and incentives to the development of the small-scale hydroelectric potential of the nineteen Northeastern states. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The main report for which this report is the executive summary, DOE/RA--23-216.00.0-01 (see EAPA 5:3929), was published in revised form in March 1979. Also, since that time, Energy Law Institute has produced detailed legal memoranda on obstacles and incentives for each of the 19 states. This executive summary summarizes the findings and observations of the original report. Specific summaries included are: Federal Jurisdiction Over Small-Scale Hydroelectric Facilities; The FERC; The Regulation of Construction in and the Discharge of Dredged, Fill, and Other Materials into the Waters of the US; The Protection of Fish, Wildlife, and Endangered Species; The Preservation of Historic Places, Archaeological Sites, and Natural Areas; Regulation of the Use of Federal Lands; Federal Dam Construction and Power-Distribution Agencies; Additional Federal Agencies Concerned with Small-Scale Hydroelectric Dams; Federal Tax Devices and Business Structures Affecting Small-Scale Hydroelectric Development; and an Outline of Federal-Assistance programs Available for Small-Scale Hydroelectric Development.

  10. Social and political implications of great hydroelectric projects on the native and country population; Implicacoes politicas e sociais de grandes projetos hidroeletricos sobre as populacoes indigenas e camponesas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigaud, Lygia [Rio de Janeiro Univ., RJ (Brazil). Museu Nacional

    1993-03-01

    The power generation policy adopted in Brazil for the construction of large hydroelectric power plants and its social impacts are analysed. It is stressed the importance of the participation of the society in the definition of this policy. This can be achieved now with the re democratization of the country and a more active participation of the people in the future of the nation.

  11. Model for analysis and definition of the governor constants in hydroelectric power; Modelo para analise e definicao das constantes do regulador em usinas hidreletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Jose Geraldo Pena de; Koelle, Edmundo; Luvizotto Junior, Edevar [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil. Dept. de Hidraulica e Saneamento

    1997-07-01

    This paper presents a complete mathematical and computer model which allows simulating a generic hydroelectric power plant under steady state and transitory regimes, in the extensive time, and also the analysis of the oscillating flows resulting from excitation sources present in the installation, such as vortices in the suction pipe during partial load operation.

  12. Assessment of Substance Abuse Behaviors in Adolescents’: Integration of Self-Control into Extended Parallel Process Model

    OpenAIRE

    de Witte, K.; E Mirzaee; AR Hidarnia; A KAZEMNEJAD; F Shafii; P. Azad Fallah; H Allahverdipour

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: An effective preventive health education program on drug abuse can be delivered by applying behavior change theories in a complementary fashion. Methods: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of integrating self-control into Extended Parallel Process Model in drug substance abuse behaviors. A sample of 189 governmental high school students participated in this survey. Information was collected individually by completing researcher designed questionnaire and a uri...

  13. Frequency Response Analysis of Hydroelectric Power Plants with Influence From a Non-Linearized Frictional Damping and the Turbine Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Brekke

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the dissertation has been to establish a complete stability analysis of a hydroelectric power plant. The most important part in this study has been to establish a theory for the damping of oscillatory flow in tunnels and pipes. The influence of the turbine characteristics is also important and has been included by differentiation of the turbine equation. The partial derivative values can be found by means of the characteristic diagram of the turbine. Special attention is paid to establishing an empirical friction function for tunnels with rough walls. The author has based his theory on experimental tests carried out for damping of sea waves on rough beds, and the friction factor is a function of both frequency, amplitudes, cross section area and roughness of the wall (Jonsson 1978. Further, the damping of oscillations in shafts leading to tunnels taking into account the mean velocity in the tunnel has been established.

  14. [Analysis of the social and health impacts of large hydroelectric plants: lessons for a sustainable energy management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz, Adriana Renata Sathler; Motta-Veiga, Marcelo

    2012-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze the social and health impacts resulting from the construction of the Tucuruí (Pará, Brazil) and James Bay (Quebec, Canada) Hydroelectric Plants. The comparative method study used in analysis of the literature review revealed lessons to be learned from the national and international experience in order to ensure sustainable management of future major energy projects in Brazil. In this study, a successive negative domino effect was observed in terms of social impacts on jobs, income, sanitation, and culture, all with associated health problems. These included stress, nutritional and psychosocial disturbances, cardiopathies, as well as respiratory and digestive problems. The actions seeking to mitigate the effects of these negative impacts were slow to be implemented. Moreover, even though three decades have elapsed, these actions proved inefficient to resolve all the health and socio-environmental problems caused.

  15. Valuation of the environmental impacts of the Kayraktepe dam/hydroelectric project, Turkey: An exercise in contingent valuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes and evaluates the environmental impacts of the Kayraktepe Dam and Hydroelectric Power Plant in Turkey. The contingent valuation method is used to estimate the project's local environmental costs. The average local rural annual willingness to pay for the restoration of the environmental impacts of the project is found to be USD 300 person-1. Loss of forestry and agricultural benefits from the reservoir area that will be inundated are estimated to be USD 12.66 mill. yr-1. When the Kayraktepe Project's external costs are internalized, its benefit cost ratio falls from 1.35 to 0.84, indicating that the project is economically undesirable and the decision for its construction needs to be reconsidered 26 refs, 1 fig, 5 tabs

  16. Design of an Adaptive Power Regulation Mechanism and a Nozzle for a Hydroelectric Power Plant Turbine Test Rig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mert, Burak; Aytac, Zeynep; Tascioglu, Yigit; Celebioglu, Kutay; Aradag, Selin; ETU Hydro Research Center Team

    2014-11-01

    This study deals with the design of a power regulation mechanism for a Hydroelectric Power Plant (HEPP) model turbine test system which is designed to test Francis type hydroturbines up to 2 MW power with varying head and flow(discharge) values. Unlike the tailor made regulation mechanisms of full-sized, functional HEPPs; the design for the test system must be easily adapted to various turbines that are to be tested. In order to achieve this adaptability, a dynamic simulation model is constructed in MATLAB/Simulink SimMechanics. This model acquires geometric data and hydraulic loading data of the regulation system from Autodesk Inventor CAD models and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis respectively. The dynamic model is explained and case studies of two different HEPPs are performed for validation. CFD aided design of the turbine guide vanes, which is used as input for the dynamic model, is also presented. This research is financially supported by Turkish Ministry of Development.

  17. Reliability of hydroelectric generation components, systems and units; Confiabilidad de componentes, sistemas y unidades de generacion hidroelectrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Sanchez, Ramon; Torres Toledano, Gerardo; Franco Nava, Jose Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    This article presents a methodology for the calculation of the reliability of components, systems and hydroelectric generating units, as well as the scope of a computational system for the evaluation of such reliability. In the case of the reliability calculation of components and systems, the computer programs is not limited to hydro stations and can be used in other type of systems. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta una metodologia para calcular la confiabilidad de componentes, sistemas y unidades de generacion hidroelectrica, asi como el alcance de un sistema computacional para evaluar dicha confiabilidad. En el caso del calculo de confiabilidad de componentes y sistemas, el programa de computo no se limita a centrales hidroelectricas y puede utilizarse en otro tipo de sistemas.

  18. Impact of the Sainte-Marguerite 3 hydroelectric reservoir on the mercury exposure of local fish consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examined fish mercury levels in a freshwater impoundment flooded as part of the Sainte-Marguerite-3 hydroelectric generating station. The study compared mercury levels obtained before the area was flooded in 1997 with mercury exposure surveys obtained in 2006. Mercury levels in the fish have increased by factors ranging from 4 to 8. Total mercury concentrations have reached 0.78 μg per g in 400-mm lake whitefish and 1.85 μg per g in 700-mm northern pike. Non-native fishers consumed significantly more local fish on a monthly basis after the area was flooded. Native Innu fishers consumed less fish. Average hair mercury concentrations for non-native fish consumers remained unchanged, which mercury levels in native fish consumers decreased significantly.

  19. Protective Effects OfLentinan on Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion Inj ury in Rats%香菇多糖对大鼠心肌缺血再灌注损伤的保护与抗氧化作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洁

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨香菇多糖(LNT)对大鼠心肌缺血再灌注引起的氧化应激损伤的保护作用。方法:将 SD 大鼠随机分为5组,每组10只,分别为假手术(Sham)组,心肌缺血再灌注损伤(MIR)组,LNT低、中、高(15、30、60mg•kg-1•d-1 ig)×7d 剂量组。建立心肌缺血再灌注模型。再灌注结束后采血,测定丙二醛(MDA)、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、天门冬氨酸氨基转移酶(AST)、乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)、乳酸脱氢酶同工酶(LDHl),并测量心肌梗死面积。结果:与 MIR 组比较,LNT 能明显降低血浆中 AST、LDH 、LDH1和MDA 的含量,提高SOD 活性,减少心肌梗死面积。结论:LNT对大鼠心肌缺血再灌注引起的氧化应激损伤有保护作用。%Objective:To investigate the protective effect of Lentinan on oxidative stress injury induced by myocardial ischemia reperfusion in rats.Methods:Fifty healthy SD rats were randomized into five groups:sham group,MIR group,MIR+high dose Lentinan treatment group,MIR+middle dose Lentinan treatment group,MIR+low dose Lentinan treatment group.Myocardial IR was carried out by ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 60 min.Blood was collected at the end of reperfusion for detecting changes of aspartate aminotransferase(AST),lactate dehydrogenase(LDH),lactate dehydrogenasel(LDHI),superoxide dismutase(SOD),and malondialdehyde(MDA).The myocardial infarct size was also estimated.Results:Lentinan dose-depend-ently decreased the contents of AST,LDH,LDH1 and MDA,and the myocardial infarct size,and increased the activity of SOD.Conclusion:Lentinan exerts protective effects on myocardial ischemia reperfusion inj ury.

  20. Comparative investigation of hearing inj ury in workers exposed to steady and non-steady state noise%稳态噪声与非稳态噪声对工人听力损伤的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆春花; 杨继红; 沙磊; 陈杰; 尹仕伟

    2014-01-01

    目的:对稳态噪声与非稳态噪声导致的工人听力损伤进行对比分析。方法将某船厂组立车间和内业车间的96名接触非稳态噪声的工人作为非稳态噪声接触组,将某织布厂的96名接触稳态噪声的捻丝、假捻丝和织布工人作为稳态噪声接触组。用个人声暴露计采集工作期间噪声暴露数据,计算40 h等效声级(LEX,周)和累积噪声暴露量(CNE)。按 GBZ 49-2007《职业性噪声聋诊断标准》对两组工人进行听力测试,并计算和判定结果。结果非稳态噪声组CNE 为(100.3±2.1)dB(A)·a,稳态噪声组 CNE 为(99.6±4.3)dB(A)·a,两组比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。非稳态噪声组高频听力损伤率达17.7%,稳态噪声组高频听力损伤率达20.8%,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。非稳态噪声组与稳态噪声组组内不同工种组间CNE比较,差异均有统计学意义(P0.05)was found.But there were differences of CNE among different types of work in both groups(P<0.05).Conclusions When the exposure levels of workers were similar,there was no difference of the hearing inj ury in workers exposed to non-steady state noise or group exposed to steady state noise.

  1. Ecologically justified regulatory provisions for riverine hydroelectric power plants and minimum instream flow requirements in diverted streams; Oekologisch begruendete, dynamische Mindestwasserregelungen bei Ausleitungskraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorde, K.

    1997-12-31

    The study was intended to develop a model versatile enough to permit quantification of various water demand scenarios in connection with operation of riverine hydroelectric power plants. Specific emphasis was to be placed on defining the minimum instream flow to be maintained in river segments because of the elementary significance to flowing water biocinoses. Based on fictitious minimum water requirements, various scenarious were simulated for flow regimes depending on power plant operation, so as to establish a system for comparative analysis and evaluation of resulting economic effects on power plant efficiency on the one hand, and the ecologic effects on the aquatic habitat. The information derived was to serve as a basis for decision-making for regulatory purposes. For this study, the temporal and spatial variability of the flow regime at the river bed in a river segment was examined for the first time. Based on this information, complemented by information obtained from habitat simulations, a method was derived for determination of ecologic requirements and their incorporation into regulatory water management provisions. The field measurements were carried out with the FST hemisphere as a proven and most efficient and reliable method of assessing flow regimes at river beds. Evaluation of the measured instream flow data characterising three morphologically different segments of diverted rivers was done with the CASIMIR computer code. The ASS models derived were used for comparative assessment of existing regulatory provisions and recommended amendments determining required minimum instream flow in diverted rivers. The requirements were defined taking as a basis data obtained for three different years. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Ziel der Arbeit war die Entwicklung eines Modellverfahrens, das flexibel die Quantifizierung unterschiedlicher Nutzansprueche an Laufwasserkraftanlagen ermoeglicht. Insbesondere der Erhalt einer gewissen Dynamik, die fuer

  2. Low methane (CH4) emissions downstream of a monomictic subtropical hydroelectric reservoir (Nam Theun 2, Lao PDR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Chandrashekhar; Guérin, Frédéric; Labat, David; Pighini, Sylvie; Vongkhamsao, Axay; Guédant, Pierre; Rode, Wanidaporn; Godon, Arnaud; Chanudet, Vincent; Descloux, Stéphane; Serça, Dominique

    2016-03-01

    Methane (CH4) emissions from hydroelectric reservoirs could represent a significant fraction of global CH4 emissions from inland waters and wetlands. Although CH4 emissions downstream of hydroelectric reservoirs are known to be potentially significant, these emissions are poorly documented in recent studies. We report the first quantification of emissions downstream of a subtropical monomictic reservoir. The Nam Theun 2 Reservoir (NT2R), located in the Lao People's Democratic Republic, was flooded in 2008 and commissioned in April 2010. This reservoir is a trans-basin diversion reservoir which releases water into two downstream streams: the Nam Theun River below the dam and an artificial channel downstream of the powerhouse and a regulating pond that diverts the water from the Nam Theun watershed to the Xe Bangfai watershed. We quantified downstream emissions during the first 4 years after impoundment (2009-2012) on the basis of a high temporal (weekly to fortnightly) and spatial (23 stations) resolution of the monitoring of CH4 concentration. Before the commissioning of NT2R, downstream emissions were dominated by a very significant degassing at the dam site resulting from the occasional spillway discharge for controlling the water level in the reservoir. After the commissioning, downstream emissions were dominated by degassing which occurred mostly below the powerhouse. Overall, downstream emissions decreased from 10 GgCH4 yr-1 after the commissioning to 2 GgCH4 yr-1 4 years after impoundment. The downstream emissions contributed only 10 to 30 % of total CH4 emissions from the reservoir during the study. Most of the downstream emissions (80 %) occurred within 2-4 months during the transition between the warm dry season (WD) and the warm wet season (WW) when the CH4 concentration in hypolimnic water is maximum (up to 1000 µmol L-1) and downstream emissions are negligible for the rest of the year. Emissions downstream of NT2R are also lower than expected because

  3. Financial evaluation of the integration of satellite technology for snow cover measurements at a hydroelectric plant. (Utilization of Radarsat I in the La Grande river basin, Quebec)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emergence, on the markets, of new technologies evokes, for the potential users, a lot of questions concerning the implementation and operation costs associated with these technologies. Nevertheless, for a lot of users, costs should be considered with the benefits these technologies are able to generate. The benefit-cost analysis is a useful tool for a financial evaluation of the transferability of the technology. This method has been selected to evaluate the eventual implementation of remote sensing technologies for snow cover measurements in the La Grande river basin (Quebec, Canada). Indeed, a better assessment of the snow water equivalent leads to a better forecasting of the water inputs due to the snowmelt. Thus, the improvement of the snow cover monitoring has direct impact on hydroelectric reservoir management. The benefit-cost analysis was used to compare three acquisition modes of the satellite Radarsat 1 (ScanSAR, Wide and Standard). The costs considered for this project are: R and D costs and operations costs (the purchase of images and costs of ground truth measurements). We evaluated the raw benefits on the basis of reducing the standard deviation of predicted inflows. The results show that the ScanSAR mode is the primary remote sensing tool for the monitoring of the snow cover, on an operational basis. With this acquisition mode, the benefit-cost ratios range between 2.3:1 and 3.9:1, using a conservative 4% reduction of the standard deviation. Even if the reduction is only 3%, ScanSAR remains profitable. Due to the large number of images needed to cover all the territory, the Standard and Wide modes are penalized by the purchase and the processing costs of the data and with delays associated to the processing. Nevertheless, with these two modes, it could be possible to work with a partial coverage of the watershed, 75% being covered in 4 days in Wide mod. The estimated B/C ratios (1.5:1 and 2:1) confirm the advantages of this alternative

  4. Study on the environmental costs of the hydroelectric power plants impact on the amazon region biodiversity; Estudos dos custos ambientais do impacto de usinas hidreletricas na biodiversidade da regiao amazonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinguelli Rosa, Luiz; Sherrill, Elisabeth I.; Santos, Marco Aurelio dos

    1996-03-01

    This document aims to correlate the hydroelectric power plants constructed and forecasted to the amazon region with biodiversity questions, focusing the related environmental costs under two viewpoints: the environment economy and project location attributes 63 refs., 7 tabs.

  5. Methane and carbon dioxide emission from hydroelectric power plants in the Amazon region compared with the equivalent thermoelectric power plants; Emissoes de metano e dioxido de carbono de hidreletricas na Amazonia comparadas as de termeletricas equivalentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinguelli Rosa, Luiz; Schaeffer, Roberto; Santos, Marco Aurelio dos

    1996-03-01

    This document studies the theoretical and applied aspects related to the emission of gases responsible by the greenhouse effect from the hydroelectric and thermoelectric power plants 48 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  6. Legal obstacles and incentives to the third development of small-scale hydroelectric potential in the six New England states: executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    This executive summary describes the relationship of Federal law and regulation to state law and regulation of small-scale hydroelectric facilities. It also highlights important features of the constitutional law, statutory law, case law, and regulations of each of the six New England states. The summary may serve as a concise overview of and introduction to the detailed reports prepared by the Energy Law Institute on the legal and regulatory systems of each of the six states. The dual regulatory system is a function of the federalist nature of our government. This dual system is examined from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, i.e., the law of pre-emption, and the application of this law to the case of hydroelectric development. The regulation of small dams are discussed and flow diagrams of the regulations are presented for each of the six states - Maine, Massachusetts, Vermont, New Hampshire, Vermont, and Connecticut.

  7. Development and testing of turbines for small-scale low-head hydroelectric power plants; Developpement des turbines a basses chutes. Laboratoire de mini-hydraulique de Montcherand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denis, V.

    2002-07-01

    This report presents the design, development, construction and test of a turbine suited for small (up to 1 MW) and low-head (water head from 3 to 30 meters) hydroelectric power plants. The ultimate goal is to propose low-cost, simple and low-maintenance small adaptable hydroelectric units. Turbines are of the Kaplan type, axial, and have variable-pitch blades. Numerical simulations were performed to optimize the water flow at the entrance and exit of the turbine by means of appropriate fins. Various technical innovative aspects were approached. A pilot plant was built to serve as a test installation for the successively modified turbines. Measured mechanical power efficiencies are close to 89%. The installation is suitable for detecting possible cavitation and measuring the blade command torque during operation. The report is supplemented with a schematics of the generic installation and several graphics illustrating the simulation results.

  8. Proceedings on the seminar on small hydroelectric installations: Practice report and current development; Beitraege zum Seminar Kleinwasserkraft: Praxis und aktuelle Entwicklung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This seminar on small hydroelectric installations informs on aspects of construction and administrative aspects. But above all, questions of machinery are dealt with. The book gives an overview of turbine types, topical recent developments in the sector of small hydroelectric power stations, and modern opportunities for fast and inexpensive design of power station components. Beyond the discussion of technical issues, the seminar wants to further contacts between science, turbine manufacturers, consultants and plant operators. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Seminar Kleinwasserkraft gibt eine Uebersicht ueber bauliche Gestaltung und behoerdliche Aspekte. Vorallem behandelt es aber maschinenbauliche Problemstellungen. Es zeigt einen Ueberblick ueber Turbinentypen, aktuelle Neuentwicklungen im Kleinwassersektor, sowie moderne Moeglichkeiten zum schnellen und preiswerten Design von Kraftwerkskomponenten. Neben dem technischen Teil dient das Seminar auch der Foerderung des Kontakts zwischen Wissenschaft, Turbinenherstellern, Consultants und Anlagenbetreibern. (orig.)

  9. South Fork Tolt River Hydroelectric Project : Adopted Portions of a 1987 Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s Final Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-07-01

    The South Fork Tolt River Hydroelectric Project that world produce 6.55 average megawatts of firm energy per year and would be sited in the Snohomish River Basin, Washington, was evaluated by the Federal Energy Regulatory commission (FERC) along with six other proposed projects for environmental effects and economic feasibility Based on its economic analysis and environmental evaluation of the project, the FERC staff found that the South Fork Tolt River Project would be economically feasible and would result in insignificant Impacts if sedimentation issues could be resolved. Upon review, the BPA is adopting portions of the 1987 FERC FEIS that concern the South Fork Tolt River Hydroelectric Project and updating specific sections in an Attachment.

  10. Using Water Energy for Electrical Energy Conservation by Building of Micro hydroelectric Generators on The Water Pipelines That Depend on The Difference in Elevation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Taih Gatte

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research we study the elevations of cities and the water resources specially at the dams reservoirs and the distance between them(dams & cities, we use the Google Earth program to determine these elevations and calculate the difference between the average level (elevation of water at the dam and the average level of cities, which we want to supply it by water, in order to save electrical power by using the energy of supplied water through pipe line from dams to the cities, the pressure of supplied water must be calculated from the difference in elevations(head. The saving of energy can be achieved by two ways. The first is the energy saving by reduce the consumed power in the pumping water from river, which is used for different purposes. The second is the hydroelectric power generated by establishing a micro hydroelectric generator on the pipe line of the water supplied.

  11. Application of fuzzy logic in mapping the environmental impacts of hydroelectric power plants; Aplicacao da logica difusa no mapeamento de impactos ambientais em usinas hidreletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, M.N.; Lambert-Torres, G.; Silva, L.E. Borges da [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)], Emails: germanoltorres@gmail.com, leborges@unifei.edu.br; Rissino, S.; Silva, M.F. da [Universidade Federal de Rondonia (UFRO), Porto Velho, RO (Brazil)], e-mails: srissino@gmail.com, felipe@unir.br

    2009-07-01

    During the stages prior to installation of a large enterprise, there is an obligation to obtain an environmental license for its effectiveness. However, defining the relevance of an environmental impact generated by changes elapsed in a region, is something subjective, since some variables present qualitative definitions. Aiming to interrelate the variables that influence the environmental impacts in hydroelectric plants, was made the mapping of terms natural resources and degradation of the environment, and its defining variables, based on the theory of fuzzy logic. The construction of fuzzy propositions was based on the manipulation of a rule base, with the 'if' antecedent 'then' consequent structure. It was concluded that the use of fuzzy propositions for the study of environmental impact is an effective method to map the environmental impact caused by construction of a hydroelectric plant, because it defines the degree of influence of impact on the environment.

  12. Feasibility determination of hydroelectric power development at the existing Sewall's Falls Dam and power facilities for the New Hampshire Water Resources Board

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of restoring the hydroelectric power generating capacity of the Sewall's Falls facility near Concord, NH was evaluated considering technical, economic, safety and environmental factors. It was concluded that electric power can be generated at the proposed facility at a cost of $0.025 to $0.029 per kWh, and that the construction and operation of the facility is feasible. (LCL)

  13. The Impacts of Wind Speed Trends and Long-term Variability in Relation to Hydroelectric Reservoir Inflows on Wind Power in the Pacific Northwest

    OpenAIRE

    Cross, Benjamin David

    2013-01-01

    The use of wind power is growing rapidly in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) due to environmental concerns, decreasing costs, strong wind speeds, and the desire to minimize the impacts of streamflow variability on electricity prices and system flexibility through diversification. In hydroelectric dominated systems, like the PNW, the benefits of wind power can be maximized by accounting for the relationship between long term variability in wind speeds and reservoir inflows. Clean energy policies in...

  14. The Impacts of Wind Speed Trends and 30-Year Variability in Relation to Hydroelectric Reservoir Inflows on Wind Power in the Pacific Northwest

    OpenAIRE

    Cross, Benjamin D.; Karen E Kohfeld; Joseph Bailey; Cooper, Andrew B.

    2015-01-01

    In hydroelectric dominated systems, the value and benefits of energy are higher during extended dry periods and lower during extended or extreme wet periods. By accounting for regional and temporal differences in the relationship between wind speed and reservoir inflow behavior during wind farm site selection, the benefits of energy diversification can be maximized. The goal of this work was to help maximize the value of wind power by quantifying the long-term (30-year) relationships between ...

  15. The stakes of the hydroelectric power in the integrated management of the Basins. Which place for the EPTB; Les enjeux de l'hydroelectricite dans la gestion integree des bassins versants. Quelle place pour les EPTB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-01

    In the framework of a sustainable development, the EPTB (Public, Territorial Institutions of Basins) need an evolution of the regulations concerning the management of the hydroelectric power (areas of the Adour, Dordogne, Garonne and Lot). This document presents in two parts the context and the stakes of the hydroelectric concession: the concessions specifications and the analysis of the main articles, the tariffs, taxes and the environment constraints. (A.L.B.)

  16. Analysis of environmental issues related to small scale hydroelectric development. II. Design considerations for passing fish upstream around dams. Environmental Sciences Division Publication No. 1567

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrand, S.G. (ed.)

    1980-08-01

    The possible requirement of facilities to move migrating fish upstream around dams may be a factor in determining the feasibility of retrofitting small dams for hydroelectric generation. Basic design considerations are reported that should be evaluated on a site-specific basis if upstream fish passage facilities are being considered for a small scale hydroelectric project (defined as an existing dam that can be retrofitted to generate 25 MW or less). Information on general life history and geographic distribution of fish species that may require passage is presented. Biological factors important in the design of upstream passage facilities are discussed: gas bubble disease, fish swimming speed, oxygen consumption by fish, and diel and photo behavior. Three general types of facilities (fishways, fish locks, and fish lifts) appropriate for upstream fish passage at small scale hydroelectric projects are described, and size dimensions are presented. General design criteria for these facilities (including fish swimming ability and behavior) and general location of facilities at a site are discussed. Basic cost considerations for each type of passage facility, including unit cost, operation and maintenance costs, and costs for supplying attraction water, are indicated.

  17. Downstream environmental impacts of dams: case study Tucurui Hydroelectric Plant, PA; Impactos ambientais a jusante de hidreletricas: o caso da usina de Tucurui, PA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manyari, Waleska Valenca

    2007-12-15

    The hydroelectric resources of the Amazon region are considered a competitive alternative despite the structural problems they entail. Concerning the latter, plans to build large-scale dams in the region have drawn criticism mainly on account of the loss of forest cover in areas flooded by dam reservoirs and the conflicts concerning the relocation of indigenous and riverside communities in the region. This study seeks to contribute to better understanding of the environmental issue in the Amazon by focusing attention on the downstream effects of dams, which have large-scale, hitherto neglected ecological repercussions. The impact of dams extends well beyond the area surrounding the artificial lakes they create, harming rich Amazon wetland ecosystems. The morphology of dammed rivers changes in response to new inputs of energy and matter, which may in turn destroy certain biotypes. This is a remote-sensing-based case study of the Tucurui hydroelectric scheme in the Amazon state of Para. Attention is drawn to the need to take into account effects on alluvial rivers downstream from hydroelectric power plants when it comes to making planning decisions, as part of a sustainable energy policy. (author)

  18. Analysis of legal obstacles and incentives to the development of low-head hydroelectric power in Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level in Maine is discussed. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The dual regulatory system is examined. The first step any developer of small-scale hydropower must take is to acquire right, title, or interest in the real property. In Maine, that step requires acquisition in some form of both river banks, the river bed, and where necessary, the land needed for the upstream impoundment area. The developer must acquire the river banks to be considered a riparian owner. Classification as a riparian is important, for only a use of water by a riparian owner is deemed a reasonable use and hence a legal use. A non-riparian could not draw water from a stream to increase the water level of an impoundment area on another stream. Apart from the usual methods of land acquisition involving sale, lease, or perhaps gift, Maine has two somewhat unique methods a developer may use for property acquisition. These methods, authorized by statute, are use of the abandoned dams law and use of the Mill Dam Act for flowage of upstream impoundment areas.

  19. Report on technical feasibility of underground pumped hydroelectric storage in a marble quarry site in the Northeast United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chas. T. Main, Inc.

    1982-03-01

    The technical and economic aspects of constructing a very high head underground hydroelectric pumped storage were examined at a prefeasibility level. Excavation of existing caverns in the West Rutland Vermont marble quarry would be used to construct the underground space. A plant capacity of 1200 MW and 12 h of continuous capacity were chosen as plant operating conditions. The site geology, plant design, and electrical and mechanical equipment required were considered. The study concluded that the cost of the 1200 MW underground pumped storage hydro electric project at this site even with the proposed savings from marketable material amounts to between $581 and $595 per kilowatt of installed capacity on a January 1982 pricing level. System studies performed by the planning group of the New England Power System indicate that the system could economically justify up to about $442 per kilowatt on an energy basis with no credit for capacity. To accommodate the plant with the least expensive pumping energy, a coal and nuclear generation mix of approximately 65% would have to be available before the project becomes feasible. It is not expected that this condition can be met before the year 2000 or beyond. It is therefore concluded that the West Rutland underground pumped storage facility is uneconomic at this time. Several variables however could have marked influence on future planning and should be examined on periodic basis.

  20. Spatial Distribution of Fragmentation by Diversion-Typed Hydroelectric Plant Exploitation in East Baoxing Catchment from 1999 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Huang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Southwest Mountain areas, successive hydroelectric plant exploitation by humans on Baoxing River can exert a significant impact on regional landscape composition and structure. Taking East Baoxing River Catchment as the study area, the authors developed a method combining Moving Window based Calculation and Spatial Correlation Analysis to analyze the relationship between fragmentation and related spatial factors at a local scale, aiming to examine the spatial distribution rule of the landscape fragmentation and provide scientific support for the conservation of landscape ecology in the study area. From the perspective of the whole study area, although there is no clear relationship between the selected factors and the Change of DIVISION (CODIV, the comparison of R values in the latter interval (2006–2013 with those in the former interval (1999–2006 proves that the human activities of plant building have led to the increase in the DIVISION value. At the local scale, results show that a high positive relationship exists between slope and CODIV (R = 0.857, p-value = 0.05, while the relationship between river distance and CODIV is highly negative (R = −0.837, p-value = 0.01. A medium strong negative relationship lies between elevation and CODIV, while there is almost no linear relationship between distance from Qiaoqi reservoir and CODIV.

  1. Modeling and Estimating of Load Demand of Electricity Generated from Hydroelectric Power Plants in Turkey using Machine Learning Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DURSUN, B.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the electricity load demand, between 2012 and 2021, has been estimated using the load demand of the electricity generated from hydroelectric power plants in Turkey between 1970 and 2011. Among machine learning algorithms, Multilayer Perceptron, Locally Weighted Learning, Additive Regression, M5Rules and ZeroR classifiers are used to estimate the electricity load demand. Among them, M5Rules and Multilayer Perceptron classifiers are observed to have better performance than the others. ZeroR classifier is a kind of majority classifier used to compare the performances of other classifiers. Locally Weighted Learning and Additive Regression classifiers are Meta classifiers. In the training period conducted by Locally Weighted Learning and Additive Regression classifiers, when Multilayer Perceptron and M5Rules classifiers are chosen respectively, it is possible to obtain models with the highest performance. As a result of the experiments performed using M5Rules and Multilayer Perceptron classifiers, correlation coefficient values of 0.948 and 0.9933 are obtained respectively. And, Mean Absolute Error and Root Mean Squared Error value of Multilayer Perceptron classifier are closer to zero than that of M5Rules classifier. Therefore, it can be said the model performed by Multilayer Perceptron classifier has the best performance compared to the models of other classifiers.

  2. Carbon stored in forest plantations of Pinus caribaea, Cupressus lusitanica and Eucalyptus deglupta in Cachí Hydroelectric Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marylin Rojas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Forest plantations are considered the main carbon sinks thought to reduce the impact of climate change. Regarding many species, however, there is a lack of information in order to establish metrics on accumulation of biomass and carbon, principally due to the level of difficulty and the cost of quantification through direct measurement and destructive sampling. In this research, it was evaluated carbon stocks of forest plantations near the dam of hydroelectric project Cachí, which belongs to Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad. 25 unit samples were evaluated along some plantations that contain three different species. 30 Pinus caribacea trees, 14 Cupressus lusitanica and 15 Eucalyptus deglupta were extracted. The biomass was quantified by means of the destructive method. First of all, every component of the tree was weighed separately; then, sampling was obtained in order to determine the dry matter and the carbon fraction. 110 biomass samples from the three species were analyzed in laboratory, including all the components (leaves, branches, shaft, and root. The carbon fraction varied between 47,5 and 48,0 for Pinus caribacea; between 32,6 and 52,7 for Cupressus lusitanica, and beween 36,4 and 50,3% for Eucalyptus deglupta. The stored carbon was 230, 123, and 69 Mg ha-1 in plantations of P. caribaea, C. lusitanica and E. deglupta, respectively. Approximately, 75% of the stored carbon was detected in the shaft.

  3. FISH DIVERSITY ALONG THE LONGITUDINAL GRADIENT IN A MAN–MADE LAKE OF WEST AFRICA, TAABO HYDROELECTRIC RESERVOIR, IVORY COAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Aliko

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Fish assemblage patterns in Taabo Reservoir, a hydroelectric lake of Ivory Coast, were studied and related to the longitudinal gradient (river–dam gradient composed of riverine, transitional, and lacustrine zones. Data were collected at 5 stations and each one was sampled during 5 surveys. Fish community structure was analysed using alpha and beta diversity indices. In total, 53 fish species were obtained in the whole ecosystem. Total species richness recorded at each ecological zone was 42, 43 and 45 species respectively in the riverine, transitional and lacustrine zones. Alpha diversity did not differed significantly along the longitudinal gradient but reached the highest value (33 species in the transitional zone and the lowest (18 species occurred in both the riverine and lacustrine zones. Temporal variability of Alpha diversity according to the hydrological regime of the lake differed with the zone. Beta diversity showed that fish assemblages similarity was higher between the transitional and the riverine zones (βw = 0.43 and lower between the riverine and the lacustrine zones (βw = 0.79.

  4. Geração hidrelétrica, termelétrica e nuclear Hydroelectric, thermal and nuclear generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Pinguelli Rosa

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta a situação da produção de energia elétrica no Brasil e expõe os problemas para a implementação de um novo modelo no setor energético e para a inclusão de termelétricas em um grande sistema hidrelétrico. Questões ambientais são consideradas, particularmente as emissões de gás de efeito estufa. Atenta ainda para a possível construção de novos reatores nucleares no Brasil e destaca a importância da conservação energética e do uso de fontes de energia renovável.The situation of electric energy generation in Brazil is presented here, showing the problems in the implementation of the new model for the Power Sector, as well as in the inclusion of thermal plants in a very big hydroelectric system. Environment issues are considered, in particular the greenhouse gas emissions. The article pays attention to the possible construction of new nuclear reactors in Brazil. It is pointed out the importance of energy conservation and of using renewable energy sources.

  5. Impacts of hydro-electric reservoir on populations of caribou and grizzly bear in southern British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impacts of a hydroelectric reservoir on populations of caribou and grizzly bear were studied north of Revelstoke, British Columbia. Information collected for 3 years prior to flooding was compared with data collected in 1984-85. The reservoir did not obstruct movement of caribou and animals did not attempt crossing during periods when ice conditions were hazardous. Evidence suggested that predator avoidance was the most important determinant of habitats used in spring. The cleared reservoir was an important habitat for caribou in the spring because of the abundant food and security from predators it offered. A potential decline in caribou recruitment was noted in 1985 coincident with reservoir flooding. Mitigative recommendations include clearing logged areas adjacent to formerly used reservoir habitats and maintaining movement corridors of mature timber between seasonal habitats. Inconclusive evidence suggested that the reservoir was a barrier to grizzly movement. Spring movements of grizzly were mainly related to finding good feeding sites. Avalanche paths in side drainages were the principal habitats used. Cleared areas did provide an abundance of food comparable to naturally disturbed habitats. The main impact of flooding was to shift habitat use of bears from relatively secure areas in the reservoir to high-risk habitats on the highway and power line rights-of-way. Mitigative recommendations include reducing the attractiveness of those rights-of-way and maintaining spring ranges in tributary valleys by careful development planning. 14 refs., 7 figs., 17 tabs

  6. Mortality of silver eel (Anguilla anguilla migrating downstream through a small hydroelectric plant on the Drawa River in northern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dębowski Piotr

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The European eel, Anguilla anguilla L., is an endangered species. Barriers to its downstream spawning migration are one of the greatest threats this species faces. There are hundreds of hydroelectric plants (HEP on rivers in Poland (> 600, and thousands throughout Europe. Eel that pass through HEP turbines as they migrate downstream suffer high mortality, but this depends mainly on local and technical conditions. Silver eel mortality was estimated and the possibility of the fish bypassing the turbines was studied between November 2013 and June 2014 at a typical HEP in northern Poland. Two telemetry methods were used with 49 eel: passive integrated transponder (PIT system and acoustic telemetry. Fifty five percent of eel migrated downstream in fall 2013, soon after their release, and 45% migrated the next spring. The eel did not use the fish passes designed for upstream migration; thus, they were forced to go through the turbines, which resulted in 55% mortality. HEPs cause interruptions and delays in eel spawning migrations and are responsible for high eel mortality. This can make implementing an eel restitution plan difficult or even impossible in river systems with many barriers.

  7. Technical development of electric power storage system. New technological development of pumped hydroelectric power plant by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-07-01

    This report introduces the outline of the superhigh head (700-800 m) pumping water wheel and variable pumped hydroelectric power system. Due to the superheightening of head, the influence of the head loss generated in each water flowing portion to the efficiency is more severe than that of the pumping water wheel so far used. To improve it, a computorized analysis being made with high accuracy, the simplification of model testing was planned. As regards the problem of axial vibration, it was confirmed that the axial vibration calculation, using the horizontal exciting force secured by the model testing, is effective, as its result, for the prediction of axial vibration. In order to isolate the runner from the vibration, the FEM analysis facilitated the obtainment with accuracy of the characteristic frequency of runner. For the purpose of frequency control (AFC) of the electric power system, variable low frequency electric current being flown on the rotor's side, the adoption of cyclo-inverter to control the rotative velocity enabled the superheightening of efficiency and widening of operational range, particularly in case of partially loaded operation, and the generation control of cavitation and vibration. (11 figs)

  8. Revolutionising landscapes: Hydroelectricity and the heavy industrialisation of society and environment in the Comte de Beauharnois, 1927--1948

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Louis-Raphael

    This dissertation analyses the rapid industrialisation of the rural Comte de Beauharnois and the adjacent stretch of the Fleuve Saint-Laurent owing to the construction, between 1929 and 1948, of a gigantic canal for hydroelectricity production and navigation by an electricity corporation called the Beauharnois Light Heat and Power (BLH&P). Using principally the archives of the BLH&P---especially its complaints files and its rich photographic record---this thesis argues that this process exemplifies the finance capitalist reorganisation of the society and ecosystems of the Canadian province of Quebec from the 19th century to the Great Depression. In keeping with recent work in environmental history, the transformation of rural landscapes and a river for heavy industry is described as an important dimension of a revolution in modes of production. More specifically, I argue that, in the case under study, the finance-capitalist reorganisation of Quebec revolved around two central and explicit projects, one social and the other environmental: the grouping of most individuals in an industrial working class without control over the means of production and the reorganisation of rural landscapes into reservoirs of modern energy and industrial natural resources.

  9. Practical operation strategies for pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES) utilising electricity price arbitrage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, three practical operation strategies (24Optimal, 24Prognostic, and 24Hsitrocial) are compared to the optimum profit feasible for a PHES facility with a 360 MW pump, 300 MW turbine, and a 2 GWh storage utilising price arbitrage on 13 electricity spot markets. The results indicate that almost all (∼97%) of the profits can be obtained by a PHES facility when it is optimised using the 24Optimal strategy developed, which optimises the energy storage based on the day-ahead electricity prices. However, to maximise profits with the 24Optimal strategy, the day-ahead electricity prices must be the actual prices which the PHES facility is charged or the PHES operator must have very accurate price predictions. Otherwise, the predicted profit could be significantly reduced and even become a loss. Finally, using the 24Optimal strategy, the PHES profit can surpass the annual investment repayments required. However, over the 5-year period investigated (2005-2009) the annual profit from the PHES facility varied by more than 50% on five out of six electricity markets considered. Considering the 40-year lifetime of PHES, even with low investment costs, a low interest rate, and a suitable electricity market, PHES is a risky investment without a more predictable profit. - Highlights: → Electricity generators typically operate on a market, including energy storage. → This paper assesses how energy storage can maximise its profits on a market. → Four operating strategies are assessed on 13 markets using a case study.→ One operating strategy achieves 97% of the profits feasible.→ However, the profit varies a lot depending on the market and capital costs.

  10. Analysis on Stability Simulation of Right Abutment Slope, Delsi-Tanisagua Hydroelectric Project, Ecuador%厄瓜多尔德尔西水电站右坝肩边坡稳定性模拟分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁晓波; 张为法

    2014-01-01

    基于厄瓜多尔德尔西水电站前期地质勘查资料,用Gocad软件建立右坝肩边坡的三维地质模型,导入Flac3d做弹塑性分析和强度折减计算,根据计算所得位移场和应力场的分布规律,分析评价右坝肩边坡的天然稳定性,探讨边坡的可能破坏情况。%Based on data on geological exploration at the feasible study stage of Delsi-Tanisagua Hydroelectric Project in Ecuador, 3D geological model of slope in right abutment is built with Gocad.Then Flac3d is introduced to perform the elastic-plastic analysis and the strength reduction calculation.In accordance with the distribution law of displacement field and stress field from the calculation, the natural stability of the slope in the right abutment is analyzed and assessed, and the potential failure of the slope isstudied.

  11. Final Project Report, Bristol Bay Native Corporation Wind and Hydroelectric Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaught, Douglas J.

    2007-03-31

    The Bristol Bay Native Corporation (BBNC) grant project focused on conducting nine wind resource studies in eight communities in the Bristol Bay region of southwest Alaska and was administered as a collaborative effort between BBNC, the Alaska Energy Authority, Alaska Village Electric Cooperative, Nushagak Electric Cooperative (NEC), Naknek Electric Association (NEA), and several individual village utilities in the region. BBNC’s technical contact and the project manager for this study was Douglas Vaught, P.E., of V3 Energy, LLC, in Eagle River, Alaska. The Bristol Bay region of Alaska is comprised of 29 communities ranging in size from the hub community of Dillingham with a population of approximately 3,000 people, to a few Native Alaska villages that have a few tens of residents. Communities chosen for inclusion in this project were Dillingham, Naknek, Togiak, New Stuyahok, Kokhanok, Perryville, Clark’s Point, and Koliganek. Selection criteria for conduction of wind resource assessments in these communities included population and commercial activity, utility interest, predicted Class 3 or better wind resource, absence of other sources of renewable energy, and geographical coverage of the region. Beginning with the first meteorological tower installation in October 2003, wind resource studies were completed at all sites with at least one year, and as much as two and a half years, of data. In general, the study results are very promising for wind power development in the region with Class 6 winds measured in Kokhanok; Class 4 winds in New Stuyahok, Clark’s Point, and Koliganek; Class 3 winds in Dillingham, Naknek, and Togiak; and Class 2 winds in Perryville. Measured annual average wind speeds and wind power densities at the 30 meter level varied from a high of 7.87 meters per second and 702 watts per square meter in Kokhanok (Class 6 winds), to a low of 4.60 meters per second and 185 watts per square meter in Perryville (Class 2 winds).

  12. Historical and Contemporary Patterns of Mercury in a Hydroelectric Reservoir and Downstream Fishery: Concentration Decline in Water and Fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Derek J; Duffy, Mark; Janz, David M; McCullum, Kevin; Carrière, Gary; Jardine, Timothy D

    2016-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination can pose risks to human and animal health as well as commercial fisheries. Reservoir construction in riverine systems produces flooded conditions amenable to Hg(II)-methylating bacteria, which can transform this relatively benign environmental contaminant into the bioaccumulative, environmentally relevant, and neurotoxic methyl-Hg (MeHg). Hg concentrations ([Hg]) in fishes from reservoirs can take decades to decrease to pre-dam levels, but less is known about Hg exported downstream and its dynamics within downstream fish populations. We examined and compared the multidecadal rates of biotic [Hg] decrease and contemporary factors affecting [Hg] in fish collected from a hydroelectric reservoir (Tobin Lake) and a related downstream fishery (Cumberland Lake) along the Saskatchewan River, Canada. Rates of [Hg] decrease were considered in four species-northern pike (Esox lucius), sauger (Sander canadensis), goldeye (Hiodon alosoides), and walleye (S. vitreus)-all of which showed a significant decrease over time (p < 0.001) and are now lower than Health Canada consumption guidelines (0.5 μg/g). Rates of decrease ranged from 0.5 to 3.9 %/year and were similar between sites in the cases of northern pike and sauger. Contemporary factors affecting [Hg] in walleye collected downstream include fish length (p < 0.001), fish age (p < 0.001), and trophic magnification through the food web (p < 0.001), and relationships between [Hg] and trophic level in predatory and prey fish are now similar to those found in non-Hg-inundated systems at a similar latitude. Together, these results suggest connected contamination between the two sites and delineate the timeline during which [Hg] in a variety of fish species decreased to nontoxic levels in both locations. PMID:27272416

  13. Total mercury and methylmercury fluxes via emerging insects in recently flooded hydroelectric reservoirs and a natural lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total mercury (total Hg) concentrations in emerging aquatic insects ranged from 140 to 1500 ng g-1 dry wt. in two hydroelectric reservoirs of northern Quebec compared with 50-160 ng g-1 dry wt. in a natural lake. Methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations were somewhat lower, ranging from 35 to 800 ng Hg g-1 dry wt. in reservoirs and from 29 to 90 ng g-1 dry wt. in the natural lake. Contamination of insect taxa of reservoirs was on average 2-3 times higher than their counterparts in the natural lake. There was no difference between total Hg and MeHg concentrations of insects sampled from flooded forest soils and flooded peatland, although total Hg and MeHg concentrations differed between flooded peatland and flooded forest soils themselves. Insect biomasses were approx. two times higher in the reservoirs than in the natural lake (580-2200 mg m-2 year-1 dry wt., 950 mg m-2 year-1 dry wt., respectively); chironomids dominated in the reservoirs and trichopterans dominated in the natural lake. Similarly, total MeHg fluxes via emerging insects were approx. 2-4 times higher in reservoirs than that of the natural lake (55-224 ng MeHg m-2 year-1 dry wt., 74 ng MeHg m-2 year-1 dry wt., respectively). Our results show the importance of the insect community in the transfer of MeHg from flooded soils and flooded peatlands to fish, and that this pathway probably makes a significant contribution to the rapid rise of Hg levels in the fish community after flooding

  14. The new political scales of citizenship in a global era: The politics of hydroelectric development in the James Bay Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Jean

    2000-10-01

    In this dissertation, I examine the current reconfiguration of citizenship in Western societies in a period marked by the expansion of globalisation. Specifically, I focus on the spatial implications of globalisation via a comparative analysis of the politics of hydroelectric development, in the James Bay region of Quebec, Canada. I discuss the struggles surrounding its two main phases: the construction of the La Grande complex (1970--1975) and the aborted launching of the Great Whale project (1988--1994). I pay close attention to the mobilisation of the Cree people and ecology groups who launched successive campaigns to prevent the construction of both projects, reflecting what I depict as process of jumping scales. Whereas their campaigns were unsuccessful during the first phase, they became much more potent during the second phase. This transition reveals an important remapping of citizenship politics through which its national and territorial scales are being unbundled and no longer exclusively restricted to national state borders. As a result, citizenship politics becomes embedded in various locales---from the local to the emerging global. Each represents a political scene in which citizens can make claims and participate in debates around the recognition of their rights. This dissertation would contribute to the debates on citizenship and globalisation. It suggests that globalisation not only imposes new constraints on citizenship policies from above, but also creates now spaces in which citizenship is reframed or rather, rescaled. This dissertation also provides insights into the implications of globalisation. It illustrates how the globalisation of politics results from non-state actors, reflecting what is called "globalisation from below". This reveals contradictory forms of globalisation and implicitly, different political projects.

  15. Behind an ambitious megaproject in Asia: The history and implications of the Bakun hydroelectric dam in Borneo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a case-study, inductive, narrative approach, this article explores the history, drivers, benefits, and barriers to the Bakun Hydroelectric Project in East Malaysia. Situated on the island of Borneo, Bakun Dam is a 204 m high concrete face, rock filled dam on the Balui River in the Upper Rajang Basin in the rainforests of Sarawak. Bakun Dam and its affiliated infrastructure could be the single largest and most expensive energy project ever undertaken in Southeast Asia. Based on data collected through site visits, original field research in Sarawak, and more than 80 research interviews, the article begins by teasing out the complex history and drivers behind the Bakun project before identifying a set of potential social, political, and economic benefits the project could deliver. It then delves into six sets of barriers in the technical, economic, political, legal and regulatory, social, and environmental realms. We find that Bakun illustrates how centralized energy megaprojects, while ostensibly championed for reasons of economies of scale and the ability to bring about transformational change in the shortest period of time, often fail to address broader development goals such as fighting energy poverty and improving the livelihoods of the local communities they are supposed to serve. - Highlights: → Bakun Dam is concrete face, rock filled dam on the Balui River in the Upper Rajang Basin in the rainforests of Sarawak. → The project faces technical, economic, political, legal and regulatory, social, and environmental barriers. → We conclude the project will fail to fight energy poverty or improve the livelihoods of local populations.

  16. The Effects of Run-of-River Hydroelectric Power Schemes on Fish Community Composition in Temperate Streams and Rivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary S Bilotta

    Full Text Available The potential environmental impacts of large-scale storage hydroelectric power (HEP schemes have been well-documented in the literature. In Europe, awareness of these potential impacts and limited opportunities for politically-acceptable medium- to large-scale schemes, have caused attention to focus on smaller-scale HEP schemes, particularly run-of-river (ROR schemes, to contribute to meeting renewable energy targets. Run-of-river HEP schemes are often presumed to be less environmentally damaging than large-scale storage HEP schemes. However, there is currently a lack of peer-reviewed studies on their physical and ecological impact. The aim of this article was to investigate the effects of ROR HEP schemes on communities of fish in temperate streams and rivers, using a Before-After, Control-Impact (BACI study design. The study makes use of routine environmental surveillance data collected as part of long-term national and international monitoring programmes at 23 systematically-selected ROR HEP schemes and 23 systematically-selected paired control sites. Six area-normalised metrics of fish community composition were analysed using a linear mixed effects model (number of species, number of fish, number of Atlantic salmon-Salmo salar, number of >1 year old Atlantic salmon, number of brown trout-Salmo trutta, and number of >1 year old brown trout. The analyses showed that there was a statistically significant effect (p<0.05 of ROR HEP construction and operation on the number of species. However, no statistically significant effects were detected on the other five metrics of community composition. The implications of these findings are discussed in this article and recommendations are made for best-practice study design for future fish community impact studies.

  17. The impact of organochlorines and metals on wild fish living in a tropical hydroelectric reservoir: bioaccumulation and histopathological biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino, Marcelo Gustavo; Benze, Tayrine Paschoaletti; Sadauskas-Henrique, Helen; Sakuragui, Marise Margareth; Fernandes, João Batista; Fernandes, Marisa Narciso

    2014-11-01

    This study evaluates the contaminants in water and their bioaccumulation in the gills and liver of two ecologically distinct fish species, Astyanax fasciatus and Pimelodus maculatus, living in the reservoir of the Furnas hydroelectric power station located in Minas Gerais in the southeastern Brazil. The histological alterations in these organs are also examined. Water and fish were collected in June and December from five sites (site 1: FU10, site 2: FU20, site 3: FU30, site 4: FU40 and site 5: FU50) in the reservoir, and agrochemicals and metals selected based on their use in the field crops surrounding the reservoir were analyzed in the water and in the fish gills and livers. The concentrations of the organochlorines aldrin/dieldrin, endosulfan and heptachlor/heptachlor epoxide as well as the metals copper, chromium, iron and zinc in the gills and livers of both fish species were higher in June than in December; the liver accumulated higher concentrations of contaminants than the gills. The organochlorine metolachlor was detected only in the liver. The histological pattern of changes was similar in both species with regard to contaminant accumulation in the gills and liver. Fish from FU10, the least contaminated site, exhibited normal gill structure and moderate to heavy liver damage. Fish collected at FU20 to FU50, which were contaminated with organochlorines and metals, showed slight to moderate gill damage in June and irreparable liver damage in the livers in June and December. The histological changes in the gills and liver were suitable to distinguishing contaminated field sites and are therefore useful biomarkers for environmental contamination representing a biological end-point of exposure.

  18. Probabilistic life assessment of steel components used in power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holicky, M.; Markova, J. (Czech Technical Univ. in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic))

    2010-05-15

    Presented life assessment of steel components used in power plants is based on probabilistic methods of the theory of reliability accepted in the International standards ISO 9324, 13833 and ISO 13823. An example of quick-closing valves in a selected hydroelectric power plant illustrates general principles of the reliability and life assessment of steel components for a given model of corrosion. It appears that the probabilistic methods provide rational background information for assessing remaining working life of the components and planning their regular maintenance. The required target reliability level is a key question that remains still open. (orig.)

  19. Pumpspeicherbecken im Karstgrundwasserleiter des Weißen Jura der Schwäbischen Alb. Erste Ergebnisse aus der geologischen und hydrogeologischen Erkundung für die Planfeststellung Language="En">Pumped-storage hydroelectric power plant in the Jurassic karst aquifer of the swabian alb, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neukum, Christoph; Köhler, Hans Joachim; Fernandez-Steeger, Tomas; Hennings, Sibylle; Azzam, Rafig

    2014-06-01

    Extensive geological and hydrogeological investigations have been undertaken for the planned pumped-storage hydroelectric power plant in "Blautal" (Swabian Alb, Germany) in order to characterise the Jurassic karst aquifer in which the lower reservoir will be constructed. The preferred option for the plant setup is to integrate the lower reservoir into the groundwater without sealing. Therefore, in order to reliably predict the impact of the pumped storage plant operations on the surrounding drinking water wells and groundwater dependent ecosystems, a comprehensive database has been developed to assess the hydraulic conditions of the karst aquifer. A large scale geological site investigation was carried out to characterise the rock mass and extensive hydraulic tests were performed in many boreholes. The results of the hydraulic characterisation were then implemented in a three dimensional flow model. In this paper, the first results of the geological and hydrogeological investigations are presented and discussed.

  20. Overhaul of the generator of the hydroelectric central station Ingeniero Carlos Ramirez Ulloa; Rehabilitacion del generador de la unidad 2 de la central hidroelectrica ingeniero Carlos Ramirez Ulloa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles Pimentel, Edgar [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Garcia Hernandez, Javier [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    In November 1995, the failure of the Unit 2 generator at the hydroelectric central station Ingeniero Carlos Ramirez Ulloa, El Caracol, occurred. The accident forced to carry out its overhaul. Here are presented the technical problems faced during the overhaul of the generator and analyzed the implemented solutions. [Espanol] En noviembre de 1995 ocurrio la falla del generador de la unidad 2 de la central hidroelectrica Ing. Carlos Ramirez Ulloa, El Caracol. El accidente obligo a llevar a cabo su rehabilitacion. Se presentan los problemas tecnicos enfrentados durante la rehabilitacion del generador y se discuten las soluciones implementadas.

  1. Serial DC systems applied to small-scale hydroelectric power plants; Sistemas serie em corrente continua aplicados as pequenas centrais hidreletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Manuel L.B.; Rosa, Paulo C. [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Martinez, Carlos B. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Hidraulica e Recursos Hidricos

    1996-12-31

    The utilization of the remaining potential in brazilian South and Southeast regions, specially those close to the biggest demand areas, have been conditioned by the high costs of the initialization of the socio and environmental impacts. As a consequence, the viability of the traditional energy production systems (hydraulic power plants) need a revaluation of its costs, especially in what concerns the generation plants and their auxiliary systems. This paper discusses several considerations concerning of serial DC small-scale hydroelectric power plants, giving especial attention to the technical conditions and control aspects which must be observed during the planning and the project phases 9 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Preliminary analysis of legal obstacles and incentives to the development of low-head hydroelectric power in the northeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    A preliminary analysis of the legal obstacles and incentives to the development of the low-head hydroelectric potential of the 19 northeastern US (Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware, Virginia, and West Virginia) is presented. The statutes and case laws of the 19 states and the Federal government which affect developers of small dams are stressed. The legal uncertainty which confronts the developer of small dams and the regulatory burden to which the developer may be subjected once the uncertainty is resolved are emphasized.

  3. Environmental impact analysis of the hydroelectric power development sheme in the River Grunnaai in Seljord municipality, Telemark; Konsekvensutredning av kraftutbyggingsprosjekt i Grunnaai i Seljord, Telemark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muniz, I.P.; Bendiksen, E.; Erikstad, L.; Reitan, O.

    1997-12-31

    This report discusses the possible environmental consequences of a planned hydroelectric power development of the river Grunnaai, Norway. The consequences are found to be small, provided the proper counter measures are taken. Without counter measures, there may be moderate consequences on fish populations and botanical conditions, directly dependent on the changed water flow. The greatest value of the area concerned lies in its unspoiled wilderness character. There are extensive lists of birds and mammals and plant species registered in the river valley. 51 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Erosion Control and Recultivation Measures at a Headrace Channel of a Hydroelectric Power Plant using Different Combined Soil Bioengineering Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obriejetan, M.; Florineth, F.; Rauch, H. P.

    2012-04-01

    vegetation properties are studied by setting up comparative test plots at a field study site located at a headrace channel of a hydroelectric power plant. Different vegetational parameters such as basal coverage, species richness, species composition, abundance/dominance values by using a refined Braun-Blanquet cover estimation scale were collected as well as local environmental properties. Results during the first vegetation period show distinct effects of geotextiles especially on overall vegetation coverage and grasses-herbs-ratio. Geotextile supported plots show 20% higher overall coverage but lower amount of herbs after three months of vegetation growth compared to control plots without installation of auxiliary materials. Furthermore coir blankets reveal higher penetration resistance for seed leaves of herbal plants compared to coir nettings. Hence technical erosion protection products, biological components and it's combination have to be closely coordinated in order to achieve specified revegetation objectives and meet long-term functionality.

  5. The portfolio theory applied to small hydroelectric power plants; Teoria do portfolio aplicada a pequenas centrais hidreletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos, Paulo Roberto Ferreira de Moura

    2002-07-01

    The 'Portfolio Theory' has been largely employed on stock markets, aiming to improve the relation between risk and return. This theory identifies many possible investment combinations once it's associated with the idea that increasing investment diversification can lower risk. The objective is, thus identify the portfolio that offers the most efficient diversification of capital. The reforms on the energy sector in Brazil have made investments on both generation and commercialization of electric energy easier for medium sized investors. There have been economic incentives to the exploration of wind and bio-mass energy, and to the construction of small hydro-electric power plants (in Portuguese, PCH), as well as many legal and regulatory mechanisms pursuing the maintenance of elevate rates of participation of renewable source in the production of electrical energy in Brazil. Between these options, the PCH are a specially good opportunity taking account of its minimum environment impact, low operational costs and total technologic control. The decision concerning investment options has been based on standard economic analysis like 'Net Present Value', 'Payback Time' or 'Cost/Benefit Relations'. Other techniques such as scenario and sensitivity have been incorporated and, more recently, there has been a search for other methods consider the uncertainty of happenings within the horizon of study. This dissertation will analyse six possibilities of PCH with standard techniques. Of them, the four possibilities considered viable will constitute our examples for the application of Portfolio Theory techniques. Once the active portfolio is determined, the best option is identified using the 'mean-variance efficient' developed by Markowitz, concluding that the theory can give better support to the decision-making in future enterprises on the electric sector. After considering the optimal return/risk combinations, there was

  6. Rural electrification in Santarem: contribution of micro hydroelectric power plants; Eletrificacao rural em Santarem: contribuicao das micro centrais hidreletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Els, Rudi Henri Van; Diniz, Janaina Deane De Abreu Sa; Souza, Josiane do Socorro Aguiar de; Brasil Junior, Antonio Cesar Pinho; Sousa, Antonio Nazareno Almada de [Universidade de Barsilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Lab. de Energia e Ambiente; Kroetz, Jaemir Grasiel [Indalma Industria e Comercio, Santarem, PA (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The municipality of Santarem in the lower Amazon river is the main center in the western region of the state of Para with a population of 274.285 inhabitants, with 31.633 of them living in the rural zone, where only 1.060 rural costumers have access to regular electricity service from the utility provider. This incipient coverage of electricity service in the rural zone urged the local population to look for alternatives. This was found in the use of the hydraulic potential of creeks and rivers with rapids and waterfalls to implement pico and micro hydroelectric plants. So since 2001, 44 pico and 12 micro hydropower plants were installed in the municipalities of Santarem, Belterra and Uruara in the state of Para by local entrepreneurs and communities to attend their basic electricity needs. These systems attend approximately 580 families with a total installed capacity of more than 700 kVA. The consolidation of this technological alternative induced the Regional Superintendent of the Institute for Colonization and Land Reform (INCRA) and the Municipality of Santarem to elaborate a project to attend the land reform settlements in the region. This led to the installation of 6 micro hydropower (MHP) with a total installed capacity of 820kVA and a 252 km distribution network to attend 1.630 families in the settlements of Moju and Corta Corda. The purpose of this paper is to present the MHP's installed in the region and to show the contribution of these units in the rural electrification of rural settlements in Santarem. The paper discusses also the management model of these units. The survey's methodology consisted in the systematization of project data from the plant builder, INCRA and the municipality. The information was obtained from the official bibliography from the local actors and complemented by field surveys with interviews and observation. Despite the fact that the MHP's are in operation, they are not yet registered in the data base of the

  7. Modeling strategic competition in hydro-thermal electricity generation markets with cascaded reservoir-hydroelectric generation plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluca, Basak

    This dissertation aims to achieve two goals. The first is to model the strategic interactions of firms that own cascaded reservoir-hydro plants in oligopolistic and mixed oligopolistic hydrothermal electricity generation markets. Although competition in thermal generation has been extensively modeled since the beginning of deregulation, the literature on competition in hydro generation is still limited; in particular, equilibrium models of oligopoly that study the competitive behavior of firms that own reservoir-hydro plants along the same river in hydrothermal electricity generation markets are still under development. In competitive markets, when the reservoirs are located along the same river, the water released from an upstream reservoir for electricity generation becomes input to the immediate downstream reservoir, which may be owned by a competitor, for current or future use. To capture the strategic interactions among firms with cascaded reservoir-hydro plants, the Upstream-Conjecture approach is proposed. Under the Upstream-Conjecture approach, a firm with an upstream reservoir-hydro plant assumes that firms with downstream reservoir-hydro plants will respond to changes in the upstream firm's water release by adjusting their water release by the same amount. The results of the Upstream Conjecture experiments indicate that firms that own upstream reservoirs in a cascade may have incentive to withhold or limit hydro generation, forcing a reduction in the utilization of the downstream hydro generation plants that are owned by competitors. Introducing competition to hydroelectricity generation markets is challenging and ownership allocation of the previously state-owned cascaded reservoir-hydro plants through privatization can have significant impact on the competitiveness of the generation market. The second goal of the dissertation is to extract empirical guidance about best policy choices for the ownership of the state-owned generation plants, including the

  8. Hydroelectric generating site signage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentley, K. [British Columbia Hydro, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1997-04-01

    Recreational sites have been developed at several BC Hydro reservoirs. These sites are visited by approximately 800,000 people annually and therefore, require consistent control measures to ensure public safety and to restrict public access to hazardous areas. BC Hydro is in the process of establishing a province-wide standard in which layout, colour, description of hazards, BC Hydro identity and sign placement would follow an established set of criteria. Proposed signs would consist of a pictograph and a printed warning below. Preliminary designs for 16 of the signs were presented. 16 figs.

  9. The turing method of kaplan turbine hydroelectric generating set%轴流转桨式水轮发电机组的盘车方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任鹏

    2014-01-01

    T urning axis adjustment of hydroelectric generating set is a key process of installation or fitting back during overhaul .The turning process of Kaplan turbine is more complex than that of Francis turbine because it has a set of operation pipeline more than the Francis turbine .Combining with the turning work of unit 2 hydroelectric generating set during class A overhaul in Nierji water power plant ,characteristics and focus of Kaplan turbine turning work are analyzed and discussed .%水电机组盘车轴线调整是安装或大修回装中的一项关键工艺,轴流转桨式机组轴系较混流式多一套操作油管,使其盘车工艺愈加复杂。结合尼尔基发电厂2号水轮发电机组A 级大修中的盘车工作,分析论述了轴流转桨式机组盘车工作的特点和重点。

  10. Impact of the construction of a hydroelectric power plant on the land cover and use: study of the basin Lajeado Bonito - RS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims to analyze the impact of the construction of a hydroelectric power plant on land cover and use in Lajeado Bonito-RS watershed. The study evaluated the temporal evolution of land cover and use in the watershed for the period before and after to installation of hydroelectric plant Foz do Chapeco (2009 to 2010). For temporal analysis, two images were interpreted, one orbital image of High Resolution Camera (HRC) onboard of the CBERS-2B, acquired in December 29, 2009. And a high-resolution image obtained from Google Earth application, acquired at December 26, 2010. The land cover and use maps were generated by vector editing SPRING software. We found that the predominant land use related to agriculture and livestock, including bare soil. In 2009 this class accounted for 70.23% of the total area, while it come to represent 61.8% in 2010. At the same time, there was increase of areas with native forest cover, from 27.49% covered by forest in 2009, to 31% in 2010. The results showed that in both 2009 and 2010 years, approximately 49% of permanent preservation area were used inappropriately. (author)

  11. Case studies of the legal and institutional obstacles and incentives to the development of small-scale hydroelectric power: South Columbia Basin Irrigation District, Pasco, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, L.

    1980-05-01

    The case study concerns two modern human uses of the Columbia River - irrigation aimed at agricultural land reclamation and hydroelectric power. The Grand Coulee Dam has become synonomous with large-scale generation of hydroelectric power providing the Pacific Northwest with some of the least-expensive electricity in the United States. The Columbia Basin Project has created a half-million acres of farmland in Washington out of a spectacular and vast desert. The South Columbia River Basin Irrigation District is seeking to harness the energy present in the water which already runs through its canals, drains, and wasteways. The South District's development strategy is aimed toward reducing the costs its farmers pay for irrigation and raising the capital required to serve the remaining 550,000 acres originally planned as part of the Columbia Basin Project. The economic, institutional, and regulatory problems of harnessing the energy at site PEC 22.7, one of six sites proposed for development, are examined in this case study.

  12. Use of social communication as a tool for environmental licensing of small-scale hydroelectric power plants; Uso da comunicacao social como instrumento para o licenciamento ambiental de PCH - pequenas centrais hidreletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiago Filho, Geraldo Lucio [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Recursos Naturais], e-mail: tiago@unifei.edu.br; Galhardo, Camila Rocha [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Pequenas Centrais Hidreletricas (CERPCH), MG (Brazil)], e-mail: pchnoticias@unifei.edu.br

    2006-07-01

    The present work intends to study the process of environmental licensing of the Small ones Central Hydroelectric (PCHs) through the rising of the legal framework of the referred process and to analyze the application of tools of social communication in the mitigation of the social impacts in the zone of influence of the enterprise. Through the analysis of the critical points in the environmental licensing of small hydroelectric uses and evaluation of communication actions taking in consideration the environmental costs for the enterprise. (author)

  13. Life cycle assessment (LCA) of electricity generation technologies: Overview, comparability and limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Turconi, Roberto; Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    Electricity generation is a key contributor to global emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), NOx and SO2 and their related environmental impact. A critical review of 167 case studies involving the life cycle assessment (LCA) of electricity generation based on hard coal, lignite, natural gas, oil, nuclear, biomass, hydroelectric, solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind was carried out to identify ranges of emission data for GHG, NOx and SO2 related to individual technologies. It was shown that GHG emis...

  14. Two essays on electricity markets: Entry into hydroelectric generation industry and the political cycle of regulated prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moita, Rodrigo Menon Simoes

    This dissertation is about the electricity industry and the problems that arise with the liberalization and de-regulation of the industry. Characteristics intrinsic to the electricity market create problems that can compromise an efficient functioning of this market. Each of the two chapters of this dissertation focus on a specific aspect of this industry. The first chapter analyzes entry in the hydroelectric generation industry. The operation of a generator upstream regularizes the river flow for generators located downstream on the same river, increasing the production capacity of the latter. This positive externality increases the attractiveness of the locations downstream whenever a generator decides to enter upstream. Therefore, the entry decision of a generator in a given location may affect all entry decisions in potential locations for plants located downstream. I first model the problem of generators located in cascade on the same river and show the positive effect of the externality. Second, I use a panel of data on investment decisions of hydro-generation firms to estimate an entry model that takes into account the effect of the externality generated by entry upriver. The results show a positive incentive to locate downstream from existing plants and from locations where entry is likely to occur. Location characteristics also play an important role on the entrants' decisions. The model provides estimates of the average expected market price across the different years covered by the sample and shows that it rose one year before the energy crisis of 2001, evidencing that the market anticipated the crisis. This result has important implications on the evaluation of the Brazilian market design. It shows that entry responded to a rise in expectations about excess demand in the future, contradicting the argument that the crisis was a consequence of mis-designed market institutions. The second chapter deals with the problem of the political cycle in regulated

  15. Evaluating the potential for catastrophic fault-rupture-related hazards affecting a key hydroelectric and irrigation region in central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, D.; Korjenkov, A.; Tibaldi, A.; Usmanova, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Toktogul hydroelectric and irrigation scheme is the largest in central Asia, with a reservoir containing almost 20 km3 of water behind a 230 m-high dam. Annually, the scheme generates 1200 MW of electricity that is distributed over Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan and Russia. The scheme is vital for the economic, social and agricultural stability and development of the emerging central Asian republics it serves and, since it is no longer administered centrally as it was in Soviet times, is increasingly the focus of cross-border tensions involving competing needs for irrigation water and power supplies. Our work aims to identify and evaluate potential geo-environmental threats to this region for the benefit of stakeholders; with recommendations for measures to mitigate a range of threat scenarios, presented in a user-friendly GIS format. Most notably these scenarios involve the potential for very large magnitude earthquakes, with associated widespread slope instability, occurring on the little known Talas - Fergana fault. This structure, some 700 km long, bisects the Toktogul region within the actively (~20 mm a-1) contracting Tien Shan mountain range and exhibits geological characteristics similar to large strike-slip faults such as the San Andreas. Historical records are limited in this inaccessible mountainous region that, until Soviet times, was occupied by mainly nomadic peoples, but do not indicate recent fault rupture. This highlights the role of geological investigations in assembling a record of past catastrophic events to serve as a guide for what may be expected in the future, as well as the inherent difficulties in attempting geological forecasts to a precision that is useful on human timescales. Such forecasts in this region must also include the presence of some 23 uranium mining waste dumps within the mountain valleys, a legacy from Soviet times, as well as arsenic-rich waste dumps remaining from an earlier era of gold mining. Many

  16. The regional insertion of hydroelectric enterprises: a discussion concerning the technology, the regional space and the environment; A insercao regional de empreendimentos hidreletricos: uma discussao acerca da tecnologia, o espaco e o meio ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Marco A. dos [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia; Nascimento, Jose A.S. do [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias

    1995-04-01

    This paper shows some aspects related to socio-economical effects of large hydroelectric power plants over the regional space, as well as some alternatives for the insertion of those enterprises in the region`s economy in order to promote the regional development. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. SIRIO: Computer system for the follow up and the optimum planning of short time exploitation of a hydroelectric system; SIRIO: sistema informatico para el seguimiento y la programacion optima de la explotacion a corto plazo de un sistema hidroelectrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarri, A.

    1994-12-31

    Sirio is a computerized application to manage the hydroelectric system in a short time. This management is implemented as a real time tool in the Control Department. SIRIO has many modules, independent and integrated to operate and perform the data acquisition, optimization, planning simulation and planning optimization. This article presents the SIRIO System and its applications to the Iberdrola system in Tajo river.

  18. Analysis of environmental studies of the mammals in small hydroelectrics power in the Espirito Santo; Analise dos estudos ambientais da mastofauna em pequenas centrais hidreletricas do Espirito Santo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonesi, Patricia Conde

    2011-10-15

    The hydroelectric projects have been the main form to supply the energy demand in Brazil. Although it has been considered a way of clean generation, it brings many environmental impacts. Due to the fact that inconsistencies in environmental impact studies often occur, this study aimed to evaluate the quality of environmental diagnosis of the mammals in SHP in the Espirito Santo. Therefore, was notice an insufficient data survey, because of the relevance given to the secondary data and the lack of seasonal investigations, bringing damages to the proposals submitted of environmental compensation. This way, manners ware proposed that aim to improve the quality of these studies, which include since environmental awareness programs at the penalizing of those involved in such studies. (author)

  19. Modern technology in a historical site - the new hydroelectric power plant at Lucerne; Moderne Technik an historischem Ort - das neue Wasserkraftwerk in Luzern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wewoda, F.

    2001-03-01

    Hydropower was harnessed at the 'Muehlenplatz' site in Lucerne already in the Middle Ages. The first power plant on the Reuss River was built around 900 n.Chr. to run the town mills. In April 1998, a new hydroelectric power plant was commissioned. The planners relied on CAD for customized and efficient planning. [German] Schon Technik-Pioniere des Mittelalters machten sich die Wasserkraft am Muehlenplatz in Luzern zunutze. Sie rangen dem dortigen Abfluss der Reuss aus dem Vierwaldstaetter See schon um 900 n.Chr. Stroemungsenergie ab, die spaeter die staedtischen Muehlen in Schwung brachte. An diesem traditionsreichen Ort versorgt seit April 1998 ein neues Wasserkraftwerk Wohnungen der Kantonshauptstadt mit Strom. Mit CAD-Hilfe gelang bei diesem Projekt eine bedarfsgerechte und vor allem effiziente Planung. (orig.)

  20. Ecological improvements to hydroelectric power plants under EEG. Guidance to environmental verifiers and water rights authorities; Oekologische Verbesserungsmassnahmen an Wasserkraftanlagen gemaess EEG. Leitfaden fuer Umweltgutachter und Wasserrechtsbehoerden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyr, Christoph; Pfeifer, Hansjoerg [EVIT GmbH Ingenieurbuero Unternehmensberatung, Muenchen (Germany); Schnell, Johannes; Hanfland, Sebastian [Landesfischereiverband Bayern e.V., Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    The use of hydropower as a renewable form of energy is experiencing a renaissance due to the energy transition in Bavaria. The fishery evaluate not uncritically this development, because hydroelectric plants generally normally represent a considerable intervention in water and therefore in the habitat of the fish. In this case it should be noted that just often not even the minimum requirements of ecology are fulfilled at existing plants according to the Federal Water Act. [German] Die Nutzung der Wasserkraft als regenerative Energieform erlebt aufgrund der Energiewende in Bayern derzeit eine Art Renaissance. Die Fischerei bewertet diese Entwicklung nicht unkritisch, stellen Wasserkraftanlagen in der Regel doch einen erheblichen Eingriff in Gewaesser und somit den Lebensraum der Fische dar. Dabei ist festzustellen, dass gerade an bestehenden Anlagen haeufig nicht einmal die Mindestanforderungen der Oekologie erfuellt werden, wie sie das Wasserhaushaltsgesetz vorschreibt.

  1. Methodology to identify the location of shoals of fish downstream from hydroelectric power plant; Metodologia para identificar a locacao de cardumes de peixes a jusante de UHE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, C.B.; Viana, E.M.F.; Faria, M.T.C. de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas Hidraulicas e Recursos Hidricos], Emails: martinez@cce.ufmg.br, ednamariafaria@ufmg.br, mtcdf@uol.com.br

    2009-07-01

    The location identification of fish shoals at the downstream of an hydroelectric power plants is a task of importance especially when one takes into account the need to identify possible locations for the deployment of fish transportation mechanism. This paper presents a methodology based on the use of reduced models, which will be operated during the biological testing, under flow and conditions similar to the field where will be included shoals of fish. These groups will be observed during a period of time under varying conditions of discharge of hydraulic turbines. At the end of this observation it can be identified preferential location areas of fish shoals that will be evaluated later in order to install transposition systems in the place.

  2. Electric generator overhaul of the Ing. Carlos Ramirez Ulloa hydroelectric. Central project conclusions; Rehabilitacion de los generadores de la central hidroelectrica Ing. Carlos Ramirez Ulloa. Conclusiones del proyecto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campuzano Martinez, Ignacio Roberto; Gonzalez Vazquez, Alejandro Esteban; Robles Pimentel, Edgar Guillermo; Esparza Saucedo, Marcos; Garcia Martinez, Javier; Sanchez Flores, Ernesto; Martinez Romero, Jose Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    The Hydroelectric Ing. Carlos Ramirez Ulloa Power Central has three 200 MW electric generators. The Central initiated its commercial operation in 1985. The electric generators had design problems that were properly corrected in an overhaul program that was initiated in 1996, with Unit 2 electric generator and completed in 1998 with Unit 1 electric generator. This paper presents the relevant aspects of the experience accumulated in the project. [Espanol] La central hidroelectrica Ing. Carlos Ramirez Ulloa cuenta con tres generadores de 200 MW cada uno. La central inicio su operacion comercial en 1985. Los generadores tenian problemas de diseno que fueron debidamente corregidos en un programa de rehabilitacion que inicio en 1996, con el generador de la unidad 2, y culmino en 1998 con el generador de la unidad 1. En este articulo se presentan los aspectos relevantes de la experiencia acumulada en el proyecto.

  3. Construction and modernization of small hydroelectric installations with funding by programmes of the EU. Abstract; Neubau und Modernisierung von Kleinwasserkraftanlagen durch Foerderprogramme der E.U.. Kurzfassung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauck, E. [Ingenieurgesellschaft fuer Wasserbau und Bautechnik mbH, Rheinstetten (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The report gives a brief introduction into the EU grant programmes since 1984 and explains the philosophy behind them. The current situation regarding grant opportunities for the construction and modernization of small hydroelectric installations is outlined. Hints are given with a view to grant applications. A selection of small hydro power stations supported by grants (since 1984) are described with their economic and technical features. (orig.) [Deutsch] In diesem Beitrag wird eine kurze Einfuehrung in die EU-Foerderprogramme seit 1984 und Erlaeuterungen zu der Programmphilosophie gegeben. Die derzeitige Situation bezueglich der Foerderung von Kleinwasserkraftanlagen fuer Neubauten und Modernisierungsmassnahmen wird dargestellt. Es werden Hinweise zur Stellung eines Foerderantrags beschrieben. Abschliessend erfolgt die Vorstellung einer Auswahl von gefoerderten Kleinwasserkraftanlagen (seit 1984) mit den wirtschaftlichen und technischen Besonderheiten. (orig.)

  4. Rock Open Cut by Blasting in Tanghe Hydroelectric Station Project%唐河水电站石方明挖爆破施工

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建

    2012-01-01

    The rock open cut during excavating dam foundation and bank slope of Tanghe Hydroelectric station project adopted several blasting methods such as shallow-hole blasing,deep-hole bench blasting,cut blasting in protective layer,smooth blasting and presplit blasting.The paper states determination of blasting plan,selection of blasting materials,blasting method and procedure,control of blasting safety distance.%唐河水电站坝基及岸坡石方开挖采用了浅层爆破、深孔梯段爆破、保护层开挖爆破、光面爆破和预裂爆破。文中论述了爆破方案的制定、爆破材料的选择、爆破方法和程序、爆破安全距离的控制。

  5. Urban green areas as the starting point for planning hydroelectric and urban developments: The case of the Sava River in the City of Ljubljana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Mlakar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the landscape and urbanistic layout of the Sava River space and North part of the Bežigrad stretch of Ljubljana. Focus is on methodological and content starting points for the layout preparation and development of urban green areas of the wider Sava River space, which as a connecting link and simultaneously independent spatial and functional entity represents the starting point for planning hydro-energetic and urban arrangements. The necessity of recognising and resolving real spatial planning issues, formulation of clear goals and concepts, confrontation of different spatial systems and interests, as well as the sensibility of devising alternative development scenarios are emphasised. One of the most important starting points of the proposed layout is comprehensive design of public open spaces and green areas. The urbanistic solution relies on a programmatically strong, distinct and structured Dunajska Street, which should transform into the public space of a modern urban artery, with a clear ending that simultaneously gradually adapts to the morphology akin to the surroundings and Sava River space. Because of its natural characteristics, preserved cultural landscape and good accessibility, this area has great potential for development of leisure activities. The proposed solution stems from the fact that the chain of hydro-electric plants shouldn't be seen as buildings with negative environmental effects, but also as development opportunities – the actual execution of a recreation area along the Sava River and a method for rehabilitating the degraded spaces. Comprehensive solutions along the river have been proposed as parts of the hydro-electric developments, with special attention focusing on active design of various riverbank types.

  6. Perceived ill-health and health seeking behavior in two communities in the nam theun 2 hydroelectric project area in Lao People's Democratic Republic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sayasone S; Erlanger TE; Kaul S; Sananikhom P; Tanner M; Utzinger J; Odermatt P

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To compare perceived ill-health and health seeking behavior between two communities affected by the large Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project in central Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR).Methods:Two different affected areas:Nakai plateaubeing remote,sparcely populated and mountainous,and Xe Bang Fai lowland plains,more densely populated and comparatively affluent were included.Data were obtained from two cross-sectional household-based health and socio-economic surveys.Results:We found pronounced differ-ences in the frequency of self-reported fever,cough,headache and myalgia according to location.On the Na-kai plateau,45.1 % of the individuals with ill-health report (recall period:2 weeks)went to a local health volunteer compared to only 7.2 % in the Xe Bang Fai area (P <0.001).In Nakai,there were disproportion-ately more illiterates seeking help from local health volunteers when compared to those who attended at least primary schooling (49.2 % versus 17.5 %,P <0.01).Self-medication with antimalarials was more common in Xe Bang Fai than on Nakai (32.3 % versus 7.0 %,P <0.001).The mean amount of money spent per health consultation was US $1.7 in Nakai and US $7.2 in Xe Bang Fai.Conclusion:The observed differ-ences in self-reported ill-health and health seeking behavior among these two Lao communities need to be con-sidered when implementing setting-specific mitigation measures as part of the public health action plan of the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project.

  7. Change in runoff characteristics of alpine flowing waters caused by the use of hydroelectric power and its effects on the macro-benthos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A typical form of change in runoff characteristics caused by the widespread use of hydroelectric power in Switzerland is the intermittent draining (torrent operation). It is the aim of the present work to help elucidate possible consequences of these changes in drain onto the benthobiocoenosis. The study was carried through on the Secklisbach at Oberrickenbach (in the semicanton of Nidwalden) and one of its side streamlets (800m above sea level). The macroinvertebrate coenosis was studied at four locations with similar conditions of drainage basin, population density and topography but varying in the degree of impairment to the draining. There were monthly benthos samples taken using a Surber sampling-device. Results show that the locations not only varied in drain, but also in temperature, this being a consequence of water storage by the power plant. The readings pointed out different values for the locations in daily average temperature, day amplitudes and half-yearly temperature sums. The annual average temperatures, however, did hardly differ. With the water, there is warmth being held back as well in the storage basin in summer, which in winter flows off with the process water. The hydroelectric operation with water storage leads to an intermittent drain with ecological consequences. In order to preserve a stretch of water as a biotope for the naturally found lotic organisms a constant minimum drain has to be guaranteed all year long. In order to avoid clogging, the interstitium has to be cleaned regularly by flooding drains. However, the possibility of changes in the development of organisms cannot be excluded, even though they have not been established. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  8. Autologous bone marrow stem cell transplantation to treat 2 8 patients with chronic spinal cord inj ury%自体骨髓干细胞移植治疗慢性脊髓损伤28例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴文; 屈新辉; 周超; 谢旭芳; 张昆南; 吴晓牧

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical efficacy and the safety of chronic spinal cord injury treated with autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation.Methods From Jan.2010 to Jul.2012,28 patients with chronic spinal cord injury were admitted to Department of Neurology of Jiangxi People's Hospital.All patients signed the informed consent form.The treatment protocol was approved by the hospital's medical ethics committee.After patients were mobilized for treat-ment with bone marrow stem cell,the treatment by autologous bone marrow stem cells (MSCs)was carried out with the num-ber of estimated (1.0 ~ 10.0)×107 cells collected for intrathecal transplantation therapy once a week,and twice in total.The standard for evaluation in accordance with ASIA2000 and improved Barthel index (MBI)were complied with to assess the effi-cacy and adverse reactions of the patients before the transplantation,one month,three months and 1 2 months after the trans-plantation respectively.Results 28 patients were included in the final analysis with no shedding indicated all along.One month after MSCs transplantation,the assessment by the acupuncture algesthesia,light touch sensation,exercise and MBI indicated an obvious improvement compared to that when these patients were admitted(all P<0.05).The assessment scores for 3 months and 1 2 months after transplantation were still in a signifi-cant difference compared with their initial condition when they were admitted (all P<0.001).There were 8 cases with low fever and 3 cases with intracranial hypotension headache,howev-er,the symptoms totally eliminated after a proper treatment.Conclusion Autologous MSCs transplantation on SCI patients could improve their exercise function and sensory function and develop their ADL ability with mild adverse reactions.%目的:观察自体骨髓干细胞移植治疗慢性脊髓损伤患者的临床疗效及安全性。方法选择2010-01-2012-07江西省人民医院神经内科收

  9. Research progress on brain temperature monitoring in low temperature treatment in patients with severe brain inj u-ry accompanied central high fever%重症脑损伤伴中枢性高热病人低温治疗中脑温监测的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹闻亚

    2016-01-01

    It reviewed the new progress of brain temperature monitoring and the main points of nursing care of patients with severe brain inj ury accompanied central high fever during the low temperature treatment.It put forward the advantages and disadvantages of the various monitoring methods including the brain temperature,o-ral temperature,the nasal cavity temperature,the tympanic memerane temperature,the membrane temperature, the esophagus temperature,the rectal temperature,the bladder temperature,the endovascular temperature and the blood flow temperature of the j ugular vein.It suggested that select reasonable monitoring method should be selected according to the patient’s condition,own condition and clinical condition.%综述了重症脑损伤伴中枢性高热病人低温治疗期间脑温监测方法的新进展以及护理要点,提出脑内温度、腋下温度、口腔温度、鼻腔温度、鼓膜温度、食管温度、直肠温度、膀胱温度、血管内温度、颈静脉血流温度监测方法各有利弊,应根据病人的病情、自身条件以及临床条件选取适合的监测方法。

  10. Inquiry notice concerning the modalities of putting into place of the administration contribution of small hydroelectric generation in the resource plans of Hydro-Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On June 11, 1998 the Minister of State for Natural Resources in Quebec submitted to the Management of Energy in virtue of article 42 of the Law on the Management of Energy an inquiry notice concerning the modalities of putting into place the administration contribution of private hydroelectricity in the resource plan of Hydro-Quebec. The Minister of State requested of the Management to specify the size of a quoted part of reserving commoadministration, to indicate the period of time needed to space it out, and to give him notice of the buying price which would be socially acceptable for this form of energy. For the Minister, such a quoted part must be sufficiently important in order to release and support suppliers of goods and services. Also, the buying price offered by the Management must take into consideration the fiscal shares drawn from the exploitation of these installations which when set up in the public domain can be recovered without costs by the government at the end of the lease. Conforming to article 25 of the law, the Management held a public hearing consisting of three phases. In the first phase, all parties interested in succeeding in submitting their demands in conformity with chapters III and VII of the Proceedural Regulations were invited to make their demands and submit their observations according to the suggested time table, likewise making suggestions on debated questions. The management received twenty demands and four statements of intentions on the part of interested parties in relation to the sense of article 11 of the Proceedural Regulations. In the second phase, the interested parties submited according to the established time table their bills, their demands for information and particulars, and their responses to demands. This phase ended in May 1999. For the rest, arguments were entertained in a public forum in Montreal from June 1 to 22, 1999. The final arguments took place on July 12, 1999. The report contents include: introduction

  11. W00198: NOS Hydrographic Survey , URI SAMP Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  12. Do OTC remedies relieve cough in acute URIs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dealleaume, Lauren; Tweed, Beth; Neher, Jon O

    2009-10-01

    Dextromethorphan (DM) for adults and honey for children provide some relief. DM may modestly decrease cough in adults compared with placebo. The data supporting zinc for the common cold are mixed. Antihistamines, antihistamine-decongestant combinations, and guaifenesin do not provide greater relief than placebo in adults. In children, antihistamines, decongestants, DM, or combinations of them do not relieve cough better than placebo. Honey may modestly decrease frequency and severity of cough compared with DM or no treatment. PMID:19874728

  13. STRATEGIA DE NEANGAJARE FINANCIARĂ A MARILOR LANŢURI HOTELIERE

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolae LUPU; Gabriela ŢIGU

    2006-01-01

    A recent obvious strategy for a big number of international hotels groups is to disinvest. This is a technique named “sale and lease back” or "sale and management back", suggesting the sale of some hotel units, followed by francize or management contract, kipping the hotels under the same brand. If we add the francizing expansion, it result an important tendency for the biggest hotel companies to reduce the financial implication and immobilization. This tendency is present also in the Romania...

  14. STRATEGIA DE NEANGAJARE FINANCIARĂ A MARILOR LANŢURI HOTELIERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae LUPU

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A recent obvious strategy for a big number of international hotels groups is to disinvest. This is a technique named “sale and lease back” or "sale and management back", suggesting the sale of some hotel units, followed by francize or management contract, kipping the hotels under the same brand. If we add the francizing expansion, it result an important tendency for the biggest hotel companies to reduce the financial implication and immobilization. This tendency is present also in the Romanian hospitality industry, wich confront with an important francize and management contract expansion. The preference for one or other form of exploitation is based on the company general strategy and even on the trust given to the partner for hotel brand representation. The paper shows those tendencies with specific statistical dates and recent informations.

  15. 基于JIT的水电工程物流质量管理研究%Study on the Logistics Quality Management of Building of Hydroelectric Statio Based on the JIT Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷鸣; 张全瑜; 孟馨

    2011-01-01

    文章基于JIT 在水电物流质量管理的创新性应用,树立JIT 思想观念,实施实时化物流管理,创建水电工程物流"拉动"式管理机制,从而达到追求零库存、零缺陷、零浪费和降低成本的目的.%Based on the innovative application of the JIT theory in the logistics quality management of building of hydroelectric statio, this article suggests that ideas should be set up to the JIT. To enforce Justin-Time and set up“pull”mechanism of logistics management of building of hydroelectric statio. The objective could be achieved of zero Inventories and zero defect and zero waste and reduce logistics costs.

  16. Digital technologies of geoprocessing as support to studies of greenhouse gas effects (GEE) at hydroelectric reservoirs; Tecnologias digitais de geoprocessamento como suporte a estudos de GEE em reservatorios hidreletricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Corbiniano; Pereira, Victor Cesar Ribeiro; Santos, Ednaldo Oliveira dos [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IVIG/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Inst. Internacional de Mudancas Globais], Emails: corbiniano@gmail.com, victor.cesar.pereira@gmail.com, ednaldo@ppe.ufrj.br; Santos, Marco Aurelio; Rosa, Luiz Pinguelli [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico], Emails: aurelio@ppe.ufrj.br, lpr@adc.coppe.ufrj.br

    2010-07-01

    The development of specific methodologies using geo technologies are contributing in complementary analyses implemented in the studies performed at hydroelectric reservoirs, a part of the research developed in the frame of the Project of Carbon Balance at Hydroelectric Reservoirs of Furnas Electric Power plants. The areas approached in this work integrates the reservoirs of Corumba, Itumbiara, Serra da Mesa, Manso, Estreito, Peixoto and Funil. The incorporation of practices supported by techniques of geo processing was important for the studied specific areas, where it was possible, based on data comparison previous and posterior to the flood of reservoirs, the application of methods which allowed to measure and to obtain significant information of such enterprises, for support the studies performed on the contribution of greenhouse gases in environment of that nature.

  17. Phytoplankton of the portion of the Paranapanema River to be dammed for construction of the Rosana Hydroelectric Plant, Sao Paulo State, Southern Brazil; Fitoplancton do trecho a represar do Rio Paranapanema (Usina Hidreletrica de Rosana), Estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bicudo, Carlos E. de M.; Bicudo, Denise de C.; Castro, Ana Alice J. de; Picelli-Vicentim, M. Marcina [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Ficologia

    1992-12-31

    The phytoplankton community of the 120 Km long portion of the Paranapanema River located between the Salto Grande Hydroelectric Plant reservoir and the river mouth at the Parana River is surveyed. This part of the river will be dammed for construction of the Rosana hydroelectric System in the State of Sao Paulo, southern Brazil. An inventory was completed for 4 collecting stations, and based on the study of 48 samples gathered bimonthly during the period from November 1985 to September 1986. Each collection is represented by a net concentrated and a raw total phytoplankton sample. Except for the Bacillariophyceae, study of which is still in progress, the other classes present were the following in order of their local representation: Chlorophyceae with 23 taxa, Zygnemaphyceae (= Cyanophyceae) with 9, Tribophyceace (= Xanthophyceae) with 2 each one, and Oedogoniophyceae, Euglenophyceae and Chrysophyceae with a single taxon each, to a total of 55 taxa identified. (author) 27 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Department of Energy Small-Scale Hydropower Program: Feasibility assessment and technology development summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinehart, B.N.

    1991-06-01

    This report summarizes two subprograms under the US Department of Energy's Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program. These subprograms were part of the financial assistance activities and included the Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) feasibility assessments and the technology development projects. The other major subprograms included engineering research and development, legal and institutional aspects, and technology transfer. These other subprograms are covered in their respective summary reports. The problems of energy availability and increasing costs of energy led to a national effort to develop economical and environmental attractive alternative energy resources. One such alternative involved the utilization of existing dams with hydraulic heads of <65 ft and the capacity to generate hydroelectric power of 15 MW or less. Thus, the PRDA program was initiated along with the Technology Development program. The purpose of the PRDA feasibility studies was to encourage development of renewable hydroelectric resources by providing engineering, economic, environmental, safety, and institutional information. Fifty-five feasibility studies were completed under the PRDA. This report briefly summarizes each of those projects. Many of the PRDA projects went on to become technology development projects. 56 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  19. Department of Energy Small-Scale Hydropower Program: Feasibility assessment and technology development summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes two subprograms under the US Department of Energy's Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program. These subprograms were part of the financial assistance activities and included the Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) feasibility assessments and the technology development projects. The other major subprograms included engineering research and development, legal and institutional aspects, and technology transfer. These other subprograms are covered in their respective summary reports. The problems of energy availability and increasing costs of energy led to a national effort to develop economical and environmental attractive alternative energy resources. One such alternative involved the utilization of existing dams with hydraulic heads of <65 ft and the capacity to generate hydroelectric power of 15 MW or less. Thus, the PRDA program was initiated along with the Technology Development program. The purpose of the PRDA feasibility studies was to encourage development of renewable hydroelectric resources by providing engineering, economic, environmental, safety, and institutional information. Fifty-five feasibility studies were completed under the PRDA. This report briefly summarizes each of those projects. Many of the PRDA projects went on to become technology development projects. 56 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  20. Study of the Right-Bank Contiguity of the Dam at the Vilyui Hydroelectric Power Plant%柳伊河水电站大坝右岸坝区研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.A. Velikin; A.M. Snegirev

    2004-01-01

    In the paper in order to ascertain the condition of the right-bank of the dam at the Vilyui hydroelectric power plant measurements are applied to obtain experimental date such as drilling borehole,hydrolocation and so forth. By finding out the distribution of the temperature field some corresponding measures are taken to improve the stability of the dam during the change of the ground temperature. And finally some conclusions are draw to the study.

  1. Wildlife Loss Estimates and Summary of Previous Mitigation Related to Hydroelectric Projects in Montana, Volume Three, Hungry Horse Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Daniel

    1984-10-01

    This assessment addresses the impacts to the wildlife populations and wildlife habitats due to the Hungry Horse Dam project on the South Fork of the Flathead River and previous mitigation of theses losses. In order to develop and focus mitigation efforts, it was first necessary to estimate wildlife and wildlife hatitat losses attributable to the construction and operation of the project. The purpose of this report was to document the best available information concerning the degree of impacts to target wildlife species. Indirect benefits to wildlife species not listed will be identified during the development of alternative mitigation measures. Wildlife species incurring positive impacts attributable to the project were identified.

  2. The influence of changes in lifestyle and mercury exposure in riverine populations of the Madeira River (Amazon Basin) near a hydroelectric project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacon, Sandra S; Dórea, José G; Fonseca, Márlon de F; Oliveira, Beatriz A; Mourão, Dennys S; Ruiz, Claudia M V; Gonçalves, Rodrigo A; Mariani, Carolina F; Bastos, Wanderley R

    2014-02-26

    In the Amazon Basin, naturally occurring methylmercury bioaccumulates in fish, which is a key source of protein consumed by riverine populations. The hydroelectric power-plant project at Santo Antônio Falls allows us to compare the Hg exposure of riverine populations sparsely distributed on both sides of the Madeira river before the area is to be flooded. From 2009 to 2011, we concluded a population survey of the area (N = 2,008; representing circa 80% of community residents) that estimated fish consumption and mercury exposure of riverine populations with different degrees of lifestyle related to fish consumption. Fish samples from the Madeira river (N = 1,615) and 110 species were analyzed for Hg. Hair-Hg was significantly lower (p < 0.001) in less isolated communities near to the capital of Porto Velho (median 2.32 ppm) than in subsistence communities in the Cuniã Lake, 180 km from Porto Velho city (median 6.3 ppm). Fish Hg concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 6.06 µg/g, depending on fish size and feeding behavior. Currently available fish in the Madeira river show a wide variability in Hg concentrations. Despite cultural similarities, riparians showed hair-Hg distribution patterns that reflect changes in fish-eating habits driven by subsistence characteristics.

  3. Biodiversity and influence of climatic factors on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) around the Peixe Angical hydroelectric scheme in the state of Tocantins, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Júlia Dos Santos; Pacheco, Juliana Barreto; Alencar, Jeronimo; Guimarães, Anthony Erico

    2010-03-01

    The influence of climatic factors on the seasonal frequency of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) at the Peixe Angical hydroelectric scheme (Tocantins, Brazil) was evaluated in the present paper. Mosquito surveys were conducted in the municipality of Peixe and in areas surrounding the reservoir in the municipalities of Paranã and São Salvador do Tocantins during two daytime periods (10 am-12 noon and 2 pm-4 pm) and two night-time periods (6 pm-8 pm and 6 pm-10 am) over 14 months. In total, 10,840 specimens from 42 species were captured, 84.5% of which belonged to the Culcinae. The most common species were Anopheles darlingi, Psorophora albipes and Sabethes chloropterus. The number of Culicidae specimens was higher in months with higher rainfall and air humidity than during the drier months. The large population of Ps. albipes and the presence of both An. darlingi (primary vector for human malaria parasites) and Haemagogus janthinomys (primary vector for yellow fever virus) are highlighted.

  4. Evaluation of advanced turbomachinery for underground pumped hydroelectric storage. Part 3. Multistage unregulated pump/turbines for operating heads of 1000 to 1500 m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigo, A.A.; Pistner, C.

    1980-08-01

    This is the final report in a series of three on studies of advanced hydraulic turbomachinery for underground pumped hydroelectric storage. All three reports address Francis-type, reversible pump/turbines. The first report covered single-stage regulated units; the second report covered two-stage regulated units; the present report covers multistage unregulated units. Multistage unregulated pump/turbines offer an economically attractive option for heads of 1000 to 1500 m. The feasibility of developing such machines for capacities up to 500 MW and operating heads up to 1500 m has been evaluated. Preliminary designs have been generated for six multistage pump/turbines. The designs are for nominal capacities of 350 and 500 MW and for operating heads of 1000, 1250, and 1500 m. Mechanical, hydraulic, and economic analyses indicate that these machines will behave according to the criteria used to design them and that they can be built at a reasonable cost with no unsolvable problems. Efficiencies of 85.8% and 88.5% in the generating and pumping modes, respectively, can be expected for the 500-MW, 1500-m unit. Performances of the other five machines are at least comparable, and usually better. Over a 1000 to 1500-m head range, specific $/kW costs of the pump/turbines in mid-1978 US dollars vary from 19.0 to 23.1 for the 500-MW machines, and from 21.0 to 24.1 for the 350-MW machines.

  5. Output improvement of Sg. Piah run-off river hydro-electric station with a new computed river flow-based control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jidin, Razali; Othman, Bahari

    2013-06-01

    The lower Sg. Piah hydro-electric station is a river run-off hydro scheme with generators capable of generating 55MW of electricity. It is located 30km away from Sg. Siput, a small town in the state of Perak, Malaysia. The station has two turbines (Pelton) to harness energy from water that flow through a 7km tunnel from a small intake dam. The trait of a run-off river hydro station is small-reservoir that cannot store water for a long duration; therefore potential energy carried by the spillage will be wasted if the dam level is not appropriately regulated. To improve the station annual energy output, a new controller based on the computed river flow has been installed. The controller regulates the dam level with an algorithm based on the river flow derived indirectly from the intake-dam water level and other plant parameters. The controller has been able to maintain the dam at optimum water level and regulate the turbines to maximize the total generation output.

  6. Oregon Trust Agreement Planning Project : Potential Mitigations to the Impacts on Oregon Wildlife Resources Associated with Relevant Mainstem Columbia River and Willamette River Hydroelectric Projects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-10-01

    A coalition of the Oregon wildlife agencies and tribes (the Oregon Wildlife Mitigation Coalition) have forged a cooperative effort to promote wildlife mitigation from losses to Oregon wildlife resources associated with the four mainstream Columbia River and the eight Willamette River Basin hydroelectric projects. This coalition formed a Joint Advisory Committee, made up of technical representatives from all of the tribes and agencies, to develop this report. The goal was to create a list of potential mitigation opportunities by priority, and to attempt to determine the costs of mitigating the wildlife losses. The information and analysis was completed for all projects in Oregon, but was gathered separately for the Lower Columbia and Willamette Basin projects. The coalition developed a procedure to gather information on potential mitigation projects and opportunities. All tribes, agencies and interested parties were contacted in an attempt to evaluate all proposed or potential mitigation. A database was developed and minimum criteria were established for opportunities to be considered. These criteria included the location of the mitigation site within a defined area, as well as other criteria established by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Costs were established for general habitats within the mitigation area, based on estimates from certified appraisers. An analysis of the cost effectiveness of various types of mitigation projects was completed. Estimates of operation and maintenance costs were also developed. The report outlines strategies for gathering mitigation potentials, evaluating them, determining their costs, and attempting to move towards their implementation.

  7. Potential effects of hydroelectric dam development in the Mekong River basin on the migration of Siamese mud carp (Henicorhynchus siamensis and H. lobatus elucidated by otolith microchemistry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michio Fukushima

    Full Text Available The migration of Siamese mud carp (Henicorhynchus siamensis and H. lobatus, two of the most economically important fish species in the Mekong River, was studied using an otolith microchemistry technique. Fish and river water samples were collected in seven regions throughout the whole basin in Thailand, Laos and Cambodia over a 4 year study period. There was coherence between the elements in the ambient water and on the surface of the otoliths, with strontium (Sr and barium (Ba showing the strongest correlation. The partition coefficients were 0.409-0.496 for Sr and 0.055 for Ba. Otolith Sr-Ba profiles indicated extensive synchronized migrations with similar natal origins among individuals within the same region. H. siamensis movement has been severely suppressed in a tributary system where a series of irrigation dams has blocked their migration. H. lobatus collected both below and above the Khone Falls in the mainstream Mekong exhibited statistically different otolith surface elemental signatures but similar core elemental signatures. This result suggests a population originating from a single natal origin but bypassing the waterfalls through a passable side channel where a major hydroelectric dam is planned. The potential effects of damming in the Mekong River are discussed.

  8. Effects of Artificial Flooding for Hydroelectric Development on the Population of Mansonia humeralis (Diptera: Culicidae in the Paraná River, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Bicudo de Paula

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The closure of two phases of the dam at the Porto Primavera Hydroelectric Plant on the Paraná River flooded a flawed system located in the Municipality of Presidente Epitácio, São Paulo state, favoring the proliferation of aquatic weeds. This study aimed to observe the population of Mansonia humeralis in the area, monitoring the richness, diversity, and dominance of this species both before and during different phases of reservoir flooding as well as evaluate its possible consequences concerning human and animal contact. Adult mosquitoes were collected monthly in the following periods: at the original level, after the first flood, and after the maximum level had been reached between 1997 and 2002. Collection methods used were an aspirator, a Shannon trap, and the Human Attractive Technique. A total of 30,723 mosquitoes were collected, Ma. humeralis accounting for 3.1% in the preflood phase, 59.6% in the intermediate, and 53.8% at maximum level. This species is relevant to public health, since the prospect of continued contact between Ma. humeralis and the human population enhances the dam’s importance in the production of nuisance mosquitoes, possibly facilitating the transmission of arboviruses. Local authorities should continue to monitor culicid activity through sustainable entomological surveillance.

  9. Magnet URI Based on DHT Network and PEX Technology%基于DHT网络和PEX技术的Magnet URI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡炜; 钟卫连

    2011-01-01

    The traditional BT tracker download as server has come to end, magnetic download based on the DHT network and PEX technology has become a new generation of BT download. This article focuses on a new generation of P2P technology.%传统的以BT Tracker作为服务器的BT下载已走到尽头,基于DHT网络和PEX技术的磁力下载逐渐成为新一代的BT下载方式.本文重点探讨新一代P2P技术.

  10. Engineering risk assessment for hydro facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faced with escalating property insurance premiums, the Alaska Energy Authority decided to evaluate what losses may realistically be expected due to catastrophic events at their hydroelectric generation and transmission facilities. Ideally insurance rates are established using historic loss statistics. Where these statistics are non-existent, other means must be employed to estimate expected losses so that appropriate steps may be taken to protect investments in facilities. The natural perils of earthquake, flood, tidal wave (tsunami), wind, snow and internal failure potentially can cause catastrophic damage, but due to their infrequency in the higher magnitudes, meaningful statistics are as yet insufficient to be of value in estimating losses from these events. In order to overcome this deficiency a quasi-engineering approach can be adopted as distinct from the actuarial approach preferred and most often used by the insurance industry. This paper describes the quasi-engineering approach used for this assessment with a specific example worked through for earthquake peril

  11. The impact of hydroelectric project development on the ethnobotany of the Alaknanda river basin of Western Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khilendra Singh Kanwal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study focuses on the ethnoflora used by local communities in the Alaknanda river basin of Uttarakhand state in Western Himalaya, India. The objectives of the study are to collect ethnobotanical information, to assess the impact of hydropower projects on ethnoflora and to suggest conservation and management measures for the protection of ethnoflora. Material and Methods: A well-designed questionnaire based survey was conducted in the ten villages of the study area to collect ethnobotanical information. The conservation status of plants was also evaluated following the IUCN Red list, the Red Data Book of Indian Plants and the CITES criteria. Results: A total of 136 plant species belonging to 61 families and 112 genera were used by local communities for various ethnobotanical purposes. The majority of plant species were used for medicinal purposes (96 spp., followed by fodder (46 spp., wild edibles (31 spp., fuel (29 spp., timber (17 spp., fish poison (9 spp., agriculture implements (6 spp., fibre (6 spp., religious use (6 spp. and handicraft (1 sp.. For the preparation of herbal medicine, rural people of the region use different parts of medicinal plants such as the whole plant (20% followed by roots/rhizomes/tubers (20%, leaf (18%, fruit (10%, seed (9%, bark (9%, stem (6%, flowers (6% and resin (2%. Conclusions: Development of hydropower projects will influence the diversity and distribution of ethnoflora in the region. Therefore, for the conservation of the ethnoflora of the area, conservation and management measures have been suggested.

  12. Relationship between mercury levels in hair and fish consumption in a population living near a hydroelectric tropical dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrugo-Negrete, José Luis; Ruiz-Guzmán, Javier Alonso; Díez, Sergi

    2013-02-01

    In the present study, total mercury (T-Hg) concentrations were assessed in human hair samples (n = 76) and fish muscle (n = 33) collected at Urrá dam, upstream Sinú river, northwestern Colombia. Based on interviews with study participants, weekly intakes of total mercury (WIT-Hg) and methylmercury (WIMeHg) by fish consumption were also estimated. T-Hg concentrations in hair samples ranged from 0.40 to 24.56 μg/g dw. The highest concentrations were recorded in children (CH) (2-15 years old, n = 24) with significant differences (p fish (0.65-2.25 μg/g wet weight, ww), with significant differences (p fish (0.16-0.54 μg/g ww). WIT-Hg recorded the highest values in CH (2.18-50.41 μg/kg/week), with significant differences (p fish consumption and hair T-Hg in CH (r = 0.37, p fish consumption in CH (r = 0.37, p < 0.05) and WCHA (r = 0.45, p < 0.05). These results suggest that Hg exposure in people inhabiting the Urrá dam should be carefully monitored, particularly in vulnerable groups such as CH and WCHA.

  13. Diversity pattern of vegetation in and around proposed Kotlibhel hydroelectric project along the Alaknanda River in Garhwal Himalaya (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh V

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study made an assessment of the floral status of the project site of Kotlibhel hydrolectric project (Stage 1B at Alaknanda valley in the Ganga river system (India. Study area included two broad zones: Influence (IZ and Submergence zone (SZ. Influence zone showed higher species richness in all vegetation strata. In the upper layer, there were 26 tree species, middle layer consisted of 32 shrub species and ground layer (understory contained 41 species. Maximum density in the tree layer (36.4 plants/ha was found for Haldinia cordifolia in the Influence zone. On the other hand, shrub and herb species showed highest density in the Submergence zone. Highest density of shrubs species was recorded for Ficus hederacea (844.0 plants/ha, while highest density of herbs for Desmodium triflorum (5540.1 plants/ha. Significant differences in Shannon diversity were found between Influence and Submergence zones for shrub and herb species (P<0.001, but not for trees. Simpson diversity was not significantly different for tree, shrub and herb species in both zones. Differences in Margalef species richness were found (P<0.001 for all vegetation layers in both zones. Distribution pattern of the species showed contagious patterns for both Submergence and Influence zone. Maximum Shannon diversity (3.561 was recorded in the Influence zone for herb species, followed by shrubs species (3.184 and tree species (2.593. Submergence zone showed lower Shannon diversity than the Influence zone, where a higher Shannon diversity (3.480 was recorded for herb species. Pinus roxburghii showed the highest IVI in the Influence zone (71.88 and Mangifera indica in Submergence zone (58.77.

  14. The Impacts of Wind Speed Trends and 30-Year Variability in Relation to Hydroelectric Reservoir Inflows on Wind Power in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Benjamin D; Kohfeld, Karen E; Bailey, Joseph; Cooper, Andrew B

    2015-01-01

    In hydroelectric dominated systems, the value and benefits of energy are higher during extended dry periods and lower during extended or extreme wet periods. By accounting for regional and temporal differences in the relationship between wind speed and reservoir inflow behavior during wind farm site selection, the benefits of energy diversification can be maximized. The goal of this work was to help maximize the value of wind power by quantifying the long-term (30-year) relationships between wind speed and streamflow behavior, using British Columbia (BC) and the Pacific Northwest (PNW) as a case study. Clean energy and self-sufficiency policies in British BC make the benefits of increased generation during low streamflow periods particularly large. Wind density (WD) estimates from a height of 10m (North American Regional Reanalysis, NARR) were correlated with cumulative usable inflows (CUI) for BC (collected from BC Hydro) for 1979-2010. The strongest WD-CUI correlations were found along the US coast (r ~0.55), whereas generally weaker correlations were found in northern regions, with negative correlations (r ~ -0.25) along BC's North Coast. Furthermore, during the lowest inflow years, WD anomalies increased by up to 40% above average values for the North Coast. Seasonally, high flows during the spring freshet were coincident with widespread negative WD anomalies, with a similar but opposite pattern for low inflow winter months. These poorly or negatively correlated sites could have a moderating influence on climate related variability in provincial electricity supply, by producing greater than average generation in low inflow years and reduced generation in wet years. Wind speed and WD trends were also analyzed for all NARR grid locations, which showed statistically significant positive trends for most of the PNW and the largest increases along the Pacific Coast.

  15. COMPARISON OF CALCULATED AND OBSERVED SEISMIC ACCELERATIONS IN COMPOSITE-TYPE ROCK-FILL DAM OF THE DNESTROVSKAYA HYDRO-ELECTRIC POWER PLANT DURING EXPERIMENTAL EXPLOSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Matvienko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A methodology for determination of seismic accelerations in earth dams has been developed within the framework of seismic resistance wave theory. In this case we take into account an influence of the dam foundation and seismic wave emission into it. The methodology is based on numerical solution of the dynamic problem while using a finite difference method. A software program SGD “Determination of seismic acceleration in the earth dam” has been prepared on the basis of the developed methodology. The program allows to evaluate ordinates of calculation orthographic representations for acceleration throughout the dam height for all time moments. Thus, it is possible to obtain the most dangerous acceleration orthographic representations at direct and reverse seismic actions. The papers presents verification (compliance test of calculated and observed seismic accelerations for the rock-fill dam of the Dnestrovskaya Hydro-Electric Power Plant No 1. The observed seismic accelerations have been obtained during experimental explosions. The calculated seismic accelerations have been obtained in accordance with the proposed methodology for determination of seismic accelerations in the earth dams. A comparative analysis of calculation results with the data of field observations has demonstrated that a maximum difference between extreme accelerations obtained by calculation, and during field observations, do not exceed 10.11 % for the dam crest, and 6.56 % for its bottom. The obtained results permit to recommend the developed program for engineering calculations of seismic accelerations in the earth dams. The program application will make it possible to determine seismic acceleration in the earth dam with sufficient reliability.

  16. Methodology for maintenance analysis based on hydroelectric power stations reliability; Metodologia para realizar analisis de mantenimiento basado en confiabilidad en centrales hidroelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rea Soto, Rogelio; Calixto Rodriguez, Roberto; Sandoval Valenzuela, Salvador; Velasco Flores, Rocio; Garcia Lizarraga, Maria del Carmen [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    A methodology to carry out Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) studies for hydroelectric power plants is presented. The methodology is an implantation/extension of the guidelines proposed by the Engineering Society for Advanced Mobility Land, Sea and Space in the SAE-JA1012 standard. With the purpose of answering the first five questions, that are set out in that standard, the use of standard ISO14224 is strongly recommended. This approach standardizes failure mechanisms and homogenizes RCM studies with the process of collecting failure and maintenance data. The use of risk matrixes to rank the importance of each failure based on a risk criteria is also proposed. [Spanish] Se presenta una metodologia para realizar estudios de mantenimiento Basado en Confiabilidad (RCM) aplicados a la industria hidroelectrica. La metodologia es una implantacion/ extension realizada por los autores de este trabajo, de los lineamientos propuestos por la Engineering Society for Advanced Mobility Land, Sea and Space en el estandar SAE-JA1012. Para contestar las primeras cinco preguntas del estandar se propone tomar como base los modos y mecanismos de fallas de componentes documentados en la guia para recopilar datos de falla en el estandar ISO-14224. Este enfoque permite estandarizar la descripcion de mecanismos de fallas de los equipos, tanto en el estudio RCM como en el proceso de recopilacion de datos de falla y de mantenimiento, lo que permite retroalimentar el ciclo de mejora continua de los procesos RCM. Tambien se propone el uso de matrices de riesgo para jerarquizar la importancia de los mecanismos de falla con base en el nivel de riesgo.

  17. Experience in making plastic concrete for hydroelectric development at Peribonka; Experience de fabrication du beton plastique a l'amenagement hydroelectrique de la Peribonka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavoie, R. [Laboratoires S.L. Inc., Chicoutimi, PQ (Canada); Bigras, A. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Gagne, B.; Garand, P. [SNC-Lavalin, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The Peribonka hydroelectric project is currently under construction. It includes an 80 m high dam and a 26 m high dyke built on a highly permeable granular foundation. In order to ensure stability and water tightness, 3 plastic concrete cut-off walls will be built at the dam site. One of the plastic concrete cut-off walls will reach bedrock at a maximum depth of 115 m. In 2003, Hydro-Quebec conducted extensive laboratory testing based on results of a study by the US Corps of Engineers on the behavior of plastic concrete. The objective was to make a plastic concrete mix with the best geomechanical properties for the given site conditions. Initially, the laboratory testing produced a series of experimental mixtures of plastic concrete to validate working methods. The test routine consisted of 192 tests of unconfined compression, 18 cylinder splitting tests, 34 undrained triaxial compression tests and 8 consolidated drained triaxial compression tests. Several mixes were prepared and tested to identify the correct proportions of aggregates, cement, bentonite and water. A typical plastic concrete mix for the project has now been identified for use in both deep trenches and for mass production. This paper reviewed the main aspects of the laboratory testing program, presented observations and some of the problems encountered at the start of on site operations. It was concluded that the most important element to ensure a high quality plastic concrete is a very tight quality control on the level of preparation of hydrated bentonite slurry. 1 ref., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  18. Evaluation of advanced hydraulic turbomachinery for underground pumped hydroelectric storage. Part 1. Single-stage regulated pump turbines for operating heads of 500 to 1000 m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigo, A.A.; Blomquist, C.A.; Degnan, J.R.

    1979-10-01

    High-head, large-capacity turbomachinery is needed for the concept of underground pumped hydroelectric storage to be technically and economically attractive. Single-stage, reversible, Francis-type pump turbines with adjustable wicket gates appear to offer the most economically attractive option for heads between about 500 and 1000 m. The feasibility of developing these types of machines for capacities up to 500 MW and operating heads up to 1000 m has been evaluated. Preliminary designs have been generated for six single-stage pump turbines. The designs are for capacities of 350 and 500 MW and for operating heads of 500, 750, and 1000 m. The report contains drawings of the machines along with material specifications and hydraulic performance data. Mechanical, hydraulic, and economic analyses indicate that these machines will behave according to the criteria used to design them and that they can be built at a reasonable cost. The stress and deflection responses of the 500-MW, 100-m-head pump turbine, determined by detailed finite element analysis techniques, give solid evidence of the integrity of the conceptual designs of the six units and indicate no unsolvable problems. Results of a life expectancy analysis of the wicket gates indicate that a near infinite life can be expected for these components when they are subjected to normal design loads. Efficiencies of 90.7 and 91.4% in the generating and pumping modes, respectively, can be expected for the 500-MW, 1000-m-head unit. Performances of the other five machines are comparable. The specific costs of the pump turbines in mid-1978 US dollars per kW vary from 19.2 to 11.8 over a head range of from 500 to 1000 m for the 500-MW machines and from 20.0 to 12.3 for the 350-MW machines.

  19. The Impacts of Wind Speed Trends and 30-Year Variability in Relation to Hydroelectric Reservoir Inflows on Wind Power in the Pacific Northwest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Cross

    Full Text Available In hydroelectric dominated systems, the value and benefits of energy are higher during extended dry periods and lower during extended or extreme wet periods. By accounting for regional and temporal differences in the relationship between wind speed and reservoir inflow behavior during wind farm site selection, the benefits of energy diversification can be maximized. The goal of this work was to help maximize the value of wind power by quantifying the long-term (30-year relationships between wind speed and streamflow behavior, using British Columbia (BC and the Pacific Northwest (PNW as a case study. Clean energy and self-sufficiency policies in British BC make the benefits of increased generation during low streamflow periods particularly large. Wind density (WD estimates from a height of 10m (North American Regional Reanalysis, NARR were correlated with cumulative usable inflows (CUI for BC (collected from BC Hydro for 1979-2010. The strongest WD-CUI correlations were found along the US coast (r ~0.55, whereas generally weaker correlations were found in northern regions, with negative correlations (r ~ -0.25 along BC's North Coast. Furthermore, during the lowest inflow years, WD anomalies increased by up to 40% above average values for the North Coast. Seasonally, high flows during the spring freshet were coincident with widespread negative WD anomalies, with a similar but opposite pattern for low inflow winter months. These poorly or negatively correlated sites could have a moderating influence on climate related variability in provincial electricity supply, by producing greater than average generation in low inflow years and reduced generation in wet years. Wind speed and WD trends were also analyzed for all NARR grid locations, which showed statistically significant positive trends for most of the PNW and the largest increases along the Pacific Coast.

  20. Case studies of the legal and institutional obstacles and incentives to the development of small-scale hydroelectric power: Bull Run, Portland, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-05-01

    The National Conference of State Legislatures' Small-Scale Hydroelectric Policy Project is designed to assist selected state legislatures in looking at the benefits that a state can derive from the development of small-scale hydro, and in carrying out a review of state laws and regulations that affect the development of the state's small-scale hydro resources. The successful completion of the project should help establish state statutes and regulations that are consistent with the efficient development of small-scale hydro. As part of the project's work with state legislatures, seven case studies of small-scale hydro sites were conducted to provide a general analysis and overview of the significant problems and opportunities for the development of this energy resource. The case study approach was selected to expose the actual difficulties and advantages involved in developing a specific site. Such an examination of real development efforts will clearly reveal the important aspects about small-scale hydro development which could be improved by statutory or regulatory revision. Moreover, the case study format enables the formulation of generalized opportunities for promoting small-scale hydro based on specific development experiences. The case study for small-scale hydro power development at the City of Portland's water reserve in the Bull Run Forest is presented with information included on the Bull Run hydro power potential, current water usage, hydro power regulations and plant licensing, technical and economic aspects of Bull Run project, and the environmental impact. (LCL)

  1. Application of finance project for leverage of small size hydroelectric enterprising; Aplicacao do project finance para alavancagem de empreendimentos hidreletricos de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Silvana dos

    2003-07-01

    In the same way that the majority of the countries, project financing of substructure in Brazil, in project finance modality, depend on a skillful structure of guaranties and contracts to become possible. In the case of projects of centrals of generation of electrical energy, that financial engineering becomes still more complicated. In Brazil, due to particularities of the sectors of electricity, the arrangements of guaranties requested but creditors pass to present levels of complexity and exigency well elevated. The contractual appliances that give support to the project finance, originally projected to developed countries, request an extreme adaptation to these particularities. The development of Brazil is directly related to its capacity in expanding the offer of electric energy in the just measure of the national necessity. In this context, the small central hydroelectric (PCH's) represent, actually, an efficient and fast form to complete the offer of energy in such a way to supply the crescent demand the national market. For its characteristics, that type of undertaking can be developed by small manager, from among which are the owners of the areas in which on can find these hydraulic potentials which, however they do not dispose of capital to integral raising. These undertakings are tasks, normally, of low global cost, at the rate of US$ 1.000,00/k W, and of a smaller ambient impact, compared to the return that they give to the enterprise and to the Brazilian electric system as a whole, by having to receive special attention in the planned politics to the sector and to merit a series of incentives to become business still more attractive. By thinking in the found difficulty by small enterprises in rising undertakings of generation of electric energy of small port through the convectional mechanisms of financing is being proposed in that work a well-founded methodology in the concepts of the modality of financing project finance. (author)

  2. Effects of Hydroelectric Dam Operations on the Restoration Potential of Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Spawning Habitat Final Report, October 2005 - September 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Arntzen, Evan V. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2007-11-13

    This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Fish and Wildlife Program directed by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council. The study evaluated the restoration potential of Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat within the impounded lower Snake River. The objective of the research was to determine if hydroelectric dam operations could be modified, within existing system constraints (e.g., minimum to normal pool levels; without partial removal of a dam structure), to increase the amount of available fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the lower Snake River. Empirical and modeled physical habitat data were used to compare potential fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Snake River, under current and modified dam operations, with the analogous physical characteristics of an existing fall Chinook salmon spawning area in the Columbia River. The two Snake River study areas included the Ice Harbor Dam tailrace downstream to the Highway 12 bridge and the Lower Granite Dam tailrace downstream approximately 12 river kilometers. These areas represent tailwater habitat (i.e., riverine segments extending from a dam downstream to the backwater influence from the next dam downstream). We used a reference site, indicative of current fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in tailwater habitat, against which to compare the physical characteristics of each study site. The reference site for tailwater habitats was the section extending downstream from the Wanapum Dam tailrace on the Columbia River. Fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat use data, including water depth, velocity, substrate size and channelbed slope, from the Wanapum reference area were used to define spawning habitat suitability based on these variables. Fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat suitability of the Snake River study areas was estimated by applying the Wanapum reference reach habitat

  3. System of control, supervision and data acquisition of the Itaipu hydroelectric power plant - SCADA/EMS; Sistema de controle, supervisao e aquisicao de dados de Itaipu - SCADA/EMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castella, Marco Cesar; Carvalho, Paulo Roberto Castro de; Ortiz Calcena, Gilberto; Sertich K, Antonio; Lopez Bado, Cesar A.; Aranda Arriola, Ladislao [Itaipu Binacional, PR (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this work is to describe the SCADA / EMS(Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition / Energy Management System) system which have been implanted in the Itaipu hydroelectric power plant, as well as the used technology and the architecture of the computing network. The system has been foreseen to start its operation by october/2001, although there was a real challenge in relation to the fact that the system has been implanted in a power plant in operation, which demands in the need of perfect synchronism among the activities of maintenance, engineering, operation and the system implantation.

  4. Hydroelectric modelling of the Paraiba do Sul and Jequitinhonha rivers sub-basins by using the VALORAGUA computer program; Modelagem hidreletrica das sub bacias dos rios Paraiba do Sul e Jequitinhonha utilizando o programa VALORAGUA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Vinicius Verna Magalhaes; Aronne, Ivan Dionysio [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mails: vvmf@urano.cdtn.br; aroneid@urano.cdtn.br; Martinez, Carlos Barreira; Versiani, Bruno Rabelo [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Hidraulica e Recursos Hidricos]. E-mail: martinez@cce.ufmg.br; versiani@ehr.ufmg.br

    2002-07-01

    This work presents a modelling of 50 hydroelectric power plants in the East Atlantica hydro graphic basin, operating, under construction or as basic projects. The simulations are performed by using the VALORAGUA computer code, developed by the EDP - Eletricidade de Portugal. The studies concentrate mostly on the sub basins of the Jequitinhonha and Paraiba do Sul rivers. The study includes the thermal power plants existent on the same geographical region. Some obtained results such as capacity factors and energy generation values are analysed. Some considerations are made on questions referring to the Brazilian energetic problems.

  5. Wanaket Wildlife Area Management Plan : Five-Year Plan for Protecting, Enhancing, and Mitigating Wildlife Habitat Losses for the McNary Hydroelectric Facility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation Wildlife Program

    2001-09-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) propose to continue to protect, enhance, and mitigate wildlife and wildlife habitat at the Wanaket Wildlife Area. The Wanaket Wildlife Area was approved as a Columbia River Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC) in 1993. This management plan will provide an update of the original management plan approved by BPA in 1995. Wanaket will contribute towards meeting BPA's obligation to compensate for wildlife habitat losses resulting from the construction of the McNary Hydroelectric facility on the Columbia River. By funding the enhancement and operation and maintenance of the Wanaket Wildlife Area, BPA will receive credit towards their mitigation debt. The purpose of the Wanaket Wildlife Area management plan update is to provide programmatic and site-specific standards and guidelines on how the Wanaket Wildlife Area will be managed over the next five years. This plan provides overall guidance on both short and long term activities that will move the area towards the goals, objectives, and desired future conditions for the planning area. The plan will incorporate managed and protected wildlife and wildlife habitat, including operations and maintenance, enhancements, and access and travel management. Specific project objectives are related to protection and enhancement of wildlife habitats and are expressed in terms of habitat units (HU's). Habitat units were developed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service's Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP), and are designed to track habitat gains and/or losses associated with mitigation and/or development projects. Habitat Units for a given species are a product of habitat quantity (expressed in acres) and habitat quality estimates. Habitat quality estimates are developed using Habitat Suitability Indices (HSI). These indices are based on quantifiable habitat features such

  6. Tsuwalhkalh Ti Tmicwa (The Land is Ours): Stat'imc Self-Determination in the Face of Large-Scale Hydro-electric Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Sarah Carmen

    In Canada, First Nations asserting authority over their lands are developing diverse strategies to overcome the state''s dogmatic insistence on jurisdictional sovereignty. This movement corresponds to the wider context of the challenges faced by indigenous people to use their own ways of knowing to resist or reformulate legal doctrines and political tenets based on colonial power. Interior Salish Stat'imc people identify themselves through a strong and ongoing social relationship with Sataqwa7, the Fraser River, and the "Valley of Plenty"---now known as the flooded Bridge River Valley---maintained through Stat'imc knowledge and cultural practice and demonstrated by talk of '"the Stat'imc right to fish" and Tsuwalhkalh Ti Tmicwa (The Land is Ours). Stat'imc fishers are prepared to contest and resist any regulatory system that is understood to impact this right to fish while they advocate their own ways of sustainable fishing and water management. Based on ethnographic research in collaboration with Stat'imc people, this thesis explores some of these often successful contestations especially in the context of increasing territorial governance and by example of the rapidly transforming relationship between Stat'imc, BC Hydro and the Province of BC. Interior Salish Stat'imc people are currently navigating through a significant phase of increasing jurisdiction and authority and recognition of (unsettled) territorial property relationships. This very dynamic process is marked by strategic collaborations, compensation for 'infringements' on St'a'imc Title and Rights, and conservation efforts to protect their home. An important example is the changing relationship between Stat'imc people and BC Hydro---a relationship between two groups with radically different cultures and agendas: Stat'imc people in a struggle for self-determination, social justice and cultural survival and BC Hydro, a corporate culture, with the agenda to provide hydro-electric power to BC, maintain

  7. Effect of the Discharging Rate on Ischemia-Reperfusion Inj ury in Bladder of Patients with Acute Urinary Retention%放尿速度对急性尿潴留患者膀胱缺血再灌注损伤的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈桂君; 刘忆菁; 曹凤; 益雯艳

    2015-01-01

    Obj ective To observe the effect of the discharging rate on ischemia-reperfusion inj ury in bladder of patients with acute urinary retention.Methods By Convenience sampling,90 cases were randomly divided into ob-servation group A,observation group B and control group,with 30 cases in each group.Three different rates were set when discharging,and the urinary sample on before urination (T1),during urination (T2),600ml (T3),800 ml (T4)and 0.5h after urination (T5)were collected.According to the rate of discharging on acute urinary reten-tion.Clinical efficacies of 3 groups were observed,RBC、WBC in urine were observed before(T1)and after voiding (T2,T3,T4,T5).The isomorphic red blood cell,white blood cell,number of epithelial cells,heart rate and blood pressure were measured and compared among three groups of patients.Results The isomorphic red blood cell, white blood cell,number of epithelial cells at T2,T3 and T4 in observation group were less than which in control group(P0.05). Conclusion It is better to keep the discharge rate at 150ml/min,and the initial urination volume of 400 ml after acute urinary retention which can reduce the damage of bladder histocyte.%目的:了解放尿速度对急性尿潴留(actue urinary retention,AUR)患者膀胱缺血再灌注损伤的影响。方法便利抽样法选择,2014年6-12月在上海市第七人民医院泌尿外科门诊就诊的突发 AUR患者90例为研究对象,按就诊先后将其分为对照组、观察组 A、观察组 B 各30例,放尿时设置3种不同的流速,并在放尿前(T1),放尿400 ml(T2)、600 ml(T3)、800 ml(T4)时和停止放尿后0.5 h(T5)五个时间点留取尿标本,测量并比较3组患者的尿检镜下均一红细胞、白细胞及上皮细胞数、心率、血压。结果除T5时间点的上皮细胞数外,观察组患者5个时间点尿标本的镜下均一红细胞、白细胞及上皮细胞数及患者的均低于对照组(均P<0.05),差异有统计

  8. China's Hydroelectric Power in Trouble

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xiang

    2009-01-01

    @@ As a fast-rising country,the state of energy consumption in China is significantly different from that in the developed world,which has been using electricity of a relatively stable quantity for years.In China,however,the ever-hungry electricity demand requires at least 7%annual increase to meet the need of ballooning GDP According to the Annual Report on China's Energy Development(2009),up till the end of 2008 the total installed capacity of electricity has reached 790 million kW,including nearly 100 million kW newly developed in 2008 and a similar increment in 2007.

  9. SEDIMENT MANAGEMENT IN HYDROELECTRIC PROJECTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.G.RANGA RAJU; U.C.KOTHYARI

    2005-01-01

    Withdrawal of water from a river into a canal involves the construction of a barrage or a dam across the river depending on whether the river is perennial or not. The design of the reservoir upstream of the dam and of the canal requires consideration of the sediment load carried by the river in case the river is sediment-laden. The basic equations concerning morphological changes in such rivers are discussed with particular reference to computation of reservoir sedimentation. The hydraulics of lined canals carrying wash load is examined from the point of view of limiting transport capacity and changes in frictional resistance. Lastly,the methods of design of sediment extraction devices like settling basins and vortex chambers are presented.

  10. Condition Trend Prediction of Hydroelectric Sets Based on Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm Optimized GRNN%基于果蝇优化算法的GRNN水电机组状态趋势预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田源; 张彼德; 刘代伟; 汪凤; 吴华丰; 陈笑; 师鹏

    2012-01-01

    According to the nonlinear and non-stationary characteristics of hydroelectric sets vibration, this paper proposes a general regression network (GRNN) model based on fruit fly optimization algorithm (FOA) and achieves the optimal choice of GRNN distribution parameters. The model is applied to vibration peak-peak value trend prediction in 5 different parts of 3 hydroelectric sets in Sichuan Xinzhenghangdian Hydropower Station. Comparison of mean squared error between BP and GRNN, the results show that GRNN can improve prediction precision.%针对水电机组振动的非线性、非平稳特性,提出了一种基于果蝇优化算法(FOA)的广义回归神经网络(GRNN)模型(FOAGRNN),实现了GRNN分布参数的优化选择,并对四川省新政航电工程3台机组5个不同部位的振动序列峰峰值进行了预测,与BP神经网络预测结果的均方误差(MSE)对比结果表明,FOAGRNN预测精度较高.

  11. New Development of the Technology for Huge Francis Hydroelectric Generating Units%巨型混流式水轮发电机组关键技术新发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫晶堃

    2009-01-01

    从二十世纪80年代末开始,水力发电进入了高速发展阶段,水电机组的单机容量从二滩电站的550MW发展到三峡电站的700MW,目前正向1000MW的特大容量机组迈进.本文从对这批巨型混流式水轮发电机组的技术性能的分析入手,探讨巨型水轮发电机组在水力设计、电磁设计、冷却系统及轴承技术等方面的发展趋势.%Since the end of 1980s, hydropower goes into the period of high-speed development, unit-powers of hydropower equipments reach 700MW in Three Gorges from 550MW in Ertan, and going up to the target 1000MW of special huge sizes. In this paper, by analyzing technical characteristics of these huge Francis hydroelectric generating units, the developing trends of huge hydroelectric generating units in the aspects of hydraulic design, electromagnetic design, cooling design and thrust bearings technology are discussed.

  12. Model for energy planning of degraded river basins based on hydrological evaluation of hydroelectric reservoirs in operation; Modelo de planejamento energetico de bacias hidrograficas degradadas baseado na avaliacao hidrica de reservatorios hidreletricos em operacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Afonso Henriques Moreira [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil); Ferreira, Aloisio Caetano; Ottoni, Arthur Benedicto; Nogueira Neto, Claudio; Silva, Denis de Souza

    2008-07-01

    The human occupation of the hydrographic basin, made in the past without plans, generated alteration of the hydrology characteristics, presenting as direct consequence modifications of its hydric availabilities. Or either, the floods in the rainy periods and the droughts in the ones of dryness currently tend to be more frequent and with bigger intensity. These conditions have affected the operation as well as the planning of the hydroelectric reservoirs, that have generated energy in conditions of different hydric availabilities (worse) of those foreseeing at the time of the project. These situations result in uncertainties and energy losses for the investor as well as in the system. Under such premises, the present article analyzes the energy-economic influences of the deterioration of the hydric regimen of some on exploitations in operation to the system, located in basins degrades in the South, Southeastern and Northeast regions; enhancing the importance of the studies of hydric economy of these units of management (degraded basins) as subsidy of taking of decision for gradual recovery of its hydric availabilities; taking in account the energy optimization of the hydroelectric reservoirs in located operation as well as the minimization of inherent the financial losses to the uncertainties of its hydric resources. (author)

  13. Spatial variability of greenhouse gases emissions (CO2, CH4, N2O) in a tropical hydroelectric reservoir flooding primary forest (Petit Saut Reservoir, French Guiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cailleaud, Emilie; Guérin, Frédéric; Bouillon, Steven; Sarrazin, Max; Serça, Dominique

    2014-05-01

    At the Petit Saut Reservoir (PSR, French Guiana, South America), vertical profiles were performed at 5 stations in the open waters (OW) and 6 stations in two shallow flooded forest (FF) areas between April 2012 and September 2013. Measurements included physico-chemical parameters, ammonium, nitrate and dissolved greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4, N2O) concentrations, dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC, POC) and nitrogen (PN), δ13C-POC and δ15N-PN . The diffusive fluxes were calculated from surface concentrations. The aim of this study was to estimate the spatial variations of greenhouse gas emissions at a dentrical hydroelectric reservoir located in the tropics and flooding primary forest. Twenty years after impoundment, the water column of the PSR is permanently and tightly stratified thermally in the FF whereas in the OW, the thermal gradients are not as stable. The different hydrodynamical behaviours between the two different zones have significant consequences on the biogeochemistry: oxygen barely diffuses down to the hypolimnion in the FF whereas destratification occurs sporadically during the rainy season in the OW. Although we found the same range of POC in the FF and the OW (2.5-29 μmol L-1) and 20% more DOC at the bottom of OW than in the FF (229-878 μmol L-1), CO2 and CH4 concentrations were always significantly higher in the FF (CO2: 11-1412 μmol L-1, CH4: 0.001-1015 μmol L-1) than in the OW. On average, the CO2 concentrations were 30-40% higher in the FF than in the OW and the CH4 concentrations were three times higher in the FF than in the OW. The δ13C-POC and C:N values did not suggest substantial differences in the sources of OM between the FF and OW. At all stations, POC at the bottom has an isotopic signature slightly lighter than the terrestrial OM in the surrounding forest whereas the isotopic signature of surface POM would result from phytoplankton and methanotrophs. The vertical profiles of nitrogen compounds reveal that the main

  14. Environmental assessments of alternative energy strategies in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Regional Issues Identification and Assessment (RIIA) program is an evaluation of the regional impacts of future energy development. These studies are conducted for the Department of Energy. The impacts described in this paper for 1990 are based on a national energy projection (scenario) that assumes medium energy demand and fuel supply through 1990, but does not incorporate the policies of the 1978 National Energy Act. The RIIA study plan uses the predicted fuel mixes derived from the PIES scenario as a starting point for its analysis. County level patterns for utility, industry and mining activities for 1990 were then developed from the federal region totals. Energy sources addressed were coal, nuclear, oil, oil shale, gas, geothermal, hydroelectric, and solar. The impact of these county-level patterns of utility, industry, and mining activities on the air, water, and land resources of the country and on the socioeconomic and health and safety aspects of the nation's welfare are analyzed

  15. Beyond hydrology in the sustainability assessment of dams: A planners perspective - The Sarawak experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Edward

    2012-01-01

    SummaryThere is increasing concern about the availability of water supplies in developing countries to provide clean drinking water and sanitation as well as providing for irrigation for food security. This has led to hydrologically led investigation to establish the feasibility and storage capacity of potentially new dam sites. This task has become more difficult for hydrologists and others with the uncertainties created by climate change and the measurement of the hydrological, geographical and ecological footprint of new dams. The questions asked by hydrologists are increasingly likely to be required to be cast in terms of the four pillars of sustainability; environmental, economic, social and institutional. Similarly, regional planners have to be more cognisant of the social outcomes of dam development while understanding the wider hydrological context at a watershed and basin level. The paper defines the concept of sustainability assessment in the context of resettlement and analyses its implications for the Bakun Hydro-electric project in Sarawak, Malaysia. Specifically it attempts to address the question of what social sustainability would really mean in the context of communities affected by dam projects, and their catchments using hermeneutics, tradeoffs and offsets. The findings of this question were presented at a hydrological conference held in Santiago in October 2010, based on the outcome of specific questionnaire responses received from indigenous peoples affected by the Bakun Dam hydroelectric project. The paper also offers some insights pertaining to the social sustainability assessment aspects of dams and their catchments.

  16. Technological characterization of basaltic rocks of Canoas I Hydroelectric Power Plant, Paranapanema river, Sao Paulo - Parana states, Brazil; Caracterizacao tecnologica das rochas basalticas da Usina Hidroeletrica Canoas I, Rio Paranapanema, SP/PR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrano, Antonio

    1997-07-01

    Basaltic litotypes from the rock mass foundation of Canoas I Hydroelectric Power Plant were submitted to technological characterization tests, in order to verify their suitability as construction material. Physical and mechanical properties (density, porosity, water absorption, ultrasonic velocity, compressive and splitting tensile strength, among others) were determined, besides petrographic analyses. Weather ability tests were also performed, not only through wetting-drying cycles and by immersion in ethylene glycol but by outdoor exposure as well, using crushed and core drilled specimens. Detailed procedures for the weather ability test using core specimens from rotary drilling are given. It is analyzed the influence of a geological feature (fault zone, about 10 meters thick and 20 degrees dip), that occurs in the rock mass foundation, on the technological properties of these rocks. Basaltic litotypes selected as construction material are then pointed out. (author)

  17. Sympathetic interaction among 13.2/400 kV step up voltage transformers of the Macagua EDELCA hydroelectric complex; Interaccion simpatica entre transformadores elevadores de 13,2/400 kV del Complejo Hidroelectrico Macagua de EDELCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa R, Alessandro [C.V.G. Electrification del Caroni, C.A. (EDELCA), Caracas (Venezuela). Div. de Ingenieria de Sistemas Electricos]. E-mail: avilla@edelca.com.ve

    2001-07-01

    This work analyses the sympathetic interaction phenomenon among the 13.2/400 kV step-up transformers of the Machine House 2 of the Macagua Hydroelectric Complex. The analysis determined, through simulations with ATP, the magnitudes of the energization currents, the harmonic contents and the effect of using pre insertion resistances at the 400 kV switches for the diminishing of the magnitudes and their decay time. The obtained results indicated that the sympathetic interactions among the step-up transformers influenced on the magnitude, duration and harmonic contents of the energization currents besides the using of pre insertion resistances affects the initial magnitude and duration of the mentioned currents, presenting however a lesser impact in the harmonic content.

  18. The Mansonia genus (diptera: culicidae) and mosquitoes growing in Tucurui hydroelectric power plant (Para - Brazil); O genero Mansonia (diptera: culicidae) e a proliferacao de mosquitos na Usina Hidreletrica de Tucurui

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radei, Wanderli Pedro [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    Dams formed for hydroelectric generation normally are invaded by some kinds of aquatic plants. This plants besides the problems in navigation are also responsible for the growing of some mosquitoes. In Tucuri`s dam this plants appeared in so large quantity and make appear mosquitoes and others insects. In this study many captures were making in various places, identifying the mosquitoes and quantifying them from hour to hour. Some considerations were made about the characteristics of this mosquitoes. In conclusion the study shows that the growing of mosquito`s population can cause the appearing of epidemics not knowledge at this places with the population not prepared for them 11 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. 龙华口水电站碾压混凝土原材料及配合比分析%Analysis on Raw Materials and Mix Proportion of Roller Compacted Concrete for Longhuakou Hydroelectric Station Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彩虹

    2012-01-01

    Through examining and analyzing the raw construction materials for Longhuakou Hydroelectric Station Project in Yu county of Shanxi Province,the performance tests regarding mix proportion design of roller compacted concrete are carried out,and the mix proportion suited to design and construction demand is put forward.%通过对山西省盂县龙华口水电站工程原材料检验分析,进行碾压混凝土配合比设计及相关的性能试验,提出符合设计及施工要求的碾压混凝土配合比供施工使用。

  20. Computational Tools to Assess Turbine Biological Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, Marshall C.; Serkowski, John A.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Strickler, Brad; Weisbeck, Molly; Dotson, Curtis L.

    2014-07-24

    Public Utility District No. 2 of Grant County (GCPUD) operates the Priest Rapids Dam (PRD), a hydroelectric facility on the Columbia River in Washington State. The dam contains 10 Kaplan-type turbine units that are now more than 50 years old. Plans are underway to refit these aging turbines with new runners. The Columbia River at PRD is a migratory pathway for several species of juvenile and adult salmonids, so passage of fish through the dam is a major consideration when upgrading the turbines. In this paper, a method for turbine biological performance assessment (BioPA) is demonstrated. Using this method, a suite of biological performance indicators is computed based on simulated data from a CFD model of a proposed turbine design. Each performance indicator is a measure of the probability of exposure to a certain dose of an injury mechanism. Using known relationships between the dose of an injury mechanism and frequency of injury (dose–response) from laboratory or field studies, the likelihood of fish injury for a turbine design can be computed from the performance indicator. By comparing the values of the indicators from proposed designs, the engineer can identify the more-promising alternatives. We present an application of the BioPA method for baseline risk assessment calculations for the existing Kaplan turbines at PRD that will be used as the minimum biological performance that a proposed new design must achieve.