WorldWideScience

Sample records for assessment topics thermal

  1. Thermal Water of Utah Topical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goode, Harry D.

    1978-11-01

    Western and central Utah has 16 areas whose wells or springs yield hot water (35 C or higher), warm water (20-34.5 C), and slightly warm water (15.5-19.5 C). These areas and the highest recorded water temperature for each are: Lower Bear River Area, 105 C; Bonneville Salt Flats, 88 C; Cove Fort-Sulphurdale, 77 C; Curlew Valley, 43 C; East Shore Area, 60 C; Escalante Desert, 149 C; Escalante Valley (Roosevelt, 269 C, and Thermo, 85C); Fish Springs, 60.5 C; Grouse Creek Valley, 42 C; Heber Valley (Midway, 45 C); Jordan Valley, 58.5 C; Pavant Valley-Black Rock Desert, 67 C; Sevier Desert ( Abraham-Crater Hot Springs, 82 C); Sevier Valley (Monroe-Red Hill, 76.5 C, and Joseph Hot Spring, 64 C); Utah Valley, 46 C; and Central Virgin River Basin, 42 C. The only hot water in eastern Utah comes from the oil wells of the Ashley Valley Oil Field, which in 1977 yielded 4400 acre-feet of water at 43 C to 55 C. Many other areas yield warm water (20 to 34.5 C) and slightly warm water (15.5 to 19.5 C). With the possible exception of the Roosevelt KGRA, Crater Hot Springs in the Sevier Desert, Escalante Desert, Pavant-Black Rock, Cove Fort-Sulphurdale, and Coyote Spring in Curlew Valley, which may derive their heat from buried igneous bodies, the heat that warms the thermal water is derived from the geothermal gradient. Meteoric water circulates through fractures or permeable rocks deep within the earth, where it is warmed; it then rises by convection or artesian pressure and issues at the surface as springs or is tapped by wells. Most thermal springs thus rise along faults, but some thermal water is trapped in confined aquifers so that it spreads laterally as it mixes with and warms cooler near-surface water. This spreading of thermal waters is evident in Cache Valley, in Jordan Valley, and in southern Utah Valley; likely the spreading occurs in many other artesian basins where it has not yet been recognized. In the East Shore Area thermal water trapped in confined aquifers warms

  2. Risk assessment of topically applied products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søborg, Tue; Basse, Line Hollesen; Halling-Sørensen, Bent

    2007-01-01

    The human risk of harmful substances in semisolid topical dosage forms applied topically to normal skin and broken skin, respectively, was assessed. Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and three derivatives of BADGE previously quantified in aqueous cream and the UV filters 3-BC and 4-MBC were used...... as model compounds. Tolerable daily intake (TDI) values have been established for BADGE and derivatives. Endocrine disruption was chosen as endpoint for 3-BC and 4-MBC. Skin permeation of the model compounds was investigated in vitro using pig skin membranes. Tape stripping was applied to simulate broken...... parameters for estimating the risk. The immediate human risk of BADGE and derivatives in topical dosage forms was found to be low. However, local treatment of broken skin may lead to higher exposure of BADGE and derivatives compared to application to normal skin. 3-BC permeated skin at higher flux than 4-MBC...

  3. Solar thermal energy as a topic in secondary mathematics classrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkmann, A.; Brinkmann, K. [EnviPro Environmental Process Engineering Prof. Dr. Klaus Brinkmann, Iserlohn (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    One of the most effective methods to achieve a sustainable change of our momentary existing power supply system to a system mainly based on renewable energy conversion is the education of our children. For this purpose the compulsory school subject mathematics appears to be suitable. In order to promote renewable energy issues in mathematics classrooms, the authors have developed a special didactical concept to open this field for students, as well as for their teachers. The aim of this paper is to present firstly an overview of our concept and secondly examples of problems to the special topic of solar thermal energy, developed on the basis of our concept. (orig.)

  4. Proceedings of the fourth international topical meeting on nuclear thermal hydraulics, operations and safety. Vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    More than 100 papers were presented. The meeting was divided in 56 sessions and covered the following topics: Plant Operation, Retrofitting and Maintenance Experience; Steam Generator Operation and Maintenance; Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems; Seismic Technologies for Plant Design and Operations; Aging Management and Life Extension; Two-Phase Flow Modeling and Applications; Severe Accidents and Degraded Core Thermal Hydraulics; Plant Simulators, Analyzers, and Workstations; Advanced Nuclear Fuel Challenges; Recent Nuclear Power Station Decommissioning Experiences in the USA; Application of Probabilistic risk assessment/Probabilistic safety assessment (PRA/PSA) in Design and Modification; Numerical Modeling in Thermal Hydraulics; General Thermal Hydraulics; Severe Accident Management; Licensing and Regulatory Requirements; Advanced Light Water Reactor Designs to Support Reduced Emergency Planning; Best Estimate loss-of-coolant (LOCA) Methodologies; Plant Instrumentation and Control; LWR Fuel Designs for Improved Thermal Hydraulic Performance; Performance Assessment of Radioactive Waste Disposal; Thermal Hydraulics in Passive Reactor Systems; Advances in Man-Machine Interface Design and the Related Human Factors Engineering; Advances in Measurements and Instrumentation; Computer Aided Technology for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) and Plant Maintenance Plant Uprating; Flow-Accelerated Corrosion in Nuclear Power Plants; Advances in Radiological Measurement and Analysis Risk Management and Assessment; Stability in Thermal Hydraulic Systems; Critical heat flux (CHF) and Post Dryout Heat Transfer; Plant Transient and Accident Modeling.

  5. Proceedings of the fourth international topical meeting on nuclear thermal hydraulics, operations and safety. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    More than 100 papers were presented. The meeting was divided in 56 sessions and covered the following topics: Plant Operation, Retrofitting and Maintenance Experience; Steam Generator Operation and Maintenance; Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems; Seismic Technologies for Plant Design and Operations; Aging Management and Life Extension; Two-Phase Flow Modeling and Applications; Severe Accidents and Degraded Core Thermal Hydraulics; Plant Simulators, Analyzers, and Workstations; Advanced Nuclear Fuel Challenges; Recent Nuclear Power Station Decommissioning Experiences in the USA; Application of Probabilistic risk assessment/Probabilistic safety assessment (PRA/PSA) in Design and Modification; Numerical Modeling in Thermal Hydraulics; General Thermal Hydraulics; Severe Accident Management; Licensing and Regulatory Requirements; Advanced Light Water Reactor Designs to Support Reduced Emergency Planning; Best Estimate loss-of-coolant (LOCA) Methodologies; Plant Instrumentation and Control; LWR Fuel Designs for Improved Thermal Hydraulic Performance; Performance Assessment of Radioactive Waste Disposal; Thermal Hydraulics in Passive Reactor Systems; Advances in Man-Machine Interface Design and the Related Human Factors Engineering; Advances in Measurements and Instrumentation; Computer Aided Technology for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) and Plant Maintenance Plant Uprating; Flow-Accelerated Corrosion in Nuclear Power Plants; Advances in Radiological Measurement and Analysis Risk Management and Assessment; Stability in Thermal Hydraulic Systems; Critical heat flux (CHF) and Post Dryout Heat Transfer; Plant Transient and Accident Modeling

  6. Proceedings of the fourth international topical meeting on nuclear thermal hydraulics, operations and safety. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    More than 100 papers presented at the meeting were divided in 56 sessions and covered the following topics: Plant Operation, Retrofitting and Maintenance Experience; Steam Generator Operation and Maintenance; Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems; Seismic Technologies for Plant Design and Operations; Aging Management and Life Extension; Two-Phase Flow Modeling and Applications; Severe Accidents and Degraded Core Thermal Hydraulics; Plant Simulators, Analyzers, and Workstations; Advanced Nuclear Fuel Challenges; Recent Nuclear Power Station Decommissioning Experiences in the USA; Application of Probabilistic risk assessment/Probabilistic safety assessment (PRA/PSA) in Design and Modification; Numerical Modeling in Thermal Hydraulics; General Thermal Hydraulics; Severe Accident Management; Licensing and Regulatory Requirements; Advanced Light Water Reactor Designs to Support Reduced Emergency Planning; Best Estimate loss-of-coolant (LOCA) Methodologies; Plant Instrumentation and Control; LWR Fuel Designs for Improved Thermal Hydraulic Performance; Performance Assessment of Radioactive Waste Disposal; Thermal Hydraulics in Passive Reactor Systems; Advances in Man-Machine Interface Design and the Related Human Factors Engineering; Advances in Measurements and Instrumentation; Computer Aided Technology for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) and Plant Maintenance Plant Uprating; Flow-Accelerated Corrosion in Nuclear Power Plants; Advances in Radiological Measurement and Analysis Risk Management and Assessment; Stability in Thermal Hydraulic Systems; Critical heat flux (CHF) and Post Dryout Heat Transfer; Plant Transient and Accident Modeling.

  7. Proceedings of the fourth international topical meeting on nuclear thermal hydraulics, operations and safety. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    More than 100 papers presented at the meeting were divided in 56 sessions and covered the following topics: Plant Operation, Retrofitting and Maintenance Experience; Steam Generator Operation and Maintenance; Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems; Seismic Technologies for Plant Design and Operations; Aging Management and Life Extension; Two-Phase Flow Modeling and Applications; Severe Accidents and Degraded Core Thermal Hydraulics; Plant Simulators, Analyzers, and Workstations; Advanced Nuclear Fuel Challenges; Recent Nuclear Power Station Decommissioning Experiences in the USA; Application of Probabilistic risk assessment/Probabilistic safety assessment (PRA/PSA) in Design and Modification; Numerical Modeling in Thermal Hydraulics; General Thermal Hydraulics; Severe Accident Management; Licensing and Regulatory Requirements; Advanced Light Water Reactor Designs to Support Reduced Emergency Planning; Best Estimate loss-of-coolant (LOCA) Methodologies; Plant Instrumentation and Control; LWR Fuel Designs for Improved Thermal Hydraulic Performance; Performance Assessment of Radioactive Waste Disposal; Thermal Hydraulics in Passive Reactor Systems; Advances in Man-Machine Interface Design and the Related Human Factors Engineering; Advances in Measurements and Instrumentation; Computer Aided Technology for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) and Plant Maintenance Plant Uprating; Flow-Accelerated Corrosion in Nuclear Power Plants; Advances in Radiological Measurement and Analysis Risk Management and Assessment; Stability in Thermal Hydraulic Systems; Critical heat flux (CHF) and Post Dryout Heat Transfer; Plant Transient and Accident Modeling

  8. Proceedings of the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting: Volume 1, Plenary session; Advanced reactor research; advanced control system technology; advanced instrumentation and control hardware; human factors research; probabilistic risk assessment topics; thermal hydraulics; thermal hydraulic research for advanced passive LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteleone, S.

    1994-04-01

    This three-volume report contains 90 papers out of the 102 that were presented at the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 25--27, 1993. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Individual papers have been cataloged separately. This document, Volume 1 covers the following topics: Advanced Reactor Research; Advanced Instrumentation and Control Hardware; Advanced Control System Technology; Human Factors Research; Probabilistic Risk Assessment Topics; Thermal Hydraulics; and Thermal Hydraulic Research for Advanced Passive Light Water Reactors

  9. Proceedings of the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting: Volume 1, Plenary session; Advanced reactor research; advanced control system technology; advanced instrumentation and control hardware; human factors research; probabilistic risk assessment topics; thermal hydraulics; thermal hydraulic research for advanced passive LWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteleone, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [comp.

    1994-04-01

    This three-volume report contains 90 papers out of the 102 that were presented at the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 25--27, 1993. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Individual papers have been cataloged separately. This document, Volume 1 covers the following topics: Advanced Reactor Research; Advanced Instrumentation and Control Hardware; Advanced Control System Technology; Human Factors Research; Probabilistic Risk Assessment Topics; Thermal Hydraulics; and Thermal Hydraulic Research for Advanced Passive Light Water Reactors.

  10. 11. international topical meeting on nuclear reactor thermal-hydraulics (NURETH-11)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemonnier, H.

    2005-01-01

    The main topics covered by the NURETH 11 meeting are the thermal-hydraulics of existing and future nuclear power plants as foreseen by the Generation IV worldwide initiative. Normal operation and accidental situations are also relevant topics of the Conference. The topics cover modeling, experiments, instrumentation and numerical simulations related to flow and heat transfer in nuclear reactors with a special emphasis on the advances of multiphase CFD methods. The first part of this Book of Abstracts enumerates the Organizing Scientific Societies, the Sponsors of the Conference, the Conference Chairs, and the members of the Steering Committee and of the Technical Program Committee. The second part of this Book of Abstracts contains the list of the titles of the contributed papers. Each item includes the log number of the paper, the abstract of which can therefore be easily located in the next section of this book. The titles of the papers have been sorted out by topics to provide a synthetic view of the contributions in a selected domain. The last section of this Book includes an index of authors and co-authors with a reference to the log number(s) of their contributed paper(s). Finally, the CD-Rom of the Conference Proceedings containing the full-length papers is inserted at the inside back cover. Sessions content: A - two-phase flow and heat transfer fundamentals: computational and mathematical techniques (numerical schemes, LBM, BEM, mesh-less, etc.); contact angle and wettability phenomena; experiments and data bases for the assessment and the verification of 3D models; flow regime identification and modelling; heat transfer near critical pressure and supercritical water reactors; interfacial area (data base, modeling, measurement techniques); instrumentation techniques; micro-scale basic phenomena, fluid flow and heat transfer; scaling methods; counter current flow; B - code developments: containment analysis; core thermal-hydraulics and subchannel analysis

  11. Advanced Signal Processing for Thermal Flaw Detection; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VALLEY, MICHAEL T.; HANSCHE, BRUCE D.; PAEZ, THOMAS L.; URBINA, ANGEL; ASHBAUGH, DENNIS M.

    2001-01-01

    Dynamic thermography is a promising technology for inspecting metallic and composite structures used in high-consequence industries. However, the reliability and inspection sensitivity of this technology has historically been limited by the need for extensive operator experience and the use of human judgment and visual acuity to detect flaws in the large volume of infrared image data collected. To overcome these limitations new automated data analysis algorithms and software is needed. The primary objectives of this research effort were to develop a data processing methodology that is tied to the underlying physics, which reduces or removes the data interpretation requirements, and which eliminates the need to look at significant numbers of data frames to determine if a flaw is present. Considering the strengths and weakness of previous research efforts, this research elected to couple both the temporal and spatial attributes of the surface temperature. Of the possible algorithms investigated, the best performing was a radiance weighted root mean square Laplacian metric that included a multiplicative surface effect correction factor and a novel spatio-temporal parametric model for data smoothing. This metric demonstrated the potential for detecting flaws smaller than 0.075 inch in inspection areas on the order of one square foot. Included in this report is the development of a thermal imaging model, a weighted least squares thermal data smoothing algorithm, simulation and experimental flaw detection results, and an overview of the ATAC (Automated Thermal Analysis Code) software that was developed to analyze thermal inspection data

  12. Topical glucocorticoid has no antinociceptive or anti-inflammatory effect in thermal injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J L; Møiniche, S; Kehlet, H

    1994-01-01

    We have studied the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of topical glucocorticoids in human thermal injury. The right and left legs of 12 healthy volunteers were allocated randomly to be treated with either 0.05% clobetasol propionate cream or placebo in a double-blind trial. Thermal...

  13. 6. Seminar of the IIE-ININ-IMP on technological specialties. Topic 3: thermal fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The document includes 10 papers presented at the 6. Seminar of the IIE-ININ-IMP (Mexico) on technological specialties in the field of thermal fluids. (Topic 3). From these, 4 papers were in INIS subject scope and a separate abstract was prepared for each of them

  14. The Effect of Topical Local Anesthetics on Thermal Pain Sensitivity in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Generalized hypersensitivity that extends into somatic areas is common in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. The sensitized state, particularly assessed by experimental methods, is known to persist even during remissions of clinical pain. It was hypothesized that disease-related nociceptive activity in the gut maintains a systemic-sensitized state. The present study evaluated responses to prolonged thermal stimuli maintained at constant temperature or constant pain intensity during stimulation. The effect of topically applied rectal lidocaine on heat sensitivity was also evaluated. The question is whether silencing potential intestinal neural activity (which may not always lead to a conscious pain experience with lidocaine attenuates sensitization of somatic areas. Tests were also performed where lidocaine was applied orally to control for systemic or placebo effects of the drug. The IBS subjects exhibited a greater sensitivity to somatic heat stimuli compared to controls; however, lidocaine had no discernible effect on sensitization in this sample of IBS patients, where most of the individuals did not have clinical pain on the day of testing.

  15. Thermal comfort assessment of buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Carlucci, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    A number of metrics for assessing human thermal response to climatic conditions have been proposed in scientific literature over the last decades. They aim at describing human thermal perception of the thermal environment to which an individual or a group of people is exposed. More recently, a new type of “discomfort index” has been proposed for describing, in a synthetic way, long-term phenomena. Starting from a systematic review of a number of long-term global discomfort indices, they are then contrasted and compared on a reference case study in order to identify their similarities and differences and strengths and weaknesses. Based on this analysis, a new short-term local discomfort index is proposed for the American Adaptive comfort model. Finally, a new and reliable long-term general discomfort index is presented. It is delivered in three versions and each of them is suitable to be respectively coupled with the Fanger, the European Adaptive and the American Adaptive comfort models.

  16. Evaluation of thermal risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos, J.J.; Perry, E.S.

    1993-01-01

    Risk assessment was done in 1983 to estimate the ecological hazard of increasing the generating load and thermal output of an electric generating station. Subsequently, long-term monitoring in the vicinity of the station allowed verification of the predictions made in the risk assessment. This presentation will review the efficacy of early risk assessment methods in producing useful predictions from a resource management point of view. In 1984, the Chalk Point Generating facility of the Potomac Electric Power Company increased it's median generating load by 100%. Prior to this operational change, the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia synthesized site specific data, model predictions, and results from literature to assess the risk of additional waste heat to the Patuxent River subestuary of Chesapeake Bay. Risk was expressed as the number of days per year that various species of fish and the blue crab would be expected to avoid the discharge vicinity. Accuracy of these predictions is assessed by comparing observed fish and crab distributions and their observed frequencies of avoidance to those predicted. It is concluded that the predictions of this early risk assessment were sufficiently accurate to produce a reliable resource management decision

  17. Thermal comfort assessment in civil aircraft cabins

    OpenAIRE

    Pang Liping; Qin Yue; Liu Dong; Liu Meng

    2014-01-01

    Aircraft passengers are more and demanding in terms of thermal comfort. But it is not yet easy for aircraft crew to control the environment control system (ECS) that satisfies the thermal comfort for most passengers due to a number of causes. This paper adopts a corrected predicted mean vote (PMV) model and an adaptive model to assess the thermal comfort conditions for 31 investigated flights and draws the conclusion that there does exist an uncomfortable thermal phenomenon in civil aircraft ...

  18. Laser-induced thermal coagulation enhances skin uptake of topically applied compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haak, C S; Hannibal, J; Paasch, U

    2017-01-01

    microchannels surrounded by CZ compared to channels with no CZ (CZ-20 and CZ-80>CZ-0).The thickness of CZ affected PEG distribution in skin. A thin CZ-20 favored significantly higher mean fluorescence intensities inside CZ areas compared to CZ-80 (PEG 350, 1,000, and 5,000; P ...BACKGROUND: Ablative fractional laser (AFL) generates microchannels in skin surrounded by a zone of thermally altered tissue, termed the coagulation zone (CZ). The thickness of CZ varies according to applied wavelength and laser settings. It is well-known that AFL channels facilitate uptake...... of topically applied compounds, but the importance of CZ is unknown. METHODS: Franz Cells were used to investigate skin uptake and permeation of fluorescent labeled polyethylene glycols (PEGs) with mean molecular weights (MW) of 350, 1,000, and 5,000 Da. Microchannels with CZ thicknesses ranging from 0 to 80...

  19. Thermal comfort assessment in civil aircraft cabins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang Liping

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft passengers are more and demanding in terms of thermal comfort. But it is not yet easy for aircraft crew to control the environment control system (ECS that satisfies the thermal comfort for most passengers due to a number of causes. This paper adopts a corrected predicted mean vote (PMV model and an adaptive model to assess the thermal comfort conditions for 31 investigated flights and draws the conclusion that there does exist an uncomfortable thermal phenomenon in civil aircraft cabins, especially in some short-haul continental flights. It is necessary to develop an easy way to predict the thermal sensation of passengers and to direct the crew to control ECS. Due to the assessment consistency of the corrected PMV model and the adaptive model, the adaptive model of thermal neutrality temperature can be used as a method to predict the cabin optimal operative temperature. Because only the mean outdoor effective temperature ET∗ of a departure city is an input variable for the adaptive model, this method can be easily understood and implemented by the crew and can satisfy 80–90% of the thermal acceptability levels of passengers.

  20. Proceedings of the 10th international topical meeting on nuclear thermal hydraulics, operation and safety (NUTHOS-10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The 10th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Thermal Hydraulics, Operations and Safety (NUTHOS-10) in Okinawa, Japan is sponsored by Atomic Energy Society of Japan, in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, and co-sponsored by American Nuclear Society Thermal Hydraulics Division among others. Enhanced safety and reducing cost are going together, which can be achieved through continued research and development efforts. NUTHOS keeps you abreast of the most updated information in the advancement of science and technology in nuclear thermal hydraulics, operations and safety, and provides you insights into the future. (J.P.N.)

  1. Big data and technology assessment: research topic or competitor?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieder, Gernot; Simon, Judith

    2017-01-01

    With its promise to transform how we live, work, and think, Big Data has captured the imaginations of governments, businesses, and academia. However, the grand claims of Big Data advocates have been accompanied with concerns about potential detrimental implications for civil rights and liberties......, leading to a climate of clash and mutual distrust between different stakeholders. Throughout the years, the interdisciplinary field of technology assessment (TA) has gained considerable experience in studying socio-technical controversies and as such is exceptionally well equipped to assess the premises...... considerations on how TA might contribute to more responsible data-based research and innovation....

  2. Customer satisfaction assessment at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DN Anderson; ML Sours

    2000-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing and implementing a customer satisfaction assessment program (CSAP) to assess the quality of research and development provided by the laboratory. This report presents the customer survey component of the PNNL CSAP. The customer survey questionnaire is composed of two major sections: Strategic Value and Project Performance. Both sections contain a set of questions that can be answered with a 5-point Likert scale response. The strategic value section consists of five questions that are designed to determine if a project directly contributes to critical future national needs. The project Performance section consists of nine questions designed to determine PNNL performance in meeting customer expectations. A statistical model for customer survey data is developed and this report discusses how to analyze the data with this model. The properties of the statistical model can be used to establish a gold standard or performance expectation for the laboratory, and then to assess progress. The gold standard is defined using laboratory management input-answers to four questions, in terms of the information obtained from the customer survey: (1) What should the average Strategic Value be for the laboratory project portfolio? (2) What Strategic Value interval should include most of the projects in the laboratory portfolio? (3) What should average Project Performance be for projects with a Strategic Value of about 2? (4) What should average Project Performance be for projects with a Strategic Value of about 4? To be able to provide meaningful answers to these questions, the PNNL customer survey will need to be fully implemented for several years, thus providing a link between management perceptions of laboratory performance and customer survey data

  3. The effect of topical anesthetic hydration on the depth of thermal injury from the plasma skin regeneration device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Alicia R; Wu, Edward C; Liaw, Lih-Huei L; Garg, Rohit; Gangnes, Richard A

    2014-02-01

    The plasma skin regeneration (PSR) device delivers thermal energy to the skin by converting nitrogen gas to plasma. Prior to treatment, hydration of the skin is recommended as it is thought to limit the zone of thermal damage. However, there is limited data on optimal hydration time. This pilot study aims to determine the effect of topical anesthetic application time on the depth of thermal injury from a PSR device using histology. PSR (1.8 and 3.5 J) was performed after 0, 30, or 60 minutes of topical anesthetic application. Rhytidectomy was then performed and skin was fixed for histologic analysis. Four patients (two control and four treatment sites per patient) undergoing rhytidectomy were recruited for the study. Each patient served as his/her own control (no hydration). A scoring system for tissue injury was developed. Epidermal injury, the presence of vacuolization, blistering, damage to adnexal structures, and depth of dermal collagen changes were evaluated in over 1,400 high-power microscopy fields. There was a significant difference in the average thermal injury score, depth of thermal damage, and epidermal injury when comparing controls to 30 minutes of hydration (P = 0.012, 0.012, 0.017, respectively). There was no statistical difference between controls and 60 minutes of hydration or between 30 and 60 minutes of hydration. Epidermal vacuolization at low energy and patchy distribution of thermal injury was also observed. Topical hydration influences the amount of thermal damage when applied to skin for 30 minutes prior to treatment with the PSR device. There was a trend toward decreasing thermal damage at 60 minutes, and there was no difference between treatment for 30 or 60 minutes. The data suggest that application of topical anesthetic for a short period of time prior to treatment with the PSR device is cost-effective, safe, and may be clinically beneficial. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Laser-induced thermal coagulation enhances skin uptake of topically applied compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, C S; Hannibal, J; Paasch, U; Anderson, R R; Haedersdal, M

    2017-08-01

    Ablative fractional laser (AFL) generates microchannels in skin surrounded by a zone of thermally altered tissue, termed the coagulation zone (CZ). The thickness of CZ varies according to applied wavelength and laser settings. It is well-known that AFL channels facilitate uptake of topically applied compounds, but the importance of CZ is unknown. Franz Cells were used to investigate skin uptake and permeation of fluorescent labeled polyethylene glycols (PEGs) with mean molecular weights (MW) of 350, 1,000, and 5,000 Da. Microchannels with CZ thicknesses ranging from 0 to 80 μm were generated from micro-needles (0 μm, CZ-0), and AFL (10,600 nm) applied to -80°C deep frozen skin (20 μm, CZ-20) and skin equilibrated to room temperature (80 μm, CZ-80). Channels penetrated into similar mid-dermal skin depths of 600-700 μm, and number of channels per skin area was similar. At 4 hours incubation, skin uptake of PEGs into CZ and dermis was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy at specific skin depths of 150, 400, and 1,000 μm and the transcutaneous permeation was quantified by fluorescence of receptor fluids. Overall, the highest uptake of PEGs was reached through microchannels surrounded by CZ compared to channels with no CZ (CZ-20 and CZ-80>CZ-0).The thickness of CZ affected PEG distribution in skin. A thin CZ-20 favored significantly higher mean fluorescence intensities inside CZ areas compared to CZ-80 (PEG 350, 1,000, and 5,000; P channels was significantly higher than through CZ-80 and CZ-0 at all skin depths (PEG 350, 1,000 and 5,000, 150-1,000 μm; P distribution, with highest PEG uptake achieved from microchannels surrounded by a thin CZ. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:582-591, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Proceedings of fifth international topical meeting on nuclear thermal hydraulics, operations and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The fifth international topical meeting on nuclear thermohydraulics, operations and safety was convened in Beijing in April 14-18, 1997. The topical meeting was sponsored by the Chinese Nuclear Society and cosponsored by American Nuclear Society, Atomic Energy Society of Japan, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Canada Nuclear Society, Korean Nuclear Society, Mexican Nuclear Society, Nuclear Society of Slovenia and Spanish Nuclear Society. There were 262 articles were published in the meeting. They are related nuclear power thermohydraulics, operations and safety

  6. Changes in mechanical, chemical, and thermal sensitivity of the cornea after topical application of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, M Carmen; Berenguer-Ruiz, Leticia; García-Gálvez, Alberto; Perea-Tortosa, David; Gallar, Juana; Belmonte, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    In addition to their well-known anti-inflammatory actions, some of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) appear to have an analgesic effect. In human subjects, the changes in threshold and intensity of sensations evoked by mechanical, chemical, and thermal stimulation of the cornea induced by topical administration of two commercial NSAIDs, diclofenac sodium (Voltaren; Novartis, Basel, Switzerland) and flurbiprofen (Ocuflur; Allergan, Irvine, CA), were studied. Corneal sensitivity was measured in 10 young, healthy subjects with a gas esthesiometer. Chemical (10%-70% CO2 in air), mechanical (0-264 mL/min), and thermal (corneal temperature changes between -4.5 degrees C and +3 degrees C around the normal value) stimuli were applied to the center of the cornea. The intensity and perceived magnitude of the psychophysical attributes of the evoked sensation were scored at the end of the pulse in a 10-cm, continuous visual analog scale (VAS). The threshold was expressed as the stimulus intensity that evoked a VAS score >0.5. Sensitivity was measured in both eyes of each subject on two separate days, one without treatment and the other 30 minutes after topical application of 0.03% flurbiprofen (seven subjects) or 0.1% diclofenac sodium (six subjects). Diclofenac attenuated significantly all the sensation parameters evoked by high-intensity mechanical, chemical, and thermal stimuli. Flurbiprofen produced a slight reduction of the sensations evoked by mechanical and chemical stimulation that became significant only for the irritation caused by chemical stimuli of maximum intensity (70% CO2). None of the drugs modified significantly the detection threshold of the different stimuli. Flurbiprofen had a very limited effect on sensations evoked by corneal stimulation, whereas diclofenac reduced the intensity of sensations evoked by stimuli of different modality, suggesting a mild local anesthetic effect of this drug on all types of corneal sensory fibers. Such

  7. Assessment indices for uniform and non-uniform thermal environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Different assessment indices for thermal environments were compared and selected for proper assessment of indoor thermal environments.30 subjects reported their overall thermal sensation,thermal comfort,and thermal acceptability in uniform and non-uniform conditions.The results show that these three assessment indices provide equivalent evaluations in uniform environments.However,overall thermal sensation differs from the other two indices and cannot be used as a proper index for the evaluation of non-uniform environments.The relationship between the percentage and the mean vote for each index is established.

  8. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies. Topical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, H.A.; Schmidt, L.J.; Erickson, T.A.; Sondreal, E.A.; Erjavec, J.; Steadman, E.N.; Fabrycky, W.J.; Wilson, J.S.; Musich, M.A.

    1996-07-01

    This report analyzes three systems engineering (SE) studies performed on integrated thermal treatment systems (ITTSs) and integrated nonthermal treatment systems (INTSs) for the remediation of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) stored throughout the US Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), the Waste Policy Institute (WPI), and Virginia Tech (VT). The three studies reviewed were as follows: Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 1--issued July 1994; Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 2--issued February 1996; and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System Study--drafted March 1996. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions taken in the studies might bias the resulting economic evaluations of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to produce sound SE applications

  9. Proliferation resistance assessment of thermal recycle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    This paper examines the major proliferation aspects of thermal recycle systems and the extent to which technical or institutional measures could increase the difficulty or detectability of misuse of the system by would-be proliferators. It does this by examining the various activities necessary to acquire weapons-usable material using a series of assessment factors; resources required, time required, detectability. It is concluded that resistance to proliferation could be improved substantially by collecting reprocessing, conversion and fuel fabrication plants under multi national control and instituting new measures to protect fresh MOX fuel. Resistance to theft at sub-national level could be improved by co-location of sensitive facilities high levels of physical protection at plants and during transportation and possibly by adding a radiation barrier to MOX prior to shipment

  10. Enhanced Mode Conversion of Thermally Emitted Electron Bernstein Waves (EBW)to Extraordinary Mode; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B. Jones; P.C. Efthimion; G. Taylor; T. Munsat; J.R. Wilson; J.C. Hosea; R. Kaita; R. Majeski; R. Maingi; S. Shiraiwa; J. Spaleta

    2002-01-01

    In the CDX-U spherical torus, approximately 100% conversion of thermal EBWs to X-mode has been observed by controlling the electron density scale length (Ln) in the conversion region with a local limiter outside the last closed flux surface. The radiation temperature profile agrees with Thomson scattering electron temperature data. Results are consistent with theoretical calculations of conversion efficiency using measured Ln. By reciprocity of the conversion process, prospects for efficient coupling in EBW heating and current drive scenarios are strongly supported

  11. Thermal and thermomechanical analyses of WIPP [Waste Isolation Pilot Plant] shaft seals: Topical report RSI-0324

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Sambeek, L.L.

    1987-10-01

    Thermal and thermomechanical analyses provided information on the behavior and stability of concrete seals emplaced in a circular shaft. The two types of concrete considered were an expansive salt-saturated concrete for seals located in rock salt or other rock and an expansive freshwater concrete for seals located in nonsalt rock. Thermal analyses determined the temperature rise in the concrete and surrounding rock as a result of the exothermic hydration of the cement in the concretes. The thermomechanical analyses considered time-dependent elastic modulus, thermoelastic expansion, time-dependent chemically induced expansion, and creep of the concrete; thermoelastic behavior of the nonsalt rocks; and thermoelastic and creep behavior of the rock salt. Supplementary analyses determined the effects of pressure loading on a face of the seal as might result from a static brine head or the swelling of a bentonite backfill; the influence of using a reduced elastic modulus for the rock salt; and the effect of eliminating the chemical expansivity of the concrete. Results of interest were the development of radial stress in the seal, the magnitudes of tensile and shear stresses induced in the seal and rock, and the effect of bonding or lack of bonding between the seal and the surrounding rock. The chemical expansivity of the concrete was shown to be important for the development of radial stresses in the seal and at the contact between the seal and the surrounding rock. The shear stresses induced in the seal by the swelling pressure of bentonite become a concern if the radial stresses are not developed. 20 refs., 58 figs., 3 tabs

  12. The comparison of available data on PWR assembly thermal behavior with analytical predictions. Topical report (final)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.; Todreas, N.

    1979-02-01

    The comparison of available data with analytical predictions has been illustrated in this report. Since few data on the cross flow are available, a study of parameters in the transverse momentum equation was performed to assess the sensitivity of results to their assumed values. It is confirmed that effects of these parameters on the overall results are not significant under PWR operating conditions. Data on subchannel properties of quality and mass flux were also assessed. From the data comparisons, it is evident that COBRA can successfully predict the PWR normal operating conditions but cannot predict the trend under bulk quality conditions

  13. Assessment of topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Y; Akita, S; Salamin, P A; Maier, R

    1990-10-01

    Four commercial gel preparations of topical anti-inflammatory agents have been assessed in six animal models commonly used to determine the biological activity of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents for systemic administration. Only UV-induced erythema of the skin, adjuvant induced arthritis and the measurement of vascular permeability proved suitable for differentiation of the potency of the four topical agents. Carrageenin-induced paw oedema, the cotton pellet test and the assessment of the pain threshold according to Randall and Selitto were of little value. The effects of the gel preparation of diclofenac (CAS 15307-86-5) diethylammonium (Voltaren Emulgel) were comparable to two preparations containing 1% and 5% active ingredient, respectively. Gel 4 showed low overall activity. The experiments demonstrated that some of the models used for the assessment of anti-inflammatory agent for systemic administration proved suitable for the testing of topical preparations and that percutaneous absorption was insufficient to elicit anti-inflammatory effect in the animals at sites remote from the site of application.

  14. An experimental study of the molten glass/water thermal interaction. Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakeri, V.H.; Catton, I.; Kastenberg, W.E.

    1977-06-01

    Molten glass interacts explosively with water under certain contact mode conditions. The contact mode found explosive is as follows: molten glass enters the water bath in the film boiling regime (as predicted by Henry's correlation) and soon after entry, the vapor film is perturbed sufficiently by an external pressure pulse. The ensuing reaction proceeds basically along the same lines as energetic tin/water interactions observed by several investigators. In the absence of this pressure pulse, the event is non-energetic. The reported findings are for a combination in which the hot material has a very low thermal diffusivity and the calculated interface temperature is significantly (175C) below its melting temperature. This is similar to the characteristics of the UO2/sodium combination. The observed explosive glass/water interactions show growth times of the order of a few milliseconds. The particulate size distribution from the present tests was coarser than the particulate size distribution from some in-pile and out-of-pile UO2/sodium interaction tests

  15. Bone assessment via thermal photoacoustic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ting; Kozloff, Kenneth M.; Hsiao, Yi-Sing; Tian, Chao; Perosky, Joseph; Du, Sidan; Yuan, Jie; Deng, Cheri X.; Wang, Xueding

    2015-03-01

    The feasibility of an innovative biomedical diagnostic technique, thermal photoacoustic (TPA) measurement, for nonionizing and non-invasive assessment of bone health is investigated. Unlike conventional photoacoustic PA methods which are mostly focused on the measurement of absolute signal intensity, TPA targets the change in PA signal intensity as a function of the sample temperature, i.e. the temperature dependent Grueneisen parameter which is closely relevant to the chemical and molecular properties in the sample. Based on the differentiation measurement, the results from TPA technique is less susceptible to the variations associated with sample and system, and could be quantified with improved accurately. Due to the fact that the PA signal intensity from organic components such as blood changes faster than that from non-organic mineral under the same modulation of temperature, TPA measurement is able to objectively evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) and its loss as a result of osteoporosis. In an experiment on well established rat models of bone loss and preservation, PA measurements of rat tibia bones were conducted over a temperature range from 370 C to 440 C. The slope of PA signal intensity verses temperature was quantified for each specimen. The comparison among three groups of specimens with different BMD shows that bones with lower BMD have higher slopes, demonstrating the potential of the proposed TPA technique in future clinical management of osteoporosis.

  16. Design of Chemical Literacy Assessment by Using Model of Educational Reconstruction (MER) on Solubility Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusmaita, E.; Nasra, Edi

    2018-04-01

    This research aims to produce instrument for measuring chemical literacy assessment in basic chemistry courses with solubility topic. The construction of this measuring instrument is adapted to the PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) problem’s characteristics and the Syllaby of Basic Chemistry in KKNI-IndonesianNational Qualification Framework. The PISA is a cross-country study conducted periodically to monitor the outcomes of learners' achievement in each participating country. So far, studies conducted by PISA include reading literacy, mathematic literacy and scientific literacy. Refered to the scientific competence of the PISA study on science literacy, an assessment designed to measure the chemical literacy of the chemistry department’s students in UNP. The research model used is MER (Model of Educational Reconstruction). The validity and reliability values of discourse questions is measured using the software ANATES. Based on the acquisition of these values is obtained a valid and reliable chemical literacy questions.There are seven question items limited response on the topic of solubility with valid category, the acquisition value of test reliability is 0,86, and has a difficulty index and distinguishing good

  17. Assessing patient satisfaction with cataract surgery under topical anesthesia supplemented by intracameral lidocaine combined with sedation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Bezerril Cipião Fernandes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Ocular akinesia, the use of anticoagulants, and patient collaboration are some of the factors that must be taken into consideration when choosing the appropriate anesthesia for phacoemulsification cataract surgery. The satisfaction of patients with the use of topical anesthesia and conscious sedation for this procedure has not been enough described in Brazil. Conscious sedation allows patient walk and answer a voice command. To assess the satisfaction, pain, and perioperative hemodynamic alterations of patients subjected to phacoemulsification under conscious sedation and topical anesthesia supplemented with intracameral lidocaine. METHODS: Prospective cohort non-controlled study that included patients treated by the same surgical team over a 70-day period. Sedation was performed with midazolam at a total dose of 3 mg and topical anesthesia with 0.5% proxymetacaine chlorhydrate and 2% lidocaine gel combined with 2% lidocaine by intracameral route. The intraoperative vital parameters, scores based on the Iowa Satisfaction with Anesthesia Scale (ISAS, and the pain visual analog scale (VAS were recorded at several time points after surgery. RESULTS: A total of 106 patients were enroled in study (73.6% female, the mean age was 65.9 years. The surgical procedures lasted 11.2 minutes on average. The hemodynamic parameters did not exhibit significant changes at any of the investigated time points. The average ISAS score was 2.67 immediately after surgery and 2.99 eight hours after the surgery; this increase was statistically significant (p<0.0001. More than two-thirds (68.9% of the participants (73 patients did not report any pain in the transoperative period, and 98.1% of patients denied the occurrence of pain after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Patients that received topical anesthesia supplemented by intracameral lidocaine combined with sedation for phacoemulsification cataract surgery reported adequate level of satisfaction with the anesthetic

  18. Relationship between Usefulness Assessments and Perceptions of Work Task Complexity and Search Topic Specificity: An Exploratory Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter; Wang, Peiling

    2012-01-01

    This research investigates the relations between the usefulness assessments of retrieved documents and the perceptions of task complexity and search topic specificity. Twenty-three academic researchers submitted 65 real task-based information search topics. These task topics were searched...... in an integrated document collection consisting of full text research articles in PDFs, abstracts, and bibliographic records (the iSearch Test Collection in Physics). The search results were provided to the researchers who, as task performers, made assessments of usefulness using a four-point sale (highly, fairly......, marginally, or not useful). In addition, they also assessed the perceived task complexity (highly, fairly, and routine/low) and the perceived specificity of the search topic (highly, fairly, and generic/low). It is found that highly specific topics associate with all degrees of task complexity, whereas...

  19. Thermal impact assessment of multi power plant operations on estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eraslan, A.H.; Kim, K.H.; Harris, J.L.

    1977-01-01

    The assessment of the thermal impact of multi power plant operations on large estuaries requires careful consideration of the problems associated with: re-entrainment, re-circulation, thermal interaction, delay in the attainment of thermal equilibrium state, and uncertainty in specifying open boundaries and open boundary conditions of the regions, which are critically important in the analysis of the thermal conditions in receiving water bodies with tidal dominated, periodically reversing flow conditions. The results of an extensive study in the Hudson River at Indian Point, 42 miles upstream of the ocean end at the Battery, concluded that the tidal-transient, multi-dimensional discrete-element (UTA) thermal transport models (ESTONE, FLOTWO, TMPTWO computer codes) and the near-field far-field zone-matching methodology can be employed with a high degree of reliability in the assessment of the thermal impact of multi power plant operations on tidal dominated estuaries

  20. Licensing topical report: application of probabilistic risk assessment in the selection of design basis accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houghton, W.J.

    1980-06-01

    A probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) approach is proposed to be used to scrutinize selection of accident sequences. A technique is described in this Licensing Topical Report to identify candidates for Design Basis Accidents (DBAs) utilizing the risk assessment results. As a part of this technique, it is proposed that events with frequencies below a specified limit would not be candidates. The use of the methodology described is supplementary to the traditional, deterministic approach and may result, in some cases, in the selection of multiple failure sequences as DBAs; it may also provide a basis for not considering some traditionally postulated events as being DBAs. A process is then described for selecting a list of DBAs based on the candidates from PRA as supplementary to knowledge and judgments from past licensing practice. These DBAs would be the events considered in Chapter 15 of Safety Analysis Reports of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors

  1. A PROCESS OF PRIORITIZING TOPICS FOR HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT IN KAZAKHSTAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosherbayeva, Lyazzat; Hailey, David; Kurakbaev, Kural; Tabarov, Adlet; Kumar, Ainur; Gutzskaya, Gulnara; Stepkina, Elena

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop criteria for the prioritization of topics for health technology assessment (HTA) in the healthcare system of Kazakhstan. Initial proposals for criteria were suggested through consultation with Ministry of Health (MoH) policy areas. These were refined through a workshop attended by HTA department staff, persons from medical universities and research institutes, and MoH policy makers. The workshop included discussion on methods used in international HTA practice. Opinions of participants on selection of criteria from those specified in a review of prioritization processes were used to define a list for inclusion in an instrument for routine use. A scoring system was established in later discussion. Selected criteria for HTA prioritization were burden of disease, availability of alternative technology, clinical effectiveness, economic efficiency, budget impact, and ethical, legal, and/or psychosocial aspects. For each criterion, a health technology under consideration is given a score from 3 (High) to 1 (Low). The total score determines whether the technology is of high to medium priority or of low priority. Determination of priorities for assessment, using the instrument, should be carried out by an expert group appointed by the MoH. The process was applied in 2014 to a selection of topics, and three health technologies were chosen for full assessments. Criteria for prioritization have evolved with development of the HTA program in Kazakhstan. A method for HTA prioritization has been developed that is easy to apply, requires comparatively few resources, and is compatible with processes required by the MoH.

  2. Thermogravimetric assessment of thermal degradation in asphaltenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barneto, Agustín García, E-mail: agustin.garcia@diq.uhu.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, Physical Chemistry and Organic Chemistry, University of Huelva, Huelva (Spain); Carmona, José Ariza [Department of Chemical Engineering, Physical Chemistry and Organic Chemistry, University of Huelva, Huelva (Spain); Garrido, María José Franco [CEPSA, RDI Centre, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-03-20

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Asphaltenes content of visbreaking streams in oil refinery can be measured by using TGA. • Deconvoluting TGA curves allows the thermal-based composition of asphaltenes to be elucidated. • Asphaltenes cracking involves acceleratory stages compatible with autocatalytic kinetic. • Activation energy during asphaltenes pyrolysis increased with increasing temperature. • Activation energy remained almost constant at 200–225 kJ/mol during oxidative cracking. - Abstract: Monitoring asphaltenes is very important with a view to optimizing visbreaking units in oil refineries. Current analyses based on selective dissolution in different solvents are slow, so new, more expeditious methods for measuring asphaltenes are required to facilitate fuel-oil production. In this work, we studied the thermal degradation of asphaltenes as the potential basis for a thermogravimetric method for their monitoring in visbreaking streams. The thermal degradation of asphaltenes occurs largely from 400 to 500 °C; the process is quite smooth in an inert environment but involves several fast mass loss events in the air. Kinetic parameters for characterizing the process were determined by using two model-free methods and the modified Prout–Tompkins kinetic equation to examine asphaltene thermolysis. Both types of methods showed the activation energy to increase during pyrolysis but to remain almost constant during cracking in the presence of oxygen or even diminish during char oxidation. Deconvoluting the thermogravimetric profiles revealed that asphaltene thermolysis in the air cannot be accurately described in terms of an nth order kinetic model because it involves some acceleratory phases. Also, thermogravimetric analyses of visbreaking streams revealed that char production in them is proportional to their asphaltene content. This relationship enables the thermogravimetric measurement of asphaltenes.

  3. Thermogravimetric assessment of thermal degradation in asphaltenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barneto, Agustín García; Carmona, José Ariza; Garrido, María José Franco

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Asphaltenes content of visbreaking streams in oil refinery can be measured by using TGA. • Deconvoluting TGA curves allows the thermal-based composition of asphaltenes to be elucidated. • Asphaltenes cracking involves acceleratory stages compatible with autocatalytic kinetic. • Activation energy during asphaltenes pyrolysis increased with increasing temperature. • Activation energy remained almost constant at 200–225 kJ/mol during oxidative cracking. - Abstract: Monitoring asphaltenes is very important with a view to optimizing visbreaking units in oil refineries. Current analyses based on selective dissolution in different solvents are slow, so new, more expeditious methods for measuring asphaltenes are required to facilitate fuel-oil production. In this work, we studied the thermal degradation of asphaltenes as the potential basis for a thermogravimetric method for their monitoring in visbreaking streams. The thermal degradation of asphaltenes occurs largely from 400 to 500 °C; the process is quite smooth in an inert environment but involves several fast mass loss events in the air. Kinetic parameters for characterizing the process were determined by using two model-free methods and the modified Prout–Tompkins kinetic equation to examine asphaltene thermolysis. Both types of methods showed the activation energy to increase during pyrolysis but to remain almost constant during cracking in the presence of oxygen or even diminish during char oxidation. Deconvoluting the thermogravimetric profiles revealed that asphaltene thermolysis in the air cannot be accurately described in terms of an nth order kinetic model because it involves some acceleratory phases. Also, thermogravimetric analyses of visbreaking streams revealed that char production in them is proportional to their asphaltene content. This relationship enables the thermogravimetric measurement of asphaltenes.

  4. Assessment of topical microbicides to prevent HIV-1 transmission: concepts, testing, lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, David R; Kiser, Patrick F

    2013-09-01

    The development of topically applied products capable of preventing vaginal and rectal transmission of HIV-1 has been on-going for nearly 20 years. Despite this, only one clinical trial has demonstrated protection against sexual transmission of HIV-1 in women. This review covers the development of microbicides, also referred to as topical pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), through three stages. The first stage focused on nonspecific agents, including surfactants such as nonoxynol-9 (N-9), to prevent HIV-1 transmission. Unfortunately, N-9 enhanced susceptibility to sexual transmission of HIV-1 when evaluated for efficacy. Soon thereafter, other nonspecific agents (polyanions) were quickly moved into large efficacy trials. Due to a lack of coordination among investigators and funders, a large investment was made in a class of compounds shown ultimately to be ineffective, although poor adherence may have contributed to these findings. The second stage involved the assessment of the antiretroviral drug tenofovir, formulated as a vaginal gel, which was found to be modestly effective in a Phase IIb trial (CAPRISA-004) when dosed in a coitally-dependent manner. In another Phase IIb trial, VOICE (MTN-003), tenofovir gel was found to be ineffective when dosed once-daily in a coitally-independent manner. Based on pharmacokinetic data, it was concluded the participants were poorly adherent to this dosing regimen, leading to a lack of efficacy. Tenofovir gel is currently in a Phase III safety and efficacy trial in South Africa (FACTS-001), using the coitally-dependent dosing regimen employed in CAPRISA-004. We are now in the third stage of microbicide research. The antiretroviral drug dapivirine is currently in two Phase III safety and efficacy studies formulated as a vaginal ring. It is hoped that the once-monthly dosing regimen will lead to higher adherence than found in the VOICE study. It is now clear that product adherence could be the greatest challenge to demonstrating

  5. Journal “Topics in Early Childhood Special Education”: assessment of the periodical and articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Celso Pereira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Journals have the purpose of dissemination and communication of scientific knowledge. As a vehicle to the dissemination of scientific productions, it is necessary the periodical assessment to evaluate the quality of research: accuracy, reliability and seriousness. The objective of this study is to assess the journal Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, considering for the analysis the whole journal and the formal and the contents aspects of all articles. The analysis revealed that the periodical satisfactorily fulfills the normalization criterion, the authors’ instruction criterion and the articles assessment criterion. However, it was identified the need for major accuracy in the bibliographic legend that should appear on all pages of articles. Regarding the analysis of the articles it was observed the lack of keywords and a wide variety of information in the abstracts, which they were sometimes not related to the key aspects of the research. All authors and institutions are from United States of America and the type of study most published it was the research report. The participants’ characterization indicated that the journal broachs different types of special needs, but there is more studies about autism. The study data confirm the journal purpose that is providing relevant and current information on all aspects of early education for children with special needs, including their families. It was pointed the need for more articles from other countries beyond the North American continent, including the participation of researcher from other countries. Additionally, the model used for the journal assessment showed to be effective in providing data quality, reliability and accuracy of the whole periodical and the studies that it was published in the journal.

  6. Development of the evaluation instrument use CIPP on the implementation of project assessment topic optik

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfaroh, Jati Aurum; Rosana, Dadan; Supahar

    2017-08-01

    This research aims to develop an evaluation instrument models CIPP valid and reliable as well as determine the feasibility and practicality of an evaluation instrument models CIPP. An evaluation instrument models CIPP to evaluate the implementation of the project assessment topic optik to measure problem-solving skills of junior high school class VIII in the Yogyakarta region. This research is a model of development that uses 4-D. Subject of product trials are students in class VIII SMP N 1 Galur and SMP N 1 Sleman. Data collection techniques in this research using non-test techniques include interviews, questionnaires and observations. Validity in this research was analyzed using V'Aikens. Reliability analyzed using ICC. This research uses 7 raters are derived from two lecturers expert (expert judgment), two practitioners (science teacher) and three colleagues. The results of this research is the evaluation's instrument model of CIPP is used to evaluate the implementation of the implementation of the project assessment instruments. The validity result of evaluation instrument have V'Aikens values between 0.86 to 1, which means a valid and 0.836 reliability values into categories so well that it has been worth used as an evaluation instrument.

  7. An analysis of four ways of assessing student beliefs about sts topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikenhead, Glen S.

    The study investigated the degree of ambiguity harbored by four different response modes used to monitor student beliefs about science-technology-society topics: Likert-type, written paragraph, semistrue tured interview, and empirically developed multiple choice. The study also explored the sources of those beliefs. Grade-12 students in a Canadian urban setting responded, in each of the four modes, to statements from Views on Science-Technology-Society. It was discovered that TV had far more influence on what students believed about science and its social, technological context than did numerous science courses. The challenge to science educators is to use the media effectively in combating naive views about science. Regarding ambiguity in student assessment, the Likert-type responses were the most inaccurate, offering only a guess at student beliefs. Such guesswork calls into question the use of Likert-type standardized tests that claim to assess student views about science. Student paragraph responses contained significant ambiguities in about 50% of the cases. The empirically developed multiple choices, however, reduced the ambiguity to the 20% level. Predictably, the semistructured interview was the least ambiguous of all four response modes, but it required the most time to administer. These findings encourage researchers to develop instruments grounded in the empirical data of student viewpoints, rather than relying solely on instruments structured by the philosophical stances of science educators.

  8. An Assessment of In-Service Training Needs of Elementary Administrators. A Topic of Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, James Richard

    The problem addressed in this topic of study was that of identifying the inservice training needs of 26 administrators in the Glendale (Arizona) Elementary District and ranking those needs in order of importance. It was assumed that by ranking topic areas according to the number and percentage of responses a priority list of inservice training…

  9. Mathematical Safety Assessment Approaches for Thermal Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong-Xiao Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available How to use system analysis methods to identify the hazards in the industrialized process, working environment, and production management for complex industrial processes, such as thermal power plants, is one of the challenges in the systems engineering. A mathematical system safety assessment model is proposed for thermal power plants in this paper by integrating fuzzy analytical hierarchy process, set pair analysis, and system functionality analysis. In the basis of those, the key factors influencing the thermal power plant safety are analyzed. The influence factors are determined based on fuzzy analytical hierarchy process. The connection degree among the factors is obtained by set pair analysis. The system safety preponderant function is constructed through system functionality analysis for inherence properties and nonlinear influence. The decision analysis system is developed by using active server page technology, web resource integration, and cross-platform capabilities for applications to the industrialized process. The availability of proposed safety assessment approach is verified by using an actual thermal power plant, which has improved the enforceability and predictability in enterprise safety assessment.

  10. Assessment of the effectiveness of topical propranolol 4% gel for infantile hemangiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashiah, Jacob; Kutz, Ana; Rabia, Smail Hadj; Ilan, Efrat Bar; Goldberg, Ilan; Sprecher, Eli; Harel, Avikam

    2017-02-01

    Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common vascular tumors in children. Because of their benign character and natural involution, the vast majority of IHs do not require any treatment. In the past few years, topical beta blockers have been reported to be an effective treatment of superficial IHs. We sought to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety profile of topical propranolol 4% gel for the treatment of IHs. A retrospective study of all cases of IHs treated with topical propranolol 4% gel between 2013 and 2015 was performed. All patients were evaluated in a pediatric dermatology unit of a tertiary medical center. Epidemiologic, clinical, and treatment data, including effectiveness score and safety, were reviewed. The study included 63 patients with a total of 75 IHs. Of the total number of IHs, 43 (57.3%) showed a good response to treatment, 19 (25.3%) a partial response, and 13 (17.33%) poor or no response, thus 62 (82.6%) had good or partial response to treatment. Age at treatment initiation, treatment time, thickness of the superficial component, and size of the lesions were shown to predict response to therapy. Out of the entire examined group, only two patients reported minor local side effects manifested by irritation, redness, and scaling of the treated area. No systemic adverse effects were reported. This is an uncontrolled retrospective study. Propranolol 4% gel is a safe and efficient topical therapy for IH. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  11. Topical Knowledge in L2 Speaking Assessment: Comparing Independent and Integrated Speaking Test Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Heng-Tsung Danny; Hung, Shao-Ting Alan; Plakans, Lia

    2018-01-01

    Integrated speaking test tasks (integrated tasks) provide reading and/or listening input to serve as the basis for test-takers to formulate their oral responses. This study examined the influence of topical knowledge on integrated speaking test performance and compared independent speaking test performance and integrated speaking test performance…

  12. Quantitative assessment of pain-related thermal dysfunction through clinical digital infrared thermal imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frize Monique

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The skin temperature distribution of a healthy human body exhibits a contralateral symmetry. Some nociceptive and most neuropathic pain pathologies are associated with an alteration of the thermal distribution of the human body. Since the dissipation of heat through the skin occurs for the most part in the form of infrared radiation, infrared thermography is the method of choice to study the physiology of thermoregulation and the thermal dysfunction associated with pain. Assessing thermograms is a complex and subjective task that can be greatly facilitated by computerised techniques. Methods This paper presents techniques for automated computerised assessment of thermal images of pain, in order to facilitate the physician's decision making. First, the thermal images are pre-processed to reduce the noise introduced during the initial acquisition and to extract the irrelevant background. Then, potential regions of interest are identified using fixed dermatomal subdivisions of the body, isothermal analysis and segmentation techniques. Finally, we assess the degree of asymmetry between contralateral regions of interest using statistical computations and distance measures between comparable regions. Results The wavelet domain-based Poisson noise removal techniques compared favourably against Wiener and other wavelet-based denoising methods, when qualitative criteria were used. It was shown to improve slightly the subsequent analysis. The automated background removal technique based on thresholding and morphological operations was successful for both noisy and denoised images with a correct removal rate of 85% of the images in the database. The automation of the regions of interest (ROIs delimitation process was achieved successfully for images with a good contralateral symmetry. Isothermal division complemented well the fixed ROIs division based on dermatomes, giving a more accurate map of potentially abnormal regions. The measure

  13. Testing of Method for Assessing of Room Thermal Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charvátová Hana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the interim results of our research on the developing methodological procedure which could be used for assessment of a thermal stability of buildings with regards to its thermal accumulative parameters. The principle of testing is based on a combination of computer simulation of cooled room model developed in COMSOL Multiphysics software and on theoretical calculations with respect to compliance with valid European and Czech technical standards used in building industry and architecture under conditions obtained by real measurement for the room to be tested. The presented example shows the effect of the heataccumulation properties of the outside wall insulation materials on the course of the cooling room for winter conditions.

  14. Outage Risk Assessment and Management (ORAM) thermal-hydraulics toolkit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denny, V.E.; Wassel, A.T.; Issacci, F.; Pal Kalra, S.

    2004-01-01

    A PC-based thermal-hydraulic toolkit for use in support of outage optimization, management and risk assessment has been developed. This mechanistic toolkit incorporates simple models of key thermal-hydraulic processes which occur during an outage, such as recovery from or mitigation of outage upsets; this includes heat-up of water pools following loss of shutdown cooling, inadvertent drain down of the RCS, boiloff of coolant inventory, heatup of the uncovered core, and reflux cooling. This paper provides a list of key toolkit elements, briefly describes the technical basis and presents illustrative results for RCS transient behavior during reflux cooling, peak clad temperatures for an uncovered core and RCS response to loss of shutdown cooling. (author)

  15. Diacerein niosomal gel for topical delivery: development, in vitro and in vivo assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Say, Khalid M; Abd-Allah, Fathy I; Lila, Ahmed E; Hassan, Abd El-Saboor A; Kassem, Alaa Eldin A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to load diacerein (DCR) in niosomes by applying response surface methodology and incorporate these niosomes in gel base for topical delivery. Box-Behnken design was used to investigate the effect of charge-inducing agent (X1), surfactant HLB (X2) and sonication time (X3) on the vesicle size (Y1), entrapment efficiency (Y2) and cumulative drug released (Y3). DCR niosomal formulations were prepared by thin film hydration method. The optimized formula was incorporated in different gel bases. DCR niosomal gels were evaluated for homogeneity, rheological behavior; in vitro release and pharmacodynamic activity by carrageenan-induced hind paw edema method in the rat compared with DCR commercial gel. The results revealed that the mean vesicle sizes of the prepared niosomes ranged from 7.33 to 23.72 µm and the entrapment efficiency ranged from 9.52% to 58.43% with controlled release pattern over 8 h. DCR niosomal gels exhibited pseudoplastic flow with thixotropic behavior. The pharmacodynamic activity of DCR niosomal gel in 3% HPMC showed significant, 37.66%, maximum inhibition of edema size in comparison with 20.83% for the commercial gel (p < 0.05). These results recommended the incorporation of DCR niosomes in 3% HPMC for topical application as a potent anti-inflammatory drug for the treatment of osteoarthritis.

  16. Does Pre-Cooling With Whole-Body Immersion Affect Thermal Sensation or Perceived Exertion?: A Critically-Appraised Topic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlfert, Timothy M; Miller, Kevin C

    2018-02-21

    Clinical Scenario: Exertional heat stroke (EHS) is a potentially deadly heat illness and poses a significant health risk to athletes; EHS survival rates are near 100% if properly recognized and treated. 1 Whole body cold water immersion (CWI) is the most effective method of lowering body core temperature. 2 Precooling (PC) with CWI before exercise may prevent severe hyperthermia and/or EHS by increasing the body's overall heat-storage capacity. 3 However, PC may also alter athletes' perception of how hot they feel or how hard they are exercising. Consequently, they may be unable to accurately perceive their body core temperature or how hard they are working which may predispose them to severe hyperthermia or EHS. Does PC with whole-body CWI affect thermal sensation (TS) or rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during exercise in the heat? In four studies, 4-7 RPE during exercise ranged from 12 ± 2 to 20 ± 3 with no clinically meaningful differences between PC and control trials. Thermal sensation scores ranged from 2 ± 1 to 8 ± 0.5 in control trials and from 2 ± 1 to 7.5 ± 0.5 during PC trials. Clinical Bottom Line: Precooling did not cause clinically-meaningful differences in RPE or TS during exercise. It is unlikely PC would predispose athletes to EHS by altering perceptions of exercise intensity or body core temperature. Strength of Recommendation: None of the reviewed studies 4-7 (all level 2 studies with PEDro scores ≥5) suggest PC with CWI influences RPE or TS in exercising males.

  17. Workshop on technical assessment of industrial thermal insulation materials: summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, S.

    1976-07-01

    Over 80 participants representing 50 organizations met to discuss the report, Industrial Thermal Insulation--An Assessment, ORNL/TM-5283. Presentations on the performance of available materials, economic considerations, and measurement problems were followed by discussion. A final wrap-up session concluded that the report was valuable in pointing the direction for needed effort in the area, confirmed the indicated actions needed to further industrial application of insulation, and called for future meetings to continue the dialogue between the various facets of the industry

  18. Environmental Impacts of Solar Thermal Systems with Life Cycle Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    De Laborderie , Alexis; Puech , Clément; Adra , Nadine; Blanc , Isabelle; Beloin-Saint-Pierre , Didier; Padey , Pierryves; Payet , Jérôme; Sie , Marion; Jacquin , Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Available on: http://www.ep.liu.se/ecp/057/vol14/002/ecp57vol14_002.pdf; International audience; Solar thermal systems are an ecological way of providing domestic hot water. They are experiencing a rapid growth since the beginning of the last decade. This study characterizes the environmental performances of such installations with a life-cycle approach. The methodology is based on the application of the international standards of Life Cycle Assessment. Two types of systems are presented. Fir...

  19. Damage assessment in multilayered MEMS structures under thermal fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maligno, A. R.; Whalley, D. C.; Silberschmidt, V. V.

    2011-07-01

    This paper reports on the application of a Physics of Failure (PoF) methodology to assessing the reliability of a micro electro mechanical system (MEMS). Numerical simulations, based on the finite element method (FEM) using a sub-domain approach was used to examine the damage onset due to temperature variations (e.g. yielding of metals which may lead to thermal fatigue). In this work remeshing techniques were employed in order to develop a damage tolerance approach based on the assumption that initial flaws exist in the multi-layered.

  20. Thermal hazard assessment of TMCH mixed with inorganic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeh Chi-Tang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available 1,1-Bis(tert-butylperoxy-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane (TMCH is a typical peroxide with two peroxy groups that may runaway and/or explode due to mixing with inorganic acids, such as HCl, HNO3, H2SO4, or H3PO4. In this study, reactivities of TMCH mixed with the above inorganic acids were assessed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Furthermore, data obtained by DSC, such as exothermic onset temperature (T0, maximum temperature (Tmax, and heat of decomposition (ΔHd could be employed to acquire thermal safety parameters. Moreover, thermal activity monitor III (TAM III was employed to investigate the thermal hazards while storing or transporting TMCH and TMCH mixed with four types of commonly used inorganic acids, here as HCl, HNO3, H2SO4, or H3PO4 under isothermal conditions. Mixing TMCH with those inorganic acids resulted in higherΔHd except H3PO4, and mixing TMCH with HCl clearly decreased T0. Therefore, the phenomena of mixing those incompatible materials with TMCH can be concluded as the worst cases in terms of contamination hazards during storage and transportation of TMCH.

  1. Assessment of RANS CFD modelling for pressurised thermal shock analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sander M Willemsen; Ed MJ Komen; Sander Willemsen

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The most severe Pressurised Thermal Shock (PTS) scenario is a cold water Emergency Core Coolant (ECC) injection into the cold leg during a LOCA. The injected ECC water mixes with the hot fluid present in the cold leg and flows towards the downcomer where further mixing takes place. When the cold mixture comes into contact with the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) wall, it may lead to large temperature gradients and consequently to high stresses in the RPV wall. Knowledge of these thermal loads is important for RPV remnant life assessments. The existing thermal-hydraulic system codes currently applied for this purpose are based on one-dimensional approximations and can, therefore, not predict the complex three-dimensional flows occurring during ECC injection. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) can be applied to predict these phenomena, with the ultimate benefit of improved remnant RPV life assessment. The present paper presents an assessment of various Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) CFD approaches for modeling the complex mixing phenomena occurring during ECC injection. This assessment has been performed by comparing the numerical results obtained using advanced turbulence models available in the CFX 5.6 CFD code in combination with a hybrid meshing strategy with experimental results of the Upper Plenum Test Facility (UPTF). The UPTF was a full-scale 'simulation' of the primary system of the four loop 1300 MWe Siemens/KWU Pressurised Water Reactor at Grafenrheinfeld. The test vessel upper plenum internals, downcomer and primary coolant piping were replicas of the reference plant, while other components, such as core, coolant pump and steam generators were replaced by simulators. From the extensive test programme, a single-phase fluid-fluid mixing experiment in the cold leg and downcomer was selected. Prediction of the mixing and stratification is assessed by comparison with the measured temperature profiles at several locations

  2. Technology assessment of thermal treatment technologies using ORWARE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assefa, G.; Eriksson, O.; Frostell, B.

    2005-01-01

    A technology assessment of thermal treatment technologies for wastes was performed in the form of scenarios of chains of technologies. The Swedish assessment tool, ORWARE, was used for the assessment. The scenarios of chains of thermal technologies assessed were gasification with catalytic combustion, gasification with flame combustion, incineration and landfilling. The landfilling scenario was used as a reference for comparison. The technologies were assessed from ecological and economic points of view. The results are presented in terms of global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, consumption of primary energy carriers and welfare costs. From the simulations, gasification followed by catalytic combustion with energy recovery in a combined cycle appeared to be the most competitive technology from an ecological point of view. On the other hand, this alternative was more expensive than incineration. A sensitivity analysis was done regarding electricity prices to show which technology wins at what value of the unit price of electricity (SEK/kW h). Within this study, it was possible to make a comparison both between a combined cycle and a Rankine cycle (a system pair) and at the same time between flame combustion and catalytic combustion (a technology pair). To use gasification just as a treatment technology is not more appealing than incineration, but the possibility of combining gasification with a combined cycle is attractive in terms of electricity production. This research was done in connection with an empirical R and D work on both gasification of waste and catalytic combustion of the gasified waste at the Division of Chemical Technology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden

  3. Status and topics of thermal-hydraulic analysis for next-generation LWRs with passive safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aritomi, Masanori; Ohnuki, Akira; Arai, Kenji; Kikuta, Michitaka; Yonomoto, Taisuke; Araya, Fumimasa; Akimoto, Hajime

    1999-01-01

    For increasing of electric power demand and reducing of carbon dioxide exhaust in the 21st century, studies of the next-generation light water reactor (LWR) with passive safety systems are developing in the world: AP-600 (by Westing House Co.); SBWR (by General Electric Co.); SWR1000 (by Siemens Co.); NP21 (by Mitsubishi Heavy Industry Co., et al.); JPSR (by JAERI). The passive equipment using natural circulation and natural convection are installed in the passive safety system, instead of active safety equipment, such as pumps, etc. It remains still as a important issue, however, to verify the reliability on the functions of the passive equipment, since that the driving forces of the passive equipment are small at comparison with the active safety equipment. The various subjects of thermal-hydraulic analysis for the next-generation light water reactors, such as temperature stratification in the passive safety systems, vapor condensation in the mixture of non-condensable gases and the interactions of the passive safety system with the primary cooling system, are illustrated and discussed in the paper. (M. Suetake)

  4. Retention Assessment of Core Operations Management Topics for Business Administration Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Nicole B.; Hollister, Kimberly Killmer

    2009-01-01

    To meet the new AACSB International standards regarding retention assessment and adequately determine "if and what students are learning," this research presents a framework within which expected learning outcomes and specific learning are assessed. This paper presents the framework and describes how the process can be implemented with…

  5. The Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI compared to ergonomics standards for assessing the thermal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröde, Peter; Błazejczyk, Krzysztof; Fiala, Dusan; Havenith, George; Holmér, Ingvar; Jendritzky, Gerd; Kuklane, Kalev; Kampmann, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    The growing need for valid assessment procedures of the outdoor thermal environment in the fields of public weather services, public health systems, urban planning, tourism & recreation and climate impact research raised the idea to develop the Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI based on the most recent scientific progress both in thermo-physiology and in heat exchange theory. Following extensive validation of accessible models of human thermoregulation, the advanced multi-node 'Fiala' model was selected to form the basis of UTCI. This model was coupled with an adaptive clothing model which considers clothing habits by the general urban population and behavioral changes in clothing insulation related to actual environmental temperature. UTCI was developed conceptually as an equivalent temperature. Thus, for any combination of air temperature, wind, radiation, and humidity, UTCI is defined as the air temperature in the reference condition which would elicit the same dynamic response of the physiological model. This review analyses the sensitivity of UTCI to humidity and radiation in the heat and to wind in the cold and compares the results with observational studies and internationally standardized assessment procedures. The capabilities, restrictions and potential future extensions of UTCI are discussed.

  6. Simplified methods to assess thermal fatigue due to turbulent mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannink, M.H.C.; Timperi, A.

    2011-01-01

    Thermal fatigue is a safety relevant damage mechanism in pipework of nuclear power plants. A well-known simplified method for the assessment of thermal fatigue due to turbulent mixing is the so-called sinusoidal method. Temperature fluctuations in the fluid are described by a sinusoidally varying signal at the inner wall of the pipe. Because of limited information on the thermal loading conditions, this approach generally leads to overconservative results. In this paper, a new assessment method is presented, which has the potential of reducing the overconservatism of existing procedures. Artificial fluid temperature signals are generated by superposition of harmonic components with different amplitudes and frequencies. The amplitude-frequency spectrum of the components is modelled by a formula obtained from turbulence theory, whereas the phase differences are assumed to be randomly distributed. Lifetime predictions generated with the new simplified method are compared with lifetime predictions based on real fluid temperature signals, measured in an experimental setup of a mixing tee. Also, preliminary steady-state Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations of the total power of the fluctuations are presented. The total power is needed as an input parameter for the spectrum formula in a real-life application. Solution of the transport equation for the total power was included in a CFD code and comparisons with experiments were made. The newly developed simplified method for generating the temperature signal is shown to be adequate for the investigated geometry and flow conditions, and demonstrates possibilities of reducing the conservatism of the sinusoidal method. CFD calculations of the total power show promising results, but further work is needed to develop the approach. (author)

  7. Special topics reports for the reference tandem mirror fusion breeder: beryllium lifetime assessment. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.G.; Beeston, J.M.; Harris, B.L.; Wong, C.P.C.

    1984-10-01

    The lifetime of beryllium pebbles in the Reference Tandem Mirror Fusion Breeder blanket is estimated on the basis of the maximum stress generated in the pebbles. The forces due to stacking height, lithium flow, and the internal stresses due to thermal expansion and differential swelling are considered. The total stresses are calculated for three positions in the blanket, at a first wall neutron wall loading of 1.3 MW/m 2 . These positions are: (a) near the first fuel zone wall, (b) near the center, and (c) near the back wall. The average lifetime of the pebbles is estimated to be 6.5 years. The specific estimated lifetimes are 2.4 years, 5.4 years, and 15 years for the first fuel zone wall, center and near the back wall, respectively

  8. Special topics reports for the reference tandem mirror fusion breeder. Volume 2. Reactor safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maya, I.; Hoot, C.G.; Wong, C.P.C.; Schultz, K.R.; Garner, J.K.; Bradbury, S.J.; Steele, W.G.; Berwald, D.H.

    1984-09-01

    The safety features of the reference fission suppressed fusion breeder reactor are presented. These include redundancy and overcapacity in primary coolant system components to minimize failure probability, an improved valve location logic to provide for failed component isolation, and double-walled coolant piping and steel guard vessel protection to further limit the extent of any leak. In addition to the primary coolant and decay heat removal system, reactor safety systems also include an independent shield cooling system, the module safety/fuel transfer coolant system, an auxiliary first wall cooling system, a psssive dump tank cooling system based on the use of heat pipes, and several lithium fire suppression systems. Safety system specifications are justified based on the results of thermal analysis, event tree construction, consequence calculations, and risk analysis. The result is a reactor design concept with an acceptably low probability of a major radioactivity release. Dose consequences of maximum credible accidents appear to be below 10CFR100 regulatory limits

  9. Topical use of chitosan in ophthalmology: tolerance assessment and evaluation of precorneal retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felt, O; Furrer, P; Mayer, J M; Plazonnet, B; Buri, P; Gurny, R

    1999-04-15

    The mucoadhesive polysaccharide chitosan was evaluated as a potential component in ophthalmic gels for enabling increased precorneal drug residence times. This cationic vehicle was expected to slow down drug elimination by the lacrymal flow both by increasing solution viscosity and by interacting with the negative charges of the mucus. The molecular weight (Mw) and concentration of polysaccharide were studied in four types of chitosan as parameters that might influence ocular tolerability and precorneal residence time of formulations containing tobramycin as therapeutic agent. An ocular irritation test, using confocal laser scanning ophthalmoscopy (CLSO) combined with corneal fluorescein staining, clearly demonstrated the excellent tolerance of chitosan after topical administration onto the corneal surface. Gamma scintigraphic data showed that the clearance of the formulations labelled with 99mTc-DTPA was significantly delayed in the presence of chitosan with respect to the commercial collyrium (Tobrex(R)), regardless of the concentration and of the molecular weight of chitosan in solution. At least a 3-fold increase of the corneal residence time was achieved in the presence of chitosan when compared to Tobrex(R). Copyright.

  10. Topical session proceedings of the 5. IGSC meeting on: observations regarding the safety case in recent safety assessment studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, Alan J.; Voinis, Sylvie; Van Luik, Abraham E.

    2004-01-01

    Within the NEA, the IGSC (Integration Group for the Safety Case) has, as an essential role, to develop common views on such key aspects of the safety case. Therefore, since the inauguration of the IGSC in 2000, four meetings were organised with topical sessions to explore various of these key aspects. This is a report on the fifth such topical session, held as part of the 5. plenary meeting of the IGSC. The session was attended by 36 participants, representing waste management organisations and regulatory authorities from 16 NEA member countries, the IAEA and the European Commission. The purpose of this topical session was to provide support to the finalising of the IGSC safety case brochure by getting a description of the safety case content of the IAEA Draft Safety Requirements document and by getting an overview of progress that could be observed from national organisations on developing their cases for system safety and/or developing the required methodologies. The objective was that the IGSC safety case brochure should be supportive of the IAEA/NEA document, and be reflective of the experience of the IGSC member programmes and organisations. The topical session was mainly aimed at exchanging information on: - The safety case related content of the proposed IAEA/NEA document (currently titled: 'IAEA Safety Standards Series, Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste, Draft Safety Requirements (DS-154)'). - National programmes where safety assessments have recently been completed, e.g. ONDRAF/NIRAS, Nagra and Andra. - Feedback from international peer reviews, e.g. the Andra Dossier 2001 Argile, the Belgian SAFIR 2 report, the SR 97 report and the US-DOE Yucca Mountain TSPA. - The evolution of some national assessment methods and approaches e.g. SKB and Nagra. - The content of the draft IGSC safety case brochure entitled: 'The Nature and Purpose of the Post-closure Safety Case in Geological Disposal'. This document presents the various

  11. Social assessment and location of nuclear and thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Kazuyasu; Nishio, Mitsuo.

    1979-01-01

    Most of the locations of nuclear and thermal power plants in Japan are depopulated villages with remote rural character, but for the development of such districts, the policy is not yet clearly established, and the appropriate measures are not taken. The living regions of residents and the production regions of enterprises are more and more estranged. Social assessment is the scientific method to perceive the future change due to the installation of power stations. The features particular to the assessment of natural environment and social environment related to the location of power stations are considered, and the technical problems involved in the method of assessment of natural environment are solved, and the actual method of assessment of social environment is developed. Then, the possibility of establishing this method and the problems in its application are investigated. The plan of developing the surroundings of power generation facilities is criticized, and the coordination of the location plan of power companies and the regional projects of municipalities is discussed. Finally, the mechanism of consensus formation concerning the location of power stations is considered, dividing into regional consensus formation and administrative consensus formation, and the possibility of instituting social assessment is examined. (Kako, I.)

  12. Retrospective Analysis of Dose Titration and Serum Testosterone Level Assessments in Patients Treated With Topical Testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muram, David; Kaltenboeck, Anna; Boytsov, Natalie; Hayes-Larson, Eleanor; Ivanova, Jasmina; Birnbaum, Howard G; Swindle, Ralph

    2015-11-01

    Patterns of care following topical testosterone agent (TTA) initiation are poorly understood. This study aimed to characterize care following TTA initiation and compare results between patients with and without a serum testosterone (T) assay within 30 days before and including TTA initiation. Adult men (N=4,146) initiating TTAs from January 1, 2011, to March 31, 2012, were identified from a commercially insured database. Patients were included if they initiated at recommended starting dose (RSD) and had ≥12 and ≥6 months of continuous eligibility preinitiation (baseline) and postinitiation (study period), respectively. Patients were stratified by preinitiation T assay. Maintenance dose attainment month was determined using unadjusted generalized estimating equations regression to compare dose relative to RSD month by month. Outcomes included maintenance dose attainment month, time to stopping of index TTA refills or a claim for nonindex testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), and proportion of patients with study period T assay or diagnosis of hypogonadism (HG) or another low testosterone condition, and were compared using chi-square and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Maintenance dose was attained in Month 4 postinitiation, at 115.2% of RSD. Approximately 46% of patients had a preinitiation T assay; these men were more likely to receive a diagnosis of HG or another low testosterone condition, to have a follow-up T assay, to continue treatment by filling a nonindex TRT, and less likely to stop refilling treatment with their index TTA. Differences in care following TTA initiation suggest that preinitiation T assays (i.e., guideline-based care) may be helpful in ensuring treatment benefits. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. 75 FR 54403 - U.S. National Climate Assessment Objectives, Proposed Topics, and Next Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    .../assessment/notices . Responses to this notice are not offers and cannot be accepted by the Government to form... cycles (e.g., carbon, nitrogen) (3) Land use change, land cover, and human settlements (e.g., urban...., management of forests to sequester carbon and increase resilience, [[Page 54406

  14. Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Production via Natural Gas Steam Reforming; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spath, P. L.; Mann, M. K.

    2000-01-01

    A life cycle assessment of hydrogen production via natural gas steam reforming was performed to examine the net emissions of greenhouse gases as well as other major environmental consequences. LCA is a systematic analytical method that helps identify and evaluate the environmental impacts of a specific process or competing processes

  15. Topical Non-Iontophoretic Application of Acetylcholine and Nitroglycerin via a Translucent Patch: A New Means for Assessing Microvascular Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberger, Robert B.; Worden, William S.; Shahmohammadi, Kaveh; Menn, Kirsten; Silverman, Tyler J.; Stout, Robert G.; Shelley, Kirk H.; Silverman, David G.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Assessments of endothelial cell function with acetylcholine have typically used systemic, regional intra-arterial, or iontophoretic delivery of drug. Each of these techniques induces systemic and/or local changes that compromise their safety or effectiveness. Using translucent drug preparations applied under laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) probes, we tested whether local vasodilation can be induced with non-iontophoretic transdermal delivery of acetylcholine and how such dilation would compare to the dilation achieved with topical nitroglycerin in healthy volunteers. Methods: Ten subjects without known vascular disease were recruited for LDF monitoring at sites of drug application for this preliminary investigation. Topical acetylcholine chloride, nitroglycerin, and placebo were applied via translucent patches to the forehead directly below LDF probes. Results: LDF readings increased by 406 percent (245 percent to 566 percent) and 36 percent (26 percent to 46 percent), respectively, at the acetylcholine and placebo sites (p = .005 by Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test (WSRT) for acetylcholine vs. placebo); and they increased by 365 percent (179 percent to 550 percent) at the nitroglycerin site (p = .005 by WSRT for nitroglycerin vs. placebo; p = .6 vs. acetylcholine). Conclusion: Transdermal delivery of acetylcholine can induce significant local vasodilatory responses comparable to those achieved with nitroglycerin without requiring iontophoresis. The means of transdermal delivery and monitoring described herein may constitute a new minimally invasive way to interrogate the microvasculature and thereby assess the microcirculatory changes induced by various disorders and therapeutic interventions. PMID:17876370

  16. Thermal extremes mortality risk assessment in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Canário

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of heat waves on mortality has been the subject of numerous studies and the focus of attention of various national and international governmental bodies. In the summer of 2003 alone, which was exceptionally hot, the number of deaths in 12 European countries increased by 70,000. The overall trend of warming will lead to an increase in frequency, duration and intensity of heat waves and to an increase in heat related mortality. The need to assess the risk of death due to extreme heat, at a detailed spatial scale, has determined the implementation of a research project based on a general model of risk for potentially destructive natural phenomena; the model uses the relationship between hazard and vulnerability and was designed primarily for urban areas. The major hazardous meteorological variables are those that determine the thermal complex (air temperature, radiative temperature, wind and humidity and the variables related to air quality (mainly ozone and Particulate matter. Vulnerability takes into account the population sensitivity (at various spatial scales and their exposure to thermal extremes.

  17. Assessment of proliferation resistance of thermal recycle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    An assessment is made of the proliferation resistance of thermal recycle systems. The safeguards aspects are not addressed. Three routes to the acquisition of materials for nuclear weapons are addressed namely; a deliberate political decision by a government involving the use of dedicated facilities, a deliberate political decision by government involving abuse of nuclear fuel cycle facilities and theft by a subnational group. The most sensitive parts of the reference fuel cycle and the alternative technical measures are examined to judge their relative sensitivity. This is done by examining the difference forms in which plutonium can exist in the fuel cycle. The role which different institutional arrangements can play is also evaluated. From this comparative assessment it is concluded that, taking into account the qualitative nature of the assessment, the different stages of development of the various fuel cycles, the various realizations possible in respect of the deployment of facilities within individual countries and the evolutionary nature of the technical and institutional improvements foreseeable no fuel cycle can be made completely free from abuse. Furthermore it appears that following progressive introduction of features that will improve proliferation resistance there will not be significant differences between the various fuel cycles when compared at the point in time when they are introduced into widespread use. Provided such features are developed and implemented there is no reason on proliferation grounds to prefer one cycle to another

  18. Draft environmental assessment: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Pilot Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, S.M.; Sands, M.D.; Donat, J.R.; Jepsen, P.; Smookler, M.; Villa, J.F.

    1981-02-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared, in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, for the deployment and operation of a commercial 40-Megawatt (MW) Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Pilot Plant (hereafter called the Pilot Plant). A description of the proposed action is presented, and a generic environment typical of the candidate Pilot Plant siting regions is described. An assessment of the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed action is given, and the risk of credible accidents and mitigating measures to reduce these risks are considered. The Federal and State plans and policies the proposed action will encompass are described. Alternatives to the proposed action are presented. Appendix A presents the navigation and environmental information contained in the US Coast Pilot for each of the candidate sites; Appendix B provides a brief description of the methods and calculations used in the EA. It is concluded that environmental disturbances associated with Pilot Plant activities could potentially cause significant environmental impacts; however, the magnitude of these potential impacts cannot presently be assessed, due to insufficient engineering and environmental information. A site- and design-specific OTEC Pilot Plant Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is required to resolve the potentially significant environmental effects associated with Pilot Plant deployment and operation. (WHK)

  19. In vivo multiphoton imaging of human skin: assessment of topical corticosteroid-induced epidermis atrophy and depigmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait El Madani, Hassan; Tancrède-Bohin, Emmanuelle; Bensussan, Armand; Colonna, Anne; Dupuy, Alain; Bagot, Martine; Pena, Ana-Maria

    2012-02-01

    Multiphoton microscopy has emerged in the past decade as a promising tool for noninvasive skin imaging. Our aim was to evaluate the potential of multiphoton microscopy to detect topical corticosteroids side effects within the epidermis and to provide new insights into their dynamics. Healthy volunteers were topically treated with clobetasol propionate on a small region of their forearms under overnight occlusion for three weeks. The treated region of each patient was investigated at D0, D7, D15, D22 (end of the treatment), and D60. Our study shows that multiphoton microscopy allows for the detection of corticoid-induced epidermis modifications: thinning of stratum corneum compactum and epidermis, decrease of keratinocytes size, and changes in their morphology from D7 to D22. We also show that multiphoton microscopy enables in vivo three-dimensional (3-D) quantitative assessment of melanin content. We observe that melanin density decreases during treatment and almost completely disappears at D22. Moreover, these alterations are reversible as they are no longer present at D60. Our study demonstrates that multiphoton microscopy is a convenient and powerful tool for noninvasive 3-D dynamical studies of skin integrity and pigmentation.

  20. The relevance of polymeric synthetic membranes in topical formulation assessment and drug diffusion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shiow-Fern; Rouse, Jennifer J; Sanderson, Francis D; Eccleston, Gillian M

    2012-03-01

    Synthetic membranes are composed of thin sheets of polymeric macromolecules that can control the passage of components through them. Generally, synthetic membranes used in drug diffusion studies have one of two functions: skin simulation or quality control. Synthetic membranes for skin simulation, such as the silicone-based membranes polydimethylsiloxane and Carbosil, are generally hydrophobic and rate limiting, imitating the stratum corneum. In contrast, synthetic membranes for quality control, such as cellulose esters and polysulfone, are required to act as a support rather than a barrier. These synthetic membranes also often contain pores; hence, they are called porous membranes. The significance of Franz diffusion studies and synthetic membranes in quality control studies involves an understanding of the fundamentals of synthetic membranes. This article provides a general overview of synthetic membranes, including a brief background of the history and the common applications of synthetic membranes. This review then explores the types of synthetic membranes, the transport mechanisms across them, and their relevance in choosing a synthetic membrane in Franz diffusion cell studies for formulation assessment purposes.

  1. Topical gel formulation and stability assessment of platelet lysate based on turbidimetric method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soliman Mohammadi Samani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich growth factors have attracted attentions of scientists and clinical practitioners who are involved in wound healing and regenerative medicine extensively, according to their unprecedented potential of promoting and catalyzing healing process. Platelet-rich growth factors are cost-benefit, available and more stable than recombinant human growth factors. These appealing characteristics have converted PRGF to one of the popular candidates for treatment of variety of wounds. According to these valuable properties, we decided to formulate and assess the effect of different excipients on the stability of such valuable protein based formulations. Different excipients have been chosen according to their effective ness on the stability of proteins and their application in other similar formulations. The stabilizing effect of excipients was evaluated by measuring heat-induced aggregation of growth factors by turbidimetric assay. Glycerol, glycine and dextrose were chosen as stabilizing excipients for these formulations. The results show that dextrose has more stabilizing effect on prevention of heat induced aggregation of the platelet lysate growth factors than glycerol and glycine. All of the formulations also contained antioxidant, chelating agents, preservative and carbopol934 in order to form appropriate gel.

  2. Adherence to oral and topical medication in 445 patients with tinea pedis as assessed by the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunemi, Yuichiro; Abe, Shinya; Kobayashi, Miwa; Kitami, Yuki; Onozuka, Daisuke; Hagihara, Akihito; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Murota, Hiroyuki; Sugaya, Makoto; Masuda, Koji; Hiragun, Takaaki; Kaneko, Sakae; Saeki, Hidehisa; Shintani, Yoichi; Tanioka, Miki; Imafuku, Shinichi; Abe, Masatoshi; Inomata, Naoko; Morisky, Donald E; Furue, Masutaka; Katoh, Norito

    2015-01-01

    Adherence is defined as the extent to which a person's behavior corresponds with recommendations from health care providers. Adherence to treatment is an important factor for a good therapeutic outcome. This study aimed to examine the adherence of patients with tinea pedis and to clarify the factors related to it. We assessed medication adherence for oral and topical drugs using a translated version of the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8 (MMAS-8) together with other background factors in 445 Japanese patients with tinea pedis, using a questionnaire in a web-based monitoring system. Overall, high, medium and low adherence rates as assessed by MMAS-8 were 8.7%, 31.7% and 59.6% for oral medication, and 8.6%, 17.4% and 74.0% for topical medication, respectively. The adherence level was significantly higher for oral medication than for topical medication. Subgroup analyses showed that the adherence level for topical medication was significantly higher when topical and oral medications were used in combination than when topical medication was used alone. A low adherence level was shown in employed patients, those for whom their oral medication had not been effective and those with topical medication who had visited their hospital less often than once every six months. Patient adherence to therapy can be effectively improved by selecting highly effective medication while considering the prescription of topical and oral antifungal medications concomitantly, by carefully selecting a therapy plan for employed patients and by encouraging patients to visit their doctor regularly.

  3. Desalination with thermal solar systems: technology assessment and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajona, J.I.

    1992-01-01

    Solar desalination is among the most promising alternatives to apply solar energy as solar availability and the load requirements use to be matched. Solar thermal energy offers a full set of alternatives to desalt water, being the main difference among them the temperature range at which the load has to be fed. Solar technologies for the low temperature range (solar stills, plastic collectors,...) are quite suited for small loads in isolated placed or whenever the main constrain is to indigenize technology and to perform the operation and maintenance work with low qualified local labor, such as in less developed countries. The main drawback of this low temperature use of solar energy is that it is not possible to recover neither the heat of condensation of the water vapor, nor from the reject brine, to warm up the feed saline water. Higher temperature collectors, such as flat plate collectors with transparent insulation material and evacuated tubes, allow to work with conventional desalination units fed at 60-90C, as Multiple Effect Units or Multistage Flash Units, which get a performance ratio (quotient between heat required without recovery and with heat recovery) between 5 and 10. To further increase the performance ratio it is necessary to work with vapor in the 200C range. To attain this temperature range the solar option is based on the Parabolic Trough collector. This has been the line we have followed in our STD project in the Plataforma Solar in Almeria (Spain) when we have run a Multiple Effect Unit with an Absorption Heat Pump able to attain a performance ratio of 20. In this report, included within the STD project activities, we assess the potential of the solar thermal technology to desalt water in all the above mentioned temperature ranges. Beside the technology description and some characteristics results, we present a set of tool that, as the final result is dramatically dependent on the technical and economical scenario selected, will allow to

  4. ASSESSMENT OF EFFICACY IN APPLICATION OF TOPICAL IMMUNOLOGIC RESPONSE MODIFIER FOR PREVENTION OF INFLUENZA AND ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.N. Lytkina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to assess the efficacy of bacterial lysate for prevention of acute respiratory infections. The article provides results of monitoring children in the orphanage who were administered the medication of this group as a prophylactic drug against acute respiratory infections. Children also from orphanages who were not administered the medication were selected as a control group. It was found that out of 80 children who underwent preventive treatment, only 26 children fell ill, while out of 80 children in the control group so did 78 orphans. The results achieved allowed the topical immunologic response modifier to be recommended as a general preventive medication for wide use in children in the period of seasonal respiratory infection incidence rate pickup.Key words: influenza, acute respiratory infections, preventive treatment, children.

  5. Assessing thermally induced errors of machine tools by 3D length measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florussen, G.H.J.; Delbressine, F.L.M.; Schellekens, P.H.J.

    2003-01-01

    A new measurement technique is proposed for the assessment of thermally induced errors of machine tools. The basic idea is to measure changes of length by a telescopic double ball bar (TDEB) at multiple locations in the machine's workspace while the machine is thermally excited. In addition thermal

  6. Integrated Method for Personal Thermal Comfort Assessment and Optimization through Users' Feedback, IoT and Machine Learning: A Case Study †.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, Francesco; Belussi, Lorenzo; Currò, Cristian; Danza, Ludovico; Ghellere, Matteo; Guazzi, Giulia; Lenzi, Bruno; Megale, Valentino; Meroni, Italo

    2018-05-17

    Thermal comfort has become a topic issue in building performance assessment as well as energy efficiency. Three methods are mainly recognized for its assessment. Two of them based on standardized methodologies, face the problem by considering the indoor environment in steady-state conditions (PMV and PPD) and users as active subjects whose thermal perception is influenced by outdoor climatic conditions (adaptive approach). The latter method is the starting point to investigate thermal comfort from an overall perspective by considering endogenous variables besides the traditional physical and environmental ones. Following this perspective, the paper describes the results of an in-field investigation of thermal conditions through the use of nearable and wearable solutions, parametric models and machine learning techniques. The aim of the research is the exploration of the reliability of IoT-based solutions combined with advanced algorithms, in order to create a replicable framework for the assessment and improvement of user thermal satisfaction. For this purpose, an experimental test in real offices was carried out involving eight workers. Parametric models are applied for the assessment of thermal comfort; IoT solutions are used to monitor the environmental variables and the users' parameters; the machine learning CART method allows to predict the users' profile and the thermal comfort perception respect to the indoor environment.

  7. Integrated Method for Personal Thermal Comfort Assessment and Optimization through Users’ Feedback, IoT and Machine Learning: A Case Study †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currò, Cristian; Danza, Ludovico; Ghellere, Matteo; Guazzi, Giulia; Lenzi, Bruno; Megale, Valentino; Meroni, Italo

    2018-01-01

    Thermal comfort has become a topic issue in building performance assessment as well as energy efficiency. Three methods are mainly recognized for its assessment. Two of them based on standardized methodologies, face the problem by considering the indoor environment in steady-state conditions (PMV and PPD) and users as active subjects whose thermal perception is influenced by outdoor climatic conditions (adaptive approach). The latter method is the starting point to investigate thermal comfort from an overall perspective by considering endogenous variables besides the traditional physical and environmental ones. Following this perspective, the paper describes the results of an in-field investigation of thermal conditions through the use of nearable and wearable solutions, parametric models and machine learning techniques. The aim of the research is the exploration of the reliability of IoT-based solutions combined with advanced algorithms, in order to create a replicable framework for the assessment and improvement of user thermal satisfaction. For this purpose, an experimental test in real offices was carried out involving eight workers. Parametric models are applied for the assessment of thermal comfort; IoT solutions are used to monitor the environmental variables and the users’ parameters; the machine learning CART method allows to predict the users’ profile and the thermal comfort perception respect to the indoor environment. PMID:29772818

  8. Crack assessment of pipe under combined thermal and mechanical load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Tae Kwang; Kim, Yun Jae

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, J-integral and transient C(t)-integral, which were key parameters in low temperature and high temperature fracture mechanics, under combined thermal and mechanical load were estimated via 3-dimensional finite element analyses. Various type of thermal and mechanical load, material hardening were considered to decrease conservatism in existing solutions. As a results, V-factor and redistribution time for combined thermal and mechanical load were proposed to calculate J-integral and C(t)-integral, respectively.

  9. Thermally assisted sensor for conformity assessment of biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, M S; Kamikawachi, R C; Fabris, J L; Muller, M

    2015-01-01

    Although biodiesel can be intentionally tampered with, impairing its quality, ineffective production processes may also result in a nonconforming final fuel. For an incomplete transesterification reaction, traces of alcohol (ethanol or methanol) or remaining raw material (vegetable oil or animal fats) may be harmful to consumers, the environment or to engines. Traditional methods for biodiesel assessment are complex, time consuming and expensive, leading to the need for the development of new and more versatile processes for quality control. This work describes a refractometric fibre optic based sensor that is thermally assisted, developed to quantify the remaining methanol or vegetable oil in biodiesel blends. The sensing relies on a long period grating to configure an in-fibre interferometer. A complete analytical routine is demonstrated for the sensor allowing the evaluation of the biodiesel blends without segregation of the components. The results show the sensor can determine the presence of oil or methanol in biodiesel with a concentration ranging from 0% to 10% v/v. The sensor presented a resolution and standard combined uncertainty of 0.013% v/v and 0.62% v/v for biodiesel–oil samples, and 0.007% v/v and 0.22% v/v for biodiesel–methanol samples, respectively. (paper)

  10. Thermally assisted sensor for conformity assessment of biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, M. S.; Kamikawachi, R. C.; Fabris, J. L.; Muller, M.

    2015-02-01

    Although biodiesel can be intentionally tampered with, impairing its quality, ineffective production processes may also result in a nonconforming final fuel. For an incomplete transesterification reaction, traces of alcohol (ethanol or methanol) or remaining raw material (vegetable oil or animal fats) may be harmful to consumers, the environment or to engines. Traditional methods for biodiesel assessment are complex, time consuming and expensive, leading to the need for the development of new and more versatile processes for quality control. This work describes a refractometric fibre optic based sensor that is thermally assisted, developed to quantify the remaining methanol or vegetable oil in biodiesel blends. The sensing relies on a long period grating to configure an in-fibre interferometer. A complete analytical routine is demonstrated for the sensor allowing the evaluation of the biodiesel blends without segregation of the components. The results show the sensor can determine the presence of oil or methanol in biodiesel with a concentration ranging from 0% to 10% v/v. The sensor presented a resolution and standard combined uncertainty of 0.013% v/v and 0.62% v/v for biodiesel-oil samples, and 0.007% v/v and 0.22% v/v for biodiesel-methanol samples, respectively.

  11. [Research progress and development trend of quantitative assessment techniques for urban thermal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tie Gang; Xiao, Rong Bo; Cai, Yun Nan; Wang, Yao Wu; Wu, Chang Guang

    2016-08-01

    Quantitative assessment of urban thermal environment has become a focus for urban climate and environmental science since the concept of urban heat island has been proposed. With the continual development of space information and computer simulation technology, substantial progresses have been made on quantitative assessment techniques and methods of urban thermal environment. The quantitative assessment techniques have been developed to dynamics simulation and forecast of thermal environment at various scales based on statistical analysis of thermal environment on urban-scale using the historical data of weather stations. This study reviewed the development progress of ground meteorological observation, thermal infrared remote sensing and numerical simulation. Moreover, the potential advantages and disadvantages, applicability and the development trends of these techniques were also summarized, aiming to add fundamental knowledge of understanding the urban thermal environment assessment and optimization.

  12. Determination of validity and reliability of performance assessments tasks developed for selected topics in high school chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zichittella, Gail Eberhardt

    The primary purpose of this study was to validate performance assessments, which can be used as teaching and assessment instruments in high school science classrooms. This study evaluated the classroom usability of these performance instruments and establishes the interrater reliability of the scoring rubrics when used by classroom teachers. The assessment instruments were designed to represent two levels of scientific inquiry. The high level of inquiry tasks are relatively unstructured in terms of student directions; the low inquiry tasks provided more structure for the student. The tasks cover two content topics studied in chemistry (scientific observation and density). Students from a variety of Western New York school districts who were enrolled in chemistry classes and other science courses were involved in completion of the tasks at the two levels of inquiry. The chemistry students completed the NYS Regents Examination in Chemistry. Their classroom teachers were interviewed and completed a questionnaire to aid in the establishment their epistemological view on the inclusion of inquiry based learning in the science classroom. Data showed that the performance assessment tasks were reliable, valid and helpful for obtaining a more complete picture of the students' scientific understanding. The teacher participants reported no difficulty with the usability of the task in the high school chemistry setting. Collected data gave no evidence of gender bias with reference to the performance tasks or the NYS Regents Chemistry Examination. Additionally, it was shown that the instructors' classroom practices do have an effect upon the students' achievement on the performance tasks and the NYS Regents examination. Data also showed that achievement on the performance tasks was influenced by the number of years of science instruction students had received.

  13. Assessment of the thermal environment in an aircraft cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingers, S.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2004-01-01

    equivalent temperature, up to 5.8°C, was identified in the outer seats. The results reveal that in an aircraft cabin, passengers in the outer seats may be exposed to thermal asymmetry and draught and may not find the thermal environment acceptable if the ventilation air is not properly supplied....

  14. Testosterone Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not apply any testosterone topical products to your penis or scrotum or to skin that has sores, ... are severe or do not go away: breast enlargement and/or pain decreased sexual desire acne depression ...

  15. Topic 8 Ecological Risk Assessment and regulatory guidance, radioecological assessment and radioprotection of the territory of Moscow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polski, O.G.; Shmonov, M.G.; Lakaev, V.S. [Scientific-and-Industrial Association Radon, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Moscow is the historical centre of the atom project of the former USSR. The radiation situation in Moscow has been regularly monitored by 'Radon' Scientific-and-Industrial Association (Moscow) since 1987. In pursuance of conception and Program of the Environmental Radiation Monitoring in Moscow the environmental activity and monitoring of radiation exposure doses in Moscow area have been carried out. The environmental radiation monitoring includes radiation measuring, classification and summarisation of the data file, creation of the data bank, assessment of the general and local radiation situation and it's forecasting. The system for environmental radiation monitoring consists of mobile and stationary monitoring equipment. The mobile equipment includes the automobile, water and aircraft means for monitoring. The stationary equipment includes means for periodical monitoring (134 sites), a network for stationary monitoring of air (4 sites), water areas (64 sites) and a network for automated monitoring of radiation background (MRB) ( 19 sites). MRB are disposed at highways, railroads, large enterprises, at densely populated localities, taking into account the regularity of encompassing all administrative regions. MRB represents a totally automated component for monitoring at the region. It permanently monitors the radiation background in automatic mode, providing for monitoring the preset threshold background values and informing the data processing centre of exceeding the above preset values. The equipment monitors and reports the radiation values twenty four hours a day. The information is provided for the population at indication boards. More than 3000 environmental samples are monitored and studied; about 2500 km of automatic gamma-survey is carried out annually and 300 thermoluminescent dosimeters have been used to monitor the absorbed radiation dose. The major radionuclides monitored in the environmental samples have been the decay products of

  16. Environmental characterization to assess potential impacts of thermal discharge to the Columbia River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neitzel, D.A.; Dauble, D.D.; Page, T.L.; Greager, E.M.

    1990-01-01

    Laboratory and field studies were conducted to assess the potential impact of the N-Reactor thermal plume on fish from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. Discharge water temperatures were measured over a range of river flows and reactor operating conditions. Data were mathematically modeled to define spatial and thermal characteristics of the plume. Four species of Columbia River fish were exposed to thermal conditions expected in the plume. Exposed fish were subjected to predators and disease organisms to test for secondary effects from thermal stress. Spatial and temporal distribution of anadromous fish in the river near N-Reactor were also evaluated to define location relative to the plume. Potential thermal exposures were insufficient to kill or injure fish during operation of N-Reactor. These studies demonstrate that characterization of hydrological conditions and thermal tolerance can adequately assess potential impacts of a thermal discharge to fish

  17. Clinical Assessment of Immediate and Long-Term Effects of a Two-Step Topical Hyaluronic Acid Lip Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Elizabeth T; Tan, Priscilla; Qian, Kun; Babcock, Michael; Mehta, Rahul C

    2017-04-01

    Key features of lip aging include loss of volume, color, and definition as well as increases in lines/wrinkles and uneven skin texture. A single-center, open-label clinical study was conducted to assess the efficacy and tolerability of a novel, topical two-step lip treatment (HA5 LS) in female subjects presenting with mild to moderate lip dryness and mild to severe lip condition. Subjects were instructed to apply HA5 LS at least three times a day to ensure coverage 8 hours a day for four weeks. Clinical assessments for efficacy and tolerability were conducted at baseline, baseline post-application, week 2, and week 4. Standardized digital photography, subject self-assessment questionnaires, and instrumentation measurements for skin hydration (corneometer) and lip plumpness (digital caliper) were also conducted. Thirty-six female subjects aged 22-40 years enrolled in the study. HA5 LS provided instant and long term effects, achieving significant improvements in all clinical grading parameters including lip texture, color, definition/contour, scaling, cupping, lines/wrinkles, lip plumpness, and overall lip condition from baseline post-application to week 4 (all P less than equal to .001; Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Instrumentation measurements for hydration and digital caliper at weeks 2 and 4 were also significant (all P less than equal to .032; paired t-test). HA5 LS was also well-tolerated and highly-rated by subjects throughout the study duration. Results from this study suggest that HA5 LS addresses the key features of lip aging, providing both instant and long-term benefits. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(4):366-371..

  18. Thermal hydraulic feasibility assessment of the spent nuclear fuel project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heard, F.J.

    1996-01-01

    A series of analyses have been completed investigating the thermal-hydraulic performance and feasibility of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) Integrated Process Strategy (IPS). The goal was to develop a series of thermal-hydraulic models that could respond to all process and safety related issues that may arise pertaining to the SNFP, as well as provide a basis for validation of the results. Results show that there is a reasonable envelope for process conditions and requirements that are thermally and hydraulically acceptable

  19. Thermal comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    d’Ambrosio Alfano, Francesca Romana; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Palella, Boris Igor

    2014-01-01

    Thermal comfort is one of the most important aspects of the indoor environmental quality due to its effects on well-being, people's performance and building energy requirements. Its attainment is not an easy task requiring advanced design and operation of building and HVAC systems, taking...... into account all parameters involved. Even though thermal comfort fundamentals are consolidated topics for more than forty years, often designers seem to ignore or apply them in a wrong way. Design input values from standards are often considered as universal values rather than recommended values to be used...... under specific conditions. At operation level, only few variables are taken into account with unpredictable effects on the assessment of comfort indices. In this paper, the main criteria for the design and assessment of thermal comfort are discussed in order to help building and HVAC systems designers...

  20. ASSESSING THE COSTS OF THE THERMAL REHABILITATIONS OF A STUDIO BLOCK ENVELOPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DINU R.C.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A view to reducing thermal energy consumption for a block of studios, this paper presents an assessment of the costs of energy efficient building materials used for the thermal rehabilitation of the analyzed building’s tire. Based on information obtained from the evaluation of heat energy consumption and of the actual heat balance of the studios block, resulted the necessity for thermal rehabilitation. These works aimed equally both exterior walls as well as exterior windows and doors and involves a certain level of initial costs wich will be recovered through lower cost of the consumed thermal energy after thermal rehabilitation of the building tire.

  1. Assessing Thermal Comfort Due to a Ventilated Double Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos, Jorge S.; Corvacho, Helena

    2017-10-01

    Building design and its components are the result of a complex process, which should provide pleasant conditions to its inhabitants. Therefore, indoor acceptable comfort is influenced by the architectural design. ISO and ASHRAE standards define thermal comfort as the condition of mind that expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment. The energy demand for heating, beside the building’s physical properties, also depend on human behaviour, like opening or closing windows. Generally, windows are the weakest façade element concerning to thermal performance. A lower thermal resistance allows higher thermal conduction through it. When a window is very hot or cold, and the occupant is very close to it, it may result in thermal discomfort. The functionality of a ventilated double window introduces new physical considerations to a traditional window. In consequence, it is necessary to study the local effect on human comfort in function of the boundary conditions. Wind, solar availability, air temperature and therefore heating and indoor air quality conditions will affect the relationship between this passive system and the indoor environment. In the present paper, the influence of thermal performance and ventilation on human comfort resulting from the construction and geometry solutions is shown, helping to choose the best solution. The presented approach shows that in order to save energy it is possible to reduce the air changes of a room to the minimum, without compromising air quality, enhancing simultaneously local thermal performance and comfort. The results of the study on the effect of two parallel windows with a ventilated channel in the same fenestration on comfort conditions for several different room dimensions, are also presented. As the room dimensions’ rate changes so does the window to floor rate; therefore, under the same climatic conditions and same construction solution, different results are obtained.

  2. Assessment of research needs for advanced heterogeneous catalysts for energy applications. Final report: Volume 2, Topic reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, G.A.

    1994-04-01

    This report assesses the direction, technical content, and priority of research needs judged to provide the best chance of yielding new and improved heterogeneous catalysts for energy-related applications over the period of 5-20 years. It addresses issues of energy conservation, alternate fuels and feedstocks, and the economics and applications that could alleviate pollution from energy processes. Recommended goals are defined in 3 research thrusts: catalytic science, environmental protection by catalysis, and industrial catalytic applications. This study was conducted by an 11-member panel of experts from industry and academia, including one each from Japan and Europe. This volume first presents an in-depth overview of the role of catalysis in future energy technology in chapter 1; then current catalytic research is critically reviewed and research recommended in 8 topic chapters: catalyst preparation (design and synthesis), catalyst characterization (structure/function), catalyst performance testing, reaction kinetics/reactor design, catalysis for industrial chemicals, catalysis for electrical applications (clean fuels, pollution remediation), catalysis for control of exhaust emissions, and catalysts for liquid transportation fuels from petroleum, coal, residual oil, and biomass.

  3. Proceedings of the ANS/ASME/NRC international topical meeting on nuclear reactor thermal-hydraulics: LMFBR and HTGR advanced reactor concepts and analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Separate abstracts are included for each of the papers presented concerning the thermal-hydraulics of LMFBR type reactors; mathematical methods in nuclear reactor thermal-hydraulics; heat transfer in gas-cooled reactors; and thermal-hydraulics of pebble-bed reactors. Two papers have been previously abstracted and input to the data base

  4. Bimatoprost Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not use a cotton swab or any other brush or applicator to apply topical bimatoprost.To use the solution, follow these steps: Wash your hands and face thoroughly with soap and water. Be sure that all makeup is removed. Do not let the tip of ...

  5. ASSESSING THE COSTS OF THE THERMAL REHABILITATIONS OF A STUDIO BLOCK ENVELOPE

    OpenAIRE

    DINU R.C.; POPESCU D.; STAN-IVAN F.E.

    2017-01-01

    A view to reducing thermal energy consumption for a block of studios, this paper presents an assessment of the costs of energy efficient building materials used for the thermal rehabilitation of the analyzed building’s tire. Based on information obtained from the evaluation of heat energy consumption and of the actual heat balance of the studios block, resulted the necessity for thermal rehabilitation. These works aimed equally both exterior walls as well as exterior windows and doors and ...

  6. Using Upper Extremity Skin Temperatures to Assess Thermal Comfort in Office Buildings in Changsha, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Wu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Existing thermal comfort field studies are mainly focused on the relationship between the indoor physical environment and the thermal comfort. In numerous chamber experiments, physiological parameters were adopted to assess thermal comfort, but the experiments’ conclusions may not represent a realistic thermal environment due to the highly controlled thermal environment and few occupants. This paper focuses on determining the relationships between upper extremity skin temperatures (i.e., finger, wrist, hand and forearm and the indoor thermal comfort. Also, the applicability of predicting thermal comfort by using upper extremity skin temperatures was explored. Field studies were performed in office buildings equipped with split air-conditioning (SAC located in the hot summer and cold winter (HSCW climate zone of China during the summer of 2016. Psychological responses of occupants were recorded and physical and physiological factors were measured simultaneously. Standard effective temperature (SET* was used to incorporate the effect of humidity and air velocity on thermal comfort. The results indicate that upper extremity skin temperatures are good indicators for predicting thermal sensation, and could be used to assess the thermal comfort in terms of physiological mechanism. In addition, the neutral temperature was 24.7 °C and the upper limit for 80% acceptability was 28.2 °C in SET*.

  7. Using Upper Extremity Skin Temperatures to Assess Thermal Comfort in Office Buildings in Changsha, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhibin; Li, Nianping; Cui, Haijiao; Peng, Jinqing; Chen, Haowen; Liu, Penglong

    2017-09-21

    Existing thermal comfort field studies are mainly focused on the relationship between the indoor physical environment and the thermal comfort. In numerous chamber experiments, physiological parameters were adopted to assess thermal comfort, but the experiments' conclusions may not represent a realistic thermal environment due to the highly controlled thermal environment and few occupants. This paper focuses on determining the relationships between upper extremity skin temperatures (i.e., finger, wrist, hand and forearm) and the indoor thermal comfort. Also, the applicability of predicting thermal comfort by using upper extremity skin temperatures was explored. Field studies were performed in office buildings equipped with split air-conditioning (SAC) located in the hot summer and cold winter (HSCW) climate zone of China during the summer of 2016. Psychological responses of occupants were recorded and physical and physiological factors were measured simultaneously. Standard effective temperature (SET*) was used to incorporate the effect of humidity and air velocity on thermal comfort. The results indicate that upper extremity skin temperatures are good indicators for predicting thermal sensation, and could be used to assess the thermal comfort in terms of physiological mechanism. In addition, the neutral temperature was 24.7 °C and the upper limit for 80% acceptability was 28.2 °C in SET*.

  8. Thermal hydraulic feasibility assessment for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heard, F.J.; Cramer, E.R.; Beaver, T.R.; Thurgood, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    A series of scoping analyses have been completed investigating the thermal-hydraulic performance and feasibility of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) Integrated Process Strategy (IPS). The SNFP was established to develop engineered solutions for the expedited removal, stabilization, and storage of spent nuclear fuel from the K Basins at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The subject efforts focused on independently investigating, quantifying, and establishing the governing heat production and removal mechanisms for each of the IPS operations and configurations, obtaining preliminary results for comparison with and verification of other analyses, and providing technology-based recommendations for consideration and incorporation into the design bases for the SNFP. The goal was to develop a series fo thermal-hydraulic models that could respond to all process and safety-related issues that may arise pertaining to the SNFP. A series of sensitivity analyses were also performed to help identify those parameters that have the greatest impact on energy transfer and hence, temperature control. It is anticipated that the subject thermal-hydraulic models will form the basis for a series of advanced and more detailed models that will more accurately reflect the thermal performance of the IPS and alleviate the necessity for some of the more conservative assumptions and oversimplifications, as well as form the basis for the final process and safety analyses

  9. Assessing the sustainable application of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaxa-Rozen, M.; Bloemendal, J.M.; Rostampour Samarin, Vahab; Kwakkel, J.H.

    2016-01-01

    Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) can yield significant reductions in the energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of larger buildings, and the use of these systems has been rapidly growing in Europe – especially in the Netherlands, where over 3000 systems are currently active in urban

  10. Solar Program Assessment: Environmental Factors - Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    This report presents the environmental problems which may arise with the further development of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion, one of the eight Federally-funded solar technologies. To provide a background for this environmental analysis, the history and basic concepts of the technology are reviewed, as are its economic and resource requirements.…

  11. Thermal Storage Systems Assessment for Energy Sustainability in Housing Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania I. Lagunes Vega

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve greater enhancements in energy sustainability for housing, the function and efficiency of two different passive cooling systems were studied: encapsulated water in recycled bottles of Polyethylene terephthalate (PET and polystyrene plates, in comparison with standard concrete slab systems, which are customarily used in housing. Experiments were placed over a tile surface, in which temperature changes were monitored for a period of 20 days from 08:00 to 20:00. The efficiency of passive thermal storage systems was endorsed through statistical analysis using the “SPSS” software. This resulted in a 17% energy saving, thus promoting energy sustainability in housing units, which reduces the use of electrical appliances required to stabilize conditions to achieve optimum thermal comfort for the human body inside a house, therefore, reducing electrical power consumption, CO2 emissions to the atmosphere and generating savings. Due to the complexity of a system with temperature changes, a fractal analysis was performed for each experimental system, using the “Benoit” software (V.1.3 with self-compatible tools of rescaled range (R/S and a wavelets method, showing that the thermal fluctuations on the tiles with the thermal storage system adapt to the rescaled range analysis and the regular tiles adapt to the wavelets method.

  12. IEA implementing agreement for hybrid and electric vehicle technologies and programmes, Annex VII hybrid vehicles : Topic 13, assessment of the energy consumption of hybrid trucks using ADVISOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eelkema, J.; Winkel, R.G.; Geraets, R.; Verbakel, M.J.L.

    2002-01-01

    This topic report focuses on the possible benefits of the application of a hybrid powertrain in heavy-duty vehicles. The main objective is to assess whether a significant reduction in fuel consumption is feasible. An average Dutch distribution truck with a conventional driveline will be compared to

  13. Breathing thermal manikin for indoor environment assessment: Important characteristics and requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2003-01-01

    Recently breathing thermal manikins have been developed and used for indoor environment measurement, evaluation and optimization as well as validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) predictions of airflow around a human body. Advances in the assessment of occupants¿ thermal comfort...... and shape of body segments, control mode, breathing simulation, etc. are discussed and specified in this paper....

  14. Topical anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mritunjay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Topical anesthetics are being widely used in numerous medical and surgical sub-specialties such as anesthesia, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology, dentistry, urology, and aesthetic surgery. They cause superficial loss of pain sensation after direct application. Their delivery and effectiveness can be enhanced by using free bases; by increasing the drug concentration, lowering the melting point; by using physical and chemical permeation enhancers and lipid delivery vesicles. Various topical anesthetic agents available for use are eutectic mixture of local anesthetics, ELA-max, lidocaine, epinephrine, tetracaine, bupivanor, 4% tetracaine, benzocaine, proparacaine, Betacaine-LA, topicaine, lidoderm, S-caine patch™ and local anesthetic peel. While using them, careful attention must be paid to their pharmacology, area and duration of application, age and weight of the patients and possible side-effects.

  15. Pest damage assessment in fruits and vegetables using thermal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadakkapattu Canthadai, Badrinath; Muthuraju, M. Esakki; Pachava, Vengalrao; Sengupta, Dipankar

    2015-05-01

    In some fruits and vegetables, it is difficult to visually identify the ones which are pest infested. This particular aspect is important for quarantine and commercial operations. In this article, we propose to present the results of a novel technique using thermal imaging camera to detect the nature and extent of pest damage in fruits and vegetables, besides indicating the level of maturity and often the presence of the pest. Our key idea relies on the fact that there is a difference in the heat capacity of normal and damaged ones and also observed the change in surface temperature over time that is slower in damaged ones. This paper presents the concept of non-destructive evaluation using thermal imaging technique for identifying pest damage levels of fruits and vegetables based on investigations carried out on random samples collected from a local market.

  16. Assessment of social values in thermal plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The objective of the project is to develop a method for combining social values with techno-economic data for better decision making in thermal nuclear power plant siting. Quantified technical impact data which is socially weighted will allow for the optimal choice of site/design alternatives. In this phase, a study of community leadership in energy/environment issues was conducted in a town familiar with a (nuclear) thermal power plant. Secondly, a linear composite analysis of the measurement problems associated with combining diverse scales of impacts was completed. Third, a revision of the social values instrument used in a previous phase of the study was initiated. Finally, liaison activities with utilities were undertaken. Quantification of three of the technical impact factors is currently underway

  17. Crop water-stress assessment using an airborne thermal scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, J. P.; Jackson, R. D.; Reginato, R. J.; Idso, S. B.; Goettelman, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    An airborne thermal scanner was used to measure the temperature of a wheat crop canopy in Phoenix, Arizona. The results indicate that canopy temperatures acquired about an hour and a half past solar noon were well correlated with presunrise plant water tension, a parameter directly related to plant growth and development. Pseudo-colored thermal images reading directly in stress degree days, a unit indicative of crop irrigation needs and yield potential, were produced. The aircraft data showed significant within-field canopy temperature variability, indicating the superiority of the synoptic view provided by aircraft over localized ground measurements. The standard deviation between airborne and ground-acquired canopy temperatures was 2 C or less.

  18. Assessment of Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Facility and Capability Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Werner

    2014-07-01

    The development of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) system rests heavily upon being able to fabricate and demonstrate the performance of a high temperature nuclear fuel as well as demonstrating an integrated system prior to launch. A number of studies have been performed in the past which identified the facilities needed and the capabilities available to meet the needs and requirements identified at that time. Since that time, many facilities and capabilities within the Department of Energy have been removed or decommissioned. This paper provides a brief overview of the anticipated facility needs and identifies some promising concepts to be considered which could support the development of a nuclear thermal propulsion system. Detailed trade studies will need to be performed to support the decision making process.

  19. Environmental impact assessment of coal fired thermal power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambi, K.S.V.; Sadasivan, S.; Negi, B.S.; Meenakshy, V.

    1992-01-01

    Coal fly ash samples collected from various thermal power plants and one lignite ash sample were analysed for various elements such as As, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Se, Si, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Ti, V, Yb and Zn using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and instrumental neutron activation analysis methods. The two-step maximum leachability test was also performed on all fly ash samples. 13 refs, 9 tabs

  20. Numerical assessment of the ion turbulent thermal transport scaling laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottaviani, M.; Manfredi, G.

    2001-01-01

    Numerical simulations of ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven turbulence were carried out to investigate the parametric dependence of the ion thermal transport on the reduced gyroradius and on the local safety factor. Whereas the simulations show a clear proportionality of the conductivity to the gyroradius, the dependence on the safety factor cannot be represented as a simple power law like the one exhibited by the empirical scaling laws. (author)

  1. On-Orbit Health Monitoring and Repair Assessment of Thermal Protection Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR project delivers On-orbit health MoNItoring and repair assessment of THERMal protection systems (OMNI_THERM). OMNI_THERM features impedance-based...

  2. Lamb Wave Assessment of Fatigue and Thermal Damage in Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Michael D.; Smith, Barry T.; Prosser, W. H.

    2004-01-01

    Among the various techniques available, ultrasonic Lamb waves offer a convenient method of evaluating composite materials. Since the Lamb wave velocity depends on the elastic properties of a structure, an effective tool exists to monitor damage in composites by measuring the velocity of these waves. Lamb wave measurements can propagate over long distances and are sensitive to the desired in-plane elastic properties of the material. This paper describes two studies which monitor fatigue damage and two studies which monitor thermal damage in composites using Lamb waves. In the fatigue studies, the Lamb wave velocity is compared to modulus measurements obtained using strain gage measurements in the first experiment and the velocity is monitored along with the crack density in the second. In the thermal damage studies, one examines samples which were exposed to varying temperatures for a three minute duration and the second includes rapid thermal damage in composites by intense laser beams. In all studies, the Lamb wave velocity is demonstrated to be an excellent method to monitor damage in composites.

  3. Assessing population and environmental effects on thermal resistance in Drosophila melanogaster using ecologically relevant assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Johannes; Hoffmann, Ary A; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård

    2011-01-01

    To make laboratory studies of thermal resistance in ectotherms more ecologically relevant, temperature changes that reflect conditions experienced by individuals in nature should be used. Here we describe an assay that is useful for quantifying multiple measures of thermal resistance of individual...... adult flies. We use this approach to assess upper and lower thermal limits and functional thermal scope for Drosophila melanogaster and also show that the method can be used to (1) detect a previously described latitudinal cline for cold tolerance in D. melanogaster populations collected along the east...... thermal environments have wider thermal limits compared to those from the less variable tropics, at least when flies were reared under constant temperature conditions and (4) demonstrate that different measures of cold resistance are often not strongly correlated. Based on our findings, we suggest...

  4. A relation between calculated human body exergy consumption rate and subjectively assessed thermal sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Kolarik, Jakub; Iwamatsu, Toshiya

    2011-01-01

    occupants, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. Until now, no data have been available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation. The objective of the present work was to relate thermal...... sensation data, from earlier thermal comfort studies, to calculated human-body exergy consumption rates. The results show that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation votes close to thermal neutrality, tending to the slightly cool side of thermal sensation....... Generally, the relationship between air temperature and the exergy consumption rate, as a first approximation, shows an increasing trend. Taking account of both convective and radiative heat exchange between the human body and the surrounding environment by using the calculated operative temperature, exergy...

  5. Large Eddy Simulation of a thermal mixing tee in order to assess the thermal fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galpin, J.; Simoneau, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In this study, we perform a Large Eddy Simulation of a mixing tee, for which experimental thermal statistics are available. → A special methodology has been set up for comparing properly the fluctuations with the experiment. → A comparison between the Smagorinsky and the structure-function sub-grid scale model is achieved out. → Slight better predictions are obtained with the structure-function model. → The possibility to reduce the computational domain by prescribing synthetic turbulence at the inlet is tested. First results are encouraging and underline the advantage of considering this technique instead of a standard noise at the entrance of the domain. - Abstract: The present paper deals with thermal fatigue phenomenon, and more particularly with the numerical simulation using Large Eddy Simulation technique of a mixing tee, for which experimental thermal statistics are available. The sensitivity to the sub-grid scale closure is first evaluated by comparing the experimental statistics with the numerical results obtained via both the Smagorinsky and the structure-function models. Because of a difference of temporal resolution between the experiment and the simulation, the direct comparison of the fluctuations is not possible. Therefore, a methodology based on filtering the numerical results is proposed in order to achieve a proper comparison. The comparison of the numerical results with the experiment suggests that slight better predictions are obtained with the structure-function model even if the dependency of the results to the sub-grid scale model is low. Then, the possibility to reduce the fluid computational domain by prescribing synthetic turbulence at the inlet is tested. First results are encouraging and underline the advantage of considering this technique instead of a standard noise at the entrance of the domain. All the simulations are conducted with the commercial CFD code STAR-CD.

  6. Preface to Special Topic: Marine Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, F. T.; Iglesias, G.; Santos, P. R.; Deng, Zhiqun

    2015-12-30

    Marine renewable energy (MRE) is generates from waves, currents, tides, and thermal resources in the ocean. MRE has been identified as a potential commercial-scale source of renewable energy. This special topic presents a compilation of works selected from the 3rd IAHR Europe Congress, held in Porto, Portugal, in 2014. It covers different subjects relevant to MRE, including resource assessment, marine energy sector policies, energy source comparisons based on levelized cost, proof-of-concept and new-technology development for wave and tidal energy exploitation, and assessment of possible inference between wave energy converters (WEC).

  7. Scaling of Thermal-Hydraulic Phenomena and System Code Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfert, K.

    2008-01-01

    In the last five decades large efforts have been undertaken to provide reliable thermal-hydraulic system codes for the analyses of transients and accidents in nuclear power plants. Many separate effects tests and integral system tests were carried out to establish a data base for code development and code validation. In this context the question has to be answered, to what extent the results of down-scaled test facilities represent the thermal-hydraulic behaviour expected in a full-scale nuclear reactor under accidental conditions. Scaling principles, developed by many scientists and engineers, present a scientific technical basis and give a valuable orientation for the design of test facilities. However, it is impossible for a down-scaled facility to reproduce all physical phenomena in the correct temporal sequence and in the kind and strength of their occurrence. The designer needs to optimize a down-scaled facility for the processes of primary interest. This leads compulsorily to scaling distortions of other processes with less importance. Taking into account these weak points, a goal oriented code validation strategy is required, based on the analyses of separate effects tests and integral system tests as well as transients occurred in full-scale nuclear reactors. The CSNI validation matrices are an excellent basis for the fulfilling of this task. Separate effects tests in full scale play here an important role.

  8. Thermal Impact Assessment of Groundwater Heat Pumps (GWHPs: Rigorous vs. Simplified Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Piga

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater Heat Pumps (GWHPs are increasingly adopted for air conditioning in urban areas, thus reducing CO2 emissions, and this growth needs to be managed to ensure the sustainability of the thermal alteration of aquifers. However, few studies have addressed the propagation of thermal plumes from open-loop geothermal systems from a long-term perspective. We provide a comprehensive sensitivity analysis, performed with numerical finite-element simulations, to assess how the size of the thermally affected zone is driven by hydrodynamic and thermal subsurface properties, the vadose zone and aquifer thickness, and plant setup. In particular, we focus the analysis on the length and width of thermal plumes, and on their time evolution. Numerical simulations are compared with two simplified methods, namely (i replacing the time-varying thermal load with its yearly average and (ii analytical formulae for advective heat transport in the aquifer. The former proves acceptable for the assessment of plume length, while the latter can be used to estimate the width of the thermally affected zone. The results highlight the strong influence of groundwater velocity on the plume size and, especially for its long-term evolution, of ground thermal properties and of subsurface geometrical parameters.

  9. Methodology for Thermal Behaviour Assessment of Homogeneous Façades in Heritage Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Gil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is fundamental to study the thermal behaviour in all architectural constructions throughout their useful life, in order to detect early deterioration ensuring durability, in addition to achieving and maintaining the interior comfort with the minimum energy consumption possible. This research has developed a methodology to assess the thermal behaviour of façades in heritage buildings. This paper presents methodology validation and verification (V & V through a laboratory experiment. Guidelines and conclusions are extracted with the employment of three techniques in this experiment (thermal sensors, thermal imaging camera, and 3D thermal simulation in finite element software. A small portion of a homogeneous façade has been reproduced with indoor and outdoor thermal conditions. A closed chamber was constructed with wood panels and thermal insulation, leaving only one face exposed to the outside conditions, with a heat source inside the chamber that induces a temperature gradient in the wall. With this methodology, it is possible to better understand the thermal behaviour of the façade and to detect possible damage with the calibration and comparison of the results obtained by the experimental and theoretical techniques. This methodology can be extrapolated to the analysis of the thermal behaviour of façades in heritage buildings, usually made up of homogeneous material.

  10. Validity of Thermal Ramping Assays Used to Assess Thermal Tolerance in Arthropods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Johannes; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov

    2012-01-01

    are useful assays for small insects because they incorporate an ecologically relevant gradual temperature change. However, recent model-based papers have suggested that estimates of thermal resistance may be strongly confounded by simultaneous starvation and dehydration stress. In the present study we...... empirically test these model predictions using two sets of independent experiments. We clearly demonstrate that results from ramping assays of small insects (Drosophila melanogaster) are not compromised by starvation- or dehydration-stress. Firstly we show that the mild disturbance of water and energy balance...... of D. melanogaster experienced during the ramping tests does not confound heat tolerance estimates. Secondly we show that flies pre-exposed to starvation and dehydration have ‘‘normal’’ heat tolerance and that resistance to heat stress is independent of the energetic and water status of the flies...

  11. Thermal performance monitoring and assessment in Dukovany nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madron, F. [Chemplant Technology s.r.o., Hrncirska 4, 400 01 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Papuga, J. [CEZ a.s., JE Dukovany, 675 50 Dukovany (Czech Republic); Pliska, J. [I and C ENERGO a.s., Prazska 684, 674 01 Trebic (Czech Republic)

    2006-07-01

    Competition in the European electricity market forces generators to achieve - in compliance with safety and environmental standards - efficiency of production as high as possible. This efficiency or heat rate is an important indicator of both the condition of the plant equipment and the quality of plant operation. Similar thermal performance indicators can also be calculated for components of the plant equipment such as heat exchangers. However, it is not easy to quantify these indicators with sufficient precision so that the results can be used for conduct of plant operation in near-real time and for predictive maintenance. This paper describes a present state of the system monitoring and evaluating thermal performance of the reactor units in Dukovany Nuclear Power Plant. The system provides information on actual and desirable (should-be) values of thermal performance indicators for control room operators, performance engineers and maintenance planners. The system is designed to monitor steady states and has two main functions: data validation and process simulation. Data validation is based on data reconciliation methodology and carried out with Recon software by Chemplant Technology. A detailed model of the secondary side for mass and heat balancing has been made up by means of the Recon's graphical editor; now it contains roughly 300 flows and employs data of about 200 measurements. Main advantages of the data reconciliation are: - reconciled data are consistent with the model, - reconciled data are more precise than data directly measured with consequence that the thermal power of steam generators is determined with substantially lower uncertainty than before - data reconciliation represents a solid basis for detection and identification of data corrupted by gross errors. Simulation is performed with a different analytical model of plant components configured into secondary side. The model has been developed by I and C Energo. Main purposes of simulation

  12. Efficiency assessment and benchmarking of thermal power plants in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, Naveen; Sharma, Seema; Chauhan, Kavita

    2012-01-01

    Per capita consumption of electricity in India is many folds lesser than Canada, USA, Australia, Japan, Chaina and world average. Even though, total energy shortage and peaking shortage were recorded as 11.2% and 11.85%, respectively, in 2008–09 reflecting non-availability of sufficient supply of electricity. Performance improvement of very small amount can lead to large contribution in financial terms, which can be utilized for capacity addition to reduce demand supply gap. Coal fired thermal power plants are main sources of electricity in India. In this paper, relative technical efficiency of 60 coal fired power plants has been evaluated and compared using CCR and BCC models of data envelopment analysis. Target benchmark of input variables has also been evaluated. Performance comparison includes small versus medium versus large power plants and also state owned versus central owned versus private owned. Result indicates poor performance of few power plants due to over use of input resources. Finding reveals that efficiency of small power plants is lower in comparison to medium and large category and also performance of state owned power plants is comparatively lower than central and privately owned. Study also suggests different measures to improve technical efficiency of the plants. - Highlights: ► This study evaluates relative technical efficiency of 60 coal fired thermal power plants of India. ► Input oriented CCR and BCC models of data envelopment analysis have been used. ► Small, medium and large power plants have been compared. ► Study will help investor while setting up new power projects. ► Power plants of different ownerships have also been compared.

  13. Assessment of effective thermal conductivity in U–Mo metallic fuels with distributed gas bubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Shenyang; Casella, Andrew M.; Lavender, Curt A.; Senor, David J.; Burkes, Douglas E.

    2015-07-15

    This work presents a numerical method to assess the relative impact of various microstructural features including grain sizes, nanometer scale intragranular gas bubbles, and larger intergranular gas bubbles in irradiated U–Mo metallic fuels on the effective thermal conductivity. A phase-field model was employed to construct a three-dimensional polycrystalline U–Mo fuel alloy with a given crystal morphology and gas bubble microstructures. An effective thermal conductivity “concept” was taken to capture the effect of polycrystalline structures and gas bubble microstructures with significant size differences on the thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity of inhomogeneous materials was calculated by solving the heat transport equation. The obtained results are in reasonably good agreement with experimental measurements made on irradiated U–Mo fuel samples containing similar microstructural features. The developed method can be used to predict the thermal conductivity degradation in operating nuclear fuels if the evolution of microstructures is known during operation of the fuel.

  14. Using a Zonal Model To Assess the Effect of a Heated Floor on Thermal Comfort Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boukhris, Yosr; Gharbi, Leila; Ghrab-Morcos, Nadia

    2009-01-01

    People s perceptions of indoor air quality and thermal comfort are affected by air speed and temperature. We have extended the three-dimensional zonal model, ZAER, to be able to predict the temperature fields and the air distributions between and within rooms in the case of natural convection. This paper presents an application of the new zonal model dealing with the influence of a heated floor of one room upon the winter thermal comfort of an unconditioned Tunisian dwelling. Coupling ZAER with a thermal comfort model allows the assessment of the thermal quality of the dwelling through the prediction of a comfort indicator. The obtained results show that a heated floor can be a useful component to improve thermal comfort in the Tunisian context, even in another room

  15. Assessment of thermal efficiency of heat recovery coke making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, H. P.; Saxena, V. K.; Haldar, S. K.; Sriramoju, S. K.

    2017-08-01

    The heat recovery stamp charge coke making process is quite complicated due to the evolved volatile matter during coking, is partially combusted in oven crown and sole flue in a controlled manner to provide heat for producing metallurgical coke. Therefore, the control and efficient utilization of heat in the oven crown, and sole flue is difficult, which directly affects the operational efficiency. Considering the complexity and importance of thermal efficiency, evolution of different gases, combustion of gasses in oven crown and sole flue, and heating process of coke oven has been studied. A nonlinear regression methodology was used to predict temperature profile of different depth of coal cake during the coking. It was observed that the predicted temperature profile is in good agreement with the actual temperature profile (R2 = 0.98) and is validated with the actual temperature profile of other ovens. A complete study is being done to calculate the material balance, heat balance, and heat losses. This gives an overall understanding of heat flow which affects the heat penetration into the coal cake. The study confirms that 60% heat was utilized during coking.

  16. Program definition and assessment overview. [for thermal energy storage project management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    The implementation of a program level assessment of thermal energy storage technology thrusts for the near and far term to assure overall coherent energy storage program is considered. The identification and definition of potential thermal energy storage applications, definition of technology requirements, and appropriate market sectors are discussed along with the necessary coordination, planning, and preparation associated with program reviews, workshops, multi-year plans and annual operating plans for the major laboratory tasks.

  17. Assessing energy efficiency of electric car bottom furnaces intended for thermal energization of minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizhegorodov, A. I.

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with a new concept of electric furnaces for roasting and thermal energization of vermiculite and other minerals with vibrational transportation of a single-layer mass under constant thermal field. The paper presents performance calculation and comparative assessment of energy data for furnaces of different modifications: flame and electric furnaces with three units, furnaces with six units and ones with series-parallel connection of units, and furnaces of new concept.

  18. Initial assessment of the thermal stresses around a radioactive waste depository in hard rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgkinson, D.P.; Bourke, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    The disposal of heat emitting radioactive waste into hard rock should result in temperature rises and thermal gradients over distances of several hundred metres for several centuries. The consequent constrained thermal expansion of the rock would induce stresses which have important implications for possible water-borne leakage of radionuclides and for depository design. These problems are assessed by considering a simplified mathematical model for which analytic solutions to the temperature and stress fields are derived. (author)

  19. Combining several thermal indices to generate a unique heat comfort assessment methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissam EL Hachem

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The proposed methodology hopes to provide a systematic multi-disciplinary approach to assess the thermal environment while minimizing unneeded efforts. Design/methodology/approach: Different factors affect the perception of the human thermal experience: metabolic rate (biology, surrounding temperatures (heat balance and environmental factors and cognitive treatment (physiology.This paper proposes a combination of different multidisciplinary variables to generate a unique heat comfort assessment methodology. The variables at stake are physiological, biological, and environmental. Our own heat analysis is thoroughly presented and all relevant equations are described. Findings: Most companies are oblivious about potential dangers of heat stress accidents and thus about methods to monitor and prevent them. This methodology enables the company or the concerned individual to conduct a preliminary assessment with minimal wasted resources and time in unnecessary steps whilst providing a guideline for a detailed study with minimal error rates if needed. More so, thermal comfort is an integral part of sound ergonomics practices, which in turn are decisive for the success of any lean six sigma initiative. Research limitations/implications: This methodology requires several full implementations to finalize its design. Originality/value: Most used heat comfort models are inherently uncertain and tiresome to apply. An extensive literature review confirms the need for a uniform assessment methodology that combines the different thermal comfort models such as the Fanger comfort model (PMV, PPD and WGBT since high error rates coupled with tiresome calculations often hinder the thermal assessment process.

  20. Radon assessment in thermal waters in Imbabura and Pichincha provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragon, Mayra

    2001-01-01

    The radon is a radioactive, odorless and colorless gas, that generated in the terrestrial crust by the radioactive decay of the radio, originating of the chain of disintegration of the Uranium-238, can migrate considerable distances during its short time of life (3.82 days), from the ground to the water and later to the atmosphere. For the accomplishment of the preliminary study of quantification of radon in thermal sources, it was come to the sampling from radon-222 in bath waters different from the provinces of Pichincha and Imbabura. For which a particle accountant was used alpha, that uses the method of flashing, emitted by ionizing particles at the moment at which the radium decays in its descendant radon, and this one in its next descendants. The water samples are analyzed in the Pylon model RM-1003, particle accountant alpha, that uses for the harvesting of the gas, cameras that contain sensible detectors activated zinc sulfide cells with silver. For this sampling it was taken into account qualitative factors like: rain temperature, presence, origin of the source, proximity of some hill or volcano, presence of seismic movements, among others. These parameters could affect to the measurements of concentration of radon. Of the obtained results, we can conclude that of the 13 bath, those of the province of Pichincha, specially three of them (Tesalia, Sillunchi, Cunuyacu), contain greater concentration of radon that those of the province of Imbabura. In addition in general for all the selected bath it was verified that the concentration of radon is greater for the source than for the swimming pool. Finally it is possible to be emphasized values of concentration of radon that are around 1000-15000 Bq/m3 for the source, and the swimming pool of 100-800 Bq/m3. (The author)

  1. Thermal hazard assessment of AN and AN-based explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, R; Lightfoot, P D; Fouchard, R; Jones, D E G

    2003-07-04

    Ammonium nitrate (AN) is an essential ingredient in most fertilizers. It is also widely used in the commercial explosives industry. In this latter application, it is mostly mixed with fuel oil to form the most popular commercial explosive: ANFO. In both the fertilizer and the explosive industry, aqueous AN solutions (ANS) of various concentrations are processed. These solutions also form the basis of ammonium nitrate emulsion explosives (also called ammonium nitrate emulsions or ANE), which are produced either in bulk or in packaged form. For all these AN-based products, quantities of the order of 20,000kg are being manufactured, transported, stored, and processed at elevated temperatures and/or elevated pressures. Correspondingly, major accidents involving overheating of large quantities of these products have happened in several of these operations. In comparison, convenient laboratory quantities to investigate thermal decomposition properties are generally less than 1kg. As a result, in order to provide information applicable to real-life situations, any laboratory study must use techniques that minimize heat losses from the samples to their environment. In the present study, two laboratory-scale calorimeters providing an adiabatic environment were used: an accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC) and an adiabatic Dewar calorimeter (ADC). Experiments were performed on pure AN, ANFO, various ANS systems, and typical bulk and packaged ANE systems. The effects of sample mass, atmosphere, and formulation on the resulting onset temperatures were studied. A comparison of the results from the two techniques is provided and a proposed method to extrapolate these results to large-scale inventories is examined.

  2. Reliability of a novel thermal imaging system for temperature assessment of healthy feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, N L; Whittam, A; MacDonald, A; Ainarkar, S; Donaldson, A N; Bevans, J; Allen, J; Plassmann, P; Kluwe, B; Ring, F; Rogers, L; Simpson, R; Machin, G; Edmonds, M E

    2018-01-01

    Thermal imaging is a useful modality for identifying preulcerative lesions ("hot spots") in diabetic foot patients. Despite its recognised potential, at present, there is no readily available instrument for routine podiatric assessment of patients at risk. To address this need, a novel thermal imaging system was recently developed. This paper reports the reliability of this device for temperature assessment of healthy feet. Plantar skin foot temperatures were measured with the novel thermal imaging device (Diabetic Foot Ulcer Prevention System (DFUPS), constructed by Photometrix Imaging Ltd) and also with a hand-held infrared spot thermometer (Thermofocus® 01500A3, Tecnimed, Italy) after 20 min of barefoot resting with legs supported and extended in 105 subjects (52 males and 53 females; age range 18 to 69 years) as part of a multicentre clinical trial. The temperature differences between the right and left foot at five regions of interest (ROIs), including 1st and 4th toes, 1st, 3rd and 5th metatarsal heads were calculated. The intra-instrument agreement (three repeated measures) and the inter-instrument agreement (hand-held thermometer and thermal imaging device) were quantified using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) and the 95% confidence intervals (CI). Both devices showed almost perfect agreement in replication by instrument. The intra-instrument ICCs for the thermal imaging device at all five ROIs ranged from 0.95 to 0.97 and the intra-instrument ICCs for the hand-held-thermometer ranged from 0.94 to 0.97. There was substantial to perfect inter-instrument agreement between the hand-held thermometer and the thermal imaging device and the ICCs at all five ROIs ranged between 0.94 and 0.97. This study reports the performance of a novel thermal imaging device in the assessment of foot temperatures in healthy volunteers in comparison with a hand-held infrared thermometer. The newly developed thermal imaging device showed very good agreement in

  3. Safety and anti-HIV assessments of natural vaginal cleansing products in an established topical microbicides in vitro testing algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Maureen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At present, there is no effective vaccine or other approved product for the prevention of sexually transmitted human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection. It has been reported that women in resource-poor communities use vaginally applied citrus juices as topical microbicides. These easily accessible food products have historically been applied to prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and cytotoxicity of these substances using an established topical microbicide testing algorithm. Freshly squeezed lemon and lime juice and household vinegar were tested in their original state or in pH neutralized form for efficacy and cytotoxicity in the CCR5-tropic cell-free entry and cell-associated transmission assays, CXCR4-tropic entry and fusion assays, and in a human PBMC-based anti-HIV-1 assay. These products were also tested for their effect on viability of cervico-vaginal cell lines, human cervical explant tissues, and beneficial Lactobacillus species. Results Natural lime and lemon juice and household vinegar demonstrated anti-HIV-1 activity and cytotoxicity in transformed cell lines. Neutralization of the products reduced both anti-HIV-1 activity and cytotoxicity, resulting in a low therapeutic window for both acidic and neutralized formulations. For the natural juices and vinegar, the IC50 was ≤ 3.5 (0.8-3.5% and the TC50 ≤ 6.3 (1.0-6.3%. All three liquid products inhibited viability of beneficial Lactobacillus species associated with vaginal health. Comparison of three different toxicity endpoints in the cervical HeLa cell line revealed that all three products affected membrane integrity, cytosolic enzyme release, and dehydrogenase enzyme activity in living cells. The juices and vinegar also exerted strong cytotoxicity in cervico-vaginal cell lines, mainly due to their acidic pH. In human cervical explant tissues, treatment with 5% lemon or lime juice

  4. Efficacy and tolerability assessment of a topical formulation containing copper sulfate and hypericum perforatum on patients with herpes skin lesions: a comparative, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clewell, Amy; Barnes, Matt; Endres, John R; Ahmed, Mansoor; Ghambeer, Daljit K S

    2012-02-01

    Topical Acyclovir has moderate efficacy on recurrent HSV symptoms, requiring repeat applications for several days. Topical Dynamiclear, which requires only a single dose application, may provide a more effective and convenient treatment option for symptomatic management of HSV. The study assessed the comparative efficacy and tolerability of a single use, topical formulation containing copper sulfate pentahydrate and Hypericum perforatum that is marketed as Dynamiclear™ to a topical 5% Acyclovir cream standard preparation and use. A prospective, randomized, multi-centered, comparative, open-label clinical study was conducted. A total of 149 participants between 18 and 55 years of age with active HSV-1 and HSV-2 lesions were recruited for the 14-day clinical trial. Participants were randomized into two groups: A (n=61), those receiving the Dynamiclear formulation, and B (n=59), those receiving 5% Acyclovir. Efficacy parameters were assessed via physical examination at baseline (day 1), day 2, 3, 8, and 14. Laboratory safety tests were conducted at baseline and on day 14. Use of the Dynamiclear formulation was found to have no significant adverse effects and was well tolerated by participants. All hematological and biochemical markers were within normal range for the Dynamiclear group. Statistically, odds for being affected by burning and stinging sensation were 1.9 times greater in the Acyclovir group in comparison to the Dynamiclear group. Similarly, the odds of being affected by symptoms of acute pain, erythema and vesiculation were 1.8, 2.4, and 4.4 times higher in the Acyclovir group in comparison to the Dynamiclear group. The Dynamiclear formulation was well tolerated, and efficacy was demonstrated in a number of measured parameters, which are helpful in the symptomatic management of HSV-1 and HSV-2 lesions in adult patients. Remarkably, the effects seen from this product came from a single application.

  5. Thermal Assessment of Low-Cost Rural Housing—A Case Study in the Ecuadorian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Miño-Rodríguez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to assess the indoor thermal performance of rural dwellings in the Ecuadorian highlands through both experimental and numerical analysis. A three-step methodology was applied to conduct the research: (a field data collection, (b building thermal model development and calibration, and (c comparison analysis and assessment of traditional improvement strategies. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from two representative rural dwellings under typical usage conditions. The first is a traditional construction, medium-exposed thermal mass dwelling (Case A. The second is a local common, uninsulated, lightweight construction (Case B. The thermal model was calibrated by comparing hourly temperature values of the observed and the predicted indoor air temperature. A high correlation level (R2 was achieved between the observed and predicted data; 0.89 in Case A and 0.94 in Case B. The results show that the roof, floor, and the airtightness are the critical building parameters affecting the indoor thermal environment. Likewise, the indoor air temperature is increased up to 4 °C through the implementation of traditional strategies. However, despite the rise in indoor air temperature, acceptable thermal comfort ranges were only reached for 25% of the total hours.

  6. A relation between calculated human body exergy consumption rate and subjectively assessed thermal sensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simone, Angela; Kolarik, Jakub; Olesen, Bjarne W. [ICIEE/BYG, Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Iwamatsu, Toshiya [Faculty of Urban Environmental Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University (Japan); Asada, Hideo [Architech Consulting Co., Tokyo (Japan); Dovjak, Mateja [Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Schellen, Lisje [Eindhoven University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture Building and Planning (Netherlands); Shukuya, Masanori [Laboratory of Building Environment, Tokyo City University, Yokohama (Japan)

    2011-01-15

    Application of the exergy concept to research on the built environment is a relatively new approach. It helps to optimize climate conditioning systems so that they meet the requirements of sustainable building design. As the building should provide a healthy and comfortable environment for its occupants, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. Until now, no data have been available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation. The objective of the present work was to relate thermal sensation data, from earlier thermal comfort studies, to calculated human-body exergy consumption rates. The results show that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation votes close to thermal neutrality, tending to the slightly cool side of thermal sensation. Generally, the relationship between air temperature and the exergy consumption rate, as a first approximation, shows an increasing trend. Taking account of both convective and radiative heat exchange between the human body and the surrounding environment by using the calculated operative temperature, exergy consumption rates increase as the operative temperature increases above 24 C or decreases below 22 C. With the data available so far, a second-order polynomial relationship between thermal sensation and the exergy consumption rate was established. (author)

  7. Assessment of thermal fatigue crack propagation in safety injection PWR lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simos, N.; Reich, M.; Costantino, C.J.; Hartzman, M.

    1990-01-01

    Cyclic thermal stratification resulting in alternating thermal stresses in pipe cross sections has been identified as the primary cause of high cycle thermal fatigue failure. A number of piping lines in operating plants around the world, susceptible to thermal stratification, have experienced circumferential cracking as a result of high levels of alternating bending stresses. This paper addresses the mechanisms of crack initiation and crack growth and provides estimates of fatigue cycles to failure for a typical safety injection line with such cyclic load history. Utilizing a 3-D finite element analysis, the temperature profile and the corresponding thermal stress field of a complete thermal cycle in a safety injection line consisting of a horizontal pipe section and an elbow, is obtained. Since the observed cracking occurred in the region of the elbow-to-horizontal pipe weld, the analysis performed assessed (1) the impact of the level of local geometric discontinuities on the initiation of an inside surface flaw is greatest and (2) the number of thermal cycles required to drive a small surface crack through the pipe wall. 12 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Design of durability and lifetime assessment method under thermomechanical stress for thermal barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hyun Gyoo; Choi, Young Kue; Jeon, Seol; Lee, Hee Soo [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Min Seok [Korea Testing Laboratory, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    A durability testing method under thermo-mechanical stress for thermal barrier coatings (TBC) specimens was designed by a combination of an electric furnace and a tensile testing machine, which was done on TBCs on NIMONIC 263 substrates by an atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) deposition method. The testing conditions were chosen according to a preliminary experiment that identified the elastic deformation region of the top coating and the substrate during mechanical loading. Surface cracking and a decrease in the thickness of the top coating, which are typical degradation behaviors under conventional thermal shock testing, were observed after the designed thermal fatigue test, and delamination at the top coating-bond coating interface occurred by the mechanical load. Lifetime assessment was conducted by statistical software using life cycle data which were obtained after the thermal fatigue test.

  9. Application of thermal comfort theory in probabilistic safety assessment of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Tao; Sun Canhui; Li Zhenyang; Wang Zenghui

    2011-01-01

    Human factor errors in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of a nuclear power plant (NPP) can be prevented using thermal comfort analysis. In this paper, the THERP + HCR model is modified by using PMV (Predicted Mean Vote) and PPD (Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied) index system, so as to obtain the operator cognitive reliability,and to reflect and analyze human perception, thermal comfort status,and cognitive ability in a specific NPP environment. The mechanism of human factors in the PSA is analyzed by operators of skill, rule and knowledge types. The THERP + HCR model modified by thermal comfort theory can reflect the conditions in actual environment, and optimize reliability analysis of human factors. Improving human thermal comfort for different types of operators reduces adverse factors due to human errors, and provides a safe and optimum decision-making for NPPs. (authors)

  10. Profits or preferences? Assessing the adoption of residential solar thermal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Bradford F.; Schleich, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Solar thermal technologies offer the potential to meet a substantial share of residential water and space heating needs in the EU, but current levels of adoption are low. This paper uses data from a large sample of German households to assess the effects of geographic, residence, and household characteristics on the adoption of solar thermal water and space heating technologies. In addition, the impact of solar thermal technology adoption on household energy expenditures is estimated after controlling for observed household heterogeneity in geographic, residential, and household characteristics. While evidence is found of moderate household energy expenditure savings from combined solar water and space heating systems, the findings generally confirm that low in-home energy cost savings and fixed housing stocks limit the diffusion of residential solar thermal technologies. Little evidence is found of differential adoption by distinct socio-economic groups.

  11. Assessment of monitored energy use and thermal comfort conditions in mosques in hot-humid climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Homoud, Mohammad S.; Abdou, Adel A.; Budaiwi, Ismail M. [Architectural Engineering Department, KFUPM, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-06-15

    In harsh climatic regions, buildings require air-conditioning in order to provide an acceptable level of thermal comfort. In many situations buildings are over cooled or the HVAC system is kept running for a much longer time than needed. In some other situations thermal comfort is not achieved due to improper operation practices coupled with poor maintenance and even lack it, and consequently inefficient air-conditioning systems. Mosques represent one type of building that is characterized by their unique intermittent operating schedule determined by prayer times, which vary continuously according to the local solar time. This paper presents the results of a study designed to monitor energy use and thermal comfort conditions of a number of mosques in a hot-humid climate so that both energy efficiency and the quality of thermal comfort conditions especially during occupancy periods in such intermittently operated buildings can be assessed accurately. (author)

  12. Advanced thermal management of a solar cell by a nano-coated heat pipe plate: A thermal assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Yanping

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The nano-coated heat pipe plate provides sufficient cooling energy to the solar cell. • The induced solar cell temperature is below 40 °C in normal range of solar irradiance. • The evaporative heat flux is tuneable and varies with the change of operating conditions. • Additional cooling at the condenser is helpful to improve the heat removal of the device. - Abstract: The significant temperature effect on solar cells results in loss of photovoltaic (PV) efficiency by up to 20–25%, which may over-negate the efforts in technology development for promoting PV efficiency. This motivates studies in thermal management for solar cells. This study concerns the thermal assessment of an advanced system composed by a solar cell and a nano-coated heat pipe plate for thermal management. Solar cell temperature and the corresponding evaporative heat flux are evaluated based on a conjugated heat transfer model. It indicates that the solar cell can be cooled down to be below 40 °C and suffers no temperature effect due to the use of the heat pipe plate. The heat pipe plate can provide sufficient cooling to the solar cell under different solar irradiance. The analytical and experimental results show that the maximum evaporative heat flux of the current heat pipe plate is around 450 W/m"2. However, the practical heat removal flux at the condenser is 390 W/m"2. The loss of cooling energy is due to the gathered vapour at the condenser section, which prevents the liquid-vapour circulation inside the vacuum chamber of the device. By using additional cooling strategies (i.e. heat sink, PCMs, water jacket) at the condenser section, the heat removal ability can be further improved.

  13. Thermal-hydraulic assessment of concrete storage cubicle with horizontal 3013 canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HEARD, F.J.

    1999-04-08

    The FIDAP computer code was used to perform a series of analyses to assess the thermal-hydraulic performance characteristics of the concrete plutonium storage cubicles, as modified for the horizontal placement of 3013 canisters. Four separate models were developed ranging from a full height model of the storage cubicle to a very detailed standalone model of a horizontal 3013 canister.

  14. Thermal-hydraulic assessment of concrete storage cubicle with horizontal 3013 canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heard, F.J.

    1999-01-01

    The FIDAP computer code was used to perform a series of analyses to assess the thermal-hydraulic performance characteristics of the concrete plutonium storage cubicles, as modified for the horizontal placement of 3013 canisters. Four separate models were developed ranging from a full height model of the storage cubicle to a very detailed standalone model of a horizontal 3013 canister

  15. In vitro assessment of the efficacy of thermal therapy in human benign prostatic hyperplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhowmick, P.; Coad, J. E.; Bhowmick, S.; Pryor, J. L.; Larson, T.; de la Rosette, J.; Bischof, J. C.

    2004-01-01

    The successful management of BPH with minimally invasive thermal therapies requires a firm understanding of the temperature-time relationship for tissue destruction. In order to accomplish this objective, the present in vitro study assesses the cellular viability of human BPH tissue subjected to an

  16. Low-cost and versatile thermal test chip for power assemblies assessment and thermometric calibration purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorda, X.; Perpina, X.; Vellvehi, M.; Madrid, F.; Flores, D.; Hidalgo, S.; Millan, J.

    2011-01-01

    Chips specifically designed for thermal tests such as the assessment of packages, are of main interest in Microelectronics. Nevertheless, these test dies are required in relatively low quantities and their price is a limiting factor. This work describes a low-cost thermal test chip, specifically developed for the needs of power electronics. It is based on a poly-silicon heating resistor and a decoupled Pt temperature sensing resistor on the top, allowing to dissipate more than 60 W (170 W/cm 2 ) and reaching temperatures up to 200 o C. Its simple structure allows an easy simulation and modeling. These features have been taken in profit for packaging materials assessment, calibration of temperature measurement apparatus and methods, and validation of thermal models and simulations. - Highlights: → We describe a low-cost thermal test chip developed for power electronics applications. → It integrates a poly-silicon heating resistor and a Pt temperature sensing resistor on the top. → It can dissipate up to 200 W/cm 2 and work up to 200 o C. → It has been used for thermal resistance and conductivity measurement of substrates. → It allowed also the calibration of advanced thermometric equipments.

  17. [Using infrared thermal asymmetry analysis for objective assessment of the lesion of facial nerve function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu-long; Hong, Wen-xue; Song, Jia-lin; Wu, Zhen-ying

    2012-03-01

    The skin temperature distribution of a healthy human body exhibits a contralateral symmetry. Some lesions of facial nerve function are associated with an alteration of the thermal distribution of the human body. Since the dissipation of heat through the skin occurs for the most part in the form of infrared radiation, infrared thermography is the method of choice to capture the alteration of the infrared thermal distribution. This paper presents a new method of analysis of the thermal asymmetry named effective thermal area ratio, which is a product of two variables. The first variable is mean temperature difference between the specific facial region and its contralateral region. The second variable is a ratio, which is equal to the area of the abnormal region divided by the total area. Using this new method, we performed a controlled trial to assess the facial nerve function of the healthy subjects and the patients with Bell's palsy respectively. The results show: that the mean specificity and sensitivity of this method are 0.90 and 0.87 respectively, improved by 7% and 26% compared with conventional methods. Spearman correlation coefficient between effective thermal area ratio and the degree of facial nerve function is an average of 0.664. Hence, concerning the diagnosis and assessment of facial nerve function, infrared thermography is a powerful tool; while the effective ther mal area ratio is an efficient clinical indicator.

  18. Fracture mechanics assessment of thermal aged nuclear piping based on the Leak-Before-Break concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Mingya, E-mail: chenmingya@cgnpc.com.cn [Suzhou Nuclear Power Research Institute, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province (China); Yu, Weiwei [Suzhou Nuclear Power Research Institute, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province (China); Qian, Guian [Paul Scherrer Institute, Nuclear Energy and Safety Department, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Wang, Rongshan; Lu, Feng; Zhang, Guodong; Xue, Fei; Chen, Zhilin [Suzhou Nuclear Power Research Institute, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • The effects of thermal aging on crack unstable tearing are studied. • The critical size of crack unstable tearing is calculated by different methods. • The critical failure models are compared. • The conservatism of J–T diagram is shown. - Abstract: The Leak-Before-Break (LBB) concept has been accepted to design the primary piping system of the pressurized water reactor (PWR). Due to thermal aging of long term operation, the cast stainless steels (CSSs) which are used for the primary piping of PWR, suffer a significant loss of fracture toughness, and as a consequence the safety margin of the thermal aged pipe decreases. Therefore, the aged piping should be analyzed and validated by the LBB concept. In this paper, elastic–plastic fracture mechanics (EPFM) assessments of the thermal aged piping are presented according to the LBB concept. The critical break size of crack unstable tearing is calculated by the EPFM method. The crack driving force diagram (J–a diagram), the stability assessment diagram (J–T diagram) and a numerical method are applied to calculate the critical crack size of crack break. The effects of thermal aging on the plastic limit load, J–T diagram, critical crack size of the EPFM and the critical failure mode are studied. The results show that the thermal aging effect decreases the maximum allowed J-integral at a certain ductile tearing modulus by more than 50% and it increases the flow stress and plastic limit load by 11.78%. The results based on the J–T diagram are about 40% conservative than those based on the direct numerical method for the high loading case. For the thermal aged piping, it is important to consider the competition failure modes between plastic collapse and unstable ductile tearing.

  19. Topographic assessment of human enamel surface treated with different topical sodium fluoride agents: Scanning electron microscope consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurlal Singh Brar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Continuous balanced demineralization and remineralization are natural dynamic processes in enamel. If the balance is interrupted and demineralization process dominates, it may eventually lead to the development of carious lesions in enamel and dentine. Fluoride helps control decay by enhancing remineralization and altering the structure of the tooth, making the surface less soluble. Methodology: One hundred and twenty sound human permanent incisors randomly and equally distributed into six groups as follows: Group I - Control, II - Sodium fluoride solution, III - Sodium fluoride gel, IV - Sodium fluoride varnish, V - Clinpro Tooth Crème (3M ESPE, and VI-GC Tooth Mousse Plus or MI Paste Plus. The samples were kept in artificial saliva for 12 months, and the topical fluoride agents were applied to the respective sample groups as per the manufacturer instructions. Scanning electron microscope (SEM evaluation of all the samples after 6 and 12 months was made. Results: Morphological changes on the enamel surface after application of fluoride in SEM revealed the presence of globular precipitate in all treated samples. Amorphous, globular, and crystalline structures were seen on the enamel surface of the treated samples. Clear differences were observed between the treated and untreated samples. Conclusion: Globular structures consisting of amorphous CaF2precipitates, which acted as a fluoride reservoir, were observed on the enamel surface after action of different sodium fluoride agents. CPP-ACPF (Tooth Mousse and Tricalcium phosphate with fluoride (Clinpro tooth crème are excellent delivery vehicles available in a slow release amorphous form to localize fluoride at the tooth surface.

  20. Thermal inertia and energy efficiency – Parametric simulation assessment on a calibrated case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aste, Niccolò; Leonforte, Fabrizio; Manfren, Massimiliano; Mazzon, Manlio

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We perform a parametric simulation study on a calibrated building energy model. • We introduce adaptive shadings and night free cooling in simulations. • We analyze the effect of thermal capacity on the parametric simulations results. • We recognize that cooling demand and savings scales linearly with thermal capacity. • We assess the advantage of medium-heavy over medium and light configurations. - Abstract: The reduction of energy consumption for heating and cooling services in the existing building stock is a key challenge for global sustainability today and buildings’ envelopes retrofit is one the main issues. Most of the existing buildings’ envelopes have low levels of insulation, high thermal losses due to thermal bridges and cracks, absence of appropriate solar control, etc. Further, in building refurbishment, the importance of a system level approach is often undervalued in favour of simplistic “off the shelf” efficient solutions, focused on the reduction of thermal transmittance and on the enhancement of solar control capabilities. In many cases, the importance of the dynamic thermal properties is often neglected or underestimated and the effective thermal capacity is not properly considered as one of the design parameters. The research presented aims to critically assess the influence of the dynamic thermal properties of the building fabric (roof, walls and floors) on sensible heating and cooling energy demand for a case study. The case study chosen is an existing office building which has been retrofitted in recent years and whose energy model has been calibrated according to the data collected in the monitoring process. The research illustrates the variations of the sensible thermal energy demand of the building in different retrofit scenarios, and relates them to the variations of the dynamic thermal properties of the construction components. A parametric simulation study has been performed, encompassing the use of

  1. An assessment of thermal destruction technologies for application to Department of Energy mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    A study of known operational and emerging thermal treatment technologies was conducted for the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Technology Development (OTD) through the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP). This study addressed thermal treatment of mixed wastes (MWs), for which the most comprehensive set of waste has been divided into two volumes. Volume 1 contains the details and results of the technology assessments and comparisons between technologies. This volume (Volume 2) contains the comprehensive data collected on each technology, including descriptions, process and cost data, comments on advantages and deficiencies, types of waste treatable and by-products of these wastes, and reference information. 2 figs

  2. Near-near-infrared thermal lens spectroscopy to assess overtones and combination bands of sulfentrazone pesticide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, M.; Silva, J. R.; Andrade, L. H. C.; Scorza Júnior, R. P.; Lima, S. M.

    2018-01-01

    Thermal lens spectroscopy (TLS) in the near-near-infrared region was used to explore the absorptions of overtones and combination bands of sulfentrazone (SFZ) herbicide diluted in methanol. This spectroscopic region was chosen in order to guarantee that only thermal lens effect is noted during the experimental procedure. The results showed that it was possible to detect very low concentrations ( 2 ng/μL) of SFZ in methanol by determining its thermal diffusivity or the absorption coefficient due to the 3ν(NH) + 1δ(CH) combination band. This minimum SFZ concentration is the limit observed by chromatography method. The findings demonstrated that the TLS can be used for precise and accurate assessment of pesticides in ecosystems. Besides, the 3ν(NH) + 1δ(CH) combination band at 960 nm can be used as a marker for SFZ in methanol.

  3. Performance assessment of turbulence models for the prediction of moderator thermal flow inside CANDU calandria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gong Hee; Bang, Young Seok; Woo, Sweng Woong

    2012-01-01

    The moderator thermal flow in the CANDU calandria is generally complex and highly turbulent because of the interaction of the buoyancy force with the inlet jet inertia. In this study, the prediction performance of turbulence models for the accurate analysis of the moderator thermal flow are assessed by comparing the results calculated with various types of turbulence models in the commercial flow solver FLUENT with experimental data for the test vessel at Sheridan Park Engineering Laboratory (SPEL). Through this comparative study of turbulence models, it is concluded that turbulence models that include the source term to consider the effects of buoyancy on the turbulent flow should be used for the reliable prediction of the moderator thermal flow inside the CANDU calandria

  4. Stress assessment in piping under synthetic thermal loads emulating turbulent fluid mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Garrido, Oriol, E-mail: oriol.costa@ijs.si; El Shawish, Samir, E-mail: samir.elshawish@ijs.si; Cizelj, Leon, E-mail: leon.cizelj@ijs.si

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Generation of complex space-continuous and time-dependent temperature fields. • 1D and 3D thermo-mechanical analyses of pipes under complex surface thermal loads. • Surface temperatures and stress fluctuations are highly linearly correlated. • 1D and 3D results agree for a wide range of Fourier and Biot numbers. • Global thermo-mechanical loading promotes non-equibiaxial stress state. - Abstract: Thermal fatigue assessment of pipes due to turbulent fluid mixing in T-junctions is a rather difficult task because of the existing uncertainties and variability of induced thermal stresses. In these cases, thermal stresses arise on three-dimensional pipe structures due to complex thermal loads, known as thermal striping, acting at the fluid-wall interface. A recently developed approach for the generation of space-continuous and time-dependent temperature fields has been employed in this paper to reproduce fluid temperature fields of a case study from the literature. The paper aims to deliver a detailed study of the three-dimensional structural response of piping under the complex thermal loads arising in fluid mixing in T-junctions. Results of three-dimensional thermo-mechanical analyses show that fluctuations of surface temperatures and stresses are highly linearly correlated. Also, surface stress fluctuations, in axial and hoop directions, are almost equi-biaxial. These findings, representative on cross sections away from system boundaries, are moreover supported by the sensitivity analysis of Fourier and Biot numbers and by the comparison with standard one-dimensional analyses. Agreement between one- and three-dimensional results is found for a wide range of studied parameters. The study also comprises the effects of global thermo-mechanical loading on the surface stress state. Implemented mechanical boundary conditions develop more realistic overall system deformation and promote non-equibiaxial stresses.

  5. Solidification and Biotoxicity Assessment of Thermally Treated Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) Fly Ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Bing; Deng, Yi; Yang, Yuanyi; Tan, Swee Ngin; Liu, Qianni; Yang, Weizhong

    2017-06-10

    In the present work, thermal treatment was used to stabilize municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash, which was considered hazardous waste. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) results indicated that, after the thermal process, the leaching concentrations of Pb, Cu, and Zn decreased from 8.08 to 0.16 mg/L, 0.12 to 0.017 mg/L and 0.39 to 0.1 mg/L, respectively, which well met the limits in GB5085.3-2007 and GB16689-2008. Thermal treatment showed a negative effect on the leachability of Cr with concentrations increasing from 0.1 to 1.28 mg/L; nevertheless, it was still under the limitations. XRD analysis suggested that, after thermal treatments, CaO was newly generated. CaO was a main contribution to higher Cr leaching concentrations owing to the formation of Cr (VI)-compounds such as CaCrO₄. SEM/EDS tests revealed that particle adhesion, agglomeration, and grain growth happened during the thermal process and thus diminished the leachability of Pb, Cu, and Zn, but these processes had no significant influence on the leaching of Cr. A microbial assay demonstrated that all thermally treated samples yet possessed strong bactericidal activity according to optical density (OD) test results. Among all samples, the OD value of raw fly ash (RFA) was lowest followed by FA700-10, FA900-10, and FA1100-10 in an increasing order, which indicated that the sequence of the biotoxicity for these samples was RFA > FA700-10 > FA900-10 > FA1100-10. This preliminary study indicated that, apart from TCLP criteria, the biotoxicity assessment was indispensable for evaluating the effect of thermal treatment for MSWI fly ash.

  6. Plant-Damage Assessment Technique for Evaluating Military Vehicular Impacts to Vegetation in the Mojave Desert; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. J. Hansen; W. K. Ostler

    2001-01-01

    A new plant damage assessment technique was developed by plant ecologists from Bechtel Nevada at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Security Administration Nevada Operations Office and funded by the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program Project CS-1131 in cooperation with the U.S. Army's National Training Center (NTC) at Fort Irwin, California. The technique establishes linear transects the width of vehicle tracts from evidence of vehicle tracks in the soil (usually during a prior training rotation period of 30 days or since the last rain or wind storm), and measures vegetation within the tracks to determine the area of plant parts being run over, the percent of the impacted parts damaged, and the percent of impacted parts expected to recover. It documents prior-damage classes based on estimated of damage that plants have apparently experienced previously (as assessed from field indicators of damage such as plant shape and height). The technique was used to evaluate different vehicle types (rubber-tire wheels vs. tracks) in six area at the NTC with different soils and training intensity levels. The technique provides tabular data that can be sorted and queried to show a variety of trends related to military vehicular impacts. The technique also appears suitable for assessing other non-military off-road traffic impacts. Findings report: (1) differences in plant sensitivity of different vehicular impacts, (2) plant cover and density by species and training area, (3) the degree to which wheels have less impact than tracks, and (4) the mean percent survival is inversely proportional to the degree of prior damage received by the vegetation (i.e., plants previously impacted have lower survival than plants not previously impacted)

  7. Assessment of Accrued Damage and Remaining Useful Life in Leadfree Electronics Subjected to Multiple Thermal Environments of Thermal Aging and Thermal Cycling

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A method has been developed for prognostication of accrued prior damage in electronics subjected to overlapping sequential environments of thermal aging and thermal...

  8. Topical photodynamic therapy with porphyrin precursors--assessment of treatment-associated pain in a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbauer, Julia Maria; Schreml, Stephan; Babilas, Philipp; Zeman, Florian; Karrer, Sigrid; Landthaler, Michael; Szeimies, Rolf-Markus

    2009-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with aminolevulinic acid (ALA) or methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) is an approved modality for the non-invasive treatment of actinic keratoses (AK) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) offering excellent cosmetic outcome. However, pain during and after illumination is the most frequent and limiting side effect. The aim of this study was to precisely assess how reported pain during PDT is influenced by sex, age, treatment site, disease (AK/BCC) as well as the photosensitizer used. 467 lesions consisting of AK (primary treatments: n=158; follow-up: n=47) or BCC (primary treatments: n=138; follow-up: 124) were treated by ALA- or MAL-PDT using metal halide lamps (580-750 nm). Pain was assessed during illumination using a continuous visual analogue scale (VAS). Factors predictive for higher pain levels during PDT are treatment of the head, treating AK and using ALA. The observed results may improve patient management and predict which level of pain to expect, and what kind of pain relief to prepare.

  9. Assessment of thermal analysis software for the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.T.; Graham, R.F.; Lagerberg, G.N.; Chung, T.C.

    1989-07-01

    This assessment uses several recent assessments and the more general code compilations that have been completed to produce a list of 116 codes that can be used for thermal analysis. This list is then compared with criteria prepared especially for the Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (DOE/OCRWM). Based on these criteria, fifteen codes are narrowed to three primary codes and four secondary codes for use by the OCRWM thermal analyst. The analyst is cautioned that since no single code is sufficient for all applications, a code must be selected based upon the predominate heat transfer mode of the problem to be solved, but the codes suggested in this report have been used successfully for a range of OCRWM applications. The report concludes with a series of recommendations for additional work of which the major points include the following: The codes suggested by this report must be benchmarked with the existing US and international problems and validated when possible; An interactive code selection tool could be developed or, perhaps even more useful, a users group could be supported to ensure the proper selection of thermal codes and dissemination of information on the latest version; The status of the 116 codes identified by this report should be verified, and methods for maintaining the still active codes must be established; and special capabilities of each code in phase change, convection and radiation should be improved to better enable the thermal analyst to model OCRWM applications. 37 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs

  10. Assessment of thermal analysis software for the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, P.T.; Graham, R.F.; Lagerberg, G.N.; Chung, T.C.

    1989-07-01

    This assessment uses several recent assessments and the more general code compilations that have been completed to produce a list of 116 codes that can be used for thermal analysis. This list is then compared with criteria prepared especially for the Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (DOE/OCRWM). Based on these criteria, fifteen codes are narrowed to three primary codes and four secondary codes for use by the OCRWM thermal analyst. The analyst is cautioned that since no single code is sufficient for all applications, a code must be selected based upon the predominate heat transfer mode of the problem to be solved, but the codes suggested in this report have been used successfully for a range of OCRWM applications. The report concludes with a series of recommendations for additional work of which the major points include the following: The codes suggested by this report must be benchmarked with the existing US and international problems and validated when possible; An interactive code selection tool could be developed or, perhaps even more useful, a users group could be supported to ensure the proper selection of thermal codes and dissemination of information on the latest version; The status of the 116 codes identified by this report should be verified, and methods for maintaining the still active codes must be established; and special capabilities of each code in phase change, convection and radiation should be improved to better enable the thermal analyst to model OCRWM applications. 37 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  11. One day-old chicks transport: Assessment of thermal profile in a tropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aérica C. Nazareno

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the thermal profile of truck with different levels of box placement during one day-old chicks transport. An experiment was conducted through monitoring of 11 transport loads. A acclimatized truck was used in this research, with maximum capacity of 630 one day-old chicks boxes, totalizing 63,000 animals. The assessment of thermal environment was performed in 5 min intervals, through the following variables: temperature, relative humidity and specific enthalpy. The treatments were registered at two levels of the load (first rack and floor where 17 data loggers were distributed throughout the truck. The experiment used a completely randomized design and geostatistics was used for spatial dependency and Kriging interpolation. The microclimatic conditions of the truck were not as per recommended values, which confirm a heterogeneous distribution of heat and moisture in environment. Regarding the box positioning, the mean values of thermal variables associated with thermal comfort of one day-old chicks was found in the floor area. The most stressful environment for birds inside the truck was located in front and at the center of the truck.

  12. Assessing the sense of `good at' and `not good at' toward learning topics of mathematics with conjoint analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuta, Giido; Nishikawa, Tomoko

    2017-05-01

    Over the past years, educational psychology and pedagogy communities have focused on the metacognition formalism as a helpful approach to carry out investigations on the feeling of difficulty in mastering some classroom materials that students acquire through their subjective experiences of learning in schools. Motivated by hitherto studies, this work deals with the assessment of the awareness of `good at' and `not good at' that Japanese junior high school students have towards the main learning modules in their three years of mathematics. More specifically, the aims here are (i) to shed some light into how the awareness varies across the grades and gender; (ii) to get some insights into the extent to what the conjoint analysis can be applied to understand the students' feelings toward learning activities. To accomplish them, a conjoint analysis survey with three conjoint attributes, each with two levels, were designed to assess the learners' perceptions of `good at' and `not good at' with respect to arithmetic (algebraic operations), geometry and functions, which make up the three major modules of their curricula. The measurements took place in a public junior high school with 616 school children. It turned out that the conjoint analyses for boys and girls of each grade generated the partial utility and importance graphs which along with a pre-established precision of measurement allowed us to form groups of pupils according to their `sense of being good at' characteristics. Moreover, the results showed that the number of groups obtained differed for boys and girls as well as grades when the gender and school years were considered for comparisons. These findings suggesting that female students outnumbers their peers in number of `good at' despite the low number of females pursuing careers in mathematics and related fields imply that investigation on the causes of this juxtaposition has to be taken into account in the future.

  13. ATHENA [Advanced Thermal Hydraulic Energy Network Analyzer] solutions to developmental assessment problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, K.E.; Ransom, V.H.; Roth, P.A.

    1987-03-01

    The ATHENA (Advanced Thermal Hydraulic Energy Network Analyzer) code has been developed to perform transient simulation of the thermal hydraulic systems that may be found in fusion reactors, space reactors, and other advanced systems. As an assessment of current capability the code was applied to a number of physical problems, both conceptual and actual experiments. Results indicate that the numerical solution to the basic conservation equations is technically sound, and that generally good agreement can be obtained when modeling relevant hydrodynamic experiments. The assessment also demonstrates basic fusion system modeling capability and verifies compatibility of the code with both CDC and CRAY mainframes. Areas where improvements could be made include constitutive modeling, which describes the interfacial exchange term. 13 refs., 84 figs

  14. Overcooling transient selection and thermal hydraulic analyses of the Loviisa PTS assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomisto, H [IVO Power Engineering Ltd, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-09-01

    This paper describes transients selection and thermal hydraulic analyses of various PTS assessment studies performed for the pressure vessels of the Loviisa WWER-reactors. Deterministic analyses have been performed in various stages of the PTS studies and they have always made the formal basis for design and licensing of the reactor pressure vessel. The integrated, probabilistic PTS study was carried out to give an overview of the severity of all different PTS sequences, and give a quantitative estimate of the importance of the PTS issues in relation to the overall safety of the plant. Later, the sequences including external flooding of the pressure vessels were added to the PTS assessment. Thermal recovery annealing of the Loviisa 1 reactor pressure vessel took place during refuelling outage in 1996. (author). 10 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs.

  15. Assessment of Time-Lapse in Visible and Thermal Face Recognition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farokhi, Sajad; Shamsuddin, Siti Mariyam; Flusser, Jan; Sheikh, Usman Ullah

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2012), s. 181-186 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/11/1552 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : face recognition * moment invariants * Zernike moments Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/ZOI/flusser-assessment of time-lapse in visible and thermal face recognition -j.pdf

  16. Probabilistic inhalation risk assessment due to radioactivity released from coal fired thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, M.; Ajmal, P.Y.; Bhangare, R.C.; Sahu, S.K.; Pandit, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with assessment of radiological risk to the general public around in the neighborhood of a 1000 MWe coal-based thermal power plant. We have used Monte Carlo simulation for characterization of uncertainty in inhalation risk due to radionuclide escaping from the stack of thermal power plant. Monte Carlo simulation treats parameters as random variables bound to a given probabilistic distribution to evaluate the distribution of the resulting output. Risk assessment is the process that estimates the likelihood of occurrence of adverse effects to humans and ecological receptors as a result of exposure to hazardous chemical, radiation, and/or biological agents. Quantitative risk characterization involves evaluating exposure estimates against a benchmark of toxicity, such as a cancer slope factor. Risk is calculated by multiplying the carcinogenic slope factor (SF) of the radionuclide by the dose an individual receives. The collective effective doses to the population living in the neighborhood of coal-based thermal power plant were calculated using Gaussian plume dispersion model. Monte Carlo Analysis is the most widely used probabilistic method in risk assessment. The MCA technique treats any uncertain parameter as random variable that obeys a given probabilistic distribution. This technique is widely used for analyzing probabilistic uncertainty. In MCA computer simulation are used to combine multiple probability distributions associated with the dose and SF depicted in risk equation. Thus we get a probabilistic distribution for the risk

  17. ECMOR 4. 4th European conference on the mathematics of oil recovery. Topic B: Heterogeneity description and assessment of uncertainty. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The report with collected proceedings from a conference, deals with mathematics of oil recovery with the focus on heterogeneity description and assessment of uncertainty. Topics of proceedings are as follow: Reservoir engineering and uncertainty - how much we know about what we don't know; sampling from Bayesian models in reservoir characterization; improvement in the truncated Gaussian method - combining several Gaussian functions; Levy stochastic model for the variations in the properties in sedimentary rock; modelling sub-seismic fault patterns using a marked point process; marked point models with complex conditioning used for modelling of shales; integration of large- and small-scale data using Fourier transforms; ranking of production performance from detailed geological models; direct solution reservoir flow equations with uncertain parameters. Nine papers are prepared. 83 refs., 58 figs., 1 tab.

  18. The FLIR ONE thermal imager for the assessment of burn wounds: Reliability and validity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, M E H; Carrière, M E; Meij-de Vries, A; Klaessens, J H G M; van Zuijlen, P P M

    2017-11-01

    Objective measurement tools may be of great value to provide early and reliable burn wound assessment. Thermal imaging is an easy, accessible and objective technique, which measures skin temperature as an indicator of tissue perfusion. These thermal images might be helpful in the assessment of burn wounds. However, before implementation of a novel measurement tool into clinical practice is considered, it is appropriate to test its clinimetric properties (i.e. reliability and validity). The objective of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the recently introduced FLIR ONE thermal imager. Two observers obtained thermal images of burn wounds in adult patients at day 1-3, 4-7 and 8-10 after burn. Subsequently, temperature differences between the burn wound and healthy skin (ΔT) were calculated on an iPad mini containing the FLIR Tools app. To assess reliability, ΔT values of both observers were compared by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and measurement error parameters. To assess validity, the ΔT values of the first observer were compared to the registered healing time of the burn wounds, which was specified into three categories: (I) ≤14 days, (II) 15-21 days and (III) >21 days. The ability of the FLIR ONE to discriminate between healing ≤21 days and >21 days was evaluated by means of a receiver operating characteristic curve and an optimal ΔT cut-off value. Reliability: ICCs were 0.99 for each time point, indicating excellent reliability up to 10 days after burn. The standard error of measurement varied between 0.17-0.22°C. the area under the curve was calculated at 0.69 (95% CI 0.54-0.84). A cut-off value of -1.15°C shows a moderate discrimination between burn wound healing ≤21 days and >21 days (46% sensitivity; 82% specificity). Our results show that the FLIR ONE thermal imager is highly reliable, but the moderate validity calls for additional research. However, the FLIR ONE is pre-eminently feasible

  19. Thermal transport in binary colloidal glasses: Composition dependence and percolation assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckdeschel, Pia; Philipp, Alexandra; Kopera, Bernd A. F.; Bitterlich, Flora; Dulle, Martin; Pech-May, Nelson W.; Retsch, Markus

    2018-02-01

    The combination of various types of materials is often used to create superior composites that outperform the pure phase components. For any rational design, the thermal conductivity of the composite as a function of the volume fraction of the filler component needs to be known. When approaching the nanoscale, the homogeneous mixture of various components poses an additional challenge. Here, we investigate binary nanocomposite materials based on polymer latex beads and hollow silica nanoparticles. These form randomly mixed colloidal glasses on a sub-μ m scale. We focus on the heat transport properties through such binary assembly structures. The thermal conductivity can be well described by the effective medium theory. However, film formation of the soft polymer component leads to phase segregation and a mismatch between existing mixing models. We confirm our experimental data by finite element modeling. This additionally allowed us to assess the onset of thermal transport percolation in such random particulate structures. Our study contributes to a better understanding of thermal transport through heterostructured particulate assemblies.

  20. Assessing heat-related health risk in Europe via the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Napoli, Claudia; Pappenberger, Florian; Cloke, Hannah L.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, the potential of the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) as a heat-related health risk indicator in Europe is demonstrated. The UTCI is a bioclimate index that uses a multi-node human heat balance model to represent the heat stress induced by meteorological conditions to the human body. Using 38 years of meteorological reanalysis data, UTCI maps were computed to assess the thermal bioclimate of Europe for the summer season. Patterns of heat stress conditions and non-thermal stress regions are identified across Europe. An increase in heat stress up to 1 °C is observed during recent decades. Correlation with mortality data from 17 European countries revealed that the relationship between the UTCI and death counts depends on the bioclimate of the country, and death counts increase in conditions of moderate and strong stress, i.e., when UTCI is above 26 and 32 °C. The UTCI's ability to represent mortality patterns is demonstrated for the 2003 European heatwave. These findings confirm the importance of UTCI as a bioclimatic index that is able to both capture the thermal bioclimatic variability of Europe, and relate such variability with the effects it has on human health.

  1. Biological indicators capable of assessing thermal treatment efficiency of hydrocarbon mixture-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiangang; Zhan, Xinhua; Zhou, Lixiang; Lin, Yusuo

    2010-08-01

    In China, there are many special sites for recycling and washing the used drums, which release a variety of C5-C40 hydrocarbon mixture into the soil around the site. The remediation of these contaminated sites by thermal treatment is adopted ubiquitously and needs to be assessed. Here we report the feasibility of biological indicators applied to assess thermal treatment efficiency in such contaminated soil. A series of biological indicators, including seed germination index (SGI), root elongation index (REI), plant growth height, biomass, carbon dioxide evolved (CDE), soil respiration inhibition (SRI) and soil enzymatic activities, were employed to monitor or assess hydrocarbon mixture removal in thermal treated soil. The results showed that residual hydrocarbon mixture content correlated strongly negatively with SGI for sesamum (Sesamum indicum L.), plant height, and biomass for ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) in the concentration ranges of 0-3990, 0-3170 and 0-2910 mg kg(-1), respectively. In contrast, REI for sesamum was positively correlated with residual hydrocarbon mixture content from 0 to 1860 mg kg(-1). In addition, both CDE and SRI demonstrated that 600 mg kg(-1) of residual hydrocarbon mixture content caused the highest amount of soil carbon dioxide emission and inhabitation of soil respiration. The results of soil enzymes indicated that 1000 mg kg(-1) of residual hydrocarbon mixture content was the threshold value of stimulating or inhibiting the activities of phosphatase and catalase, or completely destroying the activities of dehydrogenase, invertase, and urease. In conclusion, these biological indicators can be used as a meaningful complementation for traditional chemical content measurement in evaluating the environmental risk of the contaminated sites before and after thermal treatment. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Experimental assessment of improvements in thermal performance from insulating the thermal bridge at the edge of a floor slab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Arias Jiménez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The problematic of the article rises from the need of improving the thermal quality of the built envelope in the wall complex, specifically in the case of reinforced concrete (most used material in high-rise housing in Chile. Considering the use of insulation on the inside face of the wall, interrupts the continuity of the insulating material where the mezzanine slab and the perimeter walls meet, generating a thermal bridge known as mezzanine front. The purpose then, is to know the impact of the mentioned thermal bridge studying its properties through experimental tests on a thermal chamber. Later, the results will be integrated to a case of study that allows establishing the incidence of the bridge in the overall energetic behavior of through the integration of the results into the Thermal Analysis Simulation software (Tas. Finally, it is concluded a low incidence in the inner heat loses, becoming relevant the behavior of the superficial temperatures.

  3. A model of scientific attitudes assessment by observation in physics learning based scientific approach: case study of dynamic fluid topic in high school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusliana Ekawati, Elvin

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to produce a model of scientific attitude assessment in terms of the observations for physics learning based scientific approach (case study of dynamic fluid topic in high school). Development of instruments in this study adaptation of the Plomp model, the procedure includes the initial investigation, design, construction, testing, evaluation and revision. The test is done in Surakarta, so that the data obtained are analyzed using Aiken formula to determine the validity of the content of the instrument, Cronbach’s alpha to determine the reliability of the instrument, and construct validity using confirmatory factor analysis with LISREL 8.50 program. The results of this research were conceptual models, instruments and guidelines on scientific attitudes assessment by observation. The construct assessment instruments include components of curiosity, objectivity, suspended judgment, open-mindedness, honesty and perseverance. The construct validity of instruments has been qualified (rated load factor > 0.3). The reliability of the model is quite good with the Alpha value 0.899 (> 0.7). The test showed that the model fits the theoretical models are supported by empirical data, namely p-value 0.315 (≥ 0.05), RMSEA 0.027 (≤ 0.08)

  4. Assessment of the Use of Nanofluids in Spacecraft Active Thermal Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Eugene K.; Erickson, Lisa R.

    2011-01-01

    The addition of metallic nanoparticles to a base heat transfer fluid can dramatically increase its thermal conductivity. These nanofluids have been shown to have advantages in some heat transport systems. Their enhanced properties can allow lower system volumetric flow rates and can reduce the required pumping power. Nanofluids have been suggested for use as working fluids for spacecraft Active Thermal Control Systems (ATCSs). However, there are no studies showing the end-to-end effect of nanofluids on the design and performance of spacecraft ATCSs. In the present work, a parametric study is performed to assess the use of nanofluids in a spacecraft ATCSs. The design parameters of the current Orion capsule and the tabulated thermophysical properties of nanofluids are used to assess the possible benefits of nanofluids and how their incorporation affects the overall design of a spacecraft ATCS. The study shows that the unique system and component-level design parameters of spacecraft ATCSs render them best suited for pure working fluids. The addition of nanoparticles to typical spacecraft thermal control working fluids actually results in an increase in the system mass and required pumping power.

  5. Natural convection heat transfer coefficient for newborn baby - Thermal manikin assessed convective heat loses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Ziemowit; Rojczyk, Marek

    2017-11-01

    The energy balance and heat exchange for newborn baby in radiant warmer environment are considered. The present study was performed to assess the body dry heat loss from an infant in radiant warmer, using copper cast anthropomorphic thermal manikin and controlled climate chamber laboratory setup. The total body dry heat losses were measured for varying manikin surface temperatures (nine levels between 32.5 °C and 40.1 °C) and ambient air temperatures (five levels between 23.5 °C and 29.7 °C). Radiant heat losses were estimated based on measured climate chamber wall temperatures. After subtracting radiant part, resulting convective heat loses were compared with computed ones (based on Nu correlations for common geometries). Simplified geometry of newborn baby was represented as: (a) single cylinder and (b) weighted sum of 5 cylinders and sphere. The predicted values are significantly overestimated relative to measured ones by: 28.8% (SD 23.5%) for (a) and 40.9% (SD 25.2%) for (b). This showed that use of adopted general purpose correlations for approximation of convective heat losses of newborn baby can lead to substantial errors. Hence, new Nu number correlating equation is proposed. The mean error introduced by proposed correlation was reduced to 1.4% (SD 11.97%), i.e. no significant overestimation. The thermal manikin appears to provide a precise method for the noninvasive assessment of thermal conditions in neonatal care.

  6. Vineyard water status assessment using on-the-go thermal imaging and machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Salvador; Diago, María P; Fernández-Novales, Juan; Tardaguila, Javier

    2018-01-01

    The high impact of irrigation in crop quality and yield in grapevine makes the development of plant water status monitoring systems an essential issue in the context of sustainable viticulture. This study presents an on-the-go approach for the estimation of vineyard water status using thermal imaging and machine learning. The experiments were conducted during seven different weeks from July to September in season 2016. A thermal camera was embedded on an all-terrain vehicle moving at 5 km/h to take on-the-go thermal images of the vineyard canopy at 1.2 m of distance and 1.0 m from the ground. The two sides of the canopy were measured for the development of side-specific and global models. Stem water potential was acquired and used as reference method. Additionally, reference temperatures Tdry and Twet were determined for the calculation of two thermal indices: the crop water stress index (CWSI) and the Jones index (Ig). Prediction models were built with and without considering the reference temperatures as input of the training algorithms. When using the reference temperatures, the best models casted determination coefficients R2 of 0.61 and 0.58 for cross validation and prediction (RMSE values of 0.190 MPa and 0.204 MPa), respectively. Nevertheless, when the reference temperatures were not considered in the training of the models, their performance statistics responded in the same way, returning R2 values up to 0.62 and 0.65 for cross validation and prediction (RMSE values of 0.190 MPa and 0.184 MPa), respectively. The outcomes provided by the machine learning algorithms support the use of thermal imaging for fast, reliable estimation of a vineyard water status, even suppressing the necessity of supervised acquisition of reference temperatures. The new developed on-the-go method can be very useful in the grape and wine industry for assessing and mapping vineyard water status.

  7. Comparison of different test methods to assess thermal stresses of metal oxide surge arresters under pollution conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargigia, A.; de Nigris, M.; Pigini, A.; Sironi, A.

    1992-01-01

    The report deals with the research conducted by ENEL, the Italian Electricity Board, to assess the performance of zinc oxide surge arresters under pollution condition, with special reference to the consequent thermal stress on internal active parts which can affect the energy handling capabality of the arrester and may lead, in particular conditions, even to thermal runaway

  8. Thermal Hydraulic Assessment for Loss of SDCS Event During the Outage of CANDU Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jonghyun [Gnest, Inc. Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kwangho; Oh, Haechol; Jun, Hwangyong [KEPRI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    During the outage(overhaul) of the nuclear power plant, there are several operating states other than the full power state, that is 'Hot-Zero Power', 'Depressurized-Cooldown', and 'Partially Drained'. Until now safety assessment has not been done much for this operating state of CANDU type reactor worldwide. For the accuracy and confidence of PSA for the CANDU outage, the safety analysis is necessary. At the first stage, we analyzed the thermal hydraulic characteristics and safety of the postulated event of loss of shutdown cooling system (SDCS) during the partially drained state which is the longest one in the middle of outage period. As an analysis tool, this study uses the best estimate thermal hydraulic code, RELAP5/CANDU which was modified according to the CANDU specific characteristics and based on RELAP5.Mod3.

  9. An investigation on the assessed thermal sensation and human body exergy consumption rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Kolarik, Jakub; Iwamatsu, Toshiya

    2010-01-01

    perception of the indoor environment is rare. As the building should provide healthy and comfortable environment for its occupants, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in the building and within the human body. A relatively new approach of the relation between the exergy concept and the built......-environment research has been explored in the present work. The relationship of subjectively assessed thermal sensation data, from earlier thermal comfort studies, to the calculated human-body exergy consumption has been analysed. The results show that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate was related......The exergy concept helps to optimize indoor climate conditioning systems to meet the requirements of sustainable building design. While the exergy approach to design and operation of indoor climate conditioning systems is relatively well established, its exploitation in connection to human...

  10. Prediction of Maintenance Period of Equipment Through Risk Assessment of Thermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Gee Wook; Kim, Bum Shin; Choi, Woo Song; Park, Myung Soo [KEPCO Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Risk-based inspection (RBI) is a well-known method that is used to optimize inspection activities based on risk analysis in order to identify the high-risk components of major facilities such as power plants. RBI, when implemented and maintained properly, improves plant reliability and safety while reducing unplanned outages and repair costs. Risk is given by the product of the probability of failure (Pof) and the consequence of failure (COF). A semi-quantitative method is generally used for risk assessment. Semi-quantitative risk assessment complements the low accuracy of qualitative risk assessment and the high expense and long calculation time of quantitative risk assessment. The first step of RB I is to identify important failure modes and causes in the equipment. Once these are defined, the Pof and COF can be assessed for each failure. During Pof and COF assessment, an effective inspection method and range can be easily found. In this paper, the calculation of the Pof is improved for accurate risk assessment. A modified semi-quantitative risk assessment was carried out for boiler facilities of thermal power plants, and the next maintenance schedules for the equipment were decided.

  11. Prediction of Maintenance Period of Equipment Through Risk Assessment of Thermal Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Gee Wook; Kim, Bum Shin; Choi, Woo Song; Park, Myung Soo

    2013-01-01

    Risk-based inspection (RBI) is a well-known method that is used to optimize inspection activities based on risk analysis in order to identify the high-risk components of major facilities such as power plants. RBI, when implemented and maintained properly, improves plant reliability and safety while reducing unplanned outages and repair costs. Risk is given by the product of the probability of failure (Pof) and the consequence of failure (COF). A semi-quantitative method is generally used for risk assessment. Semi-quantitative risk assessment complements the low accuracy of qualitative risk assessment and the high expense and long calculation time of quantitative risk assessment. The first step of RB I is to identify important failure modes and causes in the equipment. Once these are defined, the Pof and COF can be assessed for each failure. During Pof and COF assessment, an effective inspection method and range can be easily found. In this paper, the calculation of the Pof is improved for accurate risk assessment. A modified semi-quantitative risk assessment was carried out for boiler facilities of thermal power plants, and the next maintenance schedules for the equipment were decided

  12. An assessment of thermal behavior of the DUPIC fuel bundle by subchannel analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jee Won.

    1997-12-01

    Thermal behavior of the standard DUPIC fuel has been assessed. The DUPIC fuel bundle has been modeled for a subchannel analysis using the ASSERT-IV code which was developed by AECL. From the calculated mixture enthalpy, equilibrium quality and void fraction distributions of the DUPIC fuel bundle, it is found that net buoyancy effect is pronounced in the central region of the DUPIC fuel bundle when compared with the standard CANDU fuel bundle. It is also found that the central region of the DUPIC fuel bundle can be cooled more efficiently than that of the standard fuel bundle. Based upon the subchannel modeling used in this study, the location of minimum CHFR in the DUPIC fuel bundle has been found to be very similar to that of the standard fuel. From the calculated mixture enthalpy distribution at the exit of the fuel channel, it is found that the mixture enthalpy and void fraction can be highest in the peripheral region of the DUPIC fuel bundle. On the other hand, the enthalpy and the void fraction was found to be highest in the central region of the standard CANDU fuel bundle at the exit of the fuel channel. Since the transverse interchange model between subchannels is important for the behavior of these variables, it is needed to put more effort in validating the transverse interchange model. For the purpose of investigating influence of thermal-hydraulic parameter variations of the DUPIC fuel bundle, four different values of the channel flow rates were used in the subchannel analysis. The effect of the channel flow reduction on thermal-hydraulic parameters have been presented. This study shows that the subchannel analysis is very useful in assessing thermal behavior of the fuel bundles in CANDU reactors. (author). 12 refs., 3 tabs., 17 figs

  13. Assessment of thermal spray coatings for wear and abrasion resistance applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karode, Ishaan Nitin

    Thermal spray cermet and metallic coatings are extensively used for wear, abrasion and corrosion control in a variety of industries. The first part of the thesis focuses mainly on testing of sand erosion resistance of thermal spray coatings on carbon composites used in the manufacture of helicopter rotor blades. The test set-up employed is a sand blasting machine and is an effort to duplicate the in-flight conditions especially those encountered in hot arid conditions. The technique adopted follows the Department of Defence test method standard. Carbon Composites have excellent stiffness, strength and low weight/density. The strength to weight ratio is high. Hence, these are used in aerospace applications to a large extent. However, the biggest problem encountered with carbon composites is its low abrasion resistance as its surface is very weak. Hence, thermal spray coatings are used to improve the surface properties of CFRP. Zinc bond coats and WC-Co coatings were tested. However, high amount of thermal stresses were developed between the substrate and the coating due to large differences in the CTE's of the both, leading to high mass losses within two minutes and just 130 grams of sand sprayed on to the coatings with the sand blasting machine built; and hence the coatings with CC as a substrate could not qualify for the application. The second part of the thesis focuses on the assessment of different thermal spray coatings used for manufacture of mechanical seals in pumps and analyze the best coating material for the wear resistance application through detail quantification of material loss by block-on-ring test set-up. A machine based on Block-on-ring test set-up following ASTM G77 (Measurement of Adhesive wear resistance of thermal spray coatings) standards was built to duplicate the pump conditions. Thermally sprayed coated materials were tested in different conditions (Load, time, abrasive). WC-Co had the highest wear resistance (lower volume losses) and

  14. Conceptual assessment and thermal hydraulic analysis of MVDS system for the dry storage of reduced metal fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. C.; Bang, K. S.; Shin, H. S.; Joo, J. S.; Su, K. S.; Kim, H. D.

    2003-01-01

    Conceptual assessment and thermal hydraulic analysis of MVDS storage system have been carried out for application of reduced metal fuel. The storage concept was established considering the optimum weight, storage volume and thermal efficiency. The capacity of MVDS system for loading the reduced metal fuel has four times as compared with existing PWR fuel storage system. In the results of thermal analysis, the maximum temperature of metal fuel was estimated to be 110 .deg. C which is lower than the allowable value under normal operation condition. Therefore, it is shown that the MVDS system can feasibly accomodate the reduced metal fuel in aspect of thermal safety

  15. Structural assessment of a space station solar dynamic heat receiver thermal energy storage canister

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R. L.; Kerslake, T. W.; Tong, M. T.

    1988-01-01

    The structural performance of a space station thermal energy storage (TES) canister subject to orbital solar flux variation and engine cold start up operating conditions was assessed. The impact of working fluid temperature and salt-void distribution on the canister structure are assessed. Both analytical and experimental studies were conducted to determine the temperature distribution of the canister. Subsequent finite element structural analyses of the canister were performed using both analytically and experimentally obtained temperatures. The Arrhenius creep law was incorporated into the procedure, using secondary creep data for the canister material, Haynes 188 alloy. The predicted cyclic creep strain accumulations at the hot spot were used to assess the structural performance of the canister. In addition, the structural performance of the canister based on the analytically determined temperature was compared with that based on the experimentally measured temperature data.

  16. Topical report review status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    This report provides industry with procedures for submitting topical reports, guidance on how the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) processes and responds to topical report submittals, and an accounting, with review schedules, of all topical reports currently accepted for review schedules, of all topical reports currently accepted for review by the NRC. This report will be published annually. Each sponsoring organization with one or more topical reports accepted for review copies

  17. The role of the disturbed rock zone in radioactive waste repository safety and performance assessment. A topical discussion and international overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winberg, A.

    1991-06-01

    A discussion was presented of the role and relative importance of the disturbed rock zone (DRZ) around the underground openings of a repository for nuclear waste in crystalline rock. The term disturbed rock zone was defined and possible criteria to be sued to distinguish if from undisturbed rock was suggested. The processes decisive for the hydraulic characteristics of the DRZ were discussed. With regard to the integral hydraulic characteristics of the DRZ, the effects of the excavation methodology, stress redistribution, thermal changes, chemical changes and backfill were discussed. A review of in-situ observations of the DRZ was provided. Model analysis where the DRZ has been explicitly or implicitly represented, either from a phenomenological and performance assessment aspect were reviewed. The implications of the disturbed rock zone for the safe performance of a nuclear waste repository were discussed. Conceptual models for the geometry of the DRZ and hydraulic conductivity distribution in the DRZ were suggested. (au) (82 refs.)

  18. Unsteady-state human-body exergy consumption rate and its relation to subjective assessment of dynamic thermal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweiker, Marcel; Kolarik, Jakub; Dovjak, Mateja

    2016-01-01

    of the present study confirmed previously indicated trends that lowest human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation close to neutrality. Moreover, higher acceptability was in general associated with lower human body exergy consumption rate. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......Few examples studied applicability of exergy analysis on human thermal comfort. These examples relate the human-body exergy consumption rate with subjectively obtained thermal sensation votes and had been based on steady-state calculation methods. However, humans are rarely exposed to steady...... between the human-body exergy consumption rate and subjective assessment of thermal environment represented by thermal sensation as well as to extend the investigation towards thermal acceptability votes. Comparison of steady-state and unsteady-state model showed that results from both models were...

  19. A new way of assessment of environmental effects of thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardu, M.

    1996-01-01

    Starting from some fundamental aspects of the atmospheric pollution by gases resulted from the burning of fossil fuels in thermal power plants (TPP) a new method was devised to evaluate quantitatively the harmful consequences of air pollution. This method makes use of some quantities introduced first in the assessment of earthquake consequences. Its application resulted in worth indications with respect to optimal utilization of fuels in TPPs from the point of view of environmental impacts and energy production efficiency. (author) 1 fig., 2 tabs., 4 refs

  20. Evaluating topic models with stability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Waal, A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Topic models are unsupervised techniques that extract likely topics from text corpora, by creating probabilistic word-topic and topic-document associations. Evaluation of topic models is a challenge because (a) topic models are often employed...

  1. Assessment of the thermal performance and energy conservation opportunities of a cement industry in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasul, M.G.; Widianto, W.; Mohanty, B.

    2005-01-01

    A simple model is presented to assess the thermal performance of a cement industry with an integrated view to improve the productivity of the plant. The model is developed on the basis of mass, energy and exergy balance and is applied to an existing Portland cement industry in Indonesia. The data obtained from industry show that the burning efficiency and the second law efficiency of the kiln system are 52.07% and 57.07% respectively. Cooler efficiency and heat recovery efficiency are 47.75% and 51.2% respectively. The unaccounted loss at kiln system was found to be 1.85% and that of cooler system was 19%. The high loss at cooler was mainly due to the convection and radiation losses from the uninsulated cooler. Irreversibility of the system was found to be about 20%, which is due to the conversion from chemical to thermal energy. The thermal energy conservation opportunities are identified. This study show that by replacing industrial diesel oil (IDO) with waste heat recovery from kiln and cooler exhaust for drying of raw meal and fuel, and preheating of combustion air, a cement industry in Indonesia can save about 1.264 x 10 5 US dollars per year

  2. Assessment and optimization of thermal and fluidity properties of high strength concrete via genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış Şimşek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a Response Surface Methodology (RSM based Genetic Algorithm (GA using MATLAB® to assess and optimize the thermal and fluidity of high strength concrete (HSC. The overall heat transfer coefficient, slump-spread flow and T50 time was defined as thermal and fluidity properties of high strength concrete. In addition to above mentioned properties, a 28-day compressive strength of HSC was also determined. Water to binder ratio, fine aggregate to total aggregate ratio and the percentage of super-plasticizer content was determined as effective factors on thermal and fluidity properties of HSC. GA based multi-objective optimization method was carried out by obtaining quadratic models using RSM. Having excessive or low ratio of water to binder provides lower overall heat transfer coefficient. Moreover, T50 time of high strength concrete decreased with the increasing of water to binder ratio and the percentage of superplasticizer content. Results show that RSM based GA is effective in determining optimal mixture ratios of HSC.

  3. Thermal-fluid assessment of multijet atomization for spray cooling applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panao, Miguel R.O.; Moreira, Antonio L.N.; Durao, Diamantino F.G.

    2011-01-01

    Thermal management is a particularly difficult challenge to the miniaturization of electronic components because it requires high performance cooling systems capable of removing large heat loads at fast rates in order to keep the operating temperature low and controlled. To meet this challenge, the Intermittent Spray Cooling (ISC) concept has been suggested as a promising technology which uses a proper match between the frequency and duration of consecutive injection cycles to control heat transfer. This concept also depends on: the atomization strategy; a homogeneous dispersion of droplets impinging on the hot surface; and the quantitative control of the liquid deposited, avoiding excessive secondary atomization or pre-impingement-evaporation. In this work, the use of liquid atomization by multiple jets impact, also referred as multijet atomization, is the subject of a thermal-fluid assessment using heat transfer correlations previously derived for intermittent sprays. Simultaneous measurements of droplet size and velocity are provided as input for the correlations and the analysis explores the influence of the number of impinging jets on the heat removal pattern and magnitude. Emphasis is put on the promising applicability of multijet atomization for promoting an intelligent use of energy in the thermal management of electronic devices.

  4. Assessing Primary Care Trainee Comfort in the Diagnosis and Management of Thermal Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrouwe, Sebastian Q; Shahrokhi, Shahriar

    Thermal injuries are common and the majority will initially present to primary care physicians. Despite being a part of the objectives of training in family medicine (FM) and emergency medicine (EM), previous study has shown that in practice, gaps exist in the delivery of care. An electronic survey was sent to all FM/EM trainees at our university for the 2014 to 2015 academic year. Plastic Surgery trainees were included as a control group. Demographics and educational/clinical experience were assessed. Trainee comfort was measured on a five-point Likert scale across 15 domains related to thermal injuries. Preferences for educational interventions were also ranked. Descriptive statistics and the Kruskal-Wallis test were used (P comfort levels across all 15 domains when compared with plastic surgery trainees. Preferences for educational interventions were ranked, with clinical rotations and traditional lecture scoring the highest. Primary care trainees are not comfortable in the diagnosis and management of thermal injuries. This may be attributed to limited clinical exposure and teaching during their postgraduate training. There exists an opportunity for specialists in burn care to collaborate with primary care training programs and deliver an educational intervention with the aim of long-lasting quality improvement.

  5. Thermal comfort assessment of a surgical room through computational fluid dynamics using local PMV index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Nelson J O; Oliveira, Ricardo F; Teixeira, Senhorinha F C F; Miguel, Alberto Sérgio; Teixeira, José Carlos; Baptista, João S

    2015-01-01

    Studies concerning indoor thermal conditions are very important in defining the satisfactory comfort range in health care facilities. This study focuses on the evaluation of the thermal comfort sensation felt by surgeons and nurses, in an orthopaedic surgical room of a Portuguese hospital. Two cases are assessed, with and without the presence of a person. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) tools were applied for evaluating the predicted mean vote (PMV) index locally. Using average ventilation values to calculate the PMV index does not provide a correct and enough descriptive evaluation of the surgical room thermal environment. As studied for both cases, surgeons feel the environment slightly hotter than nurses. The nurses feel a slightly cold sensation under the air supply diffuser and their neutral comfort zone is located in the air stagnation zones close to the walls, while the surgeons feel the opposite. It was observed that the presence of a person in the room leads to an increase of the PMV index for surgeons and nurses. That goes in line with the empirical knowledge that more persons in a room lead to an increased heat sensation. The clothing used by both classes, as well as the ventilation conditions, should be revised accordingly to the amount of persons in the room and the type of activity performed.

  6. Air quality assessment in the vicinity of nuclear and thermal power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivaramasundaram, K.; Vijay Bhaskar, B.; Muthusubramanian, P.; Rajan, M.P.; Hegde, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    The status and ranking of any country, in the context of globalisation, is decided by its economic progress, which is directly linked into power generation. The power is generated by many routes and the nuclear and thermal routes are noteworthy among them. As the power production and its associated activities may cause qualitative deterioration, it is essential to study the impact of power production on atmospheric environment. In this connection, a comparative study has been carried out to assess the air quality with special reference to criteria pollutants in the vicinity of nuclear and thermal power stations. In the present investigation, the air samples are collected on weekly basis and the pollutants such as sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), suspended particulate matter (SPM) and respirable particulate matter (RPM) are estimated by adopting standard procedures set by United States-Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) and Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). As the micro meteorological parameters influence on the status of air quality, simultaneous measurements of these parameters are also carried, out during sampling. It is studied that estimated concentrations of all criteria pollutants in the vicinity of these power stations are within the permissible limits set by CPCB. On the basis of the generated database pertaining to the concentrations of criteria air pollutants in the vicinity of nuclear and thermal power stations, it is concluded that nuclear power production may be considered as a viable option in terms of environmental protection in our country. (author)

  7. MR imaging in the presence of small circular metallic implants. Assessment of thermal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manner, I.; Alanen, A.; Komu, M.; Savunen, T.; Kantonen, I.; Ekfors, T.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: The thermal effects of MR imaging in the presence of circular nonferromagnetic metallic implants were studied in 6 rabbits. Material and Methods: A sternotomy was performed and fixed with stainless steel wires, and small titanium rings (diameter 3 mm) were placed on the surface of the ascending aorta and subcutaneous tissue of the thigh. Four of the rabbits were exposed to an imaging procedure with a 1.5 T scanner applying a T1-weighted spin-echo sequence and a gradient echo sequence. Two of the animals served as unexposed controls. Thirty-six hours after the exposure, tissues adjacent to the implants were examined histologically and compared with corresponding samples of the control animals. Results: In the area of the titanium rings, histologic analysis revealed slight inflammatory changes apparently caused by the operation. No evidence of thermal injury was found, suggesting that the presence of the rings does not contraindicate MR examinations. Necrosis was noted in all of the sternal specimens. This was probably post-operative, but it impaired the assessment of thermal injury in this area. (orig.)

  8. Thermal Runaway Severity Reduction Assessment and Implementation: On Li-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcy, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Preventing cell-cell thermal runaway propagation and flames/sparks from exiting battery enclosure is possible with proper thermal & electrical design and cell thermal runaway ejecta/effluent management and can be had with minimal mass/volume penalty.

  9. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Life Cycle Cost Assessment, Final Technical Report, 30 May 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martel, Laura [Lockheed Martin, Manassas, VA (United States); Smith, Paul [John Halkyard and Associates: Glosten Associates, Houston, TX (United States); Rizea, Steven [Makai Ocean Engineering, Waimanalo, HI (United States); Van Ryzin, Joe [Makai Ocean Engineering, Waimanalo, HI (United States); Morgan, Charles [Planning Solutions, Inc., Vancouver, WA (United States); Noland, Gary [G. Noland and Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States); Pavlosky, Rick [Lockheed Martin, Manassas, VA (United States); Thomas, Michael [Lockheed Martin, Manassas, VA (United States); Halkyard, John [John Halkyard and Associates: Glosten Associates, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-05-30

    The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Life Cycle Cost Assessment (OLCCA) is a study performed by members of the Lockheed Martin (LM) OTEC Team under funding from the Department of Energy (DOE), Award No. DE-EE0002663, dated 01/01/2010. OLCCA objectives are to estimate procurement, operations and maintenance, and overhaul costs for two types of OTEC plants: -Plants moored to the sea floor where the electricity produced by the OTEC plant is directly connected to the grid ashore via a marine power cable (Grid Connected OTEC plants) -Open-ocean grazing OTEC plant-ships producing an energy carrier that is transported to designated ports (Energy Carrier OTEC plants) Costs are developed using the concept of levelized cost of energy established by DOE for use in comparing electricity costs from various generating systems. One area of system costs that had not been developed in detail prior to this analysis was the operations and sustainment (O&S) cost for both types of OTEC plants. Procurement costs, generally referred to as capital expense and O&S costs (operations and maintenance (O&M) costs plus overhaul and replacement costs), are assessed over the 30 year operational life of the plants and an annual annuity calculated to achieve a levelized cost (constant across entire plant life). Dividing this levelized cost by the average annual energy production results in a levelized cost of electricity, or LCOE, for the OTEC plants. Technical and production efficiency enhancements that could result in a lower value of the OTEC LCOE were also explored. The thermal OTEC resource for Oahu, Hawaii and projected build out plan were developed. The estimate of the OTEC resource and LCOE values for the planned OTEC systems enable this information to be displayed as energy supplied versus levelized cost of the supplied energy; this curve is referred to as an Energy Supply Curve. The Oahu Energy Supply Curve represents initial OTEC deployment starting in 2018 and demonstrates the

  10. Application of large-eddy simulation to pressurized thermal shock: Assessment of the accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loginov, M.S.; Komen, E.M.J.; Hoehne, T.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We compare large-eddy simulation with experiment on the single-phase pressurized thermal shock problem. → Three test cases are considered, they cover entire range of mixing patterns. → The accuracy of the flow mixing in the reactor pressure vessel is assessed qualitatively and quantitatively. - Abstract: Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) is identified as one of the safety issues where Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) can bring real benefits. The turbulence modeling may impact overall accuracy of the calculated thermal loads on the vessel walls, therefore advanced methods for turbulent flows are required. The feasibility and mesh resolution of LES for single-phase PTS are assessed earlier in a companion paper. The current investigation deals with the accuracy of LES approach with respect to the experiment. Experimental data from the Rossendorf Coolant Mixing (ROCOM) facility is used as a basis for validation. Three test cases with different flow rates are considered. They correspond to a buoyancy-driven, a momentum-driven, and a transitional coolant mixing pattern in the downcomer. Time- and frequency-domain analysis are employed for comparison of the numerical and experimental data. The investigation shows a good qualitative prediction of the bulk flow patterns. The fluctuations are modeled correctly. A conservative estimate of the temperature drop near the wall can be obtained from the numerical results with safety factor of 1.1-1.3. In general, the current LES gives a realistic and reliable description of the considered coolant mixing experiments. The accuracy of the prediction is definitely improved with respect to earlier CFD simulations.

  11. Assessing the environmental impacts of freshwater thermal pollution from global power generation in LCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raptis, Catherine E; Boucher, Justin M; Pfister, Stephan

    2017-02-15

    Freshwater heat emissions from power plants with once-through cooling systems constitute one of many environmental pressures related to the thermoelectric power industry. The objective of this work was to obtain high resolution, operational characterization factors (CF) for the impact of heat emissions on ecosystem quality, and carry out a comprehensive, spatially, temporally and technologically differentiated damage-based environmental assessment of global freshwater thermal pollution. The aggregation of CFs on a watershed level results in 12.5% lower annual impacts globally and even smaller differences for the most crucial watersheds and months, so watershed level CFs are recommended when the exact emission site within the basin is unknown. Long-range impacts account for almost 90% of the total global impacts. The Great Lakes, several Mississippi subbasins, the Danube, and the Yangtze are among the most thermally impacted watersheds globally, receiving heat emissions from predominantly coal-fuelled and nuclear power plants. Globally, over 80% of the global annual impacts come from power plants constructed during or before the 1980s. While the impact-weighted mean age of the power plants in the Mississippi ranges from 38 to 51years, in Chinese watersheds including the Yangtze, the equivalent range is only 15 to 22years, reflecting a stark contrast in thermal pollution mitigation approaches. With relatively high shares of total capacity from power plants with once-through freshwater cooling, and tracing a large part of the Danube, 1kWh of net electricity mix is the most impactful in Hungary, Bulgaria and Serbia. Monthly CFs are provided on a grid cell level and on a watershed level for use in Life Cycle Assessment. The impacts per generating unit are also provided, as part of our effort to make available a global dataset of thermoelectric power plant emissions and impacts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Topics in inflationary cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, R.N.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis examines several topics in the theory of inflationary cosmology. It first proves the existence of Hawking Radiation during the slow-rolling period of a new inflationary universe. It then derives and somewhat extends Bardeen's gauge invariant formalism for calculating the growth of linear gravitational perturbations in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological background. This formalism is then applied, first to several new inflationary universe models all of which show a Zel'dovich spectrum of fluctuations, but with amplitude sigma(100 4 ) above observational limits. The general formalism is next applied to models that exhibit primordial inflation. Fluctuations in these models also exhibit a Zel'dovich spectrum here with an acceptable amplitude. Finally the thesis presents the results of new, numerical calculations. A classical, (2 + 1) dimensional computer model is developed that includes a Higgs field (which drives inflation) along with enough auxiliary fields to generate dynamically not only a thermal bath, but also the fluctuations that naturally accompany that bath. The thesis ends with a discussion of future prospects

  13. Neurosensory sequelae assessed by thermal and vibrotactile perception thresholds after local cold injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Daniel; Burström, Lage; Lilliesköld, Victoria Heldestad; Nilsson, Tohr; Nordh, Erik; Wahlström, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Local freezing cold injuries are common in the north and sequelae to cold injury can persist many years. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) can be used to assess neurosensory symptoms but has previously not been used on cold injury patients. To evaluate neurosensory sequelae after local freezing cold injury by thermal and vibrotactile perception thresholds and by symptom descriptions. Fifteen patients with a local freezing cold injury in the hands or feet, acquired during military training, were studied with QST by assessment of vibrotactile (VPT), warmth (WPT) and cold (CPT) perception thresholds 4 months post-injury. In addition, a follow-up questionnaire, focusing on neurovascular symptoms, was completed 4 months and 4 years post-injury. QST demonstrated abnormal findings in one or both affected hands for VPT in 6 patients, for WPT in 4 patients and for CPT in 1 patient. In the feet, QST was abnormal for VPT in one or both affected feet in 8 patients, for WPT in 6 patients and for CPT in 4 patients. Freezing cold injury related symptoms, e.g. pain/discomfort when exposed to cold, cold sensation and white fingers were common at 4 months and persisted 4 years after the initial injury. Neurosensory sequelae after local freezing cold injury, in terms of abnormal thermal and/or vibration perception thresholds, may last at least 4 months after the initial injury. Symptoms such as pain/discomfort at cold exposure, cold sensations and white fingers may persist at least 4 years after the initial injury.

  14. Elastic-plastic Fracture Mechanics Assessment of nozzle corners submitted to thermal shock loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapuliot, S.; Marie, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development of a simplified analytical scheme for the elastic-plastic Fracture Mechanics Assessment of large nozzle corners. Within that frame, following the specific numerical effort performed for the definition of a Stress Intensity Factor compendium, complementary elastic-plastic developments are proposed here for the consideration of the thermal shock loading in the elastic-plastic domain: this type of loading is a major loading for massive structures such as nozzle corners of large components. Thus, an important numerical was performed in order to extend the applicability domain of existing analytical schemes to those complex geometries. The final formulation is a simple one, applicable to a large variety of materials and geometrical configurations as long as the structure is large and the defect remains small in comparison to the internal radius of the nozzle. - Highlights: • Fracture Mechanics Assessment of large nozzle corners. • Elastic-plastic Stress Intensity Factor determination under thermal shock loading. • Semi-analytical schemes for J calculation.

  15. An assessment of potential CO2 Sources throughout the Illinois Basin Subtask 5.1 – CO2 Source Assessment Topical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Vinodkumar [University of Illinois; O?Brien, Kevin; Korose, Christopher

    2018-05-09

    Large-scale anthropogenic CO2 sources (>100,000 tonnes/year) were catalogued and assessed for the Illinois East Sub-Basin project area. The portfolio of sources is quite diverse, and contains not only fossil-based power generation facilities but also ethanol, chemical, and refinery facilities. Over 60% of the facilities are relatively new (i.e. post year 2000 construction) hence increasing the likelihood that retrofitting the facility with a carbon capture plant is feasible. Two of the facilities have indicated interest in being “early adopters” should the CarbonSAFE project eventually transition to a build and operate phase: the Prairie State Generating Company’s electricity generation facility near Marissa, Illinois, and Quasar Syngas, LLC’s Wabash ammonia/direct-reduced iron plant, currently in development north of Terre Haute, Indiana.

  16. Seasonal differences in the subjective assessment of outdoor thermal conditions and the impact of analysis techniques on the obtained results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kántor, Noémi; Kovács, Attila; Takács, Ágnes

    2016-11-01

    Wide research attention has been paid in the last two decades to the thermal comfort conditions of different outdoor and semi-outdoor urban spaces. Field studies were conducted in a wide range of geographical regions in order to investigate the relationship between the thermal sensation of people and thermal comfort indices. Researchers found that the original threshold values of these indices did not describe precisely the actual thermal sensation patterns of subjects, and they reported neutral temperatures that vary among nations and with time of the year. For that reason, thresholds of some objective indices were rescaled and new thermal comfort categories were defined. This research investigates the outdoor thermal perception patterns of Hungarians regarding the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature ( PET) index, based on more than 5800 questionnaires. The surveys were conducted in the city of Szeged on 78 days in spring, summer, and autumn. Various, frequently applied analysis approaches (simple descriptive technique, regression analysis, and probit models) were adopted to reveal seasonal differences in the thermal assessment of people. Thermal sensitivity and neutral temperatures were found to be significantly different, especially between summer and the two transient seasons. Challenges of international comparison are also emphasized, since the results prove that neutral temperatures obtained through different analysis techniques may be considerably different. The outcomes of this study underline the importance of the development of standard measurement and analysis methodologies in order to make future studies comprehensible, hereby facilitating the broadening of the common scientific knowledge about outdoor thermal comfort.

  17. Vineyard water status assessment using on-the-go thermal imaging and machine learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Gutiérrez

    Full Text Available The high impact of irrigation in crop quality and yield in grapevine makes the development of plant water status monitoring systems an essential issue in the context of sustainable viticulture. This study presents an on-the-go approach for the estimation of vineyard water status using thermal imaging and machine learning. The experiments were conducted during seven different weeks from July to September in season 2016. A thermal camera was embedded on an all-terrain vehicle moving at 5 km/h to take on-the-go thermal images of the vineyard canopy at 1.2 m of distance and 1.0 m from the ground. The two sides of the canopy were measured for the development of side-specific and global models. Stem water potential was acquired and used as reference method. Additionally, reference temperatures Tdry and Twet were determined for the calculation of two thermal indices: the crop water stress index (CWSI and the Jones index (Ig. Prediction models were built with and without considering the reference temperatures as input of the training algorithms. When using the reference temperatures, the best models casted determination coefficients R2 of 0.61 and 0.58 for cross validation and prediction (RMSE values of 0.190 MPa and 0.204 MPa, respectively. Nevertheless, when the reference temperatures were not considered in the training of the models, their performance statistics responded in the same way, returning R2 values up to 0.62 and 0.65 for cross validation and prediction (RMSE values of 0.190 MPa and 0.184 MPa, respectively. The outcomes provided by the machine learning algorithms support the use of thermal imaging for fast, reliable estimation of a vineyard water status, even suppressing the necessity of supervised acquisition of reference temperatures. The new developed on-the-go method can be very useful in the grape and wine industry for assessing and mapping vineyard water status.

  18. The role of the axial heat fluxes in the thermal fatigue assessment of piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Garrido, Oriol, E-mail: Oriol.Costa@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Reactor Engineering Division, Jamova Cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Cizelj, Leon; Shawish, Samir El [Jožef Stefan Institute, Reactor Engineering Division, Jamova Cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: ► Existence of axial heat flux in the fluid near the surface influences the inner wall temperature fluctuations. ► In addition to the axial heat flux, the effect of the temperature fluctuations frequency is also investigated. ► Inner wall thermocouple readings are more attenuated but slightly less delayed when considering the axial heat flux. ► Fluid-surface heat transfer coefficient effect on surface temperature amplitudes and phase delay is considered in a sensitivity analysis. -- Abstract: Thermal fatigue is a structural damage of materials induced by the cyclic thermal loads that are frequently generated by the changes of fluid temperature inside of pipes. Among the thermal fatigue assessment methods we find the one-dimensional (1D) approach. Thermal, mechanical and fatigue analyses are performed for the pipe wall assuming that the distribution of temperatures only varies along the wall thickness. On the other hand, pipe regions with higher stress oscillations are those where the fluid temperature changes spatially, meaning cold or hot spots near the pipe surface, and with low frequencies. Spatial fluid temperature differences generate heat fluxes within the pipe wall which can’t be reproduced with 1D methods. For this reason, the present work focuses on understanding the wall temperature distributions for different values of heat fluxes and frequencies of fluid temperature. Due to the implication in wall temperature measurements, the heat fluxes and frequencies effects on temperature readings of wall thermocouples are also investigated. In this paper, the influence of axial heat flux in a pipe wall is studied. The temperature distribution within the pipe wall is analyzed considering a fluid temperature signal in the proximity of the pipe surface with axial temperature dependence. The effect of the temperature fluctuations frequency is also investigated. The two-dimensional finite difference equations for the transient temperature of a

  19. The role of the axial heat fluxes in the thermal fatigue assessment of piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Garrido, Oriol; Cizelj, Leon; Shawish, Samir El

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Existence of axial heat flux in the fluid near the surface influences the inner wall temperature fluctuations. ► In addition to the axial heat flux, the effect of the temperature fluctuations frequency is also investigated. ► Inner wall thermocouple readings are more attenuated but slightly less delayed when considering the axial heat flux. ► Fluid-surface heat transfer coefficient effect on surface temperature amplitudes and phase delay is considered in a sensitivity analysis. -- Abstract: Thermal fatigue is a structural damage of materials induced by the cyclic thermal loads that are frequently generated by the changes of fluid temperature inside of pipes. Among the thermal fatigue assessment methods we find the one-dimensional (1D) approach. Thermal, mechanical and fatigue analyses are performed for the pipe wall assuming that the distribution of temperatures only varies along the wall thickness. On the other hand, pipe regions with higher stress oscillations are those where the fluid temperature changes spatially, meaning cold or hot spots near the pipe surface, and with low frequencies. Spatial fluid temperature differences generate heat fluxes within the pipe wall which can’t be reproduced with 1D methods. For this reason, the present work focuses on understanding the wall temperature distributions for different values of heat fluxes and frequencies of fluid temperature. Due to the implication in wall temperature measurements, the heat fluxes and frequencies effects on temperature readings of wall thermocouples are also investigated. In this paper, the influence of axial heat flux in a pipe wall is studied. The temperature distribution within the pipe wall is analyzed considering a fluid temperature signal in the proximity of the pipe surface with axial temperature dependence. The effect of the temperature fluctuations frequency is also investigated. The two-dimensional finite difference equations for the transient temperature of a

  20. Women's Health Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women's Health Topics Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print National Women's Health Week May 13 - 19, 2018 Join us ...

  1. Regulatory Information By Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA develops and enforces regulations that span many environmental topics, from acid rain reduction to wetlands restoration. Each topic listed below may include related laws and regulations, compliance enforcement information, policies guidance

  2. Contribution for the improvement of pressurized thermal shock assessment methodologies in PWR pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Paulo de Tarso Vida

    2005-01-01

    The structural integrity assessment of nuclear reactor pressure vessel, concerned to Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) accidents, became a necessity and has been investigated since the eighty's. The recognition of the importance of PTS assessment has led the international nuclear technology community to devote a considerable research effort directed to the complete integrity assessment process of the Reactor Pressure Vessels (VPR). Researchers in Europe, Japan and U.S.A. have concentrated efforts in the VPR structural and fracture analysis, conducting experiments to best understand how specific factors act on the behavior of discontinuities, under PTS loading conditions. The main goal of this work is to study de structural behavior of an 'in scale' PWR nuclear reactor pressure vessel model, containing actual discontinuities, under loading conditions generated by a pressurized thermal shock. To construct the pressure vessel model utilized in this research, the approach developed by Barroso (1995) and based on likelihood studies, related to thermal-hydraulic behavior during the PTS was employed. To achieve the objective of this research, a new methodology to generate cracks, with known geometry and localization in the vessel model wall was developed. Additionally, an hydraulic circuit, able to flood the vessel model, heated to 300 deg C, with 10 m 3 of water at 8 deg C, in 170 seconds, was built. Thermo-hydraulic calculations using RELAP5/M0D 3.2.2γ computational code were done, to estimate the temperature profiles during the cooling time. The resulting data subsidized the thermo-structural calculations that were accomplished using ANSYS 7.01 computational code, for both 2D and 3D models. So, the stress profiles obtained with these calculations were associated with fracture mechanics concepts, to assess the crack growth behavior in the VPR model wall. After the PTS test, the VPR model was submitted to destructive and non-destructive inspections. The results

  3. Freshman Health Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovde, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article examines a cluster of health topics that are frequently selected by students in lower division classes. Topics address issues relating to addictive substances, including alcohol and tobacco, eating disorders, obesity, and dieting. Analysis of the topics examines their interrelationships and organization in the reference literature.…

  4. GIS methodology and case study regarding assessment of the solar potential at territorial level: PV or thermal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Quiquerez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a GIS-based methodology for assessing solar photovoltaic (PV and solar thermal potentials in urban environment. The consideration of spatial and temporal dimensions of energy resource and demand allows, for two different territories of the Geneva region, to determine the suitable building roof areas for solar installations, the solar irradiance on these areas and, finally, the electrical and/or thermal energy potentials related to the demand. Results show that the choice of combining PV and solar thermal for domestic hot water (DHW is relevant in both territories. Actually, the installation of properly sized solar thermal collectors doesn’t decrease much the solar PV potential, while allowing significant thermal production. However, solar collectors for combined DHW and space heating (SH require a much larger surface and, therefore, have a more important influence on the PV potential.

  5. Summary assessment of solar thermal parabolic dish technology for electrical power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penda, P. L.; Fujita, T.; Lucas, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    An assessment is provided of solar thermal parabolic dish technology for electrical power generation. The assessment is based on the development program undertaken by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy and covers the period from the initiation of the program in 1976 through mid-1984. The program was founded on developing components and subsystems that are integrated into parabolic dish power modules for test and evaluation. The status of the project is summarized in terms of results obtained through testing of modules, and the implications of these findings are assessed in terms of techno-economic projections and market potential. The techno-economic projections are based on continuation of an evolutionary technological development program and are related to the accomplishments of the program as of mid-1984. The accomplishments of the development effort are summarized for each major subsystem including concentrators, receivers, and engines. The ramifications of these accomplishments are assessed in the context of developmental objectives and strategies.

  6. Assessing thermal conductivity of composting reactor with attention on varying thermal resistance between compost and the inner surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongjiang; Niu, Wenjuan; Ai, Ping

    2016-12-01

    Dynamic estimation of heat transfer through composting reactor wall was crucial for insulating design and maintaining a sanitary temperature. A model, incorporating conductive, convective and radiative heat transfer mechanisms, was developed in this paper to provide thermal resistance calculations for composting reactor wall. The mechanism of thermal transfer from compost to inner surface of structural layer, as a first step of heat loss, was important for improving insulation performance, which was divided into conduction and convection and discussed specifically in this study. It was found decreasing conductive resistance was responsible for the drop of insulation between compost and reactor wall. Increasing compost porosity or manufacturing a curved surface, decreasing the contact area of compost and the reactor wall, might improve the insulation performance. Upon modeling of heat transfers from compost to ambient environment, the study yielded a condensed and simplified model that could be used to conduct thermal resistance analysis for composting reactor. With theoretical derivations and a case application, the model was applicable for both dynamic estimation and typical composting scenario. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. PREFACE: CEWQO Topical Issue CEWQO Topical Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozic, Mirjana; Man'ko, Margarita

    2009-09-01

    This topical issue of Physica Scripta collects selected peer-reviewed contributions based on invited and contributed talks and posters presented at the 15th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics (CEWQO) which took place in Belgrade 29 May-3 June 2008 (http://cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu). On behalf of the whole community took place in Belgrade 29 May-3 June 2008 (http://cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu, cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu). On behalf of the whole community of the workshop, we thank the referees for their careful reading and useful suggestions which helped to improve all of the submitted papers. A brief description of CEWQO The Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics is a series of conferences started informally in Budapest in 1992. Sometimes small events transform into important conferences, as in the case of CEWQO. Professor Jozsef Janszky, from the Research Institute of Solid State Physics and Optics, is the founder of this series. Margarita Man'ko obtained the following information from Jozsef Janszky during her visit to Budapest, within the framework of cooperation between the Russian and Hungarian Academies of Sciences in 2005. He organized a small workshop on quantum optics in Budapest in 1992 with John Klauder as a main speaker. Then, bearing in mind that a year before Janszky himself was invited by Vladimir Buzek to give a seminar on the same topic in Bratislava, he decided to assign the name 'Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics', considering the seminar in Bratislava to be the first workshop and the one in Budapest the second. The third formal workshop took place in Bratislava in 1993 organized by Vladimir Buzek, then in 1994 (Budapest, by Jozsef Janszky), 1995 and 1996 (Budmerice, Slovakia, by Vladimir Buzek), 1997 (Prague, by Igor Jex), 1999 (Olomouc, Czech Republic, by Zdenek Hradil), 2000 (Balatonfüred, Hungary, by Jozsef Janszky ), 2001 (Prague, by Igor Jex), 2002 (Szeged, Hungary, by Mihaly Benedict), 2003 (Rostock,Germany, by Werner Vogel and

  8. Neutronic and thermal hydraulic assessment of fast reactor cooling by water of super critical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranaev, Yu. D.; Glebov, A. P.; Ukraintsev, V. F.; Kolesov, V. V.

    2007-01-01

    Necessity of essential improvement of competitiveness for reactors on light water determines development of new generation power reactors on water of super critical parameters. The main objective of these projects is reaching of high efficiency coefficients while decreasing of investment to NPP and simplification of thermal scheme and high safety level. International programme of IV generation in which super critical reactors present is already started. In the frame of this concept specific Super Critical Fast Reactor with tight lattice of pitch is developing by collaboration of the FEI and IATE. In present article neutronic and thermal hydraulic assessment of fast reactor with plutonium MOX fuel and a core with a double-path of super critical water cooling is presented (SCFR-2X). The scheme of double path of coolant via the core in which the core is divided by radius on central and periphery parts with approximately equal number of fuel assemblies is suggested. Periferia part is cooling while down coming coolant movement. At the down part of core into the mix chamber flows from the periphery assemblies joining and come to the inlet of the central part which is cooling by upcoming flow. Eight zone of different content of MOX fuel are used (4 in down coming and 4 in upcoming) sub zones. Calculation of fuel burn-up and approximate scheme of refueling is evaluated. Calculation results are presented and discussed

  9. Syntacticized topics in Kurmuk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that Kurmuk, a little-described Western Nilotic language, is characterized by a syntacticized topic whose grammatical relation is variable. In this language, declarative clauses have as topic an obligatory preverbal NP which is either a subject, an object or an adjunct....... The grammatical relation of the topic is expressed by a voice-like inflection of the verb, here called orientation. While subject-orientation is morphologically unmarked, object-oriented and adjunct-oriented verbs are marked by a subject suffix or by a suffix indicating that the topic is not subject, and adjunct......-orientation differs from object-orientation by a marked tone pattern. Topic choice largely reflects information structure by indicating topic continuity. The topic also plays a crucial role in relative clauses and in clauses with contrastive constituent focus, in that objects and adjuncts can only be relativized...

  10. In vivo Confocal Laser Microscopy for monitoring of actinic keratosis treatment: a comparison with histopathologic assessment after treatment with topical 5% 5-fluorouracil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishioka, P; Maia, M; Rodrigues, S B; Lellis, R F; Hirata, S H

    2017-11-24

    Histological examination is the gold standard for actinic keratosis diagnosis; however, it is not always a feasible approach. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a non-invasive technique that may be an alternative for monitoring actinic keratoses treatment response. Topical 5-fluorouracil is indicated for actinic keratosis multiple lesions and for field cancerization treatment. To assess the RCM accuracy, sensibility and specificity for actinic keratosis, considering as a gold standard the histopathological examination; as well as to evaluate the efficacy of 5% 5-fluorouracil treatment. This is a prospective study in actinic keratosis patients between August 2014 and November 2015. RCM analyses were performed in one randomly selected actinic keratosis lesion of the upper limbs by two independent observers before and after 5% 5-fluorouracil treatment. At the end of treatment and with clinical bleaching of treated lesions, histological examination was performed by two pathologists. A total of 50 lesions were enroled, and 40 lesions presented complete clinical bleaching after treatment and were included in the final analysis. Accuracy, sensibility and specificity means among observers were 83.8%, 84.6% and 83.3%, respectively. After 5-fluorouracil treatment, actinic keratosis was diagnosed in 45.0% (observer 1) and 32.5% (observer 2) of subjects according to RCM and in 32.5% of subjects according to histological examination. Considering RCM observers diagnosis, the concordance was substantial (k 0.637, P keratosis therapeutic response to 5-fluorouracil, presenting efficacy comparable to histological examination. Additionally, the results suggest that 5-fluorouracil may be a satisfactory option for therapeutic control of this condition. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  11. Study on Thermal Performance Assessment of Solar Hot Water Systems in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Shaharin Anwar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Solar Hot Water Systems (SHWS are gaining popularity in Malaysia due to increasing cost of electricity and also awareness of environmental issues related to the use of fossil fuels. The introduction of solar hot water systems in Malaysia is an indication that it has potential market. However, there is a need for a proper methodology for rating the energy performance of these systems. The main objective of this study is to assess the thermal performance of several SHWS subject to four different locations in Malaysia using combined direct measurement and computer modelling using the TRNSYS simulation program. The results showed distinct differences in performance of the systems as a result of locations and manufacturers. The findings could be used further in developing an acceptable rating system for SHWS in Malaysia.

  12. Uncertainty propagation in a 3-D thermal code for performance assessment of a nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutfoy, A.; Ritz, J.B.

    2001-01-01

    Given the very large time scale involved, the performance assessment of a nuclear waste repository requires numerical modelling. Because we are uncertain of the exact value of the input parameters, we have to analyse the impact of these uncertainties on the outcome of the physical models. The EDF Division Research and Development has set a reliability method to propagate these uncertainties or variability through models which requires much less physical simulations than the usual simulation methods. We apply the reliability method MEFISTO to a base case modelling the heat transfers in a virtual disposal in the future site of the French underground research laboratory, in the East of France. This study is led in collaboration with ANDRA which is the French Nuclear Waste Management Agency. With this exercise, we want to evaluate the thermal behaviour of a concept related to the variation of physical parameters and their uncertainty. (author)

  13. Technology overview: assessment of social values in thermal power plant siting, social impact methodology evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    A methodology was developed to facilitate the selection of favorable thermal power plant site and design alternatives from the community perspective. A two-stage, multicriteria decision technique was employed to combine technical assessments of effects of the proposed site/design alternatives with corresponding community values. In the first stage, submodels are used to develop indices of plant impact on each of ten decision criteria. These criteria include effects on aesthetics, water quality, cost of power, air quality, ecology, social quality, local economy, recreational opportunities, cultural resources, and human health and safety. In the second stage, each of the impact indices is weighted by corresponding community values and then summed to provide an overall index of plant acceptability

  14. Improved thermal source term generation capability for use in performance assessment and system studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, J.; Rhodes, C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes work performed by the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) Management and Operating (M ampersand O) Contractor to improve spent nuclear fuel (SNF) waste stream characterization for system studies. It discusses how these new capabilities may be exploited for thermal source term generation for use in repository performance assessment modeling. SNF historical discharges have been exhaustively tracked, and significant effort has gone into capturing, verifying, and electronically managing spent fuel inventory data. Future discharge projections are produced annually by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) using sophisticated computer models. The output of these models is coupled with annually updated SNF historical discharges to produce what is referred to as the open-quotes reactor database.close quotes This database and related data are published in a variety of ways including on magnetic media for consistent use by analysts or other interested parties

  15. Independent assessment of MELCOR as a severe accident thermal-hydraulic/source term analysis tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madni, I.K.; Eltawila, F.

    1994-01-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated computer code that models all phases of the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants, and is being developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has a program with the NRC called ''MELCOR Verification, Benchmarking, and Applications,'' whose aim is to provide independent assessment of MELCOR as a severe accident thermal-hydraulic/source term analysis tool. The scope of this program is to perform quality control verification on all released versions of MELCOR, to benchmark MELCOR against more mechanistic codes and experimental data from severe fuel damage tests, and to evaluate the ability of MELCOR to simulate long-term severe accident transients in commercial LWRs, by applying the code to model both BWRs and PWRs. Under this program, BNL provided input to the NRC-sponsored MELCOR Peer Review, and is currently contributing to the MELCOR Cooperative Assessment Program (MCAP). This paper presents a summary of MELCOR assessment efforts at BNL and their contribution to NRC goals with respect to MELCOR

  16. Integrated thermal control and system assessment in plug-chip spray cooling enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wei-Wei; Cheng, Wen-Long; Shao, Shi-Dong; Jiang, Li-Jia; Hong, Da-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel multi-heat source plug-chip spray cooling enclosure was designed. • Enhanced surfaces with different geometric were analyzed in integrated enclosure. • Overall thermal control with adjustable parameters in enclosure was studied. • Temperature disequilibrium of multi-heat source in enclosure was tested. • A comprehensive assessment system used to evaluate the practicality was proposed. - Abstract: Practical and integrated spray cooling system is urgently needed for the cooling of high-performance electronic chips due to the growth requirements of thermal management in workstation. The integration of multi heat sources and the management of integral system are particularly lacking. In order to fill the vacancies in the study of plug-chip spray cooling, an integrated cooling enclosure was designed in this paper. Multi heat sources were placed in sealed space and the heat was removed by spray. The printed circuit board plug-ins and radio frequency resistors were used as analog motherboards and chips, respectively. The enhanced surfaces with four different geometries and the plain surface were studied under the conditions of different inclination angles. The results were compared and the maximum critical heat flux (CHF) was obtained. Moreover, with the intention of the overall management of multi-heat source in integrated enclosure, the effect of the flow rate and the temperature disequilibrium, and the pulse heating in the process of transient cooling were also analyzed. In addition, a comprehensive assessment system, used to evaluate the practicality of spray cooling experimental devices, was proposed and the performance of enclosure was evaluated.

  17. Topical report review status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-08-01

    A Topical Report Review Status is scheduled to be published semi-annually. The primary purpose of this document is to provide periodic progress reports of on-going topical report reviews, to identify those topical reports for which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff review has been completed and, to the extent practicable, to provide NRC management with sufficient information regarding the conduct of the topical report program to permit taking whatever actions deemed necessary or appropriate. This document is also intended to be a source of information to NRC Licensing Project Managers and other NRC personnel regarding the status of topical reports which may be referenced in applications for which they have responsibility. This status report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the topical report program, but is also used by NRC to advise the industry of report review status

  18. Topical report review status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    A Topical Report Review Status is scheduled to be published semi-annually. The primary purpose of this document is to provide periodic progress reports of on-going topical report reviews, to identify those topical reports for which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff review has been completed and, to the extent practicable, to provide NRC management with sufficient information regarding the conduct of the topical report program to permit taking whatever actions deemed necessary or appropriate. This document is also intended to be a source of information to NRC Licensing Project Managers and other NRC personnel regarding the status of topical reports which may be referenced in applications for which they have responsibility. This status report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the topical report program, but is also used by NRC to advise the industry of report review status

  19. Thermal comfort assessment in a Dutch hospital setting – model applicability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottenheijm, E.M.M.; Loomans, M.G.L.C.; Kort, H.S.M.; Trip, A.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Limited information is available on thermal comfort performance of the indoor environment in health care facilities both for staff and patients. Thermal comfort models such as Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) and Adaptive Thermal Comfort (ATC), have not been applied extensively for this setting. In

  20. Monitoring and assessment of the outdoor thermal comfort in Bucharest (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheval, Sorin; Ciobotaru, Ana-Maria; Andronache, Ion; Dumitrescu, Alexandru

    2017-04-01

    Bucharest is one of the European cities most at risk of being affected by meteorological hazards. Heat or cold waves, extreme temperature events, heavy rains or prolonged precipitation deficits are all-season phenomena, triggering damages, discomfort or even casualties. Temperature hazards may occur annually and challenge equally the public, local business and administration to find adequate solutions for securing the thermal comfort in the outdoor environment of the city. The accurate and fine resolution monitoring of the air temperature pledges for the comprehensive assessment of the thermal comfort in order to capture as much as possible the urban influence. This study uses sub-hourly temperature data (10-min temporal resolution) retrieved over the period November 2014 - November 2016 collected from nine sensors placed either in plain urban conditions or within the three meteorological stations of the national network which are currently monitoring the climate of Bucharest (Băneasa, Filaret, Afumați). The relative humidity was estimated based on the data available at the three stations placed in WMO standard conditions, and the 10-min values of 8 Thermal Comfort Indices were computed, namely: Heat Index, Humidex, Relative Strain Index, Scharlau, Summer Simmer Index, Physiological Equivalent Index, Temperature-Humidity Index, Thom Discomfort Index. The indices were analysed statistically, both individually and combined. Despite the short range of the available data, this study emphasizes clear spatial differentiations of the thermal comfort, in a very good agreement with the land cover and built zones of the city, while important variations were found in the temporal regime, due to large variations of the temperature values (e.g. >4 centigrade between consecutive hours or >15 centigrade between consecutive days). Ultimately, this study has revealed that the continuous monitoring of the urban climate, at fine temporal and spatial resolution, may deliver

  1. Assessing factors affecting the thermal properties of a passive thermal refuge using three-dimensional hydrodynamic flow and transport modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Jeremy D.; Swain, Eric D.; Stith, Bradley M.; Langtimm, Catherine A.

    2013-01-01

    Everglades restoration activities may cause changes to temperature and salinity stratification at the Port of the Islands (POI) marina, which could affect its suitability as a cold weather refuge for manatees. To better understand how the Picayune Strand Restoration Project (PSRP) may alter this important resource in Collier County in southwestern Florida, the USGS has developed a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model for the marina and canal system at POI. Empirical data suggest that manatees aggregate at the site during winter because of thermal inversions that provide warmer water near the bottom that appears to only occur in the presence of salinity stratification. To study these phenomena, the environmental fluid dynamics code simulator was used to represent temperature and salinity transport within POI. Boundary inputs were generated using a larger two-dimensional model constructed with the flow and transport in a linked overland-aquifer density-dependent system simulator. Model results for a representative winter period match observed trends in salinity and temperature fluctuations and produce temperature inversions similar to observed values. Modified boundary conditions, representing proposed PSRP alterations, were also tested to examine the possible effect on the salinity stratification and temperature inversion within POI. Results show that during some periods, salinity stratification is reduced resulting in a subsequent reduction in temperature inversion compared with the existing conditions simulation. This may have an effect on POI’s suitability as a passive thermal refuge for manatees and other temperature-sensitive species. Additional testing was completed to determine the important physical relationships affecting POI’s suitability as a refuge.

  2. Application of the French codes to the pressurized thermal shocks assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Mingya; Wang, Rong Shan; Yu, Weiwei; Lu, Feng; Zhang, Guo Dong; Xue, Fei; Chen, Zhilin [Suzhou Nuclear Power Research Institute, Life Management Center, Suzhou (China); Qian, Guian [Paul Scherrer Institute, Nuclear Energy and Safety Department, Villigen (Switzerland); Shi, Jinhua [Amec Foster Wheeler, Clean Energy Department, Gloucester (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-15

    The integrity of a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) related to pressurized thermal shocks (PTSs) has been extensively studied. This paper introduces an integrity assessment of an RPV subjected to a PTS transient based on the French codes. In the USA, the 'screening criterion' for maximum allowable embrittlement of RPV material is developed based on the probabilistic fracture mechanics. However, in the French RCC-M and RSE-M codes, which are developed based on the deterministic fracture mechanics, there is no 'screening criterion'. In this paper, the methodology in the RCC-M and RSE-M codes, which are used for PTS analysis, are firstly discussed. The bases of the French codes are compared with ASME and FAVOR codes. A case study is also presented. The results show that the method in the RCC-M code that accounts for the influence of cladding on the stress intensity factor (SIF) may be nonconservative. The SIF almost doubles if the weld residual stress is considered. The approaches included in the codes differ in many aspects, which may result in significant differences in the assessment results. Therefore, homogenization of the codes in the long time operation of nuclear power plants is needed.

  3. Structural integrity assessment of the reactor pressure vessel under the pressurized thermal shock loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Mingya; Lu, Feng; Wang, Rongshan; Ren, Ai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The regulation and the code are proved to be conservative in the integrity assessment. • This study is helpful to understand the complex influence of the parameters. • The most dangerous case is given for the reference transient. - Abstract: Fracture mechanics analysis of pressurized thermal shock (PTS) is the key element of the integrity evaluation of the nuclear reactor pressure vessel (RPV). While the regulation of 10 CFR 50.61 and the ASME Code provide the guidance for the structural integrity, the guidance has been prepared under conservative assumptions. In this paper, the effects of conservative assumptions involved in the PTS analysis were investigated. The influence of different parameters, such as crack size, cladding effect and neutron fluence, were reviewed based on 3-D finite element analyses. Also, the sensitivity study of elastic–plastic approach, crack type and cladding thickness were reviewed. It was shown that crack depth, crack type, plastic effect and cladding thickness change the safety margin (SM) significantly, and the SM at the deepest point of the crack is not always smaller than that of the surface point, indicating that both the deepest and surface points of the crack front should be considered. For the reference transient, deeper cracks always give more conservative prediction. So compared to the prescribed analyses of a set of postulated defects with varying depths in the ASME code, it only needs to assess the crack with maximum depth in the code for the reference transient according to the conclusions

  4. Comparison report of RPV pressurised thermal shock - international comparative assessment study (PTS ICAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A summary of the recently completed International Comparative Assessment Study of Pressurized- Thermal-Shock in Reactor Pressure Vessels (RPV PTS ICAS) is presented here to record the results in actual and comparative fashions. The ICAS Project brought together an international group of experts from research, utility and regulatory organizations to perform a comparative evaluation of analysis methodologies employed in the assessment of RPV integrity under PTS loading conditions. The Project was sponsored jointly by Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS), Koeln, Germany, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), USA, with assistance from the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)/Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA)/Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI)/Principal Working Group (PWG) No. 3 (Integrity of Components and Structures). The ICAS Project grew out of a strong interest expressed by participants in the previous FALSIRE II Project to proceed with further evaluations of analysis methods used in RPV integrity assessment. A Launch Meeting for the ICAS Project was held at GRS-Koeln, during June 1996, where an emphasis was placed on identifying the different approaches to RPV integrity assessment being employed within the international nuclear technology community. Also a Problem Statement was drafted that defined a Western type four-loop RPV with cladding on the inner surface. Also, a detailed task matrix was defined that included a set of transient thermal-mechanical loading conditions postulated to result from loss-of-coolant accidents. The primary focus of the analyses was on the behaviour of relatively shallow cracks under these conditions. The assessment activities based on the Problem Statement were divided under three tasks: deterministic fracture mechanics (DFM), probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) and thermal-hydraulic mixing (THM). An Intermediate Workshop was held at OECD/NEA-Paris during June 1997, to

  5. Application of the French Codes to the Pressurized Thermal Shocks Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingya Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The integrity of a reactor pressure vessel (RPV related to pressurized thermal shocks (PTSs has been extensively studied. This paper introduces an integrity assessment of an RPV subjected to a PTS transient based on the French codes. In the USA, the “screening criterion” for maximum allowable embrittlement of RPV material is developed based on the probabilistic fracture mechanics. However, in the French RCC-M and RSE-M codes, which are developed based on the deterministic fracture mechanics, there is no “screening criterion”. In this paper, the methodology in the RCC-M and RSE-M codes, which are used for PTS analysis, are firstly discussed. The bases of the French codes are compared with ASME and FAVOR codes. A case study is also presented. The results show that the method in the RCC-M code that accounts for the influence of cladding on the stress intensity factor (SIF may be nonconservative. The SIF almost doubles if the weld residual stress is considered. The approaches included in the codes differ in many aspects, which may result in significant differences in the assessment results. Therefore, homogenization of the codes in the long time operation of nuclear power plants is needed.

  6. Assessment and Application of the ROSE Code for Reactor Outage Thermal-Hydraulic and Safety Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Thomas K.S.; Ko, F.-K.; Dai, L.-C.

    2001-01-01

    The currently available tools, such as RELAP5, RETRAN, and others, cannot easily and correctly perform the task of analyzing the system behavior during plant outages. Therefore, a medium-sized program aiming at reactor outage simulation and evaluation, such as midloop operation (MLO) with loss of residual heat removal (RHR), has been developed. Important thermal-hydraulic processes involved during MLO with loss of RHR can be properly simulated by the newly developed reactor outage simulation and evaluation (ROSE) code. The two-region approach with a modified two-fluid model has been adopted to be the theoretical basis of the ROSE code.To verify the analytical model in the first step, posttest calculations against the integral midloop experiments with loss of RHR have been performed. The excellent simulation capacity of the ROSE code against the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research Integral System Test Facility test data is demonstrated. To further mature the ROSE code in simulating a full-sized pressurized water reactor, assessment against the WGOTHIC code and the Maanshan momentary-loss-of-RHR event has been undertaken. The successfully assessed ROSE code is then applied to evaluate the abnormal operation procedure (AOP) with loss of RHR during MLO (AOP 537.4) for the Maanshan plant. The ROSE code also has been successfully transplanted into the Maanshan training simulator to support operator training. How the simulator was upgraded by the ROSE code for MLO will be presented in the future

  7. Application of the French codes to the pressurized thermal shocks assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Mingya; Wang, Rong Shan; Yu, Weiwei; Lu, Feng; Zhang, Guo Dong; Xue, Fei; Chen, Zhilin; Qian, Guian; Shi, Jinhua

    2016-01-01

    The integrity of a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) related to pressurized thermal shocks (PTSs) has been extensively studied. This paper introduces an integrity assessment of an RPV subjected to a PTS transient based on the French codes. In the USA, the 'screening criterion' for maximum allowable embrittlement of RPV material is developed based on the probabilistic fracture mechanics. However, in the French RCC-M and RSE-M codes, which are developed based on the deterministic fracture mechanics, there is no 'screening criterion'. In this paper, the methodology in the RCC-M and RSE-M codes, which are used for PTS analysis, are firstly discussed. The bases of the French codes are compared with ASME and FAVOR codes. A case study is also presented. The results show that the method in the RCC-M code that accounts for the influence of cladding on the stress intensity factor (SIF) may be nonconservative. The SIF almost doubles if the weld residual stress is considered. The approaches included in the codes differ in many aspects, which may result in significant differences in the assessment results. Therefore, homogenization of the codes in the long time operation of nuclear power plants is needed

  8. Thermal performance assessment of a large aperture concentrating collector in an industrial application in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Clare; Pino, Alan; Cardemil, José Miguel; Escobar, Rodrigo

    2017-06-01

    The application of solar thermal energy to meet the heat demands of the food and beverage processing industry in Chile has huge potential. This paper presents an assessment of the first large aperture trough collector installed in Latin America. The collector preheats water for a boiler in a juice-concentrating factory, 100 km north of Santiago. An analysis of the system for a day in November indicates the system was not able to utilize the heat generated, resulting in rapid de- and refocusing of the collector and problems with sensor calibration. An analysis of a day in March indicates the tracking algorithm has not correctly aligned the collector with the sun's position. An investigation into the design document reveals that the meteorological data underestimates the actual irradiation values by 40%, resulting in an oversized system given the actual conditions. To increase the energy gain in the system it is proposed to increase the working pressure from the current value of 1.5bar to up to 5bar, which could increase the system utilization from 41% to 65% and reduce the dumped energy to near zero. The simulation results with actual weather data and a fixed inlet temperature indicate the annual solar fraction could increase from the design value of 8.1% to 31.8% with a working pressure of 5 bar. The plant presents multiple opportunities for improvement not only to the performance of the plant but also in the design and installation of solar thermal systems in Chile in the future.

  9. Assessment of lnternational Space Station (ISS) Lithium-ion Battery Thermal Runaway (TR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graika, Jason

    2017-01-01

    This task was developed in the wake of the Boeing 787 Dreamliner lithium-ion battery TR incidents of January 2013 and January 2014. The Electrical Power Technical Discipline Team supported the Dreamliner investigations and has followed up by applying lessons learned to conduct an introspective evaluation of NASA's risk of similar incidents in its own lithium-ion battery deployments. This activity has demonstrated that historically NASA, like Boeing and others in the aerospace industry, has emphasized the prevention of TR in a single cell within the battery (e.g., cell screening) but has not considered TR severity-reducing measures in the event of a single-cell TR event. center dotIn the recent update of the battery safety standard (JSC 20793) to address this paradigm shift, the NASA community included requirements for assessing TR severity and identifying simple, low-cost severity reduction measures. This task will serve as a pathfinder for meeting those requirements and will specifically look at a number of different lithium-ion batteries currently in the design pipeline within the ISS Program batteries that, should they fail in a Dreamliner-like incident, could result in catastrophic consequences. This test is an abuse test to understand the heat transfer properties of the cell and ORU in thermal runaway, with radiant barriers in place in a flight like test in on orbit conditions. This includes studying the heat flow and distribution in the ORU. This data will be used to validate the thermal runaway analysis. This test does not cover the ambient pressure case. center dotThere is no pass/ fail criteria for this test.

  10. Thermal neutron equivalent doses assessment around KFUPM neutron source storage area using NTDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Jarad, F.; Fazal-ur-Rehman; Al-Haddad, M.N.; Al-Jarrallah, M.I.; Nassar, R

    2002-07-01

    Area passive neutron dosemeters based on nuclear track detectors (NTDs) have been used for 13 days to assess accumulated low doses of thermal neutrons around neutron source storage area of the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM). Moreover, the aim of this study is to check the effectiveness of shielding of the storage area. NTDs were mounted with the boron converter on their surface as one compressed unit. The converter is a lithium tetraborate (Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}) layer for thermal neutron detection via {sup 10}B(N,{alpha}){sup 7}Li and {sup 6}Li(n,{alpha}){sup 3}H nuclear reactions. The area passive dosemeters were installed on 26 different locations around the source storage area and adjacent rooms. The calibration factor for NTD-based area passive neutron dosemeters was found to be 8.3 alpha tracks.cm{sup -2}.{mu}Sv{sup -1} using active snoopy neutron dosemeters in the KFUPM neutron irradiation facility. The results show the variation of accumulated dose with locations around the storage area. The range of dose rates varied from as low as 40 nSv.h{sup -1} up to 11 {mu}Sv.h{sup -1}. The study indicates that the area passive neutron dosemeter was able to detect accumulated doses as low as 40 nSv.h{sup -1}, which could not be detected with the available active neutron dosemeters. The results of the study also indicate that an additional shielding is required to bring the dose rates down to background level. The present investigation suggests extending this study to find the contribution of doses from fast neutrons around the neutron source storage area using NTDs through proton recoil. The significance of this passive technique is that it is highly sensitive and does not require any electronics or power supplies, as is the case in active systems. (author)

  11. Fracture risk assessment for the pressurized water reactor pressure vessel under pressurized thermal shock events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Hsoung-Wei; Huang, Chin-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Highlight: • The PTS loading conditions consistent with the USNRC's new PTS rule are applied as the loading condition for a Taiwan domestic PWR. • The state-of-the-art PFM technique is employed to analyze a reactor pressure vessel. • Novel flaw model and embrittlement correlation are considered in the study. • The RT-based regression formula of NUREG-1874 was also utilized to evaluate the failure risks of RPV. • For slightly embrittled RPV, the SO-1 type PTSs play more important role than other types of PTS. - Abstract: The fracture risk of the pressurized water reactor pressure vessel of a Taiwan domestic nuclear power plant has been evaluated according to the technical basis of the U.S.NRC's new pressurized thermal shock (PTS) screening criteria. The ORNL's FAVOR code and the PNNL's flaw models were employed to perform the probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis associated with plant specific parameters of the domestic reactor pressure vessel. Meanwhile, the PTS thermal hydraulic and probabilistic risk assessment data analyzed from a similar nuclear power plant in the United States for establishing the new PTS rule were applied as the loading conditions. Besides, an RT-based regression formula derived by the U.S.NRC was also utilized to verify the through-wall cracking frequencies. It is found that the through-wall cracking of the analyzed reactor pressure vessel only occurs during the PTS events resulted from the stuck-open primary safety relief valves that later reclose, but with only an insignificant failure risk. The results indicate that the Taiwan domestic PWR pressure vessel has sufficient structural margin for the PTS attack until either the current license expiration dates or during the proposed extended operation periods.

  12. Chemical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Methods to Assess Biodegradation of Winery-Distillery Wastes during Composting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Climent, A.; Gomis, P.; Martín-Mata, J.; Bustamante, M. A.; Marhuenda-Egea, F. C.; Pérez-Murcia, M. D.; Pérez-Espinosa, A.; Paredes, C.; Moral, R.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the co-composting process of wastes from the winery and distillery industry with animal manures, using the classical chemical methods traditionally used in composting studies together with advanced instrumental methods (thermal analysis, FT-IR and CPMAS 13C NMR techniques), to evaluate the development of the process and the quality of the end-products obtained. For this, three piles were elaborated by the turning composting system, using as raw materials winery-distillery wastes (grape marc and exhausted grape marc) and animal manures (cattle manure and poultry manure). The classical analytical methods showed a suitable development of the process in all the piles, but these techniques were ineffective to study the humification process during the composting of this type of materials. However, their combination with the advanced instrumental techniques clearly provided more information regarding the turnover of the organic matter pools during the composting process of these materials. Thermal analysis allowed to estimate the degradability of the remaining material and to assess qualitatively the rate of OM stabilization and recalcitrant C in the compost samples, based on the energy required to achieve the same mass losses. FT-IR spectra mainly showed variations between piles and time of sampling in the bands associated to complex organic compounds (mainly at 1420 and 1540 cm-1) and to nitrate and inorganic components (at 875 and 1384 cm-1, respectively), indicating composted material stability and maturity; while CPMAS 13C NMR provided semi-quantitatively partition of C compounds and structures during the process, being especially interesting their variation to evaluate the biotransformation of each C pool, especially in the comparison of recalcitrant C vs labile C pools, such as Alkyl /O-Alkyl ratio. PMID:26418458

  13. Chemical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Methods to Assess Biodegradation of Winery-Distillery Wastes during Composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Climent, A; Gomis, P; Martín-Mata, J; Bustamante, M A; Marhuenda-Egea, F C; Pérez-Murcia, M D; Pérez-Espinosa, A; Paredes, C; Moral, R

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the co-composting process of wastes from the winery and distillery industry with animal manures, using the classical chemical methods traditionally used in composting studies together with advanced instrumental methods (thermal analysis, FT-IR and CPMAS 13C NMR techniques), to evaluate the development of the process and the quality of the end-products obtained. For this, three piles were elaborated by the turning composting system, using as raw materials winery-distillery wastes (grape marc and exhausted grape marc) and animal manures (cattle manure and poultry manure). The classical analytical methods showed a suitable development of the process in all the piles, but these techniques were ineffective to study the humification process during the composting of this type of materials. However, their combination with the advanced instrumental techniques clearly provided more information regarding the turnover of the organic matter pools during the composting process of these materials. Thermal analysis allowed to estimate the degradability of the remaining material and to assess qualitatively the rate of OM stabilization and recalcitrant C in the compost samples, based on the energy required to achieve the same mass losses. FT-IR spectra mainly showed variations between piles and time of sampling in the bands associated to complex organic compounds (mainly at 1420 and 1540 cm-1) and to nitrate and inorganic components (at 875 and 1384 cm-1, respectively), indicating composted material stability and maturity; while CPMAS 13C NMR provided semi-quantitatively partition of C compounds and structures during the process, being especially interesting their variation to evaluate the biotransformation of each C pool, especially in the comparison of recalcitrant C vs labile C pools, such as Alkyl /O-Alkyl ratio.

  14. A Prospective, Descriptive Study to Assess the Clinical Benefits of Using Calendula officinalis Hydroglycolic Extract for the Topical Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzi, Marcelo; de Freitas, Franciele; Winter, Marcos

    2016-03-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) have a significant impact on patient quality of life. A prospective, descriptive pilot study was conducted between May 2012 and December 2013 through the dermatology outpatient unit in a Brazilian hospital to evaluate the clinical benefits of using Calendula officinalis hydroglycolic extract in the treatment of DFUs. Patients diagnosed with a stable neuropathic ulcer of >3 months' duration; ranging in size from 0.5-40 cm(2); without osteomyelitis, gangrene, bone exposure, cancer, or deep tissue infection; ages 18-90 years; with adequate glycemic control and no history of an allergy to C. officinalis were enrolled. Patients provided demographic and diabetes-related information and were evaluated biweekly for 30 weeks or until healing (ie, full epithelialization with no wound drainage). DFUs were measured and clinically examined for microbiological flora and presence of odor, tissue type (eg, granulation, fibrin sloth, necrosis), exudate, and retraction rate using planimetry images. Patients' blood tests and neuropathic pain assessment (the latter by clinician-directed questionnaire) were performed at baseline and the end of treatment; pain also was assessed during dressing changes using a 10-point rating scale. Patients' ulcers were treated twice daily with C. officinalis hydroglycolic extract spray solution and covered with saline-moistened, sterile, nonadherent gauze and bandages followed by foot offloading with adequate protective footwear. Patients received their first treatment in the clinic then performed care at home. From a potential population of 109 patients, 25 did not meet the inclusion criteria. Of the remaining 84 participants enrolled, 43 withdrew before study completion; cited reasons included lost to follow-up (16), medical judgment (2), failure to attend >3 scheduled visits (17), protocol violation (5), and death (3). Forty-one (41) - 17 women, average age 62 years (range 44-82 years), average glycemic level 153 mg

  15. Thermal Comfort Level Assessment in Urban Area of Petrolina-PE County, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Vieira de Azevedo

    Full Text Available Abstract This study evaluated the thermal conditions of urban areas in Petrolina-PE, from continuous data collected in urban and rural areas for the year of 2012. The results characterized urban heat islands (UHI with varying intensity in urban areas, especially UHI = 5.3 °C (high intensity occurred on April 28, 2012. It was evident that the constituent elements of urban areas contribute to the formation and expansion of UHI bringing thermal discomfort for its inhabitants. An adaptation to Thom’s equation for calculating the Thermal Discomfort Index (DIT, was used to obtain the maximum (DITx and minimum (DITm thermal discomfort. In the urban area, the DITm indicated thermal comfort in 23.0% of the days and partial comfort in 77.0% of days surveyed. Already, the DITx characterized 71.6% of days with partial comfort and 28.4% of days with thermal discomfort. In the rural area, The DITm indicated that 41.5% of days were thermally comfortable and 58.5% of days had partial comfort. However, the DITx pointed 87.7% of the days of this environment with partial thermal comfort and 12.3% of thermally uncomfortable days. Finally, the results showed that afforestation of urban area constitutes to an effective and efficient way to mitigate thermal discomfort.

  16. Assessment of optical performance of three non-tracking, non-imaging, external compound parabolic concentrators designed for high temperature solar thermal collector units

    OpenAIRE

    Cisneros, Jesus

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to perform a preliminary optical assessment of the external compound parabolic concentrator (XCPC) component in three concentrating solar thermal units. Each solar thermal unit consists an optical element (the non-imaging concentrating reflector) and a thermal element (the evacuated glass tube solar absorber). The three concentrating solar thermal units discussed in this work are DEWAR 58, a direct flow all-glass dewar, DEWAR 47 an indirect flow ...

  17. Assessing the Crop-Water Status in Almond (Prunus dulcis Mill. Trees via Thermal Imaging Camera Connected to Smartphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Francisco García-Tejero

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Different tools are being implemented in order to improve the water management in agricultural irrigated areas of semiarid environments. Thermography has been progressively introduced as a promising technique for irrigation scheduling and the assessing of crop-water status, especially when deficit irrigation is being implemented. However, an important limitation is related to the cost of the actual cameras, this being a severe limitation to its practical usage by farmers and technicians. This work evaluates the potential and the robustness of a thermal imaging camera that is connected to smartphone (Flir One recently developed by Flir Systems Inc. as a first step to assess the crop water status. The trial was developed in mature almond (Prunus dulcis Mill. trees that are subjected to different irrigation treatments. Thermal information obtained by the Flir One camera was deal with the thermal information obtained with a conventional Thermal Camera (Flir SC660 with a high resolution, and subsequently, confronted with other related plant physiological parameters (leaf water potential, Ψleaf, and stomatal conductance, gs. Thermal imaging camera connected to smartphone provided useful information in estimating the crop-water status in almond trees, being a potential promising tool to accelerate the monitoring process and thereby enhance water-stress management of almond orchards.

  18. Assessing the Crop-Water Status in Almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) Trees via Thermal Imaging Camera Connected to Smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Tejero, Iván Francisco; Ortega-Arévalo, Carlos José; Iglesias-Contreras, Manuel; Moreno, José Manuel; Souza, Luciene; Tavira, Simón Cuadros; Durán-Zuazo, Víctor Hugo

    2018-03-31

    Different tools are being implemented in order to improve the water management in agricultural irrigated areas of semiarid environments. Thermography has been progressively introduced as a promising technique for irrigation scheduling and the assessing of crop-water status, especially when deficit irrigation is being implemented. However, an important limitation is related to the cost of the actual cameras, this being a severe limitation to its practical usage by farmers and technicians. This work evaluates the potential and the robustness of a thermal imaging camera that is connected to smartphone (Flir One) recently developed by Flir Systems Inc. as a first step to assess the crop water status. The trial was developed in mature almond ( Prunus dulcis Mill.) trees that are subjected to different irrigation treatments. Thermal information obtained by the Flir One camera was deal with the thermal information obtained with a conventional Thermal Camera (Flir SC660) with a high resolution, and subsequently, confronted with other related plant physiological parameters (leaf water potential, Ψ leaf , and stomatal conductance, g s ). Thermal imaging camera connected to smartphone provided useful information in estimating the crop-water status in almond trees, being a potential promising tool to accelerate the monitoring process and thereby enhance water-stress management of almond orchards.

  19. Assessment of inhalation risk due to radioactivity released from coal-based thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, S.K.; Pandit, G.G.; Shukla, V.K.; Puranik, V.D.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2006-01-01

    In India, the coal based thermal power plants have been the major source of power generation in the past and would continue for decades to come. As the coal contains naturally occurring primordial radionuclides the burning of pulverized coal to produce energy for generation of electricity in thermal power plants will result in the emission of a variety of natural radioactive elements into the environment in the vicinity of thermal power plants. In this paper we have used two different methods for characterization of uncertainty in inhalation risk to the general public around 10 Kms radius in the neighborhood of a coal-fired thermal power plant. (author)

  20. Measuring and assessing the effective in-plane thermal conductivity of lithium iron phosphate pouch cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazinski, S.J.; Wang, X.; Sangeorzan, B.P.; Guessous, L.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to experimentally determine the effective in-plane thermal conductivity of a lithium iron phosphate pouch cell. An experimental setup is designed to treat the battery cell as a straight rectangular fin in natural convection. Thermography and heat sensors were used to collect data that yields the temperature distribution and heat transfer rate of the fin, respectively. One-dimensional fin equations were combined with the experimental data to yield the in-plane thermal conductivity through an iterative process that best-fits the data to the model. The experiment was first calibrated using reference plates of different metals. The fin model predicts the thermal conductivity value well with a correction factor of approximately 7%–9%. Using this experimental method, the in-plane thermal conductivity of the pouch cells is measured at different state of charge (SOC) levels. The in-plane thermal conductivity decreases approximately 0.13 Wm"−"1 °C"−"1 per 10% increase in SOC for the LFP cells. This translates to a 4.2% overall decrease in the thermal conductivity as the cell becomes fully charged. - Highlights: • A method is proposed to measure the in-plane thermal conductivity of a pouch cell. • The thermal conductivity decreases slightly with increase in SOC for the LFP cells. • The fin model predicts the thermal conductivity well with a correction factor.

  1. Solar thermal technologies benefits assessment: Objectives, methodologies and results for 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1982-07-01

    The economic and social benefits of developing cost competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) were assessed. The analysis was restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high insolation/high energy price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs were considered, reflecting uncertainty over fuel prices and STT cost projections. After considering the numerous benefits of introducing STT into the energy market, three primary benefits were identified and evaluated: (1) direct energy cost savings were estimated to range from zero to $50 billion; (2) oil imports may be reduced by up to 9 percent, improving national security; and (3) significant environmental benefits can be realized in air basins where electric power plant emissions create substantial air pollution problems. STT research and development was found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. The normal risks associated with investments in research and development are accentuated because the OPEC cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut the growth of alternative energy sources.

  2. Terrestrial mammal fauna and habitat in environmental assessment reports of thermal and nuclear power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yatake, Hatsuho; Nashimoto, Makoto; Chiba, Shinji [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Abiko, Chiba (Japan). Abiko Research Lab

    2000-04-01

    We analyzed the geological distribution of mammals, relationships between ecological distribution of mammals and land use, and vegetation type in the 49 environmental assessment reports of thermal and nuclear power stations in the coastal area of Japan. Seven orders and 17 families of 66 terrestrial mammal species including subspecies were listed from the reports. This is about 40% of the total species of terrestrial mammals observed in Japan. Mammals were divided into 3 groups: distributed in the nationwide, in limited districts, and in limited area. The geological distributions of Insectivora, Rodentia, Chiroptera and naturalized mammals, of which have not been well known, were arranged in a topographic map at the scale of 1:50,000 in this survey. The characteristics of power station sites were classified into 4 categories as follows: Industrial site, Industrial-agricultural mixed site, Industrial-agricultural-forest mixed site, and forest site. The relationships between site categories and species compositions were analyzed. The listed species were fifteen species in the industrial site, however, there were thirty six species in the forest site. The mammal species were classified into six groups by vegetation types of habitat; forest-dwelling, grassland-dwelling, farmland and orchard-dwelling, wide-dwelling except residential area, wide-dwelling mammals including residential area, and residential area-dwelling mammals. (author)

  3. Terrestrial mammal fauna and habitat in environmental assessment reports of thermal and nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatake, Hatsuho; Nashimoto, Makoto; Chiba, Shinji

    2000-01-01

    We analyzed the geological distribution of mammals, relationships between ecological distribution of mammals and land use, and vegetation type in the 49 environmental assessment reports of thermal and nuclear power stations in the coastal area of Japan. Seven orders and 17 families of 66 terrestrial mammal species including subspecies were listed from the reports. This is about 40% of the total species of terrestrial mammals observed in Japan. Mammals were divided into 3 groups: distributed in the nationwide, in limited districts, and in limited area. The geological distributions of Insectivora, Rodentia, Chiroptera and naturalized mammals, of which have not been well known, were arranged in a topographic map at the scale of 1:50,000 in this survey. The characteristics of power station sites were classified into 4 categories as follows: Industrial site, Industrial-agricultural mixed site, Industrial-agricultural-forest mixed site, and forest site. The relationships between site categories and species compositions were analyzed. The listed species were fifteen species in the industrial site, however, there were thirty six species in the forest site. The mammal species were classified into six groups by vegetation types of habitat; forest-dwelling, grassland-dwelling, farmland and orchard-dwelling, wide-dwelling except residential area, wide-dwelling mammals including residential area, and residential area-dwelling mammals. (author)

  4. Biopsychosocial Assessment of Pain with Thermal Imaging of Emotional Facial Expression in Breast Cancer Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Alberto Rodríguez Medina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent research has evaluated psychological and biological characteristics associated with pain in survivors of breast cancer (BC. Few studies consider their relationship with inflammatory activity. Voluntary facial expressions modify the autonomic activity and this may be useful in the hospital environment for clinical biopsychosocial assessment of pain. Methods: This research compared a BC survivors group under integral treatment (Oncology, Psychology, Nutrition with a control group to assess the intensity of pain, behavioral interference, anxiety, depression, temperament-expression, anger control, social isolation, emotional regulation, and alexithymia and inflammatory activity, with salivary interleukin 6 (IL-6. Then, a psychophysiological evaluation through repeated measures of facial infrared thermal imaging (IRT and hands in baseline—positive facial expression (joy—negative facial expression (pain—relaxation (diaphragmatic breathing. Results: The results showed changes in the IRT (p < 0.05 during the execution of facial expressions in the chin, perinasal, periorbital, frontal, nose, and fingers areas in both groups. No differences were found in the IL-6 level among the aforementioned groups, but an association with baseline nasal temperature (p < 0.001 was observable. The BC group had higher alexithymia score (p < 0.01 but lower social isolation (p < 0.05, in comparison to the control group. Conclusions: In the low- and medium-concentration groups of IL-6, the psychophysiological intervention proposed in this study has a greater effect than on the high concentration group of IL-6. This will be considered in the design of psychological and psychosocial interventions for the treatment of pain.

  5. Assessment of β-lapachone loaded in lecithin-chitosan nanoparticles for the topical treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in L. major infected BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Esther; Schwartz, Juana; Larrea, Esther; Conde, Iosune; Font, Maria; Sanmartín, Carmen; Irache, Juan Manuel; Espuelas, Socorro

    2015-11-01

    Patients affected by cutaneous leishmaniasis need a topical treatment which cures lesions without leaving scars. Lesions are produced not only by the parasite but also by an uncontrolled and persistent inflammatory immune response. In this study, we proposed the loading of β-lapachone (β-LP) in lecithin-chitosan nanoparticles (NP) for targeting the drug to the dermis, where infected macrophages reside, and promote wound healing. Although the loading of β-LP in NP did not influence the drug antileishmanial activity it was critical to achieve important drug accumulation in the dermis and permeation through the skin. When topically applied in Leishmania major infected BALB/c mice, β-LP NP achieved no parasite reduction but they stopped the lesion progression. Immuno-histopathological assays in CL lesions and quantitative mRNA studies in draining lymph nodes confirmed that β-LP exhibited anti-inflammatory activity leading to the down-regulation of IL-1β and COX-2 expression and a decrease of neutrophils infiltrate. Cutaneous leishmaniasis often leaves patients with unsightly scars due to the body's inflammatory response to the infection. The authors in this paper described topical treatment using β-lapachone (β- LP) loaded in lecithin-chitosan nanoparticles (NP) in an animal model. Results confirmed the reduction of inflammatory response without affecting the parasite killing efficacy. These findings would pave way for further clinical testing in the near future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The validation of science virtual test to assess 7th grade students’ critical thinking on matter and heat topic (SVT-MH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sya’bandari, Y.; Firman, H.; Rusyati, L.

    2018-05-01

    The method used in this research was descriptive research for profiling the validation of SVT-MH to measure students’ critical thinking on matter and heat topic in junior high school. The subject is junior high school students of 7th grade (13 years old) while science teacher and expert as the validators. The instruments that used as a tool to obtain the data are rubric expert judgment (content, media, education) and rubric of readability test. There are four steps to validate SVT-MH in 7th grade Junior High School. These steps are analysis of core competence and basic competence based on Curriculum 2013, expert judgment (content, media, education), readability test and trial test (limited and larger trial test). The instrument validation resulted 30 items that represent 8 elements and 21 sub-elements to measure students’ critical thinking based on Inch in matter and heat topic. The alpha Cronbach (α) is 0.642 which means that the instrument is sufficient to measure students’ critical thinking matter and heat topic.

  7. Comprehensive assessment of the role and potential for solar thermal in future energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kenneth; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2018-01-01

    to the energy system configurations. Solar thermal benefits reduce when moving towards a high-renewable energy system as other renewable energy sources start competing with solar thermal on energy prices and energy system flexibility. The findings can be applied to a diversity of energy systems also beyond...

  8. Diclofenac Topical (osteoarthritis pain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gel (Voltaren) is used to relieve pain from osteoarthritis (arthritis caused by a breakdown of the lining ... Diclofenac topical liquid (Pennsaid) is used to relieve osteoarthritis pain in the knees. Diclofenac is in a ...

  9. Diclofenac Topical (actinic keratosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... topical gel (Solaraze) is used to treat actinic keratosis (flat, scaly growths on the skin caused by ... The way diclofenac gel works to treat actinic keratosis is not known.Diclofenac is also available as ...

  10. Topics in Nuclear Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.C.

    1982-01-01

    Some topics in nuclear astrophysics are discussed, e.g.: highly evolved stellar cores, stellar evolution (through the temperature analysis of stellar surface), nucleosynthesis and finally the solar neutrino problem. (L.C.) [pt

  11. Optimizing the Environmental Performance of In Situ Thermal Remediation Technologies Using Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Nielsen, Steffen G.; Weber, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    In situ thermal remediation technologies provide efficient and reliable cleanup of contaminated soil and groundwater, but at a high cost of environmental impacts and resource depletion due to the large amounts of energy and materials consumed. This study provides a detailed investigation of four...... in situ thermal remediation technologies (steam enhanced extraction, thermal conduction heating, electrical resistance heating, and radio frequency heating) in order to (1) compare the life-cycle environmental impacts and resource consumption associated with each thermal technology, and (2) identify...... improvements is a 10 to 21% decrease in environmental impacts and an 8 to 20% decrease in resource depletion depending on the thermal remediation technology considered. The energy consumption was found to be the main contributor to most types of environmental impacts; this will, however, depend...

  12. Assessment of damage potential to the TMI-2 lower head due to thermal attack by core debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronenberg, A.W.; Behling, S.R.; Broughton, J.M.

    1986-06-01

    Camera inspection of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) inlet plenum region has shown that approximately 10 to 20 percent of the core material loading may have relocated to the lower plenum. Although vessel integrity was maintained, a question of primary concern is ''how close to vessel failure'' did this accident come. This report summarizes the results of thermal analyses aimed at assessing damage potential to the TMI-2 lower head and attached instrument penetration tubes due to thermal attack by hot core debris. Results indicate that the instrument penetration nozzles could have experienced melt failure at localized hot spot regions, with attendant debris drainage and plugging of the instrument lead tubes. However, only minor direct thermal attack of the vessel liner is predicted

  13. Assessment of Pressure Fluctuation Effect for Thermal Fatigue in a T-junction Using Thermo-Hydro Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyo, Jaebum; Kim, Jungwoo; Huh, Namsu [Seoul National Univ. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sunhye [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    As a result, when evaluating thermal fatigue for the mixing tee, temperature fluctuation is dominant for this phenomenon, it can be reasonably assumed that the pressure is constant on the pipe inner wall. Recently, thermal fatigue due to mixing of the fluids having different temperatures has been considered as an important issue on the fatigue evaluation of nuclear piping. Mainly, this phenomenon occurs in a T-junction operating with the fluids consisted of different temperatures. Because of the turbulent mixing of hot and cold water, the temperature on the inner wall of the pipe fluctuates rapidly, causing the variation of thermal stresses in the pipe and resulting in high cycle thermal fatigue. In practice, cracking by high cycle thermal fatigue is reported at a T-junction in the residual heat removal system at Civaux unit 1 in France. However, because of irregular flow inside the pipe, the pressure also fluctuates rapidly as well as temperature in the inner wall of the pipe. Therefore, in this paper, three-dimensional thermo-hydro analysis was performed for the mixing tee of the shutdown cooling system of the pressurized water reactor plant, examining the pressure variation at the pipe inner wall. Based on the analysis result, this study aims at assessing the pressure fluctuation effect on the thermal fatigue. In this paper, it is verified that there is pressure fluctuation as well as temperature on the inner wall of mixing tee operating with the fluids having different temperatures. However, since the amplitude of pressure is relatively smaller than design pressure of the shutdown cooling system, the effect wouldn't be important for the thermal fatigue.

  14. Assessment of Thermal Comfort in a Building Heated with a Tiled Fireplace with the Function of Heat Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telejko, Marek; Zender-Świercz, Ewa

    2017-10-01

    Thermal comfort determines the state of satisfaction of a person or group of people with thermal conditions of the environment in which the person or group of persons is staying. This state of satisfaction depends on the balance between the amount of heat generated by the body’s metabolism, and the dissipation of heat from the body to the surrounding environment. Due to differences in body build, metabolism, clothing etc. individuals may feel the parameters of the environment in which they are staying differently. Therefore, it is impossible to ensure the thermal comfort of all users of the room. However, properly designed building systems (heating, ventilation, air conditioning) allow for creating optimal thermal conditions that will evaluated positively by the vast majority of users. Due to the fact that currently we spend even 100% of the day indoors, the subject becomes extremely important. The article presents the evaluation of thermal comfort in rooms heated with a tiled fireplace with the function of accumulation of heat using the PMV (Predicted Mean Vote) and PPD (Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied) indices. It also presents the results of studies, on the quality of the micro-climate in such spaces. The system of heating premises described in the article is not a standard solution, but is now more and more commonly used as a supplement to the heating system, or even as a primary heating system in small objects, e.g. single-family houses, seasonal homes, etc. The studies comprised the measurements and analysis of typical internal micro-climate parameters: temperature, relative humidity and CO2 concentration. The results obtained did not raise any major reservations. In order to fully assess the conditions of use, the evaluation of thermal comfort of the analyzed rooms was made. Therefore, additionally the temperature of radiation of the surrounding areas, and the insulation of the users’ clothing was determined. Based on the data obtained, the PPD and PMV

  15. Assessment of Thermal Maturity Trends in Devonian–Mississippian Source Rocks Using Raman Spectroscopy: Limitations of Peak-Fitting Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupoi, Jason S., E-mail: jlupoi@rjlg.com; Fritz, Luke P. [RJ Lee Group, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States); Parris, Thomas M. [Kentucky Geological Survey, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Hackley, Paul C. [UniversityS. Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States); Solotky, Logan [RJ Lee Group, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States); Eble, Cortland F. [Kentucky Geological Survey, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Schlaegle, Steve [RJ Lee Group, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States)

    2017-09-27

    The thermal maturity of shale is often measured by vitrinite reflectance (VRo). VRo measurements for the Devonian–Mississippian black shale source rocks evaluated herein predicted thermal immaturity in areas where associated reservoir rocks are oil-producing. This limitation of the VRo method led to the current evaluation of Raman spectroscopy as a suitable alternative for developing correlations between thermal maturity and Raman spectra. In this study, Raman spectra of Devonian–Mississippian black shale source rocks were regressed against measured VRo or sample-depth. Attempts were made to develop quantitative correlations of thermal maturity. Using sample-depth as a proxy for thermal maturity is not without limitations as thermal maturity as a function of depth depends on thermal gradient, which can vary through time, subsidence rate, uplift, lack of uplift, and faulting. Correlations between Raman data and vitrinite reflectance or sample-depth were quantified by peak-fitting the spectra. Various peak-fitting procedures were evaluated to determine the effects of the number of peaks and maximum peak widths on correlations between spectral metrics and thermal maturity. Correlations between D-frequency, G-band full width at half maximum (FWHM), and band separation between the G- and D-peaks and thermal maturity provided some degree of linearity throughout most peak-fitting assessments; however, these correlations and those calculated from the G-frequency, D/G FWHM ratio, and D/G peak area ratio also revealed a strong dependence on peak-fitting processes. This dependency on spectral analysis techniques raises questions about the validity of peak-fitting, particularly given the amount of subjective analyst involvement necessary to reconstruct spectra. This research shows how user interpretation and extrapolation affected the comparability of different samples, the accuracy of generated trends, and therefore, the potential of the Raman spectral method to become an

  16. Assessment of Thermal Maturity Trends in Devonian–Mississippian Source Rocks Using Raman Spectroscopy: Limitations of Peak-Fitting Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupoi, Jason S.; Fritz, Luke P.; Parris, Thomas M.; Hackley, Paul C.; Solotky, Logan; Eble, Cortland F.; Schlaegle, Steve

    2017-01-01

    The thermal maturity of shale is often measured by vitrinite reflectance (VRo). VRo measurements for the Devonian–Mississippian black shale source rocks evaluated herein predicted thermal immaturity in areas where associated reservoir rocks are oil-producing. This limitation of the VRo method led to the current evaluation of Raman spectroscopy as a suitable alternative for developing correlations between thermal maturity and Raman spectra. In this study, Raman spectra of Devonian–Mississippian black shale source rocks were regressed against measured VRo or sample-depth. Attempts were made to develop quantitative correlations of thermal maturity. Using sample-depth as a proxy for thermal maturity is not without limitations as thermal maturity as a function of depth depends on thermal gradient, which can vary through time, subsidence rate, uplift, lack of uplift, and faulting. Correlations between Raman data and vitrinite reflectance or sample-depth were quantified by peak-fitting the spectra. Various peak-fitting procedures were evaluated to determine the effects of the number of peaks and maximum peak widths on correlations between spectral metrics and thermal maturity. Correlations between D-frequency, G-band full width at half maximum (FWHM), and band separation between the G- and D-peaks and thermal maturity provided some degree of linearity throughout most peak-fitting assessments; however, these correlations and those calculated from the G-frequency, D/G FWHM ratio, and D/G peak area ratio also revealed a strong dependence on peak-fitting processes. This dependency on spectral analysis techniques raises questions about the validity of peak-fitting, particularly given the amount of subjective analyst involvement necessary to reconstruct spectra. This research shows how user interpretation and extrapolation affected the comparability of different samples, the accuracy of generated trends, and therefore, the potential of the Raman spectral method to become an

  17. Assessment of Thermal Maturity Trends in Devonian–Mississippian Source Rocks Using Raman Spectroscopy: Limitations of Peak-Fitting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason S. Lupoi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The thermal maturity of shale is often measured by vitrinite reflectance (VRo. VRo measurements for the Devonian–Mississippian black shale source rocks evaluated herein predicted thermal immaturity in areas where associated reservoir rocks are oil-producing. This limitation of the VRo method led to the current evaluation of Raman spectroscopy as a suitable alternative for developing correlations between thermal maturity and Raman spectra. In this study, Raman spectra of Devonian–Mississippian black shale source rocks were regressed against measured VRo or sample-depth. Attempts were made to develop quantitative correlations of thermal maturity. Using sample-depth as a proxy for thermal maturity is not without limitations as thermal maturity as a function of depth depends on thermal gradient, which can vary through time, subsidence rate, uplift, lack of uplift, and faulting. Correlations between Raman data and vitrinite reflectance or sample-depth were quantified by peak-fitting the spectra. Various peak-fitting procedures were evaluated to determine the effects of the number of peaks and maximum peak widths on correlations between spectral metrics and thermal maturity. Correlations between D-frequency, G-band full width at half maximum (FWHM, and band separation between the G- and D-peaks and thermal maturity provided some degree of linearity throughout most peak-fitting assessments; however, these correlations and those calculated from the G-frequency, D/G FWHM ratio, and D/G peak area ratio also revealed a strong dependence on peak-fitting processes. This dependency on spectral analysis techniques raises questions about the validity of peak-fitting, particularly given the amount of subjective analyst involvement necessary to reconstruct spectra. This research shows how user interpretation and extrapolation affected the comparability of different samples, the accuracy of generated trends, and therefore, the potential of the Raman spectral

  18. Assessment of radicular dentin permeability after irradiation with CO2 laser and endodontic irrigation treatments with thermal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Heajin; Lee, Robert C.; Chan, Kenneth H.; Fried, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the permeability changes due to the surface modification of dentin can be quantified via thermal imaging during dehydration. The CO2 laser has been shown to remove the smear layer and disinfect root canals. Moreover, thermal modification via CO2 laser irradiation can be used to convert dentin into a highly mineralized enamel-like mineral. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the radicular dentin surface modification after CO2 laser irradiation by measuring the permeability with thermal imaging. Human molar specimens (n=12) were sectioned into 4 axial walls of the pulp chamber and treated with either 10% NaClO for 1 minute, 5% EDTA for 1 minute, CO2 laser or none. The CO2 laser was operated at 9.4 μm with a pulse duration of 26 μs, pulse repetition rate of 300 Hz and a fluence of 13 J/cm2. The samples were dehydrated using an air spray for 60 seconds and imaged using a thermal camera. The resulting surface morphological changes were assessed using 3D digital microscopy. The images from digital microscopy confirmed melting of the mineral phase of dentin. The area enclosed by the time-temperature curve during dehydration, ▵Q, measured with thermal imaging increased significantly with treatments with EDTA and the CO2 laser (Ptreatment increases permeability of radicular dentin.

  19. Topical Drugs for Pain Relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Srinivasan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Topical therapy helps patients with oral and perioral pain problems such as ulcers, burning mouth syndrome, temporomandibular disorders, neuromas, neuropathies and neuralgias. Topical drugs used in the field of dentistry are topical anaesthetics, topical analgesics, topical antibiotics and topical corticosteroids. It provides symptomatic/curative effect. Topical drugs are easy to apply, avoids hepatic first pass metabolism and more sites specific. But it can only be used for medications that require low plasma concentrations to achieve a therapeutic effect.

  20. Performance Assessment of Low-Temperature Thermal Storage with Electromagnetic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Wei Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents electromagnetic-controlled thermal storage (ECTS that can be directly implemented in strategies of low-temperature waste heat recovery for energy-consuming equipment. A magnetic nanofluid (MNF prepared from fine iron ferrite ferromagnetic particles is recommended as a latent heat medium (LHM. During electromagnetic induction, local flow fluctuations are generated and thermal convection in the MNF can be enhanced. The achieved results demonstrated that ECTS has a wide operational range and an optimum storage efficiency of 84.46%. Thus, a self-perturbation mode used to enhance thermal energy transportation can be designed for numerous waste heat management applications.

  1. Notes and meeting overviews on PSAM 2013 and probabilistic flood hazard assessment workshop. Overview notes: workshop on probabilistic flood hazard assessment (PFHA) and PSAM topical conference in light of the Fukushima Dai-Ichi accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siu, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this presentation was to present objectives and main observations from two recent important events: - a multi-agency PFHA workshop, which was organized by the NRC in Rockville, MD, USA on 29-31 January 2013 with the aim to share information on extreme flood assessments and PSA, and to discuss ways to develop PFHA for PSAs; this workshop highlighted commonalities between the PFHA and PSA communities, the complementarity between deterministic and probabilistic approaches, the need for multi-disciplinary teams, and the need for imagination when performing PFHA; and - the PSAM Topical Conference held in Tokyo, Japan, on April 15-17, 2013 and dedicated to sharing lessons and on-going activities relevant to the Fukushima Dai-ichi reactor accidents; in particular the lessons for safety professionals and risk-informed decision makers (e.g., the need to challenge assumptions and to listen to experts and interact with international community). One notable observation was the recurring nature of some of these issues as many relevant conclusions had been made following previous operating events (e.g., after the Blayais flooding event in 1999). For example, the Blayais event highlighted the possibility that a common mode of degradation of the safety level could simultaneously impact all the units at a site, weaknesses in the site protection against external flooding and the need to manage the release of water collected in the flooded facilities. This underscores the need to fully consider the lessons learned from operating experience

  2. Thermodynamic analyses and assessments of various thermal energy storage systems for buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caliskan, Hakan; Dincer, Ibrahim; Hepbasli, Arif

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Proposing a novel latent (PCM), thermochemical and sensible (aquifer) TES combination for building heating. ► Performing comprehensive environmental, energy, exergy and sustainability analyses. ► Investigating the effect of varying dead state temperatures on the TESs. - Abstract: In this study, energetic, exergetic, environmental and sustainability analyses and their assessments are carried out for latent, thermochemical and sensible thermal energy storage (TES) systems for phase change material (PCM) supported building applications under varying environment (surrounding) temperatures. The present system consists of a floor heating system, System-I, System-II and System-III. The floor heating system stays at the building floor supported with a floor heating unit and pump. The System-I includes a latent TES system and a fan. The latent TES system is comprised of a PCM supported building envelope, in which from outside to inside; glass, transparent insulation material, PCM, air channel and insulation material are placed, respectively. Furthermore, System-II mainly has a solar-thermochemical TES while there are an aquifer TES and a heat pump in System-III. Among the TESs, the hot and cold wells of the aquifer TES have maximum exergetic efficiency values of 88.782% and 69.607% at 8 °C dead state temperature, respectively. According to the energy efficiency aspects of TESs, the discharging processes of the latent TES and the hot well of the aquifer TES possess the minimum and maximum values of 5.782% and 94.118% at 8 °C dead state temperature, respectively. Also, the fan used with the latent TES is the most environmentally-benign system component among the devices. Furthermore, the most sustainable TES is found for the aquifer TES while the worst sustainable system is the latent TES.

  3. The probabilistic structural integrity assessment of reactor pressure vessels under pressurized thermal shock loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Mingya, E-mail: chenmingya@cgnpc.com.cn [Suzhou Nuclear Power Research Institute, 215004 Suzhou, Jiangsu Province (China); Lu, Feng; Wang, Rongshan; Yu, Weiwei [Suzhou Nuclear Power Research Institute, 215004 Suzhou, Jiangsu Province (China); Wang, Donghui [State Nuclear Power Plant Service Company, 200237 Shanghai (China); Zhang, Guodong; Xue, Fei [Suzhou Nuclear Power Research Institute, 215004 Suzhou, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • The methodology and the case study of the FAVOR software were shown. • The over-conservative parameters in the DFM were shown. • The differences between the PFM and the DFM were discussed. • The limits in the current FAVOR were studied. - Abstract: The pressurized thermal shock (PTS) event poses a potentially significant challenge to the structural integrity of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) during the long time operation (LTO). In the USA, the “screening criteria” for maximum allowable embrittlement of RPV material, which forms part of the USA regulations, is based on the probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM). The FAVOR software developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is used to establish the regulation. As the technical basis of FAVOR is not the most widely-used and codified methodologies, such as the ASME and RCC-M codes, in most countries (with exception of the USA), proving RPV integrity under the PTS load is still based on the deterministic fracture mechanics (DFM). As the maximum nil-ductility-transition temperature (RT{sub NDT}) of the beltline material for the 54 French RPVs after 40 years operation is higher than the critical values in the IAEA-TECDOC-1627 and European NEA/CSNI/R(99)3 reports (while still obviously lower than the “screening criteria” of the USA), it may conclude that the RPV will not be able to run in the LTO based on the DFM. In the FAVOR, the newest developments of fracture mechanics are applied, such as the warm pre-stress (WPS) effect, more accurate estimation of the flaw information and less conservation of the toughness (such as the three-parameter Weibull distribution of the fracture toughness). In this paper, the FAVOR software is first applied to show both the methodology and the results of the PFM, and then the limits in the current FAVOR software (Version 6.1, which represents the baseline for re-assessing the regulation of 10 CFR 50.61), lack of the impact of the constraint effect

  4. Topical Session on Materials Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    At its second meeting, in Paris, 5-7 December 2001, the WPDD held two topical sessions on the D and D Safety Case and on the Management of Materials from D and D, respectively. This report documents the topical session on the management of materials. Presentations during the topical session covered key aspects of the management of materials and meant to provide an exchange of information and experience, including: Experience and lessons learnt from VLLW and non-radioactive material management in Spain and Germany with special attention to recycling (How specific solutions came about? Are there 'generic' examples for wider adoption?); Risk assessment of recycling and non-recycling: a CPD study; Waste acceptance issues within different national contexts (What constraints are there on the waste receiving body and what flexibility can the latter have? What constraints does this impose on D and D implementers? What about wastes are without current solution? What needs to be done? What about large items and 'difficult' waste in general?); Radiological characterisation of materials during decommissioning, particularly difficult situations - large volumes, large items,.. wastes, heterogeneous streams (What examples of established practice? What are the approaches or aspects that set the regulatory requirements? How can the flow rates be large but the answers acceptable? How much is needed to be known for later action, e. g., disposal, release, protection of worker, etc.); Radiological characterisation of buildings as they stand, in order to allow conventional demolition (What are strategies for optimisation of characterisation? How much needs to be known to take action later? e.g. for storage, disposal, release, cost estimation and ALARA? What needs to be done in advance and after decommissioning/dismantling?). At the end of each presentation time was allotted for discussion of the paper. Integral to the Topical Session was a facilitated plenary discussion on the topical

  5. Regional assessment of aquifers for thermal-energy storage. Volume 2: Regions 7 through 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    The geologic and hydrologic framework, major aquifers, aquifers which are suitable and unsuitable for annual thermal energy storage (ATES) and the ATES potential of the unglaciated central region, glaciated Appalachians, unglaciated Appalachians, coastal plain, Hawaii, and Alaska are discussed.

  6. Discriminative Relational Topic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ning; Zhu, Jun; Xia, Fei; Zhang, Bo

    2015-05-01

    Relational topic models (RTMs) provide a probabilistic generative process to describe both the link structure and document contents for document networks, and they have shown promise on predicting network structures and discovering latent topic representations. However, existing RTMs have limitations in both the restricted model expressiveness and incapability of dealing with imbalanced network data. To expand the scope and improve the inference accuracy of RTMs, this paper presents three extensions: 1) unlike the common link likelihood with a diagonal weight matrix that allows the-same-topic interactions only, we generalize it to use a full weight matrix that captures all pairwise topic interactions and is applicable to asymmetric networks; 2) instead of doing standard Bayesian inference, we perform regularized Bayesian inference (RegBayes) with a regularization parameter to deal with the imbalanced link structure issue in real networks and improve the discriminative ability of learned latent representations; and 3) instead of doing variational approximation with strict mean-field assumptions, we present collapsed Gibbs sampling algorithms for the generalized relational topic models by exploring data augmentation without making restricting assumptions. Under the generic RegBayes framework, we carefully investigate two popular discriminative loss functions, namely, the logistic log-loss and the max-margin hinge loss. Experimental results on several real network datasets demonstrate the significance of these extensions on improving prediction performance.

  7. Tradespace Assessment: Thermal Strain Modeling Comparison Of Multiple Clothing Configurations Based On Different Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    considerations of the ergonomic and thermal comfort impacts of various ensembles also play significant a significant part in overall performance. Work ...clothing aspect [29-30], enclosed spaces aspect [31], as well as from an open spaces perspective [32]. Work has gone specifically into addressing thermal...NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 7. PERFORMING

  8. Full Text or Abstract? : Examining Topic Coherence Scores Using Latent Dirichlet Allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syed, S.; Spruit, M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper assesses topic coherence and human topic ranking of uncovered latent topics from scientific publications when utilizing the topic model latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) on abstract and full-text data. The coherence of a topic, used as a proxy for topic quality, is based on the

  9. Thermal Comfort Assessment in The Open Space in Bandung Case Study Dago Street and Riau Street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugangga, M.; Janesonia, K. I.; Illiyin, D. F.; Donny Koerniawan, M.

    2018-05-01

    Bandung’s temperature has been higher since last years. This phenomenon affects the level of thermal comfort in open space. One indicator that determines the thermal comfort level is the type of activity performed by the open space user. Riau Street and Dago Street are corridors that are often used by the people for strolling, jogging, shopping. Dago Street has special event every Sunday namely car free day. Both corridors have different orientation; Dago Street is North to South corridor while Riau Street’s is West to East. The goal of the study is to compare people’s perception of thermal comfort in both corridors. This research uses two methods, namely qualitative method and quantitative method. Based on the results of qualitative analysis found that the thermal conditions in Dago Street more comfortable than the Riau Street. The result of quantitative analysis found that the average PET (thermal comfort indices) value of Dago Street was at 27.5 °C PET and Riau Street 28.6 °C PET. Dago Street is considered more convenient because it has a lower PET value than Riau Street. The people perception of thermal comfort is very important to start the steps for designing the orientation of street in urban design.

  10. Topical botulinum toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Ashley; Nasir, Adnan

    2010-03-01

    Nanotechnology is a rapidly growing discipline that capitalizes on the unique properties of matter engineered on the nanoscale. Vehicles incorporating nanotechnology have led to great strides in drug delivery, allowing for increased active ingredient stability, bioavailability, and site-specific targeting. Botulinum toxin has historically been used for the correction of neurological and neuromuscular disorders, such as torticollis, blepharospasm, and strabismus. Recent dermatological indications have been for the management of axillary hyperhydrosis and facial rhytides. Traditional methods of botulinum toxin delivery have been needle-based. These have been associated with increased pain and cost. Newer methods of botulinum toxin formulation have yielded topical preparations that are bioactive in small pilot clinical studies. While there are some risks associated with topical delivery, the refinement and standardization of delivery systems and techniques for the topical administration of botulinum toxin using nanotechnology is anticipated in the near future.

  11. Summary report on UO2 thermal conductivity model refinement and assessment studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiang-Yang [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cooper, Michael William Donald [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mcclellan, Kenneth James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lashley, Jason Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Byler, Darrin David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bell, B. D.C. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Grimes, R. W. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Stanek, Christopher Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Andersson, David Ragnar [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-03

    Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the most commonly used fuel in light water nuclear reactors and thermal conductivity controls the removal of heat produced by fission, therefore, governing fuel temperature during normal and accident conditions. The use of fuel performance codes by the industry to predict operational behavior is widespread. A primary source of uncertainty in these codes is thermal conductivity, and optimized fuel utilization may be possible if existing empirical models were replaced with models that incorporate explicit thermal conductivity degradation mechanisms during fuel burn-up. This approach is able to represent the degradation of thermal conductivity due to each individual defect type, rather than the overall burn-up measure typically used which is not an accurate representation of the chemical or microstructure state of the fuel that actually governs thermal conductivity and other properties. To generate a mechanistic thermal conductivity model, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of UO2 thermal conductivity including representative uranium and oxygen defects and fission products are carried out. These calculations employ a standard Buckingham type interatomic potential and a potential that combines the many-body embedded atom method potential with Morse-Buckingham pair potentials. Potential parameters for UO2+x and ZrO2 are developed for the latter potential. Physical insights from the resonant phonon-spin scattering mechanism due to spins on the magnetic uranium ions have been introduced into the treatment of the MD results, with the corresponding relaxation time derived from existing experimental data. High defect scattering is predicted for Xe atoms compared to that of La and Zr ions. Uranium defects reduce the thermal conductivity more than oxygen defects. For each defect and fission product, scattering parameters are derived for application in both a Callaway model and the corresponding high

  12. Assessing District Energy Systems Performance Integrated with Multiple Thermal Energy Storages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaie, Behnaz

    The goal of this study is to examine various energy resources in district energy (DE) systems and then DE system performance development by means of multiple thermal energy storages (TES) application. This study sheds light on areas not yet investigated precisely in detail. Throughout the research, major components of the heat plant, energy suppliers of the DE systems, and TES characteristics are separately examined; integration of various configurations of the multiple TESs in the DE system is then analysed. In the first part of the study, various sources of energy are compared, in a consistent manner, financially and environmentally. The TES performance is then assessed from various aspects. Then, TES(s) and DE systems with several sources of energy are integrated, and are investigated as a heat process centre. The most efficient configurations of the multiple TESs integrated with the DE system are investigated. Some of the findings of this study are applied on an actual DE system. The outcomes of this study provide insight for researchers and engineers who work in this field, as well as policy makers and project managers who are decision-makers. The accomplishments of the study are original developments TESs and DE systems. As an original development the Enviro-Economic Function, to balance the economic and environmental aspects of energy resources technologies in DE systems, is developed; various configurations of multiple TESs, including series, parallel, and general grid, are developed. The developed related functions are discharge temperature and energy of the TES, and energy and exergy efficiencies of the TES. The TES charging and discharging behavior of TES instantaneously is also investigated to obtain the charging temperature, the maximum charging temperature, the charging energy flow, maximum heat flow capacity, the discharging temperature, the minimum charging temperature, the discharging energy flow, the maximum heat flow capacity, and performance

  13. Aerial thermal images to assess irrigation efficiency in 'Vitis vinifera' cv. Albariño

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Xesús Pablo; Fandiño, María; Rey, Benjamín J.; José Cancela, Javier

    2017-04-01

    Canopy temperature was defined as key data to irrigation management and to detect crop water stress (Jackson, 1982). Recently, temperature camera was installed on board in a Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), thus heterogeneity within field could be determined. Pereira et al. (2012) have defined the conceptual and terminological study of crop water use indicators, mainly water use efficiency (WUE) and water productivity (WP). Actually, it is crucial achieve higher WP and WUE, where crop yield variability between years must be reduced with the smallest irrigation water, but with a correct management of crop water stress during the season. In this study, Albariño cultivar grapevine, priority in Galicia (Spain) in Designation of Origen 'Rías Baixas', was assessed in relation to water productivity index, focus on irrigation treatments aspects, during 2016. Albariño vineyard was planted in 1996 on 110-Richter at a spacing of 3 × 2 m (1667 vines ha-1) (41°57 6 N, 8°49 26 W, elevation 101 m). Vines were trained to a vertical trellis system on a Guyot oriented in the East-West direction. Three irrigation treatments were applied: irrigation from budburst to maturation (T1), from flowering to maturation (T2), and from veraison to maturation (T3), moreover a rain-fed treatment was implemented. All WP index was referred to farm yield level (kg ha-1); where the denominator applied to WP TWUfarm, introduced rainfall and irrigation depth; to WP Irrig, only irrigation depth applied; was used. Moreover, crop water stress index (CWSI) was used to determine homogenize areas within experimental plot, using an UAV with a thermal camera (ThermoMAP, senseFly, SW) to achieve a final map with 14 cm per pixel resolution. During August 11th, at the end of veraison, camera was installed in an 'eBee Ag' UAV (senseFly, SW) with a median flight altitude of 75 m over ground level. Yield per hectare were recorded and total irrigation depth per treatment during the growing season from March to

  14. Thermal behavior and kinetics assessment of ethanol/gasoline blends during combustion by thermogravimetric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3, CEP 12.516-410 Guaratinguetá, SP (Brazil); U.T.P. – Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Pereira, Risaralda (Colombia))" data-affiliation=" (UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista, Campus of Guaratinguetá, Department of Energy, Laboratory of Combustion and Carbon Capture LC3, CEP 12.516-410 Guaratinguetá, SP (Brazil); U.T.P. – Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Pereira, Risaralda (Colombia))" >Rios Quiroga, Luis Carlos; 3, CEP 12.516-410 Guaratinguetá, SP (Brazil))" data-affiliation=" (UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista, Campus of Guaratinguetá, Department of Energy, Laboratory of Combustion and Carbon Capture LC3, CEP 12.516-410 Guaratinguetá, SP (Brazil))" >Balestieri, José 3, CEP 12.516-410 Guaratinguetá, SP (Brazil))" data-affiliation=" (UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista, Campus of Guaratinguetá, Department of Energy, Laboratory of Combustion and Carbon Capture LC3, CEP 12.516-410 Guaratinguetá, SP (Brazil))" >Antonio Perrella; 3, CEP 12.516-410 Guaratinguetá, SP (Brazil))" data-affiliation=" (UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista, Campus of Guaratinguetá, Department of Energy, Laboratory of Combustion and Carbon Capture LC3, CEP 12.516-410 Guaratinguetá, SP (Brazil))" >Ávila, Ivonete

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Kinetic parameters of thermal decomposition events were obtained. • Thermal analysis was used as a tool for understanding combustion processes. • Blends would be classified using thermogravimetric analysis technics. • Synergistic effect of ethanol mixed with gasoline was studied and defined. • Relative error and activation energy values were used to analyze the synergy. - Abstract: The use of ethanol as a fuel or as an additive blended with gasoline is very important for most countries, which aim to reduce the heavy dependence on fossil fuels and mitigate greenhouse gases emission. An increased use of ethanol-gasoline blends has placed great relevance on acquiring knowledge about their physical and chemical properties. Thus, knowledge of such properties favors a better understanding of the effect of the percentage of ethanol/gasoline blends on engine performance. Thence, the present study has established a correlation between activation energy and synergetic effects, obtained by a thermal analysis, and ethanol content in gasoline for different blends in order to use this technique as a tool to classify these blends in the process in order to obtain useful energy in spark ignition engines. For such a purpose, a kinetic study has been conducted through a simultaneous thermal analysis system – TGA (thermogravimetry analysis) and DTA (differential thermal analysis) by following the methodology of non-isothermal tests. Thermogravimetric tests were performed and fuel activation energies for gasoline, ethanol, and percentages of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 50, and 75% (%v) ethanol mixed with gasoline, which was achieved by the model free kinetics. The analysis results suggest that the theoretical curves characteristics of the thermal decomposition of ethanol-gasoline blends are rather different due to their ethanol content. Furthermore, it was observed significant interactions and synergistic effects, especially regarding those with low ethanol

  15. An assessment of the genotoxicity and human health risk of topical use of kojic acid [5-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)-4H-pyran-4-one].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohynek, Gerhard J; Kirkland, David; Marzin, Daniel; Toutain, Herve; Leclerc-Ribaud, Christele; Jinnai, Hiroyuki

    2004-01-01

    Kojic acid (KA), a natural substance produced by fungi or bacteria, such as Aspergillus, Penicillium or Acetobacter spp, is contained in traditional Japanese fermented foods and is used as a dermatological skin-lightening agent. High concentrations of KA (>or=1000 microg/plate) were mutagenic in S. typhimurium strains TA 98, TA 100, TA 1535, TA102 and E. coli WP2uvrA, but not in TA 1537. An Ames test following the "treat and plate" protocol was negative. A chromosome aberration test in V79 cells following a robust protocol showed only a marginal increase in chromosome aberrations at cytotoxic concentrations after prolonged (>or=18 h) exposure. No genotoxic activity was observed for hprt mutations either in mouse lymphoma or V79 cells, or in in vitro micronucleus tests in human keratinocytes or hepatocytes. All in vivo genotoxicity studies on KA doses were negative, including mouse bone marrow micronucleus tests after single or multiple doses, an in vivo/in vitro unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) test, or a study in the liver of the transgenic Muta(TM) Mouse. On the basis of pharmacokinetic studies in rats and in vitro absorption studies in human skin, the systemic exposure of KA in man following its topical application is estimated to be in the range of 0.03-0.06 mg/kg/day. Comparing these values with the NOAEL in oral subchronic animal studies (250 mg/kg/day), the calculated margin of safety would be 4200- to 8900-fold. Comparing human exposure with the doses that were negative for micronuclei, UDS and gene mutations in vivo, the margins of safety are 16000 to 26000-fold. In conclusion, the topical use of KA as a skin lightening agent results in minimal exposure that poses no or negligible risk of genotoxicity or toxicity to the consumer.

  16. An assessment of radiance in Landsat TM middle and thermal infrared wavebands for the detection of tropical forest regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, D.S.; Foody, G.M.; Curran, P.J.; Lucas, R.M.; Honzak, M.

    1996-01-01

    It has been postulated that tropical forests regenerating after deforestation constitute an unmeasured terrestrial sink of atmospheric carbon, and that the strength of this sink is a function of regeneration stage. Such regeneration stages can be characterized by biophysical properties, such as leaf and wood biomass, which influence the radiance emitted and/or reflected from the forest canopy. Remotely sensed data can therefore be used to estimate these biophysical properties and thereby determine the forest regenerative stage. Studies conducted on temperate forests have related biophysical properties successfully with red and near-infrared radiance, particularly within the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). However, only weak correlations have generally been observed for tropical forests and it is suggested here that the relationship between forest biophysical properties and middle and thermal infrared radiance may be stronger than that between those properties and visible and near-infrared radiance.An assessment of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data revealed that radiance acquired in middle and thermal infrared wavebands contained significant information for the detection of regeneration stages in Amazonian tropical forests. It was demonstrated that tropical forest regeneration stages were most separable using middle infrared and thermal infrared wavebands and that the correlation with regeneration stage was stronger with middle infrared, thermal infrared or combinations of these wavebands than they were with visible, near infrared or combinations of these wavebands. For example, correlation coefficients increased from — 0·26 (insignificant at 95 per cent confidence level) when using the NDVI, to up to 0·93 (significant at 99 per cent confidence level) for a vegetation index containing data acquired in the middle and thermal infrared wavebands. These results point to the value of using data acquired in middle and thermal infrared wavebands for the

  17. Estimating thermal regimes of bull trout and assessing the potential effects of climate warming on critical habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Leslie A.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Marshall, Lucy A.; McGlynn, Brian L.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the vulnerability of aquatic species and habitats under climate change is critical for conservation and management of freshwater systems. Climate warming is predicted to increase water temperatures in freshwater ecosystems worldwide, yet few studies have developed spatially explicit modelling tools for understanding the potential impacts. We parameterized a nonspatial model, a spatial flow-routed model, and a spatial hierarchical model to predict August stream temperatures (22-m resolution) throughout the Flathead River Basin, USA and Canada. Model comparisons showed that the spatial models performed significantly better than the nonspatial model, explaining the spatial autocorrelation found between sites. The spatial hierarchical model explained 82% of the variation in summer mean (August) stream temperatures and was used to estimate thermal regimes for threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) habitats, one of the most thermally sensitive coldwater species in western North America. The model estimated summer thermal regimes of spawning and rearing habitats at <13 C° and foraging, migrating, and overwintering habitats at <14 C°. To illustrate the useful application of such a model, we simulated climate warming scenarios to quantify potential loss of critical habitats under forecasted climatic conditions. As air and water temperatures continue to increase, our model simulations show that lower portions of the Flathead River Basin drainage (foraging, migrating, and overwintering habitat) may become thermally unsuitable and headwater streams (spawning and rearing) may become isolated because of increasing thermal fragmentation during summer. Model results can be used to focus conservation and management efforts on populations of concern, by identifying critical habitats and assessing thermal changes at a local scale.

  18. Impacts of thermal and chemical discharges to surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stober, Q.J.

    1974-01-01

    Various aspects of thermal and chemical discharges to surface water are outlined. The major impacts of nuclear power plants on aquatic resources are disruption during construction, intake of cooling water, discharge problems, and interactions with other water users. The following topics are included under the heading, assessment of aquatic ecology: identification of flora and fauna; abundance of aquatic organisms; species-environment relationships; and identification of pre-existing environmental stress. The following topics are included under the heading, environmental effects of plant operation: entrapment of fish by cooling water; passage of plankton through cooling system; discharge area and thermal plume; chemical effluents; and plant construction. (U.S.)

  19. The perceived temperature - a versatile index for the assessment of the human thermal environment. Part A: scientific basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiger, Henning; Laschewski, Gudrun; Grätz, Angelika

    2012-01-01

    The Perceived Temperature (PT) is an equivalent temperature based on a complete heat budget model of the human body. It has proved its suitability for numerous applications across a wide variety of scales from micro to global and is successfully used both in daily forecasts and climatological studies. PT is designed for staying outdoors and is defined as the air temperature of a reference environment in which the thermal perception would be the same as in the actual environment. The calculation is performed for a reference subject with an internal heat production of 135 W m-2 (who is walking at 4 km h-1 on flat ground). In the reference environment, the mean radiant temperature equals the air temperature and wind velocity is reduced to a slight draught. The water vapour pressure remains unchanged. Under warm/humid conditions, however, it is implicitly related to a relative humidity of 50%. Clothing is adapted in order to achieve thermal comfort. If this is impossible, cold or heat stress will occur, respectively. The assessment of thermal perception by means of PT is based on Fanger's Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) together with additional model extensions taking account of stronger deviations from thermal neutrality. This is performed using a parameterisation based on a two-node model. In the cold, it allows the mean skin temperature to drop below the comfort value. In the heat, it assesses additionally the enthalpy of sweat-moistened skin and of wet clothes. PT has the advantages of being self-explanatory due to its deviation from air temperature and being—via PMV—directly linked to a thermo-physiologically-based scale of thermal perception that is widely used and has stood the test of time. This paper explains in detail the basic equations of the human heat budget and the coefficients of the parameterisations.

  20. Health Topic XML File Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/xmldescription.html Health Topic XML File Description: MedlinePlus To use the sharing ... information categories assigned. Example of a Full Health Topic Record A record for a MedlinePlus health topic ...

  1. An assessment of the economic consequences of thermal annealing of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griesbach, T.J.; Server, W.L.

    1991-01-01

    The use of a thermal heat treatment to recover mechanical properties which were degraded by neutron radiation exposure is a potential method for assuring reactor pressure vessel licensing life and possible license renewal. 'Wet anneals' at temperatures less than 343degC have been conducted on test reactors in Alaska (SM-1A) and Belgium (BR3). The Soviets have also performed 'dry anneals' at higher temperatures near or above 450degC on several commercial reactor vessels. Technical and economic uncertainties have made utilities in the United States reluctant to seriously consider thermal annealing of large commercial reactor vessels except as a last resort option. However, as a utility begins to experience significant radiation embrittlement or considers extending the operating license life of the vessel, thermal annealing can be a viable option depending upon many considerations. These considerations include other possible remedial measures that can be taken (i.e., flux reduction), economic issues with regard to utility finances, and corporate philosophy. A decision analysis model has been developed to analyze the thermal anneal option in comparison to other alternatives for a number of possible combinations and timing. The results for a postulated vessel and embrittlement condition are presented to show that thermal annealing can be a viable management option which should be taken seriously. (author)

  2. Biological impact assessment of thermal discharges in the vicinity of Madras Atomic Power Station, Kalpakkam, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahul Hameed, P.; Syed Mohamed, H.E.; Krishnamoorthy, R.

    2007-01-01

    Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS), Kalpakkam uses seawater as tertiary coolant at the rate of 35m 3 /sec employing a once through type of circuit. The discharged water travels as a canal and mixes with seawater at the mixing zone. The present study investigated the impact of the discharged thermal effluent on the physical chemical and biological quality of the receiving seawater body. The thermal plume is shore attached and extended up to 300 m from the shore and registered a ΔT of 3-4 degC. The shore attached thermal plume adversely affected the density and distribution of macro benthic animals. The benthos are absent in the mixing zone and their density decreased about 500 m on either side of the mixing zone. The natural shift in the mixing zone provides opportunities for the recolonization of macro benthos. The thermal tolerance study revealed that the experimental fish species Mugil cephalus and Alepeus djidapa did not show any mortality or loss of equilibrium at ΔT 5 degC (33 degC) and ΔT 7 degC (35 degC) and the maximum ΔT recorded at the impact area is 6 degC. The gradual increase in temperature as found in the plume favors the fishes to escape the acute thermal exposures. (author)

  3. Topical methotrexate pretreatment enhances the therapeutic effect of topical 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy on hamster buccal pouch precancers

    OpenAIRE

    Deng-Fu Yang; Jeng-Woei Lee; Hsin-Ming Chen; Yih-Chih Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Topical 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) is effective for treatment of human oral precancerous lesions. This animal study aimed to assess whether topical methotrexate (MTX) pretreatment could enhance the therapeutic effect of topical ALA-PDT on hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. Methods: Twenty hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions were treated with either topical ALA-PDT with topical MTX pretreatment (topical MTX-ALA-PDT group, n = 10) or topical A...

  4. Assessment of optimum thermal humidity index for crossbred dairy cows in Dehradun district, Uttarakhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Kohli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Uttarakhand is a relatively new state and many cross bred cattle were introduced to boost the milk yield of the state. Despite all efforts the milk yield of dairy in Uttarakhand is comparatively low. In our study, we assessed the effect of heat stress on milk production, using thermal humidity index (THI in high (cross bred cattle and low milk producing (LMP cows (native cows in Dehradun district of Uttarakhand, India. Materials and Methods: Effect of heat stress was measured on high and LMP cross bred cows using THI maintained on standard feeding and nutritional value. Daily ambient temperature and relative humidity were recorded to calculate the THI. Daily milk production was noted to verify the effect of heat stress. Furthermore, profile the thyroid hormones using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Low yielding cows did not show any significant change when the THI was above 72 from month June to October during stress condition. But high yielding cows shows a significant decrease (p<0.05 in milk yield when THI was above 80 (severe stress zone in the month of June to October and milk production decrease from an average of 18±1.4 to 10.9±0.92 L whereas in November-December when THI declines in the zone of comfort the milk yield did not show significant rise. The thyroid hormones (T3 and T4 level were found lower in summer heat stress condition for a high yielding cattle. Conclusion: Summer heat stress significantly decreased milk yield in high milk producing (HMP crossbred cows. As THI rises from comfort zone to stress zone milk yield decreased by 30-40% and this loss in milk production is irreversible. Management strategies should be needed as environmental control housing is suggested for the HMP crossbred cattle to minimize the heat stress. If all the dairies with cross bred cattle implement these small modifications in housing of cattle, there would be a huge increase in milk production.

  5. Using thermal and compositional modeling to assess the role of water in Alaskan flat slab subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, S. E.; Porter, R. C.; Hoisch, T. D.

    2017-12-01

    Although plate tectonic theory is well established in the geosciences, the mechanisms and details of various plate-tectonics related phenomena are not always well understood. In some ( 10%) convergent plate boundaries, subduction of downgoing oceanic plates is characterized by low angle geometries and is termed "flat slab subduction." The mechanism(s) driving this form of subduction are not well understood. The goal of this study is to explore the role that water plays in these flat slab subduction settings. This is important for a better understanding of the behavior of these systems and for assessing volcanic hazards associated with subduction and slab rollback. In southern Alaska, the Pacific Plate is subducting beneath the North American plate at a shallow angle. This low-angle subduction within the region is often attributed to the subduction of the Yakutat block, a terrane accreting to the south-central coast of Alaska. This flat slab region is bounded by the Aleution arc to the west and the strike-slip Queen Charlotte fault to the east. Temperature and compositional models for a 500-km transect across this subduction zone in Alaska were run for ten million years (the length of time that flat slab subduction has been ongoing in Alaska) and allow for interpretation of present-day conditions at depth. This allows for an evaluation of two hypotheses regarding the role of water in flat-slab regions: (1) slab hydration and dehydration help control slab buoyancy which influences whether flat slab subduction will be maintained or ended. (2) slab hydration/dehydration of the overlying lithosphere impacts deformation within the upper plate as water encourages plate deformation. Preliminary results from thermal modeling using Thermod8 show that cooling of the mantle to 500 °C is predicted down to 100 km depth at 10 million years after the onset of low-angle subduction (representing present-day). Results from compositional modeling in Perple_X show the maximum amount

  6. Topical Research: Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Karen

    This lesson plan can be used in social studies, language arts, or library research. The instructional objective is for students to select a topic of study relating to Africa, write a thesis statement, collect information from media sources, and develop a conclusion. The teacher may assign the lesson for written or oral evaluation. The teacher…

  7. Topics in quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuille, A.L.

    1980-11-01

    Topics in the Yang-Mills theories of strong interactions and the quantum theories of gravity are examined, using the path integral approach, including; Yang-Mills instantons in curved spacetimes, Israel-Wilson metrics, Kaehler spacetimes, instantons and anti-instantons. (U.K.)

  8. Salicylic Acid Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the package label for more information.Apply a small amount of the salicylic acid product to one or two small areas you want to treat for 3 days ... know that children and teenagers who have chicken pox or the flu should not use topical salicylic ...

  9. Characters and Topical Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Rune

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to contribute to our understanding of the difference between the bestseller and the non-bestseller in nonfiction. It is noticed that many bestsellers in nonfiction belongs to the sub-genre of creative nonfiction, but also that the topics in this kind of literature i...

  10. Selected topics in magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, L C

    1993-01-01

    Part of the ""Frontiers in Solid State Sciences"" series, this volume presents essays on such topics as spin fluctuations in Heisenberg magnets, quenching of spin fluctuations by high magnetic fields, and kondo effect and heavy fermions in rare earths amongst others.

  11. Nuclear safety - Topical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The following topical issues related to nuclear safety are discussed: steam generators; maintenance strategies; control rod drive nozzle cracks; core shrouds cracks; sump strainer blockage; fire protection; computer software important for safety; safety during shutdown; operational safety experience; external hazards and other site related issues. 5 figs, 5 tabs

  12. Topical immunomodulators in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khandpur Sujay

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Topical immunomodulators are agents that regulate the local immune response of the skin. They are now emerging as the therapy of choice for several immune-mediated dermatoses such as atopic dermatitis, contact allergic dermatitis, alopecia areata, psoriasis, vitiligo, connective tissue disorders such as morphea and lupus erythematosus, disorders of keratinization and several benign and malignant skin tumours, because of their comparable efficacy, ease of application and greater safety than their systemic counterparts. They can be used on a domiciliary basis for longer periods without aggressive monitoring. In this article, we have discussed the mechanism of action, common indications and side-effects of the commonly used topical immunomodulators, excluding topical steroids. Moreover, newer agents, which are still in the experimental stages, have also been described. A MEDLINE search was undertaken using the key words "topical immunomodulators, dermatology" and related articles were also searched. In addition, a manual search for many Indian articles, which are not indexed, was also carried out. Wherever possible, the full article was reviewed. If the full article could not be traced, the abstract was used.

  13. Differential Topic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changyou; Buntine, Wray; Ding, Nan; Xie, Lexing; Du, Lan

    2015-02-01

    In applications we may want to compare different document collections: they could have shared content but also different and unique aspects in particular collections. This task has been called comparative text mining or cross-collection modeling. We present a differential topic model for this application that models both topic differences and similarities. For this we use hierarchical Bayesian nonparametric models. Moreover, we found it was important to properly model power-law phenomena in topic-word distributions and thus we used the full Pitman-Yor process rather than just a Dirichlet process. Furthermore, we propose the transformed Pitman-Yor process (TPYP) to incorporate prior knowledge such as vocabulary variations in different collections into the model. To deal with the non-conjugate issue between model prior and likelihood in the TPYP, we thus propose an efficient sampling algorithm using a data augmentation technique based on the multinomial theorem. Experimental results show the model discovers interesting aspects of different collections. We also show the proposed MCMC based algorithm achieves a dramatically reduced test perplexity compared to some existing topic models. Finally, we show our model outperforms the state-of-the-art for document classification/ideology prediction on a number of text collections.

  14. Topical cyclosporine for atopic keratoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-López, Julio J; López-Alcalde, Jesús; Morcillo Laiz, Rafael; Fernández Buenaga, Roberto; Rebolleda Fernández, Gema

    2012-09-12

    Ophthalmologica Europaea from 2005 to July 2011. We included randomised controlled trials only. Two review authors independently extracted data. Due to the small number of studies and the diversity of outcome measures, interventions and participants, we presented results narratively. We found three RCTs with a total of 58 participants that were eligible for inclusion. There was significant variability between the trials in interventions, methodology and outcome measures and therefore we did not perform meta-analysis.One study reported on the use of 2% CsA in maize oil and two on the use of a commercial emulsion of 0.05% CsA. Of these three studies, one showed a beneficial effect of topical CsA in controlling signs and symptoms of AKC, one in controlling signs of AKC and one did not show evidence of an improvement. Only two studies analysed the effect of topical CsA in reducing topical steroid use; one showed a significant reduction in topical steroid use with CsA, but the other did not show evidence of this improvement. No serious adverse events were reported in the trials. This systematic review highlights the relative scarcity of controlled clinical trials assessing the efficacy of topical CsA therapy in AKC and suggests that evidence on the efficacy and safety of topical CsA treatment in patients with CsA remains limited. However, the data suggest that topical CsA may provide clinical and symptomatic relief in AKC and may help to reduce topical steroid use in patients with steroid-dependent or steroid-resistant AKC. No serious adverse events were reported. Reported adverse events in patients treated with topical CsA include intense stinging and eyelid skin maceration. One patient in the placebo group developed a severe allergic response to maize antigens. However, the total number of patients in the trials was too small to assess the safety of this treatment.Additional well-designed and powered RCTs of topical CsA in AKC are needed. Ideal study designs should include adequate

  15. A comparison between Japanese and French A16 defect assessment procedures for thermal fatigue crack growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakai, T.; Horikiri, M.; Poussard, C.; Drubay, B.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a benchmark on thermal fatigue crack growth evaluation for a thick-wall cylinder subjected to cyclic thermal transients. The simplified crack growth evaluation methods of both JNC in JAPAN and A16 procedures proposed by CEA in France are presented. The predictions obtained using both methods are compared with the experimental data. The JNC method, which accounts for the non-linear stress component provides predictions of crack advance in a good agreement with the experimental data. In contrast, significant differences are observed between the A16 predictions and the experimental data. The discrepancies are mainly due to the non-linear stress component which is not accounted for in the A16 method. When using the JNC stress intensity factor solution determined by finite element analysis to account for the non-linear stress component, the A16 method well predicts the thermal fatigue crack growth behavior

  16. Thermal energy storage technologies for sustainability systems design, assessment and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kalaiselvam, S

    2014-01-01

    Thermal Energy Storage Technologies for Sustainability is a broad-based overview describing the state-of-the-art in latent, sensible, and thermo-chemical energy storage systems and their applications across industries. Beginning with a discussion of the efficiency and conservation advantages of balancing energy demand with production, the book goes on to describe current state-of-the art technologies. Not stopping with description, the authors also discuss design, modeling, and simulation of representative systems, and end with several case studies of systems in use.Describes how thermal energ

  17. A recursive economic dispatch algorithm for assessing the cost of thermal generator schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, K.P.; Doan, K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper develops an efficient, recursive algorithm for determining the economic power dispatch of thermal generators within the unit commitment environment. A method for incorporating the operation limits of all on-line generators and limits due to ramping generators is developed in the paper. The developed algorithm is amenable for computer implementation using the artificial intelligence programming language, Prolog. The performance of the developed algorithm is demonstrated through its application to evaluate the costs of dispatching 13 thermal generators within a generator schedule in a 24-hour schedule horizon

  18. Soil radioactivity levels and radiation hazard assessment around a Thermal Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Kumar, Pankaj; Sharma, Somdutt; Agrawal, Anshu; Kumar, Rajesh; Prajith, Rama; Sahoo, B.K.

    2016-01-01

    Coal based thermal power plants further enhance the level of radioactivity in the environment, as burning of coal produces fly ash that can be released into the environment containing traces of 238 U, 232 Th and their decay products. Therefore, coal fired power plants are one of the major contributor towards the Technologically Enhanced Natural Radiation (TENR). Keeping this in view, a study of natural radioactivity in the soil of twenty five villages within 5 km radius around the Harduaganj Thermal Power Plant, Aligarh, UP, India is going on under a BRNS major project, to know the radiological implications on general population living around this plant

  19. Topics and topic prominence in two sign languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimmelman, V.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe topic marking in Russian Sign Language (RSL) and Sign Language of the Netherlands (NGT) and discuss whether these languages should be considered topic prominent. The formal markers of topics in RSL are sentence-initial position, a prosodic break following the topic, and

  20. Assessment of the efficacy and safety of a combination of 2 topical retinoids (RetinSphere) in maintaining post-treatment response of acne to oral isotretinoin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truchuelo, M T; Jiménez, N; Mavura, D; Jaén, P

    2015-03-01

    The high rate of relapse of acne lesions following oral isotretinoin treatment is a common problem which remains unsolved. To avoid or minimize relapses, topical retinoids have been used for many years as maintenance treatment. However, adverse effects frequently occur. To determine the efficacy and safety of a new retinoid combination (Retinsphere technology) in maintaining post-treatment response to oral isotretinoin. Prospective, randomized, double-blind and vehicle-controlled study of 30 patients with acne previously treated with isotretinoin. Treatment with the retinoid combination was applied to one side of the face and vehicle was applied to the other, once daily, for 3 months. Standardized photographs were taken using RBX technology at baseline, 1.5 months and 3 months. The primary efficacy endpoint was the appearance of relapse on the treated side compared to the vehicle-treated side. Other endpoints included lesion count, investigator-reported improvement, patient-reported improvement, impact on quality-of-life, and side effects. Although the majority of patients did not reach the total target dose of oral isotretinoin, the relapse rate was significantly lower on the retinoid-treated side compared to the vehicle-treated side. Likewise, improved lesion count and excellent tolerance were observed. This new retinoid combination (Retinsphere technology) were effective and safe as maintenance therapy after post-treatment response to oral isotretinoin in patients with acne. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  1. Twenty-third water reactor safety information meeting: Volume 2, Human factors research; Advanced I and C hardware and software; Severe accident research; Probabilistic risk assessment topics; Individual plant examination: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteleone, S. [comp.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-03-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the Twenty- Third Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, October 23-25, 1995. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Italy, Japan, Norway, Russia, Sweden, and Switzerland. This document, Volume 2, present topics in human factors research, advanced instrumentation and control hardware and software, severe accident research, probabilistic risk assessment, and individual plant examination. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  2. An assessment of thermal spray coating technologies for high temperature corrosion protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, G.R.; Heimgartner, P.; Gustafsson, S.; Irons, G.; Miller, R.

    1997-01-01

    The use of thermally sprayed coatings in combating high temperature corrosion continues to grow in the major industries of chemical, waste incineration, power generation and pulp and paper. This has been driven partially by the development of corrosion resistant alloys, improved knowledge and quality in the thermal spray industry and continued innovation in thermal spray equipment. There exists today an extensive range of thermal spray process options, often with the same alloy solution. In demanding corrosion applications it is not sufficient to just specify alloy and coating method. For the production of reliable coatings the whole coating production envelope needs to be considered, including alloy selection, spray parameters, surface preparation, base metal properties, heat input etc. Combustion, arc-wire, plasma, HVOF and spray+fuse techniques are reviewed and compared in terms of their strengths and limitations to provide cost-effective solutions for high temperature corrosion protection. Arc wire spraying, HP/HVOF and spray+fuse are emerging as the most promising techniques to optimise both coating properties and economic/practical aspects. (orig.)

  3. Remote assessment of permeability/thermal diffusivity of consolidated clay sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovell, M.A.; Ogden, P.

    1984-02-01

    The aim of this project was to examine the feasibility of predicting marine sediment permeability and thermal diffusivity by remote geophysical observations. For this purpose a modified consolidation cell was developed and constructed and tests on deep sea sediment samples carried out. Results and conclusions of a nineteen month programme are presented. (U.K.)

  4. Photopyroelectric assessment of the thermal effusivity of fresh hen egg and of rehydrated egg powders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szafner, G.; Nemeth, C.; Bicanic, D.D.; Doka, O.

    2015-01-01

    The availability of thermo-physical data of foods and their constituents is of general importance to food industry. The thermal effusivity e is one among the relevant thermodynamical quantities. The latter is normally calculated from the relationship e = (¿¿c)½, where c is specific heat, ¿ is the

  5. Regional assessment of aquifers for thermal energy storage. Volume 1: Regions 1 through 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    The geologic and hydrologic framework, major aquifers, aquifers which are suitable and unsuitable for annual thermal energy storage (ATES) and the ATES potential of the western mountains, alluvial basins, Columbia LAVA plateau, Colorado plateau, high plains, and glaciated central region are discussed.

  6. An assessment of thermal destruction technologies for application to Department of Energy mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    As evidenced by the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan, the Department is committing to a long-range waste management program. A category of waste that represents a sizable portion of the total DOE waste picture and also presents significant complications in management is waste that contains both hazardous and radioactive components. This category of wastes, referred to as mixed waste (MW), is present at all but a few of the Department's sites. The presence of radioactive constituents in this waste category implies that it be managed, like radioactive-only wastes, on DOE-owned property. Thermal treatment of MW's offers a variety of benefits in the final disposition of the waste. One obvious benefit is volume reduction of the waste if it contains organics because most of the organics are converted to gases and water, leaving only the inert material or ash. Another benefit is the destruction of hazardous materials by thermal conversion to simple, nonhazardous gases water. A third benefit, for some thermal technologies, is that the thermal process yields a process residue that meets disposal requirements for both hazardous and radioactive constituents without further processing. 2 refs., 47 figs., 8 tabs

  7. Assessment of industry views on international business prospects for solar thermal technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easterling, J.C.

    1984-09-01

    This report contains a review of solar thermal industry viewpoints on their prospects for developing international business. The report documents the industry's current involvement in foreign markets, view of foreign competition in overseas applications, and view of federal R and D and policy requirements to strengthen international business prospects. The report is based on discussions with equipment manufacturers and system integrators who have a product or service with potential international demand. Interviews with manufacturers and system integrators were conducted by using a standard format for interview questions. The use of a standard format for questions provided a basis for aggregating similar views expressed by US companies concerning overseas business prospects. A special effort was made to gather responses from the entire solar thermal industry, including manufacturers of line-focus, point-focus, and central receiver systems. General, technical, economic, institutional, and financial findings are provided in this summary. In addition, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) recommendations are provided (based upon advice from the Solar Thermal Review Panel) for activities to improve US solar thermal business prospects overseas.

  8. Multivariate analysis of seasonal variation in the composition and thermal properties of butterfat with an emphasis on authenticity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaszewska-Gras, J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the seasonal variation in the composition and thermal properties of butterfat (BF) in order to evaluate the applicability of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for the authenticity assessment of butter. The composition of fatty acids (FA) and triacylglycerols (TAG) and the thermal properties of genuine BF purchased in the summer and in the winter from six producers were determined. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to recognize variation and as a result, all BF samples were classified into two groups: one composed of mixed samples from the summer and winter and the other comprising only summer BF samples. DSC and GC analysis revealed that the group of only summer BF samples was characterized by lower melting temperatures and peak heights of low- and medium melting fractions and the highest proportions of unsaturated FAs (ΣC18:1, ΣC18:2, ΣC18:3). The results indicated that most of the variation in the composition and thermal properties was affected by summer BF samples, which may result from the alternative animal feeding systems employed in the summer season, i.e., pasture vs. indoor. Therefore, seasonal variation should be taken into consideration during the elaboration of the analytical method of authenticity assessment. [es

  9. Assessment of thermal load on transported goats administered with ascorbic acid during the hot-dry conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minka, N. S.; Ayo, J. O.

    2012-03-01

    The major factor in the induction of physiological stress during road transportation of livestock is the complex fluctuations of the thermal transport microenvironment, encountered when animals are transported across different ecological zones. Recommended guidelines on optimum "on-board" conditions in which goats should be transported are lacking, and there are no acceptable ranges and limits for the thermal loads to which goats may be subjected during long-distance road transportation in hot-dry conditions. Panting score (PS), rectal temperature (RT), heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RR) were employed as reliable stress indices to assess the effects of different thermal loads, measured as temperature humidity index (THI), encountered in the vehicle during 12 h of road transportation of 40 goats, and to suggest the administration of 100 mg/kg body weight of ascorbic acid (AA) as an ameliorating agent. The results obtained showed that the PS, RT, HR and RR rose above normal reference values with increase in the THI and journey duration. The rise in PS value, which is a visual indicator of the severity of thermal load, was the most pronounced. The results suggest that values of THI in the vehicle up to 94.6 constitute no risk, while at of 100 it presents a moderate risk and above 100 may result in severe stress. The relationships between the thermal load and the physiological variables were positive and significant ( P goats. The results demonstrated that administration of 100 mg/kg body weight of AA before road transportation mitigated the risk of adverse effects of high THI values and other stress factors due to road transportation in goats.

  10. Feasibility and validity of animal-based indicators for on-farm welfare assessment of thermal stress in dairy goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battini, Monica; Barbieri, Sara; Fioni, Luna; Mattiello, Silvana

    2016-02-01

    This investigation tested the feasibility and validity of indicators of cold and heat stress in dairy goats for on-farm welfare assessment protocols. The study was performed on two intensive dairy farms in Italy. Two different 3-point scale (0-2) scoring systems were applied to assess cold and heat stress. Cold and heat stress scores were visually assessed from outside the pen in the morning, afternoon and evening in January-February, April-May and July 2013 for a total of nine sessions of observations/farm. Temperature (°C), relative humidity (%) and wind speed (km/h) were recorded and Thermal Heat Index (THI) was calculated. The sessions were allocated to three climatic seasons, depending on THI ranges: cold (65). Score 2 was rarely assessed; therefore, scores 1 and 2 were aggregated for statistical analysis. The amount of goats suffering from cold stress was significantly higher in the cold season than in neutral ( P farm feasibility of both indicators: No constraint was found and time required was less than 10 min. Our results show that cold and heat stress scores are valid indicators to detect thermal stress in intensively managed dairy goats. The use of a binary scoring system (presence/absence), merging scores 1 and 2, may be a further refinement to improve the feasibility. This study also allows the prediction of optimal ranges of THI for dairy goat breeds in intensive husbandry systems, setting a comfort zone included into 55 and 70.

  11. Feasibility and validity of animal-based indicators for on-farm welfare assessment of thermal stress in dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battini, Monica; Barbieri, Sara; Fioni, Luna; Mattiello, Silvana

    2016-02-01

    This investigation tested the feasibility and validity of indicators of cold and heat stress in dairy goats for on-farm welfare assessment protocols. The study was performed on two intensive dairy farms in Italy. Two different 3-point scale (0-2) scoring systems were applied to assess cold and heat stress. Cold and heat stress scores were visually assessed from outside the pen in the morning, afternoon and evening in January-February, April-May and July 2013 for a total of nine sessions of observations/farm. Temperature (°C), relative humidity (%) and wind speed (km/h) were recorded and Thermal Heat Index (THI) was calculated. The sessions were allocated to three climatic seasons, depending on THI ranges: cold (65). Score 2 was rarely assessed; therefore, scores 1 and 2 were aggregated for statistical analysis. The amount of goats suffering from cold stress was significantly higher in the cold season than in neutral (P stress were recorded only in the hot season (P stress scores are valid indicators to detect thermal stress in intensively managed dairy goats. The use of a binary scoring system (presence/absence), merging scores 1 and 2, may be a further refinement to improve the feasibility. This study also allows the prediction of optimal ranges of THI for dairy goat breeds in intensive husbandry systems, setting a comfort zone included into 55 and 70.

  12. Topics in industrial mathematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatsya, S.R.

    1992-01-01

    Mathematical methods are widely used to solve practical problems arising in modern industry. This article outlines some of the topics relevant to AECL programmes. This covers the applications of transmission and neutron transport tomography to determine density distributions in rocks and two phase flow situations. Another example covered is the use of variational methods to solve the problems of aerosol migration and control theory. (author). 7 refs

  13. Relativity theory - topical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmutzer, E.

    1979-01-01

    Issued on the occasion of Albert Einstein's 100th birthday the book deals topically with the special and general relativity theory. The latest experiments to confirm the relativity theory are described and the historical development of the theory is presented in detail. Emphasis is given to the disclosure of deep insights into the nature of matter. Of interest to experts in physical and natural sciences and to mathematicians

  14. Assessment of human thermal comfort and mitigation measures in different urban climatotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, N.; Kuttler, W.

    2012-04-01

    This study analyses thermal comfort in the model city of Oberhausen as an example for the densely populated metropolitan region Ruhr, Germany. As thermal loads increase due to climate change negative impacts especially for city dwellers will arise. Therefore mitigation strategies should be developed and considered in urban planning today to prevent future thermal stress. The method consists of the combination of in-situ measurements and numerical model simulations. So in a first step the actual thermal situation is determined and then possible mitigation strategies are derived. A measuring network was installed in eight climatotopes for a one year period recording air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction. Based on these parameters the human thermal comfort in terms of physiological equivalent temperature (PET) was calculated by RayMan Pro software. Thus the human comfort of different climatotopes was determined. Heat stress in different land uses varies, so excess thermal loads in urban areas could be detected. Based on the measuring results mitigation strategies were developed, such as increasing areas with high evaporation capacity (green areas and water bodies). These strategies were implemented as different plan scenarios in the microscale urban climate model ENVI-met. The best measure should be identified by comparing the range and effect of these scenarios. Simulations were run in three of the eight climatotopes (city center, suburban and open land site) to analyse the effectiveness of the mitigation strategies in several land use structures. These cover the range of values of all eight climatotopes and therefore provide representative results. In the model area of 21 ha total, the modified section in the different plan scenarios was 1 ha. Thus the effect of small-scale changes could be analysed. Such areas can arise due to population decline and structural changes and hold conversion potential. Emphasis was also laid on analysing the

  15. Experimental Assays to Assess the Efficacy of Vinegar and Other Topical First-Aid Approaches on Cubozoan (Alatina alata) Tentacle Firing and Venom Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagihara, Angel A; Wilcox, Christie; King, Rebecca; Hurwitz, Kikiana; Castelfranco, Ann M

    2016-01-11

    Despite the medical urgency presented by cubozoan envenomations, ineffective and contradictory first-aid management recommendations persist. A critical barrier to progress has been the lack of readily available and reproducible envenomation assays that (1) recapitulate live-tentacle stings; (2) allow quantitation and imaging of cnidae discharge; (3) allow primary quantitation of venom toxicity; and (4) employ rigorous controls. We report the implementation of an integrated array of three experimental approaches designed to meet the above-stated criteria. Mechanistically overlapping, yet distinct, the three approaches comprised (1) direct application of test solutions on live tentacles (termed tentacle solution assay, or TSA) with single image- and video-microscopy; (2) spontaneous stinging assay using freshly excised tentacles overlaid on substrate of live human red blood cells suspended in agarose (tentacle blood agarose assays, or TBAA); and (3) a "skin" covered adaptation of TBAA (tentacle skin blood agarose assay, or TSBAA). We report the use and results of these assays to evaluate the efficacy of topical first-aid approaches to inhibit tentacle firing and venom activity. TSA results included the potent stimulation of massive cnidae discharge by alcohols but only moderate induction by urine, freshwater, and "cola" (carbonated soft drink). Although vinegar, the 40-year field standard of first aid for the removal of adherent tentacles, completely inhibited cnidae firing in TSA and TSBAA ex vivo models, the most striking inhibition of both tentacle firing and subsequent venom-induced hemolysis was observed using newly-developed proprietary formulations (Sting No More™) containing copper gluconate, magnesium sulfate, and urea.

  16. Assessment of fast and thermal neutron ambient dose equivalents around the KFUPM neutron source storage area using nuclear track detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazal-ur-Rehman [Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: fazalr@kfupm.edu.sa; Al-Jarallah, M.I. [Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Abu-Jarad, F. [Radiation Protection Unit, Environmental Protection Department, Saudi Aramco, P. O. Box 13027, Dhahran 31311 (Saudi Arabia); Qureshi, M.A. [Center for Applied Physical Sciences, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2005-11-15

    A set of five {sup 241}Am-Be neutron sources are utilized in research and teaching at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM). Three of these sources have an activity of 16Ci each and the other two are of 5Ci each. A well-shielded storage area was designed for these sources. The aim of the study is to check the effectiveness of shielding of the KFUPM neutron source storage area. Poly allyl diglycol carbonate (PADC) Nuclear track detectors (NTDs) based fast and thermal neutron area passive dosimeters have been utilized side by side for 33 days to assess accumulated low ambient dose equivalents of fast and thermal neutrons at 30 different locations around the source storage area and adjacent rooms. Fast neutron measurements have been carried out using bare NTDs, which register fast neutrons through recoils of protons, in the detector material. NTDs were mounted with lithium tetra borate (Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}) converters on their surfaces for thermal neutron detection via B10(n,{alpha})Li6 and Li6(n,{alpha})H3 nuclear reactions. The calibration factors of NTD both for fast and thermal neutron area passive dosimeters were determined using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) with and without a polyethylene moderator. The calibration factors for fast and thermal neutron area passive dosimeters were found to be 1.33 proton tracks cm{sup -2}{mu}Sv{sup -1} and 31.5 alpha tracks cm{sup -2}{mu}Sv{sup -1}, respectively. The results show variations of accumulated dose with the locations around the storage area. The fast neutron dose equivalents rates varied from as low as 182nSvh{sup -1} up to 10.4{mu}Svh{sup -1} whereas those for thermal neutron ranged from as low as 7nSvh{sup -1} up to 9.3{mu}Svh{sup -1}. The study indicates that the area passive neutron dosimeter was able to detect dose rates as low as 7 and 182nSvh{sup -1} from accumulated dose for thermal and fast neutrons, respectively, which were not possible to detect with the available active neutron

  17. Assessment of thermal loads in the CERN SPS crab cavities cryomodule1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carra, F.; Apeland, J.; Calaga, R.; Capatina, O.; Capelli, T.; Verdú-Andrés, S.; Zanoni, C.

    2017-07-01

    As a part of the HL-LHC upgrade, a cryomodule is designed to host two crab cavities for a first test with protons in the SPS machine. The evaluation of the cryomodule heat loads is essential to dimension the cryogenic infrastructure of the system. The current design features two cryogenic circuits. The first circuit adopts superfluid helium at 2 K to maintain the cavities in the superconducting state. The second circuit, based on helium gas at a temperature between 50 K and 70 K, is connected to the thermal screen, also serving as heat intercept for all the interfaces between the cold mass and the external environment. An overview of the heat loads to both circuits, and the combined numerical and analytical estimations, is presented. The heat load of each element is detailed for the static and dynamic scenarios, with considerations on the design choices for the thermal optimization of the most critical components.

  18. Thermal neutron measurement using the instrumented test bundle and assessment of maximum linear power in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C. S.; Seo, C. K.; Lee, B. C.; Kim, H. N.; Kang, B. W. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-10-01

    The HANARO fuel, U{sub 3}Si-Al, has been developed by AECL and tested in NRU reactor. Due to the lack of the data performed under the high power, the repetitive conduct of the irradiation test was required under the power greater than 108kW/m, which is the estimated maximum linear power in the design stage. Accordingly, the instrumented test bundle with SPND(Self Powered Neutron Detector) was fabricated and its irradiation test was performed in IR2 of HANARO. The measured thermal neutron flux with SPND is compared with calculation results by HANAFMS(HANARO Fuel Management System). The difference in the measured and calculated thermal flux values are below {+-}11% and the accuracy of the linear power predicted by HANAFMS is consequently accompanied. Therefore, it is believed that the maximum linear power above 120kW/m is achieved during the irradiation test of the test bundle.

  19. Environmental assessment of the potential effects of aquifer thermal energy storage systems on microorganisms in groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, R.J.; Stewart, D.L.

    1988-03-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the potential environmental effects (both adverse and beneficials) of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) technology pertaining to microbial communities indigenous to subsurface environments (i.e., aquifers) and the propagation, movement, and potential release of pathogenic microorganisms (specifically, Legionella) within ATES systems. Seasonal storage of thermal energy in aquifers shows great promise to reduce peak demand; reduce electric utility load problems; contribute to establishing favorable economics for district heating and cooling systems; and reduce pollution from extraction, refining, and combustion of fossil fuels. However, concerns that the widespread implementation of this technology may have adverse effects on biological systems indigeneous to aquifers, as well as help to propagate and release pathogenic organisms that enter thee environments need to be resolved. 101 refs., 2 tabs.

  20. Thermal conductive heating in fractured bedrock: Screening calculations to assess the effect of groundwater influx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baston, Daniel P.; Kueper, Bernard H.

    2009-02-01

    A two-dimensional semi-analytical heat transfer solution is developed and a parameter sensitivity analysis performed to determine the relative importance of rock material properties (density, thermal conductivity and heat capacity) and hydrogeological properties (hydraulic gradient, fracture aperture, fracture spacing) on the ability to heat fractured rock using thermal conductive heating (TCH). The solution is developed using a Green's function approach in which an integral equation is constructed for the temperature in the fracture. Subsurface temperature distributions are far more sensitive to hydrogeological properties than material properties. The bulk ground water influx ( q) can provide a good estimate of the extent of influx cooling when influx is low to moderate, allowing the prediction of temperatures during heating without specific knowledge of the aperture and spacing of fractures. Target temperatures may not be reached or may be significantly delayed when the groundwater influx is large.

  1. Assessing the Thermal Environmental Impacts of an Groundwater Heat Pump in Southeastern Washington State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, Vicky L.; Waichler, Scott R.; Mackley, Rob D.; Horner, Jacob A.

    2012-04-01

    A thermal analysis of a large-scale (e.g., 1900 gpm), open-loop ground source heat pump (GSHP) installed on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus in southeastern Washington State has been performed using a numerical modeling approach. Water temperature increases at the upgradient extraction wells in the system and at the downgradient Columbia River are potential concerns, especially since heat rejection to the subsurface will occur year-round. Hence, thermal impacts of the open-loop GSHP were investigated to identify operational scenarios that minimized downgradient environmental impacts at the river, and upgradient temperature drift at the production wells. Simulations examined the sensitivity of the system to variations in pumping rates and injected water temperatures, as well as to hydraulic conductivity estimates of the aquifer. Results demonstrated that both downgradient and upgradient thermal impacts were more sensitive to injection flow rates than estimates of hydraulic conductivity. Higher injection rates at lower temperatures resulted in higher temperature increases at the extraction wells but lower increases at the river. Conversely, lower pumping rates and higher injected water temperatures resulted in a smaller temperature increase at the extraction wells, but higher increases at the river. The scenario with lower pumping rates is operationally more efficient, but does increase the likelihood of a thermal plume discharging into the Columbia River. However, this impact would be mitigated by mixing within the hyporheic zone and the Columbia River. The impact under current operational conditions is negligible, but future increases in heat rejection could require a compromise between maximizing operational efficiency and minimizing temperature increases at the shoreline.

  2. Initial assessment of the processes and significance of thermal aging in cast stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, O.K.; Chung, H.M.

    1988-10-01

    Charpy-impact and J-R curve data for thermally aged cast stainless steel are presented. The effects of material variables on the embrittlement of cast materials are evaluated. The chemical composition and ferrite morphology have a strong effect on the kinetics and extent of embrittlement. The procedure and correlations for predicting the impact strength and fracture toughness of cast component during reactor service are described. 19 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Assessing thermal comfort and energy efficiency in buildings by statistical quality control for autocorrelated data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbeito, Inés; Zaragoza, Sonia; Tarrío-Saavedra, Javier; Naya, Salvador

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Intelligent web platform development for energy efficiency management in buildings. • Controlling and supervising thermal comfort and energy consumption in buildings. • Statistical quality control procedure to deal with autocorrelated data. • Open source alternative using R software. - Abstract: In this paper, a case study of performing a reliable statistical procedure to evaluate the quality of HVAC systems in buildings using data retrieved from an ad hoc big data web energy platform is presented. The proposed methodology based on statistical quality control (SQC) is used to analyze the real state of thermal comfort and energy efficiency of the offices of the company FRIDAMA (Spain) in a reliable way. Non-conformities or alarms, and the actual assignable causes of these out of control states are detected. The capability to meet specification requirements is also analyzed. Tools and packages implemented in the open-source R software are employed to apply the different procedures. First, this study proposes to fit ARIMA time series models to CTQ variables. Then, the application of Shewhart and EWMA control charts to the time series residuals is proposed to control and monitor thermal comfort and energy consumption in buildings. Once thermal comfort and consumption variability are estimated, the implementation of capability indexes for autocorrelated variables is proposed to calculate the degree to which standards specifications are met. According with case study results, the proposed methodology has detected real anomalies in HVAC installation, helping to detect assignable causes and to make appropriate decisions. One of the goals is to perform and describe step by step this statistical procedure in order to be replicated by practitioners in a better way.

  4. Urban Soil: Assessing Ground Cover Impact on Surface Temperature and Thermal Comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandani, Giada; Napoli, Marco; Massetti, Luciano; Petralli, Martina; Orlandini, Simone

    2016-01-01

    The urban population growth, together with the contemporary deindustrialization of metropolitan areas, has resulted in a large amount of available land with new possible uses. It is well known that urban green areas provide several benefits in the surrounding environment, such as the improvement of thermal comfort conditions for the population during summer heat waves. The purpose of this study is to provide useful information on thermal regimes of urban soils to urban planners to be used during an urban transformation to mitigate surface temperatures and improve human thermal comfort. Field measurements of solar radiation, surface temperature (), air temperature (), relative humidity, and wind speed were collected on four types of urban soils and pavements in the city of Florence during summer 2014. Analysis of days under calm, clear-sky condition is reported. During daytime, sun-to-shadow differences for , apparent temperature index (ATI), and were significantly positive for all surfaces. Conversely, during nighttime, differences among all surfaces were significantly negative, whereas ATI showed significantly positive differences. Moreover, was significantly negative for grass and gravel. Relative to the shaded surfaces, was higher on white gravel and grass than gray sandstone and asphalt during nighttime, whereas gray sandstone was always the warmest surface during daytime. Conversely, no differences were found during nighttime for ATI and measured over surfaces that were exposed to sun during the day, whereas showed higher values on gravel than grass and asphalt during nighttime. An exposed surface warms less if its albedo is high, leading to a significant reduction of during daytime. These results underline the importance of considering the effects of surface characteristics on surface temperature and thermal comfort. This would be fundamental for addressing urban environment issues toward the heat island mitigation considering also the impact of urban

  5. Assessment of structural, thermal, and mechanical properties of portlandite through molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajilar, Shahin, E-mail: shajilar@iastate.edu [Department of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1066 (United States); Shafei, Behrouz, E-mail: shafei@iastate.edu [Department of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1066 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    The structural, thermal, and mechanical properties of portlandite, the primary solid phase of ordinary hydrated cement paste, are investigated using the molecular dynamics method. To understand the effects of temperature on the structural properties of portlandite, the coefficients of thermal expansion of portlandite are determined in the current study and validated with what reported from the experimental tests. The atomic structure of portlandite equilibrated at various temperatures is then subjected to uniaxial tensile strains in the three orthogonal directions and the stress-strain curves are developed. Based on the obtained results, the effect of the direction of straining on the mechanical properties of portlandite is investigated in detail. Structural damage analysis is performed to reveal the failure mechanisms in different directions. The energies of the fractured surfaces are calculated in different directions and compared to those of the ideal surfaces available in the literature. The key mechanical properties, including tensile strength, Young's modulus, and fracture strain, are extracted from the stress-strain curves. The sensitivity of the obtained mechanical properties to temperature and strain rate is then explored in a systematic way. This leads to valuable information on how the structural and mechanical properties of portlandite are affected under various exposure conditions and loading rates. - Graphical abstract: Fracture mechanism of portlandite under uniaxial strain in the z-direction. - Highlights: • The structural, thermal, and mechanical properties of portlandite are investigated. • The coefficients of thermal expansion are determined. • The stress-strain relationships are studied in three orthogonal directions. • The effects of temperature and strain rate on mechanical properties are examined. • The plastic energy required for fracture in the crystalline structure is reported.

  6. An assessment of the CORCON-MOD3 code. Part 1: Thermal-hydraulic calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strizhov, V.; Kanukova, V.; Vinogradova, T.; Askenov, E.; Nikulshin, V.

    1996-09-01

    This report deals with the subject of CORCON-Mod3 code validation (thermal-hydraulic modeling capability only) based on MCCI (molten core concrete interaction) experiments conducted under different programs in the past decade. Thermal-hydraulic calculations (i.e., concrete ablation, melt temperature, melt energy, concrete temperature, and condensible and non-condensible gas generation) were performed with the code, and compared with the data from 15 experiments, conducted at different scales using both simulant (metallic and oxidic) and prototypic melt materials, using different concrete types, and with and without an overlying water pool. Sensitivity studies were performed in a few cases involving, for example, heat transfer from melt to concrete, condensed phase chemistry, etc. Further, special analysis was performed using the ACE L8 experimental data to illustrate the differences between the experimental and the reactor conditions, and to demonstrate that with proper corrections made to the code, the calculated results were in better agreement with the experimental data. Generally, in the case of dry cavity and metallic melts, CORCON-Mod3 thermal-hydraulic calculations were in good agreement with the test data. For oxidic melts in a dry cavity, uncertainties in heat transfer models played an important role for two melt configurations--a stratified geometry with segregated metal and oxide layers, and a heterogeneous mixture. Some discrepancies in the gas release data were noted in a few cases

  7. Comparative Analysis of Infrared Thermography and CFD Modelling for Assessing the Thermal Performance of Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Morón

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption in the building sector has increased significantly in the developed countries over the last decades. For this reason, the new European standards have become stricter in terms of energy saving. This paper establishes a comparison between using infrared thermography for technical building inspection and modelling with Computational Flow Dynamics (CFD tools for the study of thermal performance of the building. The results show that the use of this type of tools gives a reliable response with the difference in thermal changes lower than 0.5 °C with respect to the data taken in situ. Moreover, these simulators of flow dynamics allow to evaluate the efficiency of proposed measures for energy savings and to obtain a reliable approximation to thermal comfort applying the improvement, deepening in the surface analysis of infrared thermography before performing rehabilitation project. In this research, Predicted Mean Vote Index (PMV comfort index of 0.7 for a living room and 0.6 for a bedroom were obtained, that corresponds to C class that includes values in the range of −0.7 < PMV < 0.7 according to the standard UNE-EN 7730.

  8. Automated assessment and tracking of human body thermal variations using unsupervised clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Bardia; Fleuret, Julien; Zhang, Hai; Maldague, Xavier P V; Watt, Raymond; Klein, Matthieu

    2016-12-01

    The presented approach addresses a review of the overheating that occurs during radiological examinations, such as magnetic resonance imaging, and a series of thermal experiments to determine a thermally suitable fabric material that should be used for radiological gowns. Moreover, an automatic system for detecting and tracking of the thermal fluctuation is presented. It applies hue-saturated-value-based kernelled k-means clustering, which initializes and controls the points that lie on the region-of-interest (ROI) boundary. Afterward, a particle filter tracks the targeted ROI during the video sequence independently of previous locations of overheating spots. The proposed approach was tested during experiments and under conditions very similar to those used during real radiology exams. Six subjects have voluntarily participated in these experiments. To simulate the hot spots occurring during radiology, a controllable heat source was utilized near the subject's body. The results indicate promising accuracy for the proposed approach to track hot spots. Some approximations were used regarding the transmittance of the atmosphere, and emissivity of the fabric could be neglected because of the independence of the proposed approach for these parameters. The approach can track the heating spots continuously and correctly, even for moving subjects, and provides considerable robustness against motion artifact, which occurs during most medical radiology procedures.

  9. Thermal property and assessment of biocompatibility of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid/graphene nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, Ananta R.; Rusakova, Irene; Chu, Wei-Kan; Haleh, Ardebili; Luisi, Jonathan; Panova, Neli I.; Laezza, Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    Polymer-matrix nanocomposites based on Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) and Graphene platelets (GNPs) were studied. GNPs, nanomaterials with a 2D flat surface, were chosen with or without chemical modification in PLGA/GNP nanocomposites and their microstructure, thermal property, and their compatibility as scaffolds for cell growth were investigated. PLGA/GNP nanocomposites (0, 1, and 5 wt. % of GNPs) were prepared using a solution based technique. Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Differential scanning calorimeter, and Thermogravimetric analyzer were used to analyze morphology and thermal properties. This work demonstrated the role of GNPs flat surface to provide a favorable platform resulting in an enhanced PLGA crystallization. Functionalized GNPs suppress both the thermal stability and the crystallization of PLGA. Finally, to determine the potential usefulness of these scaffolds for biomedical applications, mammalian cells were cultured on various PLGA/GNP nanocomposites (0, 1, and 5 wt. % GNPs). 1 wt. % PLGA/GNP nanocomposites showed better biocompatibility for cell growth with/without graphenes functionalization compared to pure PLGA and 5 wt. % PLGA/GNP. The function of GNPs in PLGA/GNPs (1 wt. %) composites is to provide a stage for PLGA crystallization where cell growth is favored. These results provide strong evidence for a new class of materials that could be important for biomedical applications

  10. Topic Visualization and Survival Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ping Jr

    2017-01-01

    Latent semantic structure in a text collection is called a topic. In this thesis, we aim to visualize topics in the scientific literature and detect active or inactive research areas based on their lifetime. Topics were extracted from over 1 million abstracts from the arXiv.org database using Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA). Hellinger distance measures similarity between two topics. Topics are determined to be relevant if their pairwise distances are smaller than the threshold of Hellinger ...

  11. Thermal solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J.C.; Leal C, H.

    1998-01-01

    Some relative aspects to the development and current state of thermal solar energy are summarized, so much at domestic level as international. To facilitate the criteria understanding as the size of the facilities in thermal solar systems, topics as availability of the solar resource and its interactions with the matter are included. Finally, some perspectives for the development of this energetic alternative are presented

  12. Radioactive contamination and health risk assessment due to burning of coal in thermal energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kant, K.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Radon being a ubiquitous air pollutant has global impact and its monitoring in the environment at work places is essential from health and hygiene point of view. In thermal power plants, a lot of coal is burnt which contains radionuclides which are released into the environment and are hazardous. Radon is the main culprit in the local radioactive contamination of the environment due to burning of coal in thermal energy generation. It has been reported by several researchers (Nikl and Vegvari 1992, Bodizs et al. 1992) that the concentrations of the isotopes U 238 and Ra 226 become 3-5 times more than those in the coal itself in the coal slag and fly ash obtained by burning the coal in coal fired power plants. Several researchers have reported radon levels in thermal power plants (Bodizs et al. 1992, Rawat et al. 1991, Nikl and Vevgari 1992, Papastefanou and Charalanbous 1979, Kant et al. 2001). Keeping in view the environmental pollution caused due to the burning of coal in thermal power stations, there is an upsurge in the establishment of nuclear and gas turbine power stations in recent times. An increased share of gas and nuclear in power generation could lead to lower emissions. Also, considerable emphasis is being laid on developing non-polluting and renewable energy sources like water, air, solar energy and others. In this study, measurement of radon and its progeny levels was carried out over long integrated times in thermal power plant in Haryana by using LR-115, Type- II (Kodak Pathe, France), plastic track detectors commonly known as solid state nuclear track detectors (SS NTDs). Alpha particles emitted from radon cause radiation damage tracks, which were subsequently revealed by chemical etching in NaOH. These alpha tracks registered were counted by optical microscope at suitable magnification and converted into radon concentration. The findings indicate that it is very important to carry out these studies and the results of the full study will

  13. Biological functioning of PAH-polluted and thermal desorption-treated soils assessed by fauna and microbial bioindicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cébron, Aurélie; Cortet, Jérôme; Criquet, Stéven; Biaz, Asmaa; Calvert, Virgile; Caupert, Cécile; Pernin, Céline; Leyval, Corinne

    2011-11-01

    A large number of soil bioindicators were used to assess biological diversity and activity in soil polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the same soil after thermal desorption (TD) treatment. Abundance and biodiversity of bacteria, fungi, protozoa, nematodes and microarthropods, as well as functional parameters such as enzymatic activities and soil respiration, were assessed during a two year period of in situ monitoring. We investigated the influence of vegetation (spontaneous vegetation and Medicago sativa) and TD treatment on biological functioning. Multivariate analysis was performed to analyze the whole data set. A principal response curve (PRC) technique was used to evaluate the different treatments (various vegetation and contaminated vs. TD soil) contrasted with control (bare) soil over time. Our results indicated the value of using a number of complementary bioindicators, describing both diversity and functions, to assess the influence of vegetation on soil and discriminate polluted from thermal desorption (TD)-treated soil. Plants had an influence on the abundance and activity of all organisms examined in our study, favoring the whole trophic chain development. However, although TD-treated soil had a high abundance and diversity of microorganisms and fauna, enzymatic activities were weak because of the strong physical and chemical modifications of this soil. Copyright © 2011 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Bench Scale Process for Low Cost CO2 Capture Using a Phase-Changing Absorbent: Topical Report EH&S Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westendorf, Tiffany; Farnum, Rachel; Perry, Robert; Herwig, Mark; Giolando, Salvatore; Green, Dianne; Morall, Donna

    2016-05-11

    GE Global Research was contracted by the Department of Energy to design and build a bench-scale process for a novel phase-changing aminosilicone-based CO2 capture solvent (award number DEFE0013687). As part of this program, a technology EH&S assessment (Subtask 5.1) has been completed for a CO2 capture system for a 550 MW coal-fired power plant. The assessment focuses on two chemicals used in the process, the aminosilicone solvent, GAP-0, and dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DDBSA), the GAP-0 carbamate formed upon reaction of the GAP-0 with CO2, and two potential byproducts formed in the process, GAP-0/SOx salts and amine-terminated, urea-containing silicone (also referred to as “ureas” in this report). The EH&S assessment identifies and estimates the magnitude of the potential air and water emissions and solid waste generated by the process and reviews the toxicological profiles of the chemicals associated with the process. Details regarding regulatory requirements, engineering controls, and storage and handling procedures are also provided in the following sections.

  15. Tee-junction of LMFR secondary circuit involving thermal, thermomechanical and fracture mechanics assessment on a striping phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.-Y.; Kim, J.-B.; Yoo, B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the thermomechanical and fracture mechanics evaluation procedure of thermal striping damage on the secondary piping of LMFR using Green's function method and standard FEM. The thermohydraulic loading conditions used in the present analysis are simplified sinusoidal thermal loads and the random type thermal loads. The thermomechanical fatigue damage was evaluated according to ASME code subsection NH. The results of fatigue analysis for the sinusoidal and random type load cases showed that fatigue failure would occur at a welded joint during 90 000 hours of operation. The assessment for the fracture behavior of the welded joint showed that the crack would be initiated at an early stage of the operation. The fatigue crack was evaluated to propagate up to 5 mm along the thickness direction during the first 940.7 and 42 698.9 hours of operation for the sinusoidal and the random loading cases, respectively. However, it was evaluated that the crack would be arrested because of the low level of the primary stresses. The fatigue and crack propagation analyses for the random type loads were performed by Green's function method. (author)

  16. Numerical method for assessing the potential of smart engine thermal management: Application to a medium-upper segment passenger car

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caresana, F.; Bilancia, M.; Bartolini, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Significant reductions in vehicle fuel consumption can be obtained through a greater control of the thermal status of the engine, especially under partial load conditions. Different systems have been proposed to implement this concept, referred to as improved engine thermal management. The amount of fuel saved depends on the components and layout of the engine cooling plant and on the performance of its control system. In this work, a method was developed to calculate the theoretical minimum fuel consumption of a passenger car and used as a reference in comparing different engine cooling system concepts. A high-medium class car was taken as an example and simulated on standard cycles. Models for power train and cooling system components were developed and linked to simulate the vehicle. A preliminary analysis of the engine was performed using AVL's Boost program. The fuel consumption of the complete vehicle, equipped with a conventional cooling plant, was determined on standard cycles and compared with that of a vehicle equipped with a 'perfect' cooling system, to calculate the theoretical reduction in fuel consumption. - Highlights: → We propose a method for assessing the potential of smart engine thermal management. → A conventional cooling system is compared to a 'perfect' one to estimate fuel economy. → We tested the method in an upper-medium segment passenger car.

  17. Topics in field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Karpilovsky, G

    1989-01-01

    This monograph gives a systematic account of certain important topics pertaining to field theory, including the central ideas, basic results and fundamental methods.Avoiding excessive technical detail, the book is intended for the student who has completed the equivalent of a standard first-year graduate algebra course. Thus it is assumed that the reader is familiar with basic ring-theoretic and group-theoretic concepts. A chapter on algebraic preliminaries is included, as well as a fairly large bibliography of works which are either directly relevant to the text or offer supplementary material of interest.

  18. Topics in CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, H.R.

    1993-02-01

    Given the varied backgrounds of the members of this audience this talk will be a grab bag of topics related to the general theme of CP Violation. I do not have time to dwell in detail on any of them. First, for the astronomers and astrophysicists among you, I want to begin by reviewing the experimental status of evidence for CP violation in particle processes. There is only one system where this has been observed, and that is in the decays of neutral K mesons

  19. Topics in Nonlinear Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Erik

    Through a significant number of detailed and realistic examples this book illustrates how the insights gained over the past couple of decades in the fields of nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory can be applied in practice. Aomng the topics considered are microbiological reaction systems, ecological...... food-web systems, nephron pressure and flow regulation, pulsatile secretion of hormones, thermostatically controlled radiator systems, post-stall maneuvering of aircrafts, transfer electron devices for microwave generation, economic long waves, human decision making behavior, and pattern formation...... in chemical reaction-diffusion systems....

  20. Topics in CP violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, H. R.

    1993-02-01

    Given the varied backgrounds of the members of this audience this talk will be a grab bag of topics related to the general theme of CP Violation. I do not have time to dwell in detail on any of them. First, for the astronomers and astrophysicists among you, I want to begin by reviewing the experimental status of evidence for CP violation in particle processes. There is only one system where this has been observed, and that is in the decays of neutral K mesons.

  1. Topics in Operator Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Joseph A; Helton, JWilliam; Rodman, Leiba; Spitkovsky, Iiya

    2010-01-01

    This is the first volume of a collection of original and review articles on recent advances and new directions in a multifaceted and interconnected area of mathematics and its applications. It encompasses many topics in theoretical developments in operator theory and its diverse applications in applied mathematics, physics, engineering, and other disciplines. The purpose is to bring in one volume many important original results of cutting edge research as well as authoritative review of recent achievements, challenges, and future directions in the area of operator theory and its applications.

  2. Neural Network approach to assess the thermal affected zone around the injection well in a groundwater heat pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Russo, Stefano; Taddia, Glenda; Verda, Vittorio

    2014-05-01

    The common use of well doublets for groundwater-sourced heating or cooling results in a thermal plume of colder or warmer re-injected groundwater known as the Thermal Affected Zone(TAZ). The plumes may be regarded either as a potential anthropogenic geothermal resource or as pollution, depending on downstream aquifer usage. A fundamental aspect in groundwater heat pump (GWHP) plant design is the correct evaluation of the thermally affected zone that develops around the injection well. Temperature anomalies are detected through numerical methods. Crucial elements in the process of thermal impact assessment are the sizes of installations, their position, the heating/cooling load of the building, and the temperature drop/increase imposed on the re-injected water flow. For multiple-well schemes, heterogeneous aquifers, or variable heating and cooling loads, numerical models that simulate groundwater and heat transport are needed. These tools should consider numerous scenarios obtained considering different heating/cooling loads, positions, and operating modes. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models are widely used in this field because they offer the opportunity to calculate the time evolution of the thermal plume produced by a heat pump, depending on the characteristics of the subsurface and the heat pump. Nevertheless, these models require large computational efforts, and therefore their use may be limited to a reasonable number of scenarios. Neural networks could represent an alternative to CFD for assessing the TAZ under different scenarios referring to a specific site. The use of neural networks is proposed to determine the time evolution of the groundwater temperature downstream of an installation as a function of the possible utilization profiles of the heat pump. The main advantage of neural network modeling is the possibility of evaluating a large number of scenarios in a very short time, which is very useful for the preliminary analysis of future multiple

  3. Assessing the impact of primary measures for NOx reduction on the thermal power plant steam boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stupar, Goran; Tucaković, Dragan; Živanović, Titoslav; Belošević, Srdjan

    2015-01-01

    The European normatives prescribe content of 200 mg/Nm 3 NO x for pulverized coal combusting power plants. In order to reduce content of NO x in Serbian thermal power plant (TPP) 'Kostolac B' it's necessary to implement particular measures until 2016. The mathematical model of lignite combustion in the steam boiler furnace is defined and applied to analyze the possibility of implementing certain primary measures for reducing nitrogen oxides and their effects on the steam boiler operation. This model includes processes in the coal-fired furnace and defines radiating reactive two-phase turbulent flow. The model of turbulent flow also contains sub-model of fuel and thermal NO x formation and destruction. This complex mathematical model is related to thermal and aerodynamic calculations of the steam boiler within a unified calculation system in order to analyze the steam boiler overall work. This system provides calculations with a number of influential parameters. The steam boiler calculations for unit 1 (350 MWe) of TPP 'Kostolac B' are implemented for existing and modified combustion system in order to achieve effective, reliable and ecological facility work. The paper presents the influence analysis of large number of parameters on the steam boiler operation with an accepted concept of primary measures. Presented system of calculations is verified against measurements in TPP 'Kostolac B'. - Highlights: • Modern steam boilers need to operate according to ecological standards. • Possibility of applying some of the primary measures of NO x reduction. • Conventional calculations have no possibility to estimate sub-stoichiometric combustion. • Develop a new method of connecting the calculations. • Analysis shows the most favorable operation boiler regime (efficiency and ecology)

  4. Contribution to the assessment of thermal ageing of stainless steel castings and welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zdarek, J.; Novak, J.

    1992-01-01

    Indentation tests are considered for measuring and verifying of thermal ageing of stainless steel castings and welds in service. Therefore, relations between indentation- and tensile diagrams were analyzed. Conventional tensile characteristics, deduced from the indentation diagram, should be used for fracture toughness prediction. Form of correlation of yield stress and tensile strength on one side and of fracture toughness on the other side was proposed, which is specific for austenitic-ferritic two-phase materials. Properties of castings and welds were compared and analyzed within the framework of a mesomechanical homogenization model with micromechanical effect of geometric slip distance. (author)

  5. Topics on continua

    CERN Document Server

    Macias, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Specialized as it might be, continuum theory is one of the most intriguing areas in mathematics. However, despite being popular journal fare, few books have thoroughly explored this interesting aspect of topology. In Topics on Continua, Sergio Macías, one of the field's leading scholars, presents four of his favorite continuum topics: inverse limits, Jones's set function T, homogenous continua, and n-fold hyperspaces, and in doing so, presents the most complete set of theorems and proofs ever contained in a single topology volume. Many of the results presented have previously appeared only in research papers, and some appear here for the first time. After building the requisite background and exploring the inverse limits of continua, the discussions focus on Professor Jones''s set function T and continua for which T is continuous. An introduction to topological groups and group actions lead to a proof of Effros''s Theorem, followed by a presentation of two decomposition theorems. The author then offers an...

  6. From thermal boredom to thermal pleasure: a brief literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christhina Candido

    Full Text Available The most recent review of the ASHRAE Standard 55 (2010 incorporates the dialectic between static and adaptive approaches to thermal comfort by proposing different recommendations for airconditioned and naturally ventilated buildings. Particularly in naturally ventilated buildings, this standard aligns with three important topics in research field of thermal comfort during the last decades: (i air movement enhancement versus draft, (ii control availability and its impact on occupants' satisfaction, and (iii the search for thermal pleasure. This paper presents the rationale behind these three research topics and discusses its positive influence when moving from thermal comfort towards thermal pleasure.

  7. IR thermography for the assessment of the thermal conductivity of aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarov, S.; Rossi, S.; Bison, P.; Calliari, I.

    2017-05-01

    Aluminium alloys are here considered as a structural material for aerospace applications, guaranteeing lightness and strength at the same time. As aluminium alone is not particularly performing from a mechanical point of view, in this experimental solution it is produced as an alloy with Lithium added at 6 % in weight. To increase furtherly the strength of the material, two new alloys are produced by adding 0.5 % in weight of the rare earth elements Neodymium (Nd) and Yttrium (Y). The improvement of the mechanical properties is measured by means of hardness tests. At the same time the thermophysical properties are measured as well, at various temperature, from 80 °C to 500 °C. Thermal diffusivity is measured by Laser Flash equipment in vacuum. One possible drawback of the Al-Li alloy produced at so high percentage of Li (6 %) is an essential anisotropy that is evaluated by IR thermography thank to its imaging properties that allows to measure simultaneously both the in-plane and through-depth thermal diffusivity.

  8. Low temperature thermal ageing embrittlement of austenitic stainless steel welds and its electrochemical assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, K.; Kain, Vivekanand; Raja, V.S.; Tewari, R.; Dey, G.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Embrittlement study of austenitic stainless steel welds after ageing up to 20,000 h. ► Spinodal decomposition and G-phase precipitation in ferrite at 400 °C. ► Spinodal decomposition of ferrite at 335 and 365 °C. ► Large decrease in corrosion resistance due to G-phase precipitation. ► Good correlation between electrochemical properties and the degree of embrittlement. - Abstract: The low temperature thermal ageing embrittlement of austenitic stainless steel welds is investigated after ageing up to 20,000 h at 335, 365 and 400 °C. Spinodal decomposition and G-phase precipitation after thermal ageing were identified by transmission electron microscopy. Ageing led to increase in hardness of the ferrite phase while there was no change in the hardness of austenite. The degree of embrittlement was evaluated by non-destructive methods, e.g., double-loop and single-loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation tests. A good correlation was obtained between the electrochemical properties and hardening of the ferrite phase of the aged materials.

  9. Air quality overview assessment of thermal power generation in Vancouver, BC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caton, R.B.; Brotherston, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    B.C. Hydro is preparing a 25 year utilization plan for Burrard Thermal Generating Plant, a 900 MW natural gas fired steam boiler facility near Vancouver. Historical emissions from the plant and ambient air quality in the region were reviewed to place plant operations in context of the technological modifications which have been made over the past 10 years. Environmental effects criteria and regulatory developments which may constrain planning were reviewed and evaluated. Unit emission rates at Burrard have been reduced by 40% since 1989, by extensive combustion modifications, to ca 40 ng/J of NOx. Nevertheless, anticipated regulatory requirements of emissions reductions nationally and in the Vancouver region will necessitate further reductions, or equivalent strategies, over the next ten years. The findings of the Burrard Thermal air quality review are summarized, including historical emissions in the Lower Mainland, transport and transformation of oxidants and acidic deposition, human health impacts, and vegetation impacts. The difficulties that arise in evaluating the imapct of an isolated source of NOx in an urban area are discussed. 30 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  10. Laser circular cutting of Kevlar sheets: Analysis of thermal stress filed and assessment of cutting geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Akhtar, S. S.; Karatas, C.

    2017-11-01

    A Kevlar laminate has negative thermal expansion coefficient, which makes it difficult to machine at room temperaures using the conventional cutting tools. Contararily, laser machining of a Kevlar laminate provides advantages over the conventional methods because of the non-mechanical contact between the cutting tool and the workpiece. In the present study, laser circular cutting of Kevlar laminate is considered. The experiment is carried out to examine and evaluate the cutting sections. Temperature and stress fields formed in the cutting section are simulated in line with the experimental study. The influence of hole diameters on temperature and stress fields are investigated incorporating two different hole diameters. It is found that the Kevlar laminate cutting section is free from large size asperities such as large scale sideways burnings and attachemnt of charred residues. The maximum temperature along the cutting circumference remains higher for the large diameter hole than that of the small diameter hole. Temperature decay is sharp around the cutting section in the region where the cutting terminates. This, in turn, results in high temperature gradients and the thermal strain in the cutting region. von Mises stress remains high in the region where temperature gradients are high. von Mises stress follows similar to the trend of temperature decay around the cutting edges.

  11. Assessment of increased thermal activity at Mount Baker, Washington, March 1975-March 1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, David; Meier, Mark Frederick; Swanson, Donald A.; with contributions by Babcock, James W.; Fretwell, Marvin O.; Malone, Stephen D.; Rosenfeld, Charles L.; Shreve, Ronald L.; Wilcox, Ray E.

    1977-01-01

    In March 1975 Mount Baker showed a large increase in thermal emission, which has persisted for more than 1 year. Fumarole ejecta accompanied the thermal activity from March to September, but the ejecta had no constituents that suggest a magmatic source. Estimates of that part of the total heat flux that would account for the observed snow and ice loss show that the heat-flow increase was roughly one order of magnitude, from about 2 megawatts at 10 watts per square meter, averaged over Sherman Crater before 1975, to about 30 megawatts at 180 watts per square meter, during 1975. Almost half of the glacier that occupied the basin of Sherman Crater was melted in 1975. The new activity generated great concern among the public and the government agencies responsible for geological evaluation of potential hazards and for protection of life and property. The past geologic history, current topography, rock alteration, and location of major fumarolic activity indicate that large rock avalanches and mudflows on the east slope in Boulder Creek valley are the potential hazards of most significance related to present conditions. The most probable types of large mass movements would be mudflows, having speeds of as much as 50 kilometers per hour, that would originate from mixtures of snow, ice, and melt water and avalanches of structurally weak clay-rich rocks that make up the rim of Sherman Crater. Similar mudflows from the volcano have traveled at least 12 kilometers 8 times during the past 10,000 years. A possible worst case event, however, might be a larger, air-cushioned avalanche of as much as 20 to 30 million cubic meters that could hit Baker Lake at speeds of more than 300 kilometers per hour and generate a wave of water large enough to overtop Upper Baker Dam. At least 30 million cubic meters of potentially unstable material occurs as hydrothermally altered remnants of the rim of Sherman Crater and could provide the required volume for the estimated worst case event or

  12. A research needs assessment for the capture, utilization and disposal of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel-fired power plants. Volume 2, Topical reports: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    This study, identifies and assesses system approaches in order to prioritize research needs for the capture and non-atmospheric sequestering of a significant portion of the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emitted from fossil fuel-fired electric power plants (US power plants presently produce about 7% of the world`s CO{sub 2} emissions). The study considers capture technologies applicable either to existing plants or to those that optimistically might be demonstrated on a commercial scale over the next twenty years. The research needs that have high priority in establishing the technical, environmental, and economic feasibility of large-scale capture and disposal of CO{sub 2} from electric power plants are:(1) survey and assess the capacity, cost, and location of potential depleted gas and oil wells that are suitable CO{sub 2} repositories (with the cooperation of the oil and gas industry); (2) conduct research on the feasibility of ocean disposal, with objectives of determining the cost, residence time, and environmental effects for different methods of CO{sub 2} injection; (3) perform an in-depth survey of knowledge concerning the feasibility of using deep, confined aquifers for disposal and, if feasible, identify potential disposal locations (with the cooperation of the oil and gas industry); (4) evaluate, on a common basis, system and design alternatives for integration of CO{sub 2} capture systems with emerging and advanced technologies for power generation; and prepare a conceptual design, an analysis of barrier issues, and a preliminary cost estimate for pipeline networks necessary to transport a significant portion of the CO{sub 2} to potentially feasible disposal locations.

  13. Changing the Topic. Topic Position in Ancient Greek Word Order

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allan, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    Ancient Greek, topics can be expressed as intra-clausal constituents but they can also precede or follow the main clause as extra-clausal constituents. Together, these various topic expressions constitute a coherent system of complementary pragmatic functions. For a comprehensive account of topic

  14. Applying an overall criterion according to the European norms, for ecological assessment of the thermal electrical power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardu, Mircea; Petrescu, Camelia

    2006-01-01

    This work consists of assessing the thermal power plants impact on the environment by the global considering of the pollutant SO 2 and NO x emissions. This assessment takes into account the emission comparisons with the admissible values provided by the European norms. The conclusion we might draw is that the SN proposed global criterion application, (S from sulfur, namely the sulfur dioxide and N from nitrogen, namely the nitrogen oxides), the investment expenses for installing the necessary SDN and SDS systems (were SDN stands for denox plant and SDS for desulfurization systems), and the operation expenses are smaller (in case of pit coal they are even smaller) if we apply such criterion. The ecologic analysis model we applied as an estimation for large solid fuels categories (lignite, pit coal) and for the 330 MW existing power units, can also be applied to the actual cases for different fuel qualities or unit unitary power levels

  15. CSNI Integral test facility validation matrix for the assessment of thermal-hydraulic codes for LWR LOCA and transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    This report deals with an internationally agreed integral test facility (ITF) matrix for the validation of best estimate thermal-hydraulic computer codes. Firstly, the main physical phenomena that occur during the considered accidents are identified, test types are specified, and test facilities suitable for reproducing these aspects are selected. Secondly, a life of selected experiments carried out in these facilities has been set down. The criteria to achieve the objectives are outlined. The construction of such a matrix is an attempt to collect together in a systematic way the best sets of openly available test data for code validation, assessment and improvement, including quantitative assessment of uncertainties in the modelling of phenomena by the codes. In addition to this objective, it is an attempt to record information which has been generated around the world over the last 20 years so that it is more accessible to present and future workers in that field than would otherwise be the case

  16. Integrated assessment of thermal hydraulic processes in W7-X fusion experimental facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaliatka, T., E-mail: tadas.kaliatka@lei.lt; Uspuras, E.; Kaliatka, A.

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • The model of Ingress of Coolant Event experiment facility was developed using the RELAP5 code. • Calculation results were compared with Ingress of Coolant Event experiment data. • Using gained experience, the numerical model of Wendelstein 7-X facility was developed. • Performed analysis approved pressure increase protection system for LOCA event. - Abstract: Energy received from the nuclear fusion reaction is one of the most promising options for generating large amounts of carbon-free energy in the future. However, physical and technical problems existing in this technology are complicated. Several experimental nuclear fusion devices around the world have already been constructed, and several are under construction. However, the processes in the cooling system of the in-vessel components, vacuum vessel and pressure increase protection system of nuclear fusion devices are not widely studied. The largest amount of radioactive materials is concentrated in the vacuum vessel of the fusion device. Vacuum vessel is designed for the vacuum conditions inside the vessel. Rupture of the in-vessel components of the cooling system pipe may lead to a sharp pressure increase and possible damage of the vacuum vessel. To prevent the overpressure, the pressure increase protection system should be designed and implemented. Therefore, systematic and detailed experimental and numerical studies, regarding the thermal-hydraulic processes in cooling system, vacuum vessel and pressure increase protection system, are important and relevant. In this article, the numerical investigation of thermal-hydraulic processes in cooling systems of in-vessel components, vacuum vessels and pressure increase protection system of fusion devices is presented. Using the experience gained from the modelling of “Ingress of Coolant Event” experimental facilities, the numerical model of Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) experimental fusion device was developed. The integrated analysis of the

  17. Topics in atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burkhardt, Charles E

    2006-01-01

    The study of atomic physics propelled us into the quantum age in the early twentieth century and carried us into the twenty-first century with a wealth of new and, in some cases, unexplained phenomena. Topics in Atomic Physics provides a foundation for students to begin research in modern atomic physics. It can also serve as a reference because it contains material that is not easily located in other sources. A distinguishing feature is the thorough exposition of the quantum mechanical hydrogen atom using both the traditional formulation and an alternative treatment not usually found in textbooks. The alternative treatment exploits the preeminent nature of the pure Coulomb potential and places the Lenz vector operator on an equal footing with other operators corresponding to classically conserved quantities. A number of difficult to find proofs and derivations are included as is development of operator formalism that permits facile solution of the Stark effect in hydrogen. Discussion of the classical hydrogen...

  18. Topics in mathematical biology

    CERN Document Server

    Hadeler, Karl Peter

    2017-01-01

    This book analyzes the impact of quiescent phases on biological models. Quiescence arises, for example, when moving individuals stop moving, hunting predators take a rest, infected individuals are isolated, or cells enter the quiescent compartment of the cell cycle. In the first chapter of Topics in Mathematical Biology general principles about coupled and quiescent systems are derived, including results on shrinking periodic orbits and stabilization of oscillations via quiescence. In subsequent chapters classical biological models are presented in detail and challenged by the introduction of quiescence. These models include delay equations, demographic models, age structured models, Lotka-Volterra systems, replicator systems, genetic models, game theory, Nash equilibria, evolutionary stable strategies, ecological models, epidemiological models, random walks and reaction-diffusion models. In each case we find new and interesting results such as stability of fixed points and/or periodic orbits, excitability...

  19. Topical Acne Treatments and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topical Acne Treatments In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having a baby ... This sheet talks about whether exposure to topical acne treatments may increase the risk for birth defects ...

  20. Symbiosis: Rich, Exciting, Neglected Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Jane Thomas

    1974-01-01

    Argues that the topic of symbiosis has been greatly neglected and underemphasized in general-biology textbooks. Discusses many types and examples of symbiosis, and provides an extensive bibliography of the literature related to this topic. (JR)

  1. Assessments of the thermal evolution for a radioactive waste final repository using analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radut, A. C.; Roman, M. R.; Florea, S.; Ionescu, D. V.; Olteanu, G.; Valeca, S.

    2016-01-01

    In the designing process for a radioactive final repository concept, the temperature evolution over time is a significant issue for the stability and long-term safety of entire emplacement. In particular, the maximum value of temperature in the whole structure, during time, must not exceed a certain safety value which depends, beside other criteria, on the bulk material of the repository. A computer code TEMPROC, based on analytical model for the transient thermal heat conduction, described in this paper, was developed inside ''Fuel Performance''Department from ICN Pitesti, in order to evaluate the waste repository's temperature distribution. The program was developed under ''Microsoft FORTRAN Power Station''platform that provides IMSL subroutines library support for numeric algorithm. So the program is relative small, with a good calculus speed. The numerical results obtained with TEMPROC computer code, have been acceptably compared with similar existing data from scientific literature [1]. (authors)

  2. An assessment of testing requirement impacts on nuclear thermal propulsion ground test facility design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipers, L.R.; Ottinger, C.A.; Sanchez, L.C.

    1993-01-01

    Programs to develop solid core nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems have been under way at the Department of Defense (DoD), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the Department of Energy (DOE). These programs have recognized the need for a new ground test facility to support development of NTP systems. However, the different military and civilian applications have led to different ground test facility requirements. The Department of Energy (DOE) in its role as landlord and operator of the proposed research reactor test facilities has initiated an effort to explore opportunities for a common ground test facility to meet both DoD and NASA needs. The baseline design and operating limits of the proposed DoD NTP ground test facility are described. The NASA ground test facility requirements are reviewed and their potential impact on the DoD facility baseline is discussed

  3. Assessment of the reference stress method for combined tensile bending and thermal loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philipp, A.; Munz, D.

    1984-01-01

    The reference stress method has been investigated for combined tensile, bending and thermal loading by considering a uniformly bent beam subjected to superimposed tensile stress and lateral temperature gradients. The creep deformation of the beam can be calculated numerically applying a Norton-type creep law. It turns out that the ratio of curvature rate to strain at the outer fiber depends on the creep exponent. Therefore, the reference stresses for these two quantities must be expected to be different in general. In most load cases, however, it is possible to determine a reference stress which can be used to describe the complete deformation of the beam. The only exception is the case of high tensile loading if the side exposed to higher tensile stress is cooler. Approximate solutions for the reference stress which rely on elastic and limit analyses, can be used only for estimates because they lead to extremely non-conservative predictions. (author)

  4. Plasma Turbulence General Topics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadomtsev, B. B. [Nuclear Energy Institute, Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow, USSR (Russian Federation)

    1965-06-15

    It is known that under experimental conditions plasma often shows chaotic motion. Such motion, when many degrees of freedom are excited to levels considerably above the thermal level, will be called turbulent. The properties of turbulent plasma in many respects differ from the properties of laminar plasma. It can be said that the appearance of various anomalies in plasma behaviour indicates the presence of turbulence in plasma. In order to verify directly the presence of turbulent motion in plasma we must, however, measure the fluctuation of some microscopic parameters in plasma.

  5. Assessment of the ''thermal normalization technique'' for measurement of neutron cross sections vs energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peelle, R.W.; de Sassure, G.

    1977-01-01

    Refined knowledge of the thermal neutron cross sections of the fissile nuclides and of the (n,α) reaction standards, together with the reasonably well known energy dependence of the latter, have permitted resonance-region and low-keV fissile nuclide cross sections to be based on these standards together with count-rate ratios observed as a function of energy using a pulsed ''white'' source. As one evaluates cross sections for energies above 20 keV, optimum results require combination of cross section shape measurements with all available absolute measurements. The assumptions of the ''thermal normalization method'' are reviewed, and an opinion is given of the status of some of the standards required for its use. The complications which may limit the accuracy of results using the method are listed and examples are given. For the 235 U(n,f) cross section, the option is discussed of defining resonance-region fission integrals as standards. The area of the approximately 9 eV resonances in this nuclide may be known to one percent accuracy, but at present the fission integral from 0.1 to 1.0 keV is known to no better than about two percent. This uncertainty is based on the scatter among independent results, and has not been reduced by the most recent measurements. This uncertainty now limits the accuracy attainable for the 235 U(n,f) cross section below about 50 keV. Suggestions are given to indicate how future detailed work might overcome past sources of error

  6. Assessment of the Potential to Reduce Emissions from Road Transportation, Notably NOx, Through the Use of Alternative Vehicles and Fuels in the Great Smoky Mountains Region; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, J.

    2001-01-01

    Air pollution is a serious problem in the region of the Great Smoky Mountains. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) may designate non-attainment areas by 2003 for ozone. Pollutants include nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO(sub 2)), carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), lead, and particulate matter (PM), which are health hazards, damage the environment, and limit visibility. The main contributors to this pollution are industry, transportation, and utilities. Reductions from all contributors are needed to correct this problem. While improvements are projected in each sector over the next decades, the May 2000 Interim Report issued by the Southern Appalachian Mountains Initiative (SAMI) suggests that the percentage of NOx emissions from transportation may increase. The conclusions are: (1) It is essential to consider the entire fuel cycle in assessing the benefits, or disadvantages, of an alternative fuel option, i.e., feedstock and fuel production, in addition to vehicle operation; (2) Many improvements to the energy efficiency of a particular vehicle and engine combination will also reduce emissions by reducing fuel use, e.g., engine efficiency, reduced weight, drag and tire friction, and regenerative braking; (3) In reducing emissions it will be important to install the infrastructure to provide the improved fuels, support the maintenance of advanced vehicles, and provide emissions testing of both local vehicles and those from out of state; (4) Public transit systems using lower emission vehicles can play an important role in reducing emissions per passenger mile by carrying passengers more efficiently, particularly in congested areas. However, analysis is required for each situation; (5) Any reduction in emissions will be welcome, but the problems of air pollution in our region will not be solved by a few modest improvements. Substantial reductions in emissions of key pollutants are required both in East Tennessee and in

  7. Prospects for the establishment of plutonium recycle in thermal reactors in the Foratom countries. Status and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, A.; Melches, C.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reviews the technical status of plutonium recycle in thermal reactors in the Foratom countries and assesses the prospect for it becoming established in the future with the implicit assumptions that uranium oxide reprocessing capacity will be installed commensurate with the projected programmes for thermal reactor installation and that there will be no insuperable environmental, security or safeguards obstacles to the use of plutonium as a fuel. It is argued that the feasibility of using plutonium as an alternative to 235 U as the fuel for thermal reactors, particularly LWRs, has been extensively demonstrated by a number of Foratom countries and the main problem areas are fuel fabrication and fuel reprocessing. Mixed-oxide fuel fabrication has been well established on the prototype plant scale using low-irradiation plutonium, but it is recognized that the future design of production-scale plants will need to cater for the significantly higher radiation levels from high burnup plutonium and meet stricter environmental requirements on operator dosage and waste arisings. The main constraint on the establishment of recycle up to now has been the lack of available plutonium owing to the absence of significant uranium-oxide fuel reprocessing capacity. An assessment of the plutonium arisings in Europe, based on the projected uranium-oxide reprocessing capacity, shows that by 1990 plutonium, surplus to FBR requirements, should be accumulating by about 10t/a, sufficient to fuel about 8000MW(e) of LWRs. A further constraint would then be the availability and technical problems of mixed-oxide reprocessing, which is one of the areas identified for international collaboration. It is concluded that whilst there is unlikely to be substantial recycle of plutonium in thermal reactors in the Foratom countries before the early 1990s, an incentive could possibly arise about that time. The strength of this incentive will depend on a number of factors including the status of

  8. Topical tacrolimus for atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cury Martins, Jade; Martins, Ciro; Aoki, Valeria; Gois, Aecio F T; Ishii, Henrique A; da Silva, Edina M K

    2015-07-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) (or atopic eczema) is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that affects children and adults and has an important impact on quality of life. Topical corticosteroids (TCS) are the first-line therapy for this condition; however, they can be associated with significant adverse effects when used chronically. Tacrolimus ointment (in its 2 manufactured strengths of 0.1% and 0.03%) might be an alternative treatment. Tacrolimus, together with pimecrolimus, are drugs called topical calcineurin inhibitors (TCIs). To assess the efficacy and safety of topical tacrolimus for moderate and severe atopic dermatitis compared with other active treatments. We searched the following databases up to 3 June 2015: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL in the Cochrane Library (Issue 5, 2015), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974), LILACS (from 1982), and the Global Resource of Eczema Trials (GREAT database). We searched six trials registers and checked the bibliographies of included studies for further references to relevant trials. We contacted specialists in the field for unpublished data.A separate search for adverse effects of topical tacrolimus was undertaken in MEDLINE and EMBASE on 30 July 2013. We also scrutinised the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) websites for adverse effects information. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of participants with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (both children and adults) using topical tacrolimus at any dose, course duration, and follow-up time compared with other active treatments. Two authors independently screened and examined the full text of selected studies for compliance with eligibility criteria, risk of bias, and data extraction. Our three prespecified primary outcomes were physician's assessment, participant's self-assessment of improvement, and adverse effects. Our secondary outcomes included assessment of improvement of the disease by validated or objective measures, such as

  9. Pressurized thermal shock in nuclear power plants: Good practices for assessment. Deterministic evaluation for the integrity of reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-02-01

    Starting in the early 1970s, a series of coordinated research projects (CRPs) was sponsored by the IAEA focusing on the effects of neutron radiation on reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels and RPV integrity. In conjunction with these CRPs, many consultants meetings, specialists meetings, and international conferences, dating back to the mid-1960s, were held. Individual studies on the basic phenomena of radiation hardening and embrittlement were also performed to better understand increases in tensile strength and shifts to higher temperatures for the integrity of the RPV. The overall objective of this CRP was to perform benchmark deterministic calculations of a typical pressurized thermal shock (PTS) regime, with the aim of comparing the effects of individual parameters on the final RPV integrity assessment, and then to recommend the best practices for their implementation in PTS procedures. At present, several different procedures and approaches are used for RPV integrity assessment for both WWER 440-230 reactors and pressurized water reactors (PWRs). These differences in procedures and approaches are based, in principle, on the different codes and rules used for design and manufacturing, and the different materials used for the various types of reactor, and the different levels of implementation of recent developments in fracture mechanics. Benchmark calculations were performed to improve user qualification and to reduce the user effect on the results of the analysis. This addressed generic PWR and WWER types of RPV, as well as sensitivity analyses. The complementary sensitivity analyses showed that the following factors significantly influenced the assessment: flaw size, shape, location and orientation, thermal hydraulic assumptions and material toughness. Applying national codes and procedures to the benchmark cases produced significantly different results in terms of allowable material toughness. This was mainly related to the safety factors used and the

  10. Assessment of thermal shock induced damage in silicon carbide fibre reinforced glass matrix composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boccaccini, A. R.

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of microstructural damage in silicon carbide fibre (Nicalon™ reinforced glass matrix composite samples subjected to thermal shock was investigated by using a nondestructive forced resonance technique and fibre push out indentation tests. Thermal shock testing involved quenching samples in a water bath maintained at room temperature from a high temperature (650ºC. Changes in the Young's modulus and internal friction of the samples with increasing number of shocks were measured accurately by the forced resonance technique. Fibre push-out tests showed no significant changes in the properties of the fibre-matrix interface, indicating that damage in the composite was concentrated mainly in the development of matrix microcracking. It was also shown that the internal friction is a very sensitive parameter by which to detect the onset and development of such microcracking. A simple semi-empirical model is proposed to correlate the internal friction level with the microcracking density in the glass matrix. Finally, the relevance of detecting nondestructively the existence of microcracks in the glass matrix, before any significant interfacial degradation occurs, is emphasized, in conextion with the possibility of inducing a crack healing process by a thermal treatment (annealing, taking advantage of the viscous flow properties of the glass.

    El desarrollo de daño microestructural en materiales compuestos de matriz de vidrio reforzados con fibras de carburo de silicio (Nicalon™ sometidos a choque térmico fue investigado mediante la técnica no-destructiva de resonancia forzada y por mediciones de indentación "push-out" de fibras. Los ensayos de choque térmico involucraron el enfriamiento brusco en un baño de agua a temperatura ambiente de las piezas previamente calentadas a una temperatura elevada (650ºC. La técnica de resonancia forzada permitió medir cambios en el módulo de Young de elasticidad y en la fricci

  11. HTR fuel modelling with the ATLAS code. Thermal mechanical behaviour and fission product release assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillermier, Pierre; Daniel, Lucile; Gauthier, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    To support AREVA NP in its design on HTR reactor and its HTR fuel R and D program, the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique developed the ATLAS code (Advanced Thermal mechanicaL Analysis Software) with the objectives: - to quantify, with a statistical approach, the failed particle fraction and fission product release of a HTR fuel core under normal and accidental conditions (compact or pebble design). - to simulate irradiation tests or benchmark in order to compare measurements or others code results with ATLAS evaluation. These two objectives aim at qualifying the code in order to predict fuel behaviour and to design fuel according to core performance and safety requirements. A statistical calculation uses numerous deterministic calculations. The finite element method is used for these deterministic calculations, in order to be able to choose among three types of meshes, depending on what must be simulated: - One-dimensional calculation of one single particle, for intact particles or particles with fully debonded layers. - Two-dimensional calculations of one single particle, in the case of particles which are cracked, partially debonded or shaped in various ways. - Three-dimensional calculations of a whole compact slice, in order to simulate the interactions between the particles, the thermal gradient and the transport of fission products up to the coolant. - Some calculations of a whole pebble, using homogenization methods are being studied. The temperatures, displacements, stresses, strains and fission product concentrations are calculated on each mesh of the model. Statistical calculations are done using these results, taking into account ceramic failure mode, but also fabrication tolerances and material property uncertainties, variations of the loads (fluence, temperature, burn-up) and core data parameters. The statistical method used in ATLAS is the importance sampling. The model of migration of long-lived fission products in the coated particle and more

  12. Techno-Economic Assessment of Heat Transfer Fluid Buffering for Thermal Energy Storage in the Solar Field of Parabolic Trough Solar Thermal Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge M. Llamas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, operating parabolic trough (PT solar thermal power plants, either solar-only or with thermal storage block, use the solar field as a heat transfer fluid (HTF thermal storage system to provide extra thermal capacity when it is needed. This is done by circulating heat transfer fluid into the solar field piping in order to create a heat fluid buffer. In the same way, by oversizing the solar field, it can work as an alternative thermal energy storage (TES system to the traditionally applied methods. This paper presents a solar field TES model for a standard solar field from a 50-MWe solar power plant. An oversized solar model is analyzed to increase the capacity storage system (HTF buffering. A mathematical model has been developed and different simulations have been carried out over a cycle of one year with six different solar multiples considered to represent the different oversized solar field configurations. Annual electricity generation and levelized cost of energy (LCOE are calculated to find the solar multiple (SM which makes the highest solar field thermal storage capacity possible within the minimum LCOE.

  13. Development of concepts for the management of thermal resources in urban areas - Assessment of transferability from the Basel (Switzerland) and Zaragoza (Spain) case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epting, Jannis; García-Gil, Alejandro; Huggenberger, Peter; Vázquez-Suñe, Enric; Mueller, Matthias H.

    2017-05-01

    The shallow subsurface in urban areas is increasingly used by shallow geothermal energy systems as a renewable energy resource and as a cheap cooling medium, e.g. for building air conditioning. In combination with further anthropogenic activities, this results in altered thermal regimes in the subsurface and the so-called subsurface urban heat island effect. Successful thermal management of urban groundwater resources requires understanding the relative contributions of the different thermal parameters and boundary conditions that result in the "present thermal state" of individual urban groundwater bodies. To evaluate the "present thermal state" of urban groundwater bodies, good quality data are required to characterize the hydraulic and thermal aquifer parameters. This process also involved adequate monitoring systems which provide consistent subsurface temperature measurements and are the basis for parameterizing numerical heat-transport models. This study is based on previous work already published for two urban groundwater bodies in Basel (CH) and Zaragoza (ES), where comprehensive monitoring networks (hydraulics and temperature) as well as calibrated high-resolution numerical flow- and heat-transport models have been analyzed. The "present thermal state" and how it developed according to the different hydraulic and thermal boundary conditions is compared to a "potential natural state" in order to assess the anthropogenic thermal changes that have already occurred in the urban groundwater bodies we investigated. This comparison allows us to describe the various processes concerning groundwater flow and thermal regimes for the different urban settings. Furthermore, the results facilitate defining goals for specific aquifer regions, including future aquifer use and urbanization, as well as evaluating the thermal use potential for these regions. As one example for a more sustainable thermal use of subsurface water resources, we introduce the thermal management

  14. Initial risk assessment for a single stage to orbit nuclear thermal rocket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labib, Satira, E-mail: Satira.Labib@duke-energy.com; King, Jeffrey, E-mail: kingjc@mines.edu

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • The risks posed by the surface launch of a nuclear thermal rocket are considered. • Radiation exposure at the public viewing distance is insignificant. • Production of fission products and actinides during launch is limited. • The production of activated argon around the rocket may be a significant concern. - Abstract: In order to consider the possibility of a nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) ground launch, it is necessary to evaluate the risks from such a launch. This includes analysis of the radiation dose rate around the rocket, determining the rate of activation of the materials near the launch, and considering the radionuclides present in the core after the launch. This paper evaluates the potential risk of the NTR ground launch for a range of payloads from 1 to 15 metric tons (MT) using three NTR reactor cores (40, 80, and 120 cm in length) designed in a previous study, based on data produced by MCNP5 and MCNPX models. At the same power level, the 40 cm core length reactor results in the lowest radiation dose rate of the three reactors. Radiation dose rates decrease to background levels 3.5 km from the launch site. After a 1-year decay time, all of the activated materials produced by an NTR launch would be classified as Class A low-level waste. The activation of air produces significant amounts of argon-41 and nitrogen-16 within 100 m of the launch. The derived air concentration (DAC) ratio of the activation products decays to less than unity within 2 days, with only argon-41 remaining. After 10 min of full power operation, the 120 cm core for a 15 MT payload contains 2.5 × 10{sup 13}, 1.4 × 10{sup 12} and 1.5 × 10{sup 12} Bq of {sup 131}I, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 90}Sr, respectively. The decay heat after shutdown increases with increasing reactor power with a maximum decay heat of 108 kW immediately after shutdown for the 15 MT payload.

  15. Efficient STEP (solar thermal electrochemical photo) production of hydrogen - an economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licht, Stuart [Department of Chemistry, George Washington University, Ashburn, VA 20147 (United States); Solar Institute, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Chitayat, Olivia; Bergmann, Harry; Dick, Andrew; Ayub, Hina [Solar Institute, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Ghosh, Susanta [Department of Chemistry, George Washington University, Ashburn, VA 20147 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan (India)

    2010-10-15

    A consideration of the economic viability of hydrogen fuel production is important in the STEP (Solar Thermal Electrochemical Photo) production of hydrogen fuel. STEP is an innovative way to decrease costs and increase the efficiency of hydrogen fuel production, which is a synergistic process that can use concentrating photovoltaics (CPV) and solar thermal energy to drive a high temperature, low voltage, electrolysis (water-splitting), resulting in H{sub 2} at decreased energy and higher solar efficiency. This study provides evidence that the STEP system is an economically viable solution for the production of hydrogen. STEP occurs at both higher electrolysis and solar conversion efficiencies than conventional room temperature photovoltaic (PV) generation of hydrogen. This paper probes the economic viability of this process, by comparing four different systems: (1) 10% or (2) 14% flat plate PV driven aqueous alkaline electrolysis H{sub 2} production, (3) 25% CPV driven molten electrolysis H{sub 2} production, and (4) 35% CPV driven solid oxide electrolysis H{sub 2} production. The molten and solid oxide electrolysers are high temperature systems that can make use of light, normally discarded, for heating. This significantly increases system efficiency. Using levelized cost analysis, this study shows significant cost reduction using the STEP system. The total price per kg of hydrogen is shown to decrease from 5.74 to 4.96 to 3.01 to 2.61 with the four alternative systems. The advanced STEP plant requires less than one seventh of the land area of the 10% flat cell plant. To generate the 216 million kg H{sub 2}/year required by 1 million fuel cell vehicles, the 35% CPV driven solid oxide electrolysis requires a plant only 9.6 mi{sup 2} in area. While PV and electrolysis components dominate the cost of conventional PV generated hydrogen, they do not dominate the cost of the STEP-generated hydrogen. The lower cost of STEP hydrogen is driven by residual distribution and

  16. Comparative Assessment of Thermal Performance of Existing Roof System and Retrofitted Green Roof System in Istanbul, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nil TÜRKERİ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban heat islands, temperature increase due to climate change and energy consumption due to high summer cooling load are significant issues in Turkey. International studies indicate that the green roof system serves as an energy efficient building technology. However, the thermal performance of green roofs when exposed to local climate conditions is still unknown in Turkey. A research project is being conducted at Istanbul Technical University, in which part of a low-slope existing roof system was retrofitted as an extensive green roof system and the thermal performances of both the existing roof and green roof were monitored in order to make a comparative assessment. Both the green roof and the existing roof were instrumented to measure the temperature profile within the roof systems and the solar reflectance of the roof surfaces. Local meteorological variables were also measured. Results obtained from the field monitoring revealed the following data. Reflected solar radiation from the green roof surface was slightly higher than from the existing roof surface. This was likely to be due to the fact that the plants had not yet covered the entire soil surface area of the green roof. Plants reduced the amount of heat absorbed by the growing medium during daytime through shading and reduced the surface temperature of the green roof. Ceiling temperatures of rooms under the existing roof and green roof indicated that heat transfer to the room beneath the green roof was reduced as well. The green roof reduced the heat gain due to the thermal mass of the soil. This created a buffer against daily fluctuations in temperature and minimized temperature extremes.

  17. Development of creep damage assessment system for aged thermal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonaka, Isamu [IshikawaJima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Umaki, Hideo [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Nishida, Hidetalca [The Chugoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Hiroshima (Japan); Yamaguchi, Hiroshi [The Chugoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    IHI has developed the Creep Damage Assessment System to identify voids by processing an image observed by a small laser microscope with an advanced image processing technique jointly with Chugoku Electric Power Co., Inc. The result can be obtained immediately on the spot. Application tests of the system at the Unit No.3 boiler of the Kudamatsu Power Station showed good operability, adaptability to the environment, and accuracy. The new system can easily indicate damage conditions in parts during the periodical inspection, allowing rapid maintenance. Time reduction required for assessment and increased reliability of equipment can be also achieved. (orig.)

  18. Development of creep damage assessment system for aged thermal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonaka, Isamu [IshikawaJima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Umaki, Hideo [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Nishida, Hidetalca [The Chugoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Hiroshima (Japan); Yamaguchi, Hiroshi [The Chugoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1999-12-31

    IHI has developed the Creep Damage Assessment System to identify voids by processing an image observed by a small laser microscope with an advanced image processing technique jointly with Chugoku Electric Power Co., Inc. The result can be obtained immediately on the spot. Application tests of the system at the Unit No.3 boiler of the Kudamatsu Power Station showed good operability, adaptability to the environment, and accuracy. The new system can easily indicate damage conditions in parts during the periodical inspection, allowing rapid maintenance. Time reduction required for assessment and increased reliability of equipment can be also achieved. (orig.)

  19. Numerical and experimental assessment of thermal performance of vertical energy piles: An application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Jun; Zhang Xu; Liu Jun; Li Kuishan; Yang Jie

    2008-01-01

    A district space heating and cooling system using geothermal energy from bearing piles was designed in Shanghai and will be installed in two years before 2010. This paper describes the pile-foundation heat exchangers applied in an energy pile system for an actual architectural complex in Shanghai, 30% of whose cooling/heating load was designed to be provided by a ground-source heat pump (GSHP) system using the energy piles. In situ performance tests of heat transfer are carried out to figure out the most efficient type of energy pile and to specify the design of energy pile system. Numerical investigation is also performed to confirm the test results and to demonstrate the medium temperature variations along the pipes. The averaged heat resistance and heat injection rate of different types of energy piles are calculated from the test and numerical results. The effect of pile type, medium flow rate and inlet temperature on thermal performance is separately discussed. From the viewpoint of energy efficiency and adjustability, the W-shaped underground heat exchanger with moderate medium flow rate is finally adopted for the energy pile system

  20. Assessment of urban thermal stress by UTCI – experimental and modelling studies: an example from Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błażejczyk, Krzysztof

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new approach to the study of the spatial variability of heat stress in urban areas. The Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI was applied for this purpose. The spatial variability of UTCI at the local scale was studied using examples of urban areas with different sizes and geographical locations. The experimental research on urban heat stress was conducted in Warsaw. The research covers both differences between UTCI in urban to rural areas as well as the variation of heat stress within small residential districts in Warsaw. We found a very large and significant heat stress gradient between downtown Warsaw and rural stations. Spatial variability of UTCI was also observed in microclimate research. A modelling approach was presented based on examples from Warsaw, a city with a population of almost 2 million, as well as examples from several spa towns with populations of up to 40,000 located in various parts of Poland. GIS analysis (ArcGIS for Desktop and IDRISI was applied for this purpose.

  1. Computational models for thermal-hydraulic assessment of TADSEA and its use for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, L.; Gonzalez, D.; Garcia, C.; Gamez, A.; Garcia, L.; Lira, C. A. B. O.

    2015-01-01

    The Transmutation Advanced Device for Sustainable Energy Applications (TADSEA) is a pebble-bed Accelerator Driven System (ADS) with a graphite-gas configuration, designed for nuclear waste transmutation and for obtaining heat at very high temperatures to produce hydrogen. In previous work, the TADSEA's nuclear core was considered as a porous medium performed with a CFD code and thermal-hydraulic studies of the nuclear core were presented. In this paper, three critical fuel elements groups were defined regarding their position inside the core. In this article, the heat transfer from the fuel to the coolant was analyzed for the three core states during normal operation. The heat transfer inside the spherical fuel elements was also studied with a realistic CFD model of the critical elements groups. During the steady state, no critical elements reached the limit temperature of this type of fuel. Also, it is presented a model built in ANSYS for the simulation and optimization of high- temperature electrolysis using the TADSEA as a heat source. A flow diagram of the electrolysis process with the high temperature electrolyzer as the main component using TADSEA as an energy source is finally proposed and discussed. (Author)

  2. Topics in inflationary cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahajan, S.

    1986-04-01

    Several aspects of inflationary cosmologies are discussed. An introduction to the standard hot big bang cosmological model is reviewed, and some of the problems associated with it are presented. A short review of the proposals for solving the cosmological conundrums of the big bang model is presented. Old and the new inflationary scenarios are discussed and shown to be unacceptable. Some alternative scenarios especially those using supersymmetry are reviewed briefly. A study is given of inflationary models where the same set of fields that breaks supersymmetry is also responsible for inflation. In these models, the scale of supersymmetry breaking is related to the slope of the potential near the origin and can thus be kept low. It is found that a supersymmetry breaking scale of the order of the weak breaking scale. The cosmology obtained from the simplest of such models is discussed in detail and it is shown that there are no particular problems except a low reheating temperature and a violation of the thermal constraint. A possible solution to the thermal constraint problem is given by introducing a second field, and the role played by this second field in the scenario is discussed. An alternative mechanism for the generation of baryon number within the framework of supergravity inflationary models is studied using the gravitational couplings of the heavy fields with the hidden sector (the sector which breaks supersymmetry). This mechanism is applied to two specific models - one with and one without supersymmetry breaking. The baryon to entropy ratio is found to be dependent on parameters which are model dependent. Finally, the effect of direct coupling between the two sectors on results is related, 88 refs., 6 figs

  3. Topics in statistical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elser, V.

    1984-05-01

    This thesis deals with four independent topics in statistical mechanics: (1) the dimer problem is solved exactly for a hexagonal lattice with general boundary using a known generating function from the theory of partitions. It is shown that the leading term in the entropy depends on the shape of the boundary; (2) continuum models of percolation and self-avoiding walks are introduced with the property that their series expansions are sums over linear graphs with intrinsic combinatorial weights and explicit dimension dependence; (3) a constrained SOS model is used to describe the edge of a simple cubic crystal. Low and high temperature results are derived as well as the detailed behavior near the crystal facet; (4) the microscopic model of the lambda-transition involving atomic permutation cycles is reexamined. In particular, a new derivation of the two-component field theory model of the critical behavior is presented. Results for a lattice model originally proposed by Kikuchi are extended with a high temperature series expansion and Monte Carlo simulation. 30 references

  4. Superconcentration and related topics

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Sourav

    2014-01-01

    A certain curious feature of random objects, introduced by the author as “super concentration,” and two related topics, “chaos” and “multiple valleys,” are highlighted in this book. Although super concentration has established itself as a recognized feature in a number of areas of probability theory in the last twenty years (under a variety of names), the author was the first to discover and explore its connections with chaos and multiple valleys. He achieves a substantial degree of simplification and clarity in the presentation of these findings by using the spectral approach. Understanding the fluctuations of random objects is one of the major goals of probability theory and a whole subfield of probability and analysis, called concentration of measure, is devoted to understanding these fluctuations. This subfield offers a range of tools for computing upper bounds on the orders of fluctuations of very complicated random variables. Usually, concentration of measure is useful when more direct prob...

  5. Topics in broken supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, I.H.

    1984-01-01

    Studies on two topics in the framework of broken supersymmetry are presented. Chapter I is a brief introduction in which the motivation and the background of this work are discussed. In Chapter II, the author studies the decay K + → π + γγ in models with spontaneous supersymmetry breaking and find that it is generally suppressed relative to the decay K + → π + anti nu nu of the conventional model, except possibly for a class of models where the scalar quark masses are generated by radiative corrections from a much larger supersymmetry breaking scale. For a small range of scalar quark and photino mass parameters, the cascade decay process K + → π + π 0 → π + γγ will become dominant over the anti nu nu mode. The author also comments on the possibility of probing the neutrino mass through the K + → π + π 0 → π + anti nu nu cascade decay. Chapter III is concerned with the implications of explicit lepton number violating soft operators in a general low energy effective theory with softly broken supersymmetry

  6. Topics in supersymmetric theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemeschansky, D.D.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis discusses four different topics in supersymmetric theories. In the first part models in which supersymmetry is broken by the Fayet-Iliopoulos mechanism are considered. The possibility that scalar quark and lepton masses might arise radiatively in such theories is explored. In the second part supersymmetric grand unified models with a sliding singlet are considered. The author reviews the argument that the sliding singlet does not work in models with large supersymmetry breaking. Then he considers the possibility of using a sliding singlet with low energy supersymmetry breaking. The third part of the thesis deals with the entropy problem of supersymmetric theories. Most supersymmetric models possess a decoupled particle with mass of order 100 GeV which is copiously produced in the early universe and whose decay produces huge amounts of entropy. The author shows how this problem can be avoided in theories in which the hidden sector contains several light fields. In the fourth part effective Lagrangians for supersymmetric theories are studied. The anomalous pion interaction for supersymmetric theories is written down. General properties of this term are studied both on compact and non-compact manifolds

  7. Topics in field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasco, E.S.

    1986-01-01

    This dissertation deals with several topics of field theory. Chapter I is a brief outline of the work presented in the next chapters. In chapter II, the Gauss-Bonnet-Chern theorem for manifolds with boundary is computed using the path integral representation of the Witten index for supersymmetric quantum mechanical systems. In chapter III the action of N = 2 (Poincare) supergravity is obtained in terms of N = 1 superfields. In chapter IV, N = 2 supergravity coupled to the (abelian) vector multiplet is projected into N - 1 superspace. There, the resulting set of constraints is solved in terms of unconstrained prepotential and the action in terms of N = 1 superfields is constructed. In chapter V the set of constraints for N = 2 conformal supergravity is projected into N = 1 superspace and solved in terms of N = 1 conformal supergravity fields a d matter prepotentials. In chapter VI the role of magnetic monopoles in the phase structure of the change one fixed length abelian Higgs model ins the latticer is investigated using analytic and numerical methods. The technique of monopole suppression is used to determine the phase transition lines that are monopole driven. Finally in chapter VII, the role of the charge of the Higgs field in the abelian Higgs model in the lattice is investigated

  8. Advanced verification topics

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Bishnupriya; Hall, Gary; Heaton, Nick; Kashai, Yaron; Khan Neyaz; Kirshenbaum, Zeev; Shneydor, Efrat

    2011-01-01

    The Accellera Universal Verification Methodology (UVM) standard is architected to scale, but verification is growing and in more than just the digital design dimension. It is growing in the SoC dimension to include low-power and mixed-signal and the system integration dimension to include multi-language support and acceleration. These items and others all contribute to the quality of the SOC so the Metric-Driven Verification (MDV) methodology is needed to unify it all into a coherent verification plan. This book is for verification engineers and managers familiar with the UVM and the benefits it brings to digital verification but who also need to tackle specialized tasks. It is also written for the SoC project manager that is tasked with building an efficient worldwide team. While the task continues to become more complex, Advanced Verification Topics describes methodologies outside of the Accellera UVM standard, but that build on it, to provide a way for SoC teams to stay productive and profitable.

  9. Assessment of potential impact of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant thermal effluent on the Watts Bar Reservoir striped bass population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuer, J.H.; McIntosh, D.; Ostrowski, P.; Tomljanovich, D.A.

    1983-11-01

    This report is an assessment of potential adverse impact to striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in Watts Bar Reservoir caused by thermal effluent from operation of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP). The Clinch River arm of Watts Bar Reservoir is occupied by adult striped bass during the warmest months of the year. Concern was raised that operation of the CRBRP, specifically thermal discharges, could conflict with management of striped bass. In all cases examined the thermal plume becomes nearly imperceptible within a short distance from the discharge pipe (about 30 ft [10 m]) compared to river width (about 630 ft [190 m]). Under worst case conditions any presence of the plume in the main channel (opposite side of the river from the discharge) will be confined to the surface layer of the water. An ample portion of river cross sections containing ambient temperature water for passage or residence of adult striped bass will always be available in the vicinity of this thermal effluent. Although a small portion of river cross section would exceed the thermal tolerance of striped bass, the fish would naturally avoid this area and seek out adjacent cooler water. Therefore, it is concluded the CRBRP thermal effluent will not significantly affect the integrity of the striped bass thermal refuge in the Clinch River arm of Watts Bar Reservoir. At this time there is no need to consider alternative diffuser designs and thermal modeling. 8 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  10. Assessment of the Use of Venetian Blinds as Solar Thermal Collectors in Double Skin Facades in Mediterranean Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Velasco

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The global trend on energy integration and building efficiency is making both researchers and building developers look for technical solutions to use facade surfaces for energy harvesting. In this work, the assessment of the thermal performance of a double-skin facade (DSF with a venetian blind-type of structure used as a solar thermal collector by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD is presented. A Venetian blind collector would allow for heat rejection/energy harvesting and exterior views simultaneously and can be easily integrated into the DSF aesthetical design. For the purposes of this study, the modeled facades (south, west, and east-oriented were set to be located in Barcelona (Spain, where large solar gains are a constant condition throughout the year, and such large semi-transparent envelopes lead to interior over-heating in buildings, even during the winter. For the studied facades, both the reductions in radiative heat gains entering the building and the heat recovery in the Venetian blind collector were evaluated for a yearlong operation.

  11. Thermal analysis on parchments I: DSC and TGA combined approach for heat damage assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fessas, D.; Signorelli, M.; Schiraldi, A.

    2006-01-01

    Ancient, new and artificially aged parchments were investigated with both differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TGA). Criteria to define a quantitative ranking of the damage experienced by the bulk collagen of historical parchments were assessed. A damage-related correlation...

  12. Assessment of thermal fatigue damage caused by local fluid temperature fluctuation (part I: characteristics of constraint and stress caused by thermal striation and stratification)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaya, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The source of the membrane constraint due to local temperature fluctuation was shown. • Thermal fatigue that occurred at a mixing tee and branched elbow was analyzed. • Cracking occurrence was reasonably explained by the constraint and stress conditions. - Abstract: This study was aimed at identifying the constraint conditions under local temperature fluctuation by thermal striping at a mixing tee and by thermal stratification at an elbow pipe branched from the main pipe. Numerical and analytical approaches were made to derive the thermal stress and its fluctuation. It was shown that an inhomogeneous temperature distribution in a straight pipe caused thermal stress due to a membrane constraint even if an external membrane constraint did not act on the pipe. Although the membrane constraint increased the mean stress at the mixing tee, it did not contribute to fluctuation of the thermal stress. On the other hand, the membrane constraint played an important role in the fatigue damage accumulation near the stratification layer of the branched elbow. Based on the constraint and stress conditions analyzed, the characteristics of the cracking observed in actual nuclear power plants were reasonably explained. Namely, at the mixing tee, where thermal crazing has been found, the lack of contribution of the membrane constraint to stress fluctuation caused a stress gradient in the thickness direction and arrested crack growth. On the other hand, at the branched elbow, where axial through-wall cracks have been found, the relatively large hoop stress fluctuation was brought about by movement of the stratified layer together with the membrane constraint even under a relatively low frequency of stress fluctuation

  13. Thermal stability of hepatitis E virus assessed by a molecular biological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appel Bernd

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV is a pathogen of emerging concern in industrialized countries. The consumption of wild boar meat has been identified as one risk factor for autochthonous HEV infections. Only limited information is available about thermal stability of HEV, mainly due to the lack of rapid and efficient cell culture systems for measurement of HEV infectivity. Methods A molecular biological method was implemented in order to distinguish disassembled from intact viral particles using RNase treatment followed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The method was applied to a wild boar liver suspension containing HEV genotype 3. Results Time-course analyses indicated that the decline of protected RNA could be described by a biphasic model with an initial decrease followed by a stationary phase. The stationary phase was reached after 1 hour at 4°C, 3 days at 22°C and 7 days at 37°C with log reductions of 0.34, 0.45 and 1.24, respectively. Protected RNA was detectable until the end of the experiments at day 50 or 70. Heat exposure for 1 minute resulted in a log reduction of 0.48 at 70°C and increased with higher temperatures to 3.67 at 95°C. Although HEV infectivity titration by inoculation of the liver suspension onto three cell lines did not succeed, the results of the RNase-based method are in accordance with published cell culture-based data. Conclusions Measurement of intact viral particles using the RNase-based method may provide data on the stability of RNA viruses when cell culture-based infectivity titrations are not efficient or not available. The method enables processing of large sample numbers and may be suitable to estimate stability of HEV in different types of food.

  14. Hygienic assessment of asbestos containing dust in the air of the working zone at thermal power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshkovskiy V.E.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Asbestos and artificial mineral fibers were used actively at thermal power plants (TPP as heat insulation of pipes, seal plates, electrical insulation, etc. But content of asbestos fibers in the air of working zone at TPP was not registered to date. Therefore, aim of the work was to assess asbestos containing dust in the air of working zone at steam turbine and gas turbine TPP in the east region of the country. It was found that old insulation at TPP is mixture of asbestoses that contains chrysotile asbestos and traces of amphibole asbestoses – crocidolite and anthophyllite. In the majority of investigated workplaces at the steam turbine TPP significant dust generation with exceed of maximum one-time exposure limits (2 mg/m3 was observed. Concentration of respirable fibers in the air of working zone in all workplaces did not exceed actual hygienic standard (1 fiber/cm3.

  15. Assessment of moderator integrity using realisitc model and parametric studies on thermal-hydraulic characteristics in SPEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, S. H.; Kim, M. W.; Kang, S. C.; Kim, H. J.; Min, B. J.; Yoon, C.

    2002-01-01

    Three-dimensional analyses of fluid flow and heat transfer have been performed to assess thermal-hydraulic characteristics for moderator simulation conducted by SPEL(Sheridan Park Experimental Laboratory) experimental facility. The parametric study has also carried out to investigate the effect of major parameters such as flowrate, temperature, and heat load generated from the heaters on the temperature and flow distribution inside the moderator. In this study, three flow patterns have been identified in the moderator with flowrate, heat generation, or both. As the transition of fluid flow is progressed, it is found that the dimensionless numbers (Ar) and the ratio of buoyancy to inertia forces are constant. Moreover, the behavior of temperature distribution inside calandria has also been investigated, when the flowrate of moderator is changed with time

  16. First principles, thermal stability and thermodynamic assessment of the binary Ni-W system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isomaeki, Iikka; Haemaelaeinen, Marko; Gasik, Michael [Aalto Univ., Espoo (Finland). School of Chemical Engineering; Braga, Maria H. [Porto Univ. (Portugal). CEMUC, Physics Engineering Dept.

    2017-12-15

    The Ni-W binary system was assessed using critically evaluated experimental data with assistance from first principles analysis and the CALPHAD method. The solution phases (liquid, fcc-A1 and bcc-A2) were modeled using the substitutional regular solution model. The recently discovered Ni{sub 8}W metastable phase was evaluated as Fe{sub 16}C{sub 2}- like martensite with three sublattices, and shown to be possibly stable according to first principles calculations. Ni{sub 8}W was also modeled as an interstitial compound, but the model is not good because the solubility of tungsten in nickel is very low, especially at low temperatures. There is no experimental evidence for such low solubility. The other binary compounds Ni{sub 4}W and Ni{sub 3}W were assessed as stoichiometric ones. Compared independent experimental and first principles data agree well with the calculated phase diagram using updated thermodynamic parameters.

  17. A review of thermal methods and technologies for diabetic foot assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Paula; Felizardo, Virginie; Oliveira, Daniel; Couto, Rafael; Garcia, Nuno M

    2015-07-01

    Temperature analysis has been considered as a complementary method in medical evaluation and diagnosis. Several studies demonstrated that monitoring the temperature variations of the feet of diabetic patients can be helpful in the early identification of diabetic foot manifestations, and also in changing behaviors, which may contribute to reducing its incidence. In this review, several and most used techniques for assessing the temperature of the feet are presented, along with original published work on specific applications in diabetic foot complications. A review of solutions and equipment that operate according to the temperature assessment techniques is also presented. Finally, a comparison between the various technologies is presented, and the authors share their perspective on what will be the state of affairs in 5 years.

  18. DECOVALEX III PROJECT. Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical Coupled Processes in Safety Assessments. Report of Task 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan

    2005-02-01

    A part (Task 4) of the International DECOVALEX III project on coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (T-H-M) processes focuses on T-H-M modelling applications in safety and performance assessment of deep geological nuclear waste repositories. A previous phase, DECOVALEX II, saw a need to improve such modelling. In order to address this need Task 4 of DECOVALEX III has: Analysed two major T-H-M experiments (Task 1 and Task 2) and three different Bench Mark Tests (Task 3) set-up to explore the significance of T-H-M in some potentially important safety assessment applications. Compiled and evaluated the use of T-H-M modelling in safety assessments at the time of the year 2000. Organised a forum a forum of interchange between PA-analysts and THM modelers at each DECOVALEX III workshop. Based on this information the current report discusses the findings and strives for reaching recommendations as regards good practices in addressing coupled T-H-M issues in safety assessments. The full development of T-H-M modelling is still at an early stage and it is not evident whether current codes provide the information that is required. However, although the geosphere is a system of fully coupled processes, this does not directly imply that all existing coupled mechanisms must be represented numerically. Modelling is conducted for specific purposes and the required confidence level should be considered. It is necessary to match the confidence level with the modelling objective. Coupled THM modelling has to incorporate uncertainties. These uncertainties mainly concern uncertainties in the conceptual model and uncertainty in data. Assessing data uncertainty is important when judging the need to model coupled processes. Often data uncertainty is more significant than the coupled effects. The emphasis on the need for THM modelling differs among disciplines. For geological radioactive waste disposal in crystalline and other similar hard rock formations DECOVALEX III shows it is essential to

  19. DECOVALEX III PROJECT. Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical Coupled Processes in Safety Assessments. Report of Task 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden)

    2005-02-15

    A part (Task 4) of the International DECOVALEX III project on coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (T-H-M) processes focuses on T-H-M modelling applications in safety and performance assessment of deep geological nuclear waste repositories. A previous phase, DECOVALEX II, saw a need to improve such modelling. In order to address this need Task 4 of DECOVALEX III has: Analysed two major T-H-M experiments (Task 1 and Task 2) and three different Bench Mark Tests (Task 3) set-up to explore the significance of T-H-M in some potentially important safety assessment applications. Compiled and evaluated the use of T-H-M modelling in safety assessments at the time of the year 2000. Organised a forum a forum of interchange between PA-analysts and THM modelers at each DECOVALEX III workshop. Based on this information the current report discusses the findings and strives for reaching recommendations as regards good practices in addressing coupled T-H-M issues in safety assessments. The full development of T-H-M modelling is still at an early stage and it is not evident whether current codes provide the information that is required. However, although the geosphere is a system of fully coupled processes, this does not directly imply that all existing coupled mechanisms must be represented numerically. Modelling is conducted for specific purposes and the required confidence level should be considered. It is necessary to match the confidence level with the modelling objective. Coupled THM modelling has to incorporate uncertainties. These uncertainties mainly concern uncertainties in the conceptual model and uncertainty in data. Assessing data uncertainty is important when judging the need to model coupled processes. Often data uncertainty is more significant than the coupled effects. The emphasis on the need for THM modelling differs among disciplines. For geological radioactive waste disposal in crystalline and other similar hard rock formations DECOVALEX III shows it is essential to

  20. Assessment of RELAP5/Mod3 system thermal hydraulic code using power test data of a BWR6 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.; Chiang, C.S.

    1997-01-01

    The power test data of Kuosheng Nuclear Power Plant were used to assess RELAP5/Mod3 system thermal hydraulic analysis code. The plant employed a General Electric designed Boiling Water Reactor (BWR6) with rated power of 2894 MWth. The purpose of the assessment is to verify the validity of the plant specific RELAP5/Mod3 input deck for transient analysis. The power tests considered in the assessment were 100% power generator load rejection, the closure of main steam isolation valves (MSIVs) at 96% power, and the trip of recirculation pumps at 68% power. The major parameters compared in the assessment were steam dome pressure, steam flow rate, core flow rate, and downcomer water level. The comparisons of the system responses predicted by the code and the power test data were reasonable which demonstrated the capabilities of the code and the validity of the input deck. However, it was also identified that the separator model of the code may cause energy imbalance problem in the transient calculation. In the assessment, the steam separators were modeled using time-dependent junctions. In the approach, a complete separation of steam and water was predicted. The system responses predicted by RELAP5/Mod3 code were also compared with those from the calculations of RETRAN code. When these results were compared with the power test data, the predictions of the RETRAN code were better than those of RELAP5/Mod3. In the simulation of 100% power generator load rejection, it was believed that the difference in the steam separator model of these two codes was one of the reason of the difference in the prediction of power test data. The predictions of RELAP/Mod3 code can also be improved by the incorporation of one-dimensional kinetic model. There was also some margin for the improvement of the input related to the feedwater control system. (author)

  1. Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiltsee, G.

    1998-01-01

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris

  2. Assessing spatial associations between thermal stress and mortality in Hong Kong: a small-area ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thach, Thuan-Quoc; Zheng, Qishi; Lai, Poh-Chin; Wong, Paulina Pui-Yun; Chau, Patsy Yuen-Kwan; Jahn, Heiko J; Plass, Dietrich; Katzschner, Lutz; Kraemer, Alexander; Wong, Chit-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Physiological equivalent temperature (PET) is a widely used index to assess thermal comfort of the human body. Evidence on how thermal stress-related health effects vary with small geographical areas is limited. The objectives of this study are (i) to explore whether there were significant patterns of geographical clustering of thermal stress as measured by PET and mortality and (ii) to assess the association between PET and mortality in small geographical areas. A small area ecological cross-sectional study was conducted at tertiary planning units (TPUs) level. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) and monthly deaths at TPUs level for 2006 were calculated for cause-specific diseases. A PET map with 100 m × 100 m resolution for the same period was derived from Hong Kong Urban Climatic Analysis Map data and the annual and monthly averages of PET for each TPU were computed. Global Moran's I and local indicator of spatial association (LISA) analyses were performed. A generalized linear mixed model was used to model monthly deaths against PET adjusted for socio-economic deprivation. We found positive spatial autocorrelation between PET and ASMR. There were spatial correlations between PET and ASMR, particularly in the north of Hong Kong Island, most parts of Kowloon, and across New Territories. A 1°C change in PET was associated with an excess risk (%) of 2.99 (95% CI: 0.50-5.48) for all natural causes, 4.75 (1.14-8.36) for cardiovascular, 7.39 (4.64-10.10) for respiratory diseases in the cool season, and 4.31 (0.12 to 8.50) for cardiovascular diseases in the warm season. Variations between TPUs in PET had an important influence on cause-specific mortality, especially in the cool season. PET may have an impact on the health of socio-economically deprived population groups. Our results suggest that targeting policy interventions at high-risk areas may be a feasible option for reducing PET-related mortality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluating topic model interpretability from a primary care physician perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Corey W; Oh, Andrea; Chen, Shawn; Speier, William

    2016-02-01

    Probabilistic topic models provide an unsupervised method for analyzing unstructured text. These models discover semantically coherent combinations of words (topics) that could be integrated in a clinical automatic summarization system for primary care physicians performing chart review. However, the human interpretability of topics discovered from clinical reports is unknown. Our objective is to assess the coherence of topics and their ability to represent the contents of clinical reports from a primary care physician's point of view. Three latent Dirichlet allocation models (50 topics, 100 topics, and 150 topics) were fit to a large collection of clinical reports. Topics were manually evaluated by primary care physicians and graduate students. Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Tests for Paired Samples were used to evaluate differences between different topic models, while differences in performance between students and primary care physicians (PCPs) were tested using Mann-Whitney U tests for each of the tasks. While the 150-topic model produced the best log likelihood, participants were most accurate at identifying words that did not belong in topics learned by the 100-topic model, suggesting that 100 topics provides better relative granularity of discovered semantic themes for the data set used in this study. Models were comparable in their ability to represent the contents of documents. Primary care physicians significantly outperformed students in both tasks. This work establishes a baseline of interpretability for topic models trained with clinical reports, and provides insights on the appropriateness of using topic models for informatics applications. Our results indicate that PCPs find discovered topics more coherent and representative of clinical reports relative to students, warranting further research into their use for automatic summarization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment and Correction of on-Orbit Radiometric Calibration for FY-3 VIRR Thermal Infrared Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Xu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available FengYun-3 (FY-3 Visible Infrared Radiometer (VIRR, along with its predecessor, Multispectral Visible Infrared Scanning Radiometer (MVISR, onboard FY-1C&D have had continuous global observation more than 14 years. This data record is valuable for weather prediction, climate monitoring, and environment research. Data quality is vital for satellite data assimilations in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP and quantitative remote sensing applications. In this paper, the accuracies of radiometric calibration for VIRR onboard FY-3A and FY-3B, in thermal infrared (TIR channels, are evaluated using the Low Earth Orbit (LEO-LEO simultaneous nadir overpass intercalibration method. Hyperspectral and high-quality observations from Infrared Atmosphere Sounding Instrument (IASI onboard METOP-A are used as reference. The biases of VIRR measurements with respect to IASI over one-and-a-half years indicate that the TIR calibration accuracy of FY-3B VIRR is better than that of FY-3A VIRR. The brightness temperature (BT measured by FY-3A/VIRR is cooler than that measured by IASI with monthly mean biases ranging from −2 K to −1 K for channel 4 and −1 K to 0.2 K for channel 5. Measurements from FY-3B/VIRR are more consistent with that from IASI, and the annual mean biases are 0.84 ± 0.16 K and −0.66 ± 0.18 K for channels 4 and 5, respectively. The BT biases of FY-3A/VIRR show scene temperature-dependence and seasonal variation, which are not found from FY-3B/VIRR BT biases. The temperature-dependent biases are shown to be attributed to the nonlinearity of detectors. New nonlinear correction coefficients of FY-3A/VIRR TIR channels are reevaluated using various collocation samples. Verification results indicate that the use of the new nonlinear correction can greatly correct the scene temperature-dependent and systematic biases.

  5. Assessment of Mars Atmospheric Temperature Retrievals from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer Radiances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Matthew J.; Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Weisenstein, Deborah; Uymin, Gennady; Moncet, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the needs of Mars data assimilation. particularly quantification of measurement errors and generation of averaging kernels. we have evaluated atmospheric temperature retrievals from Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) radiances. Multiple sets of retrievals have been considered in this study; (1) retrievals available from the Planetary Data System (PDS), (2) retrievals based on variants of the retrieval algorithm used to generate the PDS retrievals, and (3) retrievals produced using the Mars 1-Dimensional Retrieval (M1R) algorithm based on the Optimal Spectral Sampling (OSS ) forward model. The retrieved temperature profiles are compared to the MGS Radio Science (RS) temperature profiles. For the samples tested, the M1R temperature profiles can be made to agree within 2 K with the RS temperature profiles, but only after tuning the prior and error statistics. Use of a global prior that does not take into account the seasonal dependence leads errors of up 6 K. In polar samples. errors relative to the RS temperature profiles are even larger. In these samples, the PDS temperature profiles also exhibit a poor fit with RS temperatures. This fit is worse than reported in previous studies, indicating that the lack of fit is due to a bias correction to TES radiances implemented after 2004. To explain the differences between the PDS and Ml R temperatures, the algorithms are compared directly, with the OSS forward model inserted into the PDS algorithm. Factors such as the filtering parameter, the use of linear versus nonlinear constrained inversion, and the choice of the forward model, are found to contribute heavily to the differences in the temperature profiles retrieved in the polar regions, resulting in uncertainties of up to 6 K. Even outside the poles, changes in the a priori statistics result in different profile shapes which all fit the radiances within the specified error. The importance of the a priori statistics prevents

  6. Assessment of the PIUS physics and thermal-hydraulic experimental data bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyack, B.E.

    1993-01-01

    The PIUS reactor utilizes simplified, inherent, passive, or other innovative means to accomplish safety functions. Accordingly, the PIUS reactor is subject to the requirements of 10CFR52.47(b)(2)(i)(A). This regulation requires that the applicant adequately demonstrate the performance of each safety feature, interdependent effects among the safety features, and a sufficient data base on the safety features of the design to assess the analytical tools used for safety analysis. Los Alamos has assessed the quality and completeness of the existing and planned data bases used by Asea Brown Boveri to validate its safety analysis codes and other relevant data bases. Only a limited data base of separate effect and integral tests exist at present. This data base is not adequate to fulfill the requirements of 10CFR52.47(b)(2)(i)(A). Asea Brown Boveri has stated that it plans to conduct more separate effect and integral test programs. If appropriately designed and conducted, these test programs have the potential to satisfy most of the data base requirements of 10CFR52.47(b)(2)(i)(A) and remedy most of the deficiencies of the currently existing combined data base. However, the most important physical processes in PIUS are related to reactor shutdown because the PIUS reactor does not contain rodded shutdown and control systems. For safety-related reactor shutdown, PIUS relies on negative reactivity insertions from the moderator temperature coefficient and from boron entering the core from the reactor pool. Asea Brown Boveri has neither developed a direct experimental data base for these important processes nor provided a rationale for indirect testing of these key PIUS processes. This is assessed as a significant shortcoming. In preparing the conclusions of this report, test documentation and results have been reviewed for only one integral test program, the small-scale integral tests conducted in the ATLE facility

  7. Damodar Valley Corporation, Chandrapura Unit 2 Thermal Power Station Residual Life Assessment Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    The BHEL/NTPC/PFC/TVA teams assembled at the DVC`s Chadrapura station on July 19, 1994, to assess the remaining life of Unit 2. The workscope was expanded to include major plant systems that impact the unit`s ability to sustain generation at 140 MW (Units 1-3 have operated at average rating of about 90 MW). Assessment was completed Aug. 19, 1994. Boiler pressure parts are in excellent condition except for damage to primary superheater header/stub tubes and economizer inlet header stub tubes. The turbine steam path is in good condition except for damage to LP blading; the spar rotor steam path is in better condition and is recommended for Unit 2. Nozzle box struts are severely cracked from the flame outs; the cracks should not be repaired. HP/IP rotor has surface cracks at several places along the steam seal areas; these cracks are shallow and should be machined out. Detailed component damage assessments for above damaged components have been done. The turbine auxiliary systems have been evaluated; cooling tower fouling/blockage is the root cause for the high turbine back pressure. The fuel processing system is one of the primary root causes for limiting unit capacity. The main steam and hot reheat piping systems were conservatively designed and have at least 30 years left;deficiencies needing resolution include restoration of insulation, replacement of 6 deformed hanger clamp/bolts, and adjustment of a few hanger settings. The cold reheat piping system is generally in good condition; some areas should be re-insulated and the rigid support clamps/bolts should be examined. The turbine extraction piping system supports all appeared to be functioning normally.

  8. Assessment of properties thermal sprayed coatings realised using cermet blend powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brezinová

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the assessment of selected properties of plasma sprayed coatings based on ZrSiO4 doped with different volume fractions of metal dopant (Ni. Mixed powders are cermet blends. Aim of the work consists of verificating the possibility to replace the application of Ni interlayer by adding Ni directly to the ceramic powder and apply them together in a single technological operation. The coatings were studied from point of view of their structure, porosity, adhesion of the coatings in relation to the volume of dopant added and wear resistance. The best properties reached composite coating doped with 12 % Ni.

  9. Thermal treatment of municipal solid waste. Assessment of the 42 French facilities funded by ADEME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Between 1993 and 2000, Ademe provided a financial assistance to the construction of 42 municipal solid waste incinerators, covering an average of 5,7 % of the required investments. This note outlines the lessons to be drawn from the assessment of the operation of these units, which was produced within the framework of a study steered by Ademe and carried out by Trivalor. It contents details on the in-depth modification of french facilities, a complete mastery of operations, the economic conditions in the sector, the analysis of Ademe subsidies and evaluates the market over the next ten years. (A.L.B.)

  10. Developmental assessment of the multidimensional component in RELAP5 for Savannah River Site thermal hydraulic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, R.G.; Johnson, E.C.; Carlson, K.E.; Chou, C.Y.; Davis, C.B.; Martin, R.P.; Riemke, R.A.; Wagner, R.J.

    1992-07-01

    This report documents ten developmental assessment problems which were used to test the multidimensional component in RELAP5/MOD2.5, Version 3w. The problems chosen were a rigid body rotation problem, a pure radial symmetric flow problem, an r-θ symmetric flow problem, a fall problem, a rest problem, a basic one-dimensional flow test problem, a gravity wave problem, a tank draining problem, a flow through the center problem, and coverage analysis using PIXIE. The multidimensional code calculations are compared to analytical solutions and one-dimensional code calculations. The discussion section of each problem contains information relative to the code's ability to simulate these problems

  11. Assessing Thermally Stressful Events in a Rhode Island Coldwater Fish Habitat Using the SWAT Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Chambers

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available It has become increasingly important to recognize historical water quality trends so that the future impacts of climate change may be better understood. Climate studies have suggested that inland stream temperatures and average streamflow will increase over the next century in New England, thereby putting aquatic species sustained by coldwater habitats at risk. In this study we evaluated two different approaches for modeling historical streamflow and stream temperature in a Rhode Island, USA, watershed with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT, using (i original SWAT and (ii SWAT plus a hydroclimatological model component that considers both hydrological inputs and air temperature. Based on daily calibration results with six years of measured streamflow and four years of stream temperature data, we examined occurrences of stressful conditions for brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis using the hydroclimatological model. SWAT with the hydroclimatological component improved modestly during calibration (NSE of 0.93, R2 of 0.95 compared to the original SWAT (NSE of 0.83, R2 of 0.93. Between 1980–2009, the number of stressful events, a moment in time where high or low flows occur simultaneously with stream temperatures exceeding 21 °C, increased by 55% and average streamflow increased by 60%. This study supports using the hydroclimatological SWAT component and provides an example method for assessing stressful conditions in southern New England’s coldwater habitats.

  12. Topics in Bethe Ansatz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunguang

    Integrable quantum spin chains have close connections to integrable quantum field. theories, modern condensed matter physics, string and Yang-Mills theories. Bethe. ansatz is one of the most important approaches for solving quantum integrable spin. chains. At the heart of the algebraic structure of integrable quantum spin chains is. the quantum Yang-Baxter equation and the boundary Yang-Baxter equation. This. thesis focuses on four topics in Bethe ansatz. The Bethe equations for the isotropic periodic spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain with N. sites have solutions containing ±i/2 that are singular: both the corresponding energy and the algebraic Bethe ansatz vector are divergent. Such solutions must be carefully regularized. We consider a regularization involving a parameter that can be. determined using a generalization of the Bethe equations. These generalized Bethe. equations provide a practical way of determining which singular solutions correspond. to eigenvectors of the model. The Bethe equations for the periodic XXX and XXZ spin chains admit singular. solutions, for which the corresponding eigenvalues and eigenvectors are ill-defined. We use a twist regularization to derive conditions for such singular solutions to bephysical, in which case they correspond to genuine eigenvalues and eigenvectors of. the Hamiltonian. We analyze the ground state of the open spin-1/2 isotropic quantum spin chain. with a non-diagonal boundary term using a recently proposed Bethe ansatz solution. As the coefficient of the non-diagonal boundary term tends to zero, the Bethe roots. split evenly into two sets: those that remain finite, and those that become infinite. We. argue that the former satisfy conventional Bethe equations, while the latter satisfy a. generalization of the Richardson-Gaudin equations. We derive an expression for the. leading correction to the boundary energy in terms of the boundary parameters. We argue that the Hamiltonians for A(2) 2n open quantum spin chains

  13. Topic Modeling of Hierarchical Corpora /

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Do-kyum

    2014-01-01

    The sizes of modern digital libraries have grown beyond our capacity to comprehend manually. Thus we need new tools to help us in organizing and browsing large corpora of text that do not require manually examining each document. To this end, machine learning researchers have developed topic models, statistical learning algorithms for automatic comprehension of large collections of text. Topic models provide both global and local views of a corpus; they discover topics that run through the co...

  14. Topical treatment of psoriasis: questionnaire results on topical therapy accessibility and influence of body surface area on usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, L; Lange, M M; Bissonette, R; Carvalho, A V E; van de Kerkhof, P C; Kirby, B; Kleyn, C E; Lynde, C W; van der Walt, J M; Wu, J J

    2017-07-01

    Topical treatment of mild to moderate psoriasis is first-line treatment and exhibits varying degrees of success across patient groups. Key factors influencing treatment success are physician topical treatment choice (high efficacy, low adverse events) and strict patient adherence. Currently, no formalized, international consensus guidelines exist to direct optimal topical treatment, although many countries have national guidelines. To describe and analyse cross-regional variations in the use and access of psoriasis topical therapies. The study was conducted as an observational cross-sectional study. A survey was distributed to dermatologists from the International Psoriasis Council (IPC) to assess topical therapy accessibility in 26 countries and to understand how body surface area (BSA) categories guide clinical decisions on topical use. Variation in the availability of tars, topical retinoids, dithranol and balneotherapy was reported. The vast majority of respondents (100% and 88.4%) used topical therapy as first-line monotherapy in situations with BSA 10%, the number of respondents who prescribe topical therapy decreased considerably. In addition, combination therapy of a topical drug and a systemic drug was frequently reported when BSA measured >10%. This physician survey provides new evidence on topical access and the influence of disease severity on topical usage in an effort to improve treatment strategies on a global level. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  15. KEY TOPICS IN SPORTS MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ali Narvani

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1 Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2 Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3 Drugs in sport, 4 Exercise and health promotion, 5 Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6 The psychology of performance and injury. PURPOSE The Key Topics format provides extensive, concise information in an accessible, easy-to-follow manner. AUDIENCE The book is targeted the students and specialists in sports medicine and rehabilitation, athletic training, physiotherapy and orthopaedic surgery. The editors are authorities in their respective fields and this handbook depends on their extensive experience and knowledge accumulated over the years. FEATURES The book contains the information for clinical guidance, rapid access to concise details and facts. It is composed of 99 topics which present the information in an order that is considered logical and progressive as in most texts. Chapter headings are: 1. Functional Anatomy, 2. Training Principles / Development of Strength and Power, 3. Biomechanical Principles, 4. Biomechanical Analysis, 5. Physiology of Training, 6. Monitoring of Training Progress, 7. Nutrition, 8. Hot and Cold Climates, 9. Altitude, 10. Sport and Travelling, 11. Principles of Sport Injury Diagnosis, 12. Principles of Sport and Soft Tissue Management, 13. Principles of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, 14. Principles of Sport Injury Prevention, 15. Sports Psychology, 16. Team Sports, 17. Psychological Aspects of Injury in Sport, 18. Injury Repair Process, 19. Basic Biomechanics of Tissue Injury, 20. Plain Film Radiography in Sport, 21. Nuclear Medicine, 22. Diagnostic Ultrasound, 23. MRI Scan, 24. Other Imaging, 5. Head Injury, 26. Eye

  16. Environmental assessment of the thermal neutron activation explosive detection system for concourse use at US airports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.G.

    1990-08-01

    This document is an environmental assessment of a system designed to detect the presence of explosives in checked airline baggage or cargo. The system is meant to be installed at the concourse or lobby ticketing areas of US commercial airports and uses a sealed radioactive source of californium-252 to irradiate baggage items. The major impact of the use of this system arises from direct exposure of the public to scattered or leakage radiation from the source and to induced radioactivity in baggage items. Under normal operation and the most likely accident scenarios, the environmental impacts that would be created by the proposed licensing action would not be significant. 44 refs., 19 figs., 18 tabs.

  17. Environmental assessment of the thermal neutron activation explosive detection system for concourse use at US airports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.G.

    1990-08-01

    This document is an environmental assessment of a system designed to detect the presence of explosives in checked airline baggage or cargo. The system is meant to be installed at the concourse or lobby ticketing areas of US commercial airports and uses a sealed radioactive source of californium-252 to irradiate baggage items. The major impact of the use of this system arises from direct exposure of the public to scattered or leakage radiation from the source and to induced radioactivity in baggage items. Under normal operation and the most likely accident scenarios, the environmental impacts that would be created by the proposed licensing action would not be significant. 44 refs., 19 figs., 18 tabs

  18. Development and Evaluation of Topical Gabapentin Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Martin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Topical delivery of gabapentin is desirable to treat peripheral neuropathic pain conditions whilst avoiding systemic side effects. To date, reports of topical gabapentin delivery in vitro have been variable and dependent on the skin model employed, primarily involving rodent and porcine models. In this study a variety of topical gabapentin formulations were investigated, including Carbopol® hydrogels containing various permeation enhancers, and a range of proprietary bases including a compounded Lipoderm® formulation; furthermore microneedle facilitated delivery was used as a positive control. Critically, permeation of gabapentin across a human epidermal membrane in vitro was assessed using Franz-type diffusion cells. Subsequently this data was contextualised within the wider scope of the literature. Although reports of topical gabapentin delivery have been shown to vary, largely dependent upon the skin model used, this study demonstrated that 6% (w/w gabapentin 0.75% (w/w Carbopol® hydrogels containing 5% (w/w DMSO or 70% (w/w ethanol and a compounded 10% (w/w gabapentin Lipoderm® formulation were able to facilitate permeation of the molecule across human skin. Further pre-clinical and clinical studies are required to investigate the topical delivery performance and pharmacodynamic actions of prospective formulations.

  19. Development and Evaluation of Topical Gabapentin Formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Natalie; Hiom, Sarah; Birchall, James C.

    2017-01-01

    Topical delivery of gabapentin is desirable to treat peripheral neuropathic pain conditions whilst avoiding systemic side effects. To date, reports of topical gabapentin delivery in vitro have been variable and dependent on the skin model employed, primarily involving rodent and porcine models. In this study a variety of topical gabapentin formulations were investigated, including Carbopol® hydrogels containing various permeation enhancers, and a range of proprietary bases including a compounded Lipoderm® formulation; furthermore microneedle facilitated delivery was used as a positive control. Critically, permeation of gabapentin across a human epidermal membrane in vitro was assessed using Franz-type diffusion cells. Subsequently this data was contextualised within the wider scope of the literature. Although reports of topical gabapentin delivery have been shown to vary, largely dependent upon the skin model used, this study demonstrated that 6% (w/w) gabapentin 0.75% (w/w) Carbopol® hydrogels containing 5% (w/w) DMSO or 70% (w/w) ethanol and a compounded 10% (w/w) gabapentin Lipoderm® formulation were able to facilitate permeation of the molecule across human skin. Further pre-clinical and clinical studies are required to investigate the topical delivery performance and pharmacodynamic actions of prospective formulations. PMID:28867811

  20. Final report on the reactor pressure vessel pressurized-thermal-shock. International comparative assessment study (RPV PTS ICAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sievers, J.; Schulz, H.; Bass, R.; Pugh, C.

    1999-10-01

    A summary of the recently completed International Comparative Assessment Study of Pressurized-Thermal-Shock in Reactor Pressure Vessels (RPV PTS ICAS) is presented here to record the results in actual and comparative fashions. Within the DFM task, where account was taken of material properties and boundary conditions, reasonable agreement was obtained in linear-elastic and elastic-plastic analysis results. Linear elastic analyses and J-estimation schemes were shown to provide conservative estimates of peak crack driving force when compared with those obtained using complex three-dimensional (3D) finite element analyses. Predictions of RT NDT generally showed less scatter than that observed in crack driving force calculations due to the fracture toughness curve used for fracture assessment in the transition temperature region. Observed scatter in some analytical results could be traced mainly to a misinterpretation of the thermal expansion coefficient data given for the cladding and base metal. Also, differences in some results could be due to a quality assurance problem related to procedures for approximating the loading data given in the Problem Statement. For the PFM task, linear-elastic solutions were again shown to be conservative with respect to elastic-plastic solutions (by a factor of 2 to 4). Scatter in solutions obtained using the same computer code was generally attributable to differences in input parameters, e.g. standard deviations for the initial value of RT NDT , as well as for nickel and copper content. In the THM task, while there was a high degree of scatter during the early part of the transient, reasonable agreement in results was obtained during the latter part of the transient. Generally, the scatter was due to differences in analytical approaches used by participants, which included correlation-based engineering methods, system codes and three-dimensional computational fluids dynamics codes. Some of the models used to simulate condensation

  1. Vibrometry Assessment of the External Thermal Composite Insulation Systems Influence on the Façade Airborne Sound Insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Urbán

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper verifies the impact of the use of an external thermal composite system (ETICS on air-borne sound insulation. For optimum accuracy over a wide frequency range, classical microphone based transmission measurements are combined with accelerometer based vibrometry measurements. Consistency is found between structural resonance frequencies and bending wave velocity dispersion curves determined by vibrometry on the one hand and spectral features of the sound reduction index, the ETICS mass-spring-mass resonance induced dip in the acoustic insulation spectrum, and the coincidence induced dip on the other hand. Scanning vibrometry proves to be an effective tool for structural assessment in the design phase of ETICS systems. The measured spectra are obtained with high resolution in wide frequency range, and yield sound insulation values are not affected by the room acoustic features of the laboratory transmission rooms. The complementarity between the microphone and accelerometer based results allows assessing the effect of ETICS on the sound insulation spectrum in an extended frequency range from 20 Hz to 10 kHz. The modified engineering ΔR prediction model for frequency range up to coincidence frequency of external plaster layer is recommended. Values for the sound reduction index obtained by a modified prediction method are consistent with the measured data.

  2. Assessment of thermal-hydraulic aging characteristics of Wolsong-1 and aging predictions to ensure optimized future operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, H.; Hartmann, W.J.; Seo, H.B.

    2005-01-01

    'Full text:' All industrial plants undergo changes with time and nuclear plants are no exception. Wolsong-1 started its' commercial operation in 1983. Through more than 20 years of operation the plant has experienced aging behavior in many aspects. Specifically, aging of Primary Heat Transport System (PHTS), can affect fuel cooling characteristics. This reduces the margin to Onset of Intermittent Dryout (OID) of the CANDU fuel, a criterion used to conservatively prevent the possibility of fuel failure under nominal and accident scenarios. The power level associated with OID defines the Critical Channel Powers (CCP). In order to mitigate margin degradation Wolsong-1 had cleaned the primary side of all steam generators in March of 2003, reducing reactor inlet header temperature. However, even with this action, degradation of margin is continuing. To track and assess the current conditions of the primary heat transport system components, data showing aging effects are acquired and steady-state thermal-hydraulic models are developed. The resulting analysis allows for optimum safe and economic reactor operation. The following issues are explored specifically with respect to Wolsong-1 nuclear reactor operation. 1. Pressure tube creep measurement, prediction, and model development Radiation induced, increasing pressure tube diameters, specifically pressure tube diametral creep, cause more and more coolant to bypass the sub-channels of the fuel bundles, reducing margin to CCP. For Wolsong-1, pressure tubes were inspected in 1990, 1992, 1994, 2001 and 2004. Measurement in the nineties was done with the 'CIGAR' system and in the 21st century with the 'AFCIS' system. For each year's inspection, more than 12 channels are measured and some channels have been inspected in several years. The diameters of specific channels, repeatedly measured in more than three different years, allow an accurate diametral creep prediction. The initial manufacturing diameter and the aged, measured

  3. Assessment of Urban Infrastructure Impact on New York City Neighborhoods Thermal Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, R.; Ghandehari, M.; Karimi, M.; Vant-hull, B.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2013-12-01

    New York City (NYC) is a highly urbanized city with most of the population living in tall buildings. Despite technological improvements and stricter regulations, cities still show increasing signs of environmental stress such as traffic congestion, noise and air quality degradation. Rethinking the current models of city planning could enable to limit these detrimental effects of urbanization. In addition, the built environment creates a new climatic regime which needs a better understanding. Building density, height and emission has a major impact on local temperature and other air quality indicators. Studies have shown that during extreme weather conditions and heat waves the mortality rate in urban areas increases. Cities are comprised of a wide variety of urban settings and various neighborhoods have different physical responses to meteorological events, so it is expected that the temperature and heat stress across a given city to fluctuate sharply. Therefore, this research has focused on neighborhood-scale field campaigns to downscale temperature and air quality predictions from city to neighborhood scale in NYC. In order to assess the temperature variability within the city at street level, during the hottest part of the day, this project used eight mobile units bearing temperature and relative humidity sensors, as well as ten weather stations mounted on light poles in various NYC neighborhoods. This study also looks at fine scale structures in the urban heat island of Manhattan at street level through an infrared camera with the spectral range of 7.5-13 μm in order to relate heat and emissions from building surfaces to land surface characteristics such as building density, vegetation coverage, proximity to water, and albedo. LandSat TM5 images were used (with 30 m resolution) for land surface classification. During the summer and early fall of 2011, 2012 and 2013 extensive field campaigns were performed, the results of which show some persistent patterns

  4. Topics in quantum field theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dams, C.J.F.

    2006-01-01

    In this PhD-thesis some topics in quantum field theory are considered. The first chapter gives a background to these topics. The second chapter discusses renormalization. In particular it is shown how loop calculations can be performed when using the axial gauge fixing. Fermion creation and

  5. Web directories as topical context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, R.; Kamps, J.; Aly, R.; Hauff, C.; den Hamer, I.; Hiemstra, D.; Huibers, T.; de Jong, F.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we explore whether the Open Directory (or DMOZ) can be used to classify queries into topical categories on different levels and whether we can use this topical context to improve retrieval performance. We have set up a user study to let test persons explicitly classify queries into

  6. Resources for Topics in Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Noate, Judith, Comp.

    This guide for conducting library research on topics in architecture or on the work of a particular architect presents suggestions for utilizing four categories of resources: books, dictionaries and encyclopedias, indexes, and a periodicals and series list (PASL). Two topics are researched as examples: the contemporary architect Richard Meier, and…

  7. Recent advances in topical anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Topical anesthetics act on the peripheral nerves and reduce the sensation of pain at the site of application. In dentistry, they are used to control local pain caused by needling, placement of orthodontic bands, the vomiting reflex, oral mucositis, and rubber-dam clamp placement. Traditional topical anesthetics contain lidocaine or benzocaine as active ingredients and are used in the form of solutions, creams, gels, and sprays. Eutectic mixtures of local anesthesia cream, a mixture of various topical anesthetics, has been reported to be more potent than other anesthetics. Recently, new products with modified ingredients and application methods have been introduced into the market. These products may be used for mild pain during periodontal treatment, such as scaling. Dentists should be aware that topical anesthetics, although rare, might induce allergic reactions or side effects as a result of an overdose. Topical anesthetics are useful aids during dental treatment, as they reduce dental phobia, especially in children, by mitigating discomfort and pain. PMID:28879311

  8. Assessing the effusion rate of lava flows from their thermal radiated energy: theoretical study and lab-scale experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garel, F.; Kaminski, E.; Tait, S.; Limare, A.

    2010-12-01

    A quantitative monitoring of lava flow is required to manage a volcanic crisis, in order to assess where the flow will go, and when will it stop. As the spreading of lava flows is mainly controlled by its rheology and the eruptive mass flux, the key question is how to evaluate them during the eruption (rather than afterwards.) A relationship between the lava flow temperature and the eruption rate is likely to exist, based on the first-order argument that higher eruption rates should correspond to larger energy radiated by a lava flow. The semi-empirical formula developed by Harris and co-workers (e.g. Harris et al., 2007) is used to estimate lava flow rate from satellite observations. However, the complete theoretical bases of this technique, especially its domain of validity, remain to be firmly established. Here we propose a theoretical study of the cooling of a viscous axisymmetric gravity current fed at constant flux rate to investigate whether or not this approach can and/or should be refined and/or modify to better assess flow rates. Our study focuses on the influence of boundary conditions at the surface of the flow, where cooling can occur both by radiation and convection, and at the base of the flow. Dimensionless numbers are introduced to quantify the relative interplay between the model parameters, such as the lava flow rate and the efficiency of the various cooling processes (conduction, convection, radiation.) We obtain that the thermal evolution of the flow can be described as a two-stage evolution. After a transient phase of dynamic cooling, the flow reaches a steady state, characterized by a balance between surface and base cooling and heat advection in the flow, in which the surface temperature structure is constant. The duration of the transient phase and the radiated energy in the steady regime are shown to be a function of the dimensionless numbers. In the case of lava flows, we obtain that the steady state regime is reached after a few days. In

  9. Thermal assessment of Shippingport pressurized water reactor blanket fuel assemblies within a multi-canister overpack within the canister storage building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HEARD, F.J.

    1999-01-01

    A series of analyses were performed to assess the thermal performance characteristics of the Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor Core 2 Blanket Fuel Assemblies as loaded within a Multi-Canister Overpack within the Canister Storage Building. A two-dimensional finite element was developed, with enough detail to model the individual fuel plates: including the fuel wafers, cladding, and flow channels

  10. Thermal assessment of Shippingport pressurized water reactor blanket fuel assemblies within a multi-canister overpack within the canister storage building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HEARD, F.J.

    1999-04-09

    A series of analyses were performed to assess the thermal performance characteristics of the Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor Core 2 Blanket Fuel Assemblies as loaded within a Multi-Canister Overpack within the Canister Storage Building. A two-dimensional finite element was developed, with enough detail to model the individual fuel plates: including the fuel wafers, cladding, and flow channels.

  11. Application of large underground seasonal thermal energy storage in district heating system : a model-based energy performance assessment of a pilot system in Chifeng, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, L.; Torrens Galdiz, J.I.; Guo, F.; Yang, X.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    Seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) technology is a proven solution to resolve the seasonal discrepancy between heating energy generation from renewables and building heating demands. This research focuses on the performance assessment of district heating (DH) systems powered by low-grade energy

  12. Topics in nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnitz, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    The 101 nuclear plants operating in the US today are far safer than they were 20-30 years ago. For example, there's been about a 100-fold reduction in the occurrence of 'significant events' since the late 1970s. Although the youngest of currently operating US plants was designed in the 1970s, all have been significantly modified over the years. Key contributors to the safety gains are a vigilant culture, much improved equipment reliability, greatly improved training of operators and maintenance workers, worldwide sharing of experience, and the effective use of probabilistic risk assessment. Several manufacturers have submitted high quality new designs for large reactors to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for design approval, and several companies are vigorously working on designs for smaller, modular reactors. Although the Fukushima reactor accident in March 2011 in Japan has been an almost unmitigated disaster for the local population due to their being displaced from their homes and workplaces and also due to the land contamination, its 'lessons learned' have been important for the broader nuclear industry, and will surely result in safer nuclear plants worldwide - indeed, have already done so, with more safety improvements to come

  13. Topics in nuclear power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnitz, Robert J.

    2015-03-01

    The 101 nuclear plants operating in the US today are far safer than they were 20-30 years ago. For example, there's been about a 100-fold reduction in the occurrence of "significant events" since the late 1970s. Although the youngest of currently operating US plants was designed in the 1970s, all have been significantly modified over the years. Key contributors to the safety gains are a vigilant culture, much improved equipment reliability, greatly improved training of operators and maintenance workers, worldwide sharing of experience, and the effective use of probabilistic risk assessment. Several manufacturers have submitted high quality new designs for large reactors to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for design approval, and several companies are vigorously working on designs for smaller, modular reactors. Although the Fukushima reactor accident in March 2011 in Japan has been an almost unmitigated disaster for the local population due to their being displaced from their homes and workplaces and also due to the land contamination, its "lessons learned" have been important for the broader nuclear industry, and will surely result in safer nuclear plants worldwide - indeed, have already done so, with more safety improvements to come.

  14. Topics in nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budnitz, Robert J. [Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-03-30

    The 101 nuclear plants operating in the US today are far safer than they were 20-30 years ago. For example, there's been about a 100-fold reduction in the occurrence of 'significant events' since the late 1970s. Although the youngest of currently operating US plants was designed in the 1970s, all have been significantly modified over the years. Key contributors to the safety gains are a vigilant culture, much improved equipment reliability, greatly improved training of operators and maintenance workers, worldwide sharing of experience, and the effective use of probabilistic risk assessment. Several manufacturers have submitted high quality new designs for large reactors to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for design approval, and several companies are vigorously working on designs for smaller, modular reactors. Although the Fukushima reactor accident in March 2011 in Japan has been an almost unmitigated disaster for the local population due to their being displaced from their homes and workplaces and also due to the land contamination, its 'lessons learned' have been important for the broader nuclear industry, and will surely result in safer nuclear plants worldwide - indeed, have already done so, with more safety improvements to come.

  15. Assessing SOC labile fractions through respiration test, density-size fractionation and thermal analysis - A comparison of methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucemarianadin, Laure; Cécillon, Lauric; Chenu, Claire; Baudin, François; Nicolas, Manuel; Savignac, Florence; Barré, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is the biggest terrestrial carbon reservoir, storing 3 to 4 times more carbon than the atmosphere. However, despite its major importance for climate regulation SOM dynamics remains insufficiently understood. For instance, there is still no widely accepted method to assess SOM lability. Soil respiration tests and particulate organic matter (POM) obtained by different fractionation schemes have been used for decades and are now considered as classical estimates of very labile and labile soil organic carbon (SOC), respectively. But the pertinence of these methods to characterize SOM turnover can be questioned. Moreover, they are very time-consuming and their reproducibility might be an issue. Alternate ways of determining the labile SOC component are thus well-needed. Thermal analyses have been used to characterize SOM among which Rock-Eval 6 (RE6) analysis of soil has shown promising results in the determination of SOM biogeochemical stability (Gregorich et al., 2015; Barré et al., 2016). Using a large set of samples of French forest soils representing contrasted pedoclimatic conditions, including deep samples (up to 1 m depth), we compared different techniques used for SOM lability assessment. We explored whether results from soil respiration test (10-week laboratory incubations), SOM size-density fractionation and RE6 thermal analysis were comparable and how they were correlated. A set of 222 (respiration test and RE6), 103 (SOM fractionation and RE6) and 93 (respiration test, SOM fractionation and RE6) forest soils samples were respectively analyzed and compared. The comparison of the three methods (n = 93) using a principal component analysis separated samples from the surface (0-10 cm) and deep (40-80 cm) layers, highlighting a clear effect of depth on the short-term persistence of SOC. A correlation analysis demonstrated that, for these samples, the two classical methods of labile SOC determination (respiration and SOM fractionation

  16. Mental Mechanisms for Topics Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Massey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Topics identification (TI is the process that consists in determining the main themes present in natural language documents. The current TI modeling paradigm aims at acquiring semantic information from statistic properties of large text datasets. We investigate the mental mechanisms responsible for the identification of topics in a single document given existing knowledge. Our main hypothesis is that topics are the result of accumulated neural activation of loosely organized information stored in long-term memory (LTM. We experimentally tested our hypothesis with a computational model that simulates LTM activation. The model assumes activation decay as an unavoidable phenomenon originating from the bioelectric nature of neural systems. Since decay should negatively affect the quality of topics, the model predicts the presence of short-term memory (STM to keep the focus of attention on a few words, with the expected outcome of restoring quality to a baseline level. Our experiments measured topics quality of over 300 documents with various decay rates and STM capacity. Our results showed that accumulated activation of loosely organized information was an effective mental computational commodity to identify topics. It was furthermore confirmed that rapid decay is detrimental to topics quality but that limited capacity STM restores quality to a baseline level, even exceeding it slightly.

  17. Topic Model for Graph Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Junyu; Lu, Jie; Zhang, Guangquan; Luo, Xiangfeng

    2015-12-01

    Graph mining has been a popular research area because of its numerous application scenarios. Many unstructured and structured data can be represented as graphs, such as, documents, chemical molecular structures, and images. However, an issue in relation to current research on graphs is that they cannot adequately discover the topics hidden in graph-structured data which can be beneficial for both the unsupervised learning and supervised learning of the graphs. Although topic models have proved to be very successful in discovering latent topics, the standard topic models cannot be directly applied to graph-structured data due to the "bag-of-word" assumption. In this paper, an innovative graph topic model (GTM) is proposed to address this issue, which uses Bernoulli distributions to model the edges between nodes in a graph. It can, therefore, make the edges in a graph contribute to latent topic discovery and further improve the accuracy of the supervised and unsupervised learning of graphs. The experimental results on two different types of graph datasets show that the proposed GTM outperforms the latent Dirichlet allocation on classification by using the unveiled topics of these two models to represent graphs.

  18. Assessment of thermal load reduction due to the application of simple passive techniques in a house office building at the south of Libya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanski, Roman; Azzain, Gassem

    2006-01-01

    The assessment of possible reduction of heating and cooling requirements of 300 m 2 house-office building has been presented in this paper, when simple Thermal Passive Techniques (TPT) have been applied to building's construction in Sebha city at the Libyan south. The known software for dynamic simulation (TRNSYS) has been used as an environment of digital experimentation for this study. A prototype represents the building has been constructed with the help of the available model of single thermal zone of TRNSYS (Type 19). The built-in ASHREA Transfer Function Method within this model has been used to calculate the heat flux through building's materials. Primarily, the thermal load on building's construction without TPTs has been evaluated under weather conditions of a Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) of Sebha city. Then, the building has been equipped with simple TPTs (such as the control of building materials, insulation, shading, infiltration and ventilation with windows resizing). This building was subjected to the same weather conditions and again the thermal load has been evaluated in order to report the percentage of reduction of thermal load. The simulation has been conducted successfully, where good assessment of reduction of annual heating and cooling demands in the building has been obtained. It is proved that, about (46%) of annual heating load and (48%) of annual cooling load can be reduced if suitable simple TPTs were incorporated in buildings.(Author)

  19. Environmental Sensitivity in Nuclear Emergencies in Rural and Semi-natural Environments. Report of Working Group 8, Environmental Sensitivity of EMRAS II Topical Heading Approaches for Assessing Emergency Situations. Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety (EMRAS II) Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-11-01

    Environmental assessment models are used for evaluating the radiological impact of actual and potential releases of radionuclides to the environment. They are essential tools for use in the regulatory control of routine discharges to the environment and also in planning measures to be taken in the event of accidental releases. They are also used for predicting the impact of releases which may occur far into the future, for example, from underground radioactive waste repositories. It is important to verify, to the extent possible, the reliability of the predictions of such models by comparison with measured values in the environment or by comparing them with the predictions of other models. The IAEA has been organizing programmes of international model testing since the 1980s. The programmes have contributed to a general improvement in models, in transfer data and in the capabilities of modellers in Member States. IAEA publications on this subject over the past three decades demonstrate the comprehensive nature of the programmes and record the associated advances which have been made. From 2009 to 2011, the IAEA organized a programme entitled Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety (EMRAS II), which concentrated on the improvement of environmental transfer models and the development of reference approaches to estimate the radiological impacts on humans, as well as on flora and fauna, arising from radionuclides in the environment. The following topics were addressed in nine working groups: Reference Approaches for Human Dose Assessment - Working Group 1: Reference Methodologies for Controlling Discharges of Routine Releases; - Working Group 2: Reference Approaches to Modelling for Management and Remediation at NORM and Legacy Sites; - Working Group 3: Reference Models for Waste Disposal Reference Approaches for Biota Dose Assessment; - Working Group 4: Biota Modelling; - Working Group 5: Wildlife Transfer Coefficient Handbook; - Working Group 6: Biota Dose

  20. Application of Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) for assessment of occupational heat stress in open-pit mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassiri, Parvin; Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Golbabaei, Farideh; Dehghan, Somayeh Farhang; Rafieepour, Athena; Mortezapour, Ali Reza; Asghari, Mehdi

    2017-10-07

    The purpose of this article is to examine the applicability of Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) index as an innovative index for evaluating of occupational heat stress in outdoor environments. 175 workers of 12 open-pit mines in Tehran, Iran were selected for this research study. First, the environmental variables such as air temperature, wet-bulb temperature, globe temperature, relative humidity and air flow rate were measured; then UTCI, wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) and heat stress index (HSI) indices were calculated. Simultaneously, physiological parameters including heart rate, oral temperature, tympanic temperature and skin temperature of workers were measured. UTCI and WBGT are positively significantly correlated with all environmental parameters (p0.05). Moreover, a strong significant relationship was found between UTCI and WBGT (r=0.95; p<0.001). The significant positive correlations exist between physiological parameters including oral temperature, tympanic and skin temperatures and heart rate and both the UTCI and WBGT indices (p<0.029). The highest correlation coefficient has been found between the UTCI and physiological parameters. Due to the low humidity and air velocity (~<1 m/s) in understudied mines, UTCI index appears to be appropriate to assess the occupational heat stress in these outdoor workplaces.

  1. Topical steroid-damaged skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Topical steroids, commonly used for a wide range of skin disorders, are associated with side effects both systemic and cutaneous. This article aims at bringing awareness among practitioners, about the cutaneous side effects of easily available, over the counter, topical steroids. This makes it important for us as dermatologists to weigh the usefulness of topical steroids versus their side effects, and to make an informed decision regarding their use in each individual based on other factors such as age, site involved and type of skin disorder.

  2. Topics in lightwave transmission systems

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Tingye

    1991-01-01

    Topics in Lightwave Transmission Systems is a second volume of a treatise on optical fiber communications that is devoted to the science, engineering, and application of information transmission via optical fibers. The first volume, published in 1985, dealt exclusively with fiber fabrication. The present volume contains topics that pertain to subsystems and systems. The book contains five chapters and begins with discussions of transmitters and receivers, which are basic to systems now operating in the field. Subsequent chapters cover topics relating to coherent systems: frequency and phase m

  3. Topical Day on Biological Effects of Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baatout, S.; Jacquet, P.

    1997-05-15

    The topical day has been focussed on the potential effects of ionizing radiation on human health. A general overview on molecular and biophysical aspects of radiation, its effects on cells and organisms, and the contribution of radiobiology to radiation protection and risk assessment is given. The genetic effects of radiation and its effects on the developing organism, the effects of radiation on the cell cycle and the mechanisms of radiation induced apoptosis were also discussed.

  4. Topical Day on Biological Effects of Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baatout, S.; Jacquet, P.

    1997-01-01

    The topical day has been focussed on the potential effects of ionizing radiation on human health. A general overview on molecular and biophysical aspects of radiation, its effects on cells and organisms, and the contribution of radiobiology to radiation protection and risk assessment is given. The genetic effects of radiation and its effects on the developing organism, the effects of radiation on the cell cycle and the mechanisms of radiation induced apoptosis were also discussed

  5. Assessment Framework of Building Facade in Optimizing Indoor Thermal Comfort of Green Building Index (GBI Certified Office Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Tharim Asniza Hamimi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past decade, the construction industry has seen a new trend in the development of “green” or “sustainable” construction concept around the world with vast support from prominent organization, together with the introduction of sustainable building codes. The establishment of green building certification systems worldwide is seen as one of the most efforts in the emerging green building movement. In order to support the development of the “green” and “sustainable” concept in Malaysia, Green Building Index (GBI was launched by the government on 21 May 2009 that created to promote sustainability in the built environment and raise awareness of environmental issues. However, the construction industry seems to have focused only on findings the “right mechanism” for an environmentally sustainable “final result” in order for the building to be certified as green with the lacking of continuous assessment on the building performance after the certifications. This study is purposely conducted to investigate the performance of various rated Green Building Index (GBI Non-Residential New Construction office buildings and the influence on Indoor Thermal Comfort (ITC of the selected buildings. The aim is to develop an assessment framework for optimum green building architectural façade to be used for office buildings in Malaysia as well as to analyse the occupants’ perception, satisfaction and performance in the selected Green Building Index (GBI rated office indoor environment. This research is still in its infancy; therefore the paper is focused on research aims, research scope and methodology, and expected deliverables for the proposed research.

  6. A novel model of inflammatory pain in human skin involving topical application of sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, L J; Lyngholm, A M; Arendt-Nielsen, L

    2010-09-01

    Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) is a known irritant. It releases pro-inflammatory mediators considered pivotal in inflammatory pain. The sensory effects of SLS in the skin remain largely unexplored. In this study, SLS was evaluated for its effect on skin sensory functions. Eight healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Skin sites were randomized to topical SLS 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2% and vehicle for 24 h. Topical capsaicin 1% was applied for 30 min at 24 h after SLS application. Assessments included laser Doppler imaging of local vasodilation and flare reactions, rating of spontaneous pain, assessment of primary thermal and tactile hyperalgesia, and determination of secondary dynamic and static hyperalgesia. SLS induced significant and dose-dependent local inflammation and primary hyperalgesia to tactile and thermal stimulation at 24 h after application, with SLS 2% treatment eliciting results comparable to those observed following treatment with capsaicin 1%. SLS induced no spontaneous pain, small areas of flare, and minimal secondary hyperalgesia. The primary hyperalgesia vanished within 2-3 days, whereas the skin inflammation persisted and was only partly normalized by Day 6. SLS induces profound perturbations of skin sensory functions lasting 2-3 days. SLS-induced inflammation may be a useful model for studying the mechanisms of inflammatory pain.

  7. A Green's function approach for assessing the thermal disturbance caused by drilling deep boreholes in rock or ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clow, Gary D.

    2015-01-01

    A knowledge of subsurface temperatures in sedimentary basins, fault zones, volcanic environments and polar ice sheets is of interest for a wide variety of geophysical applications. However, the process of drilling deep boreholes in these environments to provide access for temperature and other measurements invariably disturbs the temperature field around a newly created borehole. Although this disturbance dissipates over time, most temperature measurements are made while the temperature field is still disturbed. Thus, the measurements must be ‘corrected’ for the drilling-disturbance effect if the undisturbed temperature field is to be determined. This paper provides compact analytical solutions for the thermal drilling disturbance based on 1-D (radial) and 2-D (radial and depth) Green's functions (GFs) in cylindrical coordinates. Solutions are developed for three types of boundary conditions (BCs) at the borehole wall: (1) prescribed temperature, (2) prescribed heat flux and (3) a prescribed convective condition. The BC at the borehole wall is allowed to vary both with depth and time. Inclusion of the depth dimension in the 2-D solution allows vertical heat-transfer effects to be quantified in situations where they are potentially important, that is, near the earth's surface, at the bottom of a well and when considering finite-drilling rates. The 2-D solution also includes a radial- and time-dependent BC at the earth's surface to assess the impact of drilling-related infrastructure (drilling pads, mud pits, permanent shelters) on the subsurface temperature field. Latent-heat effects due to the melting and subsequent refreezing of interstitial ice while drilling a borehole through ice-rich permafrost can be included in the GF solution as a moving-plane heat source (or sink) located at the solid–liquid interface. Synthetic examples are provided illustrating the 1-D and 2-D GF solutions. The flexibility of the approach allows the investigation of thermal

  8. Topic structure for information retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, J.; Sanderson, M.; Zhai, C.; Zobel, J.; Allan, J.; Aslam, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    In my research, I propose a coherence measure, with the goal of discovering and using topic structures within and between documents, of which I explore its extensions and applications in information retrieval.

  9. Selected topics in nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The collection of abstracts on selected topics in nuclear structure are given. Special attention pays to collective excitations and high-spin states of nuclei, giant resonance structure, nuclear reaction mechanisms and so on

  10. Thermal performance assessment and improvement of a solar domestic hot water tank with PCM in the mantle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Jie; Furbo, Simon; Kong, Weiqiang

    2018-01-01

    To develop an appropriate solar DHW (Domestic Hot Water) tank for residential dwellings and put it into the European solar thermal market for promotion, thermal performance tests of PCM (Phase Change Material) hot water storage tanks of both a prototype and an improved version with a water volume...

  11. Topical antifungals for seborrhoeic dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okokon, Enembe O; Verbeek, Jos H; Ruotsalainen, Jani H; Ojo, Olumuyiwa A; Bakhoya, Victor Nyange

    2015-01-01

    Background Seborrhoeic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that is distributed worldwide. It commonly affects the scalp, face and flexures of the body. Treatment options include antifungal drugs, steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, keratolytic agents and phototherapy. Objectives To assess the effects of antifungal agents for seborrhoeic dermatitis of the face and scalp in adolescents and adults. A secondary objective is to assess whether the same interventions are effective in the management of seborrhoeic dermatitis in patients with HIV/AIDS. Search methods We searched the following databases up to December 2014: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2014, Issue 11), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974) and Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) (from 1982). We also searched trials registries and checked the bibliographies of published studies for further trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of topical antifungals used for treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis in adolescents and adults, with primary outcome measures of complete clearance of symptoms and improved quality of life. Data collection and analysis Review author pairs independently assessed eligibility for inclusion, extracted study data and assessed risk of bias of included studies. We performed fixed-effect meta-analysis for studies with low statistical heterogeneity and used a random-effects model when heterogeneity was high. Main results We included 51 studies with 9052 participants. Of these, 45 trials assessed treatment outcomes at five weeks or less after commencement of treatment, and six trials assessed outcomes over a longer time frame. We believe that 24 trials had some form of conflict of interest, such as funding by pharmaceutical companies. Among the included studies were 12 ketoconazole trials (N = 3253), 11 ciclopirox trials (N = 3029), two lithium trials (N = 141

  12. Key Topics in Sports Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1) Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2) Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3) Drugs in sport, 4) Exercise and health promotion, 5) Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6) The ps...

  13. Topics of Bioengineering in Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassia Atanassova

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The present report aims to give a snapshot of how topics from the field of bioengineering (bioinformatics, bioprocess systems, biomedical engineering, biotechnology, etc. are currently covered in the free electronic encyclopedia Wikipedia. It also offers insights and information about what Wikipedia is, how it functions, how and when to cite Wikipedian articles, if necessary. Several external wikis, devoted to topics of bioengineering, are also listed and reviewed.

  14. Topics in modern differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Verstraelen, Leopold

    2017-01-01

    A variety of introductory articles is provided on a wide range of topics, including variational problems on curves and surfaces with anisotropic curvature. Experts in the fields of Riemannian, Lorentzian and contact geometry present state-of-the-art reviews of their topics. The contributions are written on a graduate level and contain extended bibliographies. The ten chapters are the result of various doctoral courses which were held in 2009 and 2010 at universities in Leuven, Serbia, Romania and Spain.

  15. Topical methotrexate pretreatment enhances the therapeutic effect of topical 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy on hamster buccal pouch precancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Fu; Lee, Jeng-Woei; Chen, Hsin-Ming; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2014-09-01

    Topical 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) is effective for treatment of human oral precancerous lesions. This animal study aimed to assess whether topical methotrexate (MTX) pretreatment could enhance the therapeutic effect of topical ALA-PDT on hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. Twenty hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions were treated with either topical ALA-PDT with topical MTX pretreatment (topical MTX-ALA-PDT group, n = 10) or topical ALA-PDT alone (topical ALA-PDT group, n = 10). The intracellular protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) level in another 12 precancerous lesions (n = 6 for either the topical MTX-ALA or topical ALA group) was monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy. The intracellular PpIX reached its peak level in precancerous lesions 6.5 hours and 2.5 hours after topical ALA application for the topical MTX-ALA group (5.63-fold higher in the lesion than in the normal mucosa) and topical ALA group (2.42-fold higher in the lesion than in the normal mucosa), respectively. The complete response rate of precancerous lesions was 80% for the topical MTX-ALA-PDT group and 70% for the topical ALA-PDT group. In addition, the topical MTX-ALA-PDT group required a significantly lower mean treatment number (2.1 ± 0.6) to achieve complete response than the topical ALA-PDT group (4.4 ± 1.3, p topical MTX-ALA-PDT group had a lower recurrence rate (12.5%) than the topical ALA-PDT group (28.6%). We conclude that topical MTX-pretreatment can increase intracellular PpIX production in hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions and significantly improves the outcomes of the precancerous lesions treated with topical ALA-PDT. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. A plan for the modification and assessment of TRAC-PF1/MOD2 for use in analyzing CANDU 3 transient thermal-hydraulic phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebe, D.A.; Boyack, B.E.; Giguere, P.T.

    1994-11-01

    This report presents the results of the review and planning done for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission to identify the thermal-hydraulic phenomena that could occur in the CANDU 3 reactor design during transient conditions, plan modifications to the TRAC-PF1/MOD2 (TRAC) computer code needed to adequately predict CANDU 3 transient thermal-hydraulic phenomena, and identify an assessment program to verify the ability of TRAC, when modified, to predict these phenomena. This work builds on analyses and recommendations produced by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). To identify the thermal-hydraulic phenomena, a large-break loss-of-coolant accident simulation, performed as part of earlier work by INEL with an Atomic Energy of Canada, Limited (AECL) thermal-hydraulic computer code (CATHENA), was analyzed in detail. Other accident scenarios were examined for additional phenomena. A group of Los Alamos National Laboratory reactor thermal-hydraulics experts ranked the phenomena to produce a preliminary phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT). The preliminary nature of the PIRT was a result of a lack of direct expertise with the unique processes and phenomena of the CANDU 3. Nonetheless, this PIRT provided an adequate foundation for planning a program of code modifications. We believe that this PIRT captured the most important phenomena and that refinements to the PIRT will mainly produce clarification of the relative importance (ranking) of phenomena. A plan for code modifications was developed based on this PIRT and on information about the modeling methodologies for CANDU-specific phenomena used in AECL codes. AECL thermal-hydraulic test facilities and programs were reviewed and the information used in developing an assessment plan to ensure that TRAC-PF1/MOD2, when modified, will adequately predict CANDU 3 phenomena

  17. Damage assessment of low-cycle fatigue by crack growth prediction. Fatigue life under cyclic thermal stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaya, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    The number of cycles to failure of specimens in fatigue tests can be estimated by predicting crack growth. Under a cyclic thermal stress caused by fluctuation of fluid temperature, due to the stress gradient in the thickness direction, the estimated fatigue life differs from that estimated for mechanical fatigue tests. In this paper, the influence of crack growth under cyclic thermal loading on the fatigue life was investigated. First, the thermal stress was derived by superposing analytical solutions, and then, the stress intensity factor was obtained by the weight function method. It was shown that the thermal stress depended not on the rate of the fluid temperature change but on the rise time, and the magnitude of the stress was increased as the rise time was decreased. The stress intensity factor under the cyclic thermal stress was smaller than that under the uniform stress distribution. The change in the stress intensity factor with the crack depth did not depend on the heat transfer coefficient and only slightly depended on the rise time. The estimated fatigue life under the cyclic thermal loading could be 1.6 times longer than that under the uniform stress distribution. The critical size for the fatigue life determination was assumed to be 3 mm for fatigue test specimens of 10 mm diameter. By evaluating the critical size by structural integrity analyses, the fatigue life was increased and the effect of the critical size on the fatigue life was more pronounced for the cyclic thermal stress. (author)

  18. Damage assessment of low-cycle fatigue by crack growth prediction. Fatigue life under cyclic thermal stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaya, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    The number of cycles to failure of specimens in fatigue tests can be estimated by predicting crack growth. Under a cyclic thermal stress caused by fluctuation of fluid temperature, due to the stress gradient in the thickness direction, the estimated fatigue life differs from that estimated for mechanical fatigue tests. In this paper, the influence of crack growth under cyclic thermal loading on the fatigue life was investigated. First, the thermal stress was derived by superposing analytical solutions, and then, the stress intensity factor was obtained by the weight function method. It was shown that the thermal stress depended not on the rate of the fluid temperature change but on the rise time, and the magnitude of the stress was increased as the rise time was decreased. The stress intensity factor under the cyclic thermal stress was smaller than that under the uniform stress distribution. The change in the stress intensity factor with the crack depth was almost the same regardless of the rise time. The estimated fatigue life under the cyclic thermal loading could be 1.6 times longer than that under the uniform stress distribution. The critical size for the fatigue life determination was assumed to be 3 mm for fatigue test specimens of 10 mm diameter. By evaluating the critical size by structural integrity analyses, the fatigue life was increased and the effect of the critical size on the fatigue life was more pronounced for the cyclic thermal stress. (author)

  19. Linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating response to thermal gradient: from bench tests to the real-time assessment during in vivo laser ablations of biological tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccomandi, Paola; Varalda, Ambra; Gassino, Riccardo; Tosi, Daniele; Massaroni, Carlo; Caponero, Michele A.; Pop, Raoul; Korganbayev, Sanzhar; Perrone, Guido; Diana, Michele; Vallan, Alberto; Costamagna, Guido; Marescaux, Jacques; Schena, Emiliano

    2017-09-01

    The response of a fiber optic sensor [linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating (LCFBG)] to a linear thermal gradient applied on its sensing length (i.e., 1.5 cm) has been investigated. After these bench tests, we assessed their feasibility for temperature monitoring during thermal tumor treatment. In particular, we performed experiments during ex vivo laser ablation (LA) in pig liver and in vivo thermal ablation in animal models (pigs). We investigated the following: (i) the relationship between the full width at half maximum of the LCFBG spectrum and the temperature difference among the extremities of the LCFBG and (ii) the relationship between the mean spectrum wavelength and the mean temperature acting on the LCFBG sensing area. These relationships showed a linear trend during both bench tests and LA in animal models. Thermal sensitivity was significant although different values were found with regards to bench tests and animal experiments. The linear trend and significant sensitivity allow hypothesizing a future use of this kind of sensor to monitor both temperature gradient and mean temperature within a tissue undergoing thermal treatment.

  20. International Space Station (ISS) External Thermal Control System (ETCS) Loop A Pump Module (PM) Jettison Options Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murri, Daniel G.; Dwyer Cianciolo, Alicia; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Powell, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    On December 11, 2013, the International Space Station (ISS) experienced a failure of the External Thermal Control System (ETCS) Loop A Pump Module (PM). To minimize the number of extravehicular activities (EVA) required to replace the PM, jettisoning the faulty pump was evaluated. The objective of this study was to independently evaluate the jettison options considered by the ISS Trajectory Operations Officer (TOPO) and to provide recommendations for safe jettison of the ETCS Loop A PM. The simulation selected to evaluate the TOPO options was the NASA Engineering and Safety Center's (NESC) version of Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) developed to support another NESC assessment. The objective of the jettison analysis was twofold: (1) to independently verify TOPO posigrade and retrograde jettison results, and (2) to determine jettison guidelines based on additional sensitivity, trade study, and Monte Carlo (MC) analysis that would prevent PM recontact. Recontact in this study designates a propagated PM trajectory that comes within 500 m of the ISS propagated trajectory. An additional simulation using Systems Tool Kit (STK) was run for independent verification of the POST2 simulation results. Ultimately, the ISS Program removed the PM jettison option from consideration. However, prior to the Program decision, the retrograde jettison option remained part of the EVA contingency plan. The jettison analysis presented showed that, in addition to separation velocity/direction and the atmosphere conditions, the key variables in determining the time to recontact the ISS is highly dependent on the ballistic number (BN) difference between the object being jettisoned and the ISS.

  1. A multi-criteria assessment of scenarios on thermal processing of infectious hospital wastes: A case study for Central Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karagiannidis, A.; Papageorgiou, A.; Perkoulidis, G.; Sanida, G.; Samaras, P.

    2010-01-01

    In Greece more than 14,000 tonnes of infectious hospital waste are produced yearly; a significant part of it is still mismanaged. Only one off-site licensed incineration facility for hospital wastes is in operation, with the remaining of the market covered by various hydroclave and autoclave units, whereas numerous problems are still generally encountered regarding waste segregation, collection, transportation and management, as well as often excessive entailed costs. Everyday practices still include dumping the majority of solid hospital waste into household disposal sites and landfills after sterilization, still largely without any preceding recycling and separation steps. Discussed in the present paper are the implemented and future treatment practices of infectious hospital wastes in Central Macedonia; produced quantities are reviewed, actual treatment costs are addressed critically, whereas the overall situation in Greece is discussed. Moreover, thermal treatment processes that could be applied for the treatment of infectious hospital wastes in the region are assessed via the multi-criteria decision method Analytic Hierarchy Process. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis was performed and the analysis demonstrated that a centralized autoclave or hydroclave plant near Thessaloniki is the best performing option, depending however on the selection and weighing of criteria of the multi-criteria process. Moreover the study found that a common treatment option for the treatment of all infectious hospital wastes produced in the Region of Central Macedonia, could offer cost and environmental benefits. In general the multi-criteria decision method, as well as the conclusions and remarks of this study can be used as a basis for future planning and anticipation of the needs for investments in the area of medical waste management.

  2. Deep Unfolding for Topic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Jen-Tzung; Lee, Chao-Hsi

    2018-02-01

    Deep unfolding provides an approach to integrate the probabilistic generative models and the deterministic neural networks. Such an approach is benefited by deep representation, easy interpretation, flexible learning and stochastic modeling. This study develops the unsupervised and supervised learning of deep unfolded topic models for document representation and classification. Conventionally, the unsupervised and supervised topic models are inferred via the variational inference algorithm where the model parameters are estimated by maximizing the lower bound of logarithm of marginal likelihood using input documents without and with class labels, respectively. The representation capability or classification accuracy is constrained by the variational lower bound and the tied model parameters across inference procedure. This paper aims to relax these constraints by directly maximizing the end performance criterion and continuously untying the parameters in learning process via deep unfolding inference (DUI). The inference procedure is treated as the layer-wise learning in a deep neural network. The end performance is iteratively improved by using the estimated topic parameters according to the exponentiated updates. Deep learning of topic models is therefore implemented through a back-propagation procedure. Experimental results show the merits of DUI with increasing number of layers compared with variational inference in unsupervised as well as supervised topic models.

  3. Interaction between thermal/hydraulics, human factors and system analysis for assessing feed and bleed risk benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanore, J.M.; Caron, J.L.

    1987-11-01

    For probabilistic analysis of accident sequences, thermal/hydraulics, human factors and systems operation problems are frequently closely interrelated. This presentation will discuss a typical example which illustrates this interrelation: total loss of feedwater flow. It will present thermal/hydraulic analysises performed, how the T/H analysises are related to human factors and systems operation, and how, based on this, the failure probability of the feed and bleed cooling mode was evaluated

  4. Life Cycle Assessment of Thermal Treatment Technologies. An environmental and financial systems analysis of gasification, incineration and landfilling of waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assefa, Getachew; Eriksson, Ola [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Industrial Ecology; Jaeraas, Sven; Kusar, Henrik [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Chemical Technology

    2003-05-01

    A technology which is currently developed by researchers at KTH is catalytic combustion. which is one component of a gasification system. Instead of performing the combustion in the gas turbine by a flame, a catalyst is used. When the development of a new technology (as catalytic combustion) reaches a certain step where it is possible to quantify material-, energy- and capital flows, the prerequisites for performing a systems analysis is at hand. The systems analysis can be used to expand the know-how about the potential advantages of the catalytic combustion technology by highlighting its function as a component of a larger system. In this way it may be possible to point out weak points which have to be investigated more, but also strong points to emphasise the importance of further development. The aim of this project was to assess the energy turnover as well as the potential environmental impacts and economic costs of thermal treatment technologies in general and catalytic combustion in particular. By using a holistic assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of catalytic combustion of waste it was possible to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the technology under different conditions. Following different treatment scenarios have been studied: (1) Gasification with catalytic combustion, (2) Gasification with flame combustion, (3) Incineration with energy recovery and (4) Landfilling with gas collection. In the study compensatory district heating is produced by combustion. of biofuel. The power used for running the processes in the scenarios is supplied by the waste-to-energy technologies themselves while compensatory power is assumed to be produced. from natural gas. The emissions from the system studied were classified and characterised using methodology from Life Cycle Assessment into the following environmental impact categories: Global Warming Potential, Acidification Potential, Eutrophication Potential and finally Formation of Photochemical

  5. Assessment of Extent and Degree of Thermal Damage to Polymeric Materials in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvares, N. J.

    1984-02-01

    Thermal damage to susceptible materials in accessible regions of the TMI-2 reactor building shows damage-distribution patterns that indicate non-uniform intensity of exposure. No clear explanation for non-uniformity is found in existing evidence; e.g., in some regions a lack of thermally susceptible materials frustrates analysis. Elsewhere, burned materials are present next to materials that seem similar but appear unscathed-leading to conjecture that the latter materials preferentially absorb water vapor during periods of high local steam concentration. Most of the polar crane pendant shows heavy burns on one half of its circumferential surface. This evidence suggests that the polar crane pendant side that experienced heaviest burn damage was exposed to intense radiant energy from a transient fire plume in the reactor containment volume. Tests and simple heat-transfer calculations based on pressure and temperature records from the accident show that the atmosphere inside the reactor building was probably 8% hydrogen in air, a value not inconsistent with the extent of burn damage. Burn-pattern geography indicates uniform thermal exposure in the dome volume to the 406-ft level (about 6 ft below the polar crane girder), partial thermal exposure in the volume between the 406- and 347-ft levels as indicated by the polar crane cable, and lack of damage to most thermally susceptible materials in the west quadrant of the reactor building; some evidence of thermal exposure Is seen in the free volume between the 305- and 347-ft levels. (author)

  6. Quantum mechanics II advanced topics

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekar, S

    2015-01-01

    Quantum Mechanics II: Advanced Topics uses more than a decade of research and the authors’ own teaching experience to expound on some of the more advanced topics and current research in quantum mechanics. A follow-up to the authors introductory book Quantum Mechanics I: The Fundamentals, this book begins with a chapter on quantum field theory, and goes on to present basic principles, key features, and applications. It outlines recent quantum technologies and phenomena, and introduces growing topics of interest in quantum mechanics. The authors describe promising applications that include ghost imaging, detection of weak amplitude objects, entangled two-photon microscopy, detection of small displacements, lithography, metrology, and teleportation of optical images. They also present worked-out examples and provide numerous problems at the end of each chapter.

  7. Topical application of hemostatic paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mizanur Rahman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available As a measure to control minor surgical bleeding, surgeons usually depend on a number of hemostatic aids. Topical use of bovine thrombin is a widely used procedure to arrest such minor bleeding. A 35 year old male sergeant of Bangladesh Air Force presented with repeated development of hematoma in his left thigh without any history of trauma or previous history of bleeding. Critical analysis of the patient’s history, routine and sophisticated hematological investigations revealed that the patient developed anti-thrombin antibody following the application of hemostatic paste in the tooth socket five years back during minor dental procedure to stop ignorable bleeding episodes. Therefore, topical use of hemostatic glue/paste or bovine thrombin should be avoided to desist minor bleeding as recombinant human thrombin is now available for topical use.

  8. The clinical impact of vehicle technology using a patented formulation of benzoyl peroxide 5%/clindamycin 1% gel: comparative assessments of skin tolerability and evaluation of combination use with a topical retinoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosso, James Q; Tanghetti, Emil

    2006-02-01

    A major challenge encountered in clinical practice in patients with acne vulgaris is irritation related to topical medications used for treatment. Advances in vehicle technology have improved formulations containing active ingredients known to produce irritation in some patients, such as benzoyl peroxide (BP) and topical retinoids. Clinical studies, including combination therapy studies have demonstrated that certain additives, such as silicates and specific humectants, reduce irritation by maintaining barrier integrity. A patented gel formulation of BP 5%/clindamycin phosphate 1% (clindamycin) containing dimethicone and glycerin has been studied both as a monotherapy and in combination with topical retinoid use. This article evaluates specific vehicle additives included in this gel formulation and explains their role in reducing irritation. Data from clinical trials utilizing this technology in acne management are also reviewed.

  9. Selected topics in nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'ev, V.G.; Gromov, K.Ya.; Malov, L.A.; Shilov, V.M.

    1994-01-01

    The Fourth International Conference on selected topics in nuclear structure was held at Dubna in July 1994 on recent experimental and theoretical investigations in nuclear structure. Topics discussed were the following: nuclear structure at low-energy excitations (collective quasiparticle phenomena, proton-neutron interactions, microscopic and phenomenological theories of nuclear structure; nuclear structure studies with charged particles. heavy ions, neutrons and photons; nuclei at high angular momenta and superdeformation, structure and decay properties of giant resonances, charge-exchange resonances and β-decay; semiclassical approach of large amplitude collective motion and structure of hot nuclei

  10. Topics in millimeter wave technology

    CERN Document Server

    Button, Kenneth

    1988-01-01

    Topics in Millimeter Wave Technology, Volume 1 presents topics related to millimeter wave technology, including fin-lines and passive components realized in fin-lines, suspended striplines, suspended substrate microstrips, and modal power exchange in multimode fibers. A miniaturized monopulse assembly constructed in planar waveguide with multimode scalar horn feeds is also described. This volume is comprised of five chapters; the first of which deals with the analysis and synthesis techniques for fin-lines as well as the various passive components realized in fin-line. Tapers, discontinuities,

  11. Selected topics in nuclear structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solov` ev, V G; Gromov, K Ya; Malov, L A; Shilov, V M

    1994-12-31

    The Fourth International Conference on selected topics in nuclear structure was held at Dubna in July 1994 on recent experimental and theoretical investigations in nuclear structure. Topics discussed were the following: nuclear structure at low-energy excitations (collective quasiparticle phenomena, proton-neutron interactions, microscopic and phenomenological theories of nuclear structure; nuclear structure studies with charged particles). heavy ions, neutrons and photons; nuclei at high angular momenta and superdeformation, structure and decay properties of giant resonances, charge-exchange resonances and {beta}-decay; semiclassical approach of large amplitude collective motion and structure of hot nuclei.

  12. Topics in current aerosol research

    CERN Document Server

    Hidy, G M

    1971-01-01

    Topics in Current Aerosol Research deals with the fundamental aspects of aerosol science, with emphasis on experiment and theory describing highly dispersed aerosols (HDAs) as well as the dynamics of charged suspensions. Topics covered range from the basic properties of HDAs to their formation and methods of generation; sources of electric charges; interactions between fluid and aerosol particles; and one-dimensional motion of charged cloud of particles. This volume is comprised of 13 chapters and begins with an introduction to the basic properties of HDAs, followed by a discussion on the form

  13. Extended use of alanine irradiated in experimental reactor for combined gamma- and neutron-dose assessment by ESR spectroscopy and thermal neutron fluence assessment by measurement of (14)C by LSC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoníček, B; Kučera, J; Světlík, I; Viererbl, L; Lahodová, Z; Tomášková, L; Cabalka, M

    2014-11-01

    Gamma- and neutron doses in an experimental reactor were measured using alanine/electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry. The absorbed dose in alanine was decomposed into contributions caused by gamma and neutron radiation using neutron kerma factors. To overcome a low sensitivity of the alanine/ESR response to thermal neutrons, a novel method has been proposed for the assessment of a thermal neutron flux using the (14)N(n,p) (14)C reaction on nitrogen present in alanine and subsequent measurement of (14)C by liquid scintillation counting (LSC). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment on 900–1300 MWe PWRs of the ASTEC-based simulation tool of SGTR thermal-hydraulics for the IRSN Emergency Technical Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foucher, L., E-mail: laurent.foucher@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PSN-RES/SAG, Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance 13115 (France); Cousin, F.; Fleurot, J. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PSN-RES/SAG, Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance 13115 (France); Brethes, S. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-CRI/SESUC, Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance 13115 (France)

    2014-06-01

    In the event of an accident occurring in a nuclear power plant (NPP), being able to predict the amount of released radioactive substances in the environment is of prime importance. Depending on the severity of the accident, it can be necessary to quickly and efficiently protect the population and the surrounding environment from the associated radiological consequences. In France, the IRSN Emergency Technical Centre provides a technical support in decision making in case of a nuclear accident. The main objectives are to evaluate and predict the plant behaviour and radioactive releases during the accident. Different types of complementary tools are used: expert assessments, pre-calculated databases, simulation tools, etc. In the case of Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR) accidents that may lead to significant radioactive releases to the atmosphere through the steam generator relief valves, IRSN is currently improving the simulation tools for diagnosis in crisis management. The objective is to adapt the thermal-hydraulic and FP behaviour modules of the severe accident integral code ASTEC V2.0, jointly developed by IRSN and its German counterpart GRS, to crisis management requirements. These requirements impose a fast running, highly reliable (accurate physical results), flexible and simple tool. This paper summarizes the results of the benchmarks between the ASTEC V2.0 thermal-hydraulic module and the CATHARE 2 (V2.5) French reference thermal-hydraulics code on several SGTR scenarios both for PWR 900 and 1300 MWe, with a particular emphasis on the computational time and physical models assessment. The overall agreement between both codes is good on the primary and secondary circuit thermal-hydraulic parameters. Moreover, the reliability and fast computational time of the thermal-hydraulic module of ASTEC V2.0 code appeared very satisfactory and in accordance with the requirements of an emergency tool.

  15. Assessment on 900–1300 MWe PWRs of the ASTEC-based simulation tool of SGTR thermal-hydraulics for the IRSN Emergency Technical Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foucher, L.; Cousin, F.; Fleurot, J.; Brethes, S.

    2014-01-01

    In the event of an accident occurring in a nuclear power plant (NPP), being able to predict the amount of released radioactive substances in the environment is of prime importance. Depending on the severity of the accident, it can be necessary to quickly and efficiently protect the population and the surrounding environment from the associated radiological consequences. In France, the IRSN Emergency Technical Centre provides a technical support in decision making in case of a nuclear accident. The main objectives are to evaluate and predict the plant behaviour and radioactive releases during the accident. Different types of complementary tools are used: expert assessments, pre-calculated databases, simulation tools, etc. In the case of Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR) accidents that may lead to significant radioactive releases to the atmosphere through the steam generator relief valves, IRSN is currently improving the simulation tools for diagnosis in crisis management. The objective is to adapt the thermal-hydraulic and FP behaviour modules of the severe accident integral code ASTEC V2.0, jointly developed by IRSN and its German counterpart GRS, to crisis management requirements. These requirements impose a fast running, highly reliable (accurate physical results), flexible and simple tool. This paper summarizes the results of the benchmarks between the ASTEC V2.0 thermal-hydraulic module and the CATHARE 2 (V2.5) French reference thermal-hydraulics code on several SGTR scenarios both for PWR 900 and 1300 MWe, with a particular emphasis on the computational time and physical models assessment. The overall agreement between both codes is good on the primary and secondary circuit thermal-hydraulic parameters. Moreover, the reliability and fast computational time of the thermal-hydraulic module of ASTEC V2.0 code appeared very satisfactory and in accordance with the requirements of an emergency tool