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Sample records for assessment sr-can contributions

  1. Independent Calculations for the SR Can Assessment. External review contribution in support of SKI's and SSI's review of SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maul, Philip; Robinson, Peter; Bond, Alex; Benbow, Steven (Quintessa Limited, Henley-on-Thames (GB))

    2008-03-15

    makes a difference of more than a factor of 2 in the calculated doses. 9. The lost buffer failure mode is critical to the overall risk quantification, and SKB's evaluation of this failure mode appears to be preliminary in nature. The distribution of failure times for canisters is critical, but it has not been possible to verify fully SKB's corrosion calculations. Further consideration of both the calculations presented by SKB and independent evaluations are required in order to provide a more detailed assessment of the validity of the approach taken in SR-Can. 10. The use of the independent Discrete Fracture Network calculations undertaken by Clearwater Hardrock Consulting has enabled alternative hydrogeological parameters to be used in the AMBER radionuclide transport calculations, contributing to an assessment of the robustness of the conclusions drawn by SKB. Areas where additional independent calculations would be valuable have been identified and these are planned for inclusion in the programme for 2008

  2. International Expert Review of Sr-Can: Safety Assessment Methodology - External review contribution in support of SSI's and SKI's review of SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, Budhi; Egan, Michael; Roehlig, Klaus-Juergen; Chapman, Neil; Wilmot, Roger

    2008-03-01

    In 2006, SKB published a safety assessment (SR-Can) as part of its work to support a licence application for the construction of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The purposes of the SR-Can project were stated in the main project report to be: 1. To make a first assessment of the safety of potential KBS-3 repositories at Forsmark and Laxemar to dispose of canisters as specified in the application for the encapsulation plant. 2. To provide feedback to design development, to SKB's research and development (R and D) programme, to further site investigations and to future safety assessments. 3. To foster a dialogue with the authorities that oversee SKB's activities, i.e. the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI, and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, SSI, regarding interpretation of applicable regulations, as a preparation for the SR-Site project. To help inform their review of SKB's proposed approach to development of the longterm safety case, the authorities appointed three international expert review teams to carry out a review of SKB's SR-Can safety assessment report. Comments from one of these teams - the Safety Assessment Methodology (SAM) review team - are presented in this document. The SAM review team's scope of work included an examination of SKB's documentation of the assessment ('Long-term safety for KBS-3 Repositories at Forsmark and Laxemar - a first evaluation' and several supporting reports) and hearings with SKB staff and contractors, held in March 2007. As directed by SKI and SSI, the SAM review team focused on methodological aspects and sought to determine whether SKB's proposed safety assessment methodology is likely to be suitable for use in the future SR-Site and to assess its consistency with the Swedish regulatory framework. No specific evaluation of long-term safety or site acceptability was undertaken by any of the review teams. SKI and SSI's Terms of Reference for the SAM review team requested that consideration be given

  3. Review of SKB's Safety Assessment SR-Can: Contributions in Support of SKI's and SSI's Review by External Consultants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-03-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) plans to submit a license application for the construction of a repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden 2010. In support of this application SKB will present a safety report, SR-Site, on the repository's long-term safety and radiological consequences. As a preparation for SR-Site, SKB published the preliminary safety assessment SR-Can in November 2006. The purposes were to document a first evaluation of long-term safety for the two candidate sites at Forsmark and Laxemar and to provide feedback to SKB's future programme of work. An important objective of the authorities' review of SR-Can is to provide guidance to SKB on the complete safety reporting for the license application. The authorities have engaged external experts for independent modelling, analysis and review, with the aim to provide a range of expert opinions related to the sufficiency and appropriateness of various aspects of SR-Can. The conclusions and judgments in this report are those of the authors and may not necessarily coincide with those of SKI and SSI. The authorities own review will be published separately (SKI Report 2008:23, SSI Report 2008:04 E). This report compiles contributions from several specific research projects. The separate reviews cover topics regarding the engineered barrier system, the quality assurance, the climate evolution and its effects, and the ecosystems and environmental impacts. All contributions are in English apart from the review concerning ecosystems and environmental impacts, which is presented in Swedish

  4. Review of SKB's Safety Assessment SR-Can: Contributions in Support of SKI's and SSI's Review by External Consultants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-03-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) plans to submit a license application for the construction of a repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden 2010. In support of this application SKB will present a safety report, SR-Site, on the repository's long-term safety and radiological consequences. As a preparation for SR-Site, SKB published the preliminary safety assessment SR-Can in November 2006. The purposes were to document a first evaluation of long-term safety for the two candidate sites at Forsmark and Laxemar and to provide feedback to SKB's future programme of work. An important objective of the authorities' review of SR-Can is to provide guidance to SKB on the complete safety reporting for the license application. The authorities have engaged external experts for independent modelling, analysis and review, with the aim to provide a range of expert opinions related to the sufficiency and appropriateness of various aspects of SR-Can. The conclusions and judgments in this report are those of the authors and may not necessarily coincide with those of SKI and SSI. The authorities own review will be published separately (SKI Report 2008:23, SSI Report 2008:04 E). This report compiles contributions from several specific research projects. The separate reviews cover topics regarding the engineered barrier system, the quality assurance, the climate evolution and its effects, and the ecosystems and environmental impacts. All contributions are in English apart from the review concerning ecosystems and environmental impacts, which is presented in Swedish

  5. International Expert Review of Sr-Can: Safety Assessment Methodology - External review contribution in support of SSI's and SKI's review of SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagar, Budhi (Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (US)); Egan, Michael (Quintessa Limited, Henley-on-Thames (GB)); Roehlig, Klaus-Juergen (Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (DE)); Chapman, Neil (Independent Consultant (XX)); Wilmot, Roger (Galson Sciences Limited, Oakham (GB))

    2008-03-15

    In 2006, SKB published a safety assessment (SR-Can) as part of its work to support a licence application for the construction of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The purposes of the SR-Can project were stated in the main project report to be: 1. To make a first assessment of the safety of potential KBS-3 repositories at Forsmark and Laxemar to dispose of canisters as specified in the application for the encapsulation plant. 2. To provide feedback to design development, to SKB's research and development (R and D) programme, to further site investigations and to future safety assessments. 3. To foster a dialogue with the authorities that oversee SKB's activities, i.e. the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI, and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, SSI, regarding interpretation of applicable regulations, as a preparation for the SR-Site project. To help inform their review of SKB's proposed approach to development of the longterm safety case, the authorities appointed three international expert review teams to carry out a review of SKB's SR-Can safety assessment report. Comments from one of these teams - the Safety Assessment Methodology (SAM) review team - are presented in this document. The SAM review team's scope of work included an examination of SKB's documentation of the assessment ('Long-term safety for KBS-3 Repositories at Forsmark and Laxemar - a first evaluation' and several supporting reports) and hearings with SKB staff and contractors, held in March 2007. As directed by SKI and SSI, the SAM review team focused on methodological aspects and sought to determine whether SKB's proposed safety assessment methodology is likely to be suitable for use in the future SR-Site and to assess its consistency with the Swedish regulatory framework. No specific evaluation of long-term safety or site acceptability was undertaken by any of the review teams. SKI and SSI's Terms of Reference for the SAM

  6. Geosphere process report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skagius, Kristina

    2006-09-01

    This report documents geosphere processes identified as relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS- repository, and forms an important part of the reporting of the safety assessment SR-Can. The detailed assessment methodology, including the role of the process report in the assessment, is described in the SR-Can Main report. The following excerpts describe the methodology, and clarify the role of this process report in the assessment. The repository system, broadly defined as the deposited spent nuclear fuel, the engineered barriers surrounding it, the host rock and the biosphere in the proximity of the repository, will evolve over time. Future states of the system will depend on the initial state of the system, a number of radiation related, thermal, hydraulic, mechanical, chemical and biological processes acting within the repository system over time, and external influences acting on the system. A methodology in ten steps has been developed for SR-Can described below. Identification of factors to consider (FEP processing): This step consists of identifying all the factors that need to be included in the analysis. Experience from earlier safety assessments and KBS-specific and international databases of relevant features, events and processes influencing long-term safety are utilised. Based on the results of the FEP processing, an SR-Can FEP catalogue, containing FEPs to be handled in SR-Can, has been established. The initial state of the system is described based on the design specifications of the KBS repository, a descriptive model of the repository site and a site-specific layout of the repository. The initial state of the fuel and the engineered components is that immediately after deposition, as described in the SR-Can Initial state report. The initial state of the geosphere and the biosphere is that of the natural system prior to excavation, as described in the site descriptive models. The repository layouts adapted to the sites are provided in underground

  7. Geosphere process report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skagius, Kristina [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (SE)] (ed.)

    2006-09-15

    This report documents geosphere processes identified as relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS- repository, and forms an important part of the reporting of the safety assessment SR-Can. The detailed assessment methodology, including the role of the process report in the assessment, is described in the SR-Can Main report. The following excerpts describe the methodology, and clarify the role of this process report in the assessment. The repository system, broadly defined as the deposited spent nuclear fuel, the engineered barriers surrounding it, the host rock and the biosphere in the proximity of the repository, will evolve over time. Future states of the system will depend on the initial state of the system, a number of radiation related, thermal, hydraulic, mechanical, chemical and biological processes acting within the repository system over time, and external influences acting on the system. A methodology in ten steps has been developed for SR-Can described below. Identification of factors to consider (FEP processing): This step consists of identifying all the factors that need to be included in the analysis. Experience from earlier safety assessments and KBS-specific and international databases of relevant features, events and processes influencing long-term safety are utilised. Based on the results of the FEP processing, an SR-Can FEP catalogue, containing FEPs to be handled in SR-Can, has been established. The initial state of the system is described based on the design specifications of the KBS repository, a descriptive model of the repository site and a site-specific layout of the repository. The initial state of the fuel and the engineered components is that immediately after deposition, as described in the SR-Can Initial state report. The initial state of the geosphere and the biosphere is that of the natural system prior to excavation, as described in the site descriptive models. The repository layouts adapted to the sites are provided in underground

  8. Data report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahlund, Fredrik; Andersson, Johan; Loefgren, Martin

    2006-11-01

    This report is the data report derived within the project SR-Can. The purpose of the data report is to present input data, with uncertainty estimates, for the SR-Can assessment calculations. Data presented in the report have been derived using standardised procedures following a methodology which is presented in the initial part of the report. In this part, a template is presented that has been used when assessing input data in supporting documents as illustrated in subsequent chapters of the data report. By using the template, decisions by the SR-Can team are separated from expert input. This increases the traceability of assessment decisions. The data report supplies assessment data for all parts of the repository system, the fuel, the canister, the buffer and backfill and the geosphere. For the geosphere, many of the data are based on information obtained during the site investigation programme

  9. Data report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahlund, Fredrik [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden); Loefgren, Martin [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-11-15

    This report is the data report derived within the project SR-Can. The purpose of the data report is to present input data, with uncertainty estimates, for the SR-Can assessment calculations. Data presented in the report have been derived using standardised procedures following a methodology which is presented in the initial part of the report. In this part, a template is presented that has been used when assessing input data in supporting documents as illustrated in subsequent chapters of the data report. By using the template, decisions by the SR-Can team are separated from expert input. This increases the traceability of assessment decisions. The data report supplies assessment data for all parts of the repository system, the fuel, the canister, the buffer and backfill and the geosphere. For the geosphere, many of the data are based on information obtained during the site investigation programme.

  10. Interim process report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellin, Patrick

    2004-08-01

    This report is a documentation of buffer processes identified as relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository. The report is part of the interim reporting of the safety assessment SR-Can, see further the Interim main report. The final SR-Can reporting will support SKB's application to build an Encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel and is to be produced in 2006. The purpose of this report is to document the scientific knowledge of the processes to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment. The documentation is thus from a scientific point of not exhaustive since such a treatment is neither necessary for the purposes of the safety assessment nor possible within the scope of an assessment. The purpose is further to determine the handling of each process in the safety assessment and to demonstrate how uncertainties are taken care of, given the suggested handling. The process documentation in the SR 97 version of the Process report is a starting point for this SR-Can interim version. As further described in the Interim main report, the list of relevant processes has been reviewed and slightly extended by comparison to other databases. Furthermore, the backfill has been included as a system part of its own, rather than being described together with the buffer as in SR 97. Apart from giving an interim account of the documentation and handling of buffer processes in SR-Can, this report is meant to serve as a template for the forthcoming documentation of processes occurring in other parts of the repository system. A complete list of processes can be found in the Interim FEP report for the safety assessment SR-Can. All material presented in this document is preliminary in nature and will possibly be updated as the SR-Can project progresses

  11. Interim process report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellin, Patrick (ed.)

    2004-08-01

    This report is a documentation of buffer processes identified as relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository. The report is part of the interim reporting of the safety assessment SR-Can, see further the Interim main report. The final SR-Can reporting will support SKB's application to build an Encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel and is to be produced in 2006. The purpose of this report is to document the scientific knowledge of the processes to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment. The documentation is thus from a scientific point of not exhaustive since such a treatment is neither necessary for the purposes of the safety assessment nor possible within the scope of an assessment. The purpose is further to determine the handling of each process in the safety assessment and to demonstrate how uncertainties are taken care of, given the suggested handling. The process documentation in the SR 97 version of the Process report is a starting point for this SR-Can interim version. As further described in the Interim main report, the list of relevant processes has been reviewed and slightly extended by comparison to other databases. Furthermore, the backfill has been included as a system part of its own, rather than being described together with the buffer as in SR 97. Apart from giving an interim account of the documentation and handling of buffer processes in SR-Can, this report is meant to serve as a template for the forthcoming documentation of processes occurring in other parts of the repository system. A complete list of processes can be found in the Interim FEP report for the safety assessment SR-Can. All material presented in this document is preliminary in nature and will possibly be updated as the SR-Can project progresses.

  12. Interim FEP report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skagius, Kristina (ed.) [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-08-01

    This report describes the work with identification and structuring of features, events and processes (FEPs) that has been carried out within the scope of the SR-Can safety assessment up to the time of the interim reporting of the project. The overall objective of the work is to develop a database of features, events and processes in a format that would facilitate both a systematic analysis of FEPs and documentation of the FEP analysis as well as facilitate revisions and updates to be made in connection with new safety assessments. This overall objective also includes the development of procedures for a systematic FEP analysis as well as to apply these procedures in order to arrive at an SR-Can version of the FEP database. The work started by implementing the content of the SR 97 Process report into a database format suitable for import and processing of FEP information from other sources. The SR 97 version of the database was systematically audited against the NEA database with Project FEPs, version 1.2. In addition, an earlier audit of the SR 97 process report against the interaction matrices developed for a deep repository of the KBS-3 type was revisited and updated. Relevant FEPs from the audit were sorted into three main categories in the SR-Can database i) FEPs related to the initial states of the repository system, ii) FEPs related to internal processes of the repository system, and iii) FEPs related to external impacts on the repository system. These groups of FEPs were further processed for making decisions on how to handle these FEPs in the assessment. Biosphere processes were not included in the SR 97 Process report and there is thus not the same basis for updating these descriptions as for the engineered barriers and the geosphere. All biosphere FEPs from the audit have therefore been compiled in a single category in the database, but remain to be further handled. FEPs were also categorised as irrelevant or as being related to methodology on a general

  13. Interim FEP report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skagius, Kristina

    2004-08-01

    This report describes the work with identification and structuring of features, events and processes (FEPs) that has been carried out within the scope of the SR-Can safety assessment up to the time of the interim reporting of the project. The overall objective of the work is to develop a database of features, events and processes in a format that would facilitate both a systematic analysis of FEPs and documentation of the FEP analysis as well as facilitate revisions and updates to be made in connection with new safety assessments. This overall objective also includes the development of procedures for a systematic FEP analysis as well as to apply these procedures in order to arrive at an SR-Can version of the FEP database. The work started by implementing the content of the SR 97 Process report into a database format suitable for import and processing of FEP information from other sources. The SR 97 version of the database was systematically audited against the NEA database with Project FEPs, version 1.2. In addition, an earlier audit of the SR 97 process report against the interaction matrices developed for a deep repository of the KBS-3 type was revisited and updated. Relevant FEPs from the audit were sorted into three main categories in the SR-Can database i) FEPs related to the initial states of the repository system, ii) FEPs related to internal processes of the repository system, and iii) FEPs related to external impacts on the repository system. These groups of FEPs were further processed for making decisions on how to handle these FEPs in the assessment. Biosphere processes were not included in the SR 97 Process report and there is thus not the same basis for updating these descriptions as for the engineered barriers and the geosphere. All biosphere FEPs from the audit have therefore been compiled in a single category in the database, but remain to be further handled. FEPs were also categorised as irrelevant or as being related to methodology on a general

  14. FEP report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skagius, Kristina [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-11-15

    This report documents the analysis and processing of features, events and processes, FEPs, that has been carried out within the safety assessment SR-Can, and forms an important part of the reporting of the project. The SR-Can project is a preparatory stage for the SR-Site assessment, and the report from that project will be used in support of SKB's application to build a final repository. The overall objective of the FEP analysis and processing included development of a database of features, events and processes, an SKB FEP database, in a format that facilitates both a systematic analysis of FEPs and documentation of that FEP analysis, as well as facilitating revisions and updates to be made in connection with new safety assessments. The overall objective also extended to the development of procedures for such a systematic FEP analysis as well as the application of those procedures in order to establish an SR-Can FEP catalogue within the framework of the SKB FEP database. The work started by implementing the content of the SR 97 Process Report into a database format suitable for import and processing of FEP information from other sources. The SR 97 version of the database was systematically audited against the NEA database with Project FEPs, version 1.2. In addition, an earlier audit of the SR 97 process report against the interaction matrices developed for a deep repository of the KBS-3 type was revisited and updated. Relevant FEPs identified through the audit process were sorted into three main categories i) FEPs related to the initial states of the repository system, ii) FEPs related to internal processes of the repository system, and iii) FEPs related to external impacts on the repository system. This resulted in additions to the SR 97 list of processes and to the lists of initial state FEPs and external factors to be addressed in further processing. The further processing of the initial state FEPs revealed that those FEPs that are not covered by the

  15. FEP report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skagius, Kristina

    2006-11-01

    This report documents the analysis and processing of features, events and processes, FEPs, that has been carried out within the safety assessment SR-Can, and forms an important part of the reporting of the project. The SR-Can project is a preparatory stage for the SR-Site assessment, and the report from that project will be used in support of SKB's application to build a final repository. The overall objective of the FEP analysis and processing included development of a database of features, events and processes, an SKB FEP database, in a format that facilitates both a systematic analysis of FEPs and documentation of that FEP analysis, as well as facilitating revisions and updates to be made in connection with new safety assessments. The overall objective also extended to the development of procedures for such a systematic FEP analysis as well as the application of those procedures in order to establish an SR-Can FEP catalogue within the framework of the SKB FEP database. The work started by implementing the content of the SR 97 Process Report into a database format suitable for import and processing of FEP information from other sources. The SR 97 version of the database was systematically audited against the NEA database with Project FEPs, version 1.2. In addition, an earlier audit of the SR 97 process report against the interaction matrices developed for a deep repository of the KBS-3 type was revisited and updated. Relevant FEPs identified through the audit process were sorted into three main categories i) FEPs related to the initial states of the repository system, ii) FEPs related to internal processes of the repository system, and iii) FEPs related to external impacts on the repository system. This resulted in additions to the SR 97 list of processes and to the lists of initial state FEPs and external factors to be addressed in further processing. The further processing of the initial state FEPs revealed that those FEPs that are not covered by the

  16. Interim data report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahlund, Fredrik; Andersson, Johan

    2004-08-01

    This document is the interim data report in the project SR-Can. The purpose of the data report is to present input data, with uncertainty estimates, for the SR-Can assessment calculations. Besides input data, the report also describes the standardised procedures used when deriving the input data and the corresponding uncertainty estimates. However, in the present interim version of the report (written in the initial stage of the project when site characterisation has yet not been completed) the standardised procedures have not been possible to apply for most of the data and, in order to present a compilation of the data used in the assessment, much of the input data is presented without following the standardised procedures. This will however be changed for the final version of the SR-Can data report, in order to show the methodology that will be used in the final version one example of how input data will be presented is included (migration data for buffer) . The recommended input data for the assessment calculations are, for the interim version, mainly based on SR 97 Beberg data, these are merely presented without any background or uncertainty discussion (this is presented in the SR 97 data report)

  17. Model summary report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahlund, Fredrik

    2006-10-15

    This document is the model summary report for the safety assessment SR-Can. In the report, the quality assurance measures conducted for the assessment codes are presented together with the chosen methodology. In the safety assessment SR-Can, a number of different computer codes are used. In order to better understand how these codes are related Assessment Model Flowcharts, AMFs, have been produced within the project. From these, it is possible to identify the different modelling tasks and consequently also the different computer codes used. A large number of different computer codes are used in the assessment of which some are commercial while others are developed especially for the current assessment project. QA requirements must on the one hand take this diversity into account and on the other hand be well defined. In the methodology section of the report the following requirements are defined: It must be demonstrated that the code is suitable for its purpose; It must be demonstrated that the code has been properly used; and, It must be demonstrated that the code development process has followed appropriate procedures and that the code produces accurate results. Although the requirements are identical for all codes, the measures used to show that the requirements are fulfilled will be different for different codes (for instance due to the fact that for some software the source-code is not available for review). Subsequent to the methodology section, each assessment code is presented and it is shown how the requirements are met.

  18. Model summary report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahlund, Fredrik

    2006-10-01

    This document is the model summary report for the safety assessment SR-Can. In the report, the quality assurance measures conducted for the assessment codes are presented together with the chosen methodology. In the safety assessment SR-Can, a number of different computer codes are used. In order to better understand how these codes are related Assessment Model Flowcharts, AMFs, have been produced within the project. From these, it is possible to identify the different modelling tasks and consequently also the different computer codes used. A large number of different computer codes are used in the assessment of which some are commercial while others are developed especially for the current assessment project. QA requirements must on the one hand take this diversity into account and on the other hand be well defined. In the methodology section of the report the following requirements are defined: It must be demonstrated that the code is suitable for its purpose; It must be demonstrated that the code has been properly used; and, It must be demonstrated that the code development process has followed appropriate procedures and that the code produces accurate results. Although the requirements are identical for all codes, the measures used to show that the requirements are fulfilled will be different for different codes (for instance due to the fact that for some software the source-code is not available for review). Subsequent to the methodology section, each assessment code is presented and it is shown how the requirements are met

  19. Interim main report of the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedin, Allan [and others

    2004-08-01

    This document is an interim report on the safety assessment SR-Can (SR in the acronym stands for Safety Report and Can is short for canister). The final SR-Can report will support SKB's application to build an Encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel and is to be produced in 2006. The purpose of the present interim report is to demonstrate the methodology for safety assessment so that it can be reviewed before it is used in a license application. The assessment relates to the KBS-3 disposal concept in which copper canisters with a cast iron insert containing spent nuclear fuel are surrounded by bentonite clay and deposited at approximately 500 m depth in saturated, granitic rock. Preliminary data from the Forsmark site, presently being investigated by SKB as one of the candidate for a KBS-3 repository are used to some extent as examples. However, the collected data are yet too sparse to allow an evaluation of safety for this site. An important aim of this report is to demonstrate the proper handling of requirements on the safety assessment in applicable regulations. Therefore, regulations issued by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority are duplicated in an Appendix. The principal acceptance criterion requires that 'the annual risk of harmful effects after closure does not exceed 10{sup -6} for a representative individual in the group exposed to the greatest risk'. 'Harmful effects' refer to cancer and hereditary effects. Following the introductory chapter 1, this report outlines the methodology for the SR-Can assessment in chapter 2, and presents in chapters 3, 4 and 5 the initial state of the system and the plans and methods for handling external influences and internal processes, respectively. Function indicators are introduced in chapter 6 and a preliminary evaluation of these is given in chapter 7. The material presented in the first seven chapters is utilised in the scenario selection in chapter 8

  20. Interim main report of the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedin, Allan (ed.) [and others

    2004-08-01

    This document is an interim report on the safety assessment SR-Can (SR in the acronym stands for Safety Report and Can is short for canister). The final SR-Can report will support SKB's application to build an Encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel and is to be produced in 2006. The purpose of the present interim report is to demonstrate the methodology for safety assessment so that it can be reviewed before it is used in a license application. The assessment relates to the KBS-3 disposal concept in which copper canisters with a cast iron insert containing spent nuclear fuel are surrounded by bentonite clay and deposited at approximately 500 m depth in saturated, granitic rock. Preliminary data from the Forsmark site, presently being investigated by SKB as one of the candidate for a KBS-3 repository are used to some extent as examples. However, the collected data are yet too sparse to allow an evaluation of safety for this site. An important aim of this report is to demonstrate the proper handling of requirements on the safety assessment in applicable regulations. Therefore, regulations issued by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority are duplicated in an Appendix. The principal acceptance criterion requires that 'the annual risk of harmful effects after closure does not exceed 10{sup -6} for a representative individual in the group exposed to the greatest risk'. 'Harmful effects' refer to cancer and hereditary effects. Following the introductory chapter 1, this report outlines the methodology for the SR-Can assessment in chapter 2, and presents in chapters 3, 4 and 5 the initial state of the system and the plans and methods for handling external influences and internal processes, respectively. Function indicators are introduced in chapter 6 and a preliminary evaluation of these is given in chapter 7. The material presented in the first seven chapters is utilised in the scenario selection

  1. Interim main report of the safety assessment SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedin, Allan

    2004-08-01

    This document is an interim report on the safety assessment SR-Can (SR in the acronym stands for Safety Report and Can is short for canister). The final SR-Can report will support SKB's application to build an Encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel and is to be produced in 2006. The purpose of the present interim report is to demonstrate the methodology for safety assessment so that it can be reviewed before it is used in a license application. The assessment relates to the KBS-3 disposal concept in which copper canisters with a cast iron insert containing spent nuclear fuel are surrounded by bentonite clay and deposited at approximately 500 m depth in saturated, granitic rock. Preliminary data from the Forsmark site, presently being investigated by SKB as one of the candidate for a KBS-3 repository are used to some extent as examples. However, the collected data are yet too sparse to allow an evaluation of safety for this site. An important aim of this report is to demonstrate the proper handling of requirements on the safety assessment in applicable regulations. Therefore, regulations issued by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority are duplicated in an Appendix. The principal acceptance criterion requires that 'the annual risk of harmful effects after closure does not exceed 10 -6 for a representative individual in the group exposed to the greatest risk'. 'Harmful effects' refer to cancer and hereditary effects. Following the introductory chapter 1, this report outlines the methodology for the SR-Can assessment in chapter 2, and presents in chapters 3, 4 and 5 the initial state of the system and the plans and methods for handling external influences and internal processes, respectively. Function indicators are introduced in chapter 6 and a preliminary evaluation of these is given in chapter 7. The material presented in the first seven chapters is utilised in the scenario selection in chapter 8. Hydrogeological

  2. Planning report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    This document is a planning report for SKB's next assessment of long-term safety for a KBS 3 repository. The assessment, SR-Can, is to be finished by the end of 2005 and will be used for SKB's application to build an Encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel. Apart from outlining the methodology, the report discusses the handling in SR-Can of a number of important issues regarding the near field, the geosphere, the biosphere, the climatic evolution etc. The Swedish nuclear safety and radiation protection authorities have recently issued regulations concerning the final disposal of nuclear waste. The principal compliance criterion states that the annual risk of harmful effects must not exceed 10 -6 for a representative individual in the group exposed to the greatest risk. There are also a number of requirements on methodological aspects of the safety assessment as well as on the contents of a safety report. The regulations are reproduced in an Appendix to this report. The primary safety function of the KBS 3 system is to completely isolate the spent nuclear fuel within copper canisters over the entire assessment period, which will be one million years in SR-Can. Should a canister be damaged, the secondary safety function is to retard any releases from the canisters. The main steps of the assessment are the following: 1. Qualitative system description, FEP processing: This step consists of defining a system boundary and of describing the system on a format suitable for the safety assessment. Databases of relevant features, events and processes influencing long-term safety are structured and used as one starting point for the assessment. 2. Initial state descriptions. 3. Process descriptions: In this step all identified processes within the system boundary involved in the long-term evolution of the system are described in detail. 4. Description of boundary conditions: This step is a broad description of the evolution of the boundaries of the system, focussing mainly

  3. Planning report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    This document is a planning report for SKB's next assessment of long-term safety for a KBS 3 repository. The assessment, SR-Can, is to be finished by the end of 2005 and will be used for SKB's application to build an Encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel. Apart from outlining the methodology, the report discusses the handling in SR-Can of a number of important issues regarding the near field, the geosphere, the biosphere, the climatic evolution etc. The Swedish nuclear safety and radiation protection authorities have recently issued regulations concerning the final disposal of nuclear waste. The principal compliance criterion states that the annual risk of harmful effects must not exceed 10{sup -6} for a representative individual in the group exposed to the greatest risk. There are also a number of requirements on methodological aspects of the safety assessment as well as on the contents of a safety report. The regulations are reproduced in an Appendix to this report. The primary safety function of the KBS 3 system is to completely isolate the spent nuclear fuel within copper canisters over the entire assessment period, which will be one million years in SR-Can. Should a canister be damaged, the secondary safety function is to retard any releases from the canisters. The main steps of the assessment are the following: 1. Qualitative system description, FEP processing: This step consists of defining a system boundary and of describing the system on a format suitable for the safety assessment. Databases of relevant features, events and processes influencing long-term safety are structured and used as one starting point for the assessment. 2. Initial state descriptions. 3. Process descriptions: In this step all identified processes within the system boundary involved in the long-term evolution of the system are described in detail. 4. Description of boundary conditions: This step is a broad description of the evolution of the boundaries of the system

  4. Initial state report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pers, Karin (ed.) [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-10-15

    A comprehensive description of the initial state of the engineered parts of the repository system is one of the main bases for the safety assessment. There is no obvious definition of the time of the initial state. For the engineered part of their repository system, the time of deposition is a natural starting point and the initial state in SR-Can is, therefore, defined as the state at the time of deposition for the engineered barrier system. The initial state of the engineered parts of the repository system is largely obtained from the design specifications of the repository, including allowed tolerances or allowance for deviations. Also the manufacturing, excavation and control methods have to be described in order to adequately discuss and handle hypothetical initial states outside the allowed limits in the design specifications. It should also be noted that many parts of the repository system are as yet not finally designed, there can be many changes in the future. The design and technical solutions presented here are representative of the current stage of development. The repository system is based on the KBS-3 method, in which copper canisters with a cast iron insert containing spent nuclear fuel are surrounded by bentonite clay and deposited at 400-700 m depth in saturated granitic rock. The facility design comprises rock caverns, tunnels, deposition positions etc. Deposition tunnels are linked by tunnels for transport and communication and shafts for ventilation. One ramp and five shafts connect the surface facility to the underground repository. The ramp is used for heavy and bulky transports and the shafts are for utility systems and for transport of excavated rock, backfill and staff. For the purposes of the safety assessment, the engineered parts of the repository system have been sub-divided into a number of components or sub-systems. These are: The fuel, (also including cavities in the canister since strong interactions between the two occur if the

  5. Initial state report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pers, Karin

    2006-10-01

    A comprehensive description of the initial state of the engineered parts of the repository system is one of the main bases for the safety assessment. There is no obvious definition of the time of the initial state. For the engineered part of their repository system, the time of deposition is a natural starting point and the initial state in SR-Can is, therefore, defined as the state at the time of deposition for the engineered barrier system. The initial state of the engineered parts of the repository system is largely obtained from the design specifications of the repository, including allowed tolerances or allowance for deviations. Also the manufacturing, excavation and control methods have to be described in order to adequately discuss and handle hypothetical initial states outside the allowed limits in the design specifications. It should also be noted that many parts of the repository system are as yet not finally designed, there can be many changes in the future. The design and technical solutions presented here are representative of the current stage of development. The repository system is based on the KBS-3 method, in which copper canisters with a cast iron insert containing spent nuclear fuel are surrounded by bentonite clay and deposited at 400-700 m depth in saturated granitic rock. The facility design comprises rock caverns, tunnels, deposition positions etc. Deposition tunnels are linked by tunnels for transport and communication and shafts for ventilation. One ramp and five shafts connect the surface facility to the underground repository. The ramp is used for heavy and bulky transports and the shafts are for utility systems and for transport of excavated rock, backfill and staff. For the purposes of the safety assessment, the engineered parts of the repository system have been sub-divided into a number of components or sub-systems. These are: The fuel, (also including cavities in the canister since strong interactions between the two occur if the

  6. Climate and climate-related issues for the safety assessment SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naeslund, Jens-Ove

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to document current scientific knowledge of the climate-related conditions and processes relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment SR-Can. The report also includes a concise background description of the climate system. The report includes three main chapters: A description of the climate system (Chapter 2); Identification and discussion of climate-related issues (Chapter 3); and, A description of the evolution of climate-related conditions for the safety assessment (Chapter 4). Chapter 2 includes an overview of present knowledge of the Earth climate system and the climate conditions that can be expected to occur in Sweden on a 100,000 year time perspective. Based on this, climate-related issues relevant for the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository are identified. These are documented in Chapter 3 'Climate-related issues' to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment. Finally, in Chapter 4, 'Evolution of climate-related conditions for the safety assessment' an evolution for a 120,000 year period is presented, including discussions of identified climate-related issues of importance for repository safety. The documentation is from a scientific point of view not exhaustive, since such a treatment is neither necessary for the purposes of the safety assessment nor possible within the scope of a safety assessment. As further described in the SR-Can Main Report and in the Features Events and Processes report, the content of the present report has been audited by comparison with FEP databases compiled in other assessment projects. This report follows as far as possible the template for documentation of processes regarded as internal to the repository system. However, the term processes is not used in this report, instead the term issue has been used. Each issue includes a set of processes together resulting in the behaviour of a

  7. Climate and climate-related issues for the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeslund, Jens-Ove (comp.)

    2006-11-15

    The purpose of this report is to document current scientific knowledge of the climate-related conditions and processes relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment SR-Can. The report also includes a concise background description of the climate system. The report includes three main chapters: A description of the climate system (Chapter 2); Identification and discussion of climate-related issues (Chapter 3); and, A description of the evolution of climate-related conditions for the safety assessment (Chapter 4). Chapter 2 includes an overview of present knowledge of the Earth climate system and the climate conditions that can be expected to occur in Sweden on a 100,000 year time perspective. Based on this, climate-related issues relevant for the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository are identified. These are documented in Chapter 3 'Climate-related issues' to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment. Finally, in Chapter 4, 'Evolution of climate-related conditions for the safety assessment' an evolution for a 120,000 year period is presented, including discussions of identified climate-related issues of importance for repository safety. The documentation is from a scientific point of view not exhaustive, since such a treatment is neither necessary for the purposes of the safety assessment nor possible within the scope of a safety assessment. As further described in the SR-Can Main Report and in the Features Events and Processes report, the content of the present report has been audited by comparison with FEP databases compiled in other assessment projects. This report follows as far as possible the template for documentation of processes regarded as internal to the repository system. However, the term processes is not used in this report, instead the term issue has been used. Each issue includes a set of processes together resulting in the

  8. Handling of future human actions in the safety assessment SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moren, Lena

    2006-10-01

    This report documents the future human actions (FHA) considered in the long-term safety analysis of a KBS-3 repository. The report is one of the supporting documents to the safety assessment SR-Can. The purpose of this report is to provide an account of: General considerations concerning FHA; The methodology applied in SR-Can to assess FHA; The aspects of FHA that need to be considered in the evaluation of their impact on a deep geological repository; and The selection of representative scenarios for illustrative consequence analysis

  9. Handling of future human actions in the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moren, Lena

    2006-10-15

    This report documents the future human actions (FHA) considered in the long-term safety analysis of a KBS-3 repository. The report is one of the supporting documents to the safety assessment SR-Can. The purpose of this report is to provide an account of: General considerations concerning FHA; The methodology applied in SR-Can to assess FHA; The aspects of FHA that need to be considered in the evaluation of their impact on a deep geological repository; and The selection of representative scenarios for illustrative consequence analysis.

  10. Fuel and canister process report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werme, Lars

    2006-10-01

    This report documents fuel and canister processes identified as relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository. It forms an important part of the reporting of the safety assessment SR-Can. The detailed assessment methodology, including the role of the process report in the assessment, is described in the SR-Can Main report. The report is written by, and for, experts in the relevant scientific fields. It should though be possible for a generalist in the area of long-term safety assessments of geologic nuclear waste repositories to comprehend the contents of the report. The report is an important part of the documentation of the SR-Can project and an essential reference within the project, providing a scientifically motivated plan for the handling of geosphere processes. It is, furthermore, foreseen that the report will be essential for reviewers scrutinising the handling of geosphere issues in the SR-Can assessment. Several types of fuel will be emplaced in the repository. For the reference case with 40 years of reactor operation, the fuel quantity from boiling water reactors, BWR fuel, is estimated at 7,000 tonnes, while the quantity from pressurized water reactors, PWR fuel, is estimated at about 2,300 tonnes. In addition, 23 tonnes of mixed-oxide fuel (MOX) fuel of German origin from BWR and PWR reactors and 20 tonnes of fuel from the decommissioned heavy water reactor in Aagesta will be disposed of. To allow for future changes in the Swedish nuclear programme, the safety assessment assumes a total of 6,000 canister corresponding to 12,000 tonnes of fuel

  11. Fuel and canister process report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werme, Lars (ed.)

    2006-10-15

    This report documents fuel and canister processes identified as relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository. It forms an important part of the reporting of the safety assessment SR-Can. The detailed assessment methodology, including the role of the process report in the assessment, is described in the SR-Can Main report. The report is written by, and for, experts in the relevant scientific fields. It should though be possible for a generalist in the area of long-term safety assessments of geologic nuclear waste repositories to comprehend the contents of the report. The report is an important part of the documentation of the SR-Can project and an essential reference within the project, providing a scientifically motivated plan for the handling of geosphere processes. It is, furthermore, foreseen that the report will be essential for reviewers scrutinising the handling of geosphere issues in the SR-Can assessment. Several types of fuel will be emplaced in the repository. For the reference case with 40 years of reactor operation, the fuel quantity from boiling water reactors, BWR fuel, is estimated at 7,000 tonnes, while the quantity from pressurized water reactors, PWR fuel, is estimated at about 2,300 tonnes. In addition, 23 tonnes of mixed-oxide fuel (MOX) fuel of German origin from BWR and PWR reactors and 20 tonnes of fuel from the decommissioned heavy water reactor in Aagesta will be disposed of. To allow for future changes in the Swedish nuclear programme, the safety assessment assumes a total of 6,000 canister corresponding to 12,000 tonnes of fuel.

  12. Audit of data and code use in the SR-Can safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, T.W.; Baldwin, T.D. [Galson Sciences Ltd, 5 Grosvenor House, Melton R oad, Oakham, Rutland LE15 6AX (United Kingdom)

    2008-03-15

    Building on the findings of previous studies on data and code quality assurance (QA) in safety assessments, this report provides a review of data and code QA in the SR-Can safety assessment. The data quality audit aimed to check that the selection and use of data in the SR-Can safety assessment was appropriate, focusing on the data that underpin representations of and assumptions about canister, insert, buffer, and backfill behaviour. The SR-Can Data Report provided the initial focus for examining the traceability and reliability of data used in the safety assessment; the Data Report is one of the series of SR-Can safety assessment reports and, in this review, it was anticipated that it would provide the primary source of data on the canister, insert, buffer, and backfill. However, other safety assessment reports (the SR-Can Main Report, the Initial State Report, the Fuel and Canister Process Report, and the Buffer and Backfill Process Report) were found to provide key information on data used in the safety assessment. The quality audit of codes aimed to check that code use in the SR-Can safety assessment has been justified through a transparent and traceable process of code development and selection. The Model Summary Report provided the focus for reviewing the QA status of the codes used in the safety assessment. As well as highlighting a number of concerns regarding QA aspects of specific data sets, parameter values, and codes used in the SR-Can safety assessment (which are presented in the report), the review has led to several general observations on data and code QA that should be considered by SKB in the development and implementation of a QA system for the SR-Site safety assessment: - The SR-Site safety assessment and associated QA records should include information that demonstrates that a full QA system has been implemented in order to build confidence in the validity of the assessment. - The data and parameter values used directly in the safety

  13. The ecosystem models used for dose assessments in SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Rodolfo [Facilia AB, Bromma (Sweden)

    2006-11-15

    chronic contamination. From the simulations for the different release cases, activity concentrations in water and soil are obtained and then multiplied with the aggregated transfer factors to obtain concentrations in food products. For terrestrial ecosystems, the aggregated transfer factors in Becquerel per Kilogram of edible carbon in the food are used to calculate the activity intake and from this the effective dose rate per unit release to an adult individual. For aquatic ecosystems, only doses from the ingestion of water (for lakes) and food (for sea and lakes) are considered, as previous assessments have shown that in these types of ecosystems other exposure pathways give a very low contribution to the total doses. A sensitivity analysis of the ecosystem models is presented in the report, identifying which parameters have the largest effect on the simulation endpoints of interest. The endpoints considered are the fraction of the release that is retained in the ecosystem, the activity concentrations in soil, water and sediments, and the total dose rates from external exposure, inhalation, and ingestion of water and food. These endpoints are evaluated at different times within the simulation and a sensitivity analysis using the Morris method is carried out. For some of the scenarios considered in SR-Can, the LDF concept is not applicable. One of these scenarios comprises the contamination of ground caused by inadvertent drilling into the repository. Doses which would arise for a family using this contaminated ground for housing and food production are estimated. The other scenario which is assessed separately is the release of C-14 and Rn-222 from the repository in gaseous form, entering the biosphere via soil as a diffuse source. Pathways considered are doses from ingestion of C-14 and from inhalation of C-14 and Rn-222 outdoors as well as indoors. For these scenarios, specific dose calculations were carried out. The methods applied for these calculations and the

  14. The ecosystem models used for dose assessments in SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila, Rodolfo

    2006-11-01

    chronic contamination. From the simulations for the different release cases, activity concentrations in water and soil are obtained and then multiplied with the aggregated transfer factors to obtain concentrations in food products. For terrestrial ecosystems, the aggregated transfer factors in Becquerel per Kilogram of edible carbon in the food are used to calculate the activity intake and from this the effective dose rate per unit release to an adult individual. For aquatic ecosystems, only doses from the ingestion of water (for lakes) and food (for sea and lakes) are considered, as previous assessments have shown that in these types of ecosystems other exposure pathways give a very low contribution to the total doses. A sensitivity analysis of the ecosystem models is presented in the report, identifying which parameters have the largest effect on the simulation endpoints of interest. The endpoints considered are the fraction of the release that is retained in the ecosystem, the activity concentrations in soil, water and sediments, and the total dose rates from external exposure, inhalation, and ingestion of water and food. These endpoints are evaluated at different times within the simulation and a sensitivity analysis using the Morris method is carried out. For some of the scenarios considered in SR-Can, the LDF concept is not applicable. One of these scenarios comprises the contamination of ground caused by inadvertent drilling into the repository. Doses which would arise for a family using this contaminated ground for housing and food production are estimated. The other scenario which is assessed separately is the release of C-14 and Rn-222 from the repository in gaseous form, entering the biosphere via soil as a diffuse source. Pathways considered are doses from ingestion of C-14 and from inhalation of C-14 and Rn-222 outdoors as well as indoors. For these scenarios, specific dose calculations were carried out. The methods applied for these calculations and the

  15. Buffer and backfill process report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellin, Patrik (comp.)

    2006-09-15

    This document compiles information on processes in the buffer and deposition tunnel backfill relevant for long-term safety of a KBS-repository. It supports the safety assessment SR-Can, which is a preparatory step for a safety assessment that will support the licence application for a final repository in Sweden. The purpose of the process reports is to document the scientific knowledge of the processes to a level required for an adequate treatment of the processes in the safety assessment. The documentation is not exhaustive from a scientific point of view, since such a treatment is neither necessary for the purposes of the safety assessment nor possible within the scope of an assessment. However, it must be sufficiently detailed to motivate, by arguments founded on scientific understanding, the treatment of each process in the safety assessment. The purpose is further to determine how to handle each process in the safety assessment at an appropriate degree of detail, and to demonstrate how uncertainties are taken care of, given the suggested handling.

  16. Buffer and backfill process report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellin, Patrik

    2006-09-01

    This document compiles information on processes in the buffer and deposition tunnel backfill relevant for long-term safety of a KBS-repository. It supports the safety assessment SR-Can, which is a preparatory step for a safety assessment that will support the licence application for a final repository in Sweden. The purpose of the process reports is to document the scientific knowledge of the processes to a level required for an adequate treatment of the processes in the safety assessment. The documentation is not exhaustive from a scientific point of view, since such a treatment is neither necessary for the purposes of the safety assessment nor possible within the scope of an assessment. However, it must be sufficiently detailed to motivate, by arguments founded on scientific understanding, the treatment of each process in the safety assessment. The purpose is further to determine how to handle each process in the safety assessment at an appropriate degree of detail, and to demonstrate how uncertainties are taken care of, given the suggested handling

  17. Interim initial state report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pers, Karin (ed.) [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-07-01

    A thorough description of the initial state of the engineered parts of the repository system is one of the main bases for the SR-Can safety assessment. The initial state refers to the state at the time of deposition for the spent fuel and the engineered barriers and the natural, undisturbed state at the time of beginning of excavation for the repository for the geosphere and the biosphere. The repository system is based on the KBS-3 method, where copper canisters with a cast iron insert containing spent nuclear fuel are surrounded by bentonite clay and deposited at approximately 500 m depth in saturated, granitic rock. For the purpose of the safety assessment the engineered portion of the repository system has been divided into a number of consecutive barriers or sub-systems. The importance of a particular feature for safety has influenced the resolution into components. In principle, components close to the source term and those that play an important role for safety are treated in more detail than more peripheral components. For the option with 40 years of reactor operation, the quantity of BWR fuel is estimated at 7200 tonnes and the quantity of PWR fuel at 2300 tonnes. The fuel burn-up may vary from 15 MWd/kgU up to 60 MWd/kg. Geometric aspects of the fuel cladding tubes of importance in the safety assessment are, as a rule, handled sufficiently pessimistically in analyses of radionuclide transport that differences between different fuel types are irrelevant. The relative differences in radionuclide inventory with respect to burn-up are small. Deviations in inventory and deviating or damaged fuel are not considered in the SR-Can interim reporting but will be handled in the final reporting of SR-Can. The canister consists of an inner container, the insert of cast iron and an outer shell of copper. The cast iron insert provides mechanical stability and the copper shell protects against corrosion in the repository environment. The copper shell is 5 cm thick and

  18. Interim initial state report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pers, Karin

    2004-07-01

    A thorough description of the initial state of the engineered parts of the repository system is one of the main bases for the SR-Can safety assessment. The initial state refers to the state at the time of deposition for the spent fuel and the engineered barriers and the natural, undisturbed state at the time of beginning of excavation for the repository for the geosphere and the biosphere. The repository system is based on the KBS-3 method, where copper canisters with a cast iron insert containing spent nuclear fuel are surrounded by bentonite clay and deposited at approximately 500 m depth in saturated, granitic rock. For the purpose of the safety assessment the engineered portion of the repository system has been divided into a number of consecutive barriers or sub-systems. The importance of a particular feature for safety has influenced the resolution into components. In principle, components close to the source term and those that play an important role for safety are treated in more detail than more peripheral components. For the option with 40 years of reactor operation, the quantity of BWR fuel is estimated at 7200 tonnes and the quantity of PWR fuel at 2300 tonnes. The fuel burn-up may vary from 15 MWd/kgU up to 60 MWd/kg. Geometric aspects of the fuel cladding tubes of importance in the safety assessment are, as a rule, handled sufficiently pessimistically in analyses of radionuclide transport that differences between different fuel types are irrelevant. The relative differences in radionuclide inventory with respect to burn-up are small. Deviations in inventory and deviating or damaged fuel are not considered in the SR-Can interim reporting but will be handled in the final reporting of SR-Can. The canister consists of an inner container, the insert of cast iron and an outer shell of copper. The cast iron insert provides mechanical stability and the copper shell protects against corrosion in the repository environment. The copper shell is 5 cm thick and

  19. Groundwater flow and radionuclide transport modelling using CONNECTFLOW in support of the SR Can assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, Lee; Cox, Ian; Holton, David; Hunter, Fiona; Joyce, Steve; Gylling, Bjoern; Lindgren, Maria

    2004-09-01

    SKB is currently pursuing site investigations for a deep repository in the municipalities of Oesthammar and Oskarshamn. The investigations are conducted in two stages; an initial phase followed by a complete site investigation phase. The favoured alternative for the location of the encapsulation plant is at Oskarshamn, where it would operate in conjunction with the existing interim storage facility. These two planning applications will each require a report on the long-term safety of the deep repository. In the case of the encapsulation plant, such a report will demonstrate that a repository for the sealed canisters will meet the requirements on long-term safety set up by the Swedish authorities. The two safety reports will be referred to as SR-Can and SR-Site, for the encapsulation plant and repository, respectively. SR-Can will be based on site data from the initial site investigation phase and SR-Site on data from the complete site investigation. The preliminary safety evaluations for each site will be carried out as sub-tasks within the SR-Can project. The main purposes of those evaluations are to: Determine whether earlier judgements of the suitability of the candidate area for a deep repository with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of borehole data; Provide feed-back to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design. A proposed methodology for the SR-Can assessment has been published in SKB TR-03-08. The methodology envisaged the use of both continuum porous medium (CPM) and discrete fracture network (DFN) models on a range of scales to investigate the groundwater flow and radionuclide transport from a deep disposal facility to the biosphere. The modelling must address the effects of variable groundwater density and transients. Transients occur naturally as a consequence of changes in climate states (temperate, periglacial and glacial) and during the operational and immediate post-closure phases of the repository. Key

  20. The biosphere at Laxemar. Data, assumptions and models used in the SR-Can assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Sara; Kautsky, Ulrik; Loefgren, Anders; Soederbaeck, Bjoern [eds.

    2006-10-15

    This is essentially a compilation of a variety of reports concerning the site investigations, the research activities and information derived from other sources important for the safety assessment. The main objective is to present prerequisites, methods and data used, in the biosphere modelling for the safety assessment SR-Can at the Laxemar site. A major part of the report focuses on how site-specific data are used, recalculated or modified in order to be applicable in the safety assessment context; and the methods and sub-models that are the basis for the biosphere modelling. Furthermore, the assumptions made as to the future states of surface ecosystems are mainly presented in this report. A similar report is provided for the Forsmark area. This report summarises the method adopted for safety assessment following a radionuclide release into the biosphere. The approach utilises the information about the site as far as possible and presents a way of calculating risk to humans. A central tool in the work is the description of the topography, where there is good understanding of the present conditions and the development over time is fairly predictable. The topography affects surface hydrology, sedimentation, size of drainage areas and the characteristics of ecosystems. Other parameters are human nutritional intake, which is assumed to be constant over time, and primary production (photosynthesis), which also is a fairly constant parameter over time. The Landscape Dose Factor approach (LDF) gives an integrated measure for the site and also resolves the issues relating to the size of the group with highest exposure. If this approach is widely accepted as method, still some improvements and refinement are necessary in collecting missing site data, reanalysing site data, reviewing radionuclide specific data, reformulating ecosystem models and evaluating the results with further sensitivity analysis.

  1. The biosphere at Laxemar. Data, assumptions and models used in the SR-Can assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Sara; Kautsky, Ulrik; Loefgren, Anders; Soederbaeck, Bjoern

    2006-10-01

    This is essentially a compilation of a variety of reports concerning the site investigations, the research activities and information derived from other sources important for the safety assessment. The main objective is to present prerequisites, methods and data used, in the biosphere modelling for the safety assessment SR-Can at the Laxemar site. A major part of the report focuses on how site-specific data are used, recalculated or modified in order to be applicable in the safety assessment context; and the methods and sub-models that are the basis for the biosphere modelling. Furthermore, the assumptions made as to the future states of surface ecosystems are mainly presented in this report. A similar report is provided for the Forsmark area. This report summarises the method adopted for safety assessment following a radionuclide release into the biosphere. The approach utilises the information about the site as far as possible and presents a way of calculating risk to humans. A central tool in the work is the description of the topography, where there is good understanding of the present conditions and the development over time is fairly predictable. The topography affects surface hydrology, sedimentation, size of drainage areas and the characteristics of ecosystems. Other parameters are human nutritional intake, which is assumed to be constant over time, and primary production (photosynthesis), which also is a fairly constant parameter over time. The Landscape Dose Factor approach (LDF) gives an integrated measure for the site and also resolves the issues relating to the size of the group with highest exposure. If this approach is widely accepted as method, still some improvements and refinement are necessary in collecting missing site data, reanalysing site data, reviewing radionuclide specific data, reformulating ecosystem models and evaluating the results with further sensitivity analysis

  2. Determination and assessment of the concentration limits to be used in SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duro, L; Grive, M; Cera, E; Gaona, X; Domenech, C; Bruno, J [Enviros Spain S.L., Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-12-15

    This report presents the results for solubility limit calculations for the SR-Can assessment. It has been organized into five chapters that constitute the core of the report, supported by several appendices containing additional and supporting information. The updated thermodynamic database used to conduct the solubility calculations has been issued as a separate report. The near field system for which the concentration limits of the radionuclides are assessed and the scenarios selected by SKB to calculate the solubility limits are thoroughly described. Several sources of information have been used to support the calculated solubility limits. In particular results from selected spent fuel dissolution experiments and natural analogue data are discussed to introduce the proper perspective to the results from the thermodynamic calculations. In addition, the main conceptual and numerical uncertainties associated to the assessment of the concentration limits of each element are numerically evaluated and discussed. Equilibrium calculations have been conducted to select the solubility limiting solid phase for each element. Furthermore a sensitivity analysis of parameters of interest for each element is presented and the impact of the uncertainties identified on the solubility of each element quantified. The results are presented in a series of tables containing the calculated solubility for each radionuclide under the reference conditions. Finally concentration limits that are recommended result from the expert judgement built-up around the various sources of information together with the quantification of radionuclide solubility data and their associated uncertainties. The results are compared to previous solubility limits determination performed by SKB in SR 97, as well as the recommended values from other HLNW management organisations.

  3. Determination and assessment of the concentration limits to be used in SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duro, L.; Grive, M.; Cera, E.; Gaona, X.; Domenech, C.; Bruno, J.

    2006-12-01

    This report presents the results for solubility limit calculations for the SR-Can assessment. It has been organized into five chapters that constitute the core of the report, supported by several appendices containing additional and supporting information. The updated thermodynamic database used to conduct the solubility calculations has been issued as a separate report. The near field system for which the concentration limits of the radionuclides are assessed and the scenarios selected by SKB to calculate the solubility limits are thoroughly described. Several sources of information have been used to support the calculated solubility limits. In particular results from selected spent fuel dissolution experiments and natural analogue data are discussed to introduce the proper perspective to the results from the thermodynamic calculations. In addition, the main conceptual and numerical uncertainties associated to the assessment of the concentration limits of each element are numerically evaluated and discussed. Equilibrium calculations have been conducted to select the solubility limiting solid phase for each element. Furthermore a sensitivity analysis of parameters of interest for each element is presented and the impact of the uncertainties identified on the solubility of each element quantified. The results are presented in a series of tables containing the calculated solubility for each radionuclide under the reference conditions. Finally concentration limits that are recommended result from the expert judgement built-up around the various sources of information together with the quantification of radionuclide solubility data and their associated uncertainties. The results are compared to previous solubility limits determination performed by SKB in SR 97, as well as the recommended values from other HLNW management organisations

  4. An Assessment of SKB's Performance Assessment Calculations in the Interim Main Report for the Safety Assessment SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maul, Philip; Robinson, Peter

    2005-03-01

    SKB have published their Interim Main Report of the safety assessment SR-Can, which is intended to establish the framework for what will be submitted in 2006 in support of a licence application for construction of the spent fuel encapsulation plant. This follows on from the SR-Can Planning Document published in 2003. The purpose of the Interim Report is stated to be to demonstrate the methodology that will be used for safety assessment. The present report evaluates the information provided in the Interim SR-Can Report that is relevant to the Performance Assessment (PA) calculations that SKB intend to undertake, using independent calculations to facilitate this process. SKB consider that the primary safety function is to isolate completely the fuel within the canisters over the entire assessment period. Should a canister be damaged, the secondary safety function is to ensure that any release is retarded and dispersed sufficiently to ensure that concentrations levels in the accessible environment cannot cause unacceptable consequences. In this report PA calculations are considered to include both a high-level representation of the evolution of the system (relevant to the primary safety function), and any subsequent radionuclide transport (relevant to the secondary safety function). The main conclusions drawn are: 1. The effects of climate evolution on engineered barriers have not been analysed in detail in the Interim Report, and this limits the usefulness of the preliminary calculations that have been undertaken. 2. A key aspect of SKB's approach is the use of an integrated near-field evolution model. The information provided on this model demonstrates its capability efficiently to reproduce calculations from individual process models, but insufficient information is given at the present time to justify statements about interactions between processes. In particular it is assumed that relatively short term thermal and resaturation processes do not affect the

  5. Review of SR-Can: Evaluation of SKB's handling of spent fuel performance, radionuclide chemistry and geosphere transport parameters. External review contribution in support of SKI's and SSI's review of SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenhouse, Mike; Jegou, Christophe; Brown, Paul; Meinrath, Guenther; Nitsche, Heino; Ekberg, Christian

    2008-03-01

    SR-Can covers the containment phase of the KBS-3 barriers as well as the consequences of releases of radionuclides to the rock and eventually the biosphere (after complete containment within fuel canisters has partially failed). The aim of this report is to provide a range of review comments with respect to those parameters related to spent fuel performance as well as radionuclide chemistry and transport. These parameter values are used in the quantification of consequences due to release of radionuclides from potentially leaking canisters. The report does not cover modelling approaches used for quantification of consequences. However, modelling used to derive parameter values is to some extent addressed (such as calculation of maximum radionuclide concentration due to formation of solubility limiting phases). The following are the key highlights and comments generated in the course of the review: Inconsistencies exist between recommendations provided in technical reports and those quoted in the Data Report. One of the reasons for such inconsistencies has been the timing of different pieces of research. It is hoped that the timing of contributions to SR-Site will be such that these inconsistencies can be avoided. Sensitivity analyses need to be carried out and reported in a number of areas to support some of the assumptions or decisions made in the assessment calculations. The likelihood is that SKB has performed many of the sensitivity analyses identified in different parts of this report, but these need to be reported, preferably to complement the recommendations provided

  6. Development of Landscape Dose Factors for dose assessments in SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Rodolfo; Ekstroem, Per-Anders [Facilia AB, Bromma (Sweden); Kautsky, Ulrik [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-08-15

    In previous safety assessments Ecosystem Dose Factors (EDFs), were derived from estimates of doses to the most exposed group resulting from constant unit radionuclide release rates over 10,000 years to various ecosystem types, e.g. mires, agricultural lands, lakes and marine ecosystems. A number of limitations of the EDF approach have been identified. The objectives of this report is to further develop the EDF approach, in order to resolve the identified limitations, and to use the improved approach for deriving Dose Conversion Factors for use in the SR-Can risk assessments. The Dose Conversion Factors derived in this report are named Landscape Dose Factors (LDFs). It involves modelling the fate of the radionuclides in the whole landscape, which develops from a sea to a inland situation during 20,000 years. Both candidate sites studies in SR-Can, Forsmark and Laxemar, are included in the study. As a basis for the modelling, the period starting at the beginning of the last interglacial (8,000 BC) is used, over which releases from a hypothetical repository were assumed to take place. For the present temperate period, the overall development of the biosphere at each site is outlined in a 1,000 year perspective and beyond, essentially based on the ongoing shoreline displacement and the understanding on the impact this has on the biosphere. The past development, i.e. from deglaciation to the present time, is inferred from geological records and associated reconstructions of the shore-line. For each time step of 1,000 years, the landscape at the site is described as a number of interconnected biosphere objects constituting an integrated landscape model of each site. The water fluxes through the objects were estimated from the average run-off at the site, the areas of the objects and their associated catchment areas. Radionuclides in both dissolved and particulate forms were considered in the transport calculations. The transformation between ecosystems was modelled as

  7. SSI's independent consequence calculations in support of the regulatory review of the SR-Can safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shulan Xu; Dverstorp, Bjoern; Woerman, Anders; Marklund, Lars; Klos, Richard; Shaw, George

    2008-03-01

    With the publication of the SR-Can report at the end of 2006, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) have presented a complete assessment of long-term safety for a KBS-3 repository. The SR-Can project demonstrates progress in SKB's capabilities in respect of the methodology for assessment of long-term safety in support of a licence application for a final repository. According to SKB's plans, applications to construct a geological repository will be submitted in 2009, supported by post-closure safety assessments. Project CLIMB (Catchment LInked Models of radiological effects in the Biosphere) was instituted in 2004 to provide SSI with an independent modelling capability when reviewing SKB's assessments. Modelling in CLIMB covers all aspects of performance assessment (PA) from nearfield releases to radiological consequences in the surface environment. This review of SR-Can provides the first opportunity to apply the models and to compare the CLIMB approach with developments at SKB. The aim of the independent calculations is to investigate key aspects of the PA models and so to better understand the assessment methodology used by SKB. Independent modelling allows critical review issues to be addressed by the application of alternative models and assumptions. Three reviews are undertaken here: - Reproduction of selected cases from SR-Can in order to demonstrate an adequate understanding of the PA model from details given in the SR-Can documentation. - Alternative conceptualisation of radionuclide transport and accumulation in the surface system. Two modelling approaches have been used: GEMA (the Generic Ecosystem Modelling Approach) is a traditional compartmental model similar to that used by SKB in SR-Can but with additional functionality and flexibility. The second approach takes continuous transport models to investigate contaminant migration through the Quaternary deposits into the surface drainage system. - The final strand of the CLIMB investigation

  8. SSI's independent consequence calculations in support of the regulatory review of the SR-Can safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shulan Xu; Dverstorp, Bjoern (Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)); Woerman, Anders; Marklund, Lars (Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm (SE)); Klos, Richard (Aleksandria Sciences, Sheffield (GB)); Shaw, George (Univ. of Nottingham (GB))

    2008-03-15

    With the publication of the SR-Can report at the end of 2006, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) have presented a complete assessment of long-term safety for a KBS-3 repository. The SR-Can project demonstrates progress in SKB's capabilities in respect of the methodology for assessment of long-term safety in support of a licence application for a final repository. According to SKB's plans, applications to construct a geological repository will be submitted in 2009, supported by post-closure safety assessments. Project CLIMB (Catchment LInked Models of radiological effects in the Biosphere) was instituted in 2004 to provide SSI with an independent modelling capability when reviewing SKB's assessments. Modelling in CLIMB covers all aspects of performance assessment (PA) from nearfield releases to radiological consequences in the surface environment. This review of SR-Can provides the first opportunity to apply the models and to compare the CLIMB approach with developments at SKB. The aim of the independent calculations is to investigate key aspects of the PA models and so to better understand the assessment methodology used by SKB. Independent modelling allows critical review issues to be addressed by the application of alternative models and assumptions. Three reviews are undertaken here: - Reproduction of selected cases from SR-Can in order to demonstrate an adequate understanding of the PA model from details given in the SR-Can documentation. - Alternative conceptualisation of radionuclide transport and accumulation in the surface system. Two modelling approaches have been used: GEMA (the Generic Ecosystem Modelling Approach) is a traditional compartmental model similar to that used by SKB in SR-Can but with additional functionality and flexibility. The second approach takes continuous transport models to investigate contaminant migration through the Quaternary deposits into the surface drainage system. - The final strand of the CLIMB

  9. Determination and assessment of the concentration limits to be used in SR-Can. Supplement to TR-06-32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grive, Mireia; Domenech, Cristina; Montoya, Vanessa; Garcia, David; Duro, Lara

    2010-09-01

    This document complements and updates the report TR-06-32, Determination and assessment of the concentration limits to be used in SR-Can, in which the solubility limits of different radionuclides in the near field system and under the different scenarios selected by SKB were assessed. Since 2006, several important changes in different fields affecting solubility assessment calculations have been reported. These changes basically concern some of the thermodynamic data used in the calculations and the groundwater compositions for scenarios of interest defined by SKB. In this document we update the thermodynamic data corresponding to Ni, Zr, Th and U and we describe the thermodynamic database selected for Pb. This document also reports the update of the assessment of the concentration limits to be used in SR-Can, which has been done considering the recent thermodynamic database updates and the new groundwater compositions of interest supplied by SKB. Finally, we also present the Simple Functions spreadsheet tool, born from the need of having a confident and easy-to-handle tool to calculate solubility limits of some radionuclides under determined conditions in an agile and relatively fast manner

  10. Determination and assessment of the concentration limits to be used in SR-Can. Supplement to TR-06-32

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grive, Mireia; Domenech, Cristina; Montoya, Vanessa; Garcia, David; Duro, Lara

    2010-09-15

    This document complements and updates the report TR-06-32, Determination and assessment of the concentration limits to be used in SR-Can, in which the solubility limits of different radionuclides in the near field system and under the different scenarios selected by SKB were assessed. Since 2006, several important changes in different fields affecting solubility assessment calculations have been reported. These changes basically concern some of the thermodynamic data used in the calculations and the groundwater compositions for scenarios of interest defined by SKB. In this document we update the thermodynamic data corresponding to Ni, Zr, Th and U and we describe the thermodynamic database selected for Pb. This document also reports the update of the assessment of the concentration limits to be used in SR-Can, which has been done considering the recent thermodynamic database updates and the new groundwater compositions of interest supplied by SKB. Finally, we also present the Simple Functions spreadsheet tool, born from the need of having a confident and easy-to-handle tool to calculate solubility limits of some radionuclides under determined conditions in an agile and relatively fast manner

  11. SR-CAN - a safety assessment of a repository of spent nuclear fuel: canister performance and effects on the biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kautsky, U.; Kumblad, L.

    2004-01-01

    During the next few years the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) performs site investigations at two sites in Sweden for a future repository of spent nuclear fuel. Parallel an encapsulation plant is planned to encapsulate the spent fuel in copper canisters according to the KBS-3 method. The purpose of the SR-CAN safety assessment is to show the performance of the canister isolations at different sites for a repository at 500 meters depth in crystalline rock. Moreover, SR-CAN provides an example how the site specific safety assessment of a deep repository will be made in year 2006-2008. To be able to calculate dose and risk for humans and the environment, new assessment methods were developed for the biosphere. These methods were based on a system ecological approach and used knowledge from landscape ecology to provide an integrated approach with hydrology and geology considering the discharges in a watershed and calculating consequences in terrestrial and aquatic (freshwater and marine) ecosystems. A range of methods and tools were developed in GIS and Matlab/Simulink to be able to model and understand the important processes in the landscape today and during the next few thousands of years. In this paper, an overview of the program and the novel methods are presented, as well as some examples from performance calculations from a watershed in the Forsmark area considering effects on humans and ecosystems. (author)

  12. The biosphere at Forsmark. Data, assumptions and models used in the SR-Can assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Sara; Kautsky, Ulrik; Loefgren, Anders; Soederbaeck, Bjoern

    2006-10-01

    This report summarises the method adopted for safety assessment following a radionuclide release into the biosphere. The approach utilises the information about the site as far as possible and presents a way of calculating risk to humans. The parameters are topography, where there is good understanding of the present conditions and the development over time is fairly predictable. The topography affects surface hydrology, sedimentation, size of drainage areas and the characteristics of ecosystems. Other parameters are human nutritional intake, which is assumed to be constant over time, and primary production (photosynthesis), which also is a fairly constant parameter over time. The Landscape Dose Factor approach (LDF) gives an integrated measure for the site and also resolves the issues relating to the size of the group with highest exposure. If this approach is widely accepted as method, still some improvements and refinement are necessary, e.g. collecting missing site data, reanalysing site data, reviewing radionuclide specific data, reformulating ecosystem models and evaluating the results with further sensitivity analysis. The report presents descriptions and estimates not presented elsewhere, as well as summaries of important steps in the biosphere modelling that are presented in more detail in separate reports. The intention is to give the reader a coherent description of the steps taken to calculate doses to biota and humans, including a description of the data used, the rationale for a number of assumptions made during parameterisation, and of how the landscape context is applied in the modelling, and also to present the models used and the results obtained

  13. The biosphere at Forsmark. Data, assumptions and models used in the SR-Can assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Sara; Kautsky, Ulrik; Loefgren, Anders; Soederbaeck, Bjoern [eds.

    2006-10-15

    This report summarises the method adopted for safety assessment following a radionuclide release into the biosphere. The approach utilises the information about the site as far as possible and presents a way of calculating risk to humans. The parameters are topography, where there is good understanding of the present conditions and the development over time is fairly predictable. The topography affects surface hydrology, sedimentation, size of drainage areas and the characteristics of ecosystems. Other parameters are human nutritional intake, which is assumed to be constant over time, and primary production (photosynthesis), which also is a fairly constant parameter over time. The Landscape Dose Factor approach (LDF) gives an integrated measure for the site and also resolves the issues relating to the size of the group with highest exposure. If this approach is widely accepted as method, still some improvements and refinement are necessary, e.g. collecting missing site data, reanalysing site data, reviewing radionuclide specific data, reformulating ecosystem models and evaluating the results with further sensitivity analysis. The report presents descriptions and estimates not presented elsewhere, as well as summaries of important steps in the biosphere modelling that are presented in more detail in separate reports. The intention is to give the reader a coherent description of the steps taken to calculate doses to biota and humans, including a description of the data used, the rationale for a number of assumptions made during parameterisation, and of how the landscape context is applied in the modelling, and also to present the models used and the results obtained.

  14. SR-Can. Data and uncertainty assessment. Matrix diffusivity and porosity in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jinsong Liu; Loefgren, Martin; Neretnieks, Ivars [Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    and show beyond doubt that the electrical conductivity method using AC gives the expected information on transport properties (diffusivities) of the pores of crystalline rocks. The electrical conductivity method is much faster and can be used to measure large samples. It has recently been adopted for use in deep boreholes. Tens of thousands of measurements have been made at Simpevarp, Laxemar and Forsmark (Swedish sites) at depths of more than 1,000 m. The results of these measurements form the basis for our proposed diffusion values to be used in Performance Assessment (PA) for the candidate sites (Performance Assessment (PA) used in this report is synonymous to Safety Assessment (SA) sometimes used by other authors). The in situ data are obtained essentially in undisturbed rock and have not been subject to either stress release or disturbances due to sample preparation. The small disturbance nearest the borehole is negligible because the electrical conductivity method samples rock extending to more than a metre from the borehole. A large number of laboratory measurements have been analysed in order to ensure that other effects that cannot be controlled in the in situ measurements do not influence the down-hole data. No unexpected effects have been found. Rock matrix porosity in situ measurements are extremely scarce. However, it has been possible to use some of the in situ measurements to estimate the increase in porosity when taking up rock from its natural environment to the laboratory. One example of such an investigation is briefly discussed to show how this was done. In one in situ diffusion experiment performed at a depth of 60 m in granitic rock in Sweden the experimental conditions were such that it was ensured that any rock stress changes due to the presence of the drift and the presence of the borehole were avoided. The rock was thus subject to 'virgin stress'. Over-coring after exposure to tracers for three and a half years and detailed sampling

  15. SR-Can. Data and uncertainty assessment. Matrix diffusivity and porosity in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinsong Liu; Loefgren, Martin; Neretnieks, Ivars

    2006-12-01

    and show beyond doubt that the electrical conductivity method using AC gives the expected information on transport properties (diffusivities) of the pores of crystalline rocks. The electrical conductivity method is much faster and can be used to measure large samples. It has recently been adopted for use in deep boreholes. Tens of thousands of measurements have been made at Simpevarp, Laxemar and Forsmark (Swedish sites) at depths of more than 1,000 m. The results of these measurements form the basis for our proposed diffusion values to be used in Performance Assessment (PA) for the candidate sites (Performance Assessment (PA) used in this report is synonymous to Safety Assessment (SA) sometimes used by other authors). The in situ data are obtained essentially in undisturbed rock and have not been subject to either stress release or disturbances due to sample preparation. The small disturbance nearest the borehole is negligible because the electrical conductivity method samples rock extending to more than a metre from the borehole. A large number of laboratory measurements have been analysed in order to ensure that other effects that cannot be controlled in the in situ measurements do not influence the down-hole data. No unexpected effects have been found. Rock matrix porosity in situ measurements are extremely scarce. However, it has been possible to use some of the in situ measurements to estimate the increase in porosity when taking up rock from its natural environment to the laboratory. One example of such an investigation is briefly discussed to show how this was done. In one in situ diffusion experiment performed at a depth of 60 m in granitic rock in Sweden the experimental conditions were such that it was ensured that any rock stress changes due to the presence of the drift and the presence of the borehole were avoided. The rock was thus subject to 'virgin stress'. Over-coring after exposure to tracers for three and a half years and detailed sampling and

  16. Review of SKB's Work on Coupled THM Processes Within SR-Can. External review contribution in support of SKI's and SSI's review of SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Chin-Fu Tsang (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (US))

    2008-03-15

    In this report, we scrutinize the work by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) related to coupled thermal, hydrological and mechanical (THM) processes within the SR-Can project. SR-Can is SKB's preliminary assessment of long-term safety for a KBS-3 nuclear waste repository, and is a preparation stage for the SR-Site assessment, the report that will be used in SKB's application for a final repository. We scrutinize SKB's work related to THM processes through review and detailed analysis, using an independent modeling tool. The modeling tool is applied to analyze coupled THM processes at the two candidate sites, Forsmark and Laxemar, using data defined in SKB's site description models for respective sites. In this report, we first provide a brief overview of SKB's work related to analysis of the evolution of coupled THM processes as presented in SRCan, as well as supporting documents. In this overview we also identify issues and assumptions that we then analyze using our modeling tool. The overview and subsequent independent model analysis addresses issues related to near-field behavior, such as buffer resaturation and the evolution of the excavation-disturbed zone, as well as far-field behavior, such as stress induced changes in hydrologic properties. Based on the review and modeling conducted in this report, we conclude by identifying a number of areas of weaknesses, where we believe further work and clarifications are needed. Some of the most important ones are summarized below: 1) We found that SKB's calculation of peak temperature might not have been conducted for the most conservative case of extreme drying of the buffer under dry rock conditions and an unexpectedly high thermal diffusion coefficient. Our alternative analysis indicates that temperatures close to 100 might be achieved under unfavorable (and perhaps unexpected) conditions in which the buffer is dried to below 20% near the canister. We believe

  17. Data and uncertainty assessment for radionuclide Kd partitioning coefficients in granitic rock for use in SR-Can calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, James; Neretnieks, Ivars; Malmstroem, Maria

    2006-10-01

    SKB is currently preparing licence applications related to the proposed deep repository for spent nuclear fuel as well as the encapsulation plant required for canister fabrication. The present report is one of several specific data reports that form the data input to an interim safety report (SR-Can) for the encapsulation plant licence application. This report concerns the derivation and recommendation of generic K d data (i.e. linear partitioning coefficients) for safety assessment modelling of far-field radionuclide transport in fractured granitic rock. The data are derived for typical Swedish groundwater conditions and rock types distinctive of those found on the Simpevarp peninsula and Forsmark. Data have been derived for 8 main elements (Cs, Sr, Ra, Ni, Th, U, Np, Am) and various oxidation states. The data have also been supplied with tentative correction factors to account for artefacts that have not been previously considered in detail in previous compilations. For the main reviewed solutes the data are given in terms of a best estimate K d value assumed to be the median of the aggregate set of selected data. A range corresponding to the 25-75% inter-quartile range is also specified and probable ranges of uncertainty are estimated in the form of an upper and lower limit to the expected variability. Data for an additional 19 elements that have not been reviewed are taken from a previous compilation by Carbol and Engkvist

  18. T-H-M couplings in rock. Overview of results of importance to the SR-Can safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekmark, Harald; Faelth, Billy; Wallroth, Thomas

    2006-09-01

    This report deals with THM processes in rock hosting a KBS-nuclear waste repository. The issues addressed are mechanically and thermo-mechanically induced changes of the hydraulic conditions in the near-field and in the far-field, and the risk of stress-induced failure, spalling, in the walls of deposition holes. These changes are examined for the construction and operational phases, the initial temperate period and a subsequent glacial cycle. The report was compiled to be used as reference and background for corresponding parts of the safety report SR-Can. The near-field is analyzed using thermo-mechanical DEC models. There are a number of models for each of the three sites Forsmark, Simpevarp and Laxemar. Parameter values of intact rock and rock mass mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties were obtained from the site descriptive models. Layout data, i.e. the number of canisters, the geometry of the repository openings, the tunnel spacing and the canister spacing are in accordance with rules and guidelines given in general design- and layout documents. Heat generation data, i.e. the initial canister power and the canister power decay are in accordance with data given in the SR-Can main report. The effects of changes in nearfield stresses during the different phases of the repository's lifetime are evaluated by comparing numerically obtained stresses and deformations on a number of explicitly modelled near-field fractures with empirical and theoretical stress-transmissivity laws and with empirically based slip-transmissivity estimates. For the near-field it is concluded that substantial transmissivity increases are found only very close to the repository openings. Bounding estimates, judged to be valid for the entire load sequence, are made of the extent and magnitude of the hydraulic disturbance. At distances larger than about 1.5 m from the tunnel periphery, transmissivity increases are concluded to be too small and unsystematic to be of any concern. The

  19. T-H-M couplings in rock. Overview of results of importance to the SR-Can safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoekmark, Harald; Faelth, Billy [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Wallroth, Thomas [BERGAB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2006-09-15

    This report deals with THM processes in rock hosting a KBS-nuclear waste repository. The issues addressed are mechanically and thermo-mechanically induced changes of the hydraulic conditions in the near-field and in the far-field, and the risk of stress-induced failure, spalling, in the walls of deposition holes. These changes are examined for the construction and operational phases, the initial temperate period and a subsequent glacial cycle. The report was compiled to be used as reference and background for corresponding parts of the safety report SR-Can. The near-field is analyzed using thermo-mechanical DEC models. There are a number of models for each of the three sites Forsmark, Simpevarp and Laxemar. Parameter values of intact rock and rock mass mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties were obtained from the site descriptive models. Layout data, i.e. the number of canisters, the geometry of the repository openings, the tunnel spacing and the canister spacing are in accordance with rules and guidelines given in general design- and layout documents. Heat generation data, i.e. the initial canister power and the canister power decay are in accordance with data given in the SR-Can main report. The effects of changes in nearfield stresses during the different phases of the repository's lifetime are evaluated by comparing numerically obtained stresses and deformations on a number of explicitly modelled near-field fractures with empirical and theoretical stress-transmissivity laws and with empirically based slip-transmissivity estimates. For the near-field it is concluded that substantial transmissivity increases are found only very close to the repository openings. Bounding estimates, judged to be valid for the entire load sequence, are made of the extent and magnitude of the hydraulic disturbance. At distances larger than about 1.5 m from the tunnel periphery, transmissivity increases are concluded to be too small and unsystematic to be of any concern. The

  20. International Expert Review of SRCan: Engineered Barrier Issues. External review contribution in support of SKI's and SSI's review of SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, David; Bennett, David; Apted, Mick; Saellfors, Goeran; Saario, Timo; Segle, Peter

    2008-03-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has recently submitted a license application for the construction of a spent fuel encapsulation plant. SKB plans to submit a further license application in 2009 for the construction of a repository for the disposal spent nuclear fuel. In connection with the first of these applications, SKB published a safety report, known as SR-Can, which assessed the safety of a spent-fuel repository. The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) (the Authorities) will make formal reviews of the licence applications, and have, therefore, jointly commissioned a team of independent experts to assess and provide comments on SKB's safety reports. The Authorities will consider the views of the independent review team in completing their own reviews. This document presents the comments and findings of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) review group on SR-Can. The SR-Can safety report includes an examination of EBS design and performance for a range of scenarios, including expected repository evolution and possible variant scenarios, that together address processes and events that might result in the loss of certain repository safety functions. Furthermore, a series of sensitivity analyses is also presented that provides helpful insights into the relative importance of many key parameters and processes related to the EBS. In general, the explanatory text of the SR-Can safety report is clear, and the cited references provide adequate technical justifications for the assumptions, models, and data that are abstracted into the SR-Can safety report. The review group considers, therefore, that SKB's development of SR-Can has been a very valuable exercise, and that SKB should be congratulated on the breadth, depth and general clarity of its research and development and safety assessment programmes. Notwithstanding these successes, the EBS review group has identified a range of

  1. International Expert Review of SRCan: Engineered Barrier Issues. External review contribution in support of SKI's and SSI's review of SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, David (Quintessa Limited, Henley-on-Thames (GB)); Bennett, David (TerraSalus Limited, Oakham (GB)); Apted, Mick (Monitor Scientific LLC, Denver, CO (US)); Saellfors, Goeran (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (SE)); Saario, Timo (VTT Materials and Building (FI)); Segle, Peter (Inspecta, Stockholm (SE))

    2008-03-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has recently submitted a license application for the construction of a spent fuel encapsulation plant. SKB plans to submit a further license application in 2009 for the construction of a repository for the disposal spent nuclear fuel. In connection with the first of these applications, SKB published a safety report, known as SR-Can, which assessed the safety of a spent-fuel repository. The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) (the Authorities) will make formal reviews of the licence applications, and have, therefore, jointly commissioned a team of independent experts to assess and provide comments on SKB's safety reports. The Authorities will consider the views of the independent review team in completing their own reviews. This document presents the comments and findings of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) review group on SR-Can. The SR-Can safety report includes an examination of EBS design and performance for a range of scenarios, including expected repository evolution and possible variant scenarios, that together address processes and events that might result in the loss of certain repository safety functions. Furthermore, a series of sensitivity analyses is also presented that provides helpful insights into the relative importance of many key parameters and processes related to the EBS. In general, the explanatory text of the SR-Can safety report is clear, and the cited references provide adequate technical justifications for the assumptions, models, and data that are abstracted into the SR-Can safety report. The review group considers, therefore, that SKB's development of SR-Can has been a very valuable exercise, and that SKB should be congratulated on the breadth, depth and general clarity of its research and development and safety assessment programmes. Notwithstanding these successes, the EBS review group has identified a range

  2. International Expert Review of SRCan: Site Investigation Aspects. External review contribution in support of SKI's and SSI's review of SR-Can. INSITE/OVERSITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-03-01

    As a first evaluation of long-term safety for KBS-3 repositories at Forsmark and Laxemar, the SIG (Site Investigation Group) found SR-Can to be a well-produced and generally well-argued safety assessment. Overall, SKB is to be complimented on this project. Members of of the two groups INSITE and OVERSITE within the SIG had somewhat differing views on how well SKB had made use of the site data available at the end of the SDM 1.2 stage of investigations. This difference is less to do with the extent of site characterisation than of its use and application, reflecting the different levels of maturity of SKB's geosphere and biosphere assessment programmes. The more recent and current work on the sites means that our concerns expressed in this review should, to a large extent, be addressable in or prior to SR-Site, provided SKB is so minded. However, we acknowledge that some of the issues we raise will not be fully resolved until underground rock characterisation from excavations or longer records of surface conditions are available. There are also some key aspects of SKB's methodology still under development that would benefit from review prior to their use in SR-Site. More space in the currently pressing schedule would allow for this review and a consequent increase in confidence. In any case, the authorities should be aware that SKB may face residual programmatic risks, associated principally with the underground design and layout (and their knockon effects into performance), even after SR-Site. An early understanding of some of these relationships would be helped by a plan (at least on an outline level) of the underground characterisation programme. We also note that many engineering matters are still to be confronted, not least the EBS design and its implementation, along with the treatment of high stresses, if Forsmark is selected. However, our views on the nature of the SR-Can analysis and the way in which site data have been utilised in it (our principal remit

  3. Discrete-Feature Modelling of Groundwater Flow and Solute Transport for SR-Can Review. External review contribution in support of SKI's and SSI's review of SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geier, Joel (Clearwater Hardrock Consulting, Corvallis, OR (US))

    2008-03-15

    Discrete-feature models were developed to represent the main classes of water-conducting features at the Laxemar and Forsmark candidate sites for a high-level radioactive waste repository. The models encompass features on scales ranging from individual fractures 2 m or larger in radius around deposition holes, or spalled zones around deposition holes and tunnels, to deformation zones on the scale of kilometres. Equivalent discontinuum features are used to represent the aggregate properties of fractures outside of the vicinity of deposition holes where an explicit representation is used. Deposition hole locations within the repository layout are conditioned to each stochastic realization of the discrete-fracture population, using a full-perimeter-intersection criterion to identify discriminating fractures that pose a seismic risk, and a simulated pilot-hole criterion to exclude deposition-hole locations with excessive flows. The utilization factors of 0.70 obtained here for the full repository at Forsmark and = 0.53 for the full repository at Laxemar are significantly lower than the corresponding values = 0.93 and 0.88 for the most nearly comparable case presented in the SR-Can Main Report. Further investigation is needed to discern whether this discrepancy is primarily due to possible nonconservative assumptions in SKB's analytical modelling approach, or due to artefacts of the simulation approach using finite domains, which could lead to overly conservative values in the present study. Flows through the discrete-feature model variants are calculated by finite-element simulation. Distributions of flows to deposition holes are presented for the Laxemar base case and for an initial suite of variants for Forsmark. Results for Forsmark indicate that the distribution of flow to deposition holes is robust with respect to the set of variants considered, and that a given single realization of the discrete-fracture network (DFN) submodel produces representative results

  4. Review of SR-Can: Evaluation of SKB's handling of spent fuel performance, radionuclide chemistry and geosphere transport parameters. External review contribution in support of SKI's and SSI's review of SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenhouse, Mike (Monitor Scientific LLC, Denver, CO (US)); Jegou, Christophe (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA) (FR)); Brown, Paul (Geochem Australia (AU)); Meinrath, Guenther (RER Consultants, Passau (DE)); Nitsche, Heino (Univ. of California, Berkeley (US)); Ekberg, Christian (Chalmers University of Technology (SE))

    2008-03-15

    SR-Can covers the containment phase of the KBS-3 barriers as well as the consequences of releases of radionuclides to the rock and eventually the biosphere (after complete containment within fuel canisters has partially failed). The aim of this report is to provide a range of review comments with respect to those parameters related to spent fuel performance as well as radionuclide chemistry and transport. These parameter values are used in the quantification of consequences due to release of radionuclides from potentially leaking canisters. The report does not cover modelling approaches used for quantification of consequences. However, modelling used to derive parameter values is to some extent addressed (such as calculation of maximum radionuclide concentration due to formation of solubility limiting phases). The following are the key highlights and comments generated in the course of the review: Inconsistencies exist between recommendations provided in technical reports and those quoted in the Data Report. One of the reasons for such inconsistencies has been the timing of different pieces of research. It is hoped that the timing of contributions to SR-Site will be such that these inconsistencies can be avoided. Sensitivity analyses need to be carried out and reported in a number of areas to support some of the assumptions or decisions made in the assessment calculations. The likelihood is that SKB has performed many of the sensitivity analyses identified in different parts of this report, but these need to be reported, preferably to complement the recommendations provided

  5. Design premises for a KBS-3V repository based on results from the safety assessment SR-Can and some subsequent analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-11-15

    The objective with this report is to: - provide design premises from a long term safety aspect of a KBS-3V repository for spent nuclear fuel, to form the basis for the development of the reference design of the repository. The design premises are used as input to the documents, called production reports, that present the reference design to be analysed in the long term safety assessment SR-Site. It is the aim that the production reports should verify that the chosen design complies with the design premises given in this report, whereas this report takes the burden of justifying why these design premises are relevant. The more specific aims and objectives with the production reports are provided in these reports. The following approach is used: - The reference design analysed in SR-Can is a starting point for setting safety related design premises for the next design step. - A few design basis cases, in accordance with the definition used in the regulation SSMFS 2008:211 and mainly related to the canister, can be derived from the results of the SR-Can assessment. From these it is possible to formulate some specific design premises for the canister. - The design basis cases involve several assumptions on the state of other barriers. These implied conditions are thus set as design premises for these barriers. - Even if there are few load cases on individual barriers that can be directly derived from the analyses, SR-Can provides substantial feedback on most aspects of the analysed reference design. This feedback is also formulated as design premises. - An important part of SR-Can Main report is the formulation and assessment of safety function indicator criteria. These criteria are a basis for formulating design premises, but they are not the same as the design premises discussed in the present report. Whereas the former should be upheld throughout the assessment period, the latter refer to the initial state and must be defined such that they give a margin for

  6. Design premises for a KBS-3V repository based on results from the safety assessment SR-Can and some subsequent analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-11-01

    The objective with this report is to: - provide design premises from a long term safety aspect of a KBS-3V repository for spent nuclear fuel, to form the basis for the development of the reference design of the repository. The design premises are used as input to the documents, called production reports, that present the reference design to be analysed in the long term safety assessment SR-Site. It is the aim that the production reports should verify that the chosen design complies with the design premises given in this report, whereas this report takes the burden of justifying why these design premises are relevant. The more specific aims and objectives with the production reports are provided in these reports. The following approach is used: - The reference design analysed in SR-Can is a starting point for setting safety related design premises for the next design step. - A few design basis cases, in accordance with the definition used in the regulation SSMFS 2008:211 and mainly related to the canister, can be derived from the results of the SR-Can assessment. From these it is possible to formulate some specific design premises for the canister. - The design basis cases involve several assumptions on the state of other barriers. These implied conditions are thus set as design premises for these barriers. - Even if there are few load cases on individual barriers that can be directly derived from the analyses, SR-Can provides substantial feedback on most aspects of the analysed reference design. This feedback is also formulated as design premises. - An important part of SR-Can Main report is the formulation and assessment of safety function indicator criteria. These criteria are a basis for formulating design premises, but they are not the same as the design premises discussed in the present report. Whereas the former should be upheld throughout the assessment period, the latter refer to the initial state and must be defined such that they give a margin for

  7. SR-Can. Data and uncertainty assessment. Migration parameters for the bentonite buffer in the KBS-3 concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochs, Michael; Talerico, Caterina

    2004-08-01

    SKB is currently preparing license applications related to the deep repository for spent nuclear fuel and an encapsulation plant. The present report is one of several specific data reports feeding into the interim reporting for the latter application; it is concerned with the derivation and recommendation of radionuclide migration input parameters for a MX-80 bentonite buffer to PA models. Recommended values for the following parameters as well as the associated uncertainties are derived and documented for a total of 38 elements and oxidation states: diffusion-available porosity (ε); effective diffusivity (D e ); distribution coefficient (K d ). Because of the conditional nature of these parameters, particularly of K d , they were derived specifically for the conditions expected to be relevant for PA consequence calculations. K d values were generally evaluated for the specific porewater composition and solid/water ratio representative for MX-80 compacted to 1,590 kg/m 3 . Because of the highly conditional nature of K d , this was done for several porewater compositions which reflect possible variations in geochemical boundary conditions. D e and ε were derived as a function of density. Parameter derivation was based on systematic datasets available in the literature and/or on thermodynamic models. Associated uncertainties were assessed for a given set of PA conditions and as a function of variability in these conditions. In a final step, apparent diffusivity (D a ) values were calculated from the recommended parameters and compared with independent experimental measurements to arrive at selfconsistent sets of migration parameters

  8. SR-Can. Data and uncertainty assessment. Migration parameters for the bentonite buffer in the KBS-3 concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochs, Michael; Talerico, Caterina [BMG Engineering Ltd, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2004-08-01

    SKB is currently preparing license applications related to the deep repository for spent nuclear fuel and an encapsulation plant. The present report is one of several specific data reports feeding into the interim reporting for the latter application; it is concerned with the derivation and recommendation of radionuclide migration input parameters for a MX-80 bentonite buffer to PA models. Recommended values for the following parameters as well as the associated uncertainties are derived and documented for a total of 38 elements and oxidation states: diffusion-available porosity ({epsilon}); effective diffusivity (D{sub e}); distribution coefficient (K{sub d}). Because of the conditional nature of these parameters, particularly of K{sub d}, they were derived specifically for the conditions expected to be relevant for PA consequence calculations. K{sub d} values were generally evaluated for the specific porewater composition and solid/water ratio representative for MX-80 compacted to 1,590 kg/m{sup 3}. Because of the highly conditional nature of K{sub d}, this was done for several porewater compositions which reflect possible variations in geochemical boundary conditions. D{sub e} and {epsilon} were derived as a function of density. Parameter derivation was based on systematic datasets available in the literature and/or on thermodynamic models. Associated uncertainties were assessed for a given set of PA conditions and as a function of variability in these conditions. In a final step, apparent diffusivity (D{sub a}) values were calculated from the recommended parameters and compared with independent experimental measurements to arrive at selfconsistent sets of migration parameters.

  9. Review of SKB's interim report of SR-Can: SKI's and SSI's evaluation of SKB's up-dated methodology for safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dverstorp, Bjoern; Moberg, Leif; Wiebert, Anders; Xu Shulan; Stroemberg, Bo; Kautsky, Fritz; Lilja, Christina; Simic, Eva; Sundstroem, Benny; Toverud, Oeivind

    2005-07-01

    This report presents the findings of a review of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co.'s (SKB) interim report of the safety assessment SR-Can (SKB TR 04-11), conducted by the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) and the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI). SKB's interim report describes and exemplifies the safety assessment methodology that SKB plans to use in the oncoming licence applications for an encapsulation plant and a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The authorities' review takes into account the findings of an international peer review of SKB's interim report. The authorities conclude that SKB has improved its safety assessment methodology in several aspects compared to earlier safety reports. Among other things the authorities commend SKB for giving a comprehensive account of relevant regulations and guidance, and for the systematic approach to identification and documentation of features, events and processes that need to be considered in the safety assessment. However, the authorities also conclude that important parts of SKB's method need to be further developed before they are mature enough to be used as a basis for a license application. The authorities' overall assessment is summarised in chapter 8 of this report

  10. Data and uncertainty assessment for radionuclide K{sub d} partitioning coefficients in granitic rock for use in SR-Can calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, James; Neretnieks, Ivars; Malmstroem, Maria [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2006-10-15

    SKB is currently preparing licence applications related to the proposed deep repository for spent nuclear fuel as well as the encapsulation plant required for canister fabrication. The present report is one of several specific data reports that form the data input to an interim safety report (SR-Can) for the encapsulation plant licence application. This report concerns the derivation and recommendation of generic K{sub d} data (i.e. linear partitioning coefficients) for safety assessment modelling of far-field radionuclide transport in fractured granitic rock. The data are derived for typical Swedish groundwater conditions and rock types distinctive of those found on the Simpevarp peninsula and Forsmark. Data have been derived for 8 main elements (Cs, Sr, Ra, Ni, Th, U, Np, Am) and various oxidation states. The data have also been supplied with tentative correction factors to account for artefacts that have not been previously considered in detail in previous compilations. For the main reviewed solutes the data are given in terms of a best estimate K{sub d} value assumed to be the median of the aggregate set of selected data. A range corresponding to the 25-75% inter-quartile range is also specified and probable ranges of uncertainty are estimated in the form of an upper and lower limit to the expected variability. Data for an additional 19 elements that have not been reviewed are taken from a previous compilation by Carbol and Engkvist.

  11. International Expert Review of SRCan: Site Investigation Aspects. External review contribution in support of SKI's and SSI's review of SR-Can. INSITE/OVERSITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-03-15

    As a first evaluation of long-term safety for KBS-3 repositories at Forsmark and Laxemar, the SIG (Site Investigation Group) found SR-Can to be a well-produced and generally well-argued safety assessment. Overall, SKB is to be complimented on this project. Members of of the two groups INSITE and OVERSITE within the SIG had somewhat differing views on how well SKB had made use of the site data available at the end of the SDM 1.2 stage of investigations. This difference is less to do with the extent of site characterisation than of its use and application, reflecting the different levels of maturity of SKB's geosphere and biosphere assessment programmes. The more recent and current work on the sites means that our concerns expressed in this review should, to a large extent, be addressable in or prior to SR-Site, provided SKB is so minded. However, we acknowledge that some of the issues we raise will not be fully resolved until underground rock characterisation from excavations or longer records of surface conditions are available. There are also some key aspects of SKB's methodology still under development that would benefit from review prior to their use in SR-Site. More space in the currently pressing schedule would allow for this review and a consequent increase in confidence. In any case, the authorities should be aware that SKB may face residual programmatic risks, associated principally with the underground design and layout (and their knockon effects into performance), even after SR-Site. An early understanding of some of these relationships would be helped by a plan (at least on an outline level) of the underground characterisation programme. We also note that many engineering matters are still to be confronted, not least the EBS design and its implementation, along with the treatment of high stresses, if Forsmark is selected. However, our views on the nature of the SR-Can analysis and the way in which site data have been utilised in it (our

  12. Groundwater flow and transport modelling during the temperate period for the SR-Can assessment. Forsmark area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, Lee; Hoch, Andrew; Jackson, Peter; Joyce, Steve; McCarthy, Rachel; Rodwell, William; Swift, Ben [Serco Assurance, Harwell (United Kingdom); Marsic, Niko [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    The focus of the study described in this report has been to perform numerical simulations of the geosphere from post-closure and throughout the temperate period up until the beginning of the next permafrost period around 9,000 AD. Together with providing quantitative results for the immediate temperate period following post-closure, these results are also intended to give a qualitative indication of the evolution of the groundwater system during future temperate periods within an ongoing cycle of glacial/inter-glacial events. Additional calculations were performed to assess the impact of the effects of gas and heat generation in the repository on groundwater flow.

  13. Groundwater flow and transport modelling during the temperate period for the SR-Can assessment. Forsmark area - version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, Lee; Hoch, Andrew; Jackson, Peter; Joyce, Steve; McCarthy, Rachel; Rodwell, William; Swift, Ben; Marsic, Niko

    2006-12-01

    The focus of the study described in this report has been to perform numerical simulations of the geosphere from post-closure and throughout the temperate period up until the beginning of the next permafrost period around 9,000 AD. Together with providing quantitative results for the immediate temperate period following post-closure, these results are also intended to give a qualitative indication of the evolution of the groundwater system during future temperate periods within an ongoing cycle of glacial/inter-glacial events. Additional calculations were performed to assess the impact of the effects of gas and heat generation in the repository on groundwater flow

  14. Review of SKB's interim report of SR-Can: SKI's and SSI's evaluation of SKB's up-dated methodology for safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dverstorp, Bjoern; Moberg, Leif; Wiebert, Anders; Xu Shulan [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden); Stroemberg, Bo; Kautsky, Fritz; Lilja, Christina; Simic, Eva; Sundstroem, Benny; Toverud, Oeivind [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    This report presents the findings of a review of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co.'s (SKB) interim report of the safety assessment SR-Can (SKB TR 04-11), conducted by the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) and the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI). SKB's interim report describes and exemplifies the safety assessment methodology that SKB plans to use in the oncoming licence applications for an encapsulation plant and a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The authorities' review takes into account the findings of an international peer review of SKB's interim report. The authorities conclude that SKB has improved its safety assessment methodology in several aspects compared to earlier safety reports. Among other things the authorities commend SKB for giving a comprehensive account of relevant regulations and guidance, and for the systematic approach to identification and documentation of features, events and processes that need to be considered in the safety assessment. However, the authorities also conclude that important parts of SKB's method need to be further developed before they are mature enough to be used as a basis for a license application. The authorities' overall assessment is summarised in chapter 8 of this report.

  15. SR-can: preliminary feedback to canister fabrication, repository design and future R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedin, A.; Sellin, P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses preliminary feedback from SKB's on-going safety assessment SR-Can, to he finalized in 2006. The assessment, which is not part of a formal licence application, is an important step towards the SR-Site assessment to be delivered in 2008 and which will support a licence application for a Swedish deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The SR-Can assessment will use data from the initial stage of the on-going site investigations at the two candidate sites at Forsmark and Oskarshamn. Review comments on SR-Can from Swedish authorities are expected in the summer of 2007 and these will be taken into account when preparing the SR-Site assessment. An Interim version of the SR-Can report was produced in September 2004 and has been reviewed by the Swedish authorities supported by an international review team. The assessment concerns a KBS 3 repository for which the key safety related features can be summarised in the primary safety function isolation and the secondary function retardation. The isolation function is more prominent in the KBS 3 method compared to many other repository concepts. (authors)

  16. SKI's and SSI's review of SKB's safety report SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dverstorp, Bjoern; Stroemberg, Bo

    2008-03-01

    This report summarises SKI's and SSI's joint review of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co's (SKB) safety report SR-Can (SKB TR-06-09). SR-Can is the first assessment of post-closure safety for a KBS-3 spent nuclear fuel repository at the candidate sites Forsmark and Laxemar, respectively. The analysis builds on data from the initial stage of SKB's surface-based site investigations and on data from full-scale manufacturing and testing of buffer and copper canisters. SR-Can can be regarded as a preliminary version of the safety report that will be required in connection with SKB's planned licence application for a final repository in late 2009. The main purpose of the authorities' review is to provide feedback to SKB on their safety reporting as part of the pre-licensing consultation process. However, SR-Can is not part of the formal licensing process. In support of the authorities' review three international peer review teams were set up to make independent reviews of SR-Can from three perspectives, namely integration of site data, representation of the engineered barriers and safety assessment methodology, respectively. Further, several external experts and consultants have been engaged to review detailed technical and scientific issues in SR-Can. The municipalities of Oesthammar and Oskarshamn where SKB is conducting site investigations, as well NGOs involved in SKB's programme, have been invited to provide their views on SR-Can as input to the authorities' review. Finally, the authorities themselves, and with the help of consultants, have used independent models to reproduce part of SKB's calculations and to make complementary calculations. All supporting review documents are published in SKI's and SSI's report series. The main findings of the review are: -SKB's safety assessment methodology is overall in accordance with applicable regulations, but part of the methodology needs to be further developed for the licence application. -SKB's quality

  17. SKI's and SSI's joint review of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co's (SKB) safety report SR-Can; SKIs och SSIs gemensamma granskning av SKBs saekerhetsrapport SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dverstorp, Bjoern; Stroemberg, Bo (and others)

    2008-03-15

    This report summarizes SKI's and SSI's joint review of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co's (SKB) safety report SR-Can (SKB TR-06-09). SR-Can is the first assessment of post-closure safety for a KBS-3 spent nuclear fuel repository at the candidate sites Forsmark and Laxemar, respectively. The analysis builds on data from the initial stage of SKB's surface-based site investigations and on data from full-scale manufacturing and testing of buffer and copper canisters. SR-Can can be regarded as a preliminary version of the safety report that will be required in connection with SKB's planned license application for a final repository in late 2009. The main purpose of the authorities' review is to provide feedback to SKB on their safety reporting as part of the pre-licensing consultation process. However, SR-Can is not part of the formal licensing process. In support of the authorities' review three international peer review teams were set up to make independent reviews of SR-Can from three perspectives, namely integration of site data, representation of the engineered barriers and safety assessment methodology, respectively. Further, several external experts and consultants have been engaged to review detailed technical and scientific issues in SR-Can. The municipalities of Oesthammar and Oskarshamn where SKB is conducting site investigations, as well NGOs involved in SKB's programme, have been invited to provide their views on SR-Can as input to the authorities' review. Finally, the authorities themselves, and with the help of consultants, have used independent models to reproduce part of SKB's calculations and to make complementary calculations. All supporting review documents are published in SKI's and SSI's report series. The main findings of the review are: SKB's safety assessment methodology is overall in accordance with applicable regulations, but part of the methodology needs to be

  18. SKI's and SSI's review of SKB's safety report SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dverstorp, Bjoern; Stroemberg, Bo (and others)

    2008-03-15

    This report summarises SKI's and SSI's joint review of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co's (SKB) safety report SR-Can (SKB TR-06-09). SR-Can is the first assessment of post-closure safety for a KBS-3 spent nuclear fuel repository at the candidate sites Forsmark and Laxemar, respectively. The analysis builds on data from the initial stage of SKB's surface-based site investigations and on data from full-scale manufacturing and testing of buffer and copper canisters. SR-Can can be regarded as a preliminary version of the safety report that will be required in connection with SKB's planned licence application for a final repository in late 2009. The main purpose of the authorities' review is to provide feedback to SKB on their safety reporting as part of the pre-licensing consultation process. However, SR-Can is not part of the formal licensing process. In support of the authorities' review three international peer review teams were set up to make independent reviews of SR-Can from three perspectives, namely integration of site data, representation of the engineered barriers and safety assessment methodology, respectively. Further, several external experts and consultants have been engaged to review detailed technical and scientific issues in SR-Can. The municipalities of Oesthammar and Oskarshamn where SKB is conducting site investigations, as well NGOs involved in SKB's programme, have been invited to provide their views on SR-Can as input to the authorities' review. Finally, the authorities themselves, and with the help of consultants, have used independent models to reproduce part of SKB's calculations and to make complementary calculations. All supporting review documents are published in SKI's and SSI's report series. The main findings of the review are: -SKB's safety assessment methodology is overall in accordance with applicable regulations, but part of the methodology needs to be

  19. International Peer Review of Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company's SR-Can interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, Budhi; Bailey, Lucy; Bennett, David G.; Egan, Mike; Roehlig, Klaus

    2004-12-01

    SKB has produced an interim safety assessment report as part of its work to develop a licence application for the construction of a spent nuclear fuel encapsulation plant. The purpose of the interim report is to set out and demonstrate SKB's proposed methodology for long-term safety assessment. The aim of producing an interim report is to allow the Swedish regulatory authorities (SKI and SSI) to review and comment on SKB's proposed methodology before it is used in support of a formal licence application. To help inform their review of SKB's proposed methodology, the authorities appointed an international review team (IRT) to carry out a review of SKB's interim safety assessment report. Comments from the IRT are presented in this document and will be considered by the regulatory authorities in developing their own view of SKB's proposed methodology. The IRT's review included examination of SKB's documentation (the 'Interim Main Report of the Safety Assessment SR-Can' and four supporting documents) and hearings with SKB staff and contractors. The hearings provided an opportunity for the IRT to discuss the SR-Can safety assessment with the authors and contributors to SKB's work. As directed by SKI and SSI, the IRT's review focused on methodological aspects and sought to determine whether SKB's proposed safety assessment methodology: (i) is fit for the purpose of supporting a licence application; (ii) has a reasonable prospect of leading to a safety assessment that is sufficiently comprehensive, reproducible, traceable and transparent; (iii) is compatible with the authorities' regulations and guidance. No evaluation of long term safety or site acceptability was attempted by the IRT. At the request of SKI and SSI, the IRT's review considered and made recommendations on the following issues: Description of the initial state of the repository and its components; Description of features, events and processes (FEPs) relevant to repository evolution; Strategy for safety

  20. Mineralogy and geochemistry of rocks and fracture fillings from Forsmark and Oskarshamn: Compilation of data for SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, Henrik; Sandstroem, Bjoern [Isochron GeoConsulting HB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Tullborg, Eva-Lena [Terralogica AB, Graabo (Sweden)

    2006-11-15

    This report is a compilation of the so far available data for the safety assessment SR-Can carried out by SKB. The data consists of mineralogy, geochemistry, porosity, density and redox properties for both dominating rock types and fracture fillings at the Forsmark and Oskarshamn candidate areas. In addition to the compilation of existing information, the aim has been to identify missing data and to clarify some conception of e.g. deformation zones. The objective of the report is to present the available data requested for the modelling of the chemical stability of the two sites. The report includes no interpretation of the data.

  1. Assessing ambition of nationally determined contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Höhne, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    A key for a successful new international climate agreement by December 2015 will be the collective assessment of ambition of individual proposals by countries on how and how much to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. We conclude that there is nothing right or wrong in choosing one or several of these approaches to assess the level of ambition of contributions. An approach using several of many methods described can take into account the difference in national circumstances.

  2. Long-term safety for KBS-3 repositories at Forsmark and Laxemar - a first evaluation. Main Report of the SR-Can project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedin, Allan

    2006-10-01

    This document is the main report from the safety assessment project SR-Can. The SR-Can project is a preparatory stage for the SR-Site assessment, the report that will be used in support of SKB's application for a final repository. The purposes of the safety assessment SR-Can are the following: 1. To make a first assessment of the safety of potential KBS-3 repositories at Forsmark and Laxemar to dispose of canisters as specified in the application for the encapsulation plant. 2. To provide feedback to design development, to SKB's RandD programme, to further site investigations and to future safety assessment projects. 3. To foster a dialogue with the authorities that oversee SKB's activities, i.e. the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI, and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, SSI, regarding interpretation of applicable regulations, as a preparation for the SR-Site project. The assessment relates to the KBS-3 disposal concept in which copper canisters with a cast iron insert containing spent nuclear fuel are surrounded by bentonite clay and deposited at approximately 500 m depth in saturated, granitic rock. Preliminary data from the Forsmark and Laxemar sites, presently being investigated by SKB as candidates for a KBS-3 repository are used in the assessment. An important aim of this report is to demonstrate the proper handling of requirements placed on the safety assessment in applicable regulations. Therefore, regulations issued by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate and the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute are reproduced in an Appendix where references are given to sections in the main text where the handling of the different requirements is discussed. The principal acceptance criterion requires that 'the annual risk of harmful effects after closure does not exceed 10 -6 for a representative individual in the group exposed to the greatest risk'. 'Harmful effects' refer to cancer and hereditary effects. The risk limit corresponds to an

  3. Long-term safety for KBS-3 repositories at Forsmark and Laxemar - a first evaluation. Main Report of the SR-Can project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedin, Allan (ed.)

    2006-10-15

    This document is the main report from the safety assessment project SR-Can. The SR-Can project is a preparatory stage for the SR-Site assessment, the report that will be used in support of SKB's application for a final repository. The purposes of the safety assessment SR-Can are the following: 1. To make a first assessment of the safety of potential KBS-3 repositories at Forsmark and Laxemar to dispose of canisters as specified in the application for the encapsulation plant. 2. To provide feedback to design development, to SKB's RandD programme, to further site investigations and to future safety assessment projects. 3. To foster a dialogue with the authorities that oversee SKB's activities, i.e. the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI, and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, SSI, regarding interpretation of applicable regulations, as a preparation for the SR-Site project. The assessment relates to the KBS-3 disposal concept in which copper canisters with a cast iron insert containing spent nuclear fuel are surrounded by bentonite clay and deposited at approximately 500 m depth in saturated, granitic rock. Preliminary data from the Forsmark and Laxemar sites, presently being investigated by SKB as candidates for a KBS-3 repository are used in the assessment. An important aim of this report is to demonstrate the proper handling of requirements placed on the safety assessment in applicable regulations. Therefore, regulations issued by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate and the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute are reproduced in an Appendix where references are given to sections in the main text where the handling of the different requirements is discussed. The principal acceptance criterion requires that 'the annual risk of harmful effects after closure does not exceed 10{sup -6} for a representative individual in the group exposed to the greatest risk'. 'Harmful effects' refer to cancer and hereditary effects

  4. Groundwater chemistry around a repository for spent nuclear fuel over a glacial cycle. Evaluation for SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auque, L.F.; Gimeno, M.J.; Gomez, J.B.; Puigdomenech, I.; Smellie, J.; Tullborg, E.L.

    2007-12-01

    The chemical composition of groundwater in the rock volume surrounding a spent nuclear fuel repository is of importance to many factors that affect repository performance. The geochemical characteristics of present-day Swedish groundwater systems are governed by successive mixing events of several waters during the post-glacial evolution of the sites. The expected development of groundwaters at two Swedish sites - Forsmark and Laxemar - during a glacial cycle has been evaluated within the SR-Can project, and the results are presented in this report. For the temperate period following repository closure, an approach is proposed here to investigate the spatial and temporal evolution of groundwater geochemistry by coupling hydrogeological and geochemical models in a sequential way. The procedure combines hydrogeological results obtained with CONNECTFLOW within the SR-Can project with a mixing and reaction path simulation using PHREEQC. The hydrological results contain mixing proportions of four component waters (a deep brine, glacial meltwater, marine water, and meteoric infiltration) at each time step and at every node of the D regional model domain. In this work the mixing fractions are fed into PHREEQC using software developed to build formatted input files and to extract the information from output files for subsequent plotting and analysis. The geochemical calculations included both chemical mixing and equilibrium reactions with selected minerals: calcite, chalcedony and an Fe(III) oxy-hydroxide. Results for the Forsmark and Laxemar sites are graphically presented as histograms and box-and-whisker plots. Cross sections, where each node is colour-coded with respect to an important variable (pH, Eh or concentrations of main elements), are used to visualize the future evolution of the site. Sensitivity analyses are made to evaluate the effects of the different reactions and/or assumptions. The results reflect the progressive inflow of meteoric waters into the sites

  5. Groundwater chemistry around a repository for spent nuclear fuel over a glacial cycle. Evaluation for SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auque, L.F.; Gimeno, M.J.; Gomez, J.B. [University of Zaragoza (Spain); Puigdomenech, I. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Smellie, J. [Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Tullborg, E.L. [Terralogica AB, Graabo (Sweden)

    2007-12-15

    The chemical composition of groundwater in the rock volume surrounding a spent nuclear fuel repository is of importance to many factors that affect repository performance. The geochemical characteristics of present-day Swedish groundwater systems are governed by successive mixing events of several waters during the post-glacial evolution of the sites. The expected development of groundwaters at two Swedish sites - Forsmark and Laxemar - during a glacial cycle has been evaluated within the SR-Can project, and the results are presented in this report. For the temperate period following repository closure, an approach is proposed here to investigate the spatial and temporal evolution of groundwater geochemistry by coupling hydrogeological and geochemical models in a sequential way. The procedure combines hydrogeological results obtained with CONNECTFLOW within the SR-Can project with a mixing and reaction path simulation using PHREEQC. The hydrological results contain mixing proportions of four component waters (a deep brine, glacial meltwater, marine water, and meteoric infiltration) at each time step and at every node of the D regional model domain. In this work the mixing fractions are fed into PHREEQC using software developed to build formatted input files and to extract the information from output files for subsequent plotting and analysis. The geochemical calculations included both chemical mixing and equilibrium reactions with selected minerals: calcite, chalcedony and an Fe(III) oxy-hydroxide. Results for the Forsmark and Laxemar sites are graphically presented as histograms and box-and-whisker plots. Cross sections, where each node is colour-coded with respect to an important variable (pH, Eh or concentrations of main elements), are used to visualize the future evolution of the site. Sensitivity analyses are made to evaluate the effects of the different reactions and/or assumptions. The results reflect the progressive inflow of meteoric waters into the sites

  6. Contribution of continuous assessment to student learning in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study seeks to find out whether continuous assessment contributes to students' performance mathematics. The objectives of this study were to find out whether; Students see continuous assessment as a motivating factor in their learning, there is any workload involved in filling of continuous assessment termly, ...

  7. Assessment of factors contributing to flood disaster in Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climate change has brought with it some forms of extreme weather events. One of such is heavy rainfall which often leads to flood. In recent times, flood disaster has been a regular occurrence destroying lives and property. This study was carried out to identify and assess contributing factors to flood disaster in Ibadan ...

  8. How social impact assessment can contribute to conflict management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prenzel, Paula V., E-mail: p.v.prenzel@student.rug.nl; Vanclay, Frank, E-mail: frank.vanclay@rug.nl

    2014-02-15

    The potential for conflict is omnipresent in all projects, and even in all human interactions, and conflict itself leads to many second-order social impacts. This article examines the contribution of the methodological approach used in social impact assessment (SIA) to conflict management. We view conflict as a process that has its own dynamic, and is to be expected in all situations. By using game theory (prisoner's dilemma), we describe and conceptualize this process and highlight the importance of communication in managing conflict. We demonstrate the potential use of SIA in preventing, managing and resolving conflict. Emphasis is placed on the participatory character of SIA and the role of public media. In contrast to existing literature, our focus is not restricted to the typical fields of study of SIA (e.g. environmental conflicts), but understands conflict itself as a field of application. In this sense, conflict-sensitive SIA can be understood both as an extension to the SIA tool kit and a broadening of the scope of SIA application. -- Highlights: • Conflict is omnipresent and creates both positive and negative social impacts. • Conflict itself represents a possible field of application for SIA. • Conflict escalation is a process that can be modeled in a game-theoretic framework. • There needs to be concerted effort to prevent escalation to avoid harmful outcomes. • Conflict-sensitive SIA can support conflict management and sustainable resolution.

  9. How social impact assessment can contribute to conflict management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prenzel, Paula V.; Vanclay, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The potential for conflict is omnipresent in all projects, and even in all human interactions, and conflict itself leads to many second-order social impacts. This article examines the contribution of the methodological approach used in social impact assessment (SIA) to conflict management. We view conflict as a process that has its own dynamic, and is to be expected in all situations. By using game theory (prisoner's dilemma), we describe and conceptualize this process and highlight the importance of communication in managing conflict. We demonstrate the potential use of SIA in preventing, managing and resolving conflict. Emphasis is placed on the participatory character of SIA and the role of public media. In contrast to existing literature, our focus is not restricted to the typical fields of study of SIA (e.g. environmental conflicts), but understands conflict itself as a field of application. In this sense, conflict-sensitive SIA can be understood both as an extension to the SIA tool kit and a broadening of the scope of SIA application. -- Highlights: • Conflict is omnipresent and creates both positive and negative social impacts. • Conflict itself represents a possible field of application for SIA. • Conflict escalation is a process that can be modeled in a game-theoretic framework. • There needs to be concerted effort to prevent escalation to avoid harmful outcomes. • Conflict-sensitive SIA can support conflict management and sustainable resolution

  10. Bibliometric assessment of the Latin-American contributions in dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Polania, Felipe; Perilla-Gonzalez, Yuliana; Martinez-Pulgarin, Dayron F; Baquero-Rodriguez, Juan D; Munoz-Urbano, Marcela; Lagos-Gallego, Mariana; Lagos-Grisales, Guillermo J; Villegas, Soraya; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2014-01-01

    Despite efforts in prevention and control of dengue, it is still a public health problem in the region. There are estimations of 13 million people affected in the Americas, therefore, it is of outmost importance to research it. An assessment on the Latin- American contributions on dengue was done. Bibliometric study at SCI (1980- 2013), MEDLINE/GOPUBMED (1802-2013), Scopus (1959-2013), SCIELO (2004-2013), LILACS (1980- 2013). Different study types, characterized by years, city/country of origin, journals and more productive authors, by country, cites and H index have been conducted. At SCI, 2598 articles were retrieved (21% of the total). Brazil was found to be the highest contributor (31.2%), then Puerto Rico (12.9%) and Mexico (10.7%). At Scopus, there are 2646 articles (16.7% of the total), 31.2% Brazil, 11.1% Mexico, 9.3% Cuba; the region received 41881 citations, 25.4% from Brazil (H index=45), 14.4% Cuba (H index=35) and 12.88% Puerto Rico (H index=38); 9.1% in Brazil were from Fundação Oswaldo Cruz; 1.6% of Mexico corresponded to Instituto Nacional de Salud Publica, 4.9% of Cuba are from Instituto de Medicina Tropical Pedro Kouri. At Medline, there are 2799 records (33.9% from Brazil). At SciELO there are 825 records (46.6% Brazil). At LILACS, there are 1178 records (46.8% Brazil). Brazil is the best producer in the region. In Puerto Rico and Brazil, there observed the epidemiologic burden of the disease. Scientific production in bibliographical data bases, particularly regional, is low, as compared to the high impact of the disease of in urban zones of the region.

  11. AN ASSESSMENT OF CITIZEN CONTRIBUTED GROUND REFERENCE DATA FOR LAND COVER MAP ACCURACY ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Foody

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is now widely accepted that an accuracy assessment should be part of a thematic mapping programme. Authoritative good or best practices for accuracy assessment have been defined but are often impractical to implement. Key reasons for this situation are linked to the ground reference data used in the accuracy assessment. Typically, it is a challenge to acquire a large sample of high quality reference cases in accordance to desired sampling designs specified as conforming to good practice and the data collected are normally to some degree imperfect limiting their value to an accuracy assessment which implicitly assumes the use of a gold standard reference. Citizen sensors have great potential to aid aspects of accuracy assessment. In particular, they may be able to act as a source of ground reference data that may, for example, reduce sample size problems but concerns with data quality remain. The relative strengths and limitations of citizen contributed data for accuracy assessment are reviewed in the context of the authoritative good practices defined for studies of land cover by remote sensing. The article will highlight some of the ways that citizen contributed data have been used in accuracy assessment as well as some of the problems that require further attention, and indicate some of the potential ways forward in the future.

  12. Assessing Psychological Health: The Contribution of Psychological Strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaskill, Ann; Denovan, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Balanced assessment of mental health involves assessing well-being and strengths as well as psychopathology. The character strengths of curiosity, gratitude, hope, optimism and forgiveness are assessed in 214 new undergraduates and their relationships to mental health, subjective well-being and self-esteem explored. Scoring the mental health scale…

  13. Middle School Assessments that Contribute to Literacy Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Kevin; Whitley, Meredith A.; Manson, Mara

    2014-01-01

    Assessment in physical education is not new. What is new is a national focus on teacher evaluation systems that include the use of student achievement scores from administered assessments. An additional educational focus is on the implementation of Common Core Learning Standards in all subject areas, including physical education. Physical…

  14. Supporting Peer Assessment of Individual Contributions in Groupwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raban, Richard; Litchfield, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The ability to assess the work of others is a core attribute for most professionals. To develop this graduate attribute in our students requires the learning of self and peer evaluation, feedback, and review skills. This paper discusses the changing design of peer assessment and the impact of a new groupwork support tool within a capstone…

  15. Exploring assessment factors contributing to students' study strategies: literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Kadri, H.M.; Al-Moamary, M.S.; Roberts, C.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2012-01-01

    "Assessment steers students' learning" is a statement that has been used repeatedly without solid evidence in the literature. This manuscript aims to evaluate the published literatures on the effect of teaching learning environment in particular, the implemented assessment on students' learning

  16. Assessing the contribution of Community-Based Natural Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adisa, B.O.

    2013-09-20

    Sep 20, 2013 ... environmental sustainability in Ondo State, Nigeria. Adisa, Banji O. ... Key words: Assessment, community-based, natural resources, socio-environmental sustainability, ... Natural resources occur within environments that are.

  17. Assessing the contribution of Community-Based Natural Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed Community-Based Natural Resources Management Programme (CBNRMP) for environmental sustainability in Ondo State, Nigeria. Data were gathered through a structured interview schedule from 120 rural dwellers participating in CBNRMP. Data collected were described with descriptive statistical ...

  18. Solution-focused educational assessment: a contribution to inclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr Kathleen Brown; Dr. Jacqueline van Swet; Drs. José Wichers-Bots

    2011-01-01

    In the Netherlands and in the United States, the assessment process is changing for children who present learning and behavioural challenges in school. Evaluations for eligibility determinations and support planning are shifting along with disability models and tensions over the provision of

  19. Advancing the Contribution of Occupational Epidemiology to Risk Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaanderen, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    The identification and quantification of risk factors that are characterized by low exposure levels, moderately increased risks, and unspecific exposure-disease relations is a major challenge facing risk assessment today. Occupational epidemiological studies can play a role in addressing this

  20. Assessment of runoff contributing catchment areas in rainfall runoff modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Johansen, C.; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    2006-01-01

    In numerical modelling of rainfall caused runoff in urban sewer systems an essential parameter is the hydrological reduction factor which defines the percentage of the impervious area contributing to the surface flow towards the sewer. As the hydrological processes during a rainfall are difficult...... to determine with significant precision the hydrological reduction factor is implemented to account all hydrological losses except the initial loss. This paper presents an inconsistency between calculations of the hydrological reduction factor, based on measurements of rainfall and runoff, and till now...... recommended literature values for residential areas. It is proven by comparing rainfall-runoff measurements from four different residential catchments that the literature values of the hydrological reduction factor are over-estimated for this type of catchment. In addition, different catchment descriptions...

  1. Direct and retrospective assessment of factors contributing to compulsive buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltenberger, Raymond G; Redlin, Jennifer; Crosby, Ross; Stickney, Marcella; Mitchell, Jim; Wonderlich, Stephen; Faber, Ronald; Smyth, Joshua

    2003-03-01

    Compulsive buying is a disorder that has begun to receive attention from researchers in recent years. The results of a handful of studies suggest that compulsive buying occurs in response to negative emotions and results in a decrease in the intensity of the negative emotions. In this investigation, we used interview and self-monitoring methods to evaluate the antecedents and consequences of compulsive buying in a sample of women who met criteria for compulsive buying on the compulsive buying scale (J. Consumer Res. 19 (1992) 459). As a group, the participants reported negative emotions as the most common antecedents to compulsive buying, and euphoria or relief from the negative emotions as the most common consequence of compulsive buying. These findings were consistent across the interview and self-monitoring assessment methods. The implications for assessment and treatment are discussed.

  2. A Contribution to the Built Heritage Environmental Impact Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žarnić, R.; Rajčić, V.; Skordaki, N.

    2015-08-01

    The understanding and assessment of environmental impact on heritage assets is of the highest importance for heritage preservation through well-organized maintenance based on proper decision-making. The effort towards development of protocol that would enable comparison of data on heritage assets in Europe and Mediterranean countries was done through EU Project European Cultural Heritage Identity Card. The special attention was paid to classification of environmental and man-induced risks to heritage. In the present paper the idea of EU CHIC is presented. Environmental risks are discussed in context of their influence on structure of heritage buildings that are exposed to sudden environmental impacts.

  3. The contribution of assessment experiences to student teachers’ self-efficacy in competence-based education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prof. Dr. Mien Segers; Dr. Mart van Dinther; Prof. Dr. Filip Dochy

    2015-01-01

    Earlier research argues that educational programmes based on social cognitive theory are successful in improving students’ self-efficacy. Focusing on some formative assessment characteristics, this qualitative research intends to study in-depth how student teachers’ assessment experiences contribute

  4. Concrete structures. Contribution to the safety assessment of existing structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. COUTO

    Full Text Available The safety evaluation of an existing concrete structure differs from the design of new structures. The partial safety factors for actions and resistances adopted in the design phase consider uncertainties and inaccuracies related to the building processes of structures, variability of materials strength and numerical approximations of the calculation and design processes. However, when analyzing a finished structure, a large number of unknown factors during the design stage are already defined and can be measured, which justifies a change in the increasing factors of the actions or reduction factors of resistances. Therefore, it is understood that safety assessment in existing structures is more complex than introducing security when designing a new structure, because it requires inspection, testing, analysis and careful diagnose. Strong knowledge and security concepts in structural engineering are needed, as well as knowledge about the materials of construction employed, in order to identify, control and properly consider the variability of actions and resistances in the structure. With the intention of discussing this topic considered complex and diffuse, this paper presents an introduction to the safety of concrete structures, a synthesis of the recommended procedures by Brazilian standards and another codes, associated with the topic, as well a realistic example of the safety assessment of an existing structure.

  5. Anorexia nervosa and nutritional assessment: contribution of body composition measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattar, Lama; Godart, Nathalie; Melchior, Jean Claude; Pichard, Claude

    2011-06-01

    The psychiatric condition of patients suffering from anorexia nervosa (AN) is affected by their nutritional status. An optimal assessment of the nutritional status of patients is fundamental in understanding the relationship between malnutrition and the psychological symptoms. The present review evaluates some of the available methods for measuring body composition in patients with AN. We searched literature in Medline using several key terms relevant to the present review in order to identify papers. Only articles in English or French were reviewed. A brief description is provided for each body composition technique, with its applicability in AN as well as its limitation. All methods of measuring body composition are not yet validated and/or feasible in patients with AN. The present review article proposes a practical approach for selecting the most appropriate methods depending on the setting, (i.e. clinical v. research) and the goal of the assessment (initial v. follow-up) in order to have a more personalised treatment for patients suffering from AN.

  6. Contributions to safety assessment of the radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilie, Petre; Didita, Liana; Ionescu, Alice; Deaconu, Viorel

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the progress in the frame of the safety assessments related to the potential near-surface Romanian National Repository, as well as to the geological repository in salt rock for CANDU spent fuel. The safety assessment of the near-surface repository follows the ISAM methodology. The repository design consists of a vault, in which the wastes resulted from the operation and decommissioning of the CANDU reactor from Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) are disposed off. The repository is located nearby the CNPP. A layered unsaturated zone overlying a variable thickness confined aquifer, which consists of barremian limestones, characterizes the site. The interface with biosphere is considered to be the Danube-Black Sea Channel. The paper summarizes the results of the post-closure safety assessment for the design scenario and the prediction of the radionuclide release in the liquid phase. As to the final disposal of the CANDU spent fuel from the CNPP, we assumed that the repository is built in a salt dome. Romania has important salt formations, some of them being potentially suitable for hosting a repository. Up to now there are no detailed characterization studies of such formations in Romania, from the point of view of the suitability as a repository site. Therefore, generic data for hydrogeological characterization of the site have been used, coming from the Gorleben site in Germany. The spent fuel containers are disposed off in galleries, somewhere 500 m bellow the cap rock of the salt dome. The temporal loading scheme of the repository is based on a sequential filing of the disposal fields, with a delay of 10 years between filling of two neighbouring disposal areas. The disposal fields are accessed via a shaft. After filling of a disposal gallery, the remaining space is backfilled with salt powder and the gallery is sealed with compacted salt bricks. The access galleries are also backfilled and sealed. Only the reference scenario is considered, in

  7. Groundwater flow and transport modelling during the temperate period for the SR-Can assessment. Laxemar subarea - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, Lee; Hoch, Andrew; Jackson, Peter; Joyce, Steve; McCarthy, Rachel; Swift, Ben [Serco Assurance, Harwell (United Kingdom); Gylling, Bjoern; Marsic, Niko [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    The focus of the study described in this report has been to perform numerical simulations of the geosphere from post-closure and throughout the temperate period up until the beginning of the next permafrost period at around 20,000 AD for the Laxemar area. Together with providing quantitative results for the immediate temperate period following post-closure, these results are also intended to give a qualitative indication of the evolution of the groundwater system during future temperate periods within an ongoing cycle of glacial/inter-glacial events.

  8. An assessment of the meteoritic contribution to the Martian soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, G.J.; McKay, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    The addition of meteoritic material to the Mars soils should perturb their chemical compositions, as has been detected for soils on the Moon and sediments on Earth. Using the measured mass influx at Earth and estimates of the Mars/Earth flux ratio, the authors estimate the continuous, planet-wide meteoritic mass influx on Mars to be between 2,700 and 59,000 t/yr. If distributed uniformly into a soil with a mean planetary production rate of 1 m/b.y., consistent with radar estimates of the soil depth overlaying a bouldered terrain in the Tharsis region, their estimated mass influx would produce a meteoritic concentration in the Mars soil ranging from 2 to 29% by mass. Analysis of the Viking X ray fluorescence data indicates that the Mars soil composition is inconsistent with typical basaltic rock fragments but can be fit by a mixture of 60% basaltic rock fragments and 40% meteoritic material. The meteoritic influx they calculate is sufficient to provide most or all of the material required by the Clark and Baird model. Particles in the mass range from 10 -7 to 10 -3 g, about 60-1,200 μm in diameter, contribute 80% of the total mass flux of meteoritic material in the 10 -13 to 10 6 g mass range at Earth. On Earth atmospheric entry all but the smallest particles (generally ≤ 50 μm in diameter) in the 10 -7 to 10 -3 g mass range are heated sufficiently to melt or vaporize. Mars, because of its lower escape velocity and larger atmospheric scale height, is a much more favorable site for unmelted survival of micrometeorites on atmospheric deceleration. They calculate that a significant fraction of particles throughout the 60-1,200 μm diameter range will survive Mars atmospheric entry unmelted

  9. Assessment of potential ORNL contributions to supply of molybdenum-99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottinger, C.L.; Collins, E.D.

    1996-04-01

    The most widely used, and probably the most important, single radioisotope in commerce is 99 Mo. Although the present supply is adequate, there are many vulnerabilities in the supply picture. Resources available at ORNL could be applied to help ensure the continued availability of this critically needed radioisotope. This assessment considers the ways in which ORNL might participate in DOE efforts to develop and maintain a domestic source of 99 Mo for medical needs. The primary recommendation presented here is that ORNL obtain DOE support for development of an improved method for providing 99 Mo to the user community. Specifically, development and demonstration of a system based on irradiation of enriched stable 98 Mo, as opposed to fission of 235 U, is recommended. Such a system would (1) alleviate the need for using highly enriched uranium as target material (nonproliferation and criticality safety concerns); (2) alleviate the need to produce a large volume of unwanted fission product wastes (safety and cost concerns); (3) promote the need for enriched 98 Mo, which can be produced in the ORNL calutrons or plasma separation equipment; and (4) promote the need for a high-flux reactor, such as the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR)

  10. Uncertainty Estimate in Resources Assessment: A Geostatistical Contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Luis Eduardo de; Costa, Joao Felipe C. L.; Koppe, Jair C.

    2004-01-01

    For many decades the mining industry regarded resources/reserves estimation and classification as a mere calculation requiring basic mathematical and geological knowledge. Most methods were based on geometrical procedures and spatial data distribution. Therefore, uncertainty associated with tonnages and grades either were ignored or mishandled, although various mining codes require a measure of confidence in the values reported. Traditional methods fail in reporting the level of confidence in the quantities and grades. Conversely, kriging is known to provide the best estimate and its associated variance. Among kriging methods, Ordinary Kriging (OK) probably is the most widely used one for mineral resource/reserve estimation, mainly because of its robustness and its facility in uncertainty assessment by using the kriging variance. It also is known that OK variance is unable to recognize local data variability, an important issue when heterogeneous mineral deposits with higher and poorer grade zones are being evaluated. Alternatively, stochastic simulation are used to build local or global uncertainty about a geological attribute respecting its statistical moments. This study investigates methods capable of incorporating uncertainty to the estimates of resources and reserves via OK and sequential gaussian and sequential indicator simulation The results showed that for the type of mineralization studied all methods classified the tonnages similarly. The methods are illustrated using an exploration drill hole data sets from a large Brazilian coal deposit

  11. Peer assessment of individual contributions to a group project: Student perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kench, Peter L.; Field, Nikki; Agudera, Maila; Gill, Margo

    2009-01-01

    Group work has many benefits for a student's professional development but it is difficult to determine the individual contributions to the group assessment tasks. Peer assessment of an individual's contribution to group work can be used to encourage student participation. It is important that the method of peer assessment is fair and that the students' submissions be treated confidentially. A model for peer assessment of individual contributions to the group assessment is described. Students who did not participate adequately in the group were penalised resulting in a reduced individual grade. Perceptions of the peer assessment method are reported for students enrolled (n = 169) in the subject 'Medical Radiations Project'. The questionnaire showed a positive student response towards the peer assessment model.

  12. The Contribution of Health Technology Assessment, Health Needs Assessment, and Health Impact Assessment to the Assessment and Translation of Technologies in the Field of Public Health Genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkotter, N.; Vondeling, H.; Blancquaert, I.

    2011-01-01

    contribute to the systematic translation and assessment of genomic health applications by focussing at population level and on public health policy making. It is shown to what extent HTA, HNA and HIA contribute to translational research by using the continuum of translational research (T1-T4) in genomic...... into the impact on public health and health care practice of those technologies that are actually introduced. This paper aims to give an overview of the major assessment instruments in public health [ health technology assessment (HTA), health needs assessment (HNA) and health impact assessment (HIA)] which could...... medicine as an analytic framework. The selected assessment methodologies predominantly cover 2 to 4 phases within the T1-T4 system. HTA delivers the most complete set of methodologies when assessing health applications. HNA can be used to prioritize areas where genomic health applications are needed...

  13. A critical Review of the sections in The Main Report of the SR Can project (SKB TR-06-09) relating to the containment performance of the KBS3 canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowyer, W.H.

    2007-05-01

    The sections of the Main Report of the SR-Can project related to containment performance of the KBS3 canister have been studied in conjunction with the background reports which it cites. The study has taken the form of a critical review of the safety case related to containment by the canister. The report acknowledges that further work is required and is in progress. The cases of acceptance criteria for defects in the insert, creep relaxation following rock shear and NDE procedures for the insert and the copper shell are cited. Useful tools have been developed for deterministic analysis of the response of the canister to isostatic pressure and to rock shear. A probabilistic tool has been developed in order to assess the sensitivity of the canister to failure as a result of material property and manufacturing quality variations or variations in the expected environmental conditions. Much has been learned by the application of these tools to date. Unfortunately the mean mechanical properties for copper and cast iron which were used were inappropriate. They were too fast for the isostatic load case and too slow for the rock shear case. In addition the statistics related to the properties of the cast iron were inadequate. The sensitivities of the predictions to the standard deviations in the mechanical properties indicate that care must be taken to provide reliable data for variations in mechanical properties both within and between casts for the insert. Both analyses need to be repeated using better data. Some refinement of the models may be appropriate, such allowance for separation of the copper and the bentonite for the isostatic pressure case and application of rate sensitivity to the material models for both cases. It is also necessary to extend the rock shear case to test for sensitivity to manufacturing and material property variations

  14. Toward Fairness in Assessing Student Groupwork: A Protocol for Peer Evaluation of Individual Contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellenz, Martin R.

    2006-01-01

    A key challenge for management instructors using graded groupwork with students is to find ways to maximize student learning from group projects while ensuring fair and accurate assessment methods. This article presents the Groupwork Peer-Evaluation Protocol (GPEP) that enables the assessment of individual contributions to graded student…

  15. The Contribution of Sustainability Assessment to Policy Development in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrechts, Wim

    2015-01-01

    This article builds upon the experiences and results of the application of sustainability assessment instruments in higher education. First, a short overview of existing sustainability assessment tools will be provided, as well as their contribution towards the integration of sustainability in higher education. Second, a reflective case focuses on…

  16. The Contribution of Project Environmental Assessment to Assessing and Managing Cumulative Effects: Individually and Collectively Insignificant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Bram; Liu, Jialang; Hackett, Paul

    2017-04-01

    This paper explores the opportunities and constraints to project-based environmental assessment as a means to support the assessment and management of cumulative environmental effects. A case study of the hydroelectric sector is used to determine whether sufficient information is available over time through project-by-project assessments to support an adequate understanding of cumulative change. Results show inconsistency from one project to the next in terms of the components and indicators assessed, limited transfer of baseline information between project assessments over time, and the same issues and concerns being raised by review panels-even though the projects reviewed are operating in the same watershed and operated by the same proponent. Project environmental assessments must be managed, and coordinated, as part of a larger system of impact assessment, if project-by-project assessments are to provide a meaningful forum for learning and understanding cumulative change. The paper concludes with recommendations for improved project-based assessment practice in support of cumulative effects assessment and management.

  17. Contribution of promoting the green residence assessment scheme to energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zhiyu; Yuan, Hongping; Shen, Liyin

    2012-01-01

    Green residence development has been one of the important strategies for promoting sustainable urban development. Governments throughout the world have been encouraging property developers to deliver green properties. In line with this development, governments have been implementing various assessment programs to certify green residential buildings with the aim of contributing to sustainable urban development. With reference to the Chinese construction practice, this paper examines the effectiveness of the green residence assessment scheme toward its defined aim through investigating the contents and procedures of the green residence assessment scheme by referring to the practices of Chongqing city in western China. Based on the results of five case studies and five semi-structured interviews, this study reveals the significant contribution from implementing the green residence assessment scheme particularly to energy saving in residential buildings. Further, the green residence assessment scheme promotes the application of green building materials and green construction technologies in the entire process of delivering and operating residential buildings. The findings provide valuable references for further investigating alternative methods to achieve better energy saving in developing residential buildings. - Highlights: ► Energy saving in residence development is important for sustainable urban development. ► Green residence assessment scheme contributes significantly to energy saving in residences. ► Green residence assessment promotes application of environmentally friendly building materials and technologies

  18. A Nobel Prize for empirical macroeconometrics: assessing the contributions of Thomas Sargent and Christopher Sims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumans, M.; Sent, E.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an assessment of the contributions of the 2011 Nobel Prize winners, Thomas Sargent and Christopher Sims. They received the prize ‘for their empirical research on cause and effect in the macroeconomy’. The paper illustrates that Sargent entertained different interpretations of

  19. The contribution of health technology assessment, health needs assessment, and health impact assessment to the assessment and translation of technologies in the field of public health genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkötter, N; Vondeling, H; Blancquaert, I; Mekel, O C L; Kristensen, F B; Brand, A

    2011-01-01

    The European Union has named genomics as one of the promising research fields for the development of new health technologies. Major concerns with regard to these fields are, on the one hand, the rather slow and limited translation of new knowledge and, on the other hand, missing insights into the impact on public health and health care practice of those technologies that are actually introduced. This paper aims to give an overview of the major assessment instruments in public health [health technology assessment (HTA), health needs assessment (HNA) and health impact assessment (HIA)] which could contribute to the systematic translation and assessment of genomic health applications by focussing at population level and on public health policy making. It is shown to what extent HTA, HNA and HIA contribute to translational research by using the continuum of translational research (T1-T4) in genomic medicine as an analytic framework. The selected assessment methodologies predominantly cover 2 to 4 phases within the T1-T4 system. HTA delivers the most complete set of methodologies when assessing health applications. HNA can be used to prioritize areas where genomic health applications are needed or to identify infrastructural needs. HIA delivers information on the impact of technologies in a wider scope and promotes informed decision making. HTA, HNA and HIA provide a partly overlapping and partly unique set of methodologies and infrastructure for the translation and assessment of genomic health applications. They are broad in scope and go beyond the continuum of T1-T4 translational research regarding policy translation. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Environmental impact and risk assessments and key factors contributing to the overall uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salbu, Brit

    2016-01-01

    There is a significant number of nuclear and radiological sources that have contributed, are still contributing, or have the potential to contribute to radioactive contamination of the environment in the future. To protect the environment from radioactive contamination, impact and risk assessments are performed prior to or during a release event, short or long term after deposition or prior and after implementation of countermeasures. When environmental impact and risks are assessed, however, a series of factors will contribute to the overall uncertainties. To provide environmental impact and risk assessments, information on processes, kinetics and a series of input variables is needed. Adding problems such as variability, questionable assumptions, gaps in knowledge, extrapolations and poor conceptual model structures, a series of factors are contributing to large and often unacceptable uncertainties in impact and risk assessments. Information on the source term and the release scenario is an essential starting point in impact and risk models; the source determines activity concentrations and atom ratios of radionuclides released, while the release scenario determine the physico-chemical forms of released radionuclides such as particle size distribution, structure and density. Releases will most often contain other contaminants such as metals, and due to interactions, contaminated sites should be assessed as a multiple stressor scenario. Following deposition, a series of stressors, interactions and processes will influence the ecosystem transfer of radionuclide species and thereby influence biological uptake (toxicokinetics) and responses (toxicodynamics) in exposed organisms. Due to the variety of biological species, extrapolation is frequently needed to fill gaps in knowledge e.g., from effects to no effects, from effects in one organism to others, from one stressor to mixtures. Most toxtests are, however, performed as short term exposure of adult organisms

  1. Mapping causal functional contributions derived from the clinical assessment of brain damage after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Zavaglia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lesion analysis reveals causal contributions of brain regions to mental functions, aiding the understanding of normal brain function as well as rehabilitation of brain-damaged patients. We applied a novel lesion inference technique based on game theory, Multi-perturbation Shapley value Analysis (MSA, to a large clinical lesion dataset. We used MSA to analyze the lesion patterns of 148 acute stroke patients together with their neurological deficits, as assessed by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS. The results revealed regional functional contributions to essential behavioral and cognitive functions as reflected in the NIHSS, particularly by subcortical structures. There were also side specific differences of functional contributions between the right and left hemispheric brain regions which may reflect the dominance of the left hemispheric syndrome aphasia in the NIHSS. Comparison of MSA to established lesion inference methods demonstrated the feasibility of the approach for analyzing clinical data and indicated its capability for objectively inferring functional contributions from multiple injured, potentially interacting sites, at the cost of having to predict the outcome of unknown lesion configurations. The analysis of regional functional contributions to neurological symptoms measured by the NIHSS contributes to the interpretation of this widely used standardized stroke scale in clinical practice as well as clinical trials and provides a first approximation of a ‘map of stroke’.

  2. Mapping causal functional contributions derived from the clinical assessment of brain damage after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavaglia, Melissa; Forkert, Nils D; Cheng, Bastian; Gerloff, Christian; Thomalla, Götz; Hilgetag, Claus C

    2015-01-01

    Lesion analysis reveals causal contributions of brain regions to mental functions, aiding the understanding of normal brain function as well as rehabilitation of brain-damaged patients. We applied a novel lesion inference technique based on game theory, Multi-perturbation Shapley value Analysis (MSA), to a large clinical lesion dataset. We used MSA to analyze the lesion patterns of 148 acute stroke patients together with their neurological deficits, as assessed by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). The results revealed regional functional contributions to essential behavioral and cognitive functions as reflected in the NIHSS, particularly by subcortical structures. There were also side specific differences of functional contributions between the right and left hemispheric brain regions which may reflect the dominance of the left hemispheric syndrome aphasia in the NIHSS. Comparison of MSA to established lesion inference methods demonstrated the feasibility of the approach for analyzing clinical data and indicated its capability for objectively inferring functional contributions from multiple injured, potentially interacting sites, at the cost of having to predict the outcome of unknown lesion configurations. The analysis of regional functional contributions to neurological symptoms measured by the NIHSS contributes to the interpretation of this widely used standardized stroke scale in clinical practice as well as clinical trials and provides a first approximation of a 'map of stroke'.

  3. Mapping causal functional contributions derived from the clinical assessment of brain damage after stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavaglia, Melissa; Forkert, Nils D.; Cheng, Bastian; Gerloff, Christian; Thomalla, Götz; Hilgetag, Claus C.

    2015-01-01

    Lesion analysis reveals causal contributions of brain regions to mental functions, aiding the understanding of normal brain function as well as rehabilitation of brain-damaged patients. We applied a novel lesion inference technique based on game theory, Multi-perturbation Shapley value Analysis (MSA), to a large clinical lesion dataset. We used MSA to analyze the lesion patterns of 148 acute stroke patients together with their neurological deficits, as assessed by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). The results revealed regional functional contributions to essential behavioral and cognitive functions as reflected in the NIHSS, particularly by subcortical structures. There were also side specific differences of functional contributions between the right and left hemispheric brain regions which may reflect the dominance of the left hemispheric syndrome aphasia in the NIHSS. Comparison of MSA to established lesion inference methods demonstrated the feasibility of the approach for analyzing clinical data and indicated its capability for objectively inferring functional contributions from multiple injured, potentially interacting sites, at the cost of having to predict the outcome of unknown lesion configurations. The analysis of regional functional contributions to neurological symptoms measured by the NIHSS contributes to the interpretation of this widely used standardized stroke scale in clinical practice as well as clinical trials and provides a first approximation of a ‘map of stroke’. PMID:26448908

  4. Assessing Potential of VIIRS Data for Contribution to a Forest Threat Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the contributions by the Rapid Prototyping Capability (RPC) towards using Visible Infrared Imager / Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) data in assessing the damage to forests. The Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003 mandates development of national Early Warning System (EWS) for forest threat monitoring and mitigation. NASA Stennis is working with the US Forest Service to develop needed components of this EWS. The use of MODIS data for monitoring forest disturbance at broad regional scales is a componet of this program. This RPC experiment was initiated to assess potential of the MODIS follow-on, VIIRS, for monitoring forest disturbance at broad scales and thereby contributing to the EWS. This presentation reviews the potential use of the VIIRS to examine the damage to forests caused by gyspy moths in the West Virginia and Virginia area.

  5. IFC Jobs Study : Assessing Private Sector Contributions to Job Creation and Poverty Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation

    2013-01-01

    This report is the result of an open-source study to assess the direct and indirect effects of private sector activity on job creation. The report examines how and under what conditions the private sector can best contribute to job creation and poverty reduction. The private sector, which provides some 90 percent of jobs in developing countries, must be at the core of any response to this ...

  6. Noaa contributions to the 1995 IPCC assessments: A summary of the current and future activities of the intergovernmental panel on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albritton, D.; Levy, J.

    1993-05-01

    Contents: introduction -the IPCC and NOAA; NOAA contributions to the IPCC 1995 science assessment; NOAA contributions to the IPCC 1995 impacts, adaptation, and mitigation assessment; NOAA contributions to the 1995 IPCC economics and greenhouse-gas scenario assessment

  7. Assessing the role of internal climate variability in Antarctica's contribution to future sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, C. Y.; Forest, C. E.; Pollard, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) has the potential to be a major contributor to future sea-level rise (SLR). Current projections of SLR due to AIS mass loss remain highly uncertain. Better understanding of how ice sheets respond to future climate forcing and variability is essential for assessing the long-term risk of SLR. However, the predictability of future climate is limited by uncertainties from emission scenarios, model structural differences, and the internal variability that is inherently generated within the fully coupled climate system. Among those uncertainties, the impact of internal variability on the AIS changes has not been explicitly assessed. In this study, we quantify the effect of internal variability on the AIS evolutions by using climate fields from two large-ensemble experiments using the Community Earth System Model to force a three-dimensional ice sheet model. We find that internal variability of climate fields, particularly atmospheric fields, among ensemble members leads to significantly different AIS responses. Our results show that the internal variability can cause about 80 mm differences of AIS contribution to SLR by 2100 compared to the ensemble-mean contribution of 380-450 mm. Moreover, using ensemble-mean climate fields as the forcing in the ice sheet model does not produce realistic simulations of the ice loss. Instead, it significantly delays the onset of retreat of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet for up to 20 years and significantly underestimates the AIS contribution to SLR by 0.07-0.11 m in 2100 and up to 0.34 m in the 2250's. Therefore, because the uncertainty caused by internal variability is irreducible, we seek to highlight a critical need to assess the role of internal variability in projecting the AIS loss over the next few centuries. By quantifying the impact of internal variability on AIS contribution to SLR, policy makers can obtain more robust estimates of SLR and implement suitable adaptation strategies.

  8. Teaching and Assessing Professionalism in Radiology: Resources and Scholarly Opportunities to Contribute to Required Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Aine Marie; Mullan, Patricia B

    2018-05-01

    Teaching and assessing trainees' professionalism now represents an explicit expectation for Accreditation Council Graduate Medical Education-accredited radiology programs. Challenges to meeting this expectation include variability in defining the construct of professionalism; limits of traditional teaching and assessment methods, used for competencies historically more prominent in medical education, for professionalism; and emerging expectations for credible and feasible professionalism teaching and assessment practices in the current context of health-care training and practice. This article identifies promising teaching resources and methods that can be used strategically to augment traditional teaching of the cognitive basis for professionalism, including role modeling, case-based scenarios, debriefing, simulations, narrative medicine (storytelling), guided discussions, peer-assisted learning, and reflective practice. This article also summarizes assessment practices intended to promote learning, as well as to inform how and when to assess trainees as their professional identities develop over time, settings, and autonomous practice, particularly in terms of measurable behaviors. This includes assessment tools (including mini observations, critical incident reports, and appreciative inquiry) for authentic assessment in the workplace; engaging multiple sources (self-, peer, other health professionals, and patients) in assessment; and intentional practices for trainees to take responsibility for seeking our actionable feedback and reflection. This article examines the emerging evidence of the feasibility and value added of assessment of medical competency milestones, including professionalism, coordinated by the Accreditation Council Graduate Medical Education in radiology and other medical specialties. Radiology has a strategic opportunity to contribute to scholarship and inform policies in professionalism teaching and assessment practices. Copyright © 2018 The

  9. Environmental impact and risk assessments and key factors contributing to the overall uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salbu, Brit

    2016-01-01

    There is a significant number of nuclear and radiological sources that have contributed, are still contributing, or have the potential to contribute to radioactive contamination of the environment in the future. To protect the environment from radioactive contamination, impact and risk assessments are performed prior to or during a release event, short or long term after deposition or prior and after implementation of countermeasures. When environmental impact and risks are assessed, however, a series of factors will contribute to the overall uncertainties. To provide environmental impact and risk assessments, information on processes, kinetics and a series of input variables is needed. Adding problems such as variability, questionable assumptions, gaps in knowledge, extrapolations and poor conceptual model structures, a series of factors are contributing to large and often unacceptable uncertainties in impact and risk assessments. Information on the source term and the release scenario is an essential starting point in impact and risk models; the source determines activity concentrations and atom ratios of radionuclides released, while the release scenario determine the physico-chemical forms of released radionuclides such as particle size distribution, structure and density. Releases will most often contain other contaminants such as metals, and due to interactions, contaminated sites should be assessed as a multiple stressor scenario. Following deposition, a series of stressors, interactions and processes will influence the ecosystem transfer of radionuclide species and thereby influence biological uptake (toxicokinetics) and responses (toxicodynamics) in exposed organisms. Due to the variety of biological species, extrapolation is frequently needed to fill gaps in knowledge e.g., from effects to no effects, from effects in one organism to others, from one stressor to mixtures. Most toxtests are, however, performed as short term exposure of adult organisms

  10. Long-Term Warming Trends in Korea and Contribution of Urbanization: An Updated Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bo-Joung; Kim, Yeon-Hee; Min, Seung-Ki; Kim, Maeng-Ki; Choi, Youngeun; Boo, Kyung-On; Shim, Sungbo

    2017-10-01

    This study conducted an updated analysis of the long-term temperature trends over South Korea and reassessed the contribution of the urbanization effect to the local warming trends. Linear trends were analyzed for three different periods over South Korea in order to consider possible inhomogeneity due to changes in the number of available stations: recent 103 years (1912-2014), 61 years (1954-2014), and 42 years (1973-2014). The local temperature has increased by 1.90°C, 1.35°C, and 0.99°C during the three periods, respectively, which are found 1.4-2.6 times larger than the global land mean trends. The countries located in the northern middle and high latitudes exhibit similar warming trends (about 1.5 times stronger than the global mean), suggesting a weak influence of urbanization on the local warming over South Korea. Urbanization contribution is assessed using two methods. First, results from "city minus rural" methods showed that 30-45% of the local warming trends during recent four decades are likely due to the urbanization effect, depending on station classification methods and analysis periods. Results from an "observation minus reanalysis" method using the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR) data sets (v2 and v2c) indicated about 25-30% contribution of the urbanization effect to the local warming trend during the recent six decades. However, the urbanization contribution was estimated as low as 3-11% when considering the century-long period. Our results confirm large uncertainties in the estimation of urbanization contribution when using shorter-term periods and suggest that the urbanization contribution to the century-long warming trends could be much lower.

  11. Assessing the social sustainability contribution of an infrastructure project under conditions of uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra, Leonardo A.; Yepes, Víctor; Pellicer, Eugenio

    2017-01-01

    Assessing the viability of a public infrastructure includes economic, technical and environmental aspects; however, on many occasions, the social aspects are not always adequately considered. This article proposes a procedure to estimate the social sustainability of infrastructure projects under conditions of uncertainty, based on a multicriteria deterministic method. The variability of the method inputs is contributed by the decision-makers. Uncertain inputs are treated through uniform and beta PERT distributions. The Monte Carlo method is used to propagate uncertainty in the method. A case study of a road infrastructure improvement in El Salvador is used to illustrate this treatment. The main results determine the variability of the short and long-term social improvement indices by infrastructure and the probability of the position in the prioritization of the alternatives. The proposed mechanism improves the reliability of the decision making early in infrastructure projects, taking their social contribution into account. The results can complement environmental and economic sustainability assessments. - Highlights: •Estimate the social sustainability of infrastructure projects under conditions of uncertainty •The method uses multicriteria and Monte Carlo techniques and beta PERT distributions •Determines variability of the short and long term social improvement •Determines probability in the prioritization of alternatives •Improves reliability of decision making considering the social contribution

  12. Common-but-differentiated-Responsibilities for adaptation financing. An assessment of the contributions of countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellink, R. [Wageningen University, Wageningen (Netherlands); Den Elzen, M. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency NMP, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Aikinga, H.; Bergsm, E.; Berkhout, F.; Dekker, T.; Gupta, J. [Institute for Environmental Studies IVM, VU University, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-03-15

    Climate change may cause most harm to countries that have historically contributed the least to greenhouse gas emissions and land-use change. This paper identifies deontology, solidarity and consequentialism as the principles that can serve as a basis for a fair international burden sharing scheme of climate change adaptation costs. We translate these principles into criteria that can be applied in assigning a share of the financial burden to individual countries, namely historical responsibility, equality and capacity to pay. Specific political and scientific choices are discussed, highlighting implications for international burden-sharing schemes. A hybrid approach, combining historical responsibility and capacity to pay seems a promising starting point for international negotiations on the design of burden-sharing schemes. From the numerical assessment, it is clear that UNFCCC Annex I countries carry the greatest burden under most scenarios, but contributions differ substantially subject to the choice of an indicator for capacity to pay. The contributions are less sensitive to choices related to responsibility calculations, apart from those associated with land-use related emissions. Assuming the costs of climate adaptation are USD100 billion per year, the total financial contribution by the Annex I countries would be in the range of USD 55-68 billion per year.

  13. Reliability, validity, and significance of assessment of sense of contribution in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaki, Jiro; Taniguchi, Toshiyo; Fujii, Yasuhito

    2014-01-29

    The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Sense of Contribution Scale (SCS), a newly developed, 7-item questionnaire used to measure sense of contribution in the workplace. Workers at 272 organizations answered questionnaires that included the SCS. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analyses for internal consistency and validity varied from 1,675 to 2,462 (response rates 54.6%-80.2%). Fifty-four workers were included in the analysis of test-retest reliability (response rate, 77.1%). The SCS showed high internal consistency (Cronbach's α coefficients in men and women were 0.85 and 0.86, respectively) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.91). Significant (p workplace bullying, and procedural and interactional justice. The SCS is a psychometrically satisfactory measure of sense of contribution in the workplace. The SCS provides a new and useful instrument to measure sense of contribution, which is independently associated with mental health in workers, for studies in organizational science, occupational health psychology and occupational medicine.

  14. Assessing Factors Contributing to Cyanobacteria Harmful Algal Blooms in U.S. Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salls, W. B.; Iiames, J. S., Jr.; Lunetta, R. S.; Mehaffey, M.; Schaeffer, B. A.

    2017-12-01

    Cyanobacteria Harmful Algal Blooms (CHABs) in inland lakes have emerged as a major threat to water quality from both ecological and public health standpoints. Understanding the factors and processes driving CHAB occurrence is important in order to properly manage ensuring more favorable water quality outcomes. High water temperatures and nutrient loadings are known drivers of CHABs; however, the contribution of landscape variables and their interactions with these drivers remains relatively unstudied at a regional or national scale. This study assesses upstream landscape variables that may contribute to or obstruct/delay nutrient loadings to freshwater systems in several hundred inland lakes in the Upper Mid-western and Northeastern United States. We employ multiple linear regression and random forest modeling to determine which variables contribute most strongly to CHAB occurrence. This lakeshed-based approach will rank the impact of each landscape variable on cyanobacteria levels derived from satellite remotely sensed data from the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) sensor for the 2011 bloom season (July - October).

  15. Risk Assessment: Factors Contributing to Discomfort for Menopausal Women in Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mehdi; Seifi, Bahar; Heidari, Mohammad

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the Factors contributing to discomfort for menopausal women in workplace and the perceived effects of working conditions on menopausal symptoms, and to produce recommendations for managers and women. This study was a review article. We searched PubMed and Science Direct for articles related to menopause and workplace. Keywords included: menopause AND workplace OR occupational health or menopausal women AND managers. Because we aimed to update the literature following the 2011 review of menopause and workplace, only English-language articles published between 2011 and 2017 were included. This review showed that how managers could be help and awareness and what should be done for menopausal women in workplace by risk assessment. Many risk factors are contributing to discomfort for menopausal women in workplace and managers should be assessed them. Managers should be aware that menopausal transition causes difficulty for some women at work, then occupational health and safety and health promotion policies will be increasingly important. It may help inform the development of tailored occupational health policies and programs that cater for the needs of women as they transition through menopause in the workplace.

  16. Assessment of China's renewable energy contribution during the 12th Five Year Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Lixuan; Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; Raczkowski, Chris

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, China has been ambitious in investing and developing renewable energy technologies, aiming to enhance its energy security, mitigate its energy-related CO 2 emissions and develop renewable energy industry. The 12th Five Year Plan (2011–2015) has set clear targets on installed capacities of different renewable energy technologies. This study aimed to assess the possible contribution of 12th Five Year Plan for China's future energy system and identify factors that might influence its impacts. First, current status of renewable energy development in China has been reviewed. Then several energy scenarios have been developed in an hourly simulation using an energy system analysis tool EnergyPLAN. It was identified that existing grid bottleneck would greatly reduce the potential contribution of renewable installations in terms of share of renewable electricity generation, share of non-fossil fuels in primary energy and system CO 2 emissions. In contrast, improving technical performance of renewable energy technologies and sectoral energy efficiency plays an important role in increasing the share of renewables and promoting China’s energy system transition. Finally, some policy suggestions were drawn to facilitate a better implementation of the renewable energy plan. - Highlights: • China's renewable energy contribution during the 12th Five Year Plan was assessed. • Non-fossil fuel targets in primary energy for 2015 and 2020 could be easily achieved. • Grid bottlenecks severely decrease the share of RES-E in electricity generation through the 12th Five Year Period. • Improved technical performance of renewable technologies and sectoral energy efficiency are extremely important for achieving higher RES-E share. • Several policy suggestions were drawn

  17. Reliability, Validity, and Significance of Assessment of Sense of Contribution in the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiro Takaki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Sense of Contribution Scale (SCS, a newly developed, 7-item questionnaire used to measure sense of contribution in the workplace. Workers at 272 organizations answered questionnaires that included the SCS. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analyses for internal consistency and validity varied from 1,675 to 2,462 (response rates 54.6%–80.2%. Fifty-four workers were included in the analysis of test–retest reliability (response rate, 77.1%. The SCS showed high internal consistency (Cronbach’s α coefficients in men and women were 0.85 and 0.86, respectively and test–retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.91. Significant (p < 0.001, positive, moderate correlations were found between the SCS score and scores for organization-based self-esteem and work engagement in both genders, which support the SCS’s convergent and discriminant validity. The criterion validity of the SCS was supported by the finding that in both genders, the SCS scores were significantly (p < 0.05 and inversely associated with psychological distress and sleep disturbance in crude and in multivariable analyses that adjusted for demographics, organization-based self-esteem, work engagement, effort–reward ratio, workplace bullying, and procedural and interactional justice. The SCS is a psychometrically satisfactory measure of sense of contribution in the workplace. The SCS provides a new and useful instrument to measure sense of contribution, which is independently associated with mental health in workers, for studies in organizational science, occupational health psychology and occupational medicine.

  18. Radioactive waste management: the contribution of expert assessments to the implementation of safe management channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besnus, F.; Jouve, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    The national Radioactive Materials and Waste Management (PNGMDR) sets objectives and defines waste management channels for all radioactive wastes produced in France. Within this framework, IRSN (Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety) expertise aims at assessing the consistency and robustness of the technical solutions set in place by the plan. As a result of this assessment, the main safety issues and priorities for upgrading the safety of the various facilities that will receive and treat waste are identified on the one hand, while possible foreseen weaknesses in terms of storage or treatment capacities are put into light on the other hand. To carry out such assessment, IRSN backs on its 'in depth' knowledge of facilities, acquired through the examination of each major step of waste management facility life (creation, commissioning, re-examination of safety...). This knowledge feeds in turn the examination of the waste management strategies implemented by operators. In addition, special attention is given to the achievement of waste packages of favourable properties as well as to the conditions for their safe disposal, since these two aspects are most often key factors for optimizing the safety of the whole management channel. By its capacity to overlook all steps of waste management channels, from production to final disposal, IRSN intends to contribute to the objective of enhancing the global safety of the management of radioactive waste. (authors)

  19. A methodology to assess the contribution of biorefineries to a sustainable bio-based economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maga, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Within this thesis for the first time an integrative methodology to assess the sustainability of biorefineries and bio-based products has been developed which is based on a fundamental understanding of sustainability as presented in the Brundtland report. The applied integrative concept of sustainability as developed by the Institute for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis (ITAS) overcomes the widespread thinking in three pillars of sustainability and opens up new perspectives. The methodology developed addresses innovative life cycle assessment evaluation methods on midpoint level as well as on the area of protection and adopts state-of-the-art assessment procedures e.g. to determine water deprivation. It goes far beyond the scope of conventional LCA studies and examines effects on human health, on the environment, on the development of knowledge and physical capital, and on regional development and acceptance. In order to validate the developed method it was applied to an algae biorefinery currently under development and construction in the south of Spain. For this assessment for the first time extensive process data was collected of a real algae biorefinery which uses municipal waste water as a culture medium for microalgae. The use of waste water allows to reduce the demand for fresh water and avoids additional fertilisation of microalgae. Moreover, the analysed algae biorefinery replaces conventional waste water treatment by a biological purification and produces biogas by an anaerobic pretreatment of waste water as well as by anaerobic digestion of algae. After several purification steps the biogas can be used as automotive fuel and thus contributes to further development and increased use of biofuels. On the one hand the sustainability assessment shows that this way of waste water treatment contributes to climate protection and to the conservation of fossil energy carrier. On the other hand approximately ten times more land is needed and twenty times

  20. A methodology to assess the contribution of biorefineries to a sustainable bio-based economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maga, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Within this thesis for the first time an integrative methodology to assess the sustainability of biorefineries and bio-based products has been developed which is based on a fundamental understanding of sustainability as presented in the Brundtland report. The applied integrative concept of sustainability as developed by the Institute for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis (ITAS) overcomes the widespread thinking in three pillars of sustainability and opens up new perspectives. The methodology developed addresses innovative life cycle assessment evaluation methods on midpoint level as well as on the area of protection and adopts state-of-the-art assessment procedures e.g. to determine water deprivation. It goes far beyond the scope of conventional LCA studies and examines effects on human health, on the environment, on the development of knowledge and physical capital, and on regional development and acceptance. In order to validate the developed method it was applied to an algae biorefinery currently under development and construction in the south of Spain. For this assessment for the first time extensive process data was collected of a real algae biorefinery which uses municipal waste water as a culture medium for microalgae. The use of waste water allows to reduce the demand for fresh water and avoids additional fertilisation of microalgae. Moreover, the analysed algae biorefinery replaces conventional waste water treatment by a biological purification and produces biogas by an anaerobic pretreatment of waste water as well as by anaerobic digestion of algae. After several purification steps the biogas can be used as automotive fuel and thus contributes to further development and increased use of biofuels. On the one hand the sustainability assessment shows that this way of waste water treatment contributes to climate protection and to the conservation of fossil energy carrier. On the other hand approximately ten times more land is needed and twenty times

  1. Bulgarian Contribution to World Science and Main Criteria for Assessing the Achievements of Scientists [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.V. Toshev

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The status and the new developments in world science are both discussed. The transition from the ‘normal science’ (Kuhn to the ‘post-normal science’ (Funtowicz & Ravetz is commented. The integration processes in science, the mass higher education and its mcdonaldization are also considered. The difference between ‘science’ and ‘surrogate science’ is explained. The existence of marginal journals as an attribute of the surrogate science is discussed. Such a broad-based consideration allows a realistic assess of the contribution of Bulgarian scientists in the development of world science to be made. Some of the most important scientific achievements made by Bulgarians are listed.

  2. Contribution of occupational therapy to the assessment of competence: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, Marie; Huynh, Tammy; Giroux, Dominique; Bottari, Carolina

    2016-06-01

    Many occupational therapists contribute to the assessment of competence to take care of oneself and manage one’s affairs, but few guidelines exist regarding this practice with adults who have experienced a traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study explored the ability of the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Profile (IADL Profile) to capture competence following a TBI. Task performance on the IADL Profile of a 46-year-old man (ML) who was found to be incompetent following a severe TBI was compared to eight control subjects (mean age 49.3 ± 4.2 years). The IADL Profile scores, observable behaviours, and verbalizations were compared using descriptive statistics (M, SD) and qualitative analyses. The independence level of ML was lower than that of the control subjects on seven of the eight tasks of the IADL Profile (p competence. © CAOT 2016.

  3. The Wada Test: contributions to standardization of the stimulus for language and memory assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäder Maria Joana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Wada Test (WT is part of the presurgical evaluation for refractory epilepsy. The WT is not standardized and the protocols differ in important ways, including stimulus type of material presented for memory testing, timing of presentations and methods of assessment. The aim of this study was to contribute to establish parameters for a WT to Brazilian population investigating the performance of 100 normal subjects, without medication. Two parallel models were used based on Montreal Procedure adapted from Gail Risse's (MEG-MN,EUA protocol. The proportions of correct responses of normal subjects submitted to two parallel WT models were investigated and the two models were compared. The results showed that the two models are similar but significant differences among the stimulus type were observed. The results suggest that the stimulus type may influence the results of the WT and should be considered when constructing models and comparing different protocols.

  4. 15N dilution technique of assessing the contribution of nitrogen fixation to rice plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventura, Wilbur; Watanabe, Iwao

    1983-01-01

    An attempt to correlate the positive nitrogen balance in rice-soil system with the 15 N dilution in rice plants was made to see if isotope dilution can be used to assess the contribution of nitrogen fixation to the nitrogen nutrition of rice. 15 N ammonium sulfate and sucrose were added to the moist soil in pots to label biomass nitrogen fraction. The rice-soil system with higher nitrogen gain had lower 15 N content in the rice plants. When the surface of pots was covered with black cloths to suppress photodependent N 2 fixation, no significant nitrogen gain was observed. Significant gain was found in the rice-flooded soil system exposed to light, and the 15 N content of plants decreased in allowing the photodependent N 2 fixation by blue-green algae symbiosis. The contribution of plant nitrogen derived from photodependent N 2 fixation was estimated to be 20-30 % of the positive nitrogen gain in the system by the 15 N dilution technique using the rice-covered soil as reference system. (Mori, K.)

  5. /sup 15/N dilution technique of assessing the contribution of nitrogen fixation to rice plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ventura, W; Watanabe, Iwao [International Rice Research Inst., College, Laguna (Phillippines)

    1983-06-01

    An attempt to correlate the positive nitrogen balance in rice-soil system with the /sup 15/N dilution in rice plants was made to see if isotope dilution can be used to assess the contribution of nitrogen fixation to the nitrogen nutrition of rice. /sup 15/N ammonium sulfate and sucrose were added to the moist soil in pots to label biomass nitrogen fraction. The rice-soil system with higher nitrogen gain had lower /sup 15/N content in the rice plants. When the surface of pots was covered with black cloths to suppress photodependent N/sub 2/ fixation, no significant nitrogen gain was observed. Significant gain was found in the rice-flooded soil system exposed to light, and the /sup 15/N content of plants decreased in allowing the photodependent N/sub 2/ fixation by blue-green algae symbiosis. The contribution of plant nitrogen derived from photodependent N/sub 2/ fixation was estimated to be 20-30 % of the positive nitrogen gain in the system by the /sup 15/N dilution technique using the rice-covered soil as reference system.

  6. Implementing a Sustainability Balanced Scorecard to Contribute to the Process of Organisational Legitimacy Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Bowrey

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the use of a Sustainability Balanced Scorecard (SBSC as a contributing factor in the process of organisational legitimacy assessment. The methodological approach in this study is supported by the application of content analysis to identify and examine the disclosed sustainability indicators of a major Australian financial institution (Westpac. The theoretical lens of legitimacy theory and the Balanced Scorecard (BSC are used as points of reference to inform and structure the overall theoretical framework of this study. The results indicate that the four perspectives of a traditional BSC correlate with the main sources of influential inputs to Westpac’s sustainability reporting. In addition, the SBSC presented in this article successfully illustrates focal areas of reporting practice, providing a succinct overview of an organisation’s reporting activities. The primary contributions of this research are to the literature on social and environmental disclosures, including the research of Do, Tilt and Tilling (2007, and Baxter, Chua and Strong (2010 and the provision of a practical technique to illustrate the focal activity of an organisation’s social and environmental reporting as part of the legitimisation process.

  7. Seismic hazard assessment of the Province of Murcia (SE Spain): analysis of source contribution to hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mayordomo, J.; Gaspar-Escribano, J. M.; Benito, B.

    2007-10-01

    A probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of the Province of Murcia in terms of peak ground acceleration (PGA) and spectral accelerations [SA( T)] is presented in this paper. In contrast to most of the previous studies in the region, which were performed for PGA making use of intensity-to-PGA relationships, hazard is here calculated in terms of magnitude and using European spectral ground-motion models. Moreover, we have considered the most important faults in the region as specific seismic sources, and also comprehensively reviewed the earthquake catalogue. Hazard calculations are performed following the Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) methodology using a logic tree, which accounts for three different seismic source zonings and three different ground-motion models. Hazard maps in terms of PGA and SA(0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 s) and coefficient of variation (COV) for the 475-year return period are shown. Subsequent analysis is focused on three sites of the province, namely, the cities of Murcia, Lorca and Cartagena, which are important industrial and tourism centres. Results at these sites have been analysed to evaluate the influence of the different input options. The most important factor affecting the results is the choice of the attenuation relationship, whereas the influence of the selected seismic source zonings appears strongly site dependant. Finally, we have performed an analysis of source contribution to hazard at each of these cities to provide preliminary guidance in devising specific risk scenarios. We have found that local source zones control the hazard for PGA and SA( T ≤ 1.0 s), although contribution from specific fault sources and long-distance north Algerian sources becomes significant from SA(0.5 s) onwards.

  8. Examining language functions: a reassessment of Bastian's contribution to aphasia assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Marjorie P

    2013-08-01

    Henry Charlton Bastian (1837-1915) developed his network model of language processing, modality deficits and correlated lesion localizations in the 1860s and was a leading clinical authority for over four decades. Although his ideas are little referenced today, having been overshadowed by his more eminent Queen Square colleague John Hughlings Jackson, his work on aphasia and paralysis was highly regarded by contemporaries. This paper traces Bastian's lasting but largely unattributed contribution to the development of standardized clinical assessment of language disorders. From 1867 onwards, Bastian trained generations of medical students in neurology. In his 1875 book On Paralysis there is evidence in his case descriptions that Bastian had already implemented a detailed set of procedures for examining aphasic patients. In 1886, Bastian published a 'Schema for the Examination of Aphasic and Amnesic Persons'. Bastian insisted on the utility of this battery for diagnosis, classification and lesion localization; he argued that its consistent use would allow the development of a patient corpus and the comparison of cases from other hospitals. In 1898 his Treatise on Aphasia included a list of 34 questions that were to be used to examine all patients to provide detailed and systematic evidence of spared and impaired abilities in all receptive and expressive modalities. Bastian's contribution to the development of standardized clinical aphasia assessment is reassessed through detailed analysis of his publications and those of his contemporaries as well as new material from archives and casebooks. This evidence demonstrates that his approach to diagnosis of language and other cognitive impairments has propagated through the decades. His legacy can be seen in the approach to standardized aphasia testing developed in the latter 20th century through to today.

  9. Assessment of the Contribution of Dietary and Beverage Intake Quality to Obesity Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilici, Saniye; Mortaş, Hande; Kocaadam, Betül; Köksal, Eda

    2018-04-13

    Low dietary quality is an important indicator of unhealthy eating patterns that can lead to some consequences such as obesity, so policy is a very powerful tool that can affect the consumption of both healthy and unhealthy foods. Indices that assess whether nutritional policies are applied contribute to the assessment of the quality of the population's diet. This study was conducted to investigate the quality of diets and beverages consumed by Turkish adults, and the factors affecting them. This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 352 adults aged between 18 and 58 years. The quality of diet and beverage was measured through the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI) and Healthy Beverage Index (HBI), respectively, using 2-day (weekday and weekend) dietary recall data. The total HBI scores were 79.1 ± 11.8 and 81.0 ± 11.6; total HEI-2010 scores were 45.9 ± 12.3 and 52.3 ± 11.0, of men and women, respectively (p empty calories (p > 0.05). Sugar-sweetened beverage (HBI subcomponent) was significantly correlated with the scores of HEI-2010 and empty calorie (HEI-2010 subcomponent), as expected (p empty calories is considered.

  10. Millon's Contributions to Preadolescent and Adolescent Personality Assessment: Searching Onward and Upward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tringone, Robert; Bockian, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Theodore Millon was one of the most influential personality theorists of the 20th century. His theory was originally rooted in biosocial learning models and later reconceptualized as an evolutionary model. This foundation of Millon's work encompasses the entire life span. He had a genuine concern for humankind, especially children. His theory encompasses a comprehensive understanding of the relationship among childhood experiences, parenting styles, and recurring events throughout the life span in shaping the personality. Notable contributions to child and adolescent assessment are the Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory (Millon, Green, & Meagher, 1982 ), the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (Millon, Millon, & Davis, 1993 ), and the Millon Pre-Adolescent Clinical Inventory (M-PACI; Millon, Tringone, Millon, & Grossman, 2005 ). Given Millon's influence on the personality disorders section of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), the aforementioned instruments have personality constructs tied to familiar DSM categories, and among them, cover the age range of 9 to 18 years old. His development of the Millon Inventories revolutionized personality assessment in the United States and abroad. Millon's legacies will live on through his works and through the respect and compassion he demonstrated toward others.

  11. Contribution of transcranial magnetic stimulation to assessment of brain connectivity and networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Mark; Di Iorio, Riccardo; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Park, Jung E; Chen, Robert; Celnik, Pablo; Strafella, Antonio P; Matsumoto, Hideyuki; Ugawa, Yoshikazu

    2017-11-01

    The goal of this review is to show how transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) techniques can make a contribution to the study of brain networks. Brain networks are fundamental in understanding how the brain operates. Effects on remote areas can be directly observed or identified after a period of stimulation, and each section of this review will discuss one method. EEG analyzed following TMS is called TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs). A conditioning TMS can influence the effect of a test TMS given over the motor cortex. A disynaptic connection can be tested also by assessing the effect of a pre-conditioning stimulus on the conditioning-test pair. Basal ganglia-cortical relationships can be assessed using electrodes placed in the process of deep brain stimulation therapy. Cerebellar-cortical relationships can be determined using TMS over the cerebellum. Remote effects of TMS on the brain can be found as well using neuroimaging, including both positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The methods complement each other since they give different views of brain networks, and it is often valuable to use more than one technique to achieve converging evidence. The final product of this type of work is to show how information is processed and transmitted in the brain. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Assessing the potential contributions of additional retention processes to PFAS retardation in the subsurface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusseau, Mark L

    2018-02-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the transport and fate of per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in the subsurface is critical for accurate risk assessments and design of effective remedial actions. A multi-process retention model is proposed to account for potential additional sources of retardation for PFAS transport in source zones. These include partitioning to the soil atmosphere, adsorption at air-water interfaces, partitioning to trapped organic liquids (NAPL), and adsorption at NAPL-water interfaces. An initial assessment of the relative magnitudes and significance of these retention processes was conducted for two PFAS of primary concern, perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and an example precursor (fluorotelomer alcohol, FTOH). The illustrative evaluation was conducted using measured porous-medium properties representative of a sandy vadose-zone soil. Data collected from the literature were used to determine measured or estimated values for the relevant distribution coefficients, which were in turn used to calculate retardation factors for the model system. The results showed that adsorption at the air-water interface was a primary source of retention for both PFOA and PFOS, contributing approximately 50% of total retention for the conditions employed. Adsorption to NAPL-water interfaces and partitioning to bulk NAPL were also shown to be significant sources of retention. NAPL partitioning was the predominant source of retention for FTOH, contributing ~98% of total retention. These results indicate that these additional processes may be, in some cases, significant sources of retention for subsurface transport of PFAS. The specific magnitudes and significance of the individual retention processes will depend upon the properties and conditions of the specific system of interest (e.g., PFAS constituent and concentration, porous medium, aqueous chemistry, fluid saturations, co-contaminants). In cases wherein these

  13. The medical contribution to assessing allegations of torture in international fact-finding missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounder, Derrick J

    2011-05-20

    International fact-finding missions directed towards the exposure of possible ill-treatment of persons deprived of their liberty have become increasingly common within the framework of international treaties. Such country visits occur with the consent and co-operation of government, provide unfettered access to all places of detention and allow private interviews with detainees. The Committee for the Prevention of Torture of the Council of Europe, the United Nations Special Rapporteur on Torture, and the United Nations Subcommittee on Prevention of Torture all engage in such missions, and make use of a medical professional as part of the investigative team. The medical contribution to fact finding missions assessing ill-treatment of detainees includes an assessment of the conditions of detention, the regime and the medical services. Custody doctors and their records can be a rich source of information about physical ill-treatment. The interview and examination of detainees often occurs in circumstances which are far from ideal. The safety and wellbeing of the detainees, including protection from reprisals, is always paramount. A medical examination may disclose injuries corroborative of specific allegations. More often, a medical history of the effects of ill treatment and the description of resolved transient injuries provides corroboration, and also forms part of assessing the overall credibility of the detainee. Equally important is the consistency of the allegation with other evidence obtained from a wide variety of sources including the inspection of the place of alleged ill-treatment. The evolved working methods draw on the basic principles underlying police criminal investigations and crime scene examinations as well as forensic medicine. A forensic medical expert can be a useful part of the team in such international fact finding missions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessing roadway contributions to stormwater flows, concentrations, and loads with the StreamStats application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonewall, Adam; Granato, Gregory E.; Haluska, Tana L.

    2018-01-01

    The Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) and other state departments of transportation need quantitative information about the percentages of different land cover categories above any given stream crossing in the state to assess and address roadway contributions to water-quality impairments and resulting total maximum daily loads. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with ODOT and the FHWA, added roadway and land cover information to the online StreamStats application to facilitate analysis of stormwater runoff contributions from different land covers. Analysis of 25 delineated basins with drainage areas of about 100 mi2 indicates the diversity of land covers in the Willamette Valley, Oregon. On average, agricultural, developed, and undeveloped land covers comprise 15%, 2.3%, and 82% of these basin areas. On average, these basins contained about 10 mi of state highways and 222 mi of non-state roads. The Stochastic Empirical Loading and Dilution Model was used with available water-quality data to simulate long-term yields of total phosphorus from highways, non-highway roadways, and agricultural, developed, and undeveloped areas. These yields were applied to land cover areas obtained from StreamStats for the Willamette River above Wilsonville, Oregon. This analysis indicated that highway yields were larger than yields from other land covers because highway runoff concentrations were higher than other land covers and the highway is fully impervious. However, the total highway area was a fraction of the other land covers. Accordingly, highway runoff mitigation measures can be effective for managing water quality locally, they may have limited effect on achieving basin-wide stormwater reduction goals.

  15. Crowdsourced assessment of common genetic contribution to predicting anti-TNF treatment response in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieberts, Solveig K; Zhu, Fan; García-García, Javier; Stahl, Eli; Pratap, Abhishek; Pandey, Gaurav; Pappas, Dimitrios; Aguilar, Daniel; Anton, Bernat; Bonet, Jaume; Eksi, Ridvan; Fornés, Oriol; Guney, Emre; Li, Hongdong; Marín, Manuel Alejandro; Panwar, Bharat; Planas-Iglesias, Joan; Poglayen, Daniel; Cui, Jing; Falcao, Andre O; Suver, Christine; Hoff, Bruce; Balagurusamy, Venkat S K; Dillenberger, Donna; Neto, Elias Chaibub; Norman, Thea; Aittokallio, Tero; Ammad-Ud-Din, Muhammad; Azencott, Chloe-Agathe; Bellón, Víctor; Boeva, Valentina; Bunte, Kerstin; Chheda, Himanshu; Cheng, Lu; Corander, Jukka; Dumontier, Michel; Goldenberg, Anna; Gopalacharyulu, Peddinti; Hajiloo, Mohsen; Hidru, Daniel; Jaiswal, Alok; Kaski, Samuel; Khalfaoui, Beyrem; Khan, Suleiman Ali; Kramer, Eric R; Marttinen, Pekka; Mezlini, Aziz M; Molparia, Bhuvan; Pirinen, Matti; Saarela, Janna; Samwald, Matthias; Stoven, Véronique; Tang, Hao; Tang, Jing; Torkamani, Ali; Vert, Jean-Phillipe; Wang, Bo; Wang, Tao; Wennerberg, Krister; Wineinger, Nathan E; Xiao, Guanghua; Xie, Yang; Yeung, Rae; Zhan, Xiaowei; Zhao, Cheng; Greenberg, Jeff; Kremer, Joel; Michaud, Kaleb; Barton, Anne; Coenen, Marieke; Mariette, Xavier; Miceli, Corinne; Shadick, Nancy; Weinblatt, Michael; de Vries, Niek; Tak, Paul P; Gerlag, Danielle; Huizinga, Tom W J; Kurreeman, Fina; Allaart, Cornelia F; Louis Bridges, S; Criswell, Lindsey; Moreland, Larry; Klareskog, Lars; Saevarsdottir, Saedis; Padyukov, Leonid; Gregersen, Peter K; Friend, Stephen; Plenge, Robert; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Oliva, Baldo; Guan, Yuanfang; Mangravite, Lara M; Bridges, S Louis; Criswell, Lindsey; Moreland, Larry; Klareskog, Lars; Saevarsdottir, Saedis; Padyukov, Leonid; Gregersen, Peter K; Friend, Stephen; Plenge, Robert; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Oliva, Baldo; Guan, Yuanfang; Mangravite, Lara M

    2016-08-23

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) affects millions world-wide. While anti-TNF treatment is widely used to reduce disease progression, treatment fails in ∼one-third of patients. No biomarker currently exists that identifies non-responders before treatment. A rigorous community-based assessment of the utility of SNP data for predicting anti-TNF treatment efficacy in RA patients was performed in the context of a DREAM Challenge (http://www.synapse.org/RA_Challenge). An open challenge framework enabled the comparative evaluation of predictions developed by 73 research groups using the most comprehensive available data and covering a wide range of state-of-the-art modelling methodologies. Despite a significant genetic heritability estimate of treatment non-response trait (h(2)=0.18, P value=0.02), no significant genetic contribution to prediction accuracy is observed. Results formally confirm the expectations of the rheumatology community that SNP information does not significantly improve predictive performance relative to standard clinical traits, thereby justifying a refocusing of future efforts on collection of other data.

  16. CONTRIBUTION OF STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT TO THE IMPACT OF A HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT: AN IRISH CASE STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Máirín; Moran, Patrick S; Harrington, Patricia; Murphy, Linda; O'Neill, Michelle; Whelan, Marty; Teljeur, Conor

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to illustrate the contribution of stakeholder engagement to the impact of health technology assessment (HTA) using an Irish HTA of a national public access defibrillation (PAD) program. In response to draft legislation that proposed a PAD program, the Minister for Health requested that Health Information and Quality Authority undertake an HTA to inform the design and implementation of a national PAD program and the necessary underpinning legislation. The draft legislation outlined a program requiring widespread installation and maintenance of automatic external defibrillators in specified premises. Stakeholder engagement to optimize the impact of the HTA included one-to-one interviews with politicians, engagement with an Expert Advisory Group, public and targeted consultation, and positive media management. The HTA quantified the clinical benefits of the proposed PAD program as modest, identified that substantial costs would fall on small/medium businesses at a time of economic recession, and that none of the programs modeled were cost-effective. The Senator who proposed the Bill actively publicized the HTA process and its findings and encouraged participation in the public consultation. Participation of key stakeholders was important for the quality and acceptability of the HTA findings and advice. Media management promoted public engagement and understanding. The Bill did not progress. The HTA informed the decision not to progress with legislation for a national PAD program. Engagement was tailored to ensure that key stakeholders including politicians and the public were informed of the HTA process, the findings, and the advice, thereby maximizing acceptance. Appropriate stakeholder engagement optimizes the impact of HTA.

  17. Scientific research in malaria: bibliometric assessment of the Latin-American contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Urbano, Marcela; Lopez-Isaza, Andres F; Hurtado-Hurtado, Natalia; Gomez-Suta, Daniela; Murillo-Abadia, Jonathan; Delgado-Osorio, Nathalia; Lagos-Grisales, Guillermo J; Villegas, Soraya; Medina-Morales, Diego A; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is a parasitic disease of high global impact in public health, including Latin America. There should be more researched, particularly in this region. A bibliometric assessment of the Latin American contributions about malaria was done. Bibliometric study at SCI (1980-2013), MEDLINE/ GOPUBMED (1802-2013), Scopus (1959-2013), SCIELO (2004-2013), LILACS (1980-2013). The studies were characterized by study type, year of publication, city/country of origin, journals and more productive authors, citations and H index. At SCI, 2,806 articles were retrieved (5.13% of the total). Brazil was the highest producer (31.41%), followed by Colombia (14.3%) and Mexico (9.5%). The region received 39,894 citations, 32.2% from Brazil (H index=51), 12.75% Mexico (H index=38), 11.2% Colombia (H index=33). At Scopus, there are 4,150 articles (4.9% of the total), 33.0% Brazil, 11.3% Colombia and 8.8% Mexico; 17% in Brazil were from Universidad de São Paulo; 23.6% of Colombia from Universidad de Antioquia; 15.4% of Mexico from Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública. At Medline there were 4,278 records (36.8% Brazil). At SciELO there are 792 records (45.3% Brazil). At LILACS there were 1744 records (34.3% Brazil). Brazil has the highest output of the region, as Venezuela the scientific production in Malaria was related with the burden of disease. This was not the case for Colombia. Scientific production at bibliographical databases, particularly regionals, is low, compared to the high incidence of this disease that requires more research and control.

  18. The Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment Mission and its Potential Contributions to Human Exploration of Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul A.; Rivkin, Andy S.

    2014-01-01

    The joint ESA and NASA Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission will directly address aspects of NASA's Asteroid Initiative and will contribute to future human exploration. The NASA Asteroid Initiative is comprised of two major components: the Grand Challenge and the Asteroid Mission. The first component, the Grand Challenge, focuses on protecting Earth's population from asteroid impacts by detecting potentially hazardous objects with enough warning time to either prevent them from impacting the planet, or to implement civil defense procedures. The Asteroid Mission, involves sending astronauts to study and sample a near-Earth asteroid (NEA) prior to conducting exploration missions of the Martian system, which includes Phobos and Deimos. AIDA's primary objective is to demonstrate a kinetic impact deflection and characterize the binary NEA Didymos. The science and technical data obtained from AIDA will aid in the planning of future human exploration missions to NEAs and other small bodies. The dual robotic missions of AIDA, ESA's Asteroid Impact Monitor (AIM) and NASA's Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART), will provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific examinations of the binary target Didymos both prior to and after the kinetic impact demonstration. The knowledge gained from this mission will help identify asteroidal physical properties in order to maximize operational efficiency and reduce mission risk for future small body missions. The AIDA data will help fill crucial strategic knowledge gaps concerning asteroid physical characteristics that are relevant for human exploration considerations at similar small body destinations.

  19. Assessment of odor activity value coefficient and odor contribution based on binary interaction effects in waste disposal plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuandong; Liu, Jiemin; Yan, Luchun; Chen, Haiying; Shao, Huiqi; Meng, Tian

    2015-02-01

    Odor activity value (OAV) has been widely used for the assessment of odor pollution from various sources. However, little attention has been paid to the extreme OAV variation and potential inaccuracies of odor contribution assessment caused by odor interaction effects. The objective of this study is to assess the odor interaction effect for precise assessment of odor contribution. In this paper, samples were collected from a food waste disposal plant, and analyzed by instrumental and olfactory method to conclude odorants' occurrence and OAV. Then odor activity value coefficient (γ) was first proposed to evaluate the type and the level of binary interaction effects based on determination of OAV variation. By multiplying OAV and γ, odor activity factor (OAF) was used to reflect the real OAV. Correlation between the sum of OAF and odor concentration reached 80.0 ± 5.7%, which was 10 times higher than the sum of OAV used before. Results showed that hydrogen sulfide contributed most (annual average 66.4 ± 15.8%) to odor pollution in the waste disposal plant. However, as odor intensity of samples in summer rising, odor contribution of trimethylamine increased to 48.3 ± 3.7% by the strong synergistic interaction effect, while odor contribution of phenol decreased to 0.1 ± 0.02% for the increasing antagonistic interaction effect.

  20. Assessing the adequacy of contribution rates towards employees' provident fund in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Nurul Athirah Nabila; Yusuf, Mazlynda Md; Basah, Mohamad Yazis Ali

    2017-04-01

    The vital role of Malaysian Employees' Provident Fund (EPF) is to provide financial support for its participants during retirement years. However, the issues of inadequacy have risen and EPF has been through various improvements in order to cope with current living situations, including making adjustment in the contribution rates. This study intends to provide the projection of EPF accumulations for three different types of contribution rates namely contribution rates at current fixed rate, increasing and decreasing proportion. Then, the replacement ratio is calculated and is used as an indicator to determine the adequacy of retirement income delivered by EPF. The ideal replacement ratio recommended by financial advisors is at 70%. Based on the findings in this study, contribution rates following a decreasing proportion gives replacement ratio that exceeds or nearest to the ideal replacement ratio, while contribution rates at current fixed rate gives replacement rates that fall far from 70%. Therefore, this study shows that the accumulated amount in the fund with contribution rates following a decreasing proportion gives higher replacement ratio and is recommended to be applied by the Malaysian EPF.

  1. A Contribution to the History of Assessment: How a Conversation Simulator Redeems Socratic Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Robert; Dawson, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    Assessment in education is a recent phenomenon. Although there were counterparts in former epochs, the term assessment only began to be spoken about in education after the Second World War; and, since that time, views, strategies and concerns over assessment have proliferated according to an uncomfortable dynamic. We fear that, increasingly,…

  2. Analysis of the contribution of the Netherlands commercial CPUE data to ICES stock assessments in the years 1995 - 2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pastoors, M.A.; Bolle, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    The contribution of the Dutch commercial CPUE data to the stock assessments of North Sea plaice and sole in the years 1995-2000 has been analysed. The CPUE series are based on the total landings at age in the Dutch beam trawl fishery and the total effort (in HP days at sea) of this fishery. It is

  3. FEP report for the safety assessment SR-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    This report documents the analysis and processing of features, events and processes, FEPs, that has been carried out within the safety assessment SR-Site, and forms an important part of the reporting of the project. The main part of the work was conducted within the earlier safety assessment SR-Can, which was a preparatory stage for the SR-Site assessment. The overall objective of the FEP analysis and processing in both SR-Can and SR-Site included development of a database of features, events and processes, an SKB FEP database, in a format that facilitates both a systematic analysis of FEPs and documentation of that FEP analysis, as well as facilitating revisions and updates to be made in connection with new safety assessments. The primary objective in SR-Site was to establish an SR-Site FEP catalogue within the framework of the SKB FEP database. This FEP catalogue was required to contain all FEPs that needed to be handled in SR-Site and is an update of the corresponding SR-Can FEP catalogue that was established for the SR-Can assessment. The starting point for the handling of FEPs in SR-Site was the SR-Can version of the SKB FEP database and associated SR-Can reports. The SR-Can version of the SKB FEP database includes the SR-Can FEP catalogue, as well as the sources for the identification of FEPs in SR-Can, namely the SR 97 processes and variables, Project FEPs in the NEA International FEP database version 1.2 and matrix interactions in the Interaction matrices developed for a deep repository of the KBS-3 type. Since the completion of the FEP work within SR-Can, an updated electronic version, version 2.1, of the NEA FEP database has become available. Compared with version 1.2 of the NEA FEP database, version 2.1 contains FEPs from two more projects. As part of SR-Site, all new Project FEPs in version 2.1 of the NEA FEP database have been mapped according to the methodology adopted in SR-Can resulting in an SR-Site version of the SKB FEP database. The SKB FEP

  4. FEP report for the safety assessment SR-Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-12-01

    This report documents the analysis and processing of features, events and processes, FEPs, that has been carried out within the safety assessment SR-Site, and forms an important part of the reporting of the project. The main part of the work was conducted within the earlier safety assessment SR-Can, which was a preparatory stage for the SR-Site assessment. The overall objective of the FEP analysis and processing in both SR-Can and SR-Site included development of a database of features, events and processes, an SKB FEP database, in a format that facilitates both a systematic analysis of FEPs and documentation of that FEP analysis, as well as facilitating revisions and updates to be made in connection with new safety assessments. The primary objective in SR-Site was to establish an SR-Site FEP catalogue within the framework of the SKB FEP database. This FEP catalogue was required to contain all FEPs that needed to be handled in SR-Site and is an update of the corresponding SR-Can FEP catalogue that was established for the SR-Can assessment. The starting point for the handling of FEPs in SR-Site was the SR-Can version of the SKB FEP database and associated SR-Can reports. The SR-Can version of the SKB FEP database includes the SR-Can FEP catalogue, as well as the sources for the identification of FEPs in SR-Can, namely the SR 97 processes and variables, Project FEPs in the NEA International FEP database version 1.2 and matrix interactions in the Interaction matrices developed for a deep repository of the KBS-3 type. Since the completion of the FEP work within SR-Can, an updated electronic version, version 2.1, of the NEA FEP database has become available. Compared with version 1.2 of the NEA FEP database, version 2.1 contains FEPs from two more projects. As part of SR-Site, all new Project FEPs in version 2.1 of the NEA FEP database have been mapped according to the methodology adopted in SR-Can resulting in an SR-Site version of the SKB FEP database. The SKB FEP

  5. Smoking Attitudes and Practices among Low-Income African Americans: Qualitative Assessment of Contributing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, Bettina M.; Scarinci, Isabel C.

    2003-01-01

    Qualitatively examined sociocultural factors associated with smoking attitudes and practices among low-income, African American young adults smokers and nonsmokers. Focus group data indicated that specific contextual and familial factors contributed to smoking initiation, maintenance, and cessation (e.g., strong parental discipline, limited…

  6. Speech-language pathologists' contribution to the assessment of decision-making capacity in aphasia: a survey of common practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldous, Kerryn; Tolmie, Rhiannon; Worrall, Linda; Ferguson, Alison

    2014-06-01

    Speech-language pathologists' scope of practice is currently unclear in relation to their contribution to the multi-disciplinary assessment of decision-making capacity for clients with aphasia and related neurogenic communication disorders. The primary aim of the current research study was to investigate the common practices of speech-language pathologists involved in assessments of decision-making capacity. The study was completed through the use of an online survey. There were 51 of 59 respondents who indicated involvement in evaluations of decision-making. Involvement in this kind of assessment was most commonly reported by speech-language pathologists working in inpatient acute and rehabilitation settings. Respondents reported using a variety of formal and informal assessment methods in their contributions to capacity assessment. Discussion with multidisciplinary team members was reported to have the greatest influence on their recommendations. Speech-language pathologists reported that they were dissatisfied with current protocols for capacity assessments in their workplace and indicated they would benefit from further education and training in this area. The findings of this study are discussed in light of their implications for speech-language pathology practice.

  7. Development and Aplication of Mathematical Programs for Contribution Analysis in Life Cycle Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Vlad, Monica

    2009-01-01

    The environmental impact of a final product can be regarded as the sum of the impacts of all processes needed to obtain it. The impacts of these processes in all individual layers of production can be quantified using contribution analysis methods. SPA is an advanced method used to identify the chain of production processes linking the most highly emitting process with the final product. This analysis was performed in Matlab, using a specialized algorithm developed by Peters and Hertwich in 1...

  8. Risk Assessment: Factors Contributing to Discomfort for Menopausal Women in Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Jafari, Mehdi; Seifi, Bahar; Heidari, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the Factors contributing to discomfort for menopausal women in workplace and the perceived effects of working conditions on menopausal symptoms, and to produce recommendations for managers and women. This study was a review article. We searched PubMed and Science Direct for articles related to menopause and workplace. Keywords included: menopause AND workplace OR occupational health or menopausal women AND managers. Because we aimed to update the litera...

  9. Contributions from personality- and psychodynamically oriented assessment to the development of the DSM-5 personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huprich, Steven K

    2011-07-01

    Advances in personality assessment over the past 20 years have notably influenced the proposed assessment and classification of personality disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. [DSM-5]). However, a considerable body of personality assessment and psychodynamically oriented assessment research has significant relevance to the way in which personality disorders are evaluated that appears to have gone unrecognized in the current proposals for DSM-5. In this article, I discuss the ways in which some of these 2 bodies of literature can and should inform the DSM-5 so that the diagnostic nomenclature can be more scientifically and comprehensively informed and consequently improve the clinical utility of a diagnostic system in need of considerable revision.

  10. Science panel to study mega-computers to assess potential energy contributions

    CERN Multimedia

    Jones, D

    2003-01-01

    "Energy Department advisers plan to examine high-end computing in the coming year and assess how computing power could be used to further DOE's basic research agenda on combustion, fusion and other topics" (1 page).

  11. Assessment of the contribution of sewer deposits to suspended solids loads in combined sewer systems during rain events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannouche, A; Chebbo, G; Joannis, C

    2014-04-01

    Within the French observatories network SOERE "URBIS," databases of continuous turbidity measurements accumulating hundreds of events and many dry weather days are available for two sites with different features (Clichy in Paris and Ecully in Lyon). These measurements, converted into total suspended solids (TSS) concentration using TSS-turbidity relationships and combined with a model of runoff event mean concentration, enable the assessment of the contribution of sewer deposits to wet weather TSS loads observed at the outlet of the two watersheds. Results show that the contribution of sewer deposits to wet weather suspended solid's discharges is important but variable (between 20 and 80 % of the mass at the outlet depending on the event), including a site allegedly free of (coarse) sewer deposits. The uncertainties associated to these results are assessed too.

  12. Contribution for an Urban Geomorphoheritage Assessment Method: Proposal from Three Geomorphosites in Rome (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pica Alessia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Urban geomorphology has important implications in spatial planning of human activities, and it also has a geotouristic potential due to the relationship between cultural and geomorphological heritage. Despite the introduction of the term Anthropocene to describe the deep influence that human activities have had in recent times on Earth evolution, urban geomorphological heritage studies are relatively rare and limited and urban geotourism development is recent. The analysis of the complex urban landscape often need the integration of multidisciplinary data. This study aims to propose the first urban geomorphoheritage assessment method, which originates after long-lasting previous geomorphological and geotouristic studies on Rome city centre, it depict rare examples of the geomorphological mapping of a metropolis and, at the same time, of an inventory of urban geomorphosites. The proposal is applied to geomorphosites in the Esquilino neighbourhood of Rome, whose analysis confirm the need for an ad hoc method for assessing urban geomorphosites, as already highlighted in the most recent literature on the topic. The urban geomorphoheritage assessment method is based on: (i the urban geomorphological analysis by means of multitemporal and multidisciplinary data; (ii the geomorphosite inventory; and (iii the geomorphoheritage assessment and enhancement. One challenge is to assess invisible geomorphosites that are widespread in urban context. To this aim, we reworked the attributes describing the Value of a site for Geotourism in order to build up a specific methodology for the analysis of the urban geomorphological heritage.

  13. The contribution of formative assessment and self-efficacy to inquiry learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolin, Jens; Evans, Robert Harry

    2013-01-01

    This chapter suggests the use of formative assessment in inquiry lessons as a helpful source of positive personal capacity beliefs for both teachers and students. The challenge most commonly experienced when first using inquiry learning methods is that pupils and even teachers become uncertain...... of their abilities to use inquiry and ‘give-up’ on it. With the use of formative assessment combined with conscious efforts to increase self-efficacy among students, teachers can help provide students with the confidence and motivation to engage in inquiry methods. Such student engagement can in-turn affirm teachers......’ inquiry teaching efforts and raise the likelihood that they will continue to improve them. We see inquiry methods as the motor for changing teacher practice and formative assessment methods combined with capacity beliefs as the fuel that keeps the motor running. The central position of the chapter is how...

  14. Contribution to Risk Analysis of a Standard Brewery: Application of a Hygiene Assessment System Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Raposo, António; Salazar, Jairo; Pérez, Esteban; Sanjuán, Esther; Carrascosa, Conrado; Saavedra, Pedro; Millán, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    "Beer is a food product with a high consumption in Gran Canaria and the brewery industry is also present in this island. In order to carry out this study, it was designed a survey to assist in the assessment of risks from the facilities and infrastructures of the brewery, the raw materials used in the beer production and the HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) plan. An initial assessment of various aspects of the industry has been conducted at the beginning of hygienic-sani...

  15. Quantitative assessment on the contribution of direct photolysis and radical oxidation in photochemical degradation of 4-chlorophenol and oxytetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiqing; He, Xuexiang; Fu, Yongsheng; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2016-07-01

    In UV-254 nm/H2O2 advanced oxidation process (AOP), the potential degradation pathways for organic pollutants include (1) hydrolysis, (2) direct H2O2 oxidation, (3) UV direct photolysis, and (4) hydroxyl radical (HO(•)) reaction. In this study, the contribution of these pathways was quantitatively assessed in the photochemical destruction of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP), demonstrating pathways (3) and (4) to be predominantly responsible for the removal of 4-CP by UV/H2O2 in 50 mM phosphate buffer solution. Increasing reaction pH could significantly enhance the contribution of direct photolysis in UV/H2O2 process. The contribution of HO(•) oxidation was improved with increasing initial H2O2 concentration probably due to the increased formation of HO(•). Presence of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) as in UV/H2O2/Na2CO3 system promoted the degradation of 4-CP, with carbonate radical (CO3 (•-)) reaction and direct photolysis identified to be the main contributing pathways. The trends in the contribution of each factor were further evaluated and validated on the degradation of the antibiotic compound oxytetracycline (OTC). This study provides valuable information on the relative importance of different reaction pathways on the photochemical degradation of organic contaminants such as 4-CP and OTC in the presence and absence of a CO3 (•-) precursor.

  16. Assessment of dose contribution to population exposure from the radiation sources in the alienated Chernobyl zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodzinsky, D.M.; Francevych, L.K.; Koval, H.N.; Yakovlev, E.A.; Bezdrobny, Yu.V.; Proscura, N.I.; Pyantkowsky, V.L.

    1997-01-01

    The main dose load of Ukrainian population is caused by radionuclide-contamination of country territories, located outside the alienated zone, following Chernobyl accident. Besides, much attention could be devoted to the contribution of dose load on population, received from the radioactivity sources that were transferred out from the zone after accident. Present research and analysis of the available documents reflecting the transfer of radioactivity from the alienated zone, provided the estimates of dose load on population, resulting from transfer of the radioactivity sources via following channels: (1) direct surface flow; (2) underground waters; (3) wind-powdered route; (4) transfer with hydrobionts; (5) transfer during irrigation; (6) biogenic route; (7) transport routes and (8) route during wood transportation. Dynamics of radiation transfer through each channel was also studied for the post-accident period. Specific gravity of radioactivity transfer is determined in relation to dose load on Ukrainian population in different regions, in particular, in Dnipro river basin. The perspectives of radioactivity transfer via each of studied channels and its role in dose load on population were also analyzed. On the basis of present results the recommendations on possible arrangements are working out that aimed to reduce the dose contribution in population exposure by radioactivity source transfer from the alienated zone via channels that stipulate the largest dose loads and collective doses

  17. Ecosystem Service Value Assessment and Contribution Factor Analysis of Land Use Change in Miyun County, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Unreasonable land use planning can reduce ecosystem service value and result in unsustainable land use. In this paper, the changes of ecosystem service value were investigated by using the GIS and dynamic simulation model of land use in Miyun of Beijing, China, based on the land use at four time points including 1991, 2006, 2021 and one improved scenario, respectively. The results showed the total ecosystem service value of Miyun was about 2968.34 million Yuan in 1991, 3304.72 million Yuan in 2006, 3106.48 million Yuan in 2021, and 3759.77 million Yuan in the improved scenario. In terms of ecosystem service function, the functions of water supply and soil formation and retention accounted for the largest proportion, which were 19.99% and 14.58% respectively; whereas the functions of food supply and recreation and culture were only 1.83% and 5.99%, respectively. Coefficients of sensitivity for forest cover, water bodies and arable land were relatively large, which were 0.73, 0.28 and 0.14, respectively. The contribution factors of total ecosystem service value with the land use change during different periods were mainly the unused land to forest cover and arable land, which respectively accounted for more than 63% and 21% of the contribution rate. These results suggested that sustainable land use planning should be undertaken with emphasis on vegetation restoration and protection of water bodies.

  18. Quantitative Assessment of CRAND Contribution to the Inner Belt Electron Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K.; Li, X.; Selesnick, R.; Schiller, Q. A.; Zhao, H.; Baker, D. N.; Temerin, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Following the direct identification and measurements of Cosmic Ray Albedo Neutron Decay (CRAND) produced electrons near the inner edge of the inner belt by Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE)1, we extend the study by addressing more comprehensive questions: (1) what is the relative CRAND contribution to the inner belt compared with electrons injected from further out? (2) How does this relative contribution vary with geomagnetic activity and electron energy? (3) What is the solar cycle dependence of CRAND electrons? In order to answer the above questions, extended data of relativistic electrons in the inner belt are needed for a much longer time period and also finer energy resolution is required. Therefore, we will show results regarding the above questions based on data including other low Earth orbit measurements in addition to CSSWE, such as SAMPEX/PET, DEMETER/IDP, and PROBA-V/EPT. [1] Li, Xinlin, Richard Selesnick, Quintin Schiller, Kun Zhang, Hong Zhao, Daniel Baker, and Michael Temerin (2017), Direct detection of albedo neutron decay electrons at the inner edge of the radiation belt and determination of neutron density in near-Earth space, Nature, under review.

  19. Assessment of global expected warming contribution to desertification process development in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgih, S.A.; Eserkepova, I.B.; Shamen, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    Assessment of moistening condition change in Kazakhstan and its role in processes of desertification at global expected climate warming are cited. Results of numerical experiments by models of common circulation of atmosphere have been used in capacity of potential regional climate change characteristics. (author)

  20. Enhancing innovation in agriculture at the policy level : The potential contribution of Technology Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanclay, Frank M.; Russell, A. Wendy; Kimber, Julie

    Technology Assessment (TA) is an applied process that considers the societal implications of technological change in order to influence policy to improve technology governance. TA has considerable potential to enhance innovation in agriculture and to assist agricultural industries in becoming more

  1. The Contribution of Palaeoseismology to Seismic Hazard Assessment in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-06-01

    IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSG-9, Seismic Hazards in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations, published in 2010, covers all aspects of site evaluation relating to seismic hazards and recommends the use of prehistoric, historical and instrumental earthquake data in seismic hazard assessments. Prehistoric data on earthquakes cover a much longer period than do historical and instrumental data. However, gathering such data is generally difficult in most regions of the world, owing to an absence of human records. Prehistoric data on earthquakes can be obtained through the use of palaeoseismic techniques. This publication describes the current status and practices of palaeoseismology, in order to support Member States in meeting the recommendations of SSG-9 and in establishing the necessary earthquake related database for seismic hazard assessment and reassessment. At a donors’ meeting of the International Seismic Safety Centre Extrabudgetary Project in January 2011, it was suggested to develop detailed guidelines on seismic hazards. Soon after the meeting, the disastrous Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami of 11 March 2011 and the consequent accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant occurred. The importance of palaeoseismology for seismic hazard assessment in site evaluation was highlighted by the lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. However, no methodology for performing investigations using palaeoseismic techniques has so far been available in an IAEA publication. The detailed guidelines and practical tools provided here will be of value to nuclear power plant operating organizations, regulatory bodies, vendors, technical support organizations and researchers in the area of seismic hazard assessment in site evaluation for nuclear installations, and the information will be of importance in support of hazard assessments in the future

  2. Assessment of the cathode contribution to the degradation of anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke; Liu, Yi-Lin; Barfod, Rasmus

    2008-01-01

    The degradation of anode-supported cells was studied over 1500 h as a function of cell polarization either in air or oxygen on the cathode side. Based on impedance analysis, contributions of the anode and cathode to the increase of total resistance were assigned. Accordingly, the degradation rates...... of the cathode were strongly dependent on the pO(2). Microstructural analysis of the cathode/electrolyte interface carried out after removal of the cathode showed craters on the electrolyte surface where the lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM) particles had been located. The changes of shape and size...... of these craters observed after testing correlated with the cell voltage degradation rates. The results can be interpreted in terms of element redistribution at the cathode/electrolyte interface and formation of foreign phases giving rise to a weakening of local contact points of the LSM cathode and yttria...

  3. The contribution of single photon emission computed tomography in the clinical assessment of Alzheimer type dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudousq, V.; Collombier, L.; Kotzki, P.O.

    1999-01-01

    Interest of brain single-photon emission computed tomography to support clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer-type dementia is now established. Numerous studies have reported a decreased perfusion in the association cortex of the parietal lobe and the posterior temporal regions. In patients with mild cognitive complaints, the presence of focal hypoperfusion may increase substantially the probability of the disease. In addition, emission tomography emerges as a helpful tool in situation in which there is diagnostic doubt. In this case, the presence of temporo-parietal perfusion deficit associated with hippocampal atrophy on MRI or X-ray computed tomography contributes to diagnostic accuracy. However, some studies suggest that emission tomography may be useful for preclinical prediction of Alzheimer's disease and to predict cognitive decline. (author)

  4. Locomotor sensory organization test: a novel paradigm for the assessment of sensory contributions in gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Jung Hung; Eikema, Diderik-Jan Anthony; Mukherjee, Mukul; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2014-12-01

    Feedback based balance control requires the integration of visual, proprioceptive and vestibular input to detect the body's movement within the environment. When the accuracy of sensory signals is compromised, the system reorganizes the relative contributions through a process of sensory recalibration, for upright postural stability to be maintained. Whereas this process has been studied extensively in standing using the Sensory Organization Test (SOT), less is known about these processes in more dynamic tasks such as locomotion. In the present study, ten healthy young adults performed the six conditions of the traditional SOT to quantify standing postural control when exposed to sensory conflict. The same subjects performed these six conditions using a novel experimental paradigm, the Locomotor SOT (LSOT), to study dynamic postural control during walking under similar types of sensory conflict. To quantify postural control during walking, the net Center of Pressure sway variability was used. This corresponds to the Performance Index of the center of pressure trajectory, which is used to quantify postural control during standing. Our results indicate that dynamic balance control during locomotion in healthy individuals is affected by the systematic manipulation of multisensory inputs. The sway variability patterns observed during locomotion reflect similar balance performance with standing posture, indicating that similar feedback processes may be involved. However, the contribution of visual input is significantly increased during locomotion, compared to standing in similar sensory conflict conditions. The increased visual gain in the LSOT conditions reflects the importance of visual input for the control of locomotion. Since balance perturbations tend to occur in dynamic tasks and in response to environmental constraints not present during the SOT, the LSOT may provide additional information for clinical evaluation on healthy and deficient sensory processing.

  5. Quantitative Assessment on Anthropogenic Contributions to the Rainfall Extremes Associated with Typhoon Morakot (2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. T.; Lo, S. H.; Wang, C. C.; Tsuboki, K.

    2017-12-01

    More than 2000 mm rainfall occurred over southern Taiwan when a category 1 Typhoon Morakot pass through Taiwan in early August 2009. Entire village and hundred of people were buried by massive mudslides induced by record-breaking precipitation. Whether the past anthropogenic warming played a significant role in such extreme event remained very controversial. On one hand, people argue it's nearly impossible to attribute an individual extreme event to global warming. On the other hand, the increase of heavy rainfall is consistent with the expected effects of climate change on tropical cyclone. To diagnose possible anthropogenic contributions to the odds of such heavy rainfall associated with Typhoon Morakot, we adapt an existing probabilistic event attribution framework to simulate a `world that was' and compare it with an alternative condition, 'world that might have been' that removed the historical anthropogenic drivers of climate. One limitation for applying such approach to high-impact weather system is that it will require models capable of capturing the essential processes lead to the studied extremes. Using a cloud system resolving model that can properly simulate the complicated interactions between tropical cyclone, large-scale background, topography, we first perform the ensemble `world that was' simulations using high resolution ECMWF YOTC analysis. We then re-simulate, having adjusted the analysis to `world that might have been conditions' by removing the regional atmospheric and oceanic forcing due to human influences estimated from the CMIP5 model ensemble mean conditions between all forcing and natural forcing only historical runs. Thus our findings are highly conditional on the driving analysis and adjustments therein, but the setup allows us to elucidate possible contribution of anthropogenic forcing to changes in the likelihood of heavy rainfall associated Typhoon Morakot in early August 2009.

  6. [Assessment of risk of burden in construction: improvement interventions and contribution of the competent physician].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, R; Tarquini, M

    2012-01-01

    Three construction companies in three years have changed the operating modes, making use of innovative carpentry, with little amount of equipment, improved usability of the site, reduced cleaning time, less manual handling and reduced risk of accidents. The Competent Doctor has participated in the review of the risk assessment of manual handling: data has been acquired on musculoskeletal disorders to compare, in terms of this innovation, the average trend and changes, with encouraging results in terms of incidence of musculoskeletal disorders, absenteeism due to illness by these causes, new cases of lumbar diseases. It remains difficult in building to assess manual handling risk, but the collaboration between the Employer, Prevention and Protection Service and Competent Doctor, thanks to the greater attention that the design subject to these issues, suggests improvements and further steps to extend to all phases of operation of building.

  7. Relative Contribution of Haptic Technology to Assessment and Training in Implantology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The teaching of implant surgery, as in other medical disciplines, is currently undergoing a particular evolution. Aim of the Study. To assess the usefulness of haptic device, a simulator for learning and training to accomplish basic acts in implant surgery. Materials and Methods. A total of 60 people including 40 third-year dental students without knowledge in implantology (divided into 2 groups: 20 beginners and 20 experiencing a simulator training course and 20 experienced practitioners (experience in implantology >15 implants participated in this study. A basic exercise drill was proposed to the three groups to assess their gestural abilities. Results. The results of the group training with the simulator tended to be significantly close to those of the experienced operators. Conclusion. Haptic simulator brings a real benefit in training for implant surgery. Long-term benefit and more complex exercises should be evaluated.

  8. Research contributions for assessment of the state and evolution of the global environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Vuuren, D.P.

    1999-01-01

    A Global Environment Assessment (GEO) workshop was held in Brussels on September 15 and 16, 1998. During the preparation of policy-oriented reports of GEO, several gaps in data and expertise had been identified. The workshop elaborated on the issues where gaps had been signalled aimed to bring together scientists from different disciplines, representatives of the Directorate General XII and specialists from RIVM in integrated environmental assessment to locate information missing in UNEP's studies and make progress in filling up gaps. Research needs would be identified. The specific issues were categorised as: land-related issues, urban environment and implementation of policies. The workshop participants were able to identify several links between the activities for GEO and ongoing research in the context of the EU Research, Technology Development and the Demonstration programme. About 15 more specific research needs were formulated. For land-related issues, the following knowledge gaps and research implications were identified: (1) e.g. social and economic expertise in land-use analysis, (2) e.g. land-use planning and urban land use in integrated assessment, (3) modelling land degradation, and (4) modelling the driving forces of land degradation. For the urban environment, the major knowledge research areas identified from an integrative perspective were: (1) defining a core set of indicators for sustainable urban development, (2) quantifying the interlinkages between environmental stress and human health, (3) describing the effects of measures, (4) determining the role of institutional structures, and (5) ensuring data provision based on the physical city. Major problems were identified for implementation of policies that the degree of policy implementation is not often measured and that it is difficult to relate policy actions to changes in environmental pressures. In analysis it is first of all necessary to identify which definition of effectiveness will be

  9. Contribution for the improvement of pressurized thermal shock assessment methodologies in PWR pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Paulo de Tarso Vida

    2005-01-01

    The structural integrity assessment of nuclear reactor pressure vessel, concerned to Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) accidents, became a necessity and has been investigated since the eighty's. The recognition of the importance of PTS assessment has led the international nuclear technology community to devote a considerable research effort directed to the complete integrity assessment process of the Reactor Pressure Vessels (VPR). Researchers in Europe, Japan and U.S.A. have concentrated efforts in the VPR structural and fracture analysis, conducting experiments to best understand how specific factors act on the behavior of discontinuities, under PTS loading conditions. The main goal of this work is to study de structural behavior of an 'in scale' PWR nuclear reactor pressure vessel model, containing actual discontinuities, under loading conditions generated by a pressurized thermal shock. To construct the pressure vessel model utilized in this research, the approach developed by Barroso (1995) and based on likelihood studies, related to thermal-hydraulic behavior during the PTS was employed. To achieve the objective of this research, a new methodology to generate cracks, with known geometry and localization in the vessel model wall was developed. Additionally, an hydraulic circuit, able to flood the vessel model, heated to 300 deg C, with 10 m 3 of water at 8 deg C, in 170 seconds, was built. Thermo-hydraulic calculations using RELAP5/M0D 3.2.2γ computational code were done, to estimate the temperature profiles during the cooling time. The resulting data subsidized the thermo-structural calculations that were accomplished using ANSYS 7.01 computational code, for both 2D and 3D models. So, the stress profiles obtained with these calculations were associated with fracture mechanics concepts, to assess the crack growth behavior in the VPR model wall. After the PTS test, the VPR model was submitted to destructive and non-destructive inspections. The results

  10. Bibliometric assessment of the contributions of literature on Chagas disease in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Osorio, Nathalia; Vera-Polania, Felipe; Lopez-Isaza, Andres F; Martinez-Pulgarin, Dayron F; Murillo-Abadia, Jonathan; Munoz-Urbano, Marcela; Cardona-Ospina, Jaime A; Bello, Ricardo; Lagos-Grisales, Guillermo J; Villegas-Rojas, Soraya; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2014-01-01

    Chagas disease, considered a parasitic neglected disease, is endemic in Latin America. Although, its mortality rate has decreased over time, it still represents a public health problem in the region. A bibliometric evaluation of the Latin American contributions on this disease was done. This study used SCI (1980-2013), MEDLINE/GOPUBMED (1802-2013), Scopus (1959-2013), SCIELO (2004-2013), and LILACS (1980-2013). Different study types have been characterized by years, origin city/country, journals and most productive authors, by country, cites and H-index. 2988 articles were retrieved from SCI (30.85% of total). Brazil was found to be the highest producer (31.22%), followed by Argentina (18.14%) and México (9.57%); the region received 47241 citations, 28.60% for Brazil (H-index=52), 18.26% of Argentina (Hindex= 43), 11.40% Bolivia (H-index=37). 4484 were retrieved from Scopus (30.20% of the total), 38.58% of which were from Brazil, 12.40% from Argentina and 8.90% from Mexico. From Medline, 6647 records were retrieved (45.58% Brazil). From SciELO, 917 articles (47.66% Brazil). From LILACS, 2165 articles (60.05% Brazil). Brazil has the highest output in the region. Despite advances in controlling Chagas disease, scientific production is low, particularly for regional bibliographic databases, which calls for more research on this disease.

  11. Assessing contributions of nucleus accumbens shell subregions to reward-seeking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Michael D; Hildebrand, David G C; Santangelo, Gabrielle; Moffa, Anthony; Pira, Ashley S; Rycyna, Lisa; Radic, Mia; Price, Katherine; Archbold, Jonathan; McConnell, Kristi; Girard, Lauren; Morin, Kristen; Tang, Anna; Febo, Marcelo; Stellar, James R

    2015-08-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a key role in brain reward processes including drug seeking and reinstatement. Several anatomical, behavioral, and neurochemical studies discriminate between the limbic-associated shell and the motor-associated core regions. Less studied is the fact that the shell can be further subdivided into a dorsomedial shell (NAcDMS) and an intermediate zone (NAcINT) based on differential expression of transient c-Fos and long-acting immediate-early gene ΔFosB upon cocaine sensitization. These disparate expression patterns suggest that NAc shell subregions may play distinct roles in reward-seeking behavior. In this study, we examined potential differences in the contributions of the NAcDMS and the NAcINT to reinstatement of reward-seeking behavior after extinction. Rats were trained to intravenously self-administer cocaine, extinguished, and subjected to a reinstatement test session consisting of an intracranial microinfusion of either amphetamine or vehicle targeted to the NAcDMS or the NAcINT. Small amphetamine microinfusions targeted to the NAcDMS resulted in statistically significant reinstatement of lever pressing, whereas no significant difference was observed for microinfusions targeted to the NAcINT. No significant difference was found for vehicle microinfusions in either case. These results suggest heterogeneity in the behavioral relevance of NAc shell subregions, a possibility that can be tested in specific neuronal populations in the future with recently developed techniques including optogenetics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Environmental risk assessment: its contribution to criteria development for HLW disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.M.; Little, R.H.; Watkins, B.M.

    1999-01-01

    Principles for radioactive waste management have been provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency in Safety Series No.111-F, which was published in 1995. This has been a major step forward in the process of achieving acceptance for proposals for disposal of radioactive waste, for example, for High Level Waste disposal in deep repositories. However, these principles have still to be interpreted and developed into practical radiation protection criteria. Without prejudicing final judgements on the acceptability of waste proposals, an important aspect is that practical demonstration of compliance (or the opposite) with these criteria must be possible. One of the IAEA principles requires that radioactive waste shall be managed in such a way as to provide an acceptable level of protection of the environment. There has been and continues to be considerable debate as to how to demonstrate compliance with such a principle. This paper briefly reviews the current status and considers how experience in other areas of environmental protection could contribute to criteria development for HLW disposal

  13. Assessing the Contribution of Urban Freight Terminals in Last Mile Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathanail Eftihia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a multi-stakeholder multi-criteria evaluation framework, which can be used for the assessment of the last mile distribution performance of urban freight terminals. To this end, a comparative analysis is conducted addressing two Greek urban intermodal freight terminals located at the port of Thessaloniki (ThPA and Kuehne+Nagel (K+N’s premises. The assessment of the terminals’ performance relies on a tailored multi-criteria Key Performance Indicator (KPI-based evaluation framework, whereas the selection and significance of the incorporated criteria and KPIs is predetermined by the relevant responsible stakeholders, who imposed their viewpoint through an analytic hierarchy process. Results showed that ThPA was ranked first according to its performance pertaining to the role of an intermodal interchange; still, K+N’s performance index was only 8.5% lower than ThPA’s, while in specific KPIs it seems that it performs in a better way.

  14. The Role of SMEs in Assessing the Contribution of Entrepreneurship to GDP in the Romanian Business Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Armeanu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Given the negative effects of the economic crisis on the Romanian economy, entrepreneurship represents one of the main pillars of economic recovery and the authorities need to act in support of private entrepreneurship initiative. Even though entrepreneurship does not equate to the small and medium-sized enterprises, there is strong support in literature regarding the importance of SMEs in national economies due to the authorities` potential of intervention and their contribution to gross value added. The fluctuating evolution of the Romanian business environment has led to a high volatility of its contribution to GDP, which is especially true in the case of SMEs due to their lack of technology and capital and difficult access to financing, as well as limited know-how compared to the large companies that control the Romanian market. Successful entrepreneurial initiative leads to sustainable businesses and ensures a smooth transition from business ideas to the creation of value added, thus supporting economic growth and the narrowing of macroeconomic gaps which have been generated during the economic recession. As a distinctive and dynamic component of Romanian entrepreneurship, the SME segment has a significant contribution to GDP. This study aims at assessing the contribution of entrepreneurship, through its SME segment, to Romania`s GDP in the main economic sectors and, at the same time, the estimation of output gap at sectoral level, thus filling a gap in entrepreneurship-related domestic literature.

  15. Contribution to the knowledge of threatened terrestrial fauna of Brazil: data from PETROBRAS environmental impact assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basbaum, Marcos A.; Fonseca, Renata A.A. [SEEBLA - Servicos de Engenharia Emilio Baumgart Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: mbasbaum.seebla@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: renataamorim.seebla@petrobras.com.br; Torggler, Bianca F.; Fernandes, Renato; Guimaraes, Ricardo Z.P. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: torggler@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: renatofer@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: rzaluar@petrobras.com.br

    2009-12-19

    One of the major problems related to the protection of threatened species in Brazil is the current lack of primary data on their occurrence. PETROBRAS, due to the processes of environmental licensing of new pipelines, held numerous studies on the occurrence of several species. Most of these studies took place in Atlantic Forest remnants located in the states of Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais, Espirito Santo, Bahia, Sergipe, Alagoas and Pernambuco. This study compared primary data from these Environmental Impact Assessments with the Brazilian list of threatened species published by MMA (Brazilian Ministry of Environment). Many threatened species were recorded in areas where native forest fragments are reduced in number and size, such as those in the Northeastern region. (author)

  16. EMPLOYING DECENTRING TO ASSESS QUALITY OF SERVICES AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TOWARDS SATISFACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman YOUSAF

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The higher education scenario in Pakistan has gone through tremendous changes and improvements in the last decade. Competition resulting from a sudden surge in the number of higher education imparting institutions and the active role of Higher Education Commission has increased the pressure on the universities to continuously enhance the quality of educational services being provided by them. The aim of the researchers in this endeavor is to employ decentering in order to assess the quality of services being provided by the universities. The study has used the SERVQUAL tool by Parasuraman, Zeithmal and Berry (1991 on a five point Liker scale in order to gauge the responses of the students. Analysis was conducted on a total of 156 valid questionnaires. The sample included the students of the top five HEC (Higher Education Commission recognized universities in the twin cities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Data was analyzed using Pearson correlation and regression. Factor analysis was also carried out so as to classify the most important dimensions for the students with respect to higher education in Pakistan. Statistical analysis disclosed a positive and significant association between service quality and customer satisfaction. The factor analysis revealed that the most significant dimension with respect to the Pakistan’s higher education sector are the level of management support, responsiveness of the service providers and the adequacy of physical facilities. The study highlights the importance of treating students as valued customers as the competition in the industry along with the regulatory requirements of HEC as well. The service providers need to be provided adequate support and backing of the top management. The physical facilities and the infrastructure must also be adequate enough to meet the growing and ever changing demands of the industry. The current study is the first of its kind that covers the higher education imparting

  17. Shear-wave elastography contributes to accurate tumour size estimation when assessing small breast cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, R.; Thompson, J.M.; Moussa, O.; Vinnicombe, S.; Evans, A.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To assess whether the size of peritumoural stiffness (PTS) on shear-wave elastography (SWE) for small primary breast cancers (≤15 mm) was associated with size discrepancies between grey-scale ultrasound (GSUS) and final histological size and whether the addition of PTS size to GSUS size might result in more accurate tumour size estimation when compared to final histological size. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of 86 consecutive patients between August 2011 and February 2013 who underwent breast-conserving surgery for tumours of size ≤15 mm at ultrasound was carried out. The size of PTS stiffness was compared to mean GSUS size, mean histological size, and the extent of size discrepancy between GSUS and histology. PTS size and GSUS were combined and compared to the final histological size. Results: PTS of >3 mm was associated with a larger mean final histological size (16 versus 11.3 mm, p < 0.001). PTS size of >3 mm was associated with a higher frequency of underestimation of final histological size by GSUS of >5 mm (63% versus 18%, p < 0.001). The combination of PTS and GSUS size led to accurate estimation of the final histological size (p = 0.03). The size of PTS was not associated with margin involvement (p = 0.27). Conclusion: PTS extending beyond 3 mm from the grey-scale abnormality is significantly associated with underestimation of tumour size of >5 mm for small invasive breast cancers. Taking into account the size of PTS also led to accurate estimation of the final histological size. Further studies are required to assess the relationship of the extent of SWE stiffness and margin status. - Highlights: • Peritumoural stiffness of greater than 3 mm was associated with larger tumour size. • Underestimation of tumour size by ultrasound was associated with peri-tumoural stiffness size. • Combining peri-tumoural stiffness size to ultrasound produced accurate tumour size estimation

  18. The assessment of effects of low doses of ionizing radiations: contributions of epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verger, P.; Hubert, Ph.; Bard, D.

    1998-01-01

    After a brief recall of the history of the application of epidemiological studies to the field of ionizing radiations (actually to study the consequences of Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombing), and after having outlined that most of these epidemiological studies addressed carcinogenic effects of radiations on populations exposed to doses greater than 0,2 Gy, this article more particularly addresses epidemiological studies for low doses (lower than 0,5-1 Gy). The authors present objectives and methods (monitoring, etiological research, risk quantification), and discuss the limitations of epidemiology and its strengths. In the next part, they comment and discuss the main data sources used for the epidemiological assessment of low doses. These sources respectively deal with Hiroshima and Nagasaki (the Life Span Study, its results in terms of solid cancers and leukaemia, its limitations), with occupational exposures (radiologists, workers in nuclear installations, crews of intercontinental flights, Chernobyl liquidators, uranium minors exposed to radon), with environmental exposures (domestic exposures to radon, exposure to natural radiation, to nuclear test fallouts, and to Chernobyl accident fallouts, exposure about nuclear installations), and with other types of exposure

  19. [A contribution to the needs assessment of faculty development measures in medical schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupach, Tobias; Spering, Christopher; Bäumler, Christine; Burckhardt, Gerhard; Trümper, Lorenz; Pukrop, Tobias

    2009-11-15

    In addition to patient care and research activity, physicians working in medical school hospitals serve as teachers in undergraduate medical education. However, teaching qualifications of German university hospital physicians have not been studied in great detail. In January 2009, medical students as well as physicians involved in medical teaching at Göttingen Medical School, Germany, were invited to complete an online survey addressing their views on clinical teachers' educational skills. In addition, physicians' motivation to engage in pedagogical training was assessed. During a 12-day period, 359 students and 126 physicians involved in undergraduate medical education completed the survey. The latter did not feel well prepared for their teaching activities. At the same time, they expressed the willingness to improve their teaching skills. Students felt that, across all instructional methods, teachers would benefit from teacher training programs. In order to improve undergraduate education for future physicians, politicians and local representatives alike must set the scene for the implementation of faculty development measures in German medical schools.

  20. Methodical assessment of all non-ionizing radiation sources that can provide a relevant contribution to public exposure. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornkessel, Christian; Schubert, Markus; Wuschek, Matthias; Brueggemeyer, Hauke; Weiskopf, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research project was to systematically identify artificial sources on non-ionizing radiation (electric, magnetic or electromagnetic fields in a frequency range from 0 Hz to 300 GHz, as well optical radiation in a wavelength range from 100 nm to 1 mm), that have relevant contribution to public exposure. The report includes the following chapters: (1) Concept for the relevance assessment for non-ionizing radiation sources; (2) concept for the systematic identification of sources from establishes technologies; (3) concept for the systematic identification of sources from new or foreseeable technologies; (4)overview of relevant radiation sources.

  1. Assessing the contribution of the dental care delivery system to oral health care disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourat, Nadereh; Andersen, Ronald M; Marcus, Marvin

    2015-01-01

    Existing studies of disparities in access to oral health care for underserved populations often focus on supply measures such as number of dentists. This approach overlooks the importance of other aspects of the dental care delivery system, such as personal and practice characteristics of dentists, that determine the capacity to provide care. This study aims to assess the role of such characteristics in access to care of underserved populations. We merged data from the 2003 California Health Interview Survey and a 2003 survey of California dentists in their Medical Study Service Areas (MSSAs). We examined the role of overall supply and other characteristics of dentists in income and racial/ethnic disparities in access, which was measured by annual dental visits and unmet need for dental care due to costs. We found that some characteristics of MSSAs, including higher proportions of dentists who were older, white, busy or overworked, and did not accept public insurance or discounted fees, inhibited access for low-income and minority populations. These findings highlight the importance of monitoring characteristics of dentists in addition to traditional measures of supply such as licensed-dentist-to-population ratios. The findings identify specific aspects of the delivery system such as dentists' participation in Medicaid, provision of discounted care, busyness, age, race/ethnicity, and gender that should be regularly monitored. These data will provide a better understanding of how the dental care delivery system is organized and how this knowledge can be used to develop more narrowly targeted policies to alleviate disparities. © 2014 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  2. An assessment of the contributing factors to the nanoscale structural refinement of advanced bainitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornide, J.; Garcia-Mateo, C.; Capdevila, C.; Caballero, F.G.

    2013-01-01

    A new generation of steels has been designed, which on transformation at low temperature (200–350 °C), leads to a nano-scale microstructure, known as NANOBAIN. The microstructure consists of slender crystals of ferrite, whose controlling scale compares well with that of carbon nanotubes (20–40 nm). These advanced steels present the highest strength/toughness combinations ever recorded in bainitic steels. Their properties are mainly a consequence of the formation of nanoscale bainitic ferrite plates at very low temperatures. Transmission electron microscopy observations have shown that plastic relaxation in the austenite adjacent to the bainite plates may control the final size of the bainitic ferrite plates. The dislocation debris generated in this process resists the advance of the bainitic ferrite–austenite interface, the resistance being greatest for strong austenite. The yield strength of the austenite must then feature in any assessment of plate size. In this scenario, the plates are expected to become thicker at high temperatures because the yield strength of the austenite will then be lower. The goal of this study is to evaluate the influence of yield strength of austenite to the nanoscale structural refinement of advanced bainitic steels. In this sense, in situ measurements of austenite strength before bainite formation using a deformation dilatometer Bähr 805D have been performed in a medium carbon high silicon steel transforming at intermediate temperatures (325–400 °C) to a submicron structure of bainite and in a high carbon high silicon steel transforming at low temperatures (200–350 °C) to nanostructured bainite. The role of the transformation driving force on the bainite plate thickness will be also discussed

  3. An assessment of the contributing factors to the nanoscale structural refinement of advanced bainitic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornide, J., E-mail: jca@cenim.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Avda Gregorio del Amo 8, Madrid E-28040 (Spain); Garcia-Mateo, C., E-mail: cgm@cenim.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Avda Gregorio del Amo 8, Madrid E-28040 (Spain); Capdevila, C., E-mail: ccm@cenim.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Avda Gregorio del Amo 8, Madrid E-28040 (Spain); Caballero, F.G., E-mail: fgc@cenim.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Avda Gregorio del Amo 8, Madrid E-28040 (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    A new generation of steels has been designed, which on transformation at low temperature (200–350 °C), leads to a nano-scale microstructure, known as NANOBAIN. The microstructure consists of slender crystals of ferrite, whose controlling scale compares well with that of carbon nanotubes (20–40 nm). These advanced steels present the highest strength/toughness combinations ever recorded in bainitic steels. Their properties are mainly a consequence of the formation of nanoscale bainitic ferrite plates at very low temperatures. Transmission electron microscopy observations have shown that plastic relaxation in the austenite adjacent to the bainite plates may control the final size of the bainitic ferrite plates. The dislocation debris generated in this process resists the advance of the bainitic ferrite–austenite interface, the resistance being greatest for strong austenite. The yield strength of the austenite must then feature in any assessment of plate size. In this scenario, the plates are expected to become thicker at high temperatures because the yield strength of the austenite will then be lower. The goal of this study is to evaluate the influence of yield strength of austenite to the nanoscale structural refinement of advanced bainitic steels. In this sense, in situ measurements of austenite strength before bainite formation using a deformation dilatometer Bähr 805D have been performed in a medium carbon high silicon steel transforming at intermediate temperatures (325–400 °C) to a submicron structure of bainite and in a high carbon high silicon steel transforming at low temperatures (200–350 °C) to nanostructured bainite. The role of the transformation driving force on the bainite plate thickness will be also discussed.

  4. Flood-risk mapping: contributions towards an enhanced assessment of extreme events and associated risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Büchele

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, a shift from classical flood protection as engineering task towards integrated flood risk management concepts can be observed. In this context, a more consequent consideration of extreme events which exceed the design event of flood protection structures and failure scenarios such as dike breaches have to be investigated. Therefore, this study aims to enhance existing methods for hazard and risk assessment for extreme events and is divided into three parts. In the first part, a regionalization approach for flood peak discharges was further developed and substantiated, especially regarding recurrence intervals of 200 to 10 000 years and a large number of small ungauged catchments. Model comparisons show that more confidence in such flood estimates for ungauged areas and very long recurrence intervals may be given as implied by statistical analysis alone. The hydraulic simulation in the second part is oriented towards hazard mapping and risk analyses covering the whole spectrum of relevant flood events. As the hydrodynamic simulation is directly coupled with a GIS, the results can be easily processed as local inundation depths for spatial risk analyses. For this, a new GIS-based software tool was developed, being presented in the third part, which enables estimations of the direct flood damage to single buildings or areas based on different established stage-damage functions. Furthermore, a new multifactorial approach for damage estimation is presented, aiming at the improvement of damage estimation on local scale by considering factors like building quality, contamination and precautionary measures. The methods and results from this study form the base for comprehensive risk analyses and flood management strategies.

  5. Further assessment of the protozoal contribution to the nutrition of the ruminant animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Sarah E; France, James; Dijkstra, Jan

    2017-03-07

    The flow of protozoa from the reticulo-rumen is lower than expected, due to ability of protozoa to prevent washout through sequestration on feed particles and the rumen epithelium. In order to estimate the distribution of protozoa within the reticulo-rumen and passage to the omasum, Czerkawski (1987) developed a model containing pools for the rumen liquid phase, rumen solid phase, and the omasum. This model was used to estimate loss of protozoa in the omasum as well as the amount of protozoal protein available to the animal in the lower gut. A number of assumptions were incorporated into the model, some of which appear unsupported by current research. This paper represents an update, revision, and re-evaluation of Czerkawski's model, where the assumptions that all protozoa in the 'attached' phase are in solid digesta, and that protozoa only leave the rumen in the liquid, have been relaxed. Therefore, the revised model allows for sequestration of protozoa on the rumen epithelium and protozoal passage with particulate outflow. Using experimental observations with inputs within biological limits, the revised model and Czerkawski's original model were verified. The effect of diet on the model was then assessed using inputs from a 100% forage diet and a 35-65% concentrate diet. The extent of sequestration was also varied from complete sequestration, to partial sequestration, and no sequestration. A sensitivity analysis was conducted through a linear regression of perturbed mean inputs versus outputs. The results from the revised model indicate that within the reticulo-rumen, the concentrate diet has a greater fractional flow rate of protozoa from the liquid to solid phase, but a lesser fractional flow rate back to the liquid phase, compared to the forage diet. As well, the concentrate diet has a slower net growth rate of protozoa in the attached phase, compared to the forage diet. In the omasum, the forage diet has a less negative net growth rate, compared to the

  6. Assessment of the Contribution of BeiDou GEO, IGSO, and MEO Satellites to PPP in Asia—Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qile Zhao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to the US Global Positioning System (GPS, the Russian Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS and the European Galileo, the developing Chinese BeiDou satellite navigation system (BDS consists of not only Medium Earth Orbit (MEO, but also Geostationary Orbit (GEO as well as Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit (IGSO satellites. In this study, the Precise Point Positioning (PPP and PPP with Integer Ambiguity Resolution (IAR are obtained. The contributions of these three different types of BDS satellites to PPP in Asia-Pacific region are assessed using data from selected 20 sites over more than four weeks. By using various PPP cases with different satellite combinations, in general, the largest contribution of BDS IGSO among the three kinds of BDS satellites to the reduction of convergence time and the improvement of positioning accuracy, particularly in the east direction, is identified. These PPP cases include static BDS only solutions and static/kinematic ambiguity-float and -fixed PPP with the combination of GPS and BDS. The statistical results demonstrate that the inclusion of BDS GEO and MEO satellites can improve the observation condition and result in better PPP performance as well. When combined with GPS, the contribution of BDS to the reduction of convergence time is, however, not as significant as that of GLONASS. As far as the positioning accuracy is concerned, GLONASS improves the accuracy in vertical component more than BDS does, whereas similar improvement in horizontal component can be achieved by inclusion of BDS IGSO and MEO as GLONASS.

  7. Utility of the clue - From assessing the investigative contribution of forensic science to supporting the decision to use traces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitzer, Sonja; Albertini, Nicola; Lock, Eric; Ribaux, Olivier; Delémont, Olivier

    2015-12-01

    In an attempt to grasp the effectiveness of forensic science in the criminal justice process, a number of studies introduced some form of performance indicator. However, most of these indicators suffer from different weaknesses, from the definition of forensic science itself to problems of reliability and validity. We suggest the introduction of the concept of utility of the clue as an internal evaluation indicator of forensic science in the investigation. Utility of the clue is defined as added value of information, gained by the use of traces. This concept could be used to assess the contribution of the trace in the context of the case. By extension, a second application of this concept is suggested. By formalising and considering, a priori, the perceived utility of using traces, we introduce the notion of expected utility that could be used as decision factor when choosing which traces to use, once they have been collected at the crime scene or from an object in the laboratory. In a case-based approach, utility can be assessed in the light of the available information to evaluate the investigative contribution of forensic science. In the decision-making process, the projection or estimation of the utility of the clue is proposed to be a factor to take into account when triaging the set of traces. Copyright © 2015 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The contribution of sectoral climate change mitigation options to national targets: a quantitative assessment of dairy production in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Patric; Herold, Martin; Rufino, Mariana C.

    2018-03-01

    Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture has become a critical target in national climate change policies. More than 80% of the countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) refer to the reduction of agricultural emissions, including livestock, in their nationally determined contribution (NDC) to mitigate climate change. The livestock sector in Kenya contributes largely to the gross domestic product and to GHG emissions from the land use sector. The government has recently pledged in its NDC to curb total GHG emissions by 30% by 2030. Quantifying and linking the mitigation potential of farm practices to national targets is required to support realistically the implementation of NDCs. Improvements in feed and manure management represent promising mitigation options for dairy production. This study aimed (i) to assess mitigation and food production benefits of feed and manure management scenarios, including land use changes covering Kenya’s entire dairy production region and (ii) to analyse the contribution of these practices to national targets on milk production and mitigation, and their biophysical feasibility given the availability of arable land. The results indicate that improving forage quality by increasing the use of Napier grass and supplementing dairy concentrates supports Kenya’s NDC target, reduces emission intensities by 26%-31%, partially achieves the national milk productivity target for 2030 by 38%-41%, and shows high feasibility given the availability of arable land. Covering manure heaps may reduce emissions from manure management by 68%. In contrast, including maize silage in cattle diets would not reduce emission intensities due to the risk of ten-fold higher emissions from the conversion of land required to grow additional maize. The shortage of arable land may render the implementation of these improved feed practices largely infeasible. This assessment provides the first quantitative estimates of the potential of feed

  9. Assessing the contribution of beach-cast seagrass wrack to global GHGs emissions: experimental models, problems and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misson, Gloria; Incerti, Guido; Alberti, Giorgio; Delle Vedove, Gemini; Pirelli, Tiziana; Peressotti, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    Carbon stock in coastal seagrass ecosystems is estimated to be 4.2-8.4 Pg C. While covering less than 0.2% of the ocean floor, seagrasses store about 10% of the carbon buried in the oceans each year. However, such a potential contribution is reduced by the annual loss of seagrasses globally (-1.5% per year) mainly because of anthropogenic coastal development and climate change. Like many terrestrial higher plants, marine seagrasses lose their old leaves during annual or inter-annual senescence, and a significant proportion of these residues is transported in surface waters and washed up on shores by surf, tides and winds. This beach-cast seagrass wrack provides important ecosystem services, such as reducing wave impact, protecting beaches from erosion, providing habitat to bird and invertebrate species that colonize shorelines, and being a primary food resource for beach detritivores. However, accumulation of seagrass wrack on beaches, following degradation of meadows, can negatively impact tourism. Therefore, wrack piles are frequently collected and disposed of in landfills or biomass waste facilities, and the adoption of these management practices implies substantial environmental and economic costs. On the other hand, wrack piles might be a significant source of greenhouse emissions (GHGs). Recent studies reported CO2 emission rates and suggested possible mitigation options, such as energy conversion and biochar production through pyrolysis. Even though quantitative estimates of both seagrass coastal distribution and residues disposal to seashores are partially available, at least at regional level, the assessment of their contribution to global GHGs emissions is still lacking, due to a knowledge gap about the effects of peculiar environmental conditions of beach ecosystems on seagrass decay rates. In this framework, we propose an experimental model to assess seagrass wrack decomposition dynamics in both controlled conditions and experimental fields in North

  10. FIGHTING AGAINST EVASION AND FRAUD IN THE FIELD OF ASSESSMENTS, TAXES AND CONTRIBUTIONS BY PROMOTING A GOOD FISCAL GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SĂLCEANU ALEXANDRU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nobody doubts anymore about the indispensable role of assessments, taxes and contributions in providing the necessary resources for financing public interest activities, that represent at the same time, through tax policies, an important lever used to mitigate circumstancial fluctuations on the market, in order to achieve macroeconomic objectives. Given this context, tax evasion and fraud represent major threats that hinder the completion of the state’s functions in good conditions, as well as the achievement of some performance criteria imposed by the quality of Romania as an European Union member. That is why, in order to counteract such negative phenomena, decisive actions are necessary towards a good tax governance that can help us to protect the fairness of our tax system, to promote competitiveness, ensuring thus Romania's progress.

  11. CONTRIBUTION OF THE AUDIOLOGICAL AND VESTIBULAR ASSESSMENT TO THE DIFFERENTIAL AND ETIOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF PERIPHERIC VESTIBULAR SYNDROMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreta Ungureanu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Scope of the study: Vestibular pathology is a complex one, requiring a minute clinical evaluation, as well as numerous paraclinical investigations. The present study analyzes the contribution of the modern methods of vestibular and auditive investigation to the diagnosis of dizziness. Materials and method: The results of the investigations performed on 84 patients with peripheric vestibular syndrome, on whom a complete audiological and vestibular assessment had been also made, have been retrospectively analyzed. Results: Anamnestic data and the results of evaluation permitted classification of peripheric vestibular pathology according to topo-lesional and etiological criteria. The most frequently diagnosed diseases were: benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, Ménière syndrome and vestibular neuronitis. Conclusions: Testing of the vestibulo-ocular and vestibulo-spinal reflexes through videonystagmoscopy and, respectively, computerized dynamic posturography, besides tonal vocal audiometry and precocious auditive potentials, is especially important for a positive diagnosis and etiological differentiation of vestibular syndromes.

  12. Contributions of acculturation, enculturation, discrimination, and personality traits to social anxiety among Chinese immigrants: A context-specific assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ke; Friedlander, Myrna; Pieterse, Alex L

    2016-01-01

    Based on the diathesis-stress model of anxiety, this study examined the contributions of cultural processes, perceived racial discrimination, and personality traits to social anxiety among Chinese immigrants. Further guided by the theory of intergroup anxiety, this study also adopted a context-specific approach to distinguish between participants' experience of social anxiety when interacting with European Americans versus with other Chinese in the United States. This quantitative and ex post facto study used a convenience sample of 140 first-generation Chinese immigrants. Participants were recruited through e-mails from different university and community groups across the United States. The sample includes 55 men and 82 women (3 did not specify) with an average age of 36 years old. Results showed that more social anxiety was reported in the European American context than in the Chinese ethnic context. The full models accounted for almost half the variance in anxiety in each context. Although personality accounted for the most variance, the cultural variables and discrimination contributed 14% of the unique variance in the European American context. Notably, low acculturation, high neuroticism, and low extraversion were unique contributors to social anxiety with European Americans, whereas in the Chinese ethnic context only low extraversion was a unique contributor; more discrimination was uniquely significant in both contexts. The findings suggest a need to contextualize the research and clinical assessment of social anxiety, and have implications for culturally sensitive counseling with immigrants. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Indoor Air Quality Assessment and Study of Different VOC Contributions within a School in Taranto City, South of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Marzocca

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Children spend a large amount of time in school environments and when Indoor Air Quality (IAQ is poor, comfort, productivity and learning performances may be affected. The aim of the present study is to characterize IAQ in a primary school located in Taranto city (south of Italy. Because of the proximity of a large industrial complex to the urban settlement, this district is one of the areas identified as being at high environmental risk in Italy. The study carried out simultaneous monitoring of indoor and outdoor Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC concentrations and assessed different pollutants’ contributions on the IAQ of the investigated site. A screening study of VOC and determination of Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, Xylenes (BTEX, sampled with Radiello® diffusive samplers suitable for thermal desorption, were carried out in three classrooms, in the corridor and in the yard of the school building. Simultaneously, Total VOC (TVOC concentration was measured by means of real-time monitoring, in order to study the activation of sources during the monitored days. The analysis results showed a prevalent indoor contribution for all VOC except for BTEX which presented similar concentrations in indoor and outdoor air. Among the determined VOC, Terpenes and 2-butohxyethanol were shown to be an indoor source, the latter being the indoor pollutant with the highest concentration.

  14. Assessment of Contributions to Patient Safety Knowledge by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality-Funded Patient Safety Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbero, Melony E S; Ricci, Karen A; Lovejoy, Susan; Haviland, Amelia M; Smith, Linda; Bradley, Lily A; Hiatt, Liisa; Farley, Donna O

    2009-01-01

    Objective To characterize the activities of projects funded in Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)' patient safety portfolio and assess their aggregate potential to contribute to knowledge development. Data Sources Information abstracted from proposals for projects funded in AHRQ' patient safety portfolio, information on safety practices from the AHRQ Evidence Report on Patient Safety Practices, and products produced by the projects. Study Design This represented one part of the process evaluation conducted as part of a longitudinal evaluation based on the Context–Input–Process–Product model. Principal Findings The 234 projects funded through AHRQ' patient safety portfolio examined a wide variety of patient safety issues and extended their work beyond the hospital setting to less studied parts of the health care system. Many of the projects implemented and tested practices for which the patient safety evidence report identified a need for additional evidence. The funded projects also generated a substantial body of new patient safety knowledge through a growing number of journal articles and other products. Conclusions The projects funded in AHRQ' patient safety portfolio have the potential to make substantial contributions to the knowledge base on patient safety. The full value of this new knowledge remains to be confirmed through the synthesis of results. PMID:21456108

  15. Transcriptomic effects-based monitoring for endocrine active chemicals: Assessing relative contribution of treated wastewater to downstream pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinovic-Weigelt, Dalma; Mehinto, Alvine C.; Ankley, Gerald T.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Barber, Larry B.; Lee, Kathy E.; King, Ryan J.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Schroeder, Anthony L.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated whether a combination of targeted analytical chemistry information with unsupervised, data-rich biological methodology (i.e., transcriptomics) could be utilized to evaluate relative contributions of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents to biological effects. The effects of WWTP effluents on fish exposed to ambient, receiving waters were studied at three locations with distinct WWTP and watershed characteristics. At each location, 4 d exposures of male fathead minnows to the WWTP effluent and upstream and downstream ambient waters were conducted. Transcriptomic analyses were performed on livers using 15 000 feature microarrays, followed by a canonical pathway and gene set enrichment analyses. Enrichment of gene sets indicative of teleost brain–pituitary–gonadal–hepatic (BPGH) axis function indicated that WWTPs serve as an important source of endocrine active chemicals (EACs) that affect the BPGH axis (e.g., cholesterol and steroid metabolism were altered). The results indicated that transcriptomics may even pinpoint pertinent adverse outcomes (i.e., liver vacuolization) and groups of chemicals that preselected chemical analytes may miss. Transcriptomic Effects-Based monitoring was capable of distinguishing sites, and it reflected chemical pollution gradients, thus holding promise for assessment of relative contributions of point sources to pollution and the efficacy of pollution remediation.

  16. Sources of the PM10 aerosol in Flanders, Belgium, and re-assessment of the contribution from wood burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maenhaut, Willy, E-mail: willy.maenhaut@ugent.be [Ghent University (UGent), Department of Analytical Chemistry, Krijgslaan 281, S12, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); University of Antwerp - UA, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610, Antwerpen (Belgium); Vermeylen, Reinhilde; Claeys, Magda [University of Antwerp - UA, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610, Antwerpen (Belgium); Vercauteren, Jordy; Roekens, Edward [Flemish Environment Agency (VMM), Kronenburgstraat 45, B-2000, Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2016-08-15

    From 30 June 2011 to 2 July 2012 PM10 aerosol samples were simultaneously taken every 4th day at four urban background sites in Flanders, Belgium. The sites were in Antwerpen, Gent, Brugge, and Oostende. The PM10 mass concentration was determined by weighing; organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) were measured by thermal-optical analysis, the wood burning tracers levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, 8 water-soluble ions were measured by ion chromatography, and 15 elements were determined by a combination of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry. The multi-species dataset was subjected to receptor modeling by PMF. The 10 retained factors (with their overall average percentage contributions to the experimental PM10 mass) were wood burning (9.5%), secondary nitrate (24%), secondary sulfate (12.6%), sea salt (10.0%), aged sea salt (19.2%), crustal matter (9.7%), non-ferrous metals (1.81%), traffic (10.3%), non-exhaust traffic (0.52%), and heavy oil burning (3.0%). The average contributions of wood smoke for the four sites were quite substantial in winter and ranged from 12.5 to 20% for the PM10 mass and from 47 to 64% for PM10 OC. Wood burning appeared to be also a notable source of As, Cd, and Pb. The contribution from wood burning to the PM10 mass and OC was also assessed by making use of levoglucosan as single marker compound and the conversion factors of Schmidl et al. (2008), as done in our previous study on wood burning in Flanders (Maenhaut et al., 2012). However, the apportionments were much lower than those deduced from PMF. It seems that the conversion factors of Schmidl et al. (2008) may not be applicable to wood burning in Flanders. From scatter plots of the PMF-derived wood smoke OC and PM versus levoglucosan, we arrived at conversion factors of 9.7 and 22.6, respectively. - Highlights: • A one-year study with 4 urban background sites and a total of 372

  17. Sources of the PM10 aerosol in Flanders, Belgium, and re-assessment of the contribution from wood burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maenhaut, Willy; Vermeylen, Reinhilde; Claeys, Magda; Vercauteren, Jordy; Roekens, Edward

    2016-01-01

    From 30 June 2011 to 2 July 2012 PM10 aerosol samples were simultaneously taken every 4th day at four urban background sites in Flanders, Belgium. The sites were in Antwerpen, Gent, Brugge, and Oostende. The PM10 mass concentration was determined by weighing; organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) were measured by thermal-optical analysis, the wood burning tracers levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, 8 water-soluble ions were measured by ion chromatography, and 15 elements were determined by a combination of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry. The multi-species dataset was subjected to receptor modeling by PMF. The 10 retained factors (with their overall average percentage contributions to the experimental PM10 mass) were wood burning (9.5%), secondary nitrate (24%), secondary sulfate (12.6%), sea salt (10.0%), aged sea salt (19.2%), crustal matter (9.7%), non-ferrous metals (1.81%), traffic (10.3%), non-exhaust traffic (0.52%), and heavy oil burning (3.0%). The average contributions of wood smoke for the four sites were quite substantial in winter and ranged from 12.5 to 20% for the PM10 mass and from 47 to 64% for PM10 OC. Wood burning appeared to be also a notable source of As, Cd, and Pb. The contribution from wood burning to the PM10 mass and OC was also assessed by making use of levoglucosan as single marker compound and the conversion factors of Schmidl et al. (2008), as done in our previous study on wood burning in Flanders (Maenhaut et al., 2012). However, the apportionments were much lower than those deduced from PMF. It seems that the conversion factors of Schmidl et al. (2008) may not be applicable to wood burning in Flanders. From scatter plots of the PMF-derived wood smoke OC and PM versus levoglucosan, we arrived at conversion factors of 9.7 and 22.6, respectively. - Highlights: • A one-year study with 4 urban background sites and a total of 372

  18. Seeing the same thing differently: mechanisms that contribute to assessor differences in directly-observed performance assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, Peter; O'Neill, Paul; Mann, Karen; Eva, Kevin

    2013-08-01

    Assessors' scores in performance assessments are known to be highly variable. Attempted improvements through training or rating format have achieved minimal gains. The mechanisms that contribute to variability in assessors' scoring remain unclear. This study investigated these mechanisms. We used a qualitative approach to study assessors' judgements whilst they observed common simulated videoed performances of junior doctors obtaining clinical histories. Assessors commented concurrently and retrospectively on performances, provided scores and follow-up interviews. Data were analysed using principles of grounded theory. We developed three themes that help to explain how variability arises: Differential Salience-assessors paid attention to (or valued) different aspects of the performances to different degrees; Criterion Uncertainty-assessors' criteria were differently constructed, uncertain, and were influenced by recent exemplars; Information Integration-assessors described the valence of their comments in their own unique narrative terms, usually forming global impressions. Our results (whilst not precluding the operation of established biases) describe mechanisms by which assessors' judgements become meaningfully-different or unique. Our results have theoretical relevance to understanding the formative educational messages that performance assessments provide. They give insight relevant to assessor training, assessors' ability to be observationally "objective" and to the educational value of narrative comments (in contrast to numerical ratings).

  19. Assessment of snow-glacier melt and rainfall contribution to stream runoff in Baspa Basin, Indian Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddam, Vinay Kumar; Kulkarni, Anil V; Gupta, Anil Kumar

    2018-02-20

    Hydrological regimes of most of the Himalayan river catchments are poorly studied due to sparse hydro-meteorological data. Hence, stream runoff assessment becomes difficult for various socio-industrial activities in the Himalaya. Therefore, an attempt is made in this study to assess the stream runoff of Baspa River in Himachal Pradesh, India, by evaluating the contribution from snow-ice melt and rainfall runoff. The total volume of flow was computed for a period of 15 years, from 2000 to 2014, and validated with the long-term field discharge measurements, obtained from Jaipee Hydropower station (31° 32' 35.53″ N, 78° 00' 54.80″ E), at Kuppa barrage in the basin. The observations suggest (1) a good correlation (r 2  > 0.80) between the modeled runoff and field discharge measurements, and (2) out of the total runoff, 81.2% are produced by snowmelt, 11.4% by rainfall, and 7.4% from ice melt. The catchment receives ~75% of its total runoff in the ablation period (i.e., from May to September). In addition, an early snowmelt is observed in accumulation season during study period, indicating the significant influence of natural and anthropogenic factors on high-altitude areas.

  20. Life Cycle Assessment and Release Studies for 15 Nanosilver-Enabled Consumer Products: Investigating Hotspots and Patterns of Contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourzahedi, Leila; Vance, Marina; Eckelman, Matthew J

    2017-06-20

    Increasing use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in consumer products as antimicrobial agents has prompted extensive research toward the evaluation of their potential release to the environment and subsequent ecotoxicity to aquatic organisms. It has also been shown that AgNPs can pose significant burdens to the environment from life cycle emissions associated with their production, but these impacts must be considered in the context of actual products that contain nanosilver. Here, a cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment for the production of 15 different AgNP-enabled consumer products was performed, coupled with release studies of those same products, thus providing a consistent analytical platform for investigation of potential nanosilver impacts across a range of product types and concentrations. Environmental burdens were assessed over multiple impact categories defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and Other Environmental Impacts (TRACI 2.1) method. Depending on the product composition and silver loading, the contribution of AgNP synthesis to the overall impacts was seen to vary over a wide range from 1% to 99%. Release studies found that solid polymeric samples lost more silver during wash compared to fibrous materials. Estimates of direct ecotoxicity impacts of AgNP releases from those products with the highest leaching rates resulted in lower impact levels compared to cradle-to-gate ecotoxicity from production for those products. Considering both cradle-to-gate production impacts and nanoparticle release studies, in conjunction with estimates of life cycle environmental and health benefits of nanoparticle incorporation, can inform sustainable nanoenabled product design.

  1. An assessment of the potential contribution from waste-to-energy facilities to electricity demand in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouda, Omar K.M.; Cekirge, Huseyin M.; Raza, Syed A.R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • This research evaluates the potential contribution of WTE to Saudi power demand. • Two scenarios were developed: Mass Burn and Mass Burn with recycling to year 2032. • Mass Burn will generate 2073 Megawatts (MW) about 1.73% of 2032 peak power demand. • Mass Burn with recycling will generate 166 MW about 0.14% of 2032 peak power demand. - Abstract: The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is the largest crude oil producer in the world and possesses the largest oil reserves. The crude oil revenue has resulted in a massive socio-economic development over the last four decades. This situation has resulted in rapid growth of the country’s electricity demand and municipal solid waste (MSW) generation. The KSA is proposing an impressive plan towards renewable energy utilization that includes waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities. This research assesses the potential contribution of WTE facilities to total Saudi peak power demand up to the year 2032 based on two scenarios: Mass Burn and Mass Burn with recycling for the entire country and for six major cities in the KSA. The analysis shows a potential to produce about 2073 Megawatts (MW) based on a Mass Burn scenario and about 166 MW based on Mass Burn with recycling scenario. These values amount to about 1.73% and 0.14% of the projected 2032 peak electricity demand of 120 Gigawatt. The forecasted results of each city from the two scenarios can be used to design future WTE facilities in the main cities of Saudi Arabia. Further investigations are recommended to evaluate the two scenarios based on financial, social, technical, and environmental criteria

  2. Plant-based assessment of inherent soil productivity and contributions to China's cereal crop yield increase since 1980.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingsheng Fan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: China's food production has increased 6-fold during the past half-century, thanks to increased yields resulting from the management intensification, accomplished through greater inputs of fertilizer, water, new crop strains, and other Green Revolution's technologies. Yet, changes in underlying quality of soils and their effects on yield increase remain to be determined. Here, we provide a first attempt to quantify historical changes in inherent soil productivity and their contributions to the increase in yield. METHODS: The assessment was conducted based on data-set derived from 7410 on-farm trials, 8 long-term experiments and an inventory of soil organic matter concentrations of arable land. RESULTS: Results show that even without organic and inorganic fertilizer addition crop yield from on-farm trials conducted in the 2000s was significantly higher compared with those in the 1980s - the increase ranged from 0.73 to 1.76 Mg/ha for China's major irrigated cereal-based cropping systems. The increase in on-farm yield in control plot since 1980s was due primarily to the enhancement of soil-related factors, and reflected inherent soil productivity improvement. The latter led to higher and stable yield with adoption of improved management practices, and contributed 43% to the increase in yield for wheat and 22% for maize in the north China, and, 31%, 35% and 22% for early and late rice in south China and for single rice crop in the Yangtze River Basin since 1980. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, without an improvement in inherent soil productivity, the 'Agricultural Miracle in China' would not have happened. A comprehensive strategy of inherent soil productivity improvement in China, accomplished through combining engineering-based measures with biological-approaches, may be an important lesson for the developing world. We propose that advancing food security in 21st century for both China and other parts of world will depend on continuously improving

  3. Sources of the PM10 aerosol in Flanders, Belgium, and re-assessment of the contribution from wood burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maenhaut, Willy; Vermeylen, Reinhilde; Claeys, Magda; Vercauteren, Jordy; Roekens, Edward

    2016-08-15

    From 30 June 2011 to 2 July 2012 PM10 aerosol samples were simultaneously taken every 4th day at four urban background sites in Flanders, Belgium. The sites were in Antwerpen, Gent, Brugge, and Oostende. The PM10 mass concentration was determined by weighing; organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) were measured by thermal-optical analysis, the wood burning tracers levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, 8 water-soluble ions were measured by ion chromatography, and 15 elements were determined by a combination of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry. The multi-species dataset was subjected to receptor modeling by PMF. The 10 retained factors (with their overall average percentage contributions to the experimental PM10 mass) were wood burning (9.5%), secondary nitrate (24%), secondary sulfate (12.6%), sea salt (10.0%), aged sea salt (19.2%), crustal matter (9.7%), non-ferrous metals (1.81%), traffic (10.3%), non-exhaust traffic (0.52%), and heavy oil burning (3.0%). The average contributions of wood smoke for the four sites were quite substantial in winter and ranged from 12.5 to 20% for the PM10 mass and from 47 to 64% for PM10 OC. Wood burning appeared to be also a notable source of As, Cd, and Pb. The contribution from wood burning to the PM10 mass and OC was also assessed by making use of levoglucosan as single marker compound and the conversion factors of Schmidl et al. (2008), as done in our previous study on wood burning in Flanders (Maenhaut et al., 2012). However, the apportionments were much lower than those deduced from PMF. It seems that the conversion factors of Schmidl et al. (2008) may not be applicable to wood burning in Flanders. From scatter plots of the PMF-derived wood smoke OC and PM versus levoglucosan, we arrived at conversion factors of 9.7 and 22.6, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Environmental impact of nuclear industry and power generation in the Russian Federation: assessment of contribution to general damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetrov, V.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the study was assess the contribution of nuclear industry and power generation to environmental pollution in the Russian Federation. The general aim is to provide rationale for the sound strategy and priorities in addressing issues related to technogenous environmental pollution at the national and regional governance levels. Estimates were derived from data found in reviews published by federal environmental protection authorities. The impact of major sectors of economy to contamination of the environment was estimated through analyzing the amount of chemical and radioactive releases, as well as parameters of air, water, soil and forest contamination for economic regions and provinces where major nuclear plants are located. Pollutant maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) for natural environment media (ambient air, natural water, soil) as adopted in RF were taken as evaluation criteria. A relative pollution index taking account of the gross product value in the given sector of economy was proposed for the purposes of economic assessment. According to reported data nuclear power and industry plants make no adverse effect on the ambient air quality in impact areas. Emissions of industrial gases and pollutants, and fossil-fuel combustion (dust and soot, NO 2 , CO etc.) remain the main sources of dangerous (exceeding MPC) chemical air pollution in each province concerned. The leading industries contributing a principal load to air pollution are: automobile transport, metallurgy, etc. Specific pollution indexes were calculated for several major sectors: φ=P/(MPC)·M m 3 /Rb, where P is gross pollutant emission, g/year; MPC - as above, g/m 3 ; M is value of annual production, Rb/year. Values of φ for these sectors are given in table form. Water quality in most natural fresh water resources fails to meet the standards, the most widespread pollutants being represented by oil products, phenols, etc. Major sources of water pollution are: industrial

  5. The Contribution of Rubrics to the Validity of Performance Assessment: A Study of the Conservation-Restoration and Design Undergraduate Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez-Varela, José-Luis; Gregori-Giralt, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Rubrics have attained considerable importance in the authentic and sustainable assessment paradigm; nevertheless, few studies have examined their contribution to validity, especially outside the domain of educational studies. This empirical study used a quantitative approach to analyse the validity of a rubrics-based performance assessment. Raters…

  6. Assessing the underlying breast cancer risk of Chinese females contributed by dietary intake of residual DDT from agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mengling; Zhao, Meirong; Zhou, Shanshan; Chen, Kun; Zhang, Chunlong; Liu, Weiping

    2014-12-01

    The greatest concern over DDT exposure in China arose since the early 1990s for the rising breast cancer incidence, and the cause still remains to be elucidated. An extensive survey of DDT background in agricultural soils, covered the entire region of China, was conducted. DDT at concentrations greater than 100 ng/g (the China's Farmland Environmental Quality Evaluation Standards for Edible Agricultural Products) was found to impact 42.3 million Chinese population. Considering the geographical differences with diverse DDT contributions and different diet products and habits, the average daily dietary intake was modeled and estimated to be 0.34 μg/kg p,p'-DDE (the main bioactive constituent in DDT). Population attributable fraction derived from a case-control study from 78 women with breast cancer and 72 controls was used to assess the DDT exposure risk to breast cancer. Based on the estimated population attributable fraction with a median value of 0.6% (IQR 0.23-2.11%), the excess annual breast cancer incidence rate attributable to p,p'-DDE exposure averaged 0.06×10(-5) with significant spatial variations varying from 0.00021×10(-5) to 11.05×10(-5) in Chinese females. Exposure to DDT is a contributor to breast cancer, but the overall limited relative risk and population attributable fraction imply confounding factors for breast cancer in Chinese females. Exposure risk in a regional scale helps understand the cause and prevention of breast cancer. Our mapping and modeling method could be used to assess other environmental carcinogens and related cancer diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. FRamework Assessing Notorious Contributing Influences for Error (FRANCIE): Perspective on Taxonomy Development to Support Error Reporting and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lon N. Haney; David I. Gertman

    2003-04-01

    Beginning in the 1980s a primary focus of human reliability analysis was estimation of human error probabilities. However, detailed qualitative modeling with comprehensive representation of contextual variables often was lacking. This was likely due to the lack of comprehensive error and performance shaping factor taxonomies, and the limited data available on observed error rates and their relationship to specific contextual variables. In the mid 90s Boeing, America West Airlines, NASA Ames Research Center and INEEL partnered in a NASA sponsored Advanced Concepts grant to: assess the state of the art in human error analysis, identify future needs for human error analysis, and develop an approach addressing these needs. Identified needs included the need for a method to identify and prioritize task and contextual characteristics affecting human reliability. Other needs identified included developing comprehensive taxonomies to support detailed qualitative modeling and to structure meaningful data collection efforts across domains. A result was the development of the FRamework Assessing Notorious Contributing Influences for Error (FRANCIE) with a taxonomy for airline maintenance tasks. The assignment of performance shaping factors to generic errors by experts proved to be valuable to qualitative modeling. Performance shaping factors and error types from such detailed approaches can be used to structure error reporting schemes. In a recent NASA Advanced Human Support Technology grant FRANCIE was refined, and two new taxonomies for use on space missions were developed. The development, sharing, and use of error taxonomies, and the refinement of approaches for increased fidelity of qualitative modeling is offered as a means to help direct useful data collection strategies.

  8. The Role of Nuclear Power for Sustainable Development: Assessment of Nuclear Power's Contribution to National Economic Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, B. J.; Lee, M. K.; Ahn, S. K.

    2008-04-01

    The study begins with a short review of nuclear power development in Korea within the overall reference energy system. It then explores changing circumstances, present energy balances and ultimately the needs underpinning future electricity requirements. The major part of the study uses a model-based approach to analyze and quantify economic linkages between nuclear technologies and other economic sectors, and to assess various techno-economic futures that include nuclear generation for the Korean power sector, exploring for each future scenario the optimal electricity supply mix. The results of the analysis represents that the nuclear industry in the Republic of Korea has already made strong contributions to the growth of the country. It has been an integral part of the country's economic development, evolving from an import- to an export-oriented industry, providing spin-offs to Korean technological innovation as well as to socio-economic development such as infrastructure and education. Furthermore, the study provides some meaningful suggestions and recommendations in order to make sound decisions for sustainable energy policy and strategies, in particular for achieving a balance in nuclear power development and socio-economic development consistent with sustainable energy development goals. In general, these reflect the increasing national (public and private) participation in the nuclear industry. Specifically, the study identifies the nuclear relevant strategies in four dimensions: innovative nuclear technology development, nuclear human resource development and management (HRD and M), investment and financing of the nuclear technology and enhancement of institutional framework

  9. An ensemble approach to assess hydrological models' contribution to uncertainties in the analysis of climate change impact on water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, J. A.; Schmid, J.; Ricard, S.; Muerth, M. J.; Gauvin St-Denis, B.; Minville, M.; Chaumont, D.; Caya, D.; Ludwig, R.; Turcotte, R.

    2012-06-01

    Over the recent years, several research efforts investigated the impact of climate change on water resources for different regions of the world. The projection of future river flows is affected by different sources of uncertainty in the hydro-climatic modelling chain. One of the aims of the QBic3 project (Québec-Bavarian International Collaboration on Climate Change) is to assess the contribution to uncertainty of hydrological models by using an ensemble of hydrological models presenting a diversity of structural complexity (i.e. lumped, semi distributed and distributed models). The study investigates two humid, mid-latitude catchments with natural flow conditions; one located in Southern Québec (Canada) and one in Southern Bavaria (Germany). Daily flow is simulated with four different hydrological models, forced by outputs from regional climate models driven by a given number of GCMs' members over a reference (1971-2000) and a future (2041-2070) periods. The results show that the choice of the hydrological model does strongly affect the climate change response of selected hydrological indicators, especially those related to low flows. Indicators related to high flows seem less sensitive on the choice of the hydrological model. Therefore, the computationally less demanding models (usually simple, lumped and conceptual) give a significant level of trust for high and overall mean flows.

  10. Assessment of Non-Financial Criteria in the Selection of Investment Projects for Seed Capital Funding: the Contribution of Scientometrics and Patentometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo da Silva Motta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to assess the potential of using scientometric and patentometric indicators as a way of instrumentalizing the selection process of projects for seed capital funding. There is an increasing interest in technology based enterprises for their capacity to contribute to economic and social development, but there is also some difficulty in assessing non-financial criteria associated with technology for the purposes of financial funding. Thus, this research selected the case of the first enterprise invested in by the largest seed capital fund in Brazil, in order to create scientific and technological indicators and to assess the extent to which these indicators may contribute to understanding the market potential of the technology once it is assessed. It was concluded that scientometric and patentometric indicators favour the assessment process for non-financial criteria, in particular those criteria dealt with in this study: technology, market, divestment, and team.

  11. Expression and functional assessment of candidate type 2 diabetes susceptibility genes identify four new genes contributing to human insulin secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatou K. Ndiaye

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified >100 loci independently contributing to type 2 diabetes (T2D risk. However, translational implications for precision medicine and for the development of novel treatments have been disappointing, due to poor knowledge of how these loci impact T2D pathophysiology. Here, we aimed to measure the expression of genes located nearby T2D associated signals and to assess their effect on insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells. Methods: The expression of 104 candidate T2D susceptibility genes was measured in a human multi-tissue panel, through PCR-free expression assay. The effects of the knockdown of beta-cell enriched genes were next investigated on insulin secretion from the human EndoC-βH1 beta-cell line. Finally, we performed RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq so as to assess the pathways affected by the knockdown of the new genes impacting insulin secretion from EndoC-βH1, and we analyzed the expression of the new genes in mouse models with altered pancreatic beta-cell function. Results: We found that the candidate T2D susceptibility genes' expression is significantly enriched in pancreatic beta cells obtained by laser capture microdissection or sorted by flow cytometry and in EndoC-βH1 cells, but not in insulin sensitive tissues. Furthermore, the knockdown of seven T2D-susceptibility genes (CDKN2A, GCK, HNF4A, KCNK16, SLC30A8, TBC1D4, and TCF19 with already known expression and/or function in beta cells changed insulin secretion, supporting our functional approach. We showed first evidence for a role in insulin secretion of four candidate T2D-susceptibility genes (PRC1, SRR, ZFAND3, and ZFAND6 with no previous knowledge of presence and function in beta cells. RNA-seq in EndoC-βH1 cells with decreased expression of PRC1, SRR, ZFAND6, or ZFAND3 identified specific gene networks related to T2D pathophysiology. Finally, a positive correlation between the expression of Ins2 and the

  12. Contribution of germline TP53 variants and assessment of HER-2 status among young breast cancer patients in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Yan Lau

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Li-Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS is caused by a mutation in the TP53 tumour suppressor gene. This rare hereditary condition predisposes individuals to an increased risk of cancers including breast cancer in women at a relatively young age, which accounts for nearly 25%–30% of all LFS‑associated cancers. Studies have shown that breast tumours in women with a germline TP53 deleterious variants are associated with a human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2-positive phenotype. Taken together, this study aimed to investigate the contribution of germline TP53 variants and its association with tumour HER-2 status in a cohort of young women with breast cancer. Methods: From 2002 to 2017, 4048 women with breast cancer treated at University Malaya Medical Centre or Sime Darby Medical Centre participated in the Malaysian Breast Cancer Genetics Study. Of which, 87 patients were diagnosed before 30 years of age. All patients were analysed for germline TP53 single nucleotide variants, small insertions or deletions by amplicon‑based targeted sequencing and validated by Sanger sequencing. DNA from patients who tested negative for sequencing were subsequently evaluated for the presence of TP53 exon deletions or duplications by multiplex ligation‑dependent probe amplification. HER-2 status of breast tumours was defined by immunohistochemistry, fluorescence in situ hybridisation and/or silver in situ hybridisation. Results: 5 distinct TP53 variants were detected in 5 individuals. 3 out of 5 TP53 variants were classified as frameshift mutations, one nonsense mutation and one in-frame duplication. Variants in other genes were detected in 17 individuals. No large genomic rearrangements were detected in the remaining 65 sequencing-negative patients. The assessment of HER-2 status will be presented. Conclusions: Our results suggest that alterations in TP53 gene were identified in approximately 5.7% (5/87 of this cohort of young women with breast

  13. Barriers to Co-Contribution in Superannuation: a Comparative Assessment of the Financial Benefits of Scheme Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Bruhn

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary superannuation contributions provide a means for individuals to top-up their savings in a tax advantaged environment. In order to encourage voluntary contributions the government instituted the cocontribution scheme in 2003. Under the existing scheme, within a given financial year the government contributes up to a maximum of $500 when an individual on a low income makes a voluntary contribution of up to $1,000. Despite the apparent financial attractiveness of the scheme, participation among eligible persons is low. Reasons may include competing expenditure needs leading to a lack of sufficient funds for contribution, lack of trust in the system given regular changes to superannuation policy, and behavioural reasons including a short-term rather than long-term focus, procrastination from uncertainty and fear of regret, and loss aversion. In this paper we investigate another possible reason for low participation, namely poor financial opportunity cost. While an immediate 50% investment return may appear to be a ‘no-brainer’, for eligible individuals or families with mortgages, scheme participation may in fact not be optimal. We investigate the relative benefit of scheme participation versus reducing a mortgage, and conclude that while participation is sensible for those with short remaining mortgage terms, for those with longer mortgage terms the decision to participate may not be preferred unless one assumes generous long-term superannuation investment returns, or unless scheme participation is intended year on year for long durations.

  14. Assessment of the Contribution of Regional Higher Education Systems to the Socio-Economic Development of the Russian Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshukov, O. V.; Yevseyeva, D. G.; Gromov, A. D.; Platonova, D. P.

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes how Russia's networks of higher education institutions contribute to their host regions in terms of the following three major facets: the economic development; the human capital development; and the innovative development. To ensure the analytical framework used derives relevant and representative findings given the nature of…

  15. Beyond Exclusion: Assessing Palestinian refugees’ struggle for protection and recognition and their potential contribution to a peace settlement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D. Handmaker (Jeff)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAt a time of constant change in the diplomatic and political debate, Imagining a Shared Future: Perspectives on Law, Conflict and Economic Development in the Middle East contributes to the discussion and development of solutions to the stagnating economic situation in Palestine. All too

  16. Assessing the Contribution of Sea Surface Temperature and Salinity to Coral δ18O using a Weighted Forward Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horlick, K. A.; Thompson, D. M.; Anderson, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    The isotopic ratio of 16O/18O (δ18O) in coral carbonate skeletons is a robust, high-resolution proxy for sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) variability predating the instrumental record. Although SST and δ18O-water (correlated to SSS) variability both contribute to the δ18O signal in the coral carbonate archive, the paucity and limited temporal span of SST and SSS instrumental observations limit the ability to differentiate respective SST and SSS contribution to each δ18O record. From instrumental datasets such as HadISST v.3, ERSST, SODA, and Delcroix (2011), we forward model the δ18O ("pseudoproxy") signal using the linear bivariate forward model from Thompson 2011 ("pseudoproxy"= a1(SST)+a2(SSS)). By iteratively weighting (between 0 and 1 by 0.005) the relative contribution of SST and SSS terms to the δ18O "pseudoproxy" following Gorman et al. 2012 method, we derive the percent contributions of SST and SSS to δ18O at each site based on the weights that produce the optimal correlation to the observed coral δ18O signal. A Monte Carlo analysis of error propagation in the weighted and unweighted pseudoproxy time series was used to determine how well the weighted and unweighted forward models captured observed δ18O variance. Across the south-western Pacific (40 sites) we found that SST contributes from less than 8 to more than 78% of the variance. This work builds upon this simple forward model of coral δ18O and improves our understanding of potential sources of differences in the observed and forward modeled δ18O variability. These results may also improve SST and SSS reconstructions from corals by highlighting the reef areas whose coral δ18O signal is most heavily influenced by SST and SSS respectively. Using an inverse approach, creating a transfer function, local SST and SSS could also be reconstructed based on the site-specific weights and observed coral δ18O time series.

  17. Assessing the contribution of the main aquifer of Loire basin to the river discharge during low flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteil, C.

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of the Loire river low flows is a key issue for various uses such as water supply, irrigation or industrial needs. Power production is a major activity in the Loire basin with four nuclear power plants using the river water for the cooling system. To estimate the evolution of long term in-stream low flow distribution, it is necessary to have a good estimate of the contribution of a complex aquifer system to the river discharge. Three main overlaying aquifer units covering an area of 38000 km 2 are considered: Beauce Limestones (Oligocene), Chalks (Seno-Turonian) and Sands (Cenomanian). A distributed hydrogeological model (Eau-Dyssee) is implemented with the coupling of five modules: surface water budget, watershed routing, river routing, unsaturated zone transfer, and groundwater flow. The model is calibrated over a 10-yr period, validated over another 10-yr period, and then a test simulation is run over 35 years. A hybrid fitting methodology, based on an automated inverse method and a trial-error one, has been developed for the fitting of the Beauce aquifer unit. The other units are calibrated by trial and error. The fitted model simulates properly both discharges and piezometric heads over the whole domain, with a global RMSE between simulated and observed piezometric heads of 2.86 m, and all Nash efficiency at the Loire discharge gauging stations over 0.9. The fitted model has then been used to quantify the hydro-system mass balance at different time scales. Mean aquifer contribution to Loire river discharge during low flow between 1975 and 2008 is estimated at 15 m 3 /s. First results of simulations under four different climate change projections indicate an averaged decrease of these contributions reaching 8 to 50% in 2100. (author)

  18. Account of the contribution of the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL) to the Working Group 'Broad Reconsideration Energy and Climate'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-04-01

    In twenty policy areas various working groups have studied variants that can lead to a 20% budget cut in the government budgets of the Netherlands, which must be realized in 2015. The aim of the reconsiderations is to use less government means to realize the same results, or even better results if possible. The broad reconsideration in the field of energy and climate focuses on the expenditure for renewable energy and energy efficiency, mitigating (inter)national climate policy and fiscal benefits. In this report the PBL gives account of its contribution to the Working Group 'Broad Reconsideration Energy and Climate'. [nl

  19. The assessment of damages due to climate change in a situation of uncertainty: the contribution of adaptation cost modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumas, P.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this research is to introduce new elements for the assessment of damages due to climate changes within the frame of compact models aiding the decision. Two types of methodologies are used: sequential optimisation stochastic models and simulation stochastic models using optimal assessment methods. The author first defines the damages, characterizes their different categories, and reviews the existing assessments. Notably, he makes the distinction between damages due to climate change and damages due to its rate. Then, he presents the different models used in this study, the numerical solutions, and gives a rough estimate of the importance of the considered phenomena. By introducing a new category of capital in an optimal growth model, he tries to establish a framework allowing the representation of adaptation and of its costs. He introduces inertia in macro-economical evolutions, climatic variability, detection of climate change and damages due to climate hazards

  20. Contribution o the assessment of the environmental risk associated with uranium releases in the Ritord drainage basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaugelin-Seiller, K.; Garnier-Laplace, J.; Gilbin, R.; Della-Vedova, C.

    2008-01-01

    This document reports the application to aquatic environments and more particularly to the case of a drainage basin of methods of assessment of the environmental risk presented in another report. The objective is to determine the environmental risk related to releases of uranium from ancient mining sites. The method is applied to available data to diagnose a possible chemical and/or radiological risk due to these releases. Should the occasion occurs, probabilistic approaches are used to refine the assessment of the possible risk identified by the screening. After a presentation of the context, the different screening steps are reported: methodology (exposure analysis, effect analysis, and risk characterization), deterministic characterization of the chronic radiological risk, deterministic characterization of the chronic chemical risk. The next part reports the probabilistic assessment of the chemical or radiological risk. In conclusion, the authors indicate actions to be performed to better analyse exposures, and desirable actions to better analyse effects

  1. Theoretical and empirical bases for dialect-neutral language assessment: contributions from theoretical and applied linguistics to communication disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Barbara Zurer

    2004-02-01

    Three avenues of theoretical research provide insights for discovering abstract properties of language that are subject to disorder and amenable to assessment: (1) the study of universal grammar and its acquisition; (2) descriptions of African American English (AAE) Syntax, Semantics, and Phonology within theoretical linguistics; and (3) the study of specific language impairment (SLI) cross-linguistically. Abstract linguistic concepts were translated into a set of assessment protocols that were used to establish normative data on language acquisition (developmental milestones) in typically developing AAE children ages 4 to 9 years. Testing AAE-speaking language impaired (LI) children and both typically developing (TD) and LI Mainstream American English (MAE)-learning children on these same measures provided the data to select assessments for which (1) TD MAE and AAE children performed the same, and (2) TD performance was reliably different from LI performance in both dialect groups.

  2. Quality assessment of chronologies in Latin American pollen records: a contribution to centennial to millennial scale studies of environmental change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flantua, S.G.A.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Blaauw, M.

    2015-01-01

    The newly updated inventory of the Latin American Pollen Database (LAPD) offers an important overview of data available for multi-proxy and multi-site purposes. However, heterogeneous paleoecological databases are not suitable to be integrated without an uncertainty assessment of existing

  3. Assessment of the contribution of sustainability indicators to sustainable development: a novel approach using fuzzy set theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, A.M.G.; Berg, van den J.; Koops, W.J.; Grossman, M.; Udo, H.M.J.

    2001-01-01

    As a consequence of the impact of sustainability on agricultural production systems, a standardized framework to monitor sustainable development would have great practical utility. The objective of this paper is to introduce fuzzy set theory and develop fuzzy mathematical models to assess

  4. Assessing the contribution of information technology to socio-economic development: a case study from rural South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Turpin, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available with this challenge, since systems thinking is concerned with the performance of the total system. Systems thinking is seldom used in ICT4D, and is lacking in existing ICT4D impact assessment frameworks. In this paper, the authors apply a social systems framework...

  5. The Contribution of Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) to the Presurgical Assessment of Language Function in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Anne; Beland, Renee; Lassonde, Maryse

    2012-01-01

    Before performing neurosurgery, an exhaustive presurgical assessment is required, usually including an investigation of language cerebral lateralization. Among the available procedures, the intracarotid amobarbital test (IAT) was formerly the most widely used. However, this procedure has many limitations: it is invasive and potentially traumatic,…

  6. The Contribution of International Large-Scale Assessments to Educational Research: Combining Individual and Institutional Data Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strietholt, Rolf; Scherer, Ronny

    2018-01-01

    The present paper aims to discuss how data from international large-scale assessments (ILSAs) can be utilized and combined, even with other existing data sources, in order to monitor educational outcomes and study the effectiveness of educational systems. We consider different purposes of linking data, namely, extending outcomes measures,…

  7. The World Bank's Position on Early Child Education in Brazil: A Critical Assessment of Contributions and Shortcomings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, the World Bank published a policy study on early child education (ECE) developments in Brazil, entitled "Early Child Education: Making Programs Work for Brazil's Most Important Generation. Development." This paper analyses the report's assessment of ECE policy in Brazil as well as the recommendations it provides. A critical…

  8. Consumption-based approach for assessing the contribution of hospitals towards the load of pharmaceutical residues in municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Corre, Kristell S; Ort, Christoph; Kateley, Diana; Allen, Belinda; Escher, Beate I; Keller, Jurg

    2012-09-15

    Hospitals are considered as major sources of pharmaceutical residues discharged to municipal wastewater, but recent experimental studies showed that the contribution of hospitals to the loads of selected, quantifiable pharmaceuticals in sewage treatment plant (STP) influents was limited. However such conclusions are made based on the experimental analysis of pharmaceuticals in hospital wastewater which is hindered by a number of factors such as access to suitable sampling sites, difficulties in obtaining representative samples and availability of analytical methods. Therefore, this study explores a refined and extended consumption-based approach to predict the contribution of six selected Australian hospitals to the loads of 589 pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewater. In addition, the possibility that hospital-specific substances are present at levels that may pose a risk for human health was evaluated. For 63 to 84% of the pharmaceuticals investigated, the selected hospitals are not a major point source with individual contributions likely to be less than 15% which is in line with previous experimental studies. In contrast, between 10 and 20% of the pharmaceuticals consumed in the selected hospitals are exclusively used in these hospitals. For these hospital-specific substances, 57 distinct pharmaceuticals may cause concerns for human health as concentrations predicted in hospital effluents are less than 100-fold lower than effect thresholds. However, when concentrations were predicted in the influent of the corresponding STP, only 12 compounds (including the antineoplastic vincristine, the antibiotics tazobactam and piperacillin) remain in concentration close to effect thresholds, but further decrease is expected after removal in STP, dilution in the receiving stream and drinking water treatment. The results of this study suggest that risks of human exposure to the pharmaceuticals exclusively administered in the investigated hospitals are limited and

  9. Radio source counts: comments on their convergence and assessment of the contribution to fluctuations of the microwave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danese, L.; De Zotti, G.; Mandolesi, N.

    1982-01-01

    We point out that statistically estimated high frequency counts at milli-Jansky levels exhibit a slower convergence than expected on the basis of extrapolations of counts at higher flux densities and at longer wavelengths. This seems to demand a substantial cosmological evolution for at least a sub-population of flat-spectrum sources different from QSO's, a fact that might have important implications also in connection with the problem of the origin of the X-ray background. We also compute the discrete source contributions to small scale fluctuations in the Rayleigh-Jeans region of the cosmic microwave background and we show that they set a serious limit to the searches for truly primordial anisotropies using conventional radio-astronomical techniques

  10. Contribution to the assessment of sampling data of coke. Beitrag zur Auswertung von Probenahme-ergebnissen von Koks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goell, G; Helfricht, R; Mueller, H [Forschungsinstitut fuer Aufbereitung, Freiberg (Germany, F.R.)

    1991-03-01

    Controlling the quality characteristics of disperse material systems in plants where these are produced and applied, by means of test procedures, assumes that samples are taken from mass flows. In this contribution, a report is presented on research on the clarification of the causes of fluctuations and differences of test results for coke between supplier and customer. It is revealed that for an appraisal, prehistory and material behaviour of the test material as well as analysis of the actual condition of the sampling and processing systems of both plants are to be considered. The magnitude of the individual error in relation to the total sampling error is explored and conclusions are drawn, to rule out differences as well as unfavourable developments in the production, utilization and the appraisal of coke products. 15 refs., 7 figs.

  11. The Micronesia Challenge: Assessing the Relative Contribution of Stressors on Coral Reefs to Facilitate Science-to-Management Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houk, Peter; Camacho, Rodney; Johnson, Steven; McLean, Matthew; Maxin, Selino; Anson, Jorg; Joseph, Eugene; Nedlic, Osamu; Luckymis, Marston; Adams, Katrina; Hess, Don; Kabua, Emma; Yalon, Anthony; Buthung, Eva; Graham, Curtis; Leberer, Trina; Taylor, Brett; van Woesik, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Fishing and pollution are chronic stressors that can prolong recovery of coral reefs and contribute to ecosystem decline. While this premise is generally accepted, management interventions are complicated because the contributions from individual stressors are difficult to distinguish. The present study examined the extent to which fishing pressure and pollution predicted progress towards the Micronesia Challenge, an international conservation strategy initiated by the political leaders of 6 nations to conserve at least 30% of marine resources by 2020. The analyses were rooted in a defined measure of coral-reef-ecosystem condition, comprised of biological metrics that described functional processes on coral reefs. We report that only 42% of the major reef habitats exceeded the ecosystem-condition threshold established by the Micronesia Challenge. Fishing pressure acting alone on outer reefs, or in combination with pollution in some lagoons, best predicted both the decline and variance in ecosystem condition. High variances among ecosystem-condition scores reflected the large gaps between the best and worst reefs, and suggested that the current scores were unlikely to remain stable through time because of low redundancy. Accounting for the presence of marine protected area (MPA) networks in statistical models did little to improve the models' predictive capabilities, suggesting limited efficacy of MPAs when grouped together across the region. Yet, localized benefits of MPAs existed and are expected to increase over time. Sensitivity analyses suggested that (i) grazing by large herbivores, (ii) high functional diversity of herbivores, and (iii) high predator biomass were most sensitive to fishing pressure, and were required for high ecosystem-condition scores. Linking comprehensive fisheries management policies with these sensitive metrics, and targeting the management of pollution, will strengthen the Micronesia Challenge and preserve ecosystem services that coral

  12. The Micronesia Challenge: Assessing the Relative Contribution of Stressors on Coral Reefs to Facilitate Science-to-Management Feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Houk

    Full Text Available Fishing and pollution are chronic stressors that can prolong recovery of coral reefs and contribute to ecosystem decline. While this premise is generally accepted, management interventions are complicated because the contributions from individual stressors are difficult to distinguish. The present study examined the extent to which fishing pressure and pollution predicted progress towards the Micronesia Challenge, an international conservation strategy initiated by the political leaders of 6 nations to conserve at least 30% of marine resources by 2020. The analyses were rooted in a defined measure of coral-reef-ecosystem condition, comprised of biological metrics that described functional processes on coral reefs. We report that only 42% of the major reef habitats exceeded the ecosystem-condition threshold established by the Micronesia Challenge. Fishing pressure acting alone on outer reefs, or in combination with pollution in some lagoons, best predicted both the decline and variance in ecosystem condition. High variances among ecosystem-condition scores reflected the large gaps between the best and worst reefs, and suggested that the current scores were unlikely to remain stable through time because of low redundancy. Accounting for the presence of marine protected area (MPA networks in statistical models did little to improve the models' predictive capabilities, suggesting limited efficacy of MPAs when grouped together across the region. Yet, localized benefits of MPAs existed and are expected to increase over time. Sensitivity analyses suggested that (i grazing by large herbivores, (ii high functional diversity of herbivores, and (iii high predator biomass were most sensitive to fishing pressure, and were required for high ecosystem-condition scores. Linking comprehensive fisheries management policies with these sensitive metrics, and targeting the management of pollution, will strengthen the Micronesia Challenge and preserve ecosystem

  13. Probabilistic assessment of fire hazard: a contribution of power industry to the development of fire protection engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandrac, J.; Skvarka, P.

    1990-01-01

    Draft methodology was developed for assessment of fire hazard in nuclear power plants. Named DIMEHORP, the methodology is based on fire hazard analyses and on the analyses of the possible ways of fire propagation and of the power plant systems. The former includes determining the spaces of the power plant in which a fire can arise. Fire propagation analysis deals with the probability that within a given section the fire will propagate and cause damage to the equipment before it is localized. The mathematical model used is based on probability theory in conjunction with expert estimates. The methodology was applied to the assessment of the effect of fire in the cable rooms of the Dukovany nuclear power plant on the safety and reliability of its operation. (Z.M.). 3 tabs., 6 refs

  14. Contribution for tier 1 of the ecological risk assessment of Cunha Baixa uranium mine (Central Portugal): I Soil chemical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, R.; Antunes, S.C.; Marques, S.M.; Goncalves, F.

    2008-01-01

    Within the tier 1 of a site specific risk assessment, the pseudo-total concentrations (extracted with aqua regia) and the potential mobile fractions of metals were determined to perform a preliminary evaluation of risks posed by contaminated soils from an abandoned uranium mine (Mangualde, Central Portugal). Considering the mobile fractions of metals, extracted with artificial rain water, aluminium and uranium were the most concerning elements, since their concentrations were above soil quality criteria values (SQGVs) established for both elements. However, according to the evaluation based on potential mobile fractions of elements, rather than on pseudo-total metal concentrations the risks were limited to sites within the exploitation area, where contamination derives mainly from past in-situ leaching activities of pore ore as well as from the deposition of sludge from the effluent pond. The exclusion of other sites under evaluation, from the risk assessment process, requires additional data provided by soil screening ecotoxicological assays

  15. Symposium 20 - PABMB: Teaching biochemistry in a connected world: How Apps-Embedded Assessment can contribute to learning outcomes mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Galembeck

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Symposium 20 - PABMB: Teaching biochemistry in a connected world Chair: Miguel Castanho, Universidade de Lisboa, PortugalAbstract:Apps can be designed to provide usage data, and most of them do. These usage data are usually used to map users interests and to deliver more effective ads that are more likely to result in clicks, and sales. We have applied some of these metrics to understand how it can be used to map students’ behavior using educational software. We tested both Google Analytics, and a system we have developed to map learning outcomes and students engagement. Embedded assessment were implemented in app used to teach: 1 Metabolic Pathways; 2 Protein Synthesis, 3 Cell Structure, and 4 Concepts from techniques used in a Biochemistry Lab course. Our preliminary results show that this approach provides valuable information about class outcomes that can be used for both summative and formative assessments.

  16. An Approach for Assessing Consequences of Potential Supply Chain and Insider Contributed Cyber Attacks on Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Tsong-Lun [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Varuttamaseni, Athi [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Baek, Joo-Seok [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pepper, Susan [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This paper provides an approach for developing potential attacks on I and C systems of NPPs and assessing their consequences. An important concept is that the NPPs were not designed to cope with Stuxnet-type of attacks (and any other cyber attacks). That is, the plants were only designed for design basis accidents. The safety margins and redundancies built in the design are all based on design basis accidents. They may be helpful in mitigating cyberattacks, but may not be adequate.

  17. An Approach for Assessing Consequences of Potential Supply Chain and Insider Contributed Cyber Attacks on Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Tsong-Lun; Varuttamaseni, Athi; Baek, Joo-Seok; Pepper, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an approach for developing potential attacks on I and C systems of NPPs and assessing their consequences. An important concept is that the NPPs were not designed to cope with Stuxnet-type of attacks (and any other cyber attacks). That is, the plants were only designed for design basis accidents. The safety margins and redundancies built in the design are all based on design basis accidents. They may be helpful in mitigating cyberattacks, but may not be adequate.

  18. Application of air pollution dispersion modeling for source-contribution assessment and model performance evaluation at integrated industrial estate-Pantnagar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, T., E-mail: tirthankaronline@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Science, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, U.S. Nagar, Uttarakhand 263 145 (India); Barman, S.C., E-mail: scbarman@yahoo.com [Department of Environmental Monitoring, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow-226 001, Uttar Pradesh (India); Srivastava, R.K., E-mail: rajeevsrivastava08@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Science, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, U.S. Nagar, Uttarakhand 263 145 (India)

    2011-04-15

    Source-contribution assessment of ambient NO{sub 2} concentration was performed at Pantnagar, India through simulation of two urban mathematical dispersive models namely Gaussian Finite Line Source Model (GFLSM) and Industrial Source Complex Model (ISCST-3) and model performances were evaluated. Principal approaches were development of comprehensive emission inventory, monitoring of traffic density and regional air quality and conclusively simulation of urban dispersive models. Initially, 18 industries were found responsible for emission of 39.11 kg/h of NO{sub 2} through 43 elevated stacks. Further, vehicular emission potential in terms of NO{sub 2} was computed as 7.1 kg/h. Air quality monitoring delineates an annual average NO{sub 2} concentration of 32.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. Finally, GFLSM and ISCST-3 were simulated in conjunction with developed emission inventories and existing meteorological conditions. Models simulation indicated that contribution of NO{sub 2} from industrial and vehicular source was in a range of 45-70% and 9-39%, respectively. Further, statistical analysis revealed satisfactory model performance with an aggregate accuracy of 61.9%. - Research highlights: > Application of dispersion modeling for source-contribution assessment of ambient NO{sub 2}. > Inventorization revealed emission from industry and vehicles was 39.11 and 7.1 kg/h. > GFLSM revealed that vehicular pollution contributes a range of 9.0-38.6%. > Source-contribution of 45-70% was found for industrial emission through ISCST-3. > Aggregate performance of both models shows good agreement with an accuracy of 61.9%. - Development of industrial and vehicular inventory in terms of ambient NO{sub 2} for model simulation at Pantnagar, India and model validation revealed satisfactory outcome.

  19. Modeling cumulative effects in life cycle assessment: the case of fertilizer in wheat production contributing to the global warming potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laratte, Bertrand; Guillaume, Bertrand; Kim, Junbeum; Birregah, Babiga

    2014-05-15

    This paper aims at presenting a dynamic indicator for life cycle assessment (LCA) measuring cumulative impacts over time of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fertilizers used for wheat cultivation and production. Our approach offers a dynamic indicator of global warming potential (GWP), one of the most used indicator of environmental impacts (e.g. in the Kyoto Protocol). For a case study, the wheat production in France was selected and considered by using data from official sources about fertilizer consumption and production of wheat. We propose to assess GWP environmental impact based on LCA method. The system boundary is limited to the fertilizer production for 1 ton of wheat produced (functional unit) from 1910 to 2010. As applied to wheat production in France, traditional LCA shows a maximum GWP impact of 500 kg CO2-eq for 1 ton of wheat production, whereas the GWP impact of wheat production over time with our approach to dynamic LCA and its cumulative effects increases to 18,000 kg CO2-eq for 1 ton of wheat production. In this paper, only one substance and one impact assessment indicator are presented. However, the methodology can be generalized and improved by using different substances and indicators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. First Steps Toward a Quality of Climate Finance Scorecard (QUODA-CF): Creating a Comparative Index to Assess International Climate Finance Contributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, Katherine; Roberts, Timmons; de Nevers, Michele; Langley, Claire; Smith, Cory

    2013-06-15

    Are climate finance contributor countries, multilateral aid agencies and specialized funds using widely accepted best practices in foreign assistance? How is it possible to measure and compare international climate finance contributions when there are as yet no established metrics or agreed definitions of the quality of climate finance? As a subjective metric, quality can mean different things to different stakeholders, while of donor countries, recipients and institutional actors may place quality across a broad spectrum of objectives. This subjectivity makes the assessment of the quality of climate finance contributions a useful and necessary exercise, but one that has many challenges. This work seeks to enhance the development of common definitions and metrics of the quality of climate finance, to understand what we can about those areas where climate finance information is available and shine a light on the areas where there is a severe dearth of data. Allowing for comparisons of the use of best practices across funding institutions in the climate sector could begin a process of benchmarking performance, fostering learning across institutions and driving improvements when incorporated in internal evaluation protocols of those institutions. In the medium term, this kind of benchmarking and transparency could support fundraising in contributor countries and help build trust with recipient countries. As a feasibility study, this paper attempts to outline the importance of assessing international climate finance contributions while describing the difficulties in arriving at universally agreed measurements and indicators for assessment. In many cases, data are neither readily available nor complete, and there is no consensus on what should be included. A number of indicators are proposed in this study as a starting point with which to analyze voluntary contributions, but in some cases their methodologies are not complete, and further research is required for a

  1. Assessing Top-Down and Bottom-Up Contributions to Auditory Stream Segregation and Integration With Polyphonic Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels R. Disbergen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyphonic music listening well exemplifies processes typically involved in daily auditory scene analysis situations, relying on an interactive interplay between bottom-up and top-down processes. Most studies investigating scene analysis have used elementary auditory scenes, however real-world scene analysis is far more complex. In particular, music, contrary to most other natural auditory scenes, can be perceived by either integrating or, under attentive control, segregating sound streams, often carried by different instruments. One of the prominent bottom-up cues contributing to multi-instrument music perception is their timbre difference. In this work, we introduce and validate a novel paradigm designed to investigate, within naturalistic musical auditory scenes, attentive modulation as well as its interaction with bottom-up processes. Two psychophysical experiments are described, employing custom-composed two-voice polyphonic music pieces within a framework implementing a behavioral performance metric to validate listener instructions requiring either integration or segregation of scene elements. In Experiment 1, the listeners' locus of attention was switched between individual instruments or the aggregate (i.e., both instruments together, via a task requiring the detection of temporal modulations (i.e., triplets incorporated within or across instruments. Subjects responded post-stimulus whether triplets were present in the to-be-attended instrument(s. Experiment 2 introduced the bottom-up manipulation by adding a three-level morphing of instrument timbre distance to the attentional framework. The task was designed to be used within neuroimaging paradigms; Experiment 2 was additionally validated behaviorally in the functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI environment. Experiment 1 subjects (N = 29, non-musicians completed the task at high levels of accuracy, showing no group differences between any experimental conditions. Nineteen

  2. Assessing Top-Down and Bottom-Up Contributions to Auditory Stream Segregation and Integration With Polyphonic Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disbergen, Niels R; Valente, Giancarlo; Formisano, Elia; Zatorre, Robert J

    2018-01-01

    Polyphonic music listening well exemplifies processes typically involved in daily auditory scene analysis situations, relying on an interactive interplay between bottom-up and top-down processes. Most studies investigating scene analysis have used elementary auditory scenes, however real-world scene analysis is far more complex. In particular, music, contrary to most other natural auditory scenes, can be perceived by either integrating or, under attentive control, segregating sound streams, often carried by different instruments. One of the prominent bottom-up cues contributing to multi-instrument music perception is their timbre difference. In this work, we introduce and validate a novel paradigm designed to investigate, within naturalistic musical auditory scenes, attentive modulation as well as its interaction with bottom-up processes. Two psychophysical experiments are described, employing custom-composed two-voice polyphonic music pieces within a framework implementing a behavioral performance metric to validate listener instructions requiring either integration or segregation of scene elements. In Experiment 1, the listeners' locus of attention was switched between individual instruments or the aggregate (i.e., both instruments together), via a task requiring the detection of temporal modulations (i.e., triplets) incorporated within or across instruments. Subjects responded post-stimulus whether triplets were present in the to-be-attended instrument(s). Experiment 2 introduced the bottom-up manipulation by adding a three-level morphing of instrument timbre distance to the attentional framework. The task was designed to be used within neuroimaging paradigms; Experiment 2 was additionally validated behaviorally in the functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) environment. Experiment 1 subjects ( N = 29, non-musicians) completed the task at high levels of accuracy, showing no group differences between any experimental conditions. Nineteen listeners also

  3. Assessment on the capability of quasi-optical grill to launch lower hybrid waves in iter plasma. UE contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santini, F.; Preinhaelter, J.

    1998-12-01

    The quasi-optical grill has been considered as a convenient system to launch Lower Hybrid Waves in a reactor-like plasma. In recent years, efforts to study the capability and the efficiency of this launcher have been done in Europe with the intent to test it in a large experimental device. Even if this test is still missing, a wide analysis of different schemes of such a launcher is now available in the literature. This report is devoted to critically review this theoretical analysis and consequently to assess the convenience of using quasi-optical grill in future Tokamaks [it

  4. Mammographic density and structural features can individually and jointly contribute to breast cancer risk assessment in mammography screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Rikke Rass; von Euler-Chelpin, My Catarina; Nielsen, Mads

    2016-01-01

    and jointly with density can improve the ability to identify screening women at increased risk of breast cancer. METHODS: The study included 121 cases and 259 age- and time matched controls based on a cohort of 14,736 women with negative screening mammograms from a population-based screening programme...... in Denmark in 2007 (followed until 31 December 2010). Mammograms were assessed using the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) density classification, Tabár's classification on parenchymal patterns and a fully automated texture quantification technique. The individual and combined association...

  5. Contribution to the Biodiversity Assessment of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Atlantic Forest in Santa Catarina, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-de-Freitas, Vinícios; França, Rodrigo Massabki; Bartholomay, Lyric C; Marcondes, Carlos Brisola

    2017-03-01

    The mosquito fauna of a coastal area of Santa Catarina state, Brazil (Baixada do Maciambu), was assessed, and possible mosquito larval habitats were mapped. Five new species records for the state are presented, two of which also are new genera records. From the 24 recognized species present in the area, 28% were from the subfamily Anophelinae and 72% from the Culicinae. The community structure throughout a year, the relevance of the new findings, and the medical importance of some species are discussed. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Unique aspects of impulsive traits in substance use and overeating: specific contributions of common assessments of impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Derek; Abdi, Hervé; Filbey, Francesca M

    2014-11-01

    Abstract Background: Impulsivity is a complex trait often studied in substance abuse and overeating disorders, but the exact nature of impulsivity traits and their contribution to these disorders are still debated. Thus, understanding how to measure impulsivity is essential for comprehending addictive behaviors. Identify unique impulsivity traits specific to substance use and overeating. Impulsive Sensation Seeking (ImpSS) and Barratt's Impulsivity scales (BIS) Scales were analyzed with a non-parametric factor analytic technique (discriminant correspondence analysis) to identify group-specific traits on 297 individuals from five groups: Marijuana (n = 88), Nicotine (n = 82), Overeaters (n = 27), Marijuauna + Nicotine (n = 63), and CONTROLs (n = 37). A significant overall factor structure revealed three components of impulsivity that explained respectively 50.19% (pperm Overeating: lacks focus, but plans (short and long term). Our results reveal impulsivity traits specific to each group. This may provide better criteria to define spectrums and trajectories - instead of categories - of symptoms for substance use and eating disorders. Defining symptomatic spectrums could be an important step forward in diagnostic strategies.

  7. Assessing the Contributions of Private Health Facilities in a Pioneer Private-Public Partnership in Childhood Immunization in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluoha, Chukwuemeka; Ahaneku, Hycienth

    2014-01-01

    The vision of Nigeria’s immunization program is to reach and sustain routine immunization coverage of greater than 90% for all vaccines by 2020. In order to achieve this, Abia state embarked on a unique private-public partnership (PPP) between private health facilities and the Abia state ministry of health. The aim of this partnership was to collaborate with private health facilities to provide free childhood immunization services in the state - the first of its kind in Nigeria. This is a retrospective study of the 2011 Abia state, Nigeria monthly immunization data. In the 4 local governments operating the PPP, 45% (79/175) of the health facilities that offered immunization services in 2011 were private health facilities and 55% (96/175) were public health facilities. However, 21% of the immunization services took place in private health facilities while 79% took place in public health facilities. Private health facilities were shown to have a modest contribution to immunization in the 4 local governments involved in the PPP. Efforts should be made to expand PPP in immunization nationally to improve immunization services in Nigeria. PMID:28299112

  8. Assessing the Contribution of the Oscillatory Potentials to the Genesis of the Photopic ERG with the Discrete Wavelet Transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauvin, Mathieu; Dorfman, Allison L; Trang, Nataly; Gauthier, Mercedes; Little, John M; Lina, Jean-Marc; Lachapelle, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The electroretinogram (ERG) is composed of slow (i.e., a-, b-waves) and fast (i.e., oscillatory potentials: OPs) components. OPs have been shown to be preferably affected in some diseases (such as diabetic retinopathy), while the a- and b-waves remain relatively intact. The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of OPs to the building of the ERG and to examine whether a signal mostly composed of OPs could also exist. DWT analyses were performed on photopic ERGs (flash intensities: -2.23 to 2.64 log cd·s·m -2 in 21 steps) obtained from normal subjects ( n = 40) and patients ( n = 21) affected with a retinopathy. In controls, the %OP value (i.e., OPs energy/ERG energy) is stimulus- and amplitude-independent (range: 56.6-61.6%; CV = 6.3%). In contrast, the %OPs measured from the ERGs of our patients varied significantly more (range: 35.4%-89.2%; p pathology, some presenting with ERGs that are almost solely composed of OPs. In conclusion, patients may present with a wide range of %OP values. Findings herein also support the hypothesis that, in certain conditions, the photopic ERG can be mostly composed of high-frequency components.

  9. Assessing the Contribution of the Oscillatory Potentials to the Genesis of the Photopic ERG with the Discrete Wavelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Gauvin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The electroretinogram (ERG is composed of slow (i.e., a-, b-waves and fast (i.e., oscillatory potentials: OPs components. OPs have been shown to be preferably affected in some diseases (such as diabetic retinopathy, while the a- and b-waves remain relatively intact. The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of OPs to the building of the ERG and to examine whether a signal mostly composed of OPs could also exist. DWT analyses were performed on photopic ERGs (flash intensities: −2.23 to 2.64 log cd·s·m−2 in 21 steps obtained from normal subjects (n=40 and patients (n=21 affected with a retinopathy. In controls, the %OP value (i.e., OPs energy/ERG energy is stimulus- and amplitude-independent (range: 56.6–61.6%; CV = 6.3%. In contrast, the %OPs measured from the ERGs of our patients varied significantly more (range: 35.4%–89.2%; p<0.05 depending on the pathology, some presenting with ERGs that are almost solely composed of OPs. In conclusion, patients may present with a wide range of %OP values. Findings herein also support the hypothesis that, in certain conditions, the photopic ERG can be mostly composed of high-frequency components.

  10. Assessing public and private sector contributions in reproductive health financing and utilization for six sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha; Snider, Jeremy; Ravishankar, Nirmala; Magvanjav, Oyunbileg

    2011-05-01

    The present study provides evidence to support enhanced attention to reproductive health and comprehensive measures to increase access to quality reproductive health services. We compare and contrast the financing and utilization of reproductive health services in six sub-Saharan African countries using data from National Health Accounts and Demographic and Health Surveys. Spending on reproductive health in 2006 ranged from US$4 per woman of reproductive age in Ethiopia to US$17 in Uganda. These are below the necessary level for assuring adequate services given that an internationally recommended spending level for family planning alone was US$16 for 2006. Moreover, reproductive health spending shows signs of decline in tandem with insufficient improvement in service utilization. Public providers played a predominant role in antenatal and delivery care for institutional births, but home deliveries with unqualified attendants dominated. The private sector was a major supplier of condoms, oral pills and IUDs. Private clinics, pharmacies and drug vendors were important sources of STI treatment. The findings highlight the need to commit greatly increased funding for reproductive health services as well as more policy attention to the contribution of public, private and informal providers and the role of collaboration among them to expand access to services for under-served populations. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Nordic EIA-effectiveness workshop. A contribution to the international study of effectiveness of environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilden, M.; Laitinen, R. [eds.

    1995-09-01

    The Nordic EIA-effectiveness (Environmental Impact Assessment) workshop met in Tuusula, Finland 10-12 april 1994. EIA-experts from all Nordic countries and Canada discussed cases in which environmental impact assessment procedures had been applied with varying success. Nordic cases are included in the proceedings as separate chapters. The problems and successes of diverse cases allowed experts to identify key issues and avenues for future development. The reports of the working groups cover all stages of the EIA-process and provide reference material for future studies. `How can we ensure that EIA, which now has legal backing in all Nordic countries, becomes an efficient way to improve public participation and to avoid deleterious changes in the environment?` is the basic theme. Several recommendations were put forward for building on the results of the workshop, i.e. to: 1) elaborate and consolidate the criteria developed by the working groups and cross reference with the results of other international workshops; 2) review their application of EIA capacity building in countries with transitional economies; 3) test the proposed guidelines of good practice in EIAs in Nordic countries and disseminate the results; establish ecosystem specific approaches for sensitive and distinctive bioregions; and 5) focus on the Arctic as a priority area shared by eight northern countries and covered by a regional environmental strategy. (AB)

  12. DISEÑO DE UN SISTEMA DIFUSO PARA VALORACIÓN DE APORTES EN SISTEMAS COLABORATIVOS FUZZY SYSTEM DESIGN FOR ASSESSMENT OF CONTRIBUTIONS IN COLLABORATIVE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Echeverri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente los consumidores no son pasivos, están altamente conectados y vinculados con las empresas. Por ello, algunas empresas aprovechan estas características para innovar productos a partir de los aportes de clientes. La co-creación como modelo colaborativo para la innovación se caracteriza por estar dividida en etapas relacionadas entre sí, con el fin de capturar apropiadamente los aportes de los clientes. La capacidad de valorar y clasificar los aportes de los agentes que participan en este proceso colaborativo es una tarea de crucial importancia para las organizaciones. El presente artículo propone un sistema difuso que permite valorar los aportes de los agentes que participan en forma colaborativa en la co-creación de productos y servicios.Now the customers are not passive, they are highly networked and connected with companies. Some companies take advantage of these features to innovate products from customer contributions. Co-creation like collaborative model to the innovation is characterized from being divided into interrelated stages in order to capture client's contributions in an appropriate way. The ability to assess and rank the contributions of the actors involved in this collaborative process is a crucial organizations task. The present paper proposes a fuzzy system that allows valuation for agent's contributions that participate in a collaborative way in products and services co-creation.

  13. Assessment of irrigation performance: contribution to improve water management in a small catchment in the Brazilian savannas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Lineu; Marioti, Juliana; Steenhuis, Tammo; Wallender, Wesley

    2010-05-01

    Irrigated agriculture is the major consumer of surface water in Brazil using over 70% of the total supply. Due to the growing competition for water among different sectors of the economy, sustainable water use can only be achieved by decreasing the portion of water used by the irrigated agriculture. Thus, in order to maintain yield, farmers need to irrigate more efficiently. There is little known on irrigation efficiency in Brazil. Therefore a study was carried out in the Buriti Vermelho basin to assess the irrigation performance of existing system. The experimental basin has a drainage area of 940 hectares and is located in the eastern part of the Federal District, in the Brazilian savanna region. Agriculture is the main activity. There is a dominance of red latosols. Several types of land use and crop cover are encountered in the basin. Conflicts among farmers for water are increasing. As water, in quality and quantity, is crucial to maintain the livelihood of the population in the basin, concern about risk of water lack due to climatic and land use change is in place. Once irrigation is the main water user in the basin, to increase water availability and reduce conflicts a water resource management plan has to be established. For this purpose, irrigation system performance has to be understood. The objective of this work was to assess the performance and the management of irrigation (small and big) that has been carried out by farmers in the Buriti Vermelho experimental watershed. A survey undertaken in 2007 was used to identify the irrigation systems in the basin. It was verified that irrigation is practiced by both small (area up to 6 hectare) and big farmers. Small farmers usually crop limes and vegetables and use micro-irrigation, drip, sprinkler, guns or furrow to irrigate them. Big farmers plant annual crops and use center pivot as irrigation system. In this first assessment 13 irrigation systems were evaluated: five conventional sprinklers, four drip

  14. A quantitative assessment approach of feasible optical mechanisms contributing to structural color of golden-like Chrysina aurigans scarab beetles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azofeifa, D.E.; Hernández-Jiménez, M.; Libby, E.; Solís, A.; Barboza-Aguilar, C.; Vargas, W.E.

    2015-01-01

    Under normal incidence of non-polarized light, reflection spectra from the cuticle of golden-like C. aurigans scarabs shows a broad band displayed from 525 to 950 nm, with a spectral ripple structure that consists of a uniform sequence of peaks superimposed on the main reflection band. Cross sectional Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images of the cuticle initially suggest the presence of a multilayered structure. A radiative transfer matrix formalism is first applied to describe as much as possible the main features of coherent reflection spectra, by assuming optically homogenous layers distributed through the exocuticle, with chitin as the major constituent material. Additional non-coherent multiple reflections due to layers in the endocuticle are also evaluated from this approach. The presence of a pigmented micron sized structure beneath the procuticle requires the evaluation of a diffuse light contribution to the reflection. This was carried out from a four-flux radiative transfer model. Optical anisotropy is introduced by interpreting the SEM images in terms of a twisted Bouligand-type structure, and reflection spectra are evaluated from an implementation of the so-called 4×4 Berreman's formalism. We have been able to approach the main features characterizing the reflection spectra of C. aurigans' elytra following this progressive way. - Highlights: • Polarization of light reflected by the cuticle of C. aurigans scarabs is established. • The pitch of the helical structure in the cuticle is established from SEM images. • C. aurigans is a broadband natural reflector with the wider reflection band observed

  15. Assessing experiential education factors contributing to a PGY1 residency match: Pharmacy residency program director and comparative student survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisco, Jennifer L; Hritcko, Philip M; Feret, Brett; Yorra, Mark L; Todd, Noreen E; Kim Tanzer; Basile, Cathy; Bonaceto, Kara; Morelli, Rita; Carace, Nicole; Szumita, Andrew

    2018-02-01

    To compare and contrast experiential education perceptions of pharmacy residency program directors (RPDs) and doctor of pharmacy students in their last year of the curriculum for residency application considerations. The New England Regional Departments of Experiential Education (NERDEE) consortium developed a 17-question survey to assess residency factors, including those related to experiential education. The survey was dispersed to advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) students from six colleges/schools of pharmacy and RPDs nationwide. Students have different values on experiential preferences compared to RPDs. Sample findings include internal medicine and specialty clinical elective experiences prior to American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) Midyear were extremely important to important for students, while RPDs viewed these experiences as somewhat important at best (p hinder a successful postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) residency match. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessing the contribution of prescribing in primary care by nurses and professionals allied to medicine: a systematic review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanbhro Sadiq

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Safe and timely access to effective and appropriate medication through primary care settings is a major concern for all countries addressing both acute and chronic disease burdens. Legislation for nurses and other professionals allied to medicine to prescribe exists in a minority of countries, with more considering introducing legislation. Although there is variation in the range of medicines permitted to be prescribed, questions remain as to the contribution prescribing by nurses and professionals allied to medicine makes to the care of patients in primary care and what is the evidence on which clinicians, commissioners of services and policy makers can consider this innovation. Methods A integrative review of literature on non-medical prescribing in primary care was undertaken guided by dimensions of health care quality: effectiveness, acceptability, efficiency and access. Results 19 papers of 17 empirical studies were identified which provided evidence of patient outcome of non medical prescribing in primary care settings. The majority were undertaken in the UK with only one each from the USA, Canada, Botswana and Zimbabwe. Only two studies investigated clinical outcomes of non-medical prescribing. Seven papers reported on qualitative designs and four of these had fewer than ten participants. Most studies reported that non medical prescribing was widely accepted and viewed positively by patients and professionals. Conclusions Primary health care is the setting where timely access to safe and appropriate medicines is most critical for the well-being of any population. The gradual growth over time of legislative authority and in the numbers of non-medical prescribers, particularly nurses, in some countries suggests that the acceptability of non-medical prescribing is based on the perceived value to the health care system as a whole. Our review suggests that there are substantial gaps in the knowledge base to help evidence

  17. Using vignettes to assess contributions to the work of addressing child mental health problems in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissow, Lawrence S; Zafar, Waleed; Fothergill, Kate; Ruble, Anne; Slade, Eric

    2016-01-22

    ratings than did those without co-located staff. Both diagnosis and cross-diagnosis complicating factors contribute to the work involved in providing mental health services in primary care. Vignette studies may facilitate understanding which mental health services can be most readily incorporated into primary care as it is presently structured and help guide the design of training programs and other implementation strategies.

  18. Assessment of Rod, Cone, and Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cell Contributions to the Canine Chromatic Pupillary Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Connie Y; Koehl, Kristin L; Harman, Christine D; Iwabe, Simone; Guzman, José M; Petersen-Jones, Simon M; Kardon, Randy H; Komáromy, András M

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a chromatic pupillometry protocol for specific functional assessment of rods, cones, and intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) in dogs. Chromatic pupillometry was tested and compared in 37 dogs in different stages of primary loss of rod, cone, and combined rod/cone and optic nerve function, and in 5 wild-type (WT) dogs. Eyes were stimulated with 1-s flashes of dim (1 cd/m2) and bright (400 cd/m2) blue light (for scotopic conditions) or bright red (400 cd/m2) light with 25-cd/m2 blue background (for photopic conditions). Canine retinal melanopsin/Opn4 was cloned, and its expression was evaluated using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Mean ± SD percentage of pupil constriction amplitudes induced by scotopic dim blue (scDB), scotopic bright blue (scBB), and photopic bright red (phBR) lights in WT dogs were 21.3% ± 10.6%, 50.0% ± 17.5%, and 19.4% ± 7.4%, respectively. Melanopsin-mediated responses to scBB persisted for several minutes (7.7 ± 4.6 min) after stimulus offset. In dogs with inherited retinal degeneration, loss of rod function resulted in absent scDB responses, followed by decreased phBR responses with disease progression and loss of cone function. Primary loss of cone function abolished phBR responses but preserved those responses to blue light (scDB and scBB). Although melanopsin/Opn4 expression was diminished with retinal degeneration, melanopsin-expressing ipRGCs were identified for the first time in both WT and degenerated canine retinas. Pupil responses elicited by light stimuli of different colors and intensities allowed differential functional assessment of canine rods, cones, and ipRGCs. Chromatic pupillometry offers an effective tool for diagnosing retinal and optic nerve diseases.

  19. Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs: a quantitative approach to estimate the relative contributions of dogs, cats and foxes, and to assess the efficacy of advised interventions in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijsse, Rolf; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Franssen, Frits; Ploeger, Harm W

    2015-07-28

    Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs is considered the main source of human toxocariasis. The contribution of different groups of hosts to this contamination is largely unknown. Current deworming advices focus mainly on dogs. However, controversy exists about blind deworming regimens for >6-month-old dogs, as most of them do not actually shed Toxocara eggs. We aim to estimate the contribution of different non-juvenile hosts to the environmental Toxocara egg contamination and to assess the effects of different Toxocara-reducing interventions for dogs. A stochastic model was developed to quantify the relative contribution to the environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs of household dogs, household cats, stray cats, and foxes, all older than 6 months in areas with varying urbanization degrees. The model was built upon an existing model developed by Morgan et al. (2013). We used both original and published data on host density, prevalence and intensity of infection, coprophagic behaviour, faeces disposal by owners, and cats' outdoor access. Scenario analyses were performed to assess the expected reduction in dogs' egg output according to different deworming regimens and faeces clean-up compliances. Estimates referred to the Netherlands, a country free of stray dogs. Household dogs accounted for 39% of the overall egg output of >6-month-old hosts in the Netherlands, followed by stray cats (27%), household cats (19%), and foxes (15%). In urban areas, egg output was dominated by stray cats (81%). Intervention scenarios revealed that only with a high compliance (90%) to the four times a year deworming advice, dogs' contribution would drop from 39 to 28%. Alternatively, when 50% of owners would always remove their dogs' faeces, dogs' contribution would drop to 20%. Among final hosts of Toxocara older than 6 months, dogs are the main contributors to the environmental egg contamination, though cats in total (i.e. both owned and stray) transcend this

  20. Monitoring of nitrites and nitrates levels in leafy vegetables (spinach and lettuce): a contribution to risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iammarino, Marco; Di Taranto, Aurelia; Cristino, Marianna

    2014-03-15

    Nitrites and nitrates are compounds considered harmful to humans and the major part of the daily intake of nitrates in foodstuffs is related to vegetable consumption. In this work, 150 leafy vegetables samples (75 spinach and 75 lettuce) were analysed in order to assess the levels of nitrites and nitrates. The analyses were carried out by a validated ion chromatography method and the samples with nitrate concentrations higher than legal limits and/or with quantifiable concentrations of nitrites were confirmed by an alternative ion chromatography method. Nitrate levels higher than legal limits were detected both in spinach (four samples) and in lettuce (five samples). Nitrite residues were registered both at low concentrations--lower than 28.5 mg kg⁻¹ (12 spinach samples)--and at high concentrations, up to 197.5 mg kg⁻¹ (three spinach and one lettuce sample). Considering the non-negligible percentage of 'not-compliant' samples for nitrates (6.0%), control is needed. Moreover, it is possible to suggest the introduction in the Communities Regulations of a 'maximum admissible level' for nitrites in leafy vegetables. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Contribution to a quantitative assessment model for reliability-based metrics of electronic and programmable safety-related functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamidi, K.

    2005-10-01

    The use of fault-tolerant EP architectures has induced growing constraints, whose influence on reliability-based performance metrics is no more negligible. To face up the growing influence of simultaneous failure, this thesis proposes, for safety-related functions, a new-trend assessment method of reliability, based on a better taking into account of time-aspect. This report introduces the concept of information and uses it to interpret the failure modes of safety-related function as the direct result of the initiation and propagation of erroneous information until the actuator-level. The main idea is to distinguish the apparition and disappearance of erroneous states, which could be defined as intrinsically dependent of HW-characteristic and maintenance policies, and their possible activation, constrained through architectural choices, leading to the failure of safety-related function. This approach is based on a low level on deterministic SED models of the architecture and use non homogeneous Markov chains to depict the time-evolution of probabilities of errors. (author)

  2. A 20-Year multi-followup longitudinal study assessing whether antipsychotic medications contribute to work functioning in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrow, Martin; Jobe, Thomas H; Faull, Robert N; Yang, Jie

    2017-10-01

    To assess the long-term effectiveness of antipsychotic medications in facilitating work functioning in patients with schizophrenia we conducted longitudinal multifollowup research on 139 initially psychotic patients. The 70 patients with schizophrenia and 69 initially psychotic mood disordered control patients were followed up 6 times over 20 years. We compared the influence on work functioning of patients with schizophrenia continuously prescribed antipsychotics with patients with schizophrenia not prescribed antipsychotics, using statistical controls for inter-subject differences. While antipsychotics reduce or eliminate flagrant psychosis for most patients with schizophrenia at acute hospitalizations, four years later and continually until the 20 year followups, patients with schizophrenia not prescribed antipsychotics had significantly better work functioning. The work performance of the patients who were continuously prescribed antipsychotics was at a low rate and did not improve over time. Multiple other factors also interfere with work functioning. The data suggest that some patients with schizophrenia not prescribed antipsychotics for prolonged periods can function relatively well. Multiple other factors are associated with poor post-hospital work performance. The longitudinal data raise questions about prolonged treatment of schizophrenia with antipsychotic medications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of LEP and QST and their contribution to standard sensory diagnostic assessment of spinal lesions: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Christian; Baumgärtner, Ulf; Fechir, Marcel; Vogt, Thomas; Birklein, Frank; Treede, Rolf-Detlef

    2011-06-01

    This study evaluates the additional use of laser-evoked potentials (LEP) and quantitative sensory testing (QST) in the sensory assessment of spinal lesions. Four consecutive patients with spinal lesions verified by MRI and clinical evidence for mild spinothalamic tract involvement were included. The electrophysiological workup [somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) and LEP] was compared to QST. Electrophysiology and QST were reassessed after about 6 months. LEP detected impaired spinothalamic tract function in 7/8 examinations. QST pointed to spinothalamic tract lesions by loss of thermal function (3/8); most frequent positive sensory signs (3/8) were paradoxical heat sensations. LEP and QST results were concordant in 6/8 examinations. SEPs were abnormal in 2/8 examinations. Congruent results between SEP and both LEP and QST were obtained in 3/8 examinations. LEP detected more deficits than any single QST parameter or their combination but additional QST allows the detection of positive sensory signs. The diagnostic gain of SEP was limited.

  4. Hydrological modeling of a watershed affected by acid mine drainage (Odiel River, SW Spain). Assessment of the pollutant contributing areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, L.; Olías, M.; Cánovas, C. R.; Sarmiento, A. M.; Nieto, J. M.

    2016-09-01

    The Odiel watershed drains materials belonging to the Iberian Pyrite Belt, where significant massive sulfide deposits have been mined historically. As a result, a huge amount of sulfide-rich wastes are deposited in the watershed, which suffer from oxidation, releasing acidic lixiviates with high sulfate and metal concentrations. In order to reliably estimate the metal loadings along the watershed a complete series of discharge and hydrochemical data are essential. A hydrological model was performed with SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) to solve the scarcity of gauge stations along the watershed. The model was calibrated and validated from daily discharge data (from 1980 to 2010) at the outlet of the watershed, river inputs into an existent reservoir, and a flow gauge station close to the northern area of the watershed. Discharge data obtained from the hydrological model, together with analytical data, allowed the estimation of the dissolved pollutant load delivered annually by the Odiel River (e.g. 9140 t of Al, 2760 t of Zn). The pollutant load is influenced strongly by the rainfall regime, and can even double during extremely rainy years. Around 50% of total pollution comes from the Riotinto Mining District, so the treatment of Riotinto lixiviates reaching the Odiel watershed would reduce the AMD (Acid Mine Drainages) in a remarkable way, improving the water quality downstream, especially in the reservoir of Alcolea, currently under construction. The information obtained in this study will allow the optimization of remediation efforts in the watershed, in order to improve its water quality.

  5. Contribution of spiral artery blood flow changes assessed by transvaginal color Doppler sonography for predicting endometrial pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suna Kabil Kucur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ive: To investigate the diagnostic value of blood flow measurements in spiral artery by transvaginal color Doppler sonography (CDS in predicting endometrial pathologies.Methods: Ninety-seven patients presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding and requiring endometrial assessment were included in this prospective observational study. Endometrial thickness, structure and echogenicity were recorded. Pulsatility index (PI and resistive index (RI of the spiral artery were measured by transvaginal CDS. Endometrial sampling was performed for all subjects. Sonographic and hystopathologic findings were compared.Results: The histopathological diagnoses were as follows; 39 cases (40.2% endometrial polyp, 9 cases (9.3% endometrial hyperplasia, 10 cases (10.3 submucous myoma, 7 cases (7.2% endometrium cancer, and 32 cases (33% nonspecific findings. The spiral artery PI in endometrium cancer group was highly significantly lower than other groups (p<0.01. The spiral artery RI was also significantly lower in the patients with malignant histology (p<0.05. Conclusion: Endometrial pathologies are associated significantly with endometrial spiral artery Doppler changes.Key words: Spiral artery, Doppler ultrasonography, endometrium

  6. Contributions of neuroimaging, balance testing, electrophysiology and blood markers to the assessment of sport-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, G A; Iverson, G L; Guskiewicz, K M; Ptito, A; Johnston, K M

    2009-05-01

    To review the diagnostic tests and investigations used in the management of sports concussion, in the adult and paediatric populations, to (a) monitor the severity of symptoms and deficits, (b) track recovery and (c) advance knowledge relating to the natural history and neurobiology of the injury. Qualitative literature review of the neuroimaging, balance testing, electrophysiology, blood marker and concussion literature. PubMed and Medline databases were reviewed for investigations used in the management of adult and paediatric concussion, including structural imaging (computerised tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging), functional imaging (single photon emission computerised tomography, positron emission tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging), spectroscopy (magnetic resonance spectroscopy, near infrared spectroscopy), balance testing (Balance Error Scoring System, Sensory Organization Test, gait testing, virtual reality), electrophysiological tests (electroencephalography, evoked potentials, event related potentials, magnetoencephalography, heart rate variability), genetics (apolipoprotein E4, channelopathies) and blood markers (S100, neuron-specific enolase, cleaved Tau protein, glutamate). For the adult and paediatric populations, each test has been classified as being: (1) clinically useful, (2) a research tool only or (3) not useful in sports-related concussion. The current status of the diagnostic tests and investigations is analysed, and potential directions for future research are provided. Currently, all tests and investigations, with the exception of clinical balance testing, remain experimental. There is accumulating research, however, that shows promise for the future clinical application of functional magnetic resonance imaging in sport concussion assessment and management.

  7. Alanine scan of the peptide antibiotic feglymycin: assessment of amino acid side chains contributing to antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänchen, Anne; Rausch, Saskia; Landmann, Benjamin; Toti, Luigi; Nusser, Antje; Süssmuth, Roderich D

    2013-03-18

    The antibiotic feglymycin is a linear 13-mer peptide synthesized by the bacterium Streptomyces sp. DSM 11171. It mainly consists of the nonproteinogenic amino acids 4-hydroxyphenylglycine and 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine. An alanine scan of feglymycin was performed by solution-phase peptide synthesis in order to assess the significance of individual amino acid side chains for biological activity. Hence, 13 peptides were synthesized from di- and tripeptide building blocks, and subsequently tested for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus strains. Furthermore we tested the inhibition of peptidoglycan biosynthesis enzymes MurA and MurC, which are inhibited by feglymycin. Whereas the antibacterial activity is significantly based on the three amino acids D-Hpg1, L-Hpg5, and L-Phe12, the inhibitory activity against MurA and MurC depends mainly on L-Asp13. The difference in the position dependence for antibacterial activity and enzyme inhibition suggests multiple molecular targets in the modes of action of feglymycin. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Contribution for tier 1 of the ecological risk assessment of Cunha Baixa uranium mine (Central Portugal): II. Soil ecotoxicological screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antunes, S.C.; Castro, B.B.; Pereira, R.; Goncalves, F.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents the first ecotoxicological data concerning the soils of the area surrounding the Cunha Baixa uranium mine. Our main goal was to categorise soils from the area based on their toxicity profiles using a battery of cost- and time-effective bioassays (elutriate approach - Microtox (registered) and Daphnia acute tests; whole-soil approach - Microtox (registered) and avoidance assays with Eisenia andrei), as a part of tier 1 of an ongoing Environmental Risk Assessment. No acute toxicity was found for any of the 10 sites/soils using Microtox (registered) or Daphnia. On the contrary, the behavioural response of E. andrei was found to be an extremely sensitive endpoint, allowing the discrimination of highly to moderately toxic soils based on their toxicity profiles (as a function of soil concentration). Soils exhibiting highest toxicity corresponded to areas subjected to runoffs or sludge deposition from the aquatic effluent, while non-toxic soils were farthest to the mine. Data obtained in avoidance assays strengthen the previous evaluation of risks based on chemical data and supported decisions about proceeding for tier 2

  9. Safety and reliability of pressure components with special emphasis on the contribution of component and large specimen testing to structural integrity assessment methodology. Vol. 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 51 papers of the 13. MPA-seminar contribute to structural integrity assessment methodology with special emphasis on the component and large specimen testing. 8 of the papers deal with fracture mechanics, 6 papers with dynamic loading, 13 papers with nondestructive testing, 2 papers with radiation embrittlement, 5 papers with pipe failure, 4 papers with components, 2 papers with thermal shock loading, 5 papers with the high temperature behaviour, 4 papers with the integrity of vessels and 3 papers with the integrity of welded joints. Especially also the fracture behaviour of steel material is verificated. All papers are separately indexed and analysed for the database. (DG) [de

  10. The contribution of the Global Change Observatory Central Asia to seismic hazard and risk assessment in the Central Asian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolai, S.; Bindi, D.; Haberland, C. A.; Pittore, M.; Pilz, M.; Rosenau, M.; Schurr, B.; Wieland, M.; Yuan, X.

    2012-12-01

    Central Asia has one of the world's highest levels of earthquake hazard, owing to its exceptionally high deformation rates. Moreover, vulnerability to natural disasters in general is increasing, due to rising populations and a growing dependence on complex lifelines and technology. Therefore, there is an urgent need to undertake seismic hazard and risk assessment in this region, while at the same time improving upon existing methodologies, including the consideration of temporal variability in the seismic hazard, and in structural and social vulnerability. Over the last few years, the German Research Center for Geosciences (GFZ), in collaboration with local partners, has initiated a number of scientific activities within the framework of the Global Change Observatory Central Asia (GCO-CA). The work is divided into projects with specific concerns: - The installation and maintenance of the Central-Asian Real-time Earthquake MOnitoring Network (CAREMON) and the setup of a permanent wireless mesh network for structural health monitoring in Bishkek. - The TIPAGE and TIPTIMON projects focus on the geodynamics of the Tien-Shan, Pamir and Hindu Kush region, the deepest and most active intra-continental subduction zone in the world. The work covers time scales from millions of years to short-term snapshots based on geophysical measurements of seismotectonic activity and of the physical properties of the crust and upper mantle, as well as their coupling with other surface processes (e.g., landslides). - Existing risk analysis methods assume time-independent earthquake hazard and risk, although temporal changes are likely to occur due to, for example, co- and post-seismic changes in the regional stress field. We therefore aim to develop systematic time-dependent hazard and risk analysis methods in order to undertake the temporal quantification of earthquake activity (PROGRESS). - To improve seismic hazard assessment for better loss estimation, detailed site effects studies

  11. Filling gaps in biodiversity knowledge for macrofungi: contributions and assessment of an herbarium collection DNA barcode sequencing project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmundson, Todd W; Robert, Vincent A; Schoch, Conrad L; Baker, Lydia J; Smith, Amy; Robich, Giovanni; Mizzan, Luca; Garbelotto, Matteo M

    2013-01-01

    Despite recent advances spearheaded by molecular approaches and novel technologies, species description and DNA sequence information are significantly lagging for fungi compared to many other groups of organisms. Large scale sequencing of vouchered herbarium material can aid in closing this gap. Here, we describe an effort to obtain broad ITS sequence coverage of the approximately 6000 macrofungal-species-rich herbarium of the Museum of Natural History in Venice, Italy. Our goals were to investigate issues related to large sequencing projects, develop heuristic methods for assessing the overall performance of such a project, and evaluate the prospects of such efforts to reduce the current gap in fungal biodiversity knowledge. The effort generated 1107 sequences submitted to GenBank, including 416 previously unrepresented taxa and 398 sequences exhibiting a best BLAST match to an unidentified environmental sequence. Specimen age and taxon affected sequencing success, and subsequent work on failed specimens showed that an ITS1 mini-barcode greatly increased sequencing success without greatly reducing the discriminating power of the barcode. Similarity comparisons and nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordinations based on pairwise distance matrices proved to be useful heuristic tools for validating the overall accuracy of specimen identifications, flagging potential misidentifications, and identifying taxa in need of additional species-level revision. Comparison of within- and among-species nucleotide variation showed a strong increase in species discriminating power at 1-2% dissimilarity, and identified potential barcoding issues (same sequence for different species and vice-versa). All sequences are linked to a vouchered specimen, and results from this study have already prompted revisions of species-sequence assignments in several taxa.

  12. A social work contribution to suicide prevention through assertive brief psychotherapy and community linkage: use of the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life (MANSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakis, Melissa; Joubert, Lynette

    2013-01-01

    There is a striking absence of literature articulating and evaluating clinical social work contributions to suicide prevention, despite considerable practice in this important field. This article reports on a model of assertive brief psychotherapeutic intervention and facilitated linkage to community services utilized in a prospective cohort study of emergency department suicide attempt aftercare. A key outcome measure, the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life (MANSA), was used with 65 patients to assess psychosocial domains at initial presentation, 4-weeks, 3-months, and 6-months. There were significant improvements in the domains of work, finance, leisure, social life, living situation, personal safety and health by 3 months. There were highly significant correlations between psychosocial improvements and improved depression scores.

  13. Contribution of diagnostic tests for the etiological assessment of uveitis, data from the ULISSE study (Uveitis: Clinical and medicoeconomic evaluation of a standardized strategy of the etiological diagnosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grumet, Pierre; Kodjikian, Laurent; de Parisot, Audrey; Errera, Marie-Hélène; Sedira, Neila; Heron, Emmanuel; Pérard, Laurent; Cornut, Pierre-Loïc; Schneider, Christelle; Rivière, Sophie; Ollé, Priscille; Pugnet, Grégory; Cathébras, Pascal; Manoli, Pierre; Bodaghi, Bahram; Saadoun, David; Baillif, Stéphanie; Tieulie, Nathalie; Andre, Marc; Chiambaretta, Frédéric; Bonin, Nicolas; Bielefeld, Philip; Bron, Alain; Mouriaux, Frédéric; Bienvenu, Boris; Vicente, Stéphanie; Bin, Sylvie; Labetoulle, Marc; Broussolle, Christiane; Jamilloux, Yvan; Decullier, Evelyne; Sève, Pascal

    2018-04-01

    ULISSE is the only study that prospectively assessed the efficiency of a standardized strategy, compared to an open strategy for the etiologic diagnosis of uveitis. Our aim was to evaluate the diagnostic yield of the tests prescribed in the ULISSE study to clarify their relevance. ULISSE is a non-inferiority, prospective, multicenter and cluster randomized study. The standardized strategy is a two-steps strategy: in the first step, common standard tests were performed, and in the second step, tests were guided by the clinical and anatomic type of uveitis. We reported the relevance of the diagnostic tests used in the standardized strategy, as well as the profitability of the tests that were prescribed to more than twenty patients in each group. Based on diagnostic criteria, either an ophthalmologist, or an internist, established the profitability of a test by considering whether the test lead to a diagnosis or not. Among the 676 patients included (standardized 303; open 373), a diagnosis was made for 152 (50.4%) in the standardized group and 203 (54.4%) in the open group. The most common entities were HLA-B27 associated uveitis (22%), spondyloarthritis (11%), sarcoidosis (18%), tuberculosis (10.7%) and herpes virus infections (8.5%). Among the first step's systematic tests, tuberculin skin test was the most contributive investigation (17.1%), followed by chest X-ray (8.4%), C reactive protein and ESR (6.6% and 5.1%), complete blood count (2.2%) and VDRL (2.0%). The second step's most often contributive tests were: HLA B27 (56.3%), chest-CT (30.3%) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) (16.5%). HLA B27 and ACE were significantly more contributive in the standardized group than in the open group. Immunological tests were never contributive. Among the free investigations, or among the investigations guided by clinical or paraclinical findings, the most often contributive tests were: Quantiferon® (24%), electrophoresis of serum protein (7.8%) and sacroiliac imagery

  14. Climate Change 2013. The Physical Science Basis. Working Group I Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change - Abstract for decision-makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocker, Thomas F.; Qin, Dahe; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Tignor, Melinda M.B.; Allen, Simon K.; Boschung, Judith; Nauels, Alexander; Xia, Yu; Bex, Vincent; Midgley, Pauline M.; Alexander, Lisa V.; Allen, Simon K.; Bindoff, Nathaniel L.; Breon, Francois-Marie; Church, John A.; Cubasch, Ulrich; Emori, Seita; Forster, Piers; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gillett, Nathan; Gregory, Jonathan M.; Hartmann, Dennis L.; Jansen, Eystein; Kirtman, Ben; Knutti, Reto; Kumar Kanikicharla, Krishna; Lemke, Peter; Marotzke, Jochem; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Meehl, Gerald A.; Mokhov, Igor I.; Piao, Shilong; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Dahe, Qin; Ramaswamy, Venkatachalam; Randall, David; Rhein, Monika; Rojas, Maisa; Sabine, Christopher; Shindell, Drew; Stocker, Thomas F.; Talley, Lynne D.; Vaughan, David G.; Xie, Shang-Ping; Allen, Myles R.; Boucher, Olivier; Chambers, Don; Hesselbjerg Christensen, Jens; Ciais, Philippe; Clark, Peter U.; Collins, Matthew; Comiso, Josefino C.; Vasconcellos de Menezes, Viviane; Feely, Richard A.; Fichefet, Thierry; Fiore, Arlene M.; Flato, Gregory; Fuglestvedt, Jan; Hegerl, Gabriele; Hezel, Paul J.; Johnson, Gregory C.; Kaser, Georg; Kattsov, Vladimir; Kennedy, John; Klein Tank, Albert M.G.; Le Quere, Corinne; Myhre, Gunnar; Osborn, Timothy; Payne, Antony J.; Perlwitz, Judith; Power, Scott; Prather, Michael; Rintoul, Stephen R.; Rogelj, Joeri; Rusticucci, Matilde; Schulz, Michael; Sedlacek, Jan; Stott, Peter A.; Sutton, Rowan; Thorne, Peter W.; Wuebbles, Donald

    2013-10-01

    The Working Group I contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provides a comprehensive assessment of the physical science basis of climate change. It builds upon the Working Group I contribution to the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report in 2007 and incorporates subsequent new findings from the Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation, as well as from research published in the extensive scientific and technical literature. The assessment considers new evidence of past, present and projected future climate change based on many independent scientific analyses from observations of the climate system, paleo-climate archives, theoretical studies of climate processes and simulations using climate models. During the process of scoping and approving the outline of its Fifth Assessment Report, the IPCC focussed on those aspects of the current understanding of the science of climate change that were judged to be most relevant to policy-makers. In this report, Working Group I has extended coverage of future climate change compared to earlier reports by assessing near-term projections and predictability as well as long-term projections and irreversibility in two separate chapters. Following the decisions made by the Panel during the scoping and outline approval, a set of new scenarios, the Representative Concentration Pathways, are used across all three Working Groups for projections of climate change over the 21. century. The coverage of regional information in the Working Group I report is expanded by specifically assessing climate phenomena such as monsoon systems and their relevance to future climate change in the regions. The Working Group I Report is an assessment, not a review or a text book of climate science, and is based on the published scientific and technical literature available up to 15 March 2013. Underlying all aspects of the report is a

  15. A probabilistic assessment of the contribution of wastewater-irrigated lettuce to Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection risk and disease burden in Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidu, Razak; Abubakari, Amina; Dennis, Isaac Amoah; Heistad, Arve; Stenstrom, Thor Axel; Larbi, John A; Abaidoo, Robert C

    2015-03-01

    Wastewater use for vegetable production is widespread across the cities of many developing countries. Studies on the microbial health risks associated with the practice have largely depended on faecal indicator organisms with potential underestimation or overestimation of the microbial health risks and disease burdens. This study assessed the Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection risk and diarrhoeal disease burden measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) associated with the consumption of wastewater-irrigated lettuce in Kumasi, Ghana using data on E. coli O157:H7 in ready-to-harvest, wastewater-irrigated lettuce. Two exposure scenarios - best case and worst case - associated with a single consumption of wastewater-irrigated lettuce were assessed. The assessment revealed wastewater-irrigated lettuce is contributing to the transmission of E. coli O157:H7 in Kumasi, Ghana. The mean E. coli O157:H7 infection risk and DALYs in the wet and dry seasons, irrespective of the exposure scenario, were above the World Health Organization tolerable daily infection risk of 2.7 × 10⁻⁷ per person per day and 10⁻⁶ DALYs per person per year. It is recommended that legislation with clear monitoring indicators and penalties is implemented to ensure that farmers and food sellers fully implement risk mitigating measures.

  16. Contribution of thin slice (1 mm) oblique coronal proton density-weighted MR images for assessment of anteromedial and posterolateral bundle damage in anterior cruciate ligament injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokalp, Gokhan; Demirag, Burak; Nas, Omer Fatih; Aydemir, Mehmet Fatih; Yazici, Zeynep

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of using additional oblique coronal 1 mm proton density-weighted (PDW) MR imaging of the knee for detection and grading anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), anteromedial bundle (AMB) and posterolateral bundle (PLB) injuries. Materials and methods: We prospectively assessed preoperative MR images of 50 patients (36 men, 14 women; age range, 18–62 years). First, we compared the diagnostic performance of routine sagittal (3 mm) and additional oblique coronal images (1 mm) for ACL tears. Then, we compared the tear types (AMB or PLB) and grade presumed from oblique coronal MR imaging with arthroscopy. Results: Arthroscopy revealed ACL tear in 24 (48%) patients. There was significant difference between sagittal images and arthroscopy results for ACL tear recognition (p 0.05). Conclusion: Addition of thin slice oblique coronal images to conventional sequences could better contribute to better verifying the presence of ACL tear and in determining its grade

  17. Contribution to the study of the radiation environment in Antananarivo: Assessment of the Exposure of the Public to the Telluric X and Gamma Radiations and the Radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravelomanantsoa, S.D.

    2001-01-01

    The radioactivity represents among indicators of state of the environment because the man is exposed to ionizing radiations of permanent way. The knowledge of the different components of this natural radioactivity to which the humanity has always been exposed proves out to be necessary. The state of places of this radioactive environment deserves to be made for Antananarivo, the city the populated more of Madagascar. The present thesis on the 'Assessment of the Exposure of the Public to the Telluric X and Gamma Radiations and the Radon to Antananarivo' contributes to the survey of the Radioactive Environment. It is the synthesis of results of all works done in the setting of a research project that lasted three years, works constituted by more of about hundred coming down on land and by the analysis in laboratory of about hundred samples.The radioactive radiation detection, the radioactive substance characterization in the environment and the assessment of dose exposure has been done by the global counting of the X and gamma ambient radiations, of spectrometric measures on land and in laboratory and by alpha, X and gamma dosimetric measures, to the free air and inside of buildings, the day and the night. The gotten results served basis to three communications made to the National Academy of Arts, of Letters and Science, Tsimbazaza, Antananarivo in June 1998, in May 1999 and in December 2000. An evaluation of the contribution of the telluric X and gamma rays and of the radon in the yearly efficient average dose owed to natural radiation sources finishes the state of places that is going to lead to the unpublished values. [fr

  18. Critical assessment of progress of medical sciences in Iran and Turkey: the way developing countries with limited resources should make effective contributions to the production of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarrat, Sadegh; Kolahdoozan, Shadi

    2011-11-01

    Scientific progress is an important indicator for the social and economic developments of any country. According to various reports, worldwide, Iran has the most growth in the field of science due to a high increase in the numbers of publications during the past decade. The aim of this study is to assess not only the quantity, but also the quality of publications of indexed Iranian journals and compare them to Turkey, as an Islamic neighboring country, in addition to the contributions of these two countries to our knowledge. A number of international journals with high impact factors were selected to assess the contributions of scientists from Iran and Turkey to the medical sciences. English medical journals from Iran and Turkey indexed by the ISI Web of Sciences with known impact factors (IF) announced at the beginning of 2010 were included for evaluation. We calculated the number of all articles published from the beginning of 2007 until the October 2010, the number of total citations, and citations from authors outside both countries for each journal. In addition, we selected all articles cited at least six times by authors outside of both countries and discussed their content with regard to originality and novelty, as well as their contributions to current knowledge. Furthermore, 60 international journals in basic or clinical research with IF greater than 6 were selected for the magnitude of contributions of both countries to our scientific knowledge. In 2010, out of a total of 21 Iranian journals indexed in ISI since 2007, only 12 have a known IF with a mean of 0.39 (range: 0.07-0.97), whereas out of 28 Turkish medical journals indexed in ISI, 15 have a known IF (mean: 0.35, range: 0.05-0.82). The total number of articles published since 2007 from Iran, total citations and total citations by authors from outside Iran were 2080, 1218, and 463, respectively. The same data related to Turkish journals were 4876, 2036, and 1331, respectively. Indeed, the mean

  19. A contribution towards the risk assessment of soils from the São Domingos Mine (Portugal): Chemical, microbial and ecotoxicological indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarenga, Paula; Palma, Patrícia; Varennes, Amarilis de; Cunha-Queda, Ana C.

    2012-01-01

    This study is a contribution towards a risk assessment of the São Domingos Mine area (Portugal), integrating information from: soil physicochemical characteristics, pseudo-total and bioavailable trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn), ecotoxicological evaluation, and microbial indicators. The bioassays using soil eluates (seed germination, luminescent inhibition of Vibrio fischeri and Daphnia magna immobilization) confirmed the soil toxicity categorization obtained with the bioassays using soil (plant growth tests, Eisenia fetida mortality and avoidance behaviour). However, the soil identified as the most toxic using bioassays, was different from the expected when considering the results from pseudo-total and effective bioavailable trace elements. Taking in consideration the observations, it is highly recommended to complement the results from environmental chemistry with results from bioassays, in order to provide a more complete and relevant information on the bioavailability of contaminants and to characterize the risk of contaminated soils. - Highlights: ► Impaired soil retention and habitat functions for all tested soils. ► Aquatic and terrestrial bioassays agreed in the soil toxicity categorization. ► Do results obtained by chemical methods really translate into “biological availability”? ► In multi-contaminated sites, risk estimation based only on chemical methods is inadequate. ► Bioassays provide a more realistic risk assessment of contaminated sites. - Bioassays provide a more complete and relevant information to characterize the risk of contaminated soils, and should be used to complement chemical results.

  20. Contributions: SAGE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Contributions: SAGE. Space Alternating Generalized Expectation (SAGE) Maximization algorithm provides an iterative approach to parameter estimation when direct maximization of the likelihood function may be infeasible. Complexity is less in those applications ...

  1. Various Contributions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Various Contributions. Developed an Off –Diagonal MIMO Canceller to mitigate Upstream Crosstalk in VDSL. Developed a low complexity, Expectation Maximization based iterative Crosstalk cancellation. Developed an optimal way of computational complexity ...

  2. Original contributions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hefere

    Original contributions ... Results suggest that there is a significant positive ... psychological abuse, including economic abuse, intimidation, harassment, stalking, damage ... or maintaining the structure and function of the African home (Alio et al., 2011; Jewkes,. Levin ... Revictimisation occurs due to emotional violence and.

  3. Integration of contributed data with HEC-RAS hydrodynamic model for flood inundation and damage assessment: 2015 Dallas Texas Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sava, E.; Thornton, J. C.; Kalyanapu, A. J.; Cervone, G.

    2016-12-01

    Transportation infrastructure networks in urban areas are highly sensitive to natural disasters, yet are a very critical source for the success of rescue, recovery, and renovation operations. Therefore, prompt restoration of such networks is of high importance for disaster relief services. Satellite and aerial images provide data with high spatial and temporal resolution and are a powerful tool for monitoring the environment and mapping the spatio-temporal variability of the Earth's surface. They provide a synoptic overview and give useful environmental information for a wide range of scales, from entire continents to urban areas, with spatial pixel resolutions ranging from kilometers to centimeters. However, sensor limitations are often a serious drawback since no single sensor offers the optimal spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution at the same time. Specific data may not be collected in the time and space most urgently required and/or may it contain gaps as a result of the satellite revisit time, atmospheric opacity, or other obstructions. In this study, the feasibility of integrating multiple sources of contributed data including remotely sensed datasets and open-source geospatial datasets, into hydrodynamic models for flood inundation simulations is assessed. The 2015 Dallas floods that caused up to $61 million dollars in damage was selected for this study. A Hydraulic Engineering Center - River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) model was developed for the study area, using reservoir surcharge releases and geometry provided by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Fort Worth District. The simulated flood inundation is compared with the "contributed data" for the location (such as Civil Air Patrol data and WorldView 3 dataset) which indicated the model's lack of representing lateral inflows near the upstream section. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model is developed that used local precipitation and discharge values in the vicinity to estimate the lateral flows

  4. Contribution of insurance data to cost assessment of coastal flood damage to residential buildings: insights gained from Johanna (2008 and Xynthia (2010 storm events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. André

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of methodological issues involved in assessing damage caused by natural hazards. The first is the lack of data, due to the rarity of events and the widely different circumstances in which they occur. Thus, historical data, albeit scarce, should not be neglected when seeking to build ex-ante risk management models. This article analyses the input of insurance data for two recent severe coastal storm events, to examine what causal relationships may exist between hazard characteristics and the level of damage incurred by residential buildings. To do so, data was collected at two levels: from lists of about 4000 damage records, 358 loss adjustment reports were consulted, constituting a detailed damage database. The results show that for flooded residential buildings, over 75% of reconstruction costs are associated with interior elements, with damage to structural components remaining very localised and negligible. Further analysis revealed a high scatter between costs and water depth, suggesting that uncertainty remains high in drawing up damage functions with insurance data alone. Due to the paper format of the loss adjustment reports, and the lack of harmonisation between their contents, the collection stage called for a considerable amount of work. For future events, establishing a standardised process for archiving damage information could significantly contribute to the production of such empirical damage functions. Nevertheless, complementary sources of data on hazards and asset vulnerability parameters will definitely still be necessary for damage modelling; multivariate approaches, crossing insurance data with external material, should also be investigated more deeply.

  5. Contribution of insurance data to cost assessment of coastal flood damage to residential buildings: insights gained from Johanna (2008) and Xynthia (2010) storm events

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, C.; Monfort, D.; Bouzit, M.; Vinchon, C.

    2013-08-01

    There are a number of methodological issues involved in assessing damage caused by natural hazards. The first is the lack of data, due to the rarity of events and the widely different circumstances in which they occur. Thus, historical data, albeit scarce, should not be neglected when seeking to build ex-ante risk management models. This article analyses the input of insurance data for two recent severe coastal storm events, to examine what causal relationships may exist between hazard characteristics and the level of damage incurred by residential buildings. To do so, data was collected at two levels: from lists of about 4000 damage records, 358 loss adjustment reports were consulted, constituting a detailed damage database. The results show that for flooded residential buildings, over 75% of reconstruction costs are associated with interior elements, with damage to structural components remaining very localised and negligible. Further analysis revealed a high scatter between costs and water depth, suggesting that uncertainty remains high in drawing up damage functions with insurance data alone. Due to the paper format of the loss adjustment reports, and the lack of harmonisation between their contents, the collection stage called for a considerable amount of work. For future events, establishing a standardised process for archiving damage information could significantly contribute to the production of such empirical damage functions. Nevertheless, complementary sources of data on hazards and asset vulnerability parameters will definitely still be necessary for damage modelling; multivariate approaches, crossing insurance data with external material, should also be investigated more deeply.

  6. Carbon Budgets for Catchments Across a Managed Landscape Mosaic in Southeast Sweden: Contributing to the Safety Assessment of a Nuclear Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefgren, Anders; Miliander, Sofia; Truve, Johan

    2006-01-01

    Ecosystem budgets of matter contribute to the assessment of transport and accumulation of bioavailable contaminants in a landscape, since flows of matter and energy ultimately determine the rates at which contaminants will be partitioned in the environment. This study compares ecosystem properties, such as net primary production (NPP), sequestration of matter and fluxes to food sources for humans, which are of potential interest to describe fluxes and accumulation of bioavailable radionuclides in 14 catchments within a larger catchment area in southeast Sweden. The carbon budgets, used as a proxy for organic matter, are mainly based on local estimates of pools and fluxes, which have been distributed across a landscape mosaic of different vegetation types and management regimes using a geographical information system (GIS). NPP varied by a factor close to two (432 - 709 gC/m 2 /y), while net ecosystem production ranged between -124 and 159 gC/m 2 /y for the different catchments. Carbon sequestration mainly occurred in the vegetation while the soil organic carbon pool was mainly a source of carbon. Large herbivores consumed on average 4.5 % of the above-ground green tissue production. When arable land was present in the catchment, the flux of carbon to humans was highest from crops and, in decreasing order, milk and beef, followed by the flux from hunting and berry/fungus picking. The results can be used to estimate the potential assimilation of radionuclides in vegetation and the potential exposure to humans of bioavailable radionuclides

  7. Contribution of thin slice (1 mm) oblique coronal proton density-weighted MR images for assessment of anteromedial and posterolateral bundle damage in anterior cruciate ligament injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gokalp, Gokhan, E-mail: drgokhangokalp@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Uludag University Medical Faculty, Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey); Demirag, Burak, E-mail: bdemirag@uludag.edu.tr [Department of Orthopedy, Uludag University Medical Faculty, Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey); Nas, Omer Fatih, E-mail: omerfatihnas@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Uludag University Medical Faculty, Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey); Aydemir, Mehmet Fatih, E-mail: fatiha@yahoo.com [Department of Orthopedy, Uludag University Medical Faculty, Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey); Yazici, Zeynep, E-mail: zyazici@uludag.edu.tr [Department of Radiology, Uludag University Medical Faculty, Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey)

    2012-09-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of using additional oblique coronal 1 mm proton density-weighted (PDW) MR imaging of the knee for detection and grading anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), anteromedial bundle (AMB) and posterolateral bundle (PLB) injuries. Materials and methods: We prospectively assessed preoperative MR images of 50 patients (36 men, 14 women; age range, 18–62 years). First, we compared the diagnostic performance of routine sagittal (3 mm) and additional oblique coronal images (1 mm) for ACL tears. Then, we compared the tear types (AMB or PLB) and grade presumed from oblique coronal MR imaging with arthroscopy. Results: Arthroscopy revealed ACL tear in 24 (48%) patients. There was significant difference between sagittal images and arthroscopy results for ACL tear recognition (p < 0.001). No significant difference was detected for oblique coronal images when compared with arthroscopy results (p = 0.180). Sensitivity and specificity values for ACL tear diagnosis were 37.04% and 95.65% for sagittal images; 74.07% and 91.30% for oblique coronal images. There was no significant difference between arthroscopy and oblique coronal MR images in grading AMB and PLB injuries (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Addition of thin slice oblique coronal images to conventional sequences could better contribute to better verifying the presence of ACL tear and in determining its grade.

  8. Contribution of the CASA system, based on open source software, to the assessment of sperm characteristics: informetric and usage-based approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovano Neumann

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT By using informetric tools, we evaluated the contribution and impact of the open source computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA software on sperm studies, especially pertaining to fish. The article was cited 125 times between 2007 and 2014 in four publication types (articles, doctoral dissertations, master’s theses, and books. Among articles, the number of citations increased at rate of three citations per year and the calculated h-index was 17. Of the studies that cited Wilson-Leedy and Ingermann (2007, fish were the main group of organisms studied (61 articles; of these, 34 articles used the open source CASA, covering 23 marine or freshwater species. Studies conducted in 12 countries were published in 21 journals. Four ways of knowledge sharing were identified: by direct partnership with the system developers; by knowledge multipliers, who worked directly with the system developers; by groups that adopted the system by their own initiative; and through expansion of cooperation networks with autodidacts. In regard to specific analytical procedures, motility, curvilinear velocity, average path velocity, and straight-line velocity were the main CASA parameters used to describe sperm movements. As expected, the usage of this tool has been increasing over the years, being a reliable and versatile alternative to more costly similar platforms. However, the potential of the CASA system has not been completely explored and it is our assessment that some results produced by CASA are poorly understood or even misunderstood.

  9. A contribution to the hazards assessment at Copahue volcano (Argentina-Chile) by facies analysis of a recent pyroclastic density current deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbis, C.; Petrinovic, I. A.; Guzmán, S.

    2016-11-01

    We recognised and interpreted a recent pyroclastic density current (PDC) deposit at the Copahue volcano (Southern Andes), through a field survey and a sedimentological study. The relationships between the behaviour of the PDCs, the morphology of the Río Agrio valley and the eruptive dynamics were interpreted. We identified two lithofacies in the deposit that indicate variations in the eruptive dynamics: i) the opening of the conduit and the formation of a highly explosive eruption that formed a diluted PDC through the immediate collapse of the eruptive column; ii) a continued eruption which followed immediately and records the widening of the conduit, producing a dense PDC. The eruption occurred in 2000 CE, was phreatomagmatic (VEI ≤ 2), with a vesiculation level above 4000 m depth and fragmentation driven by the interaction of magma with an hydrothermal system at ca. 1500 m depth. As deduced from the comparison between the accessory lithics of this deposit and those of the 2012 CE eruption, the depth of onset of vesiculation and fragmentation level in this volcano is constant in depth. In order to reproduce the distribution pattern of this PDC's deposit and to simulate potential PDC's forming-processes, we made several computational modelling from "denser" to "more diluted" conditions. The latter fairly reproduces the distribution of the studied deposit and represents perhaps one of the most dangerous possible scenarios of the Copahue volcanic activity. PDCs occurrence has been considered in the last volcanic hazards map as a low probability process; evidences found in this contribution suggest instead to include them as more probable and thus very important for the hazards assessment of the Copahue volcano.

  10. Assessing long-run economic benefits attributed to an IVF-conceived singleton based on projected lifetime net tax contributions in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, M; Gallo, F; Hoorens, S; Ledger, W

    2009-03-01

    Over the past decade, demand for fertility treatments has increased as a result of delaying time to first pregnancy and growing awareness and acceptance of available treatment options. Despite increasing demand, health authorities often view infertility as a low health priority and consequently limit access to treatments by rationing and limiting funds. To assess the long-term economic benefits attributed to in vitro fertilization (IVF)-conceived children, we developed a health investment model to evaluate whether state-funded IVF programmes in the UK represent sound fiscal policies. Based on the average investment cost to conceive an IVF singleton, we describe the present value of net taxes derived from gross taxes paid minus direct government transfers received (e.g. education, health, pension) over the lifetime of the child. To establish the present value of investing in IVF, we have discounted all costs from benefits (i.e. lifetime taxes paid) using UK Treasury department rates based on a singleton delivery with similar characteristics for education, earnings, health and life expectancy to a naturally conceived child. The lifetime discounted value of net taxes from an IVF-conceived child with mother aged 35 is pound 109,939 compared with pound 122,127 for a naturally conceived child. The lifetime undiscounted net tax contribution for the IVF-conceived child and naturally conceived child are pound 603,000 and pound 616,000, respectively. An investment of pound 12,931 to achieve an IVF singleton is actually worth 8.5-times this amount to the UK Treasury in discounted future tax revenue. The analysis underscores that costs to the health sector are actually investments when a broader government perspective is considered over a longer period of time.

  11. Temporal change in headache and its contribution to the risk of developing first-onset temporomandibular disorder in the Orofacial Pain: Prospective Evaluation and Risk Assessment (OPPERA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchivileva, Inna E; Ohrbach, Richard; Fillingim, Roger B; Greenspan, Joel D; Maixner, William; Slade, Gary D

    2017-01-01

    While cross-sectional studies have demonstrated an association between headache and temporomandibular disorder (TMD), whether headache can predict the onset of TMD is unknown. The aims of this study were to evaluate the contribution of headache to the risk of developing TMD and describe patterns of change in headache types over time. An initially TMD-free cohort of 2410 persons with low frequency of headache completed quarterly questionnaires assessing TMD and headache symptoms over a median 3.0-year follow-up period. First-onset TMD was confirmed by clinical examination in 199 participants. Baseline reports of migraine (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.67, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-2.62) or mixed headache types (HR = 4.11, 95% CI: 1.47-11.46), or headache frequency (HR = 2.13, 95% CI: 1.31-3.48) predicted increased risk of developing TMD. In addition, headache dynamics across the follow-up period before the TMD onset were evaluated in a nested case-control study where 248 incident TMD cases were matched to 191 TMD-free controls. Both headache prevalence and frequency increased across the observation period among those who developed TMD but not among controls. Patients with TMD were more likely to experience worsening in the headache type compared with that by controls, eg, prevalence of definite migraine among TMD cases increased 10-fold. Among all headache types experienced by patients with TMD before the TMD onset, migraine had the highest odds of progression relative to remission (odds ratio = 2.8, 95% CI: 1.6-4.8), whereas for controls this ratio was significant only for the tension-type headache (odds ratio = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.2-3.9). The important clinical implication of these findings is that adequate treatment of migraine may reduce the risk for developing TMD.

  12. Community Needs Assessment and Portal Prototype Development for an Arctic Spatial Data Infrastructure (ASDI): A Contribution to an IPY Data Cyberinfrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, H. V.; Warnick, W. K.; Hempel, L. C.; Henk, J.; Sorensen, M.; Tweedie, C. E.; Gaylord, A.; Behr, S.

    2006-12-01

    As the creation and use of geospatial data in research, management, logistics, and education applications has proliferated, there is now a tremendous potential for advancing the IPY initiative through a variety of cyberinfrastructure applications, including Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) and related technologies. SDIs provide a necessary and common framework of standards, securities, policies, procedures, and technology to support the effective acquisition, coordination, dissemination and use of geospatial data by multiple and distributed stakeholder and user groups. Despite the numerous research activities in the Arctic, there is no established SDI and, because of this lack of a coordinated infrastructure, there is inefficiency, duplication of effort, and reduced data quality and search ability of arctic geospatial data. The urgency for establishing this framework is significant considering the myriad of data that is likely to be collected in celebration of the International Polar Year (IPY) in 2007-2008 and the current international momentum for an improved and integrated circumarctic terrestrial-marine-atmospheric environmental observatories network. The key objective of this project is to lay the foundation for full implementation of an Arctic Spatial Data Infrastructure (ASDI) through two related activities: (1) an assessment - via interviews, questionnaires, a workshop, and other means - of community needs, readiness, and resources, and (2) the development of a prototype web mapping portal to demonstrate the purpose and function on an arctic geospatial one-stop portal technology and to solicit community input on design and function. The results of this project will be compiled into a comprehensive report guiding the research community and funding agencies in the design and implementation of an ASDI to contribute to a robust IPY data cyberinfrastructure.

  13. Contribution to a comparative environmental impact assessment for radiation exposure from the use of coal and nuclear energy for electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbritter, G.; Braeutigam, K.R.; Fluck, F.W.; Lessmann, E.; Neumann-Hauf, G.

    1982-01-01

    The emissions from a model coal unit and from all relevant stages of a model nuclear fuel cycle (PWR) were compiled. For assessing radiation exposure a comparison of the model coal unit and the nuclear fuel cycle on the basis of local and collective exposure values was performed. A risk-specific comparison can only be made on the basis of collective dose commitment calculations. The collective dose equivalents for German siting and licensing conditions were made on the basis of results presented by UNSCEAR. These calculations comprise local, regional, and global expositions for the plants under normal operation. The estimates show a reduction of the collective dose equivalent for the nuclear fuel cycle from about 40 (gonads) to about 20 (effective) person-Sv/(GWe x a); for the coal-fired unit the estimates yield 4 (effective) as compared to 0.6 (gonads) person-Sv/(GWe x a) in the UNSCEAR report. A great part of the radiation exposure from the nuclear fuel cycle is caused by the global exposure of carbon-14, building up over the regarded exposure time of 500 years. On the local and regional scale, the radiation exposure due to the emissions from coal-fired units is comparable to the non-occupational radiation exposure from all relevant stages of the nuclear fuel cycle at normal operation. For a comprehensive risk estimate of the nuclear fuel cycle also accidental radiation exposure must be considered. Normal operation and accidental risk are compared on the detriment level, showing that the risk contribution from accidents is about twice that from normal operation. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Contribution of 18F-FDG PET in the diagnostic assessment of fever of unknown origin (FUO): a stratification-based meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, Florent L.; Chaumet-Riffaud, Philippe; Prigent, Alain; Durand, Emmanuel; Playe, Margot; Noel, Nicolas; Lambotte, Olivier; Goujard, Cecile

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the contribution of FDG PET to the diagnostic assessment of fever of unknown origin (FUO), taking into account the diagnostic limitations resulting from the composite nature of this entity. The PubMed/MEDLINE database was searched from 2000 to September 2015. Original articles fulfilling the following criteria were included: (1) FUO as the initial diagnosis, (2) no immunosuppressed or nosocomial condition, (3) final diagnosis not based on PET, (4) a follow-up period specified, (5) adult population, and (6) availability of adapted data for calculation of odds ratios (ORs). ORs were computed for each study and then pooled using a random effects model. Stratification-based sensitivity analyses were finally performed using the following prespecified criteria: (a) study design, (b) PET device, (c) geographic area, and (d) follow-up period. A meta-analysis of the 14 included studies showed that normal PET findings led to an increase in the absolute final diagnostic rate of 36 % abnormal PET findings to an increase of 83 %, corresponding to a pooled OR of 8.94 (95 % CI 4.18 - 19.12, Z = 5.65; p < 0.00001). The design of the studies influenced the results (OR 2.92, 95 % CI 1.00 - 8.53 for prospective studies; OR 18,57, 95 % CI 7.57 - 45.59 for retrospective studies; p = 0.01), whereas devices (dedicated or hybrid), geographic area and follow-up period did not. Abnormal PET findings are associated with a substantially increased final diagnostic rate in FUO. Consequently, FDG PET could be considered for inclusion in the first-line diagnostic work-up of FUO. Further randomized prospective studies with standardized FDG PET procedures are warranted to confirm this first-line position. (orig.)

  15. Multistate matrix population model to assess the contributions and impacts on population abundance of domestic cats in urban areas including owned cats, unowned cats, and cats in shelters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Jason B.

    2018-01-01

    Concerns over cat homelessness, over-taxed animal shelters, public health risks, and environmental impacts has raised attention on urban-cat populations. To truly understand cat population dynamics, the collective population of owned cats, unowned cats, and cats in the shelter system must be considered simultaneously because each subpopulation contributes differently to the overall population of cats in a community (e.g., differences in neuter rates, differences in impacts on wildlife) and cats move among categories through human interventions (e.g., adoption, abandonment). To assess this complex socio-ecological system, we developed a multistate matrix model of cats in urban areas that include owned cats, unowned cats (free-roaming and feral), and cats that move through the shelter system. Our model requires three inputs—location, number of human dwellings, and urban area—to provide testable predictions of cat abundance for any city in North America. Model-predicted population size of unowned cats in seven Canadian cities were not significantly different than published estimates (p = 0.23). Model-predicted proportions of sterile feral cats did not match observed sterile cat proportions for six USA cities (p = 0.001). Using a case study from Guelph, Ontario, Canada, we compared model-predicted to empirical estimates of cat abundance in each subpopulation and used perturbation analysis to calculate relative sensitivity of vital rates to cat abundance to demonstrate how management or mismanagement in one portion of the population could have repercussions across all portions of the network. Our study provides a general framework to consider cat population abundance in urban areas and, with refinement that includes city-specific parameter estimates and modeling, could provide a better understanding of population dynamics of cats in our communities. PMID:29489854

  16. Multistate matrix population model to assess the contributions and impacts on population abundance of domestic cats in urban areas including owned cats, unowned cats, and cats in shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flockhart, D T Tyler; Coe, Jason B

    2018-01-01

    Concerns over cat homelessness, over-taxed animal shelters, public health risks, and environmental impacts has raised attention on urban-cat populations. To truly understand cat population dynamics, the collective population of owned cats, unowned cats, and cats in the shelter system must be considered simultaneously because each subpopulation contributes differently to the overall population of cats in a community (e.g., differences in neuter rates, differences in impacts on wildlife) and cats move among categories through human interventions (e.g., adoption, abandonment). To assess this complex socio-ecological system, we developed a multistate matrix model of cats in urban areas that include owned cats, unowned cats (free-roaming and feral), and cats that move through the shelter system. Our model requires three inputs-location, number of human dwellings, and urban area-to provide testable predictions of cat abundance for any city in North America. Model-predicted population size of unowned cats in seven Canadian cities were not significantly different than published estimates (p = 0.23). Model-predicted proportions of sterile feral cats did not match observed sterile cat proportions for six USA cities (p = 0.001). Using a case study from Guelph, Ontario, Canada, we compared model-predicted to empirical estimates of cat abundance in each subpopulation and used perturbation analysis to calculate relative sensitivity of vital rates to cat abundance to demonstrate how management or mismanagement in one portion of the population could have repercussions across all portions of the network. Our study provides a general framework to consider cat population abundance in urban areas and, with refinement that includes city-specific parameter estimates and modeling, could provide a better understanding of population dynamics of cats in our communities.

  17. Contribution to the elaboration of life cycle assessment for integrated municipal solid waste management by incineration; Contribution a l'elaboration de l'analyse du cycle de vie de la chaine de traitement par incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenisch, S.

    1999-07-01

    The management of household wastes has been developed in different ways like energy recovery, materials recovery or composting. Here a new approach is developed called the analysis of the life cycle of a product. It means that the global polluting charge of a product must be evaluated at each stage of its life: production, use, processing, valorization and ultimate storage. This approach is more satisfying for the preservation of the environment because it points out possible pollution transfers and gives the real environmental cost of a product. This work contributes to define a methodology for a well-advised implementation of life cycle analysis.

  18. Contribution to a quantitative assessment model for reliability-based metrics of electronic and programmable safety-related functions; Contribution a un modele d'evaluation quantitative des performances fiabilistes de fonctions electroniques et programmables dediees a la securite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamidi, K

    2005-10-15

    The use of fault-tolerant EP architectures has induced growing constraints, whose influence on reliability-based performance metrics is no more negligible. To face up the growing influence of simultaneous failure, this thesis proposes, for safety-related functions, a new-trend assessment method of reliability, based on a better taking into account of time-aspect. This report introduces the concept of information and uses it to interpret the failure modes of safety-related function as the direct result of the initiation and propagation of erroneous information until the actuator-level. The main idea is to distinguish the apparition and disappearance of erroneous states, which could be defined as intrinsically dependent of HW-characteristic and maintenance policies, and their possible activation, constrained through architectural choices, leading to the failure of safety-related function. This approach is based on a low level on deterministic SED models of the architecture and use non homogeneous Markov chains to depict the time-evolution of probabilities of errors. (author)

  19. Contribution to a quantitative assessment model for reliability-based metrics of electronic and programmable safety-related functions; Contribution a un modele d'evaluation quantitative des performances fiabilistes de fonctions electroniques et programmables dediees a la securite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamidi, K

    2005-10-15

    The use of fault-tolerant EP architectures has induced growing constraints, whose influence on reliability-based performance metrics is no more negligible. To face up the growing influence of simultaneous failure, this thesis proposes, for safety-related functions, a new-trend assessment method of reliability, based on a better taking into account of time-aspect. This report introduces the concept of information and uses it to interpret the failure modes of safety-related function as the direct result of the initiation and propagation of erroneous information until the actuator-level. The main idea is to distinguish the apparition and disappearance of erroneous states, which could be defined as intrinsically dependent of HW-characteristic and maintenance policies, and their possible activation, constrained through architectural choices, leading to the failure of safety-related function. This approach is based on a low level on deterministic SED models of the architecture and use non homogeneous Markov chains to depict the time-evolution of probabilities of errors. (author)

  20. Sources of radioactivity in the marine environment and their relative contributions to overall dose assessment from marine radioactivity (MARDOS). Final report of a co-ordinated research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    The document provides data on radionuclide levels in the marine environment and estimates doses from marine radioactivity through ingestion of sea food. Two radionuclides -natural Po210 and Cs 137 -are studied, as they are radiologically the most important representatives of each class of marine radioactivity on global scale. The results of the study confirm that the dominant contribution to doses comes from natural Po 210 in fish and shellfish and that the contribution of anthropogenic Sc 137 (mostly coming from nuclear weapons test) is negligible (100 to 1000 time lower) 14 refs, 12 figs, 13 tabs

  1. Sources of radioactivity in the marine environment and their relative contributions to overall dose assessment from marine radioactivity (MARDOS). Final report of a co-ordinated research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The document provides data on radionuclide levels in the marine environment and estimates doses from marine radioactivity through ingestion of sea food. Two radionuclides -natural Po210 and Cs 137 -are studied, as they are radiologically the most important representatives of each class of marine radioactivity on global scale. The results of the study confirm that the dominant contribution to doses comes from natural Po 210 in fish and shellfish and that the contribution of anthropogenic Sc 137 (mostly coming from nuclear weapons test) is negligible (100 to 1000 time lower) 14 refs, 12 figs, 13 tabs.

  2. Educational Psychology's Past and Future Contributions to the Science of Learning, Science of Instruction, and Science of Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Richard E.

    2018-01-01

    Patricia Alexander (2018) provides a thought-provoking analysis of the past and future of educational psychology. Based on the themes in Alexander's paper, the present paper explores the past and future of educational psychology's contributions to: (a) the science of learning, corresponding to Alexander's theme of "a focus on learning as a…

  3. Assessment of Contribution of Contemporary Carbon Sources to Size-Fractionated Particulate Matter and Time-Resolved Bulk Particulate Matter Using the Measurement of Radiocarbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, H M; Young, T M; Buchholz, B A

    2009-04-16

    This study was motivated by a desire to improve understanding of the sources contributing to the carbon that is an important component of airborne particulate matter (PM). The ultimate goal of this project was to lay a ground work for future tools that might be easily implemented with archived or routinely collected samples. A key feature of this study was application of radiocarbon measurement that can be interpreted to indicate the relative contributions from fossil and non-fossil carbon sources of atmospheric PM. Size-resolved PM and time-resolved PM{sub 10} collected from a site in Sacramento, CA in November 2007 (Phase I) and March 2008 (Phase II) were analyzed for radiocarbon and source markers such as levoglucosan, cholesterol, and elemental carbon. Radiocarbon data indicates that the contributions of non-fossil carbon sources were much greater than that from fossil carbon sources in all samples. Radiocarbon and source marker measurements confirm that a greater contribution of non-fossil carbon sources in Phase I samples was highly likely due to residential wood combustion. The present study proves that measurement of radiocarbon and source markers can be readily applied to archived or routinely collected samples for better characterization of PM sources. More accurate source apportionment will support ARB in developing more efficient control strategies.

  4. Estimation of the contribution of gamma-emission of incorporated cesium radioisotopes in interpretation of the results of the public survey to assess the thyroidal iodine content following a radiation accident at the nuclear power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinkarev S.M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. A detail consideration has been done to assess an importance of the contribution of gamma-emission of incorporated cesium radioisotopes to the exposure rate measured near the thyroid by the public survey for following the Chernobyl accident. Empirical ratios have been derived to take into account that contribution under interpretation of the results of survey meter monitoring of the public. Materials and methods. Model calculations for typical radionuclide intake by the residents living in contaminated territories after the Chernobyl accident have been carried out in order to assess the contribution of gamma-emission of incorporated cesium radioisotopes to the exposure rate measured near the thyroid by the survey. Under such calculations two the most important modes of intake have been considered: 1 inhalation and 2 ingestion with cow milk. Results. According to the estimates received the contribution of gamma-emission of incorporated cesium radioisotopes to the exposure rate measured near the thyroid during the first 20 days does not exceed 20% for the residents of southern areas of Gomel region and 30% for the residents of Mogil'yov region. During 60 days following the accident that contribution is estimated to be within (50-80 % for the residents of southern areas of Gomel region and (80-95 % for the residents of Mogil'yov region. Conclusion. For the period of intensive thyroid measuring in the southern areas of Gomel region (the second part of May account of the contribution of gamma-emission of incorporated cesium radioisotopes is relatively unimportant, but for Mogil'yov region (the end of May — it is important to account for. For the thyroid measurements conducted in June of 1986 it is important for all residents living in Belarus to take into account the contribution of gamma-emission of incorporated cesium radioisotopes.

  5. Source-oriented risk assessment of inhalation exposure to ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and contributions of non-priority isomers in urban Nanjing, a megacity located in Yangtze River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Shaojie; Shen, Guofeng; Zhu, Ying; Du, Wei; Pan, Xuelian; Li, Tongchao; Han, Yang; Li, Bengang; Liu, Junfeng; Cheng, Hefa; Xing, Baoshan; Tao, Shu

    2017-05-01

    Sixteen U.S. EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and eleven non-priority isomers including some dibenzopyrenes were analyzed to evaluate health risk attributable to inhalation exposure to ambient PAHs and contributions of the non-priority PAHs in a megacity Nanjing, east China. The annual average mass concentration of the total 16 EPA priority PAHs in air was 51.1 ± 29.8 ng/m 3 , comprising up to 93% of the mass concentration of all 27 PAHs, however, the estimated Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) due to inhalation exposure would be underestimated by 63% on average if only accounting the 16 EPA priority PAHs. The risk would be underestimated by 13% if only particulate PAHs were considered, though gaseous PAHs made up to about 70% of the total mass concentration. During the last fifteen years, ambient Benzo[a]pyrene decreased significantly in the city which was consistent with the declining trend of PAHs emissions. Source contributions to the estimated ILCR were much different from the contributions for the total mass concentration, calling for the introduce of important source-oriented risk assessments. Emissions from gasoline vehicles contributed to 12% of the total mass concentration of 27 PAHs analyzed, but regarding relative contributions to the overall health risk, gasoline vehicle emissions contributed 45% of the calculated ILCR. Dibenzopyrenes were a group of non-priority isomers largely contributing to the calculated ILCR, and vehicle emissions were probably important sources of these high molecular weight isomers. Ambient dibenzo[a,l]pyrene positively correlated with the priority PAH Benzo[g,h,i]perylene. The study indicates that inclusion of non-priority PAHs could be valuable for both PAH source apportionment and health risk assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. What are the factors that contribute to road accidents? An assessment of law enforcement views, ordinary drivers' opinions, and road accident records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolison, Jonathan J; Regev, Shirley; Moutari, Salissou; Feeney, Aidan

    2018-06-01

    What are the main contributing factors to road accidents? Factors such as inexperience, lack of skill, and risk-taking behaviors have been associated with the collisions of young drivers. In contrast, visual, cognitive, and mobility impairment have been associated with the collisions of older drivers. We investigated the main causes of road accidents by drawing on multiple sources: expert views of police officers, lay views of the driving public, and official road accident records. In Studies 1 and 2, police officers and the public were asked about the typical causes of road traffic collisions using hypothetical accident scenarios. In Study 3, we investigated whether the views of police officers and the public about accident causation influence their recall accuracy for factors reported to contribute to hypothetical road accidents. The results show that both expert views of police officers and lay views of the driving public closely approximated the typical factors associated with the collisions of young and older drivers, as determined from official accident records. The results also reveal potential underreporting of factors in existing accident records, identifying possible inadequacies in law enforcement practices for investigating driver distraction, drug and alcohol impairment, and uncorrected or defective eyesight. Our investigation also highlights a need for accident report forms to be continuously reviewed and updated to ensure that contributing factor lists reflect the full range of factors that contribute to road accidents. Finally, the views held by police officers and the public on accident causation influenced their memory recall of factors involved in hypothetical scenarios. These findings indicate that delay in completing accident report forms should be minimised, possibly by use of mobile reporting devices at the accident scene. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Quantitative assessment of source contributions to PM2.5 on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia to determine the burden of Indonesian peatland fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yusuke; Tohno, Susumu; Amil, Norhaniza; Latif, Mohd Talib

    2017-12-01

    Almost every dry season, peatland fires occur in Sumatra and Kalimantan Inlands. Dense smoke haze from Indonesian peatland fires (IPFs) causes impacts on health, visibility, transport and regional climate in Southeast Asian countries such as Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore. Quantitative knowledge of IPF source contribution to ambient aerosols in Southeast Asia (SEA) is so useful to make appropriate suggestions to policy makers to mitigate IPF-induced haze pollution. However, its quantitative contribution to ambient aerosols in SEA remains unclarified. In this study, the source contributions to PM2.5 were determined by the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model with annual comprehensive observation data at Petaling Jaya on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, which is downwind of the IPF areas in Sumatra Island, during the dry (southwest monsoon: June-September) season. The average PM2.5 mass concentration during the whole sampling periods (Aug 2011-Jul 2012) based on the PMF and chemical mass closure models was determined as 20-21 μg m-3. Throughout the sampling periods, IPF contributed (on average) 6.1-7.0 μg m-3 to the PM2.5, or ∼30% of the retrieved PM2.5 concentration. In particular, the PM2.5 was dominantly sourced from IPF during the southwest monsoon season (51-55% of the total PM2.5 concentration on average). Thus, reducing the IPF burden in the PM2.5 levels would drastically improve the air quality (especially during the southwest monsoon season) around the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia.

  8. Modulating weak interactions for molecular recognition: a dynamic combinatorial analysis for assessing the contribution of electrostatics to the stability of CH-π bonds in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Moreno, Ester; Gómez, Ana M; Bastida, Agatha; Corzana, Francisco; Jiménez-Oses, Gonzalo; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Asensio, Juan Luis

    2015-03-27

    Electrostatic and charge-transfer contributions to CH-π complexes can be modulated by attaching electron-withdrawing substituents to the carbon atom. While clearly stabilizing in the gas phase, the outcome of this chemical modification in water is more difficult to predict. Herein we provide a definitive and quantitative answer to this question employing a simple strategy based on dynamic combinatorial chemistry. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Application of the Nutrition Functional Diversity indicator to assess food system contributions to dietary diversity and sustainable diets of Malawian households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Brian G; DeClerck, Fabrice A J; Fanzo, Jessica; Mundorf, Adrienne R; Rose, Donald

    2015-09-01

    Dietary diversity is associated with nutrient adequacy and positive health outcomes but indicators to measure diversity have focused primarily on consumption, rather than sustainable provisioning of food. The Nutritional Functional Diversity score was developed by ecologists to describe the contribution of biodiversity to sustainable diets. We have employed this tool to estimate the relative contribution of home production and market purchases in providing nutritional diversity to agricultural households in Malawi and examine how food system provisioning varies by time, space and socio-economic conditions. A secondary analysis of nationally representative household consumption data to test the applicability of the Nutritional Functional Diversity score. The data were collected between 2010 and 2011 across the country of Malawi. Households (n 11 814) from predominantly rural areas of Malawi. Nutritional Functional Diversity varied demographically, geographically and temporally. Nationally, purchased foods contributed more to household nutritional diversity than home produced foods (mean score=17·5 and 7·8, respectively). Households further from roads and population centres had lower overall diversity (PFunctional Diversity score is an effective indicator for identifying populations with low nutritional diversity and the relative roles that markets, agricultural extension and home production play in achieving nutritional diversity. This information may be used by policy makers to plan agricultural and market-based interventions that support sustainable diets and local food systems.

  10. CRITICAL ASSESSMENT OF CONTRIBUTION FROM INDIAN PUBLICATIONS: THE ROLE OF IN SILICO DESIGNING METHODS LEADING TO DRUGS OR DRUG-LIKE COMPOUNDS USING TEXT BASED MINING AND ASSOCIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Kumar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the several decades, India is constantly challenged by communicable and non-communicable diseases which are originated either by poor lifestyle or by environmental factors. The pools of diseases are constantly posing serious threats to mankind especially among the poverty-stricken families. Scientific communities across the globe are working continuously to design drug molecules to overcome the burden of these life threaten diseases. In last three decades, many computational algorithms and tools have been developed to identify potential drug targets and their inhibitors. It is believed that computational techniques have reduced the time and money required to develop an inhibitor into drug. However, applicability and deliverability of these in silico techniques in rational drug designing are not fully evaluated. In the present study, PubMed/Medline extracted data driven analysis has been performed to highlight the influence and progress of the theoretical methods in the field of drug discovery across India and compared with the world. Drug discovery related keyword dictionary has been built and utilized to select only drug discovery related PubMed abstract. A second keyword set (related to bioinformatics tools is used for normalized pointwise mutual information (PMI based association analysis. Observations show that drug discovery has been an interdisciplinary research and used many tools starting with QSAR, docking, pharmacophore, Molecular Simulations etc. The publications contributed from India (2% are similar as compared to the contribution in total world publications, suggesting large scope in future. Data coverage as represented since 1990-2015 in PubMed as indicated by number of publications associated with drug discovery is almost same in world and India (~75%. Emerging institutes/Universities are contributing since last 10 years as observed from Indian publication list. However, this method has many limitations as discussed.

  11. Assessment of the potential of state-of-the-art biomass technologies in contributing to a sustainable SADC regional mitigation energy scenario[Southern African Development Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamba, F.D.; Matsika, E. [Centre for Energy, Environment and Engineering Zambia, Lusaka (Zambia)

    2003-09-01

    Southern Africa's energy supply is based on power sector collaboration - the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP). SAPP was created in 1995 through an inter-utility memorandum of understanding among 12 of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) utilities including Congo DR. The aims of SAPP are: To increase regional security of supply; To smoothen load curves; To engender economies of scale in the supply base; To increase revenue for exporting countries by opening up a ready market; To share power to meet national shortfalls and to off set temporary deficits in the medium term, and in the long term to adopt and implement power sharing as an operational strategy aimed at maximising financial and environmental benefits. Currently, SAPP has an operational installed capacity of 45.000 MW, of which 84% is thermal, predominantly coal based, which represents 79% of the total supply. 16% of the total SAPP interconnected supply is hydro, while the contribution from biomass is currently non-existent. The sugar industry in Southern Africa can significantly alter this picture. Increased competitive pressures serve as economic incentives for the sugar industry to diversify their product portfolio by investing in renewable energy applications. Of the new state-of-the-art biomass based technologies available Condensing Extraction Steam Turbine (CEST) is the most promising. Application of CEST technologies in Southern Africa will modestly contribute towards a sustainable energy supply mitigation scenario. If implemented, the contribution of bioenergy will increase from 0.5% for the baseline situation, to 2.5% in 2030 and 3.0% in 2050. This scenario will also yield global environmental benefits potential through saving of GHG reductions to 14 million tonnes CO{sub 2} in 2030 and 20 million tonnes CO{sub 2} in 2050. Furthermore, this paper produces a monogram which will assist investors in making decisions whether to invest in the Kyoto Protocols Clean Development

  12. Assessment of the Radiation-Equivalent of Chemotherapy Contributions in 1-Phase Radio-chemotherapy Treatment of Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plataniotis, George A.; Dale, Roger G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate the radiation equivalent of the chemotherapy contribution to observed complete response rates in published results of 1-phase radio-chemotherapy of muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: A standard logistic dose–response curve was fitted to data from radiation therapy-alone trials and then used as the platform from which to quantify the chemotherapy contribution in 1-phase radio-chemotherapy trials. Two possible mechanisms of chemotherapy effect were assumed (1) a fixed radiation-independent contribution to local control; or (2) a fixed degree of chemotherapy-induced radiosensitization. A combination of both mechanisms was also considered. Results: The respective best-fit values of the independent chemotherapy-induced complete response (CCR) and radiosensitization (s) coefficients were 0.40 (95% confidence interval −0.07 to 0.87) and 1.30 (95% confidence interval 0.86-1.70). Independent chemotherapy effect was slightly favored by the analysis, and the derived CCR value was consistent with reports of pathologic complete response rates seen in neoadjuvant chemotherapy-alone treatments of muscle-invasive bladder cancer. The radiation equivalent of the CCR was 36.3 Gy. Conclusion: Although the data points in the analyzed radio-chemotherapy studies are widely dispersed (largely on account of the diverse range of chemotherapy schedules used), it is nonetheless possible to fit plausible-looking response curves. The methodology used here is based on a standard technique for analyzing dose-response in radiation therapy-alone studies and is capable of application to other mixed-modality treatment combinations involving radiation therapy

  13. An assessment of the contribution of NRC [Nuclear Regulatory Commission] regulatory growth to nuclear plant cost growth using engineering scope changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, S.

    1987-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the contribution of NRC regulations to the growth in nuclear power plant capital costs using the case study method. The two plants selected for the case studies are Florida Power and Light Company's (FP and L) St. Lucie Unit 1 (SL1) and St. Lucie Unit 2 (SL2). SL1 was constructed in the early 1970s and was granted an operating license in 1976. SL2 was constructed in the late 1970s and early 1980s, and was granted an operating license in 1983. The information bases were the amendments to the contracts between FP and L and its architect-engineer/constructor, i.e., the ''scope changes''. These were examined and analyzed for causation, i.e., NRC-initiated or utility-initiated, and all of the costs associated with scope changes of each type were aggregated to determine the contribution of each. Although the scope changes accounted for only a small fraction of the total cost growth for either plant, they were still used to determine the relative contribution of regulatory growth to cost growth. Unexpectedly, a significantly higher percentage of out-of-scope work (approximately 84%) was attributable to NRC regulatory requirements for SL1 than SL2 (approximately 47%). These results were unexpected because SL2 was constructed during a period in which regulation was considered to be particularly unstable. However, a more detailed analysis of causation indicates that a shift occurred from an ad-hoc mode of regulation in the early 1970s to a more prescriptive process in the late 1970s. Thus the number of formal NRC requirements may not be a valid measure of regulatory stability

  14. Smart grid demonstrators and experiments in France: Economic assessments of smart grids. Challenges, methods, progress status and demonstrators; Contribution of 'smart grid' demonstrators to electricity transport and market architectures; Challenges and contributions of smart grid demonstrators to the distribution network. Focus on the integration of decentralised production; Challenges and contributions of smart grid demonstrators to the evolution of providing-related professions and to consumption practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudret, Thierry; Belhomme, Regine; Nekrassov, Andrei; Chartres, Sophie; Chiappini, Florent; Drouineau, Mathilde; Hadjsaid, Nouredine; Leonard, Cedric; Bena, Michel; Buhagiar, Thierry; Lemaitre, Christian; Janssen, Tanguy; Guedou, Benjamin; Viana, Maria Sebastian; Malarange, Gilles; Hadjsaid, Nouredine; Petit, Marc; Lehec, Guillaume; Jahn, Rafael; Gehain, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    This publication proposes a set of four articles which give an overview of challenges and contributions of smart grid demonstrators for the French electricity system according to different perspectives and different stakeholders. These articles present the first lessons learned from these demonstrators in terms of technical and technological innovations, of business and regulation models, and of customer behaviour and acceptance. More precisely, the authors discuss economic assessments of smart grids with an overview of challenges, methods, progress status and existing smart grid programs in the World, comment the importance of the introduction of intelligence at hardware, software and market level, highlight the challenges and contributions of smart grids for the integration of decentralised production, and discuss how smart grid demonstrators impact providing-related professions and customer consumption practices

  15. Assessing the Fatty Acid, Carotenoid, and Tocopherol Compositions of Amaranth and Quinoa Seeds Grown in Ontario and Their Overall Contribution to Nutritional Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yao; Li, Xihong; Chen, Peter X; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Ronghua; Hernandez, Marta; Draves, Jamie; Marcone, Massimo F; Tsao, Rong

    2016-02-10

    Various fatty acids, tocopherols, carotenoids, and their respective antioxidant contributions in 7 amaranth seed and 11 quinoa seed samples along with a new evaluation method are reported. The lipid yield was 6.98-7.22% in amaranth seeds and 6.03-6.74% in quinoa seeds, with unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) being the predominant fatty acids, 71.58-72.44% in amaranth seeds and 81.44-84.49% in quinoa seeds, respectively. Carotenoids, mainly lutein and zeaxanthin, are confirmed for the first time in amaranth seeds, while β-carotene is reported first in quinoa seeds. The predominant tocopherols in amaranth seeds are δ- and α-tocopherol, whereas γ- and α-tocopherol are the primary tocopherols in quinoa seeds. UFAs, carotenoids, and tocopherols showed good correlation with antioxidant activity. All of the amaranth seeds demonstrated lower overall lipophilic quality than quinoa seeds, with the AS1 and QS10 cultivars providing the highest scores for amaranth and quinoa seeds, respectively. Results from this study will contribute to developing quinoa seeds and related functional foods with increased benefits.

  16. Generic Safety Issue (GSI) 171 -- Engineered Safety Feature (ESF) failure from a loop subsequent to LOCA: Assessment of plant vulnerability and CDF contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Guridi, G.; Samanta, P.; Chu, L.; Yang, J.

    1998-01-01

    Generic Safety Issue 171 (GSI-171), Engineered Safety Feature (ESF) from a Loss Of Offsite Power (LOOP) subsequent to a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA), deals with an accident sequence in which a LOCA is followed by a LOOP. This issue was later broadened to include a LOOP followed by a LOCA. Plants are designed to handle a simultaneous LOCA and LOOP. In this paper, the authors address the unique issues that are involved i LOCA with delayed LOOP (LOCA/LOOP) and LOOP with delayed LOCA (LOOP/LOCA) accident sequences. LOCA/LOOP accidents are analyzed further by developing event-tree/fault-tree models to quantify their contributions to core-damage frequency (CDF) in a pressurized water reactor and a boiling water reactor (PWR and a BWR). Engineering evaluation and judgments are used during quantification to estimate the unique conditions that arise in a LOCA/LOOP accident. The results show that the CDF contribution of such an accident can be a dominant contributor to plant risk, although BWRs are less vulnerable than PWRs

  17. Multiregional environmental comparison of fossil fuel power generation-Assessment of the contribution of fugitive emissions from conventional and unconventional fossil resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, Evert A.; Ramirez, Andrea; Hertwich, Edgar G.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the influence of fugitive methane emissions from coal, natural gas, and shale gas extraction on the greenhouse gas (GHG) impacts of fossil fuel power generation through its life cycle. A multiregional hybridized life cycle assessment (LCA) model is used to evaluate

  18. The Contribution of the Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System (DPICS) Warm-Up Segments in Assessing Parent-Child Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, Jenelle R.; Niec, Larissa N.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the inclusion of uncoded segments in the Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System, an analogue observation of parent-child interactions. The relationships between warm-up and coded segments were assessed, as well as the segments' associations with parent ratings of parent and child behaviors. Sixty-nine non-referred…

  19. Landscape planning as a contribution to the assessment and finding of sites for energy facilities from an ecological and creative point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchwald, K.

    1977-01-01

    The environmental agreeability examination through landscape planning in connection with the finding of sites for power stations and their integration into area planning is explained. The procedure of landscape planning for the assessment of power station sites is also presented. (RW) [de

  20. Mercury in the mix: An in situ mesocosm approach to assess relative contributions of mercury sources to methylmercury production and bioaccumulation in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, J.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Kraus, T. E. C.; Ackerman, J.; Stumpner, E. B.; DeWild, J.; Marvin-DiPasquale, M. C.; Tate, M.; Ogorek, J.

    2014-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination is considered one of the greatest threats to the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and the San Francisco Estuary ecosystems. This threat is driven by the transformation of Hg, deposited in the Delta from erosion of upstream historic mining debris and atmospheric deposition, by native bacteria into the more toxic and biologically available form, methylmercury (MeHg), in the wetlands and sediment of the Delta. To effectively manage this threat, a quantitative understanding of the relative contribution of the different Hg sources to MeHg formation is needed. Mass balance estimates indicate as much as 99% of the Hg entering the Delta arrives via tributary inputs. Of the tributary Hg load, approximately 90% is adsorbed to suspended particles from tributary discharge and 10% is in the dissolved fraction, potentially of atmospheric origin. In comparison, the remaining 1-2% of the Hg entering the Delta arrives through direct atmospheric deposition (wet and dry). The relative importance of these sources to MeHg production within the Delta is not linearly related to the mass inputs because atmospherically-derived Hg is believed to be more reactive than sediment-bound Hg with respect to MeHg formation. We conducted an in situ mesocosm dosing experiment where different Hg sources to the Delta (direct atmospheric, dissolved riverine and suspended sediment) were "labeled" with different stable Hg isotopes and added to mesocosms within four different wetlands. Mercury isotopes added with the streambed sediments were equilibrated in sealed containers for six months; while the Hg isotopes associated with the precipitation and river water were equilibrated for 24 hours prior to use. After adding the isotopes, we sampled the water column, overlying air, bottom sediments and fish (Gambusia) at time intervals up to 30 days. Preliminary results from this experiment suggest that aqueous Hg sources (Hg introduced with precipitation and filtered river water) are 10

  1. Prospective assessment for 2020-2050 of the contribution of the biomass energy sector to national emissions of atmospheric pollutants. Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-11-01

    As biomass combustion has an impact on atmospheric pollution which must be reduced according to national commitments of air quality improvement, this prospective study aims at assessing the economic and technical conditions of a well managed development of biomass energy which would allow commitments on climate change attenuation and air quality improvement to be met. A model has been developed to assess future emissions due to combustion, and a method has also been developed to interpret its results. The study takes into account a geographic distribution of energy consumptions (natural gas, fuel, biomass, and so on) in relationship with energy and electricity production in different sectors (housing, office building, industry, urban heating). Pollutant emissions are based on the emission factor of these various sources, and take into account the existence of specific processes like de-dusting or NOx catalytic reduction. Prospective data are obtained for various emissions: greenhouse gases, organic compounds, particles, NOx, SO 2 , and metals

  2. Contribution of insurance data to cost assessment of coastal flood damage to residential buildings: insights gained from Johanna (2008) and Xynthia (2010) storm events

    OpenAIRE

    C. André; D. Monfort; M. Bouzit; C. Vinchon

    2013-01-01

    There are a number of methodological issues involved in assessing damage caused by natural hazards. The first is the lack of data, due to the rarity of events and the widely different circumstances in which they occur. Thus, historical data, albeit scarce, should not be neglected when seeking to build ex-ante risk management models. This article analyses the input of insurance data for two recent severe coastal storm events, to examine what causal relationships may exist bet...

  3. Demand assessment and price-elasticity estimation of quality-improved primary health care in Palestine: a contribution from the contingent valuation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataria, Awad; Luchini, Stéphane; Daoud, Yousef; Moatti, Jean-Paul

    2007-10-01

    This paper proposes a new methodology to assess demand and price-elasticity for health care, based on patients' stated willingness to pay (WTP) values for certain aspects of health care quality improvements. A conceptual analysis of how respondents consider contingent valuation (CV) questions allowed us to specify a probability density function of stated WTP values, and consequently, to model a demand function for quality-improved health care, using a parametric survival approach. The model was empirically estimated using a CV study intended to assess patients' values for improving the quality of primary health care (PHC) services in Palestine. A random sample of 499 individuals was interviewed following medical consultation in four PHC centers. Quality was assessed using a multi-attribute approach; and respondents valued seven specific quality improvements using a decomposed valuation scenario and a payment card elicitation technique. Our results suggest an inelastic demand at low user fees levels, and when the price-increase is accompanied with substantial quality-improvements. Nevertheless, demand becomes more and more elastic if user fees continue to rise. On the other hand, patients' reactions to price-increase turn out to depend on their level of income. Our results can be used to design successful health care financing strategies that include a consideration of patients' preferences and financial capacities. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Report on the behalf of the Parliamentary Office for the Assessment of Scientific and Technological Choices on innovation and climate change: the contribution of the scientific and technological assessment. Report of the public hearing of the 24 September 2015, and considerations come out of debates for the purpose of a transmission to the COP21 negotiators. National Assembly Nr 3206, Senate Nr 147

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Deaut, Jean-Yves; SIDO, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    This document reports the various contributions presented during a public hearing organised by the French Parliamentary Office for Scientific and Technological Choices (OPECST) with the support of the European Parliamentary Technology Assessment (EPTA), notably to prepare the Paris Conference on Climate (COP21). The contributions and their associated round tables addressed the following topics: Innovation as a tool to promote energy efficiency in the building sector, Innovations to feed mankind while reducing greenhouse gas emissions, Innovation in the transport sector and sustainable mobility, and citizen involvement in the management of smart technologies. For each of these topics, some contributions propose prospective elements

  5. A Randomized Trial to Assess the Contribution of a Novel Thorax Support Vest (Corset) in Preventing Mechanical Complications of Median Sternotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimmi, Philippe P; Sabbatini, Maurizio; Kapetanakis, Emmanouil I; Cantone, Silvia; Ferraz, Marcus V; Cannas, Mario; Tesler, Ugo F

    2017-06-01

    Mechanical complications of median sternotomy may cause significant morbidity and mortality in cardiac surgical patients. This study was aimed at assessing the role of Posthorax support vest (Epple, Inc., Vienna, Austria) in the prevention of sternal complications and the improvement of anatomical healing in patients at high risk for mechanical sternal dehiscence after cardiac surgery by mean of median sternotomy. A prospective, randomized, study was performed and 310 patients with predisposing factors for sternal dehiscence after sternotomy for cardiac surgery were included. The patients were divided into two groups: patients who received the Posthorax support vest after surgery, and patients who did not. Primary variables assessed included the incidence of mechanical sternal complications, the quality of sternal healing, the rate of re-operation, the duration of hospitalization, rate and duration of hospital, re-admission for sternal complications. Secondary variables assessed were the post-operative pain, the number of requests for supplemental analgesia and the quality of life measured by means of the EQ-5D format. Patients using vest demonstrated a lower incidence of mechanical sternal complications, a better anatomical sternum healing, lower hospital stay, no re-operations for sternal dehiscence before discharge and lower re-admissions for mechanical sternal complication. In addition, patients using a vest reported a better quality of life with better freedom from limitations in mobility, self-care, and pain. Our findings demonstrate that the use of the Posthorax vest reduces post-sternotomy mechanical complications and improves the healing of the sternotomy, the clinical course, and the post-operative quality of life.

  6. Assessment of exposure to atmospheric particles: contribution of individual measurements; Evaluation de l'exposition aux particules atmospheriques: apport des mesures individuelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosqueron, L.; Momas, I. [Universite Rene Descartes, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, Lab. d' Hygiene et de Sante Publique, 75 - Paris (France); Le Moullec, Y. [Laboratoire d' Hygiene de la Ville de Paris, 75 (France); Momas, I. [Direction de l' Action Sociale, de l' Enfance et de la Sante, Cellule Epidemiologie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-02-01

    There are few studies of individual exposure to atmospheric particles, because of the relatively bulky and noisy sampling devices. These personalized measurements, generally associated with micro-environmental measurements, are aimed at studying the distribution of individual exposure and identifying its main determinants. Methods: A synopsis of the methods implemented in such studies (populations studied, measurements strategies, questionnaires on time-activity patterns, residences and work place) was detailed. The major results are presented and discussed from an epidemiological point of view. Results: The individual exposure measured with portable devices generally were generally found to be higher than the estimations made by combining micro-environmental (outdoor and indoor) measurements and data from time-activity diaries. The difference between results of these two approaches, known as 'personal cloud', remains poorly understood. Correlations between individual measurements and outdoor concentrations are weak; nevertheless, day to day variations of these two series of measurements are better related. The main determinants of individual exposure to particles are identified but a quantification of their contribution remains difficult, except for passive smoking. Conclusion: Personal measurements cannot be used to estimate particle exposure in large scale epidemiological studies. This exposure needs to be modeled. (authors)

  7. Assessment of liver circulation by quantitative scintiangiography: Evaluation of the relative contribution of the hepatic arterial and portal venous blood flows to liver perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molino, G.; Squadrone, E.; Baccegal, M.; Magnani, C.

    1989-01-01

    Quantitative hepatic scintiangiography was previously used for evaluating the relative contribution of hepatic arterial and portal venous blood flows to the hepatic circulation. The present study compares 3 different procedures (automatic and manual integration, and slope fitting methods) for analyzing the hepatic time activity curves obtained after bolus i.v. injection of 370 MBq 99m Tc-diethylentriaminopentacetic acid. Twenty five subjects were studied: Five controls, ten cirrhotics, and ten portal hypertensive patients previously submitted to side to side portacaval anastomosis. The correspondence between results given by the different methods was satisfactory only in shunted patients, and the reproducibility of computed parameters was quite poor for all procedures. Accordingly, none of the methods can be considered as supporting reliable quantitative pathophysiological evaluations. However, the hepatic arterial/portal venous flow ratio was found to be increased in liver cirrhosis and in shunted patients and therefore, in spite of the limitations underlined before and of the absence of data on the reproducibility of consecutive injections, hepatic scintiangiography may be of some clinical utility. (orig.)

  8. Assessing the Contribution of Unstable Employment to Mortality in Posttransition Russia: Prospective Individual-Level Analyses From the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobak, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We used the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) to investigate associations between employment, socioeconomic position, and mortality. Methods. Data were from working-age respondents in 8 rounds (1994–2003) of the RLMS. We measured associations between education, occupation, unemployment, and insecure employment and mortality with Cox proportional hazards analyses. Results. Of 4465 men and 4158 women who were currently employed, 251 men and 34 women died. A third of employed respondents experienced wage arrears, and 10% experienced compulsory leave and payment in consumer goods. Insecure employment, more common among the less-educated and manual workers, fluctuated with macroeconomic measures. Mortality was significantly associated with payment in consumer goods among men (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.46; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 2.07), compulsory unpaid leave among women (HR = 3.79; 95% CI = 1.82, 7.88), and male unemployment (HR = 1.88; 95% CI = 1.38, 2.55). Associations with death within 1 year of entry were generally somewhat stronger than the association with mortality over the whole study period. Conclusions. Unemployment and job insecurity predicted mortality, suggesting that they contributed to Russia's high mortality during the transition from communism. PMID:19696378

  9. Contribution to the unified formalization of functional and organizational knowledge of an industrial system for a quantitative risks assessment and an estimation of barrier impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leger, A.

    2009-01-01

    Since the industrial revolution, human being develops industrial systems to meet his production needs. But the operation of such facilities involves risks for the users. As a result the risk analysis has expanded during these last decades. Indeed, if in the Seventies, the studies were focused on the technological failures, several major accidents have underlined the importance of human and organisational factors in their occurrence, and have changed this initial way of thinking. So that in the Eighties, different methods allowing an identification of these factors have emerged. These studies, implying different fields of expertise, were so far independently built and applied. This fact leads to sector-based analyses and prevents from having an overall view of the studied situation. But, recently, some methodologies propose to (partially) integrate these different methods to study risks in a global approach. This lack of integration constitutes nowadays a scientific and industrial issue for the owners of critical systems. Thus, our contribution concerns the development of a methodology enabling the risk analyses of socio-technical systems in operation. This kind of analysis aims to probabilistically estimate risks for helping the decision-making. In that way, we propose an approach that enables to formalise, integrate, characterise and represent the different knowledge of the system. Our model allows an identification of the whole of the causes that lead to the occurrence of a critical event, by considering the technical data of the system and the data related to human operators and organisational features. (author)

  10. Assessing the sublethal effects of in-river concentrations of parameters contributing to cumulative effects in the Athabasca river basin using a fathead minnow bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Allison J; Dubé, Monique G; Rozon-Ramilo, Lisa D

    2013-03-01

    The Athabasca River basin, located in Alberta, Canada, covers 157, 000 km(2) and holds significant cultural and economic importance. Recent research assessed changes in several water quality and quantity parameters that have changed both spatially (along the river continuum) and temporally (pre-development and present day) in the Athabasca River Basin. In particular, parameters such as salinity and dissolved sulphate have changed significantly across the Athabasca River mainstem over the past five decades. Further laboratory testing has linked concentrations of these parameters to changes in fathead minnow reproduction. Research is required to determine whether these changes observed in the laboratory can be applied to actual in-river conditions. The objectives of the present study were to twofold: assess changes in fathead minnow response metrics (i.e., condition, liver and gonad size, egg production, and gill histology) associated with increasing concentrations of salinity and dissolved sulphate and determine whether sublethal effect thresholds established in laboratory experiments correspond to actual in-river concentrations using water from the mouth and headwaters of the Athabasca River. Three dose-response experiments (NaCl, SO4, and water sampled from the mouth of the Athabasca River) were conducted at Jasper National Park, Alberta, Canada. Significant increases in mean eggs per female per day occurred at the 50% treatment for the mouth experiment and thresholds previously developed in the laboratory were verified. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  11. Using nitrogen concentration and isotopic composition in lichens to spatially assess the relative contribution of atmospheric nitrogen sources in complex landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, P; Barros, C; Augusto, S; Pereira, M J; Máguas, C; Branquinho, C

    2017-11-01

    Reactive nitrogen (Nr) is an important driver of global change, causing alterations in ecosystem biodiversity and functionality. Environmental assessments require monitoring the emission and deposition of both the amount and types of Nr. This is especially important in heterogeneous landscapes, as different land-cover types emit particular forms of Nr to the atmosphere, which can impact ecosystems distinctively. Such assessments require high spatial resolution maps that also integrate temporal variations, and can only be feasibly achieved by using ecological indicators. Our aim was to rank land-cover types according to the amount and form of emitted atmospheric Nr in a complex landscape with multiple sources of N. To do so, we measured and mapped nitrogen concentration and isotopic composition in lichen thalli, which we then related to land-cover data. Results suggested that, at the landscape scale, intensive agriculture and urban areas were the most important sources of Nr to the atmosphere. Additionally, the ocean greatly influences Nr in land, by providing air with low Nr concentration and a unique isotopic composition. These results have important consequences for managing air pollution at the regional level, as they provide critical information for modeling Nr emission and deposition across regional as well as continental scales. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Spatio-temporal earthquake risk assessment for the Lisbon Metropolitan Area - A contribution to improving standard methods of population exposure and vulnerability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Sérgio; Aubrecht, Christoph

    2010-05-01

    The recent 7.0 M earthquake that caused severe damage and destruction in parts of Haiti struck close to 5 PM (local time), at a moment when many people were not in their residences, instead being in their workplaces, schools, or churches. Community vulnerability assessment to seismic hazard relying solely on the location and density of resident-based census population, as is commonly the case, would grossly misrepresent the real situation. In particular in the context of global (climate) change, risk analysis is a research field increasingly gaining in importance whereas risk is usually defined as a function of hazard probability and vulnerability. Assessment and mapping of human vulnerability has however generally been lagging behind hazard analysis efforts. Central to the concept of vulnerability is the issue of human exposure. Analysis of exposure is often spatially tied to administrative units or reference objects such as buildings, spanning scales from the regional level to local studies for small areas. Due to human activities and mobility, the spatial distribution of population is time-dependent, especially in metropolitan areas. Accurately estimating population exposure is a key component of catastrophe loss modeling, one element of effective risk analysis and emergency management. Therefore, accounting for the spatio-temporal dynamics of human vulnerability correlates with recent recommendations to improve vulnerability analyses. Earthquakes are the prototype for a major disaster, being low-probability, rapid-onset, high-consequence events. Lisbon, Portugal, is subject to a high risk of earthquake, which can strike at any day and time, as confirmed by modern history (e.g. December 2009). The recently-approved Special Emergency and Civil Protection Plan (PEERS) is based on a Seismic Intensity map, and only contemplates resident population from the census as proxy for human exposure. In the present work we map and analyze the spatio-temporal distribution of

  13. In-duct removal of mercury from coal-fired power plant flue gas by activated carbon: assessment of entrained flow versus wall surface contributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scala, F.; Chirone, R.; Lancia, A. [CNR, Naples (Italy). Institute for Research on Combustion

    2008-12-15

    In-duct mercury capture efficiency by activated carbon from coal-combustion flue gas was investigated. To this end, elemental mercury capture experiments were conducted at 100 C in a purposely designed 65-mm ID labscale pyrex apparatus operated as an entrained flow reactor. Gas residence times were varied between 0.7 and 2.0 s. Commercial-powdered activated carbon was continuously injected in the reactor and both mercury concentration and carbon elutriation rate were followed at the outlet. Transient mercury concentration profiles at the outlet showed that steady-state conditions were reached in a time interval of 15-20 min, much longer than the gas residence time in the reactor. Results indicate that the influence of the walls is non-negligible in determining the residence time of fine carbon particles in the adsorption zone, because of surface deposition and/or the establishment of a fluid-dynamic boundary layer near the walls. Total mercury capture efficiencies of 20-50% were obtained with carbon injection rates in the range 0.07-0.25 g/min. However, only a fraction of this capture was attributable to free-flowing carbon particles, a significant contribution coming from activated carbon staying near the reactor walls. Entrained bed experiments at lab-scale conditions are probably not properly representative of full-scale conditions, where the influence of wall interactions is lower. Moreover, previously reported entrained flow lab-scale mercury capture data should be reconsidered by taking into account the influence of particle-wall interactions.

  14. Identification of a novel CHEK2 variant and assessment of its contribution to the risk of breast cancer in French Canadian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, David J; Chen, Long Qi; Ghadirian, Parviz; Hamel, Nancy; Zhang, Phil; Rossiny, Vanessa; Cardinal, Guy; Robidoux, André; Tonin, Patricia N; Rousseau, Francois; Narod, Steven A; Foulkes, William D

    2008-08-15

    BRCA1 and BRCA2 account for the majority of the known familial breast cancer risk, however, the impact of other cancer susceptibility genes largely remains to be elucidated. Checkpoint Kinase 2 (CHEK2) is an important signal transducer of cellular responses to DNA damage, whose defects have been associated with an increase in breast cancer risk. Previous studies have identified low penetrance CHEK2 alleles such as 1100delC and I157T, as well as variants such as S428F in the Ashkenazi Jewish population and IVS2 + 1G>A in the Polish population. No founder allele has been specifically identified in the French Canadian population. The 14 coding exons of CHEK2 were fully sequenced for variant alleles in a panel of 25 affected French Canadian women and 25 healthy controls. Two variants were identified of which one novel variant was further screened for in an additional panel of 667 breast cancer patients and 6548 healthy controls. Additional genotyping was conducted using allele specific PCR and a restriction digest assay. Significance of amino acid substitutions were deduced by employing comparative analysis techniques. Two variants were identified: the previously reported silent substitution 252A>G (E84E) and the novel missense variant, 1217G>A (R406H). No significant difference in allele distribution between French Canadian women with breast cancer and healthy controls was observed (3/692, 0.43% vs. 22/6573, 0.33%, respectively, P = 0.73). The novel CHEK2 missense variant identified in this study, R406H, is unlikely to contribute to breast cancer risk in French Canadian women.

  15. Identification of a novel CHEK2 variant and assessment of its contribution to the risk of breast cancer in French Canadian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardinal Guy

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BRCA1 and BRCA2 account for the majority of the known familial breast cancer risk, however, the impact of other cancer susceptibility genes largely remains to be elucidated. Checkpoint Kinase 2 (CHEK2 is an important signal transducer of cellular responses to DNA damage, whose defects have been associated with an increase in breast cancer risk. Previous studies have identified low penetrance CHEK2 alleles such as 1100delC and I157T, as well as variants such as S428F in the Ashkenazi Jewish population and IVS2 + 1G>A in the Polish population. No founder allele has been specifically identified in the French Canadian population. Methods The 14 coding exons of CHEK2 were fully sequenced for variant alleles in a panel of 25 affected French Canadian women and 25 healthy controls. Two variants were identified of which one novel variant was further screened for in an additional panel of 667 breast cancer patients and 6548 healthy controls. Additional genotyping was conducted using allele specific PCR and a restriction digest assay. Significance of amino acid substitutions were deduced by employing comparative analysis techniques. Results Two variants were identified: the previously reported silent substitution 252A>G (E84E and the novel missense variant, 1217G>A (R406H. No significant difference in allele distribution between French Canadian women with breast cancer and healthy controls was observed (3/692, 0.43% vs. 22/6573, 0.33%, respectively, P = 0.73. Conclusion The novel CHEK2 missense variant identified in this study, R406H, is unlikely to contribute to breast cancer risk in French Canadian women.

  16. Looking beyond fertilizer: Assessing the contribution of nitrogen from hydrologic inputs and organic matter to plant growth in the cranberry agroecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackpoole, S.M.; Kosola, K.R.; Workmaster, B.A.A.; Guldan, N.M.; Browne, B.A.; Jackson, R. D.

    2011-01-01

    Even though nitrogen (N) is a key nutrient for successful cranberry production, N cycling in cranberry agroecosystems is not completely understood. Prior research has focused mainly on timing and uptake of ammonium fertilizer, but the objective of our study was to evaluate the potential for additional N contributions from hydrologic inputs (flooding, irrigation, groundwater, and precipitation) and organic matter (OM). Plant biomass, soil, surface and groundwater samples were collected from five cranberry beds (cranberry production fields) on four different farms, representing both upland and lowland systems. Estimated average annual plant uptake (63.3 ?? 22.5 kg N ha-1 year-1) exceeded total average annual fertilizer inputs (39.5 ?? 11.6 kg N ha-1 year-1). Irrigation, precipitation, and floodwater N summed to an average 23 ?? 0.7 kg N ha-1 year-1, which was about 60% of fertilizer N. Leaf and stem litterfall added 5.2 ?? 1.2 and 24.1 ?? 3.0 kg N ha-1 year-1 respectively. The estimated net N mineralization rate from the buried bag technique was 5 ?? 0.2 kg N ha-1 year-1, which was nearly 15% of fertilizer N. Dissolved organic nitrogen represented a significant portion of the total N pool in both surface water and soil samples. Mixed-ion exchange resin core incubations indicated that 80% of total inorganic N from fertilizer, irrigation, precipitation, and mineralization was nitrate, and approximately 70% of recovered inorganic N from groundwater was nitrate. There was a weak but significant negative relationship between extractable soil ammonium concentrations and ericoid mycorrhizal colonization (ERM) rates (r = -0.22, P fertilizer N in order to maximize the benefits of ERM fungi in actively mediating N cycling in cranberry agroecosystems. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  17. Contribution of (222)Rn-bearing water to indoor radon and indoor air quality assessment in hot spring hotels of Guangdong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Gang; Wang, Xinming; Chen, Diyun; Chen, Yongheng

    2011-04-01

    This study investigates the contribution of radon ((222)Rn)-bearing water to indoor (222)Rn in thermal baths. The (222)Rn concentrations in air were monitored in the bathroom and the bedroom. Particulate matter (PM, both PM(10) and PM(2.5)) and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) were also monitored with portable analyzers. The bathrooms were supplied with hot spring water containing 66-260 kBq m(-3) of (222)Rn. The results show that the spray of hot spring water from the bath spouts is the dominant mechanism by which (222)Rn is released into the air of the bathroom, and then it diffuses into the bedroom. Average (222)Rn level was 110-410% higher in the bedrooms and 510-1200% higher in the bathrooms compared to the corresponding average levels when there was no use of hot spring water. The indoor (222)Rn levels were influenced by the (222)Rn concentrations in the hot spring water and the bathing times. The average (222)Rn transfer coefficients from water to air were 6.2 × 10(-4)-4.1 × 10(-3). The 24-h average levels of CO(2) and PM(10) in the hotel rooms were 89% and 22% higher than the present Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) standard of China. The main particle pollutant in the hotel rooms was PM(2.5). Radon and PM(10) levels in some hotel rooms were at much higher concentrations than guideline levels, and thus the potential health risks to tourists and especially to the hotel workers should be of great concern, and measures should be taken to lower inhalation exposure to these air pollutants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The contribution of environmental monitoring in the epidemiological assessment of exogenous risk. The experience of ARPA in the Emilia-Romagna Region of Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavatti, A; Lauriola, P

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the Emilia Romagna-Region Agency for Prevention and Environment (ARPA) is to define and improve interactions among the various prevention departments of the Emilia-Romagna Local Health Authorities in order to attain better knowledge about the health status of the population by using epidemiology and etiology studies, as well as predictive models. This is the basis for the environmental health risk assessment strategy of ARPA. The priority activity areas for ARPA are: urban areas, environmental and health effects of traffic (atmospheric pollution and noise pollution); industrial areas (Ravenna chemical plants, Modena/Reggio-Emilia ceramic factories and Ferrara chemical plants); high-speed trains; pesticides; asbestos; and pollution of the Adriatic Sea.

  19. Contribution of the subjective factor to assessment of damage to health caused by the major risk factors at territories contaminated with radionuclides a nd clean territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knizhnikov, V.A.; Shandala, N.K.; Pukhovskij, N.N.; Petukhova, Eh.V.

    1996-01-01

    The study was aimed at elucidation of the subjective opinion of the population about risk factors and the role of this opinion as a pathogenic factor. Questionnaires were distributed among 2 groups (n=61 and n=65) living at territories contaminated after the accident (town of Novozybkov) and at clean control territories (town of Dyatkov) the groups were matches for age, sex, and educational level. The respondents were to rank twelve possible sources leading to untimely death in the order of their decreasing hazard for human and to express their attitude to 14 diseases. The results helped define the mean index of leaf, which should be taken into consideration when assessing the hazards of living at territories contaminated with radionuclides. It is noteworthy that fear of diseases is a more sensitive characteristic than fear of this or that unfavorable factor. The index of fear is 1.4 times higher in a contaminated region than in the control one [ru

  20. Assessment of Local Control after Laser-Induced Thermotherapy of Liver Metastases from Colorectal Cancer: Contribution of FDG-PET in Patients with Clinical Suspicion of Progressive Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denecke, T.; Steffen, I.; Hildebrandt, B.; Ruehl, R.; Streitparth, F.; Lehmk uhl, L.; Langrehr, J.; Ricke, J.; Amthauer, H.; Lopez Haenninen, E.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Management of patients after locally ablative treatment of liver metastases requires exact information about local control and systemic disease status. To fulfill these requirements, whole-body imaging using positron emission tomography with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) is a promising alternative to morphologic imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Purpose: To evaluate FDG-PET for the assessment of local control and systemic disease in patients with clinical suspicion of tumor progression after laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) of colorectal liver metastases. Material and Methods: In 21 patients with suspicion of progressive disease after LITT, whole-body FDG-PET was performed. The presence of viable tumor within treated lesions, new liver metastases, and extrahepatic disease was evaluated visually and semi quantitatively (maximal standard uptake value [SUVmax], tumor-to-normal ratio [T/N]). The standard of reference was histopathology (n = 25 lesions) and/or clinical follow-up (>12 months) including contrast-enhanced MRI of the liver. Results: Among 54 metastases treated with LITT, 29 had residual tumor. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of SUVmax (area under the curve (AUC) 0.990) and T/N (AUC 0.968) showed a significant discrimination level of negative or positive lesion status with an equal accuracy of 94% (51/54). The overall accuracy of visual FDG-PET was 96% (52/54), with one false-negative lesion among six examined within 3 days after LITT, and one false-positive lesion examined 54 days after LITT. In the detection of new intra- and extrahepatic lesions, FDG-PET resulted in correct alteration of treatment strategy in 43% of patients (P = 0.007). Conclusion: FDG-PET is a promising tool for the assessment of local control and whole-body restaging in patients with clinical suspicion of tumor progression after locally ablative treatment of colorectal liver metastases with LITT

  1. Using nitrogen concentration and isotopic composition in lichens to spatially assess the relative contribution of atmospheric nitrogen sources in complex landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinho, P.; Barros, C.; Augusto, S.; Pereira, M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Reactive nitrogen (Nr) is an important driver of global change, causing alterations in ecosystem biodiversity and functionality. Environmental assessments require monitoring the emission and deposition of both the amount and types of Nr. This is especially important in heterogeneous landscapes, as different land-cover types emit particular forms of Nr to the atmosphere, which can impact ecosystems distinctively. Such assessments require high spatial resolution maps that also integrate temporal variations, and can only be feasibly achieved by using ecological indicators. Our aim was to rank land-cover types according to the amount and form of emitted atmospheric Nr in a complex landscape with multiple sources of N. To do so, we measured and mapped nitrogen concentration and isotopic composition in lichen thalli, which we then related to land-cover data. Results suggested that, at the landscape scale, intensive agriculture and urban areas were the most important sources of Nr to the atmosphere. Additionally, the ocean greatly influences Nr in land, by providing air with low Nr concentration and a unique isotopic composition. These results have important consequences for managing air pollution at the regional level, as they provide critical information for modeling Nr emission and deposition across regional as well as continental scales. - Highlights: • Which land-cover types are reactive nitrogen sources or sinks at a landscape level? • Nitrogen concentration and isotopic composition were analyzed in lichens. • This allowed determination of the main nitrogen sources: agricultural and urban areas. • Marine sources provided persistent low concentrations of reactive nitrogen. • The typical signature of each source was also determined. - Reactive-nitrogen concentration and isotopic composition in lichens were used to rank Nr sources at a landscape level.

  2. Do Clinical and Radiological Assessments Contribute to the Understanding of Biomaterials? Results From a Prospective Randomized Sinus Augmentation Split-Mouth Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Jonas; Korzinskas, Tadas; Chia, Poju; Maawi, Sarah Al; Eichler, Katrin; Sader, Robert A; Ghanaati, Shahram

    2018-02-01

    The present prospective randomized split-mouth trial reports on the 3-year clinical and radiological follow-up investigation of implants placed 7 months after sinus augmentation with 2 different bone substitute materials. The aim of the study was to complete the histologic observation of cellular reactions by analyses of the implants and the volumetric changes of the augmented bone substitute materials. A sinus augmentation split-mouth trial was performed in 14 patients with the synthetic bone substitute material Nanobone (NB) and the xenogeneic Bio-Oss (BO). Changes in volume and density of the augmented biomaterials were investigated by analysis of computed tomography scans, taken immediately after augmentation and after 7 months. Clinical implant parameters were assessed after 3 years of loading. Both bone substitute materials underwent nonsignificant volume reduction and significant increase in bone density over an integration period of 7 months. No significant differences concerning volume and bone density were observed between the groups. Three years after loading, 51 of 53 implants were in situ with no peri-implant infections, and only a few soft-tissue variations were present. The present prospective randomized study showed that no differences could be observed clinically and radiologically. Accordingly, it seems that both biomaterials, independent of their physicochemical composition, enable clinical success and long-time stability for dental implants. Interestingly, the histological results showed distinct differences in cellular reactions: While the xenogeneic BO induced a mild tissue reaction with only few multinucleated giant cells and comparably low vascularization, the synthetic NB induced a multinucleated giant cell-triggered tissue reaction with an increase of vascularization. Thus, the present study showed that a combination analysis-histological, clinical, and radiological-is necessary for a detailed assessment of a biomaterial's quality for

  3. Contribution of job-exposure matrices for exposure assessment in occupational safety and health monitoring systems: application from the French national occupational disease surveillance and prevention network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florentin, Arnaud; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Paris, Christophe

    2017-08-01

    To detect new hazards ("signals"), occupational health monitoring systems mostly rest on the description of exposures in the jobs held and on reports by medical doctors; these are subject to declarative bias. Our study aims to assess whether job-exposure matrices (JEMs) could be useful tools for signal detection by improving exposure reporting. Using the French national occupational disease surveillance and prevention network (RNV3P) data from 2001 to 2011, we explored the associations between disease and exposure prevalence for 3 well-known pathology/exposure couples and for one debatable couple. We compared the associations measured when using physicians' reports or applying the JEMs, respectively, for these selected diseases and across non-selected RNV3P population or for cases with musculoskeletal disorders, used as two reference groups; the ratio of exposure prevalences according to the two sources of information were computed for each disease category. Our population contained 58,188 subjects referred with pathologies related to work. Mean age at diagnosis was 45.8 years (95% CI 45.7; 45.9), and 57.2% were men. For experts, exposure ratios increase with knowledge on exposure causality. As expected, JEMs retrieved more exposed cases than experts (exposure ratios between 12 and 194), except for the couple silica/silicosis, but not for the MSD control group (ratio between 0.2 and 0.8). JEMs enhanced the number of exposures possibly linked with some conditions, compared to experts' assessment, relative to the whole database or to a reference group; they are less likely to suffer from declarative bias than reports by occupational health professionals.

  4. Assessment of the Contribution of Poultry and Pig Production to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in South Korea Over the Last 10 Years (2005 through 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waewaree Boontiam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to estimate the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG, namely methane (CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O, and carbon dioxide (CO2 from poultry and pig production in South Korea over the last 10 years (2005 through 2014. The calculations of GHG emissions were based on Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC guidelines. Over the study period, the CH4 emission from manure management decreased in layer chickens, nursery to finishing pigs and gestating to lactating sows, but there was a gradual increase in CH4 emission from broiler chickens and male breeding pigs. Both sows and nursery to finishing pigs were associated with greater emissions from enteric fermentation than the boars, especially in 2009. Layer chickens produced lower direct and indirect N2O emissions from 2009 to 2014, whereas the average direct and indirect N2O emissions from manure management for broiler chickens were 12.48 and 4.93 Gg CO2-eq/yr, respectively. Annual direct and indirect N2O emissions for broiler chickens tended to decrease in 2014. Average CO2 emission from direct on-farm energy uses for broiler and layer chickens were 46.62 and 136.56 Gg CO2-eq/yr, respectively. For pig sectors, the N2O emission from direct and indirect sources gradually increased, but they decreased for breeding pigs. Carbon dioxide emission from direct on-farm energy uses reached a maximum of 53.93 Gg CO2-eq/yr in 2009, but this total gradually declined in 2010 and 2011. For boars, the greatest CO2 emission occurred in 2012 and was 9.44 Gg CO2-eq/yr. Indirect N2O emission was the largest component of GHG emissions in broilers. In layer chickens, the largest contributing factor to GHG emissions was CO2 from direct on-farm energy uses. For pig production, the largest component of GHG emissions was CH4 from manure management, followed by CO2 emission from direct on-farm energy use and CH4 enteric fermentation emission, which accounted for 8.47, 2.85, and 2.82 Gg-CO2/yr

  5. Contribution of {sup 222}Rn-bearing water to indoor radon and indoor air quality assessment in hot spring hotels of Guangdong, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Gang, E-mail: songg2005@126.co [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang Xinming [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Chen Diyun; Chen Yongheng [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2011-04-15

    This study investigates the contribution of radon ({sup 222}Rn)-bearing water to indoor {sup 222}Rn in thermal baths. The {sup 222}Rn concentrations in air were monitored in the bathroom and the bedroom. Particulate matter (PM, both PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) were also monitored with portable analyzers. The bathrooms were supplied with hot spring water containing 66-260 kBq m{sup -3} of {sup 222}Rn. The results show that the spray of hot spring water from the bath spouts is the dominant mechanism by which {sup 222}Rn is released into the air of the bathroom, and then it diffuses into the bedroom. Average {sup 222}Rn level was 110-410% higher in the bedrooms and 510-1200% higher in the bathrooms compared to the corresponding average levels when there was no use of hot spring water. The indoor {sup 222}Rn levels were influenced by the {sup 222}Rn concentrations in the hot spring water and the bathing times. The average {sup 222}Rn transfer coefficients from water to air were 6.2 x 10{sup -4}-4.1 x 10{sup -3}. The 24-h average levels of CO{sub 2} and PM{sub 10} in the hotel rooms were 89% and 22% higher than the present Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) standard of China. The main particle pollutant in the hotel rooms was PM{sub 2.5}. Radon and PM{sub 10} levels in some hotel rooms were at much higher concentrations than guideline levels, and thus the potential health risks to tourists and especially to the hotel workers should be of great concern, and measures should be taken to lower inhalation exposure to these air pollutants. - Highlights: {yields} {sup 222}Rn-bearing water is the main contributor to indoor radon in hot spring hotel. {yields} The PM{sub 2.5} and CO{sub 2} are also the main indoor pollutants in the hotel rooms. {yields} Higher radon and PM levels might have significant negative health effects to human. {yields} The radon transfer coefficients are consistent with the published data.

  6. Contribution of 222Rn-bearing water to indoor radon and indoor air quality assessment in hot spring hotels of Guangdong, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Gang; Wang Xinming; Chen Diyun; Chen Yongheng

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the contribution of radon ( 222 Rn)-bearing water to indoor 222 Rn in thermal baths. The 222 Rn concentrations in air were monitored in the bathroom and the bedroom. Particulate matter (PM, both PM 10 and PM 2.5 ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) were also monitored with portable analyzers. The bathrooms were supplied with hot spring water containing 66-260 kBq m -3 of 222 Rn. The results show that the spray of hot spring water from the bath spouts is the dominant mechanism by which 222 Rn is released into the air of the bathroom, and then it diffuses into the bedroom. Average 222 Rn level was 110-410% higher in the bedrooms and 510-1200% higher in the bathrooms compared to the corresponding average levels when there was no use of hot spring water. The indoor 222 Rn levels were influenced by the 222 Rn concentrations in the hot spring water and the bathing times. The average 222 Rn transfer coefficients from water to air were 6.2 x 10 -4 -4.1 x 10 -3 . The 24-h average levels of CO 2 and PM 10 in the hotel rooms were 89% and 22% higher than the present Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) standard of China. The main particle pollutant in the hotel rooms was PM 2.5 . Radon and PM 10 levels in some hotel rooms were at much higher concentrations than guideline levels, and thus the potential health risks to tourists and especially to the hotel workers should be of great concern, and measures should be taken to lower inhalation exposure to these air pollutants. - Highlights: → 222 Rn-bearing water is the main contributor to indoor radon in hot spring hotel. → The PM 2.5 and CO 2 are also the main indoor pollutants in the hotel rooms. → Higher radon and PM levels might have significant negative health effects to human. → The radon transfer coefficients are consistent with the published data.

  7. Assessment of the Contribution of Poultry and Pig Production to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in South Korea Over the Last 10 Years (2005 through 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boontiam, Waewaree; Shin, Yongjin; Choi, Hong Lim; Kumari, Priyanka

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to estimate the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), namely methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbon dioxide (CO2) from poultry and pig production in South Korea over the last 10 years (2005 through 2014). The calculations of GHG emissions were based on Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines. Over the study period, the CH4 emission from manure management decreased in layer chickens, nursery to finishing pigs and gestating to lactating sows, but there was a gradual increase in CH4 emission from broiler chickens and male breeding pigs. Both sows and nursery to finishing pigs were associated with greater emissions from enteric fermentation than the boars, especially in 2009. Layer chickens produced lower direct and indirect N2O emissions from 2009 to 2014, whereas the average direct and indirect N2O emissions from manure management for broiler chickens were 12.48 and 4.93 Gg CO2-eq/yr, respectively. Annual direct and indirect N2O emissions for broiler chickens tended to decrease in 2014. Average CO2 emission from direct on-farm energy uses for broiler and layer chickens were 46.62 and 136.56 Gg CO2-eq/yr, respectively. For pig sectors, the N2O emission from direct and indirect sources gradually increased, but they decreased for breeding pigs. Carbon dioxide emission from direct on-farm energy uses reached a maximum of 53.93 Gg CO2-eq/yr in 2009, but this total gradually declined in 2010 and 2011. For boars, the greatest CO2 emission occurred in 2012 and was 9.44 Gg CO2-eq/yr. Indirect N2O emission was the largest component of GHG emissions in broilers. In layer chickens, the largest contributing factor to GHG emissions was CO2 from direct on-farm energy uses. For pig production, the largest component of GHG emissions was CH4 from manure management, followed by CO2 emission from direct on-farm energy use and CH4 enteric fermentation emission, which accounted for 8.47, 2.85, and 2.82 Gg-CO2/yr, respectively. The

  8. Assessment of nitric oxide (NO) redox reactions contribution to nitrous oxide (N2 O) formation during nitrification using a multispecies metabolic network model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Garcia, Octavio; Chandran, Kartik; Villas-Boas, Silas G; Singhal, Naresh

    2016-05-01

    Over the coming decades nitrous oxide (N2O) is expected to become a dominant greenhouse gas and atmospheric ozone depleting substance. In wastewater treatment systems, N2O is majorly produced by nitrifying microbes through biochemical reduction of nitrite (NO2(-)) and nitric oxide (NO). However it is unknown if the amount of N2O formed is affected by alternative NO redox reactions catalyzed by oxidative nitrite oxidoreductase (NirK), cytochromes (i.e., P460 [CytP460] and 554 [Cyt554 ]) and flavohemoglobins (Hmp) in ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (AOB and NOB, respectively). In this study, a mathematical model is developed to assess how N2O formation is affected by such alternative nitrogen redox transformations. The developed multispecies metabolic network model captures the nitrogen respiratory pathways inferred from genomes of eight AOB and NOB species. The performance of model variants, obtained as different combinations of active NO redox reactions, was assessed against nine experimental datasets for nitrifying cultures producing N2O at different concentration of electron donor and acceptor. Model predicted metabolic fluxes show that only variants that included NO oxidation to NO2(-) by CytP460 and Hmp in AOB gave statistically similar estimates to observed production rates of N2O, NO, NO2(-) and nitrate (NO3(-)), together with fractions of AOB and NOB species in biomass. Simulations showed that NO oxidation to NO2(-) decreased N2O formation by 60% without changing culture's NO2(-) production rate. Model variants including NO reduction to N2O by Cyt554 and cNor in NOB did not improve the accuracy of experimental datasets estimates, suggesting null N2O production by NOB during nitrification. Finally, the analysis shows that in nitrifying cultures transitioning from dissolved oxygen levels above 3.8 ± 0.38 to <1.5 ± 0.8 mg/L, NOB cells can oxidize the NO produced by AOB through reactions catalyzed by oxidative NirK. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Contributions for the measurement of the impact of the training for work policy: A proposal for the assessment of the apprenticeship contract in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Segura Ortiz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The apprenticeship contract (AC is a training for work strategy that combines training in vocational aspects with a practical phase in a company. This dual training model presents advantages in terms of the improvement of workers’ employability perspectives and income, together with a reduced employee selection risk. Given the formal purpose of this training instrument in Colombia, there is an interest in evaluating its results in order to improve and correct the instrument’s current performance and to optimize its effective impact. Here, the authors offer a proposal for the assessment of the impact of ACs, based on the measurement of differences in levels of income of individuals who, having chosen technical vocational training, chose this contract as an alternative in the process’ practical phase. The text also includes a review of the relevant literature on AC, a description of the type of statistical model that has to be used in the evaluation, and a description of the data necessary to help the company advance.

  10. Landslide susceptibility assessment in the Upper Orcia Valley (Southern Tuscany, Italy through conditional analysis: a contribution to the unbiased selection of causal factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Vergari

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work the conditional multivariate analysis was applied to evaluate landslide susceptibility in the Upper Orcia River Basin (Tuscany, Italy, where widespread denudation processes and agricultural practices have a mutual impact. We introduced an unbiased procedure for causal factor selection based on some intuitive statistical indices. This procedure is aimed at detecting among different potential factors the most discriminant ones in a given study area. Moreover, this step avoids generating too small and statistically insignificant spatial units by intersecting the factor maps. Finally, a validation procedure was applied based on the partition of the landslide inventory from multi-temporal aerial photo interpretation.

    Although encompassing some sources of uncertainties, the applied susceptibility assessment method provided a satisfactory and unbiased prediction for the Upper Orcia Valley. The results confirmed the efficiency of the selection procedure, as an unbiased step of the landslide susceptibility evaluation. Furthermore, we achieved the purpose of presenting a conceptually simple but, at the same time, effective statistical procedure for susceptibility analysis to be used as well by decision makers in land management.

  11. The Grimsel radionuclide migration experiment - a contribution to raising confidence in the validity of solute transport models used in performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frick, U.

    1995-01-01

    The safety assessment of radioactive waste repositories is to provide confidence that the predictive models utilized are applicable for the specific repository systems. Nagra has carried out radionuclide migration experiments at the Grimsel underground test site (Switzerland) for testing of currently used methodologies, data bases, conceptual approaches and codes for modeling radionuclide transport through fractured host rocks. Specific objectives included: identification of the relevant transport processes, to test the extrapolation of laboratory sorption data to field conditions, and to demonstrate the applicability of currently used methodology for conceptualizing or building realistic transport models. Field tests and transport modeling work are complemented by an extensive laboratory program. The field experimental activities focused predominantly on establishing appropriate conditions for identifying relevant transport mechanisms on the scale of a few meters, aiming at full recovery of injected tracers, simple geometry and long-term stability of induced dipole flow fields. A relatively simple homogeneous, dual-porosity advection/diffusion model was built with input from a state of the art petrographic characterisation of the water conducting feature. It was possible to calibrate the model from conservative tracer breakthrough curves. (J.S.). 21 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Contribution to aroma characteristics of mutton process flavor from the enzymatic hydrolysate of sheep bone protein assessed by descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography olfactometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Ping; Tian, Honglei; Zhang, Xiaoming; Wang, Liping

    2013-03-15

    Changes in the aroma characteristics of mutton process flavors (MPFs) prepared from sheep bone protein hydrolysates (SBPHs) with different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) were evaluated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), and descriptive sensory analysis (DSA). Five attributes (muttony, meaty, roasted, mouthful, and simulate) were selected to assess MPFs. The results of DSA showed a distinct difference among the control sample MPF0 and other MPF samples with added SBPHs for different DHs of almost all sensory attributes. MPF5 (DH 25.92%) was the strongest in the muttony, meaty, and roasted attributes, whereas MPF6 (DH 30.89%) was the strongest in the simulate and roasted attributes. Thirty-six compounds were identified as odor-active compounds for the evaluation of the sensory characteristics of MPFs via GC-MS-O analysis. The results of correlation analysis among odor-active compounds, molecular weight, and DSA further confirmed that the SBPH with a DH range of 25.92-30.89% may be a desirable precursor for the sensory characteristics of MPF. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. An assessment of the role mass market demand response could play in contributing to the management of variable generation integration issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappers, Peter; Mills, Andrew; Goldman, Charles; Wiser, Ryan; Eto, Joseph H.

    2012-01-01

    The penetration of wind and solar generating resources is expected to dramatically increase in the United States over the coming years. It is widely understood that large scale deployment of these types of renewable energy sources (e.g., wind, solar) that have variable and less predictable production characteristics than traditional thermal resources poses integration challenges for bulk power system operators. At present, bulk power system operators primarily utilize strategies that rely on existing thermal generation resources and improved wind and solar energy production forecasts to manage this uncertainty; a host of additional options are also envisioned for the near future including demand response (DR). There are well-established bodies of research that examine variable generation integration issues as well as demand response potential; but, the existing literature that provides a comparative assessment of the two neither treats this topic comprehensively nor in a highly integrated fashion. Thus, this paper seeks to address these missing pieces by considering the full range of opportunities and challenges for mass market DR rates and programs to support integration of variable renewable generation. - Highlights: ► Mass market demand response can help manage the integration of renewable resources. ► To be more effective, retail electricity rates must apply contemporaneous prices. ► Demand response programs will require shorter duration and more frequent events. ► Mass market customers will likely need to accept control technology. ► Market rules and regulatory policies must change to expand demand response's role.

  14. Mobile phone tracking: in support of modelling traffic-related air pollution contribution to individual exposure and its implications for public health impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new approach to assess the impact of traffic-related air pollution on public health by mapping personal trajectories using mobile phone tracking technology in an urban environment. Although this approach is not based on any empirical studies, we believe that this method has great potential and deserves serious attention. Mobile phone tracking technology makes it feasible to generate millions of personal trajectories and thereby cover a large fraction of an urban population. Through analysis, personal trajectories are not only associated to persons, but it can also be associated with vehicles, vehicle type, vehicle speed, vehicle emission rates, and sources of vehicle emissions. Pollution levels can be estimated by dispersion models from calculated traffic emissions. Traffic pollution exposure to individuals can be estimated based on the exposure along the individual human trajectories in the estimated pollution concentration fields by utilizing modelling tools. By data integration, one may identify trajectory patterns of particularly exposed human groups. The approach of personal trajectories may open a new paradigm in understanding urban dynamics and new perspectives in population-wide empirical public health research. This new approach can be further applied to individual commuter route planning, land use planning, urban traffic network planning, and used by authorities to formulate air pollution mitigation policies and regulations. PMID:24188173

  15. Monitoring of fumarole discharge and CO2 soil degassing in the Azores: contribution to volcanic surveillance and public health risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Faria

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Fluid geochemistry monitoring in the Azores involves the regular sampling and analysis of gas discharges from fumaroles and measurements of CO2 diffuse soil gas emissions. Main degassing areas under monitoring are associated with hydrothermal systems of active central volcanoes in S. Miguel, Terceira and Graciosa islands. Fumarole discharge analysis since 1991 show that apart from steam these gas emissions are CO2 dominated with H2S, H2, CH4 and N2 in minor amounts. Mapping of CO2 diffuse soil emissions in S. Miguel Island lead to the conclusion that some inhabited areas are located within hazard-zones. At Furnas village, inside Furnas volcano caldera, about 62% of the 896 houses are within the CO2 anomaly, 5% being in areas of moderate to high risk. At Ribeira Seca, on the north flank of Fogo volcano, few family houses were evacuated when CO2 concentrations in the air reached 8 mol%. To assess and analyse the CO2 soil flux emissions, continuous monitoring stations were installed in S. Miguel (2, Terceira and Graciosa islands. The statistical analysis of the data showed that some meteorological parameters influence the CO2 flux. The average of CO2 flux in S. Miguel stations ranges from 250 g/m2/d at Furnas volcano to 530 g/m2/d at Fogo volcano. At Terceira Island it is about 330 g/m2/d and at Graciosa 4400 g/m2/d.

  16. mTOR-inhibitor treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma: contribution of Choi and modified Choi criteria assessed in 2D or 3D to evaluate tumor response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamuraglia, M. [Laboratoire d' Imagerie Biomedicale, Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ Paris 06, INSERM, CNRS, Paris (France); Raslan, S.; Penna, R.R.; Wagner, M. [Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, APHP UPMC, Service de Radiologie Polyvalente et Oncologique, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Elaidi, R.; Oudard, S. [APHP, Oncology Unit, Georges-Pompidou Hospital, Paris (France); Escudier, B. [Gustave-Roussy Institute, Medical Oncology Department, Villejuif (France); Slimane, K. [Novartis Pharma, Rueil-Malmaison (France); Lucidarme, O. [Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, APHP UPMC, Service de Radiologie Polyvalente et Oncologique, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Laboratoire d' Imagerie Biomedicale, Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ Paris 06, INSERM, CNRS, Paris (France)

    2016-01-15

    To determine whether 2D or 3D Choi and modified Choi (mChoi) criteria could assess the efficacy of everolimus against metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). RECIST-1.1, Choi, and mChoi criteria were applied retrospectively to analyse baseline and 2-month contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) images in 48 patients with mRCC enrolled in the everolimus arm of the French randomized double-blind multicentre phase III trial comparing everolimus versus placebo (RECORD-1). The primary endpoint was centrally reviewed progression-free survival (PFS) calculated from the initial RECORD-1 analysis. Mean attenuation was determined for 2D target lesion regions of interest drawn on CECT sections whose largest diameters had been measured, and for the 3D whole target lesion. The median PFS was 5.5 months. The median PFS for everolimus responders defined using 3D mChoi criteria was significantly longer than for non-responders (7.6 versus 5.4 months, respectively), corresponding to a hazard ratio for progression of 0.45 (95 % CI: 0.22-0.92), with respective 1-year survival rates of 31 % and 9 %. No other 2D or 3D imaging criteria at 2 months identified patients who would benefit from everolimus. At 2 months, only 3D mChoi criteria were able to identify mRCC patients with a PFS benefit from everolimus. (orig.)

  17. Assessing the contribution of borderline personality disorder and features to suicide risk in psychiatric inpatients with bipolar disorder, major depression and schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ruifan; Cohen, Lisa J; Tanis, Thachell; Qizilbash, Azra; Lopatyuk, Yana; Yaseen, Zimri S; Galynker, Igor

    2015-03-30

    Suicidal behavior often accompanies both borderline personality disorder (BPD) and severe mood disorders, and comorbidity between the two appears to further increase suicide risk. The current study aims to quantify the risk of suicidality conferred by comorbid BPD diagnosis or features in three affective disorders: major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BP) and schizoaffective disorder. One hundred forty-nine (149) psychiatric inpatients were assessed by SCID I and II, and the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale. Logistic regression analyses investigated the associations between previous suicide attempt and BPD diagnosis or features in patients with MDD, BP, and schizoaffective disorder, as well as a history of manic or major depressive episodes, and psychotic symptoms. Comorbid BPD diagnosis significantly increased suicide risk in the whole sample, and in those with MDD, BP, and history of depressive episode or psychotic symptoms. Each additional borderline feature also increased risk of past suicide attempt in these same groups (excepting BP) and in those with a previous manic episode. Of the BPD criteria, only unstable relationships and impulsivity independently predicted past suicide attempt. Overall, among patients with severe mood disorders, the presence of comorbid BPD features or disorder appears to substantially increase the risk of suicide attempts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. ASSESSMENT OF ALCOHOL USE CONTRIBUTING TO RELAPSE AND MAINTENANCE OF ABSTINENCE IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING ALCOHOL DE-ADDICTION AT A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE, HUBLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunkumar C

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Alcohol de-addiction is a cornerstone in the treatment of alcohol dependence syndrome. Following de-addiction therapy many patients relapse and only few patients maintain abstinence. The clinical, demographic variables have been reported to play an important role in the dynamics of relapse and abstinence after de-addiction in many studies, but there is no clear cut association between the variables and outcome till date, so the present study was planned. MATERIALS AND METHODS Initially, all study subjects in the study were subjected to alcohol detoxification and later to alcohol de-addiction therapy. After de-addiction patients were recalled for evaluation for period of three months. The sociodemographic data and details of clinical variables related to alcohol use were obtained in a pre-structured pro forma prepared in the Department for the purpose of the study. Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire (SADQ-C was used in the study to assess the severity of alcohol dependence in the study subjects. RESULTS There was no statistical significance result observed in relation to any demographic variables, clinical variables and outcome (relapse/abstinence to alcohol. CONCLUSION In this study, no significant association was found between sociodemographic variables, clinical variables and the outcome.

  19. Physiological, vascular and nanomechanical assessment of hybrid poplar leaf traits in micropropagated plants and plants propagated from root cuttings: A contribution to breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ďurkovič, Jaroslav; Husárová, Hana; Javoříková, Lucia; Čaňová, Ingrid; Šuleková, Miriama; Kardošová, Monika; Lukáčik, Ivan; Mamoňová, Miroslava; Lagaňa, Rastislav

    2017-09-01

    Micropropagated plants experience significant stress from rapid water loss when they are transferred from an in vitro culture to either greenhouse or field conditions. This is caused both by inefficient stomatal control of transpiration and the change to a higher light intensity and lower humidity. Understanding the physiological, vascular and biomechanical processes that allow micropropagated plants to modify their phenotype in response to environmental conditions can help to improve both field performance and plant survival. To identify changes between the hybrid poplar [Populus tremula × (Populus × canescens)] plants propagated from in vitro tissue culture and those from root cuttings, we assessed leaf performance for any differences in leaf growth, photosynthetic and vascular traits, and also nanomechanical properties of the tracheary element cell walls. The micropropagated plants showed significantly higher values for leaf area, leaf length, leaf width and leaf dry mass. The greater leaf area and leaf size dimensions resulted from the higher transpiration rate recorded for this stock type. Also, the micropropagated plants reached higher values for chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters and for the nanomechanical dissipation energy of tracheary element cell walls which may indicate a higher damping capacity within the primary xylem tissue under abiotic stress conditions. The performance of the plants propagated from root cuttings was superior for instantaneous water-use efficiency which signifies a higher acclimation capacity to stressful conditions during a severe drought particularly for this stock type. Similarities were found among the majority of the examined leaf traits for both vegetative plant origins including leaf mass per area, stomatal conductance, net photosynthetic rate, hydraulic axial conductivity, indicators of leaf midrib vascular architecture, as well as for the majority of cell wall nanomechanical traits. This research revealed that

  20. Assessment of occupational exposure to asbestos fibers: Contribution of analytical transmission electron microscopy analysis and comparison with phase-contrast microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eypert-Blaison, Céline; Romero-Hariot, Anita; Clerc, Frédéric; Vincent, Raymond

    2018-03-01

    From November 2009 to October 2010, the French general directorate for labor organized a large field-study using analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM) to characterize occupational exposure to asbestos fibers during work on asbestos containing materials (ACM). The primary objective of this study was to establish a method and to validate the feasibility of using ATEM for the analysis of airborne asbestos of individual filters sampled in various occupational environments. For each sampling event, ATEM data were compared to those obtained by phase-contrast optical microscopy (PCOM), the WHO-recommended reference technique. A total of 265 results were obtained from 29 construction sites where workers were in contact with ACM. Data were sorted depending on the combination of the ACM type and the removal technique. For each "ACM-removal technique" combination, ATEM data were used to compute statistical indicators on short, fine and WHO asbestos fibers. Moreover, exposure was assessed taking into account the use of respiratory protective devices (RPD). As in previous studies, no simple relationship was found between results by PCOM and ATEM counting methods. Some ACM, such as asbestos-containing plasters, generated very high dust levels, and some techniques generated considerable levels of dust whatever the ACM treated. On the basis of these observations, recommendations were made to measure and control the occupational exposure limit. General prevention measures to be taken during work with ACM are also suggested. Finally, it is necessary to continue acquiring knowledge, in particular regarding RPD and the dust levels measured by ATEM for the activities not evaluated during this study.

  1. Contribution of whole body F-18-FDG-PET and lymphoscintigraphy to the assessment of regional and distant metastases in cutaneous malignant melanoma. A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, M.; Freedman, N.; Marciano, R.; Moshe, S.; Chisin, R. [Hadassah Univ. Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Medical Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine; Lotem, M. [Hadassah Univ. Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Oncology; Gimon, Z. [Hadassah Univ. Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Surgery

    2000-05-01

    Aim: This pilot study describes use of whole body PET (WB PET) for staging of melanoma. WB PET in conjunction with lymphoscintigraphy (LS) for evaluating status of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) in primary melanoma was investigated with comparison to histopathological results. WB PET was also used both for primary and metastatic melanoma for screening for distant metastases, restaging and follow-up. Methods: Group I: 17 patients with primary cutaneous melanoma underwent LS, WB PET and SLN dissection. WB PET findings were compared with biopsy results at the SLN site and were used for screening for distant metastases. Group II: 17 patients with a history of melanoma underwent WB PET for follow-up and/or restaging. Results were confirmed or refuted by other radiological modalities or by biopsy of clinical follow-up. Results: Group I: Out of 20 SLNs identified by LS in the 17 patients, 18 were negative on WB PET and 2 were positive. 19/20 WB PET findings were confirmed either by histopathology or by clinical follow-up (20 mo). Accuracy was 94% for the assessment of the status of the SLN. Group II: WB PET findings altered staging and treatment in 12/17 patients and confirmed the validity of treatment in 3/17 patients. Overall, in 15/17 patients (88%), WB PET had an impact on treatment strategy. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Diese Pilot-Studie beschreibt die Anwendung der Ganzkoerper-PET (WB PET) zum Staging beim Melanom. Bei primaerem Melanom wurde WB PET in Verbindung mit der Lymphszintigraphie (LS) angewandt und mit der Histopathologie verglichen, um den Status des Sentinel Lymph Node (SLN) zu untersuchen. Zusaetzlich wurde WB PET fuer primaere und metastatische Melanome zum Screening auf Fernmetastasen, zum Restaging und zum Follow-up benutzt. Methoden: Gruppe I: 17 Patienten mit primaerem kutanem Melanom erhielten LS, WB PET und eine operative SLN-Entfernung. Die WB PET-Ergebnisse wurden mit den SLN-Biopsien verglichen und zum Screening fuer Fernmetastasen benutzt. Gruppe

  2. Final report of the study on heat networks in Ile-de-France, contributing to the elaboration of the climate-air-energy regional scheme + Judicial aspect + Economic aspect + Assessment of development potential of urban heating in Ile-de-France - Analysis document based on the study on heat networks contributing to the elaboration of the climate-air-energy regional plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-10-01

    A first report is a contribution to the elaboration of a plan aiming at the substitution of fossil energies, at the development of heat deliveries, while maintaining network economic profitability. Such a plan is based on the connection of buildings, the renovation, extension and interconnection of existing networks, and the creation of new heat networks. The study addressed technical, urban, financial, judicial and cartographic aspects. Public statistical data have been used and interviews of actors (network funders, representatives of delegating authorities, social landlords, administrations, and technical professions) have been performed. A guide of good practices is proposed regarding contract reviewing conditions, possibilities of revision of subscribed power. Prospective issues are discussed: strategic stakes and deposits, actions paths and tools, strategy and action plan. Appendices address methodologies, organisation of the geographical information system, judicial aspect with the circular of 1982, financial data and aspects. Then, a set of reports more precisely presents various aspects addressed as a contribution for the study of heat networks in Ile-de-France: the judicial aspect (present status, guide of good judicial practices), the economic aspect (present status of sale prices and costs, analysis of financing, of revision formula), and an assessment of urban heating development (context, technical aspect, analysis of the geographical information system)

  3. 2007 status of climate change: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Summary for Policy-makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, T.; Bashmakov, I.; Bernstein, L.; Bogner, J.; Bosch, P.; Dave, R.; Davidson, O.; Fisher, B.; Grubb, M.; Gupta, S.; Halsnaes, K.; Heij, B.; Kahn Ribeiro, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Levine, M.; Martino, D.; Masera Cerutti, O.; Metz, B.; Meyer, L.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Najam, A.; Nakicenovic, N.; Holger Rogner, H.; Roy, J.; Sathaye, J.; Schock, R.; Shukla, P.; Sims, R.; Smith, P.; Swart, R.; Tirpak, D.; Urge-Vorsatz, D.; Dadi, Z.

    2007-01-01

    The Working Group III contribution to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) focuses on new literature on the scientific, technological, environmental, economic and social aspects of mitigation of climate change, published since the IPCC Third Assessment Report (TAR) and the Special Reports on CO 2 Capture and Storage (SRCCS) and on Safeguarding the Ozone Layer and the Global Climate System (SROC).The main aim of this summary report is to assess options for mitigating climate change. Several aspects link climate change with development issues. This report explores these links in detail, and illustrates where climate change and sustainable development are mutually reinforcing. Economic development needs, resource endowments and mitigative and adaptive capacities differ across regions. There is no one-size-fits-all approach to the climate change problem, and solutions need to be regionally differentiated to reflect different socio-economic conditions and, to a lesser extent, geographical differences. Although this report has a global focus, an attempt is made to differentiate the assessment of scientific and technical findings for the various regions. Given that mitigation options vary significantly between economic sectors, it was decided to use the economic sectors to organize the material on short- to medium-term mitigation options. Contrary to what was done in the Third Assessment Report, all relevant aspects of sectoral mitigation options, such as technology, cost, policies etc., are discussed together, to provide the user with a comprehensive discussion of the sectoral mitigation options. The report is organised into six sections after the introduction: - Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends; - Mitigation in the short and medium term, across different economic sectors (until 2030); - Mitigation in the long-term (beyond 2030); - Policies, measures and instruments to mitigate climate change; - Sustainable development and climate change mitigation; - Gaps in

  4. Source contribution and risk assessment of airborne toxic metals by neutron activation analysis in Taejeon industrial complex area - Concentration analysis and health risk assessment of airborne toxic metals in Taejeon 1,2 industrial Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. H.; Jang, M. S.; Nam, B. H.; Yun, M. J. [Chungnam National Univ., Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    The study centers on one-year continual concentration analysis using ICP-MS and on health risk assessment of 15 airborne toxic metals in Taejeon 1,2 industrial complex. About 1-year arithmetic mean of human carcinogen, arsenic, hexavalent chromium and nickel subsulfide is 6.05, 2.40 and 2.81 ng/m{sup 3} while the mean of probable human carcinogen, beryllium, cadmium and lead is 0.06, 3.92, 145.99 ng/m{sup 3}, respectively. And the long-term arithmetic mean concentration of non-carcinogenic metal, manganese is 44.60 ng/m{sup 3}. The point risk estimate for the inhalation of carcinogenic metals is 7.0 X10{sup -5}, which is higher than a risk standard of 10{sup -5}. The risk from human carcinogens is 6.2X10{sup -5}, while that from probable human carcinogens is 8.0X10{sup -6}, respectively. About 86 % of the cancer risk is due to the inhalation of human carcinogens, arsenic and hexavalent chromium. Thus, it is necessary to properly manage both arsenic and hexavalent chromium risk in Taejeon 1,2 industrial complex. 37 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs. (Author)

  5. Quantified reliability and risk assessment methodology in safety evaluation and licensing: survey of practice and trends in E.C. countries; partial contribution in decision making, perpective of safety goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinck, W.F.

    1982-01-01

    Quantified reliability analysis of structures and systems and the quantified risk-concept is increasingly developed and applied in safety evaluation and in the licensing/regulatory process where deterministic approaches are however still predominant. A description of the types of application and a survey of the diversified opinions and the problem areas (e.g. the validity of input data, uncertainties in consequence modelling, human factors, common mode failures, etc.) are given. The significance of quantified risk assessment and comparisons, as one of the contributors in the solution to acceptability of modern technology such as nuclear power production, is discussed. Other contributions, such as benefit assessment and cost-efficiency of risk reduction, are also put into perspective within the decision-making process and in the problem of actual acceptance of new technologies. The growing need of developing and agreeing on overall safety objectives (how safe is safe enough) is finally discussed, in the light of the increasing diversity of approaches in the interconnected areas of accident hypotheses/sequences, siting parameters and technical bases for emergency planning; the latter problem being also closely connected to decisional processes for acceptability and to actual acceptance

  6. Ergonomics Contribution in Maintainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teymourian, Kiumars; Seneviratne, Dammika; Galar, Diego

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe an ergonomics contribution in maintainability. The economical designs, inputs and training helps to increase the maintainability indicators for industrial devices. This analysis can be helpful, among other cases, to compare systems, to achieve a better design regarding maintainability requirements, to improve this maintainability under specific industrial environment and to foresee maintainability problems due to eventual changes in a device operation conditions. With this purpose, this work first introduces the notion of ergonomics and human factors, maintainability and the implementation of assessment of human postures, including some important postures to perform maintenance activities. A simulation approach is used to identify the critical posture of the maintenance personnel and implements the defined postures with minimal loads on the personnel who use the equipment in a practical scenario. The simulation inputs are given to the designers to improve the workplace/equipment in order to high level of maintainability. Finally, the work concludes summarizing the more significant aspects and suggesting future research.

  7. Social Contributions in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Gyorgy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Social contributions have an important impact on payroll policy. Also, social contributions represent a significant budgetary revenue item which can be viewed at the edge between taxation and insurance. Social contributions in Romania experienced many changes which ended in 2008. Nowadays, they are within a long transaction period towards partial externalization of the insurance activity to privately managed funds. The aim of this paper is to analyse the homogeneity of Romanian social security public scheme using annual data extracted from 2002-2009.The main findings reveal that social contributions reached the pinnacle of diversification, being too many, some of them with a small contribution rates; fiscal reforms which reduced contribution rates advantaged employers, and state will be interested to externalize this activity as far private sector will be able to assume this responsibility and the budgetary effects are acceptable for the public finance.

  8. [The contribution of the clinical examination, electroencephalogram, and brain MRI in assessing the prognosis in term newborns with neonatal encephalopathy. A cohort of 30 newborns before the introduction of treatment with hypothermia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadas, V; Brasseur-Daudruy, M; Chollat, C; Pellerin, L; Devaux, A M; Marret, S

    2014-02-01

    Perinatal asphyxia complicated by hypoxic ischemic brain injury remains a source of neurological lesions. A major aim of neonatologists is to evaluate the severity of neonatal encephalopathy (NE) and to evaluate prognosis. The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of brain MRI compared to electroencephalogram (EEG) and clinical data in assessing patients' prognosis. Thirty newborns from the pediatric resuscitation unit at Rouen university hospital were enrolled in a retrospective study between January 2006 and December 2008, prior to introduction of hypothermia treatment. All 30 newborns had at least two anamnestic criteria of perinatal asphyxia, one brain MRI in the first 5 days of life and another after 7 days of life as well as an early EEG in the first 2 days of life. Then, the infants were seen in consultation to assess neurodevelopment. This study showed a relation between NE stage and prognosis. During stage 1, prognosis was good, whereas stage 3 was associated with poor neurodevelopment outcome. Normal clinical examination before the 8th day of life was a good prognostic factor in this study. There was a relationship between severity of EEG after the 5th day of life and poor outcome. During stage 2, EEG patterns varied in severity, and brain MRI provided a better prognosis. Lesions of the basal ganglia and a decreased or absent signal of the posterior limb of the internal capsule were poor prognostic factors during brain MRI. These lesions were underestimated during standard MRI in the first days of life but were visible with diffusion sequences. Cognitive impairment affected 40% of surviving children, justifying extended pediatric follow-up. This study confirms the usefulness of brain MRI as a diagnostic tool in hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy in association with clinical data and EEG tracings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Examining the Frequency and Contribution of Foods Eaten Away From Home in the Diets of 18- to 30-Year-Old Australians Using Smartphone Dietary Assessment (MYMeals): Protocol for a Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellard-Cole, Lyndal; Jung, Jisu; Kay, Judy; Rangan, Anna; Chapman, Kathy; Watson, Wendy L; Hughes, Clare; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Bauman, Adrian; Gemming, Luke; Yacef, Kalina; Koprinska, Irena; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2018-01-26

    Young Australians aged between 18 and 30 years have experienced the largest increase in the body mass index and spend the largest proportion of their food budget on fast food and eating out. Frequent consumption of foods purchased and eaten away from home has been linked to poorer diet quality and weight gain. There has been no Australian research regarding quantities, type, or the frequency of consumption of food prepared outside the home by young adults and its impact on their energy and nutrient intakes. The objective of this study was to determine the relative contributions of different food outlets (eg, fast food chain, independent takeaway food store, coffee shop, etc) to the overall food and beverage intake of young adults; to assess the extent to which food and beverages consumed away from home contribute to young adults' total energy and deleterious nutrient intakes; and to study social and physical environmental interactions with consumption patterns of young adults. A cross-sectional study of 1008 young adults will be conducted. Individuals are eligible to participate if they: (1) are aged between 18 and 30 years; (2) reside in New South Wales, Australia; (3) own or have access to a smartphone; (4) are English-literate; and (5) consume at least one meal, snack, or drink purchased outside the home per week. An even spread of gender, age groups (18 to 24 years and 25 to 30 years), metropolitan or regional geographical areas, and high and low socioeconomic status areas will be included. Participants will record all food and drink consumed over 3 consecutive days, together with location purchased and consumed in our customized smartphone app named Eat and Track (EaT). Participants will then complete an extensive demographics questionnaire. Mean intakes of energy, nutrients, and food groups will be calculated along with the relative contribution of foods purchased and eaten away from home. A subsample of 19.84% (200/1008) of the participants will complete

  10. Major contributions to science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Andre

    1991-03-15

    It may look difficult to describe the scientific contributions of Léon Van Hove, who started his career as a pure mathematician, and then a mathematical physicist, and ended it as a phenomenologist and an adseveral of Léon's students, in particular N. Hugenholtz. In this domain, his contributions were numerous and fundamental.

  11. Major contributions to science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Andre

    1991-01-01

    It may look difficult to describe the scientific contributions of Léon Van Hove, who started his career as a pure mathematician, and then a mathematical physicist, and ended it as a phenomenologist and an adseveral of Léon's students, in particular N. Hugenholtz. In this domain, his contributions were numerous and fundamental

  12. Summaries of poster contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The 10. meeting covered subjects on the application of electron microscopy in numerous fields such as biology and medicine, solid state physics, semiconductor research and production, crystallography, materials science, and chemistry of polymers. 174 summaries of poster contributions are included

  13. Isolating Age-Group Differences in Working Memory Load-Related Neural Activity: Assessing the Contribution of Working Memory Capacity Using a Partial-Trial fMRI Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ilana J.; Rivera, Hannah G.; Rypma, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies examining age-group differences in working memory load-related neural activity have yielded mixed results. When present, age-group differences in working memory capacity are frequently proposed to underlie these neural effects. However, direct relationships between working memory capacity and working memory load-related activity have only been observed in younger adults. These relationships remain untested in healthy aging. Therefore, the present study examined patterns of working memory load-related activity in 22 younger and 20 older adults and assessed the contribution of working memory capacity to these load-related effects. Participants performed a partial-trial delayed response item recognition task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. In this task, participants encoded either 2 or 6 letters, maintained them during a delay, and then indicated whether a probe was present in the memory set. Behavioral results revealed faster and more accurate responses to load 2 versus 6, with age-group differences in this load condition effect for the accuracy measure. Neuroimaging results revealed one region (medial superior frontal gyrus) that showed age-group differences in load-related activity during the retrieval period, with less (greater) neural activity for the low versus high load condition in younger (older) adults. Furthermore, for older adults, load-related activity did not vary as a function of working memory capacity. Thus, working memory-related activity varies with healthy aging, but these patterns are not due solely to working memory capacity. Neurocognitive aging theories that feature capacity will need to account for these results. PMID:23357076

  14. Isolating age-group differences in working memory load-related neural activity: assessing the contribution of working memory capacity using a partial-trial fMRI method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ilana J; Rivera, Hannah G; Rypma, Bart

    2013-05-15

    Previous studies examining age-group differences in working memory load-related neural activity have yielded mixed results. When present, age-group differences in working memory capacity are frequently proposed to underlie these neural effects. However, direct relationships between working memory capacity and working memory load-related activity have only been observed in younger adults. These relationships remain untested in healthy aging. Therefore, the present study examined patterns of working memory load-related activity in 22 younger and 20 older adults and assessed the contribution of working memory capacity to these load-related effects. Participants performed a partial-trial delayed response item recognition task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. In this task, participants encoded either 2 or 6 letters, maintained them during a delay, and then indicated whether a probe was present in the memory set. Behavioral results revealed faster and more accurate responses to load 2 versus 6, with age-group differences in this load condition effect for the accuracy measure. Neuroimaging results revealed one region (medial superior frontal gyrus) that showed age-group differences in load-related activity during the retrieval period, with less (greater) neural activity for the low versus high load condition in younger (older) adults. Furthermore, for older adults, load-related activity did not vary as a function of working memory capacity. Thus, working memory-related activity varies with healthy aging, but these patterns are not due solely to working memory capacity. Neurocognitive aging theories that feature capacity will need to account for these results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The contribution of technology to added value

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandes, António S C

    2013-01-01

    There is a wide consensus that introduction of technology to the production process contributes to an overall economic value, however, confusion between technology, knowledge and capital often makes value calculations ambiguous and non-objective. The Contribution of Technology to Added Value addresses not only this issue of definition but also provides a production model to assess the value contribution of technology within the production process. A clarification  of fundamental semantics  provides a significant taxonomy for technology dependence, and allows understanding and modeling of how knowledge, technology and capital individually contribute to production and to value adding. A new technology dependence taxonomy is proposed and assessed following chapters explaining growth models, the KTC model and technology index values. Balancing theoretical knowledge with real-world data and applications The Contribution of Technology to Added Value clarifies the issue of value adding for a range of different vie...

  16. Panel acoustic contribution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sean F; Natarajan, Logesh Kumar

    2013-02-01

    Formulations are derived to analyze the relative panel acoustic contributions of a vibrating structure. The essence of this analysis is to correlate the acoustic power flow from each panel to the radiated acoustic pressure at any field point. The acoustic power is obtained by integrating the normal component of the surface acoustic intensity, which is the product of the surface acoustic pressure and normal surface velocity reconstructed by using the Helmholtz equation least squares based nearfield acoustical holography, over each panel. The significance of this methodology is that it enables one to analyze and rank relative acoustic contributions of individual panels of a complex vibrating structure to acoustic radiation anywhere in the field based on a single set of the acoustic pressures measured in the near field. Moreover, this approach is valid for both interior and exterior regions. Examples of using this method to analyze and rank the relative acoustic contributions of a scaled vehicle cabin are demonstrated.

  17. Fisher's Contributions to Statistics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 9. Fisher's Contributions to Statistics. T Krishnan. General Article Volume 2 Issue 9 September 1997 pp 32-37. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/09/0032-0037. Author Affiliations.

  18. Newton's Contributions to Optics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 12. Newton's Contributions to Optics. Arvind Kumar. General Article Volume 11 Issue 12 December 2006 pp 10-20. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/011/12/0010-0020. Keywords.

  19. The contribution of epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, P. van den; Voorrips, L.; Hertz-Picciotto, I.; Shuker, D.; Boeing, H.; Speijers, G.; Guittard, C.; Kleiner, J.; Knowles, M.; Wolk, A.; Goldbohm, A.

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies directly contribute data on risk (or benefit) in humans as the investigated species, and in the full food intake range normally encountered by humans. This paper starts with introducing the epidemiologic approach, followed by a discussion of perceived differences between

  20. Using a source-receptor approach to characterise VOC behaviour in a French urban area influenced by industrial emissions. Part II: source contribution assessment using the Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badol, Caroline; Locoge, Nadine; Galloo, Jean-Claude

    2008-01-25

    In Part I of this study (Badol C, Locoge N, Leonardis T, Gallo JC. Using a source-receptor approach to characterise VOC behaviour in a French urban area influenced by industrial emissions, Part I: Study area description, data set acquisition and qualitative data analysis of the data set. Sci Total Environ 2007; submitted as companion manuscript.) the study area, acquisition of the one-year data set and qualitative analysis of the data set have been described. In Part II a source profile has been established for each activity present in the study area: 6 profiles (urban heating, solvent use, natural gas leakage, biogenic emissions, gasoline evaporation and vehicle exhaust) have been extracted from literature to characterise urban sources, 7 industrial profiles have been established via canister sampling around industrial plants (hydrocarbon cracking, oil refinery, hydrocarbon storage, lubricant storage, lubricant refinery, surface treatment and metallurgy). The CMB model is briefly described and its implementation is discussed through the selection of source profiles and fitting species. Main results of CMB modellings for the Dunkerque area are presented. (1) The daily evolution of source contributions for the urban wind sector shows that the vehicle exhaust source contribution varies between 40 and 55% and its relative increase at traffic rush hours is hardly perceptible. (2) The relative contribution of vehicle exhaust varies from 55% in winter down to 30% in summer. This decrease is due to the increase of the relative contribution of hydrocarbon storage source reaching up to 20% in summer. (3) The evolution of source contributions with wind directions has confirmed that in urban wind sectors the contribution of vehicle exhaust dominate with around 45-55%. For the other wind sectors that include some industrial plants, the contribution of industrial sources is around 60% and could reach 80% for the sector 280-310 degrees , which corresponds to the most dense

  1. Assessing Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Lynn Arthur

    Assessment not only places value, it also identifies which elements to value. In this era of accountability, the constituents of educational assessment are not just students, faculty, and administrators, but also parents, legislators, journalists, and the public. For these broader audiences, simple numerical indicators of student performance take…

  2. Abstracts of contributed papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains 571 abstracts of contributed papers to be presented during the Twelfth US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. Abstracts are arranged in the order in which they fall in the program -- the main sessions are listed chronologically in the Table of Contents. The Author Index is in alphabetical order and lists each paper number (matching the schedule in the Final Program) with its corresponding page number in the book.

  3. Contributions to statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Mahalanobis, P C

    1965-01-01

    Contributions to Statistics focuses on the processes, methodologies, and approaches involved in statistics. The book is presented to Professor P. C. Mahalanobis on the occasion of his 70th birthday. The selection first offers information on the recovery of ancillary information and combinatorial properties of partially balanced designs and association schemes. Discussions focus on combinatorial applications of the algebra of association matrices, sample size analogy, association matrices and the algebra of association schemes, and conceptual statistical experiments. The book then examines latt

  4. Contributions to sampling statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Conti, Pier; Ranalli, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This book contains a selection of the papers presented at the ITACOSM 2013 Conference, held in Milan in June 2013. ITACOSM is the bi-annual meeting of the Survey Sampling Group S2G of the Italian Statistical Society, intended as an international  forum of scientific discussion on the developments of theory and application of survey sampling methodologies and applications in human and natural sciences. The book gathers research papers carefully selected from both invited and contributed sessions of the conference. The whole book appears to be a relevant contribution to various key aspects of sampling methodology and techniques; it deals with some hot topics in sampling theory, such as calibration, quantile-regression and multiple frame surveys, and with innovative methodologies in important topics of both sampling theory and applications. Contributions cut across current sampling methodologies such as interval estimation for complex samples, randomized responses, bootstrap, weighting, modeling, imputati...

  5. Systemic risk contributions: a credit portfolio approach

    OpenAIRE

    Düllmann, Klaus; Puzanova, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    We put forward a Merton-type multi-factor portfolio model for assessing banks' contributions to systemic risk. This model accounts for the major drivers of banks' systemic relevance: size, default risk and correlation of banks' assets as a proxy for interconnectedness. We measure systemic risk in terms of the portfolio expected shortfall (ES). Banks' (marginal) risk contributions are calculated based on partial derivatives of the ES in order to ensure a full risk allocation among institutions...

  6. Thomas Young's contributions to geometrical optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, David A; Charman, W Neil

    2011-07-01

    In addition to his work on physical optics, Thomas Young (1773-1829) made several contributions to geometrical optics, most of which received little recognition in his time or since. We describe and assess some of these contributions: Young's construction (the basis for much of his geometric work), paraxial refraction equations, oblique astigmatism and field curvature, and gradient-index optics. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2011 Optometrists Association Australia.

  7. Modeling Change in Large-Scale Longitudinal Studies of Educational Growth: Four Decades of Contributions to the Assessment of Educational Growth. ETC R&D Scientific and Policy Contributions Series. ETS SPC-12-01. Research Report No. RR-12-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Donald A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a history of ETS's role in developing assessment instruments and psychometric procedures for measuring change in large-scale national assessments funded by the Longitudinal Studies branch of the National Center for Education Statistics. It documents the innovations developed during more than 30 years of working with…

  8. Modeling Change in Large-Scale Longitudinal Studies of Educational Growth: Four Decades of Contributions to the Assessment of Educational Growth. Research Report. ETS RR-12-04. ETS R&D Scientific and Policy Contributions Series. ETS SPC-12-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Donald A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a history of ETS's role in developing assessment instruments and psychometric procedures for measuring change in large-scale national assessments funded by the Longitudinal Studies branch of the National Center for Education Statistics. It documents the innovations developed during more than 30 years of working with…

  9. Comparison of VOC measurements made by PTR-MS, adsorbent tubes–GC-FID-MS and DNPH derivatization–HPLC during the Sydney Particle Study, 2012: a contribution to the assessment of uncertainty in routine atmospheric VOC measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Dunne

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding uncertainty is essential for utilizing atmospheric volatile organic compound (VOC measurements in robust ways to develop atmospheric science. This study describes an inter-comparison of the VOC data, and the derived uncertainty estimates, measured with three independent techniques (PTR-MS, proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry; GC-FID-MS, gas chromatography with flame-ionization and mass spectrometric detection; and DNPH–HPLC, 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivatization followed by analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography during routine monitoring as part of the Sydney Particle Study (SPS campaign in 2012. Benzene, toluene, C8 aromatics, isoprene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were selected for the comparison, based on objective selection criteria from the available data. Bottom-up uncertainty analyses were undertaken for each compound and each measurement system. Top-down uncertainties were quantified via the inter-comparisons. In all seven comparisons, the correlations between independent measurement techniques were high with R2 values with a median of 0.92 (range 0.75–0.98 and small root mean square of the deviations (RMSD of the observations from the regression line with a median of 0.11 (range 0.04–0.23 ppbv. These results give a high degree of confidence that for each comparison the response of the two independent techniques is dominated by the same constituents. The slope and intercept as determined by reduced major axis (RMA regression gives a different story. The slopes varied considerably with a median of 1.25 and a range of 1.16–2.01. The intercepts varied with a median of 0.04 and a range of −0.03 to 0.31 ppbv. An ideal comparison would give a slope of 1.00 and an intercept of 0. Some sources of uncertainty that are poorly quantified by the bottom-up uncertainty analysis method were identified, including: contributions of non-target compounds to the measurement of the target compound for

  10. Comparison of VOC measurements made by PTR-MS, adsorbent tubes-GC-FID-MS and DNPH derivatization-HPLC during the Sydney Particle Study, 2012: a contribution to the assessment of uncertainty in routine atmospheric VOC measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Erin; Galbally, Ian E.; Cheng, Min; Selleck, Paul; Molloy, Suzie B.; Lawson, Sarah J.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding uncertainty is essential for utilizing atmospheric volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements in robust ways to develop atmospheric science. This study describes an inter-comparison of the VOC data, and the derived uncertainty estimates, measured with three independent techniques (PTR-MS, proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry; GC-FID-MS, gas chromatography with flame-ionization and mass spectrometric detection; and DNPH-HPLC, 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivatization followed by analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography) during routine monitoring as part of the Sydney Particle Study (SPS) campaign in 2012. Benzene, toluene, C8 aromatics, isoprene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were selected for the comparison, based on objective selection criteria from the available data. Bottom-up uncertainty analyses were undertaken for each compound and each measurement system. Top-down uncertainties were quantified via the inter-comparisons. In all seven comparisons, the correlations between independent measurement techniques were high with R2 values with a median of 0.92 (range 0.75-0.98) and small root mean square of the deviations (RMSD) of the observations from the regression line with a median of 0.11 (range 0.04-0.23 ppbv). These results give a high degree of confidence that for each comparison the response of the two independent techniques is dominated by the same constituents. The slope and intercept as determined by reduced major axis (RMA) regression gives a different story. The slopes varied considerably with a median of 1.25 and a range of 1.16-2.01. The intercepts varied with a median of 0.04 and a range of -0.03 to 0.31 ppbv. An ideal comparison would give a slope of 1.00 and an intercept of 0. Some sources of uncertainty that are poorly quantified by the bottom-up uncertainty analysis method were identified, including: contributions of non-target compounds to the measurement of the target compound for benzene, toluene and isoprene by

  11. Jesuits' Contribution to Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udías, Agustín

    1996-10-01

    Starting in the middle of the nineteenth century, as part of their scientific tradition, Jesuits founded a considerable number of meteorological observatories throughout the world. In many countries, Jesuits established and maintained the first meteorological stations during the period from 1860 to 1950. The Jesuits' most important contribution to atmospheric science was their pioneer work related to the study and forecast of tropical hurricanes. That research was carried out at observatories of Belén (Cuba), Manila (Philippines), and Zikawei (China). B. Viñes, M. Decheyrens, J. Aigué, and C.E. Deppermann stood out in this movement.

  12. Examining suicide: imaging's contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Elizabeth J

    2015-01-01

    For many people, the death of hope leads inexorably to the conclusion that the only viable solution, the only way to put an end to unendurable pain, is suicide. What leads a person to commit this final, desperate act, and how might we predict, intervene, and prevent suicide? Health care workers, including radiologic technologists, can play an important role in detecting warning signs in patients and in better understanding what factors may lead to suicide. Although certain forms of suicide such as suicide bombings and assisted suicide are beyond its scope, this article explores medical imaging's contributions to the study of this phenomenon.

  13. 2007 status of climate change: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Summary for Policy-makers; Bilan 2007 des changements climatiques: l'attenuation des changements climatiques. Contribution du Groupe de travail 3 au quatrieme rapport d'evaluation du Groupe d'Experts Intergouvernemental sur l'Evolution du Climat (GIEC). Resume a l'attention des decideurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, T.; Bashmakov, I.; Bernstein, L.; Bogner, J.; Bosch, P.; Dave, R.; Davidson, O.; Fisher, B.; Grubb, M.; Gupta, S.; Halsnaes, K.; Heij, B.; Kahn Ribeiro, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Levine, M.; Martino, D.; Masera Cerutti, O.; Metz, B.; Meyer, L.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Najam, A.; Nakicenovic, N.; Holger Rogner, H.; Roy, J.; Sathaye, J.; Schock, R.; Shukla, P.; Sims, R.; Smith, P.; Swart, R.; Tirpak, D.; Urge-Vorsatz, D.; Dadi, Z

    2007-07-01

    The Working Group III contribution to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) focuses on new literature on the scientific, technological, environmental, economic and social aspects of mitigation of climate change, published since the IPCC Third Assessment Report (TAR) and the Special Reports on CO{sub 2} Capture and Storage (SRCCS) and on Safeguarding the Ozone Layer and the Global Climate System (SROC).The main aim of this summary report is to assess options for mitigating climate change. Several aspects link climate change with development issues. This report explores these links in detail, and illustrates where climate change and sustainable development are mutually reinforcing. Economic development needs, resource endowments and mitigative and adaptive capacities differ across regions. There is no one-size-fits-all approach to the climate change problem, and solutions need to be regionally differentiated to reflect different socio-economic conditions and, to a lesser extent, geographical differences. Although this report has a global focus, an attempt is made to differentiate the assessment of scientific and technical findings for the various regions. Given that mitigation options vary significantly between economic sectors, it was decided to use the economic sectors to organize the material on short- to medium-term mitigation options. Contrary to what was done in the Third Assessment Report, all relevant aspects of sectoral mitigation options, such as technology, cost, policies etc., are discussed together, to provide the user with a comprehensive discussion of the sectoral mitigation options. The report is organised into six sections after the introduction: - Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends; - Mitigation in the short and medium term, across different economic sectors (until 2030); - Mitigation in the long-term (beyond 2030); - Policies, measures and instruments to mitigate climate change; - Sustainable development and climate change mitigation; - Gaps in

  14. 2007 status of climate change: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Summary for Policy-makers; Bilan 2007 des changements climatiques: l'attenuation des changements climatiques. Contribution du Groupe de travail 3 au quatrieme rapport d'evaluation du Groupe d'Experts Intergouvernemental sur l'Evolution du Climat (GIEC). Resume a l'attention des decideurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, T; Bashmakov, I; Bernstein, L; Bogner, J; Bosch, P; Dave, R; Davidson, O; Fisher, B; Grubb, M; Gupta, S; Halsnaes, K; Heij, B; Kahn Ribeiro, S; Kobayashi, S; Levine, M; Martino, D; Masera Cerutti, O; Metz, B; Meyer, L; Nabuurs, G J; Najam, A; Nakicenovic, N; Holger Rogner, H; Roy, J; Sathaye, J; Schock, R; Shukla, P; Sims, R; Smith, P; Swart, R; Tirpak, D; Urge-Vorsatz, D; Dadi, Z

    2007-07-01

    The Working Group III contribution to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) focuses on new literature on the scientific, technological, environmental, economic and social aspects of mitigation of climate change, published since the IPCC Third Assessment Report (TAR) and the Special Reports on CO{sub 2} Capture and Storage (SRCCS) and on Safeguarding the Ozone Layer and the Global Climate System (SROC).The main aim of this summary report is to assess options for mitigating climate change. Several aspects link climate change with development issues. This report explores these links in detail, and illustrates where climate change and sustainable development are mutually reinforcing. Economic development needs, resource endowments and mitigative and adaptive capacities differ across regions. There is no one-size-fits-all approach to the climate change problem, and solutions need to be regionally differentiated to reflect different socio-economic conditions and, to a lesser extent, geographical differences. Although this report has a global focus, an attempt is made to differentiate the assessment of scientific and technical findings for the various regions. Given that mitigation options vary significantly between economic sectors, it was decided to use the economic sectors to organize the material on short- to medium-term mitigation options. Contrary to what was done in the Third Assessment Report, all relevant aspects of sectoral mitigation options, such as technology, cost, policies etc., are discussed together, to provide the user with a comprehensive discussion of the sectoral mitigation options. The report is organised into six sections after the introduction: - Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends; - Mitigation in the short and medium term, across different economic sectors (until 2030); - Mitigation in the long-term (beyond 2030); - Policies, measures and instruments to mitigate climate change; - Sustainable development and climate change mitigation; - Gaps in

  15. Assessment of social anxiety in first episode psychosis using the Liebowitz Social Anxiety scale as a self-report measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romm, K L; Rossberg, J I; Berg, A O; Hansen, C F; Andreassen, O A; Melle, I

    2011-03-01

    Social anxiety is a common problem in psychotic disorders. The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Self-Rating version (LSAS-SR) is a widely used instrument to capture different aspects of social anxiety, but its psychometric properties have not been tested in this patient group. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the psychometric properties of the LSAS-SR in patients with first episode psychosis, to investigate whether it differentiated between active and passive social withdrawal and to test which clinical factors contributed to current level of social anxiety. A total of 144 first episode psychosis patients from the ongoing Thematically Organized Psychosis (TOP) study were included at the time of first treatment. Diagnoses were set according to the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID-1) for DSM-IV. A factor analysis was carried out and the relationship of social anxiety to psychotic and general symptomatology measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was evaluated. Possible contributors to social anxiety were analyzed using multiple hierarchic regression analysis. The factor analysis identified three subscales: public performance, social interaction and observation. All three subscales showed satisfactory psychometric properties, acceptable convergent and discriminate properties, and confirmed previous findings in social anxiety samples. Self-esteem explained a significant amount of the variance in social anxiety, even after adjusting for the effects of delusions, suspiciousness and depression. The study shows that the LSAS-SR can be used in this patient group, that social anxiety is strongly related to both behavioral social avoidance and to self-esteem. The results support the use of this measure in assessment of social anxiety in both clinical settings and in research. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Defined contribution health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronstin, P

    2001-03-01

    This Issue Brief discusses the emerging issue of "defined contribution" (DC) health benefits. The term "defined contribution" is used to describe a wide variety of approaches to the provision of health benefits, all of which have in common a shift in the responsibility for payment and selection of health care services from employers to employees. DC health benefits often are mentioned in the context of enabling employers to control their outlay for health benefits by avoiding increases in health care costs. DC health benefits may also shift responsibility for choosing a health plan and the associated risks of choosing a plan from employers to employees. There are three primary reasons why some employers currently are considering some sort of DC approach. First, they are once again looking for ways to keep their health care cost increases in line with overall inflation. Second, some employers are concerned that the public "backlash" against managed care will result in new legislation, regulations, and litigation that will further increase their health care costs if they do not distance themselves from health care decisions. Third, employers have modified not only most employee benefit plans, but labor market practices in general, by giving workers more choice, control, and flexibility. DC-type health benefits have existed as cafeteria plans since the 1980s. A cafeteria plan gives each employee the opportunity to determine the allocation of his or her total compensation (within employer-defined limits) among various employee benefits (primarily retirement or health). Most types of DC health benefits currently being discussed could be provided within the existing employment-based health insurance system, with or without the use of cafeteria plans. They could also allow employees to purchase health insurance directly from insurers, or they could drive new technologies and new forms of risk pooling through which health care services are provided and financed. DC health

  17. Contributing to Functionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Törpel, Bettina

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is the design of computer supported joint action spaces. It is argued against a view of functionality as residing in computer applications. In such a view the creation of functionality is equivalent to the creation of computer applications. Functionality, in the view...... advocated in this paper, emerges in the specific dynamic interplay of actors, objectives, structures, practices and means. In this view, functionality is the result of creating, harnessing and inhabiting computer supported joint action spaces. The successful creation and further development of a computer...... supported joint action space comprises a whole range of appropriate design contributions. The approach is illustrated by the example of the creation of the computer supported joint action space "exchange network of voluntary union educators". As part of the effort a group of participants created...

  18. Contributing from the margins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chimirri, Niklas Alexander

    empirical study, I focused on kindergarten children’s first-person perspectives on the electronic media technologies they deemed subjectively relevant for conducting everyday life in the practice of their kindergarten. The concept of the children’s perspectives opens possibilities for transcending...... of the practice researcher when engaging with her/his potential co-researchers and the investigated, socio-materially mediated practice. The paper will argue that making sense of first-person perspectives – here on conducting a life with media technologies – presupposes that the researcher conceptualizes him....../herself as a contributor to an investigated practice, as inextricably entangled with the conducts of life of the others in relation to the conditions in practice. Doing research in the kindergarten thus becomes a mutual and collective endeavor, to which pedagogues, parents, children, and the researcher contribute. Even...

  19. Spent Fuel Dissolution and Source Term Modelling in Safety Assessment. Report from a Workshop. Synthesis and extended abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-05-15

    This report describes a workshop that was organised by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) for assessment of the handling of near-field radionuclide retention processes by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). The general objective with this type of meeting is to improve the knowledge and awareness of recent developments and to provide preliminary review comments. A number of SKB reports provided the general background for the workshop discussions. One report addresses the release of radionuclides from spent fuel, another the concentration limits related to radionuclide solubility and a third buffer radionuclide sorption and migration parameters. These reports comprise a basis for the handling of the spent fuel, solubility and sorption processes in new complete safety assessment SR-Can. The discussion and analysis of these background reports at the workshop therefore provide an essential element of preparation for the planned review of SR-Can. The review comments provided in this report are nonetheless of a preliminary character since the SR-Can report was not available at the time of the workshop and details about the incorporation of various potential safety features into the entirety of safety assessment were not known. The present report sets out the detailed objectives and format of the workshop in Section 2. Section 3 provides a high-level overview of processes that need to be taken into account. In Section 4, there is a brief discussion about the chemical and physical environment near the engineered barriers. Section 5 gives a more detailed description of spent fuel processes that affect the radionuclide releases. In Section 6, the key issues for radionuclide chemistry and the estimation of concentration limits for various radionuclides are discussed. Section 7 discusses radionuclide sorption and migration in the buffer and Section 8 presents overall conclusions from the workshop.

  20. Do School Lunches Contribute to Childhood Obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanzenbach, Diane Whitmore

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses whether school lunches contribute to childhood obesity. I employ two methods to isolate the causal impact of school lunches on obesity. First, using panel data, I ?nd that children who consume school lunches are more likely to be obese than those who brown bag their lunches even though they enter kindergarten with the same…

  1. Contribution to postnonclassical psychopathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintino-Aires J.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Any psychological paradigm needs a psychopathological system that helps professionals to describe and explain the behavioral expressions that deviate from “normal” (whether this term is used with the semantic property of statistical or ideal adaptations. In this work, I seek to present the system that I have been developing since 1998 among the psychologists at the Instituto Vegotsky de Lisboa (Vygotsky Institute of Lisbon, Portugal, to understand psychopathology with regard to the vygotskian approach. It was conceived and designed according to the work of Rita Mendes Leal and her contribution to socioemotional development theory, AR Luria’s systemic and dynamic theory of the human brain, the theory of Activity (dyatel’nost of AN Leont’ev, and the psychopathological German school of E Kraepelin, presented and disseminated in Portugal in the early twentieth century by Professor Sobral Cid. It is intended to be a proposal to colleagues who are interested in postnonclassical psychology and a request for arguments.

  2. Contribution mapping: a method for mapping the contribution of research to enhance its impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background At a time of growing emphasis on both the use of research and accountability, it is important for research funders, researchers and other stakeholders to monitor and evaluate the extent to which research contributes to better action for health, and find ways to enhance the likelihood that beneficial contributions are realized. Past attempts to assess research 'impact' struggle with operationalizing 'impact', identifying the users of research and attributing impact to research projects as source. In this article we describe Contribution Mapping, a novel approach to research monitoring and evaluation that aims to assess contributions instead of impacts. The approach focuses on processes and actors and systematically assesses anticipatory efforts that aim to enhance contributions, so-called alignment efforts. The approach is designed to be useful for both accountability purposes and for assisting in better employing research to contribute to better action for health. Methods Contribution Mapping is inspired by a perspective from social studies of science on how research and knowledge utilization processes evolve. For each research project that is assessed, a three-phase process map is developed that includes the main actors, activities and alignment efforts during research formulation, production and knowledge extension (e.g. dissemination and utilization). The approach focuses on the actors involved in, or interacting with, a research project (the linked actors) and the most likely influential users, who are referred to as potential key users. In the first stage, the investigators of the assessed project are interviewed to develop a preliminary version of the process map and first estimation of research-related contributions. In the second stage, potential key-users and other informants are interviewed to trace, explore and triangulate possible contributions. In the third stage, the presence and role of alignment efforts is analyzed and the preliminary

  3. CONTRIBUTION OF INDIRECT TAXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRCULESCU MARIA FELICIA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The work is based on the fact that at any time and in any society, taxation is regarded as undesirable for all taxpayers. The existence and it's manifestation is justified, because the operation of any company involves costs that must be covered by sufficient resources. Since ancient times, each state has adopted its own tax system, more or less perfected, as the state has experienced a greater or lesser economic and military power At the base of this work stays the fact that tax systems are a key factor influencing the overall efficiency of the economy. They determine the size tendency to save, invest and work, influencing the increase in production and employment, which is essential sights integral economic strategy, making tax reform an important component of economic reform. This paper aims to analyze the indirect taxes and their contribution to the public revenues in Romania, the purpose paper contains an analysis based on statistical series as indirect taxation is where tax harmonization was possible. Through analyzes, the paper aims to provide answers to the problem of the contradiction between the growing need for budgetary revenues, which entails a continuous amplification and diversification of taxation, on the one hand, and the need to stimulate economic development, on the other hand. The harmonization of indirect taxation had been achieved since this touches the free movement of goods and the freedom to supply services, not being able to say the same thing about direct taxation, which is why the European Community Treaty does not specify expressly the alignment of direct taxation, considering that direct taxation is a matter of Internal Policies that, for a country free option.

  4. Examining alternative fuel management strategies and the relative contribution of National Forest System land to wildfire risk to adjacent homes - A pilot assessment on the Sierra National Forest, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe H. Scott; Matthew P. Thompson; Julie W. Gilbertson-Day

    2016-01-01

    Determining the degree of risk that wildfires pose to homes, where across the landscape the risk originates, and who can best mitigate risk are integral elements of effective co-management of wildfire risk. Developing assessments and tools to help provide this information is a high priority for federal land management agencies such as the US Forest Service (...

  5. Big Data Usage Patterns in the Health Care Domain: A Use Case Driven Approach Applied to the Assessment of Vaccination Benefits and Risks. Contribution of the IMIA Primary Healthcare Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanage, H; de Lusignan, S; Liaw, S-T; Kuziemsky, C E; Mold, F; Krause, P; Fleming, D; Jones, S

    2014-08-15

    Generally benefits and risks of vaccines can be determined from studies carried out as part of regulatory compliance, followed by surveillance of routine data; however there are some rarer and more long term events that require new methods. Big data generated by increasingly affordable personalised computing, and from pervasive computing devices is rapidly growing and low cost, high volume, cloud computing makes the processing of these data inexpensive. To describe how big data and related analytical methods might be applied to assess the benefits and risks of vaccines. We reviewed the literature on the use of big data to improve health, applied to generic vaccine use cases, that illustrate benefits and risks of vaccination. We defined a use case as the interaction between a user and an information system to achieve a goal. We used flu vaccination and pre-school childhood immunisation as exemplars. We reviewed three big data use cases relevant to assessing vaccine benefits and risks: (i) Big data processing using crowdsourcing, distributed big data processing, and predictive analytics, (ii) Data integration from heterogeneous big data sources, e.g. the increasing range of devices in the "internet of things", and (iii) Real-time monitoring for the direct monitoring of epidemics as well as vaccine effects via social media and other data sources. Big data raises new ethical dilemmas, though its analysis methods can bring complementary real-time capabilities for monitoring epidemics and assessing vaccine benefit-risk balance.

  6. Introducing and modeling inefficiency contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Kronborg, Dorte; Matthews, Kent

    2016-01-01

    -called inefficiency contributions, which are defined as the relative contributions from specific variables to the overall levels of inefficiencies. A statistical model for distinguishing the inefficiency contributions between subgroups is proposed and the method is illustrated on a data set on Chinese banks....

  7. 动态测验对“数学学习困难”儿童的进一步甄别%The Contribution of Dynamic Assessment to Screening Children with Mathematics Learning Disabilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽锦; 张臻峰

    2014-01-01

    The commonly used grade-level discrepancy assessment, which relies on achievement test scores to identify children with mathematics learning disabilities (MLD or MD), can be biased and its effectiveness varies across children’s cognitive levels, educational backgrounds of families, school contexts, and children’s learning styles. As a consequence, the identification of children with MD often lacks accuracy. With an integration of interventions and interactive evaluation, dynamic assessment is developed to identify children’s potential for learning which is less influenced by their family and school backgrounds mentioned above. Unlike traditional achievement tests, dynamic assessment applies new criterion on MD that focus on children’s potential for learning mathematics and can reduce above-mentioned unfavorable effect to some extent. The current study attempted to demonstrate that the addition of dynamic assessment to traditional achievement tests can help identify MD children and the subgroups of MD children with increased accuracy and objectivity. Dynamic assessment has a unique effect on rapid and accurate identifying children with mathematics learning disabilities. Following the standard orientation model proposed by Proctor and Prevatt (2003), the treatment group included 30 fourth-grade children with mathematics learning disabilities, while the control group consisted of 30 children who were matched on Raven intelligence test scores. Four subtests (Rhyming Words, Auditory Digit Sequence, Visual Matrix and Mapping and Directions) of the “Swanson Cognitive Processing Test (S-CPT)”were administrated to assess children’s working memory. The assessment included initial score, gain score, maintain score, difference score, stable score, guide score and strategy score, collected in four phases: pretest, intervention, posttest, and delayed posttest. The differences in work memory task scores before and after the dynamic interventions, were used to

  8. Cost-benefit assessment of using electronic health records data for clinical research versus current practices: Contribution of the Electronic Health Records for Clinical Research (EHR4CR) European Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresniak, Ariel; Schmidt, Andreas; Proeve, Johann; Bolanos, Elena; Patel, Neelam; Ammour, Nadir; Sundgren, Mats; Ericson, Mats; Karakoyun, Töresin; Coorevits, Pascal; Kalra, Dipak; De Moor, Georges; Dupont, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    The widespread adoption of electronic health records (EHR) provides a new opportunity to improve the efficiency of clinical research. The European EHR4CR (Electronic Health Records for Clinical Research) 4-year project has developed an innovative technological platform to enable the re-use of EHR data for clinical research. The objective of this cost-benefit assessment (CBA) is to assess the value of EHR4CR solutions compared to current practices, from the perspective of sponsors of clinical trials. A CBA model was developed using an advanced modeling approach. The costs of performing three clinical research scenarios (S) applied to a hypothetical Phase II or III oncology clinical trial workflow (reference case) were estimated under current and EHR4CR conditions, namely protocol feasibility assessment (S1), patient identification for recruitment (S2), and clinical study execution (S3). The potential benefits were calculated considering that the estimated reduction in actual person-time and costs for performing EHR4CR S1, S2, and S3 would accelerate time to market (TTM). Probabilistic sensitivity analyses using Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to manage uncertainty. Should the estimated efficiency gains achieved with the EHR4CR platform translate into faster TTM, the expected benefits for the global pharmaceutical oncology sector were estimated at €161.5m (S1), €45.7m (S2), €204.5m (S1+S2), €1906m (S3), and up to €2121.8m (S1+S2+S3) when the scenarios were used sequentially. The results suggest that optimizing clinical trial design and execution with the EHR4CR platform would generate substantial added value for pharmaceutical industry, as main sponsors of clinical trials in Europe, and beyond. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Web of Science production quality indicators of ten professors' at the area of personality, assessment and psychological treatment: additional contributions to Olivas-Ávila y Musi-Lechuga study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluja, Antón; Becoña, Elisardo; Botella, Cristina; Colom, Roberto; Echeburúa, Enrique; Forns, María; Pérez, Miguel; Vila, Jaime

    2011-04-01

    Rankings of scientific productivity are increasingly relevant both from an individual and a collective perspective. Therefore, making sure they are based on reliable and exhaustive information is really important. This study clearly shows that available rankings change dramatically when internationally acknowledged bibliometric indices are considered. Data from the 10 Professors belonging to the 'Personality, Assessment, and Psychological Treatment' Department considered in the recent analysis by Olivas-Ávila y Musi-Lechuga ( Psicothema 2010. Vol. 22, nº 4, pp. 909-916) are revisited here for illustrative purposes.

  10. HOLOCENE ECOLOGICAL TRAJECTORIES IN LAKE AND WETLAND SYSTEMS (AUVERGNE, FRANCE: A PALAEOENVIRONMENTAL CONTRIBUTION FOR A BETTER ASSESSMENT OF ECOSYSTEM AND LAND USE ‘S VIABILITY IN MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Miras

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Multi-proxy palaeoenvironmental studies are very important for the development of sustainable management strategies for ecosystems and modern landscapes. Analysing the relationship between societies, climate and environments through time, these studies contribute to define adequate policies and strategies for socio-environmental management, protection and legacy. Two complementary case studies– Aydat lake and Espinasse fen - from the south of the Chaîne des Puys (Auvergne, Massif Central, France are presented. The analysis of these sedimentological records (both lacustrine and peat follows a multi-proxy approach combining abiotic and biotic palaeoindicators (density, magnetic susceptibility, X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometry, Rock-Eval, pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, molecular biomarkers. Aydat lake and Espinasse fen analyses were performed following a high spatio-temporal resolution. Results underline that long-term models of detrital input and eutrophication correspond to complex patterns with early and recurrent phases of human-induced ecological disturbances. They also evidence the existence of diversified long-term land use systems (deforestation, grazing, agriculture, hemp culture and retting that provide fresh insights into the understanding of present-day mountain environments. This history between diversified human activities and hydrosystems responses must be taken into account for the construction of accurate retrospective and prospective model simulations of hydrosystem functioning.

  11. Assessing methane oxidation under landfill covers and its contribution to the above atmospheric CO2 levels: The added value of the isotope (δ13C and δ18O CO2; δ13C and δD CH4) approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widory, D.; Proust, E.; Bellenfant, G.; Bour, O.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Comparison of the isotope and mass balance approaches to evaluate the level of methane oxidation within a landfill. ► The level of methane oxidation is not homogenous under the landfill cover and is strongly correlated to the methane flux. ► Isotope tracking of the contribution of the methane oxidation to the CO 2 concentrations in the ambient air. - Abstract: We are presenting here a multi-isotope approach (δ 13 C and δ 18 O of CO 2 ; δ 13 C and δD of CH 4 ) to assess (i) the level(s) of methane oxidation during waste biodegradation and its migration through a landfill cover in Sonzay (France), and (ii) its contribution to the atmospheric CO 2 levels above the surface. The isotope approach is compared to the more conventional mass balance approach. Results from the two techniques are comparable and show that the CH 4 oxidation under the landfill cover is heterogenous, with low oxidation percentages in samples showing high biogas fluxes, which was expected in clay covers presenting fissures, through which CH 4 is rapidly transported. At shallow depth, more immobile biogas pockets show a higher level of CH 4 oxidation by the methanotrophic bacteria. δ 13 C of CO 2 samples taken at different heights (from below the cover up to 8 m above the ground level) were also used to identify and assess the relative contributions of its main sources both under the landfill cover and in the surrounding atmosphere.

  12. Evidence-based care and the case for intuition and tacit knowledge in clinical assessment and decision making in mental health nursing practice: an empirical contribution to the debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, I; Lyons, C M

    2001-08-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence that challenges the view that methods of clinical assessment and decision making should not rely solely on logical positivist approaches. Whilst the National Health Service (NHS) Executive currently takes a hard positivist line on what constitutes evidence-based practice, data reveal that it is not always appropriate to disregard the tacit knowledge and intuition of experienced practitioners when making assessment decisions in mental health nursing practice. Data support the case for a holistic approach which may draw on intuition and tacit knowledge, as well as traditional approaches, to meet the requirements of clients with complex mental health problems. A model based on Schon's notion of reflection in and reflection on practice is proposed which demonstrates the value of intuition and tacit knowledge. This model allows the generation of insights which may ultimately be demonstrated to be acceptable and empirically testable. It is accepted that an element of risk taking is inevitable, but the inclusion of a formal analytical process into the model reduces the likelihood of inappropriate care interventions. The cognitive processes which experienced nurses use to make clinical decisions and their implications for practice will be explored.

  13. Discrimination, domestic violence, abuse, and other adverse life events in people with epilepsy: Population-based study to assess the burden of these events and their contribution to psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo-Smith, Victoria; Brugha, Traolach S; Kerr, Michael P; McManus, Sally; Rai, Dheeraj

    2016-11-01

    To quantify the experience of discrimination, domestic violence, abuse, and other stressful life events in people with epilepsy in comparison with the general population and people with other chronic conditions. To assess whether any excess relative burden of these adversities could explain the higher rates of depression in people with epilepsy. The Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 used comprehensive interviews with 7,403 individuals living in private residences in England. Doctor-diagnosed epilepsy and other chronic conditions were established by self-report. Discrimination, domestic violence, physical and sexual abuse, and other stressful life events were assessed using computerized self-completion and a face-to-face interview, respectively. People with epilepsy were sevenfold more likely to have reported experiencing discrimination due to health problems (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 7.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.1-16.3), than the general population without epilepsy. This estimate was substantially greater in people with epilepsy than for people with other chronic conditions. People with epilepsy also had greater odds of experiencing domestic violence and sexual abuse than the general population, although these associations were also found in people with other chronic conditions. There was less evidence of an association between epilepsy and a history of physical abuse or having a greater burden of other stressful life events. In exploratory analyses, assuming they lie on the causal pathway, discrimination, domestic violence, and sexual abuse explained 42.7% of the total effect of the relationship between epilepsy and depression or anxiety disorders. People with epilepsy can face a range of psychosocial adversities and extensively report feeling discriminated against as compared to the general population. In addition, if confirmed in longitudinal studies, the results suggest that these psychosocial adversities may have a significant role in the

  14. 75 FR 34388 - Employee Contribution Elections and Contribution Allocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... contributions equal to 3 percent of the employee's basic pay will be deducted from his or her pay and... employees who are rehired after a separation in service of 31 or more calendar days and who are eligible to participate in the TSP will automatically have 3 percent of their basic pay contributed to the TSP, unless...

  15. COP 21: the national contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouette, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    This article comments the content of the national contributions (the so-called Intended Nationally Determined Contributions or INDC) which every country should have transmitted to the UN before the COP 21. In fact, 148 contributions, i.e. 75 per cent of the expected ones, have been transmitted. The author recalls that the content of these contributions had to obey some principles which had been defined in Lima in 2014, and that each country must identify its objectives in terms of mitigation (reduction of greenhouse gas emissions) and adaptation (reduction of the vulnerability of natural and human systems). The author comments some specific commitments regarding climate, emission reduction, adaptation to climate change, and more particularly evokes the Ethiopian contribution which is considered as exemplary

  16. B. F. Skinner's Contributions to Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Edward K.; Smith, Nathaniel G.; Altus, Deborah E.

    2005-01-01

    Our paper reviews and analyzes B. F. Skinner's contributions to applied behavior analysis in order to assess his role as the field's originator and founder. We found, first, that his contributions fall into five categorizes: the style and content of his science, his interpretations of typical and atypical human behavior, the implications he drew…

  17. Health Care Ergonomics: Contributions of Thomas Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole Wilson, Tiffany; Davis, Kermit G

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the contributions of Thomas Waters's work in the field of health care ergonomics and beyond. Waters's research of safe patient handling with a focus on reducing musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in health care workers contributed to current studies and prevention strategies. He worked with several groups to share his research and assist in developing safe patient handling guidelines and curriculum for nursing students and health care workers. The citations of articles that were published by Waters in health care ergonomics were evaluated for quality and themes of conclusions. Quality was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool and centrality to original research rating. Themes were documented by the type of population the citing articles were investigating. In total, 266 articles that referenced the top seven cited articles were evaluated. More than 95% of them were rated either medium or high quality. The important themes of these citing articles were as follows: (a) Safe patient handling is effective in reducing MSDs in health care workers. (b) Shift work has negative impact on nurses. (c) There is no safe way to manually lift a patient. (d) Nurse curriculums should contain safe patient handling. The research of Waters has contributed significantly to the health care ergonomics and beyond. His work, in combination with other pioneers in the field, has generated multiple initiatives, such as a standard safe patient-handling curriculum and safe patient-handling programs. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  18. ECN contributions to GLOBAL `95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report contains the 9 contributions of the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN to the international conference on evaluation of emerging nuclear fuel cycle systems, GLOBAL `95, held in Versailles, France, on September 11-14, 1995. (orig./GL).

  19. Uncapacitated facility location problems: contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galvão Roberto Diéguez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present paper is to review my personal contributions in the field of uncapacitated facility location problems. These contributions took place throughout my academic career, from the time I was a Ph.D. student at Imperial College to the present day. They cover approximately 30 years, from 1973 to 2003; they address: algorithms developed for the p-median problem and for a general formulation of uncapacitated location problems; the study of dynamic location models; covering and hierarchical location problems; queuing-based probabilistic location models. The contributions encompass theoretical developments, computational algorithms and practical applications. All work took place in an academic environment, with the invaluable collaboration of colleagues (both in Brazil and abroad and research students at COPPE. Each section in the paper is dedicated to a topic that involves a personal contribution. Every one of them is placed within the context of the existing literature.

  20. ECN contributions to GLOBAL '95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This report contains the 9 contributions of the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN to the international conference on evaluation of emerging nuclear fuel cycle systems, GLOBAL '95, held in Versailles, France, on September 11-14, 1995. (orig./GL)

  1. Spent Fuel Dissolution and Source Term Modelling in Safety Assessment. Report from a Workshop at Sigtunahoejden Hotel and Conference, Sigtuna, Sweden May 17-19, 2006. Synthesis and extended abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-05-15

    This report describes a workshop that was organised by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) for assessment of the handling of near-field radionuclide retention processes by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). The general objective with this type of meeting is to improve the knowledge and awareness of recent developments and to provide preliminary review comments. A number of SKB reports provided the general background for the workshop discussions. One report addresses the release of radionuclides from spent fuel, another the concentration limits related to radionuclide solubility and a third buffer radionuclide sorption and migration parameters. These reports comprise a basis for the handling of the spent fuel, solubility and sorption processes in new complete safety assessment SR-Can. The discussion and analysis of these background reports at the workshop therefore provide an essential element of preparation for the planned review of SR-Can. The review comments provided in this report are nonetheless of a preliminary character since the SR-Can report was not available at the time of the workshop and details about the incorporation of various potential safety features into the entirety of safety assessment were not known. The present report sets out the detailed objectives and format of the workshop in Section 2. Section 3 provides a high-level overview of processes that need to be taken into account. In Section 4, there is a brief discussion about the chemical and physical environment near the engineered barriers. Section 5 gives a more detailed description of spent fuel processes that affect the radionuclide releases. In Section 6, the key issues for radionuclide chemistry and the estimation of concentration limits for various radionuclides are discussed. Section 7 discusses radionuclide sorption and migration in the buffer and Section 8 presents overall conclusions from the workshop.

  2. Spent Fuel Dissolution and Source Term Modelling in Safety Assessment. Report from a Workshop at Sigtunahoejden Hotel and Conference, Sigtuna, Sweden May 17-19, 2006. Synthesis and extended abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-05-01

    This report describes a workshop that was organised by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) for assessment of the handling of near-field radionuclide retention processes by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). The general objective with this type of meeting is to improve the knowledge and awareness of recent developments and to provide preliminary review comments. A number of SKB reports provided the general background for the workshop discussions. One report addresses the release of radionuclides from spent fuel, another the concentration limits related to radionuclide solubility and a third buffer radionuclide sorption and migration parameters. These reports comprise a basis for the handling of the spent fuel, solubility and sorption processes in new complete safety assessment SR-Can. The discussion and analysis of these background reports at the workshop therefore provide an essential element of preparation for the planned review of SR-Can. The review comments provided in this report are nonetheless of a preliminary character since the SR-Can report was not available at the time of the workshop and details about the incorporation of various potential safety features into the entirety of safety assessment were not known. The present report sets out the detailed objectives and format of the workshop in Section 2. Section 3 provides a high-level overview of processes that need to be taken into account. In Section 4, there is a brief discussion about the chemical and physical environment near the engineered barriers. Section 5 gives a more detailed description of spent fuel processes that affect the radionuclide releases. In Section 6, the key issues for radionuclide chemistry and the estimation of concentration limits for various radionuclides are discussed. Section 7 discusses radionuclide sorption and migration in the buffer and Section 8 presents overall conclusions from the workshop

  3. Internationalization Assessment in Schools: Theoretical Contributions and Practical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemini, Miri

    2012-01-01

    Cosmopolitan, international capital has become an integral ingredient in the set of competencies considered to provide a competitive edge and to be required for affective citizenship in the 21st century. Recently, internationalization of education has become a more common phenomenon in local schools around the world, serving as a tool to provide…

  4. Contribution of conservation genetics in assessing neotropical freshwater fish biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NM. Piorski

    Full Text Available Human activities have a considerable impact on hydrographic systems and fish fauna. The present review on conservation genetics of neotropical freshwater fish reveals that DNA analyses have been promoting increased knowledge on the genetic structure of fish species and their response to environmental changes. This knowledge is fundamental to the management of wild fish populations and the establishment of Evolutionary Significant Units capable of conserving genetic integrity. While population structuring can occur even in long-distance migratory fish, isolated populations can show reduced genetic variation and be at greater risk of extinction. Phylogeography and phylogeny have been powerful tools in understanding the evolution of fish populations, species and communities in distinct neotropic environments. Captive fish can be used to introduce new individuals and genes into the wild and their benefits and disadvantages can be monitored through genetic analysis. Understanding how fish biodiversity in neotropical freshwaters is generated and maintained is highly important, as these habitats are transformed by human development and fish communities are increasingly exploited as food sources to sustain a growing human population.

  5. Assessment of earthquake effects - contribution from online communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Sebastiano; Agius, Matthew; Galea, Pauline

    2014-05-01

    The rapid increase of social media and online newspapers in the last years have given the opportunity to make a national investigation on macroseismic effects on the Maltese Islands based on felt earthquake reports. A magnitude 4.1 earthquake struck close to Malta on Sunday 24th April 2011 at 13:02 GMT. The earthquake was preceded and followed by a series of smaller magnitude quakes throughout the day, most of which were felt by the locals on the island. The continuous news media coverage during the day and the extensive sharing of the news item on social media resulted in a strong public response to fill in the 'Did you feel it?' online form on the website of the Seismic Monitoring and Research Unit (SMRU) at the University of Malta (http://seismic.research.um.edu.mt/). The results yield interesting information about the demographics of the island, and the different felt experiences possibly relating to geological settings and diverse structural and age-classified buildings. Based on this case study, the SMRU is in the process of developing a mobile phone application dedicated to share earthquake information to the local community. The application will automatically prompt users to fill in a simplified 'Did you feel it?' report to potentially felt earthquakes. Automatic location using Global Positioning Systems can be incorporated to provide a 'real time' intensity map that can be used by the Civil Protection Department.

  6. Assessment of Runoff Contributing Catchment Areas in Rainfall Runoff Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Johansen, C.; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    2005-01-01

    to determine with significant precision the hydrological reduction factor is implemented to account all hydrological losses except the initial loss. This paper presents an inconsistency between calculations of the hydrological reduction factor, based on measurements of rainfall and runoff, and till now...... recommended literary values for residential areas. It is proven by comparing rainfall-runoff measurements from four different residential catchments that the literary values of the hydrological reduction factor are over-estimated for this type of catchments. In addition, different catchment descriptions...

  7. The potential contribution of social impact assessment to megaproject developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanclay, Francis; Lehtonen, Markku; Joly, Pierre-Benoît; Aparicio, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Megaprojects have considerable potential to generate social impacts as well as environmental impacts. These social impacts occur at all phases in project development. Megaprojects tend to cause the displacement and resettlement of people, as well as induce inmigration and local inflation. They

  8. Early assessment of dementia: the contribution of different memory components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, P.E.; Raaijmakers, J.G.; Jonker, C.

    2005-01-01

    A broad memory test battery (reflecting explicit and implicit memory functioning) was administered to a heterogeneous sample of initially nondemented, community-dwelling elderly subjects. To examine the profile of preclinical dementia, subjects were tested twice: At baseline, all subjects were

  9. Assessing Whether Oil Dependency in Venezuela Contributes to National Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Kott

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is on what role, if any, oil has on Venezuela's instability. When trying to explain why a resource-rich country experiences slow or negative growth, experts often point to the resource curse. The following pages explore the traditional theory behind the resource curse as well as alternative perspectives to this theory such as ownership structure and the correlation between oil prices and democracy. This article also explores the various forms of instability within Venezuela and their causes. Finally, the article looks at President Hugo Chavez's political and economic policies as well as the stagnation of the state oil company, Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA. This article dispels the myth that the resource curse is the source of destabilization in many resource dependent countries. Rather than a cause of instability, this phenomenon is a symptom of a much larger problem that is largely structural.

  10. Relative Contributions of Three Descriptive Methods: Implications for Behavioral Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Sacha T.; Roscoe, Eileen M.; Bourret, Jason C.; Ahearn, William H.

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the outcomes of three descriptive analysis methods--the ABC method, the conditional probability method, and the conditional and background probability method--to each other and to the results obtained from functional analyses. Six individuals who had been diagnosed with developmental delays and exhibited problem behavior…

  11. Eu contributions to the ITER materials properties data assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peacock, A.T. [EFDA CSU, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)]. E-mail: alan.peacock@tech.efda.org; Barabash, V. [IT, ITER Joint Work Site, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)]. E-mail: barabav@itereu.de; Gillemot, F. [ASI Consulting, Budafoki ut 21, H 2040 Budaors (Hungary)]. E-mail: gillemot@sunserv.kfki.hu; Karditsas, P. [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: Panos.Karditsas@ukaea.org.uk; Lloyd, G. [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Rensman, J.-W. [NRG Petten, Westerduinweg 3, P.O. Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)]. E-mail: rensman@nrg-nl.com; Tavassoli, A.-A.F. [DMN/Dir, CEA/Saclay, CEA, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France)]. E-mail: tavassoli@cea.fr; Walters, M. [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-15

    In order to fully organise the materials property data from the European next Fusion programme, a database of materials properties has been established. With the help of the database application and resulting data organisation, European materials experts have supported the recent activities within ITER aimed at updating and re-organising the ITER materials documentation. A European web based database application is described and its main features are detailed. In addition, we report on the details and the status of the work aimed at updating the ITER materials documentation. An outline of the future planned activities in the development of the European database and in the revision of the ITER materials documentation is also given.

  12. Assessment of the Contribution of WorldView-2 Strategically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The eight band WV2 image was atmospherically corrected and spectrally resized as the SPOT-5 wavebands, additional bands and all bands. The classification accuracy was compared to results from the SPOT-5 image. Results showed that classification based on WV-2s additional bands had superior classification ...

  13. Contributions to the environmental assessment of road transport

    OpenAIRE

    Moliner Santisteve, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo de esta tesis es proporcionar un mayor grado de conocimiento sobre ciertos aspectos medioambientales del transporte por carretera que aún no han sido investigados en profundidad. En concreto, la tesis aborda las siguientes líneas de investigación: análisis del ciclo de vida (ACV) de los pavimentos de carreteras, ACV del ruido del transporte por carretera, y valoración de los costes externos del ruido del transporte por carretera. La evaluación ambiental del transporte rodado se...

  14. Adam Smith’s contribution to secularisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrus Simons

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examined several crucial themes in Adam Smith’s philosophy with the purpose of highlighting and assessing his contribution to the secularisation of Western society. The article, written from the perspective of reformational philosophy, begins with a brief biography and sketch of Adam Smith’s influence on modern society, followed by a summary of Ponti Venter’s view on Smith. This sets the scene for a discussion of Adam Smith’s project, his method of tackling it, and his views on systems, philosophy of history and the concept of philosophy.

  15. Understanding the CDM's contribution to technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Malte; Holzer, Andreas; Hoffmann, Volker H.

    2008-01-01

    Developing countries are increasingly contributing to global greenhouse gas emissions and, consequently, climate change as a result of their rapid economic growth. In order to reduce their impact, the private sector needs to be engaged in the transfer of low-carbon technology to those countries. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is currently the only market mechanism aimed at triggering changes in the pattern of emissions-intensive activities in developing countries and is likely to play a role in future negotiations. In this paper, we analyse how the CDM contributes to technology transfer. We first develop a framework from the literature that delineates the main factors which characterise technology transfer. Second, we apply this framework to the CDM by assessing existing empirical studies and drawing on additional expert interviews. We find that the CDM does contribute to technology transfer by lowering several technology-transfer barriers and by raising the transfer quality. On the basis of this analysis, we give preliminary policy recommendations

  16. Financial Network Systemic Risk Contributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hautsch, N.; Schaumburg, J.; Schienle, M.

    2015-01-01

    We propose the realized systemic risk beta as a measure of financial companies' contribution to systemic risk, given network interdependence between firms' tail risk exposures. Conditional on statistically pre-identified network spillover effects and market and balance sheet information, we define