WorldWideScience

Sample records for assessment scale psas

  1. C U L8ter: YouTube distracted driving PSAs use of behavior change theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steadman, Mindy; Chao, Melanie S; Strong, Jessica T; Maxwell, Martha; West, Joshua H

    2014-01-01

    To examine the inclusion of health behavior theory in distracted driving PSAs on YouTube.com. Two-hundred fifty PSAs were assessed using constructs from 4 prominent health behavior theories. A total theory score was calculated for each video. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with higher theory scores. PSAs were generally lacking in theoretical content. Video length, use of rates/statistics, driving scenario depiction, and presence of a celebrity were positively associated with theory inclusion. Collaboration between health experts and PSA creators could be fostered to produce more theory-based distracted driving videos on YouTube.com.

  2. Reference: BOXC'PSAS1 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BOXC'PSAS1 Ngai N, Tsai FY, Coruzzi G Light-induced transcriptional repression of the pea AS1 gene: identifi...cation of cis-elements and transfactors Plant J 12:1021-1234 (1997) PubMed: 9418044; ...

  3. Evaluating the educational potential of health PSAs with preschoolers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linebarger, D.L.; Piotrowski, J.

    2008-01-01

    Children learn from a variety of televised programs, including the short public service announcements (PSAs) that air between children's programs. PSAs are designed to repetitively expose children to important content ranging from the benefits of reading to health-related messages. The purpose of

  4. Children's Perceptions of TV Commercials and Products: The Effects of PSAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Peter Gilbert

    1982-01-01

    Investigated whether public service announcements (PSAs) on the nature of television advertising affect (1) children's awareness of advertising intent; (2) their belief in its truthfulness; and (3) their perception of advertised products. Data indicate that PSAs can influence children's perceptions of advertising's credibility and can affect their…

  5. Performance Improvement of Latex-Based PSAs using Polymer Microstructure Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qie, Lili

    This thesis aims to improve the performance of latex-based pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs). PSA performance is usually evaluated by tack, peel strength and shear strength. Tack and peel strength characterize a PSA's bonding strength to a substrate while shear strength reflects a PSA's capability to resist shear deformation. In general, increasing shear strength leads to a decrease in tack and peel strength. While there are several commercial PSA synthesis methods, the two most important methods consist of either solvent-based or latex-based techniques. While latex-based PSAs are more environmentally compliant than solvent-based PSAs, they tend to have much lower shear strength, at similar tack and peel strength levels. Therefore, the goal in this thesis was to greatly improve the shear strength of latex-based PSAs at little to no sacrifice to tack and peel strength. In this study, controlling the polymer microstructure of latexes or their corresponding PSA films was used as the main method for improving the PSA performance. The research was sub-divided into four parts. First, the influence of chain transfer agent (CTA) and cross-linker on latex polymer microstructure was studied via seeded semi-batch emulsion polymerization of butyl acrylate (BA) and methyl methacrylate (MMA). Three techniques were used to produce the latexes: (1) adding CTA only, (2) adding cross-linker only, and (3) adding both CTA and cross-linker. It was found that using CTA and cross-linker simultaneously allows one to expand the range of latex microstructural possibilities. For example, latexes with similar gel contents but different Mc (molecular weight between cross-links) and Mw (molecular weight of sol polymers) could be produced if CTA and cross-linker concentration are both increased. However, for the corresponding PSAs with similar gel contents, the relationship between their polymer microstructure and performance was difficult to establish as almost all of the medium and high gel

  6. Visual Attention to Antismoking PSAs: Smoking Cues versus Other Attention-Grabbing Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders-Jackson, Ashley N.; Cappella, Joseph N.; Linebarger, Deborah L.; Piotrowski, Jessica Taylor; O'Keeffe, Moira; Strasser, Andrew A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how addicted smokers attend visually to smoking-related public service announcements (PSAs) in adults smokers. Smokers' onscreen visual fixation is an indicator of cognitive resources allocated to visual attention. Characteristic of individuals with addictive tendencies, smokers are expected to be appetitively activated by…

  7. Priming effect of antismoking PSAs on smoking behaviour: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer L; Pierce, Melissa; Bargh, John A

    2014-07-01

    Social marketing is commonly proposed to counteract advertising and other messages that promote unhealthy products. However, public service campaigns can also 'boomerang' or ironically increase the unhealthy behaviours they are designed to discourage. The present study examined whether antismoking public service announcements (PSAs) could increase smoking behaviour immediately following exposure. In an experimental study, 56 smokers were randomly assigned to watch a short television segment with a commercial break that included either (1) a Philip Morris 'QuitAssist' PSA; (2) a Legacy 'truth' antismoking PSA; or (3) a control PSA. Smoking behaviour was assessed during a short break immediately following television viewing. Participants who saw the Philip Morris antismoking PSA were significantly more likely to smoke during a break (42%) compared with participants in the control condition (11%), and participants in the 'truth' condition were marginally more likely to smoke (33%). These differences could not be explained by factors such as mood or level of addiction, and effects occurred outside of participants' conscious awareness. These findings provide preliminary evidence that antismoking campaigns could ironically increase immediate smoking behaviours among smokers. The long-term benefits of proven public health campaigns, including 'truth,' are likely to outweigh any short-term boomerang effects. However, industry-sponsored messages in which companies have an economic incentive to increase consumption behaviours should be treated with scepticism and evaluated independently. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Phase-squeezing properties of non-degenerate PSAs using PPLN waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttnam, Benjamin J; Mazroa, Dániel; Shinada, Satoshi; Wada, Naoya

    2011-12-12

    We investigate the phase squeezing characteristics of non-degenerate phase-sensitive-amplifiers (PSAs) based on periodically-poled-lithium-niobate (PPLN) waveguides. We implement two PSA configurations with phase insensitive idler generation performed in both highly-non-linear-fiber (HNLF) and PPLN waveguides. In both cases we demonstrate regeneration of a noisy BPSK signal, despite net signal attenuation in the phase sensitive PPLN, and show that the level of phase squeezing varies with the phase sensitive dynamic range (PSDR). We observe that weak idler generation in the PPLN limits the achievable PSDR and that use of HNLF for idler generation leads to the largest PSDR. However, in phase regeneration measurements we observe that the pump phase modulation, required to overcome stimulated Brillouin scattering, adds significant amplitude noise, which increases with the PSDR. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  9. Alcohol-control public service announcements (PSAs) and drunk-driving fatal accidents in the United States, 1996-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Avery, Rosemary; Miller, Emily N

    2017-06-01

    Widespread concern regarding the detrimental effects of excessive alcohol consumption (especially by minors) and associated social problems (particularly drunk driving) continues to exist among policymakers, law enforcement officers, and the general public. Alcohol consumption is a leading contributor to death from injuries, which itself is one of the main causes of death for people under 21years of age in the United States. This study examines the relationship between the volume and timing of alcohol-control public service announcements (PSAs) and rates of drunk-driving fatal accidents in the U.S. We estimate ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models to predict rates of drunk-driving fatal accidents by state and month as a function of the volume of alcohol-control PSAs aired during the previous 8months. Models include controls for state anti-drunk-driving laws and regulations, state demographic characteristics, state taxes on alcohol, calendar year, and seasonality. Results indicate that higher volumes of anti-drunk driving PSAs airing in the preceding 2 to 3months are associated, albeit modest in magnitude, with reduced rates of drunk-driving fatal accidents. The regression coefficients are largest for adults (relative to underage drunk drivers) and when the PSAs air during prime time (relative to daytime or nighttime). We conclude that PSAs could play an important contributing role in reducing drunk-driving fatal accidents, although levels of exposure and potential effects likely remain modest due to reliance on donated air time. Well-funded anti-drunk driving campaigns could achieve higher levels of exposure and have a larger impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. regional scale assessment of the regional scale assessment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    head” hydropower which are designed to extract the kinetic energy of rivers, streams, tidal currents or ... is analogous to that of wind turbines, though they capture energy through the process of hydrodynamic, rather than ..... Assessment of Horizontal and Vertical Axis Turbines for River and Tidal Applications: A Technology.

  11. Assessing wildfire risks at multiple spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin Fitch

    2008-01-01

    In continuation of the efforts to advance wildfire science and develop tools for wildland fire managers, a spatial wildfire risk assessment was carried out using Classification and Regression Tree analysis (CART) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The analysis was performed at two scales. The small-scale assessment covered the entire state of New Mexico, while...

  12. A Clinimetric Overview of Scar Assessment Scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, M.B.A.; Verhaegen, P.D.H.M.; Middelkoop, E.; van Zuijlen, P.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Standardized validated evaluation instruments are mandatory to increase the level of evidence in scar management. Scar assessment scales are potentially suitable for this purpose, but the most appropriate scale still needs to be determined. This review will elaborate on several clinically relevant

  13. Clinical Music Study Quality Assessment Scale (MUSIQUAS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaschke, A.C.; Eggermont, L.H.P.; Scherder, E.J.A.; Shippton, M.; Hiomonides, I.

    2013-01-01

    AIMS Quality assessment of studies is essential for the understanding and application of these in systematic reviews and meta analyses, the two “gold standards” of medical sciences. Publications in scientific journals have extensively used assessment scales to address poor methodological quality,

  14. [Correlations between Beck's suicidal ideation scale, suicidal risk assessment scale RSD and Hamilton's depression rating scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducher, J-L; Dalery, J

    2008-04-01

    Most of the people who will attempt suicide, talk about it beforehand. Therefore, recognition of suicidal risk is not absolutely impossible. Beck's suicidal ideation scale and Ducher's suicidal risk assessment scale (RSD) are common tools to help practicians in this way. These scales and the Hamilton's depression scale were included in an international multicentric, phase IV, double-blind study, according to two parallel groups who had been administered a fixed dose of fluvoxamin or fluoxetin for six weeks. This allowed examination of the correlations between these scales and the relations, which could possibly exist between suicidal risk, depression and anxiety. (a) Relationships between the Beck's suicidal ideation scale, the suicidal risk assessment scale RSD and Hamilton's depression before treatment. Before treatment, the analysis was conducted with 108 male and female depressive outpatients, aged 18 or over. Results revealed a significant positive correlation (with a Pearson's correlation coefficient r equal to 0.69 and risk pRSD. These scales correlate less consistently with Hamilton's depression (Beck/Hamilton's depression: r=0.34; p=0.0004-RSD/Hamilton's depression: r=0.35; p=0.0002). We observed that the clinical anxiety scale by Snaith is also strongly correlated to these two suicidal risk assessment scales (Beck/CAS: r=0.48; pRSD/CAS: r=0.35; p=0.0005). Besides, the item "suicide" of Hamilton's depression scale accounts for more than a third of the variability of Beck's suicidal ideation scale and the suicidal risk assessment scale RSD. According to these results, the suicidal risk evaluated by these two scales seems to be significantly correlated with anxiety as much as with depression. On the other hand, the Clinical Global Impression is fairly significantly correlated with Beck's suicidal ideation scale (r=0.22; p=0.02), unlike the suicidal risk assessment scale RSD (r=0.42; pRSD and Hamilton's depression under treatment. The follow-up under

  15. Scale Effects in Moral Relevance Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Jonas; Rybak, Andrej

    2017-03-01

    Research on moral judgment often employs bipolar rating scales to assess whether the difference between two contrasted options is judged to be morally relevant. We give an account of how different numbers of response options provided on such scales (odd vs. even) change the meaning of the test question by communicating different implicit presuppositions. We demonstrate experimentally that these changes can qualitatively affect the moral relevance judgments that subjects express in response to a given judgment problem. Several alternative explanations in terms of trivial measurement distortion are tested and refuted, and we present suggestive evidence as to what kind of factors might be prone to scale effects. The findings underscore that expressed moral judgments are constructed ad hoc and do not necessarily reflect the content of underlying stable moral commitments. We discuss implications for theories and methodology in moral psychology and in judgment and decision-making research more generally.

  16. Implementation of functional assessment scales in geriatric practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Ingrid; Hesselbo, Bjørn; Pietersen, Inge

    2005-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of functional assessment scales regarding completion rate and ability to document functional changes in geriatric rehabilitation patients.......A study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of functional assessment scales regarding completion rate and ability to document functional changes in geriatric rehabilitation patients....

  17. Flood risk assessments at different spatial scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Moel, H.; Jongman, B.; Kreibich, H.; Merz, B.; Penning-Rowsell, E; Ward, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Managing flood risk, i.e. both the hazard and the potential consequences, is an important aspect of adapting to global change and has gained much traction in recent decades. As a result, a priori flood risk assessments have become an important part of flood management practices. Many methodologies

  18. An empirical assessment of the SERVQUAL scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahla Zargar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, many people have used point of sales for purchasing goods and services. Point of sales tends to provide a reliable method for making purchases in stores. Implementation of point of sales may reduce depreciation cost of automated telling machines and helps banks increase their productivities. Therefore, for bank managers, it is important to provide high quality services. This paper presents an empirical investigation to measure quality service using SERVQUAL scale. The study first extracts six factors including Trust, Responsiveness, Reliability, Empathy, Tangibles and getting insight for future development through the implementation of structural equation modeling. Next, it has implemented structural equation modeling and realizes that all components had positive impacts on customer satisfaction.

  19. Regional scale ecological risk assessment: using the relative risk model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Landis, Wayne G

    2005-01-01

    ...) in the performance of regional-scale ecological risk assessments. The initial chapters present the methodology and the critical nature of the interaction between risk assessors and decision makers...

  20. Reliability of the 7-point subjective global assessment scale in assessing nutritional status of dialysis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, R.; Dekker, F. W.; Boeschoten, E. W.; Stevens, P.; Krediet, R. T.

    1999-01-01

    Subjective global assessment (SGA) is a method to score nutritional status in a standardized way. The original 3-point scale has been replaced by a 7-point scale. The reliability of the latter scale has never been tested. We therefore assessed inter-observer and intra-observer reliability.

  1. A photonumeric scale for the assessment of atrophic facial photodamage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayer, J; Ahmed, A; Duncan-Parry, E; Beck, P; Griffiths, T W; Watson, R E B; Griffiths, C E M

    2018-01-15

    Photonumeric scales have consistently shown superiority over descriptive equivalents. They have the advantage of providing a consistent visual frame of reference by minimising variability in perception and subjectivity. A photonumeric scale to assess hypertrophic facial photodamage already exists. However, there is currently no objective measure for atrophic facial photodamage. To address this, we have devised a nine-point photonumeric standardised scale. To design, test and validate a photonumeric scale for the assessment of atrophic facial photodamage against a descriptive scale for the same indication. A pool of 393 facial photographs (en face and 45º oblique) from 131 individuals with atrophic facial photodamage was created. Five photographic standards were selected and assigned grades 0 through 8, where 0 is no photodamage and 8 is severe atrophic photodamage, thus making a nine-point scale. Twenty photographs spanning the entire range of values were selected to test the scale. Testing was performed alongside a descriptive equivalent. A panel of 10 dermatologists, 10 non-dermatology clinicians and 14 dermatology scientists marked the two scales; marking was repeated one week later. There was a significantly greater agreement between the graders using the photonumeric scale than the descriptive scale (kappa values 0.71 and 0.37 with standardised errors of 0.57 and 0.17 respectively) with no significant difference in repeatability between the two methods (p copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Assistance to assessing rating students by language tuple- 4 scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Ngoc Hung

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce an assistance to assessing rating the annual learning and process training of students in the opinion of experts, the approach of hedge algebra. It is advisary to make optimally fuzzy parameters with neural network in order to scale tuple-4 in accordance with current regulations on student assessment annual ranking including 7 levels.

  3. Leaded Paint in Cambodia—Pilot-scale Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sereyrath Lim

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion. Based on our pilot-scale assessment, high levels of lead appear to be common in enamel paints in Cambodia, and a fuller assessment of the situation is warranted. Import and production of such toxic products should be avoided and appropriate labeling and public warnings should be provided.

  4. Do pressure ulcer risk assessment scales improve clinical practice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kottner

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Jan Kottner1, Katrin Balzer21Department of Nursing Science, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany; 2Nursing Research Group, Institute for Social Medicine, Universitätsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Lübeck, GermanyAbstract: Standardized assessment instruments are deemed important for estimating pressure ulcer risk. Today, more than 40 so-called pressure ulcer risk assessment scales are available but still there is an ongoing debate about their usefulness. From a measurement point of view pressure ulcer (PU risk assessment scales have serious limitations. Empirical evidence supporting the validity of PU risk assessment scale scores is weak and obtained scores contain varying amounts of measurement error. The concept of pressure ulcer risk is strongly related to the general health status and severity of illness. A clinical impact due do the application of these scales could also not be demonstrated. It is questionable whether completion of standardized pressure ulcer risk scales in clinical practice is really needed.Keywords: Braden pressure ulcer, prevention, risk assessment, nursing assessment, predictive value, clinical effectiveness, review

  5. National-Scale Wind Resource Assessment for Power Generation (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E. I.

    2013-08-01

    This presentation describes the current standards for conducting a national-scale wind resource assessment for power generation, along with the risk/benefit considerations to be considered when beginning a wind resource assessment. The presentation describes changes in turbine technology and viable wind deployment due to more modern turbine technology and taller towers and shows how the Philippines national wind resource assessment evolved over time to reflect changes that arise from updated technologies and taller towers.

  6. [Insight in schizophrenia: assessment of 31 patients with different scales].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, D; Levoyer, D; Millet, B

    2008-01-01

    Insight is more than frequently altered in schizophrenia, rupture of treatment being one the most known consequences of this impairment. Two different types of scales can be used to assess consciousness: self-questionnaires directly filled-in by the patient or questionnaires assessed by a psychiatrist after an interview. AIM OF THE STUDIES: The goal of this study was first to assess insight in schizophrenic patients with these two different types of scales and then try to find a link between insight impairment and schizophrenic symptoms. The self-questionnaire was the Marks et al. Self Appraisal of Illness Questionnaire (SAIQ) [Schizophr Res 45 (2000) 203-11], 17 items finally giving four scores (consciousness of illness, consequences of schizophrenia, need for treatment and worrying about illness) plus a total score of insight. The other questionnaire was the Amador Scale for assessment of Unawareness of Mental Disease [Amador XF, Strauss DH. The scale to assess unawareness of mental disorder (SUMD). Columbia University and New-York State Psychiatric Institute;1990], consisting in an interview with a psychiatrist who finally assesses four dimensions (consciousness of illness, symptoms, need for treatment and consequences of illness) plus a total score. In addition to these scores, Amador's scale gives the opportunity to score attribution a patient gives to illness for his symptoms. Thirty-one patients whose schizophrenia diagnosis had been previously made according to DSM-IV criteria were included. Half were outpatients, half inpatients. Drug prescriptions were controlled; all of the patients being medicated with an antipsychotic, a benzodiazepine and a sleep inducer. They were all assessed by the two scales previously mentioned and the Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale [Kay SR, Opler LA, Fiszbein A. Positive and negative syndrome scale. Traduction de Lepine JL. In: Guelfi JD, éditeur. Evaluation clinique standardisée, tome II. Castres : Editions m

  7. Functional assessment of mother-child relationships: The EEI Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Panduro Paredes, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    An infant stimulation in mother-child relationship assessment scale (ISA Scale) was developed, based on a classification of probable effects on child's behavior, such as behavioral promotion stimulation (BPS) and behavioral control stimulation (BCS), refering to mother action level to promote desirable behaviors and to control socially non desirable behaviors in child's behavior repertory. 540 mother-child dyads were evaluated. The construct validity tests showed significant correlations in i...

  8. A Visual Analogue Scale in the Assessment of Dental Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Luyk, Neil H.; Beck, Frank M.; Weaver, Joel M.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the validity of the visual analogue scale (VAS) in the assessment of changing levels of dental anxiety, through correlation with the dental anxiety scale (DAS) and the state portion (A-state) of the statetrait anxiety inventory (STAI). Forty-five adult patients attending an oral surgery clinic for a routine dental extraction participated. Before any treatment, each patient completed the DAS, the STAI, and a 100mm VAS. The order of administration was r...

  9. [Development of the Heterosexual Love Assessment Scale for Alcoholics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawarai, Tazuko; Morita, Noriaki; Nakatani, Youji

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a scale for assessing the attributes of the heterosexual love of alcoholics. Using the characteristics and categories related to the heterosexual love of alcoholics found in previous research, we created a "Heterosexual Love Assessment Scale for Alcoholics" and conducted a survey among 110 alcoholics (80 men and 30 women). The following three factors were extracted from the results: "mutual respect", "superficial intimacy", and "fear of being disliked", A high level of reliability was obtained on the scales indicated below (alpha = 63-82), and concurrent validity was confirmed between these and the Adult Attachment Scale (ECR: Experiences in Close Relationships inventory). Further, correlations were found between "mutual respect" and the benefit of heterosexual love in recovery, and between the other two factors and the impediment of heterosexual love, and between the Denial & Awareness Scale (for alcoholic). As this scale can be used to assess the type of heterosexual love of alcoholics, we predict that it will be useful in examining the effects of heterosexual love on recovery and as a tool for offering advice.

  10. Measurement in Sensory Modulation: The Sensory Processing Scale Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lucy J.; Sullivan, Jillian C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Sensory modulation issues have a significant impact on participation in daily life. Moreover, understanding phenotypic variation in sensory modulation dysfunction is crucial for research related to defining homogeneous groups and for clinical work in guiding treatment planning. We thus evaluated the new Sensory Processing Scale (SPS) Assessment. METHOD. Research included item development, behavioral scoring system development, test administration, and item analyses to evaluate reliability and validity across sensory domains. RESULTS. Items with adequate reliability (internal reliability >.4) and discriminant validity (p sensory modulation (scale reliability >.90; discrimination between group effect sizes >1.00). This scale has the potential to aid in differential diagnosis of sensory modulation issues. PMID:25184464

  11. Correlations between three patient-assessed shoulder instability scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, David; Garewal, Devinder; Evans, Matthew C

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the correlations between three patient-assessed shoulder instability scales before and after Latarjet stabilisation for traumatic anteroinferior glenohumeral instability. Records of 30 men and 2 women (mean age, 26.7 years) who had not undergone surgery for antero-inferior shoulder instability and records of 31 men and one woman (mean age, 27 years) who had undergone Latarjet stabilisation for anteroinferior shoulder instability and had been followed up for a mean period of 21.3 months were reviewed. Correlations between the Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (WOSI), the Melbourne Instability Shoulder Score (MISS), and the L'Insalata Shoulder Questionnaire (L'Insalata) were assessed. The mean score of each scale was significantly greater in the postoperative than preoperative group (p0.01, post-hoc analysis). Correlations of all scale pairs were significant (p<0.001). The WOSIMISS correlations in the pre- and post-operative groups were moderate. The L'Insalata-WOSI correlations in the pre- and post-operative groups were moderate and high, respectively. The L'Insalata-MISS correlations in the pre- and post-operative groups were high and moderate, respectively. The MISS and WOSI scales are moderately correlated. Correlation of the L'Insalata scale with other scales depends on the operative status of the patient. The use of the L'Insalata scale alone is not recommended.

  12. Basin-Scale Opportunity Assessment Initiative Background Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saulsbury, Bo [ORNL; Geerlofs, Simon H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Cada, Glenn F [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL

    2010-10-01

    As called for in the March 24, 2010, Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for Hydropower, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), environmental stakeholders, and the hydropower industry are collaborating to identify opportunities to simultaneously increase electricity generation and improve environmental services in river basins of the United States. New analytical tools provide an improved ability to understand, model, and visualize environmental and hydropower systems. Efficiencies and opportunities that might not be apparent in site-by-site analyses can be revealed through assessments at the river-basin scale. Information from basin-scale assessments could lead to better coordination of existing hydropower projects, or to inform siting decisions (e.g., balancing the removal of some dams with the construction of others), in order to meet renewable energy production and environmental goals. Basin-scale opportunity assessments would inform energy and environmental planning and address the cumulative effects of hydropower development and operations on river basin environmental quality in a way that quantifies energy-environment tradeoffs. Opportunity assessments would create information products, develop scenarios, and identify specific actions that agencies, developers, and stakeholders can take to locate new sustainable hydropower projects, increase the efficiency and environmental performance of existing projects, and restore and protect environmental quality in our nation's river basins. Government agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGO) have done significant work to understand and assess opportunities for both hydropower and environmental protection at the basin scale. Some initiatives have been successful, others less so, and there is a need to better understand the legacy of work on which this current project can build. This background literature review is intended

  13. Objective estimation of patient age through a new composite scale for facial aging assessment: The face - Objective assessment scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Padula, Simone; Hersant, Barbara; SidAhmed, Mounia; Niddam, Jeremy; Meningaud, Jean Paul

    2016-07-01

    Most patients requesting aesthetic rejuvenation treatment expect to look healthier and younger. Some scales for ageing assessment have been proposed, but none is focused on patient age prediction. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new facial rating scale assessing facial ageing sign severity. One thousand Caucasian patients were included and assessed. The Rasch model was used as part of the validation process. A score was attributed to each patient, based on the scales we developed. The correlation between the real age and scores obtained, the inter-rater reliability and test-retest reliability were analysed. The objective was to develop a tool enabling the assigning of a patient to a specific age range based on the calculated score. All scales exceeded criteria for acceptability, reliability and validity. The real age strongly correlated with the total facial score in both sex groups. The test-retest reliability confirmed this strong correlation. We developed a facial ageing scale which could be a useful tool to assess patients before and after rejuvenation treatment and an important new metrics to be used in facial rejuvenation and regenerative clinical research. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. ASSESSMENT OF TORNADOS WITH THE ENHANCED FUJITA SCALE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. NUCUŢĂ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of tornadoes with the Enhanced Fujita Scale in Romania. An analysis of the damage caused by a tornado, in order to determine the maximum wind speed that was reached, is important both in terms of documenting the phenomenon and to make improvements to the evaluation method which is used, especially if this method is not specific for the analyzed territory. An overview of the way the tornado from Silivaşu de Câmpie, on the 26th of May 2010, was termed EF2 is done to summarize the difficulties that arise in the assessment of tornadoes occurring in Romania with the Enhanced Fujita scale. The lack of correlation between damage indicators, different construction styles and building materials between those in the United States and those selected in this case study are the main issues addressed. Solutions for these issues are discussed as a starting point for the adjustment of Enhanced Fujita scale for Romania.

  15. Development and external validation of a new PTA assessment scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, B.; Ekert, J. van; Vernooy, L.P.; Dieperink, P.; Andriessen, T.M.J.C.; Hendriks, M.P.; Vugt, A.B. van; Emons, M.A.; Borm, G.F.; Vos, P.E.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) is a key symptom of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Accurate assessment of PTA is imperative in guiding clinical decision making. Our aim was to develop and externally validate a short, examiner independent and practical PTA scale, by selecting the most

  16. Regional-scale risk assessment methodology using the Relative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-04-18

    Apr 18, 2012 ... paper presents an integrated approach to carry out regional-scale ecological risk assessments using a Relative Risk Model. (RRM) adapted ..... Recreational activities. Dams&wiers. Plantations. Gold mine. Habitat alteration. Sugar mill. Sugar. Mixed. Flow alterations. Forestry. 1. Irrigation - dam. Exotic fish.

  17. Large-Scale Assessments and Educational Policies in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Despite Italy's extensive participation in most large-scale assessments, their actual influence on Italian educational policies is less easy to identify. The present contribution aims at highlighting and explaining reasons for the weak and often inconsistent relationship between international surveys and policy-making processes in Italy.…

  18. A generic scale for assessment of attitudes towards social robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damholdt, Malene Flensborg; Olesen, Martin Hammershøj; Nørskov, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The research field into social robotics is expanding and with it the need for consistent methods for assessing attitudinal stance towards social robots. In this paper we describe the development and planned validation of the Attitudes towards social robots scale (ASOR-5): a generic questionnaire...

  19. Assessing Laptop Use in Higher Education: The Laptop Use Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Robin; Lauricella, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    The laptop computer is considered one of the most used and important technological devices in higher education, yet limited systematic research has been conducted to develop a measure of laptop use in college and university. The purpose of the following study was to develop a research-based, theoretically grounded scale to assess student use of…

  20. Large-Scale Assessment and English Language Learners with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kristin K.; Ward, Jenna M.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Christensen, Laurene L.

    2017-01-01

    This article highlights a set of principles and guidelines, developed by a diverse group of specialists in the field, for appropriately including English language learners (ELLs) with disabilities in large-scale assessments. ELLs with disabilities make up roughly 9% of the rapidly increasing ELL population nationwide. In spite of the small overall…

  1. A mechanistic assessment of nutrient flushing at the catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willem J. van Verseveld; Jeffrey J. McDonnell; Kate Lajtha

    2008-01-01

    This paper mechanistically assesses the flushing mechanism of DOC, DON, and DIN at the hillslope and catchment scales during two storm events, in a small catchment (WS10), H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest in the western Cascade Mountains of Oregon. Using a combination of natural tracer and hydrometric data, and end-member mixing analysis, we were able to describe the...

  2. Assessing Vulnerability to Drought on a pan-European scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquijo, Julia; De Stefano, Lucia; González-Tánago, Itziar; Blauhut, Veit; Stahl, Kerstin

    2014-05-01

    During the past decade, a number of theoretical frameworks have been defined within the Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change communities to assess drought vulnerability at different scales, sectors, socio-political contexts, and geo-climatic conditions. However, there is still little consensus around the criteria, dimensions and factors used in these assessments; and none of them has been applied at a pan-European scale. This is due to a triple complexity. Firstly, drought as a natural hazard is a complex phenomenon due to the difficulty of determining its onset and its multiscale, multifaceted and dynamic nature. Secondly, there is an on-going debate regarding the concept of vulnerability and its constitutive elements, together with an important diversity of theoretical approaches to assess it. Finally, Europe's diversity in bioclimatic conditions, national water use practice and water use policies adds a challenging characteristic for working on pan-European scale. This work addresses the challenge of defining a methodological approach to the assessment of vulnerability factors to drought at a pan-European scale. For this purpose, we first review existing conceptual frameworks as well as of past initiatives for drought vulnerability assessment. The literature review showed that the high complexity of drought vulnerability assessment requires a clear definition of the concept of vulnerability and the associated terms, and that, before undertaking any assessment, it is necessary to clearly define the "vulnerable unit" i.e. replying to the questions 'whose vulnerability is being assessed?' and 'vulnerability to what type of impact?'. In this context, this work proposes the application of a factor-based approach, consisting in the analysis of significant factors that influence vulnerability in the context of specific situations of potential vulnerability. Those situations are framed within the specific drought characteristics of four different geoclimatic macro

  3. Attacker economics for Internet-scale vulnerability risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Allodi, L.

    2013-01-01

    Vulnerability risk assessment is a crucial process in security management, and the CVSS score is the standard-de-facto risk metric for software vulnerabilities. In this manuscript I show that current risk assessment methodologies do not fit real “in the wild” attack data. I also present my three-steps plan to identify an Internet-scale risk assessment methodology that accounts for attacker economics and opportunities. Eventually, I want to provide answers like the following: “If we depl...

  4. Clinical stress assessment using a visual analogue scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesage, F-X; Berjot, S; Deschamps, F

    2012-12-01

    Clinicians increasingly require short, efficient methods for assessing distress, both in applied research and clinical settings. Most of the available questionnaires are unsuitable for busy clinical settings. The visual analogue scale (VAS) is widely but empirically used to assess perceived stress. To provide evidence on two of the psychometric properties of the VAS: its discriminative sensitivity (capacity to highlight a difference between groups) and its interconcept validity (the relationship between VAS stress assessment and the assessment of different, but similar concepts). Employees attending occupational health centres were randomly selected and completed the VAS and also either the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) or the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Analyses of variance were performed to study group effects (age, sex, marital status, parental status, occupational status) on stress scores (PSS and VAS). In total, 763 employees participated of whom 501 completed the PSS and 262 the HADS. P-values obtained for the effects of sex, age and occupational status were lower with the VAS than with the PSS. Correlations between the VAS and the anxiety subscale, depression subscale and total score of the HADS were 0.66, 0.45 and 0.65, respectively. Other tools used to assess aspects of psychological distress are known to have similar correlations. Our findings provide evidence that the VAS is at least as discriminating as a questionnaire when it comes to highlighting differences in stress levels between two groups, and the observed correlations with related constructs support its construct validity.

  5. Pain Assessment Scale for Patients With Disorders of Consciousness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Ingrid; Brix, Pia; Andersen, Sylvia

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with acquired brain injury undergoing rehabilitation are often unable to verbalize pain because of disorders of consciousness. Hence, observational pain assessment instruments are warranted for these patients. AIM: The aim of this study was to study interrater agreement...... and sensitivity to change over time of an assessment scale developed for the evaluation of pain in severely brain-injured patients with disorders of consciousness. METHODS: We developed a pain assessment scale based on scientific literature and clinical experience with severely brain-injured patients. It consists...... of four domains: physiological/autonomic, body language, verbal communication, and behavior. The domains consist of 27 items. Interrater reliability was tested through three experienced nurses who rated 26 patients with acquired brain injury. The patients were rated in two different situations: before...

  6. Refining a self-assessment of informatics competency scale using Mokken scaling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sunmoo; Shaffer, Jonathan A; Bakken, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare environments are increasingly implementing health information technology (HIT) and those from various professions must be competent to use HIT in meaningful ways. In addition, HIT has been shown to enable interprofessional approaches to health care. The purpose of this article is to describe the refinement of the Self-Assessment of Nursing Informatics Competencies Scale (SANICS) using analytic techniques based upon item response theory (IRT) and discuss its relevance to interprofessional education and practice. In a sample of 604 nursing students, the 93-item version of SANICS was examined using non-parametric IRT. The iterative modeling procedure included 31 steps comprising: (1) assessing scalability, (2) assessing monotonicity, (3) assessing invariant item ordering, and (4) expert input. SANICS was reduced to an 18-item hierarchical scale with excellent reliability. Fundamental skills for team functioning and shared decision making among team members (e.g. "using monitoring systems appropriately," "describing general systems to support clinical care") had the highest level of difficulty, and "demonstrating basic technology skills" had the lowest difficulty level. Most items reflect informatics competencies relevant to all health professionals. Further, the approaches can be applied to construct a new hierarchical scale or refine an existing scale related to informatics attitudes or competencies for various health professions.

  7. Formative Classroom Assessment and Large-Scale Assessment: Toward a More Balanced System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Martínez Rizo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Given the proliferation of large-scale standardized tests that has occurred in Mexico in recent years, this article constitutes a review of the international literature on the subject for the purpose of reflecting on the possible consequences of this phenomenon and exploring the progress of alternative assessment approaches. It also reviews the development of concepts related to formative classroom assessment, and summarizes current thinking on this subject. It emphasizes the importance of such approaches for improving educational quality. In conclusion, it argues that it is necessary to move toward assessment systems that combine large-scale assessment and classroom assessment in a more balanced fashion.

  8. Ecohydrological modeling for large-scale environmental impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woznicki, Sean A; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan; Abouali, Mohammad; Herman, Matthew R; Esfahanian, Elaheh; Hamaamin, Yaseen A; Zhang, Zhen

    2016-02-01

    Ecohydrological models are frequently used to assess the biological integrity of unsampled streams. These models vary in complexity and scale, and their utility depends on their final application. Tradeoffs are usually made in model scale, where large-scale models are useful for determining broad impacts of human activities on biological conditions, and regional-scale (e.g. watershed or ecoregion) models provide stakeholders greater detail at the individual stream reach level. Given these tradeoffs, the objective of this study was to develop large-scale stream health models with reach level accuracy similar to regional-scale models thereby allowing for impacts assessments and improved decision-making capabilities. To accomplish this, four measures of biological integrity (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera taxa (EPT), Family Index of Biotic Integrity (FIBI), Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI), and fish Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI)) were modeled based on four thermal classes (cold, cold-transitional, cool, and warm) of streams that broadly dictate the distribution of aquatic biota in Michigan. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to simulate streamflow and water quality in seven watersheds and the Hydrologic Index Tool was used to calculate 171 ecologically relevant flow regime variables. Unique variables were selected for each thermal class using a Bayesian variable selection method. The variables were then used in development of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) models of EPT, FIBI, HBI, and IBI. ANFIS model accuracy improved when accounting for stream thermal class rather than developing a global model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment scale of risk for surgical positioning injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Camila Mendonça de Moraes; Haas, Vanderlei José; Dantas, Rosana Aparecida Spadoti; Oliveira, Cheila Gonçalves de; Galvão, Cristina Maria

    2016-08-29

    to build and validate a scale to assess the risk of surgical positioning injuries in adult patients. methodological research, conducted in two phases: construction and face and content validation of the scale and field research, involving 115 patients. the Risk Assessment Scale for the Development of Injuries due to Surgical Positioning contains seven items, each of which presents five subitems. The scale score ranges between seven and 35 points in which, the higher the score, the higher the patient's risk. The Content Validity Index of the scale corresponded to 0.88. The application of Student's t-test for equality of means revealed the concurrent criterion validity between the scores on the Braden scale and the constructed scale. To assess the predictive criterion validity, the association was tested between the presence of pain deriving from surgical positioning and the development of pressure ulcer, using the score on the Risk Assessment Scale for the Development of Injuries due to Surgical Positioning (pDesarrollo de Lesiones Debidas al Posicionamiento Quirúrgico contiene siete ítems, siendo que cada uno presenta cinco subítems. La puntuación de esa escala varia de siete a 35 puntos en que, cuanto mayor la puntuación, mayor el riesgo del paciente. El Índice de Validez de Contenido de la escala fue 0,88. Mediante la aplicación de la prueba t de Student, para igualdad de medias, fue constatada validez de criterio concurrente entre los scores de la escala de Braden y de la escala construida. Para evaluar la validez de criterio predictiva, fue testada la asociación de la presencia de dolor debido al posicionamiento quirúrgico y el desarrollo de úlcera por presión con el score de la Escala de Evaluación de Riesgo para el Desarrollo de Lesiones Debidas al Posicionamiento Quirúrgico (p<0,001). La confiabilidad interobservadores fue verificada mediante el coeficiente de correlación intraclase, cuyo valor alcanzado fue 0,99 (p<0,001). la escala es un

  10. Validation of Mini Nutritional Assessment Scale in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzosko, Szymon; Hryszko, Tomasz; Kłopotowski, Mariusz; Myśliwiec, Michał

    2013-08-30

    Malnutrition is a negative predictive factor for survival in end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Coincidence of malnutrition, inflammation and atherosclerosis (MIA syndrome) in the dialysis population is an exceptionally poor outcome event. Due to flexibility, ease of performance and reproducibility, clinical scales are of particular value in assessment of nutritional status in ESRD patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical value of Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Nutritional status was assessed in 41 peritoneal dialysis patients by means of the MNA scale and malnutrition inflammation score (MIS). Some other clinical and laboratory parameters associated with nutritional status were analyzed. Patients were followed up for 30 months. In the analyzed group of patients a good nutritional state was diagnosed in 22 patients (54%), risk of malnutrition in 17 (41%) and malnutrition in 2 patients (5%) based on the MNA scale. A strong correlation between MNA based nutritional status and MIS was found (r = -0.85, p assessment of nutritional status in peritoneal dialysis patients. Risk of malnutrition and malnutrition diagnosed by MNA identifies patients at high mortality risk.

  11. Twelve tips for assessing surgical performance and use of technical assessment scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandbygaard, Jeanett; Scheele, Fedde; Sørensen, Jette Led

    2017-01-01

    Using validated assessment scales for technical competence can help structure and standardize assessment and feedback for both the trainee and the supervisor and thereby avoid bias and drive learning. Correct assessment of operative skills can establish learning curves and allow adequate monitoring....... However, the assessment of surgical performance is not an easy task, since it includes many proxy parameters, which are hard to measure. Although numerous technical assessment scales exist, both within laparoscopic and open surgery, the validity evidence is often sparse, and this can raise doubts about...... reliability and educational outcome. Furthermore, the implementation of technical assessment scales varies due to several obstacles and doubts about accurate use. In this 12-tips article, we aim to give the readers a critical and useful appraisal of some of the common questions and misunderstandings regarding...

  12. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Procrastination Assessment Scale for Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald D. Yockey

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The relative fit of one- and two-factor models of the Procrastination Assessment Scale for Students (PASS was investigated using confirmatory factor analysis on an ethnically diverse sample of 345 participants. The results indicated that although the two-factor model provided better fit to the data than the one-factor model, neither model provided optimal fit. However, a two-factor model which accounted for common item theme pairs used by Solomon and Rothblum in the creation of the scale provided good fit to the data. In addition, a significant difference by ethnicity was also found on the fear of failure subscale of the PASS, with Whites having significantly lower scores than Asian Americans or Latino/as. Implications of the results are discussed and recommendations made for future work with the scale.

  13. Developing a scale to assess health regulatory focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Rebecca A; Lipkus, Isaac M; Cerully, Jennifer L; McBride, Colleen M; Shepperd, James A; Klein, William M P

    2017-11-13

    Regulatory focus (i.e., focus on motivation to achieve gains or avoid losses and non-gains) is used to tailor health behavior change interventions, improving efficacy, but is currently assessed by scales that are not health-specific and may capture a version of the construct that is not ideally matched to the rationale for tailoring. We developed and validated a Health Regulatory Focus Scale (HRFS), which assesses tendencies to avoid negative health consequences (prevention focus) or achieve positive health outcomes (promotion focus). Across four studies (and a scale development study in supplementary online materials), we established convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity for the HRFS. In studies examining predictive validity, main outcome measures were health behavior intentions, including intentions to reduce alcohol use, quit smoking, eat a healthy diet, exercise, be screened for cancer, and engage in general cancer preventive behaviors. The promotion and prevention sub-scales performed well in confirmatory factor analyses. Single-factor models had significantly poorer fit than models delineating promotion and prevention. The sub-scales were differentially (and only modestly) correlated with related constructs (anxiety, optimism, information avoidance, ambiguity/fatalism). Higher HRFS-Promotion focus generally corresponded with greater health behavior intentions. Conversely, higher HRFS-Prevention focus corresponded with lower health behavior intentions. Associations were largely maintained even when controlling for established regulatory focus measures, supporting the assertion that the HRFS would predict unique variance in health behavior intentions. The HRFS has the potential to improve the precision with which framed health messages change behavior, as it may assess a version of regulatory focus that is more ideally matched to rationale for tailoring interventions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Simplifying Fibromyalgia Assessment: The VASFIQ Brief Symptom Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomershine, Chad S; Emir, Birol; Wang, Yi; Zlateva, Gergana

    2011-10-01

    We tested the ability of the VASFIQ, a seven-item scale composed of Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) visual analog scales (VASs), to quantify fibromyalgia global disease severity and identify fibromyalgia patients with significant symptoms of fatigue, poor sleep, depression or anxiety. Spearman rank correlations were used to compare global VASFIQ, FIQ and Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC) scores and individual FIQ VAS scores with full-length, validated questionnaire scores for fatigue (Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue-Global Fatigue Index [MAF-GFI]), poor sleep (Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Problems Index [SPI]) and depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]). Patient scores used in the analyses were derived from 2229 patients enrolled in three pregabalin fibromyalgia trials. Receiver operating characteristic analyses determined VASFIQ cutoff scores identifying patients with clinically significant symptom levels using full-length, validated symptom questionnaires to define cases. Global VASFIQ and FIQ scores correlated highly at baseline and study endpoints (ρ = 0.94 and 0.97, respectively; both p7.5, poor sleep by VASsleep >7.9, depression by VASdepression >5.8 and anxiety by VASanxiety >6.0. VASFIQ global scores ≥31.4 and ≥45.0 identified patients with moderate and severe global fibromyalgia symptoms, respectively. The VASFIQ scale accurately quantifies global fibromyalgia severity and identifies patients with significant symptoms of fatigue, poor sleep, depression or anxiety with brevity, enabling rapid patient assessment and informing treatment decisions in busy clinics.

  15. Validity of occupational stress assessment using a visual analogue scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesage, F X; Berjot, S

    2011-09-01

    The visual analogue scale (VAS) is empirically used by occupational physicians to assess stress but very few studies have been published about its quantitative validation. To assess the external validity of the VAS for the assessment of stress in the clinical occupational health setting by comparing its scores with the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) of Cohen. An anonymous self-completed questionnaire (PSS14) and the VAS were filled in by a random sample of 360 workers from several occupational health centres. No difference between the mean scores of PSS14 and stress VAS was found. The equation of the linear regression was 'VAS score = -0.18 + 1008 × PSS14 score'. A VAS score of 7.0 was identified as having the best sensitivity/specificity ratio (0.74 and 0.93, respectively) for identifying those with 'high stress' using the PSS cut-off score of 7.2, using a receiver operator curve approach. Our results support an acceptable agreement between the two tests, meaning that the two tools assess the same psychological construct. The good sensitivity/specificity ratio and the area under the curve close to 1 provide evidence that a VAS is suitable to help the occupational physician detect a high level of stress. The use of a VAS for stress assessment seems to be meaningful, suitable and useful for occupational physicians.

  16. An assessment scale for trainee engagement in the Portuguese navy

    OpenAIRE

    Frade, Ana; Veiga, Feliciano

    2014-01-01

    In this study an Assessment Scale for Trainee Engagement in the Portuguese Navy (ASTE-PN) was designed for the Portuguese military context. The sample involved 149 trainees of the Training Course for Petty Officers 1st Class of the Portuguese Navy, ages ranging from 25 to 36, mostly of male gender. The psychometric properties of the study are presented and the results from the factor analysis displayed, which highlighted three factors – cognitive engagement, affective engagement and behavi...

  17. Computing Sampling Weights in Large-scale Assessments in Education

    OpenAIRE

    Meinck, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Sampling weights are a reflection of sampling design; they allow us to draw valid conclusions about population features from sample data. This paper explains the fundamentals of computing sampling weights for large-scale assessments in educational research. The relationship between the nature of complex samples and best practices in developing a set of weights to enable computation of unbiased population estimates is described. Effects of sampling weights on estimates are shown...

  18. [Is the suicidal risk assessment scale RSD of predictive value?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducher, J L; Terra, J L

    2006-10-01

    A part (60% to 70%) of those who are going to act out their suicide consult a doctor the month before. Studies have shown the need to improve the practitioner's capacity to diagnose depression. The assessment of the suicidal risk is crucial. The search for suicidal risk factors helps to define the populations at risk. However, it doesn't provide information concerning the possibility of acting out in the short term. And how does one react when faced with those who do not present any of the risk factors? Psychometric instruments attempt to help the therapist in his/her reasoning. SUICIDAL RISK ASSESSMENT: Among them, the suicidal risk assessment scale RSD should be mentioned. Its objective is to estimate the seriousness of the suicidal risk, with 11 levels. It is built around a possible will to commit suicide rather than a single assessment of the frequency of suicidal ideas. Its construction in hierarchical order permits the progressive assessment of the suicidal risk, in the form of a semi-structured interview. Hence, the suicidal risk assessment scale RSD looks for the existence of death wishes (levels 1-2), of suicide ideations and its frequency (levels 3-4-5), and of a passive desire to die (level 6). Level 7 shows the onset of a decision making process, except that the patient is still inhibited by various important factors in his/her life. More often, the fear of inflicting immense suffering to his/her loved ones or for religious beliefs, is found. From level 8, determination has made way to hesitation. An active death wish exists, and although the plan remains undefined, the act is decided on. At level 9 the methods of application are developed and a plan is established. The ultimate level exists when there is a start in the preparation of the act of suicide (level 10). This hierarchical order has been confirmed by some epidemiological studies. The inclusion of the suicidal risk assessment scale RSD in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, which tested

  19. Preferences in Individuals with Angelman Syndrome Assessed by a Modified Choice Assessment Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didden, R.; Korzilius, H.; Kamphuis, A.; Sturmey, P.; Lancioni, G.; Curfs, L. M. G.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Individuals with Angelman syndrome (AS) seem to have a strong preference for water-related items. Until present, preference assessment in AS has not been reported. Methods: An adapted Dutch version of the Choice Assessment Scale (CAS) was administered by parents and other caregivers to 105 individuals with AS. The CAS was adapted by…

  20. A Scale for Assessing the Severity of Arousal Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnulf, Isabelle; Zhang, Bin; Uguccioni, Ginevra; Flamand, Mathilde; Noël de Fontréaux, Alix; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Brion, Agnès

    2014-01-01

    Background: Arousal disorders may have serious health consequences. Objective: To develop a scale assessing the severity of arousal disorders (Paris Arousal Disorders Severity Scale, PADSS). Setting: University hospital. Design: Controlled study. Participants: Consecutive patients (older than 15 y), with sleepwalking (SW) and/or sleep terrors (ST), subjects with previous SW/ST, normal controls and patients with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. Intervention: The self-rated scale listed 17 parasomniac behaviors (PADSS-A), assessed their frequency from never to twice or more per night (PADSS-B) and evaluated the consequences (PADSS-C: disturbed sleep, injuries, fatigue, and psychological consequences). The clinimetric properties and face validity of the scale were tested. Results: Half of the 73 patients with SW/ST (more men than women) had injured themselves or others, whereas 15% had concomitant sexsomnia and 23% had amnestic eating behaviors. The total PADSS score (range: 0-50) was 19.4 ± 6.3 (range: 8-36) in this group, 11.7 ± 5.9 in 26 subjects with previous SW/ST, 8.8 ± 3.2 in 26 patients with RBD, and 2.0 ± 3.5 in 53 normal controls (P < 0.05). The PADSS demonstrated high sensitivity (83.6%), specificity (87.8%), internal consistency, and test-retest reliability (0.79). The best cutoff for the total score was at 13/14. Exploratory factor analysis revealed two components: wandering and violence/handling. The complexity of behaviors emerging from N3 sleep (scored on videopolysomnography) positively correlated with scores for the PADSS-total, PADSS-A, PADSS-C, and the “violence/handling” factor. Conclusion: This scale had reasonable psychometric properties and could be used for screening and stratifying patients and for evaluating the effects of treatments. Citation: Arnulf I; Zhang B; Uguccioni G; Flamand M; Noël de Fontréaux A; Leu-Semenescu S; Brion A. A scale for assessing the severity of arousal disorders. SLEEP 2014;37(1):127-136. PMID

  1. Assessing organizational climate: psychometric properties of the CLIOR Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Suárez, Elsa; Muñiz, José; Campillo-Álvarez, Angela; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; García-Cueto, Eduardo

    2013-02-01

    Organizational climate is the set of perceptions shared by workers who occupy the same workplace. The main goal of this study is to develop a new organizational climate scale and to determine its psychometric properties. The sample consisted of 3,163 Health Service workers. A total of 88.7% of participants worked in hospitals, and 11.3% in primary care; 80% were women and 20% men, with a mean age of 51.9 years (SD= 6.28). The proposed scale consists of 50 Likert-type items, with an alpha coefficient of 0.97, and an essentially one-dimensional structure. The discrimination indexes of the items are greater than 0.40, and the items show no differential item functioning in relation to participants' sex. A short version of the scale was developed, made up of 15 items, with discrimination indexes higher than 0.40, an alpha coefficient of 0.94, and its structure was clearly one-dimensional. These results indicate that the new scale has adequate psychometric properties, allowing a reliable and valid assessment of organizational climate.

  2. Psychometric assessment of the Correa-Barrick Postpartum Depression Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrick, Christina; Kent, Vicky; Crusse, Elizabeth; Taylor, Dianne

    2012-12-10

    Empirical evidence has suggested an association between mood and color sensitivity. The purpose of this study is to report on the psychometric properties of a new postpartum depression rating scale while at the same time showing a correlation between depression severity and impaired color sensitivity. Using a survey design of a sample of 17 postpartum patients, color sensitivity was assessed by the patient's response to a self-report depression scale item, "I notice that everything seems gray/cloudy/drab/lacking color". There was a statistically significant finding between color sensitivity and depression, r=.50, Pdepression for prompt intervention. Referral should be made to mental health providers for follow-up to insure that the mother is not psychotic or so depressed that she cannot care for the baby. Color sensitivity impairment and depression severity has been replicated several times with different samples. It is worthwhile pursuing the pathophysiological basis for this. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Assessment of commonly used pediatric stool scales: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saps, M; Nichols-Vinueza, D; Dhroove, G; Adams, P; Chogle, A

    2013-01-01

    The Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSFS) and a modified child-friendly version (M-BSFS) are frequently used in clinical practice and research. These scales have not been validated in children. 3-D stool scale models may be better adapted to the child's development. To assess the usefulness of the BSFS, M-BSFS, and a newly developed 3-D stool scale in children. Fifty children were asked to rank the picture cards of the BSFS and 3-D models from hardest to softest and to match the pictures with descriptors for each stool type. Thirty percent of the children appropriately characterized the stools as hard, loose, or normal using the BSFS vs. 36.6% with the 3-D model (p=0.27). Appropriate correlation of stools as hard, loose, or normal consistency using the BSFS vs. the 3-D model by age group was: 6 to 11-year-olds, 27.5% vs. 33.3% (p=0.58) and 12 to 17-year-olds, 32.1% vs. 39.5% (p=0.41). Thirty-three percent correlated the BSFS pictures with the correct BSFS words, 46% appropriately correlated with the M-BSFS words, and 46% correlated the 3-D stool models with the correct wording. The BSFS and M-BSFS that are widely used as stool assessment instruments are not user-friendly for children. The 3-D model was not found to be better than the BSFS and the M-BSFS. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  4. A Social Development Assessment Scale for Mexican Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Aguiar Sierra

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This work described the design of an instrument able to measure social development for Mexican children and the process of the establishment of its psychometric properties. Theoretical aspects considered for its construction and the process of validating forms for parents and teachers are described in a three stage processes that resulted in a final version of the Social Development Scale that measures, disruptive behavior, social interaction, cooperation, acceptance and attachment as core dimensions associated with the concept of social competence. The importance of assessing social development and competence for education, children rearing and general well being are analyzed and discussed.

  5. Flood risk assessment of potential casualties in a global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Loaiza, Andres; Englhardt, Johanna; Boekhorst, Ellen; Ward, Philip; Aerts, Jeroen

    2017-04-01

    Flood risk assessment of potential casualties in a global scale. M. Andres Diaz-Loaiza (1), Johanna Englhardt (1), Ellen de Boekhorst (1), Philip J. Ward (1) and Jeroen Aerts (1) (1) Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands. andres.diazloaiza@vu.nl Floods are one of the most dangerous natural disasters for humanity, affecting many people every year. Quantitative risk models on a global scale are nowadays available tools for institutions and actors in charge of risk management in order to plan possible mitigation measures in case of flood risk events. Many of these models have been focus on potential economic damage, population and GDP exposure, but the potential casualties assessment has been left aside. This is partially due to the complexity of the problem itself, in which several variables like the age of a pedestrian (drag/exposed to a flood event), or his weight and swimming experience can be decisive for the complete understanding of the problem. In the present work is presented the advances for the development of a methodology in order to include in the GLOFRIS model a new indicator in case of flood risk events. Preliminary analysis relating the GDP with the potential casualties shows that undeveloped countries have more susceptibility to loss of life in case of flood events. This because the GDP indicator evidences as well the protection measures available in a country.

  6. The Thriving of Older People Assessment Scale: validity and reliability assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergland, Ådel; Kirkevold, Marit; Sandman, Per-Olof; Hofoss, Dag; Edvardsson, David

    2015-04-01

    To explore construct validity and reliability of the Thriving of Older People Assessment Scale. The concept of thriving emphasizes person-environment interaction in relation to well-being. The Thriving of Older People Assessment Scale has been developed and evaluated as a self-report and proxy scale based on the theory of thriving. Cross-sectional survey design. The Thriving of Older People Assessment Scale was completed by a sample of 259 residents, 146 family members and 52 staff from 13 long-term care facilities in Norway and Sweden. Data were collected between April 2010-December 2011. Exploratory factor analysis was applied to explore construct validity in terms of factor structure and dimensionality of the 32-item scale in relation to the thriving theory. Reliability was explored through internal consistency estimation using Cronbach's alpha and through homogeneity evaluation using corrected item-total correlations. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in five factors (subscales) that corresponded meaningfully with the thriving theory and were labelled 1: Resident' attitudes towards being in long-term care; 2: Quality of care and caregivers; 3: Resident engagement and peer relationships; 4: Keeping in touch with people and places; and 5: Quality of the physical environment. The scale had satisfactory internal consistency and homogeneity estimates. The 32-item Thriving of Older People Assessment Scale can be regarded as construct valid and reliable. Its factor structure corresponded logically to the thriving theory and its factors showed satisfactory internal consistency and homogeneity. Nevertheless, the TOPAS would benefit from further testing in other populations and contexts. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. [A global scale for assessment of the family environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhausen, H C; Wolgensinger, E

    2004-02-01

    Reliability of the Global Family Environment Scale (GFES) which has been developed in Australia and translated into German. Comparison of ratings and reliability of written case vignettes by international raters and clinicians of the own institution. Assessment of interrater-reliability of clinical cases before and after group trainings with introduction of the manual and discussion of written case vignettes. The ratings of seven training case vignettes were rather similar by clinicians from Zurich and in an international study by the Australian authors. In the same way interrater agreements were similar in the two studies and satisfying. In the present study a single training session in comparison to reading the manual did not result in higher interrater agreement. The existing psychometric properties and the availability of a translation represent important prerequisites for the applicability of the GFES in the German-speaking countries.

  8. Extending large-scale forest inventories to assess urban forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Piermaria; Agrimi, Mariagrazia; Baffetta, Federica; Barbati, Anna; Chiriacò, Maria Vincenza; Fattorini, Lorenzo; Pompei, Enrico; Valentini, Riccardo; Mattioli, Walter

    2012-03-01

    Urban areas are continuously expanding today, extending their influence on an increasingly large proportion of woods and trees located in or nearby urban and urbanizing areas, the so-called urban forests. Although these forests have the potential for significantly improving the quality the urban environment and the well-being of the urban population, data to quantify the extent and characteristics of urban forests are still lacking or fragmentary on a large scale. In this regard, an expansion of the domain of multipurpose forest inventories like National Forest Inventories (NFIs) towards urban forests would be required. To this end, it would be convenient to exploit the same sampling scheme applied in NFIs to assess the basic features of urban forests. This paper considers approximately unbiased estimators of abundance and coverage of urban forests, together with estimators of the corresponding variances, which can be achieved from the first phase of most large-scale forest inventories. A simulation study is carried out in order to check the performance of the considered estimators under various situations involving the spatial distribution of the urban forests over the study area. An application is worked out on the data from the Italian NFI.

  9. A scale for assessing Italian schools and classes inclusiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Cottini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents in detail the procedures for developing and validating a tool for assessing the inclusive process pertaining to school contexts called “Inclusive Process Assessment Scale”. The Scale, which is the outcome of the joined work of the authors, sets itself both as an assessing and self-assessing tool, useful for allowing on one hand specific types of evaluation and, on the other, promoting thoughts on inclusive education’s quality indicators, thus contributing to the planning and ongoing adjustment of the educational project of the school and the class. The tool, in its computer version as well, allows for the planning of researches that can collect evidences supporting the full inclusion organization of Italian schools.Una scala per valutare l’inclusività delle scuole e delle classi italianeIl contributo presenta in dettaglio le procedure di costruzione e validazione di uno strumento per valutare i processi inclusivi riferiti ai contesti scolastici, chiamato “Scala di Valutazione dei Processi Inclusivi”. Frutto del lavoro congiunto svolto dagli autori, la Scala si pone come uno strumento valutativo e autovalutativo utile a consentire da un lato, la realizzazione di specifiche forme di misurazione e, dall’altro, la promozione di processi di riflessione sugli indicatori di qualità dell’educazione inclusiva, per contribuire alla progettazione e alla regolazione in itinere del progetto educativo della scuola e della classe. Lo strumento, anche nella sua versione digitale, consente di pianificare ricerche, che possono raccogliere evidenze in grado di avvalorare l’organizzazione scolastica italiana di full inclusion.

  10. Scales for assessment of depression in schizophrenia: Factor analysis of calgary depression rating scale and hamilton depression rating scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sandeep; Sahoo, Swapnajeet; Dua, Devakshi; Chakrabarti, Subho; Avasthi, Ajit

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the factor structure of Calgary depression rating scale (CDSS) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) among patients with schizophrenia in acute and remission phase of illness by using exploratory factor analysis. For this, 267 patients with schizophrenia were assessed on CDSS and HDRS. Exploratory factor analysis of CDSS yielded 2 factor models for the whole sample, patients in clinical remission and patients not in clinical remission phase of schizophrenia. Factor analysis of HDRS yielded 3 factor models; however, there was significant difference in the factor structure between those in clinical remission and those not in clinical remission phase of schizophrenia. CDSS total score did not correlate with PANSS positive and negative subscale scores. In contrast, HDRS total score correlated positively with PANSS positive subscale score, PANSS negative subscale score and PANSS general psychopathology subscale score. To conclude, present study suggests while CDSS items separate out into 2 factors, which are stable across different stages of illness, whereas HDRS factor structure appears to be less stable across different stages of illness. Correlation analysis suggests that rating on HDRS may be affected by positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia, whereas CDSS do not correlate with positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A novel visual facial anxiety scale for assessing preoperative anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhao Cao

    Full Text Available There is currently no widely accepted instrument for measuring preoperative anxiety. The objective of this study was to develop a simple visual facial anxiety scale (VFAS for assessing acute preoperative anxiety.The initial VFAS was comprised of 11 similarly styled stick-figure reflecting different types of facial expressions (Fig 1. After obtaining IRB approval, a total of 265 participant-healthcare providers (e.g., anesthesiologists, anesthesiology residents, and perioperative nurses were recruited to participate in this study. The participants were asked to: (1 rank the 11 faces from 0-10 (0 = no anxiety, while 10 = highest anxiety and then to (2 match one of the 11 facial expression with a numeric verbal rating scale (NVRS (0 = no anxiety and 10 = highest level of anxiety and a specific categorical level of anxiety, namely no anxiety, mild, mild-moderate, moderate, moderate-high or highest anxiety. Based on these data, the Spearman correlation and frequencies of the 11 faces in relation to the 11-point numerical anxiety scale and 6 categorical anxiety levels were calculated. The highest frequency of a face assigned to a level of the numerical anxiety scale resulted in a finalized order of faces corresponding to the 11-point numeric rating scale.The highest frequency for each of the NVRS anxiety scores were as follow: A0, A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A7, A6, A8, A9 and A10 (Fig 2. For the six categorical anxiety levels, a total of 260 (98.1% participants chose the face A0 as representing 'no' anxiety, 250 (94.3% participants chose the face A10 as representing 'highest' anxiety and 147 (55.5% participants chose the face A8 as representing 'moderate-high' anxiety. Spearman analysis showed a significant correlation between the faces A3 and A5 assigned to the mild-moderate anxiety category (r = 0.58, but A5 was ultimately chosen due to its higher frequency compared to the frequency of A3 (30.6% vs 24.9%(Fig 3. Similarly, the correlation of the faces A7

  12. Comprehensive large-scale assessment of intrinsic protein disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Ian; Giollo, Manuel; Di Domenico, Tomás; Ferrari, Carlo; Zimmermann, Olav; Tosatto, Silvio C E

    2015-01-15

    Intrinsically disordered regions are key for the function of numerous proteins. Due to the difficulties in experimental disorder characterization, many computational predictors have been developed with various disorder flavors. Their performance is generally measured on small sets mainly from experimentally solved structures, e.g. Protein Data Bank (PDB) chains. MobiDB has only recently started to collect disorder annotations from multiple experimental structures. MobiDB annotates disorder for UniProt sequences, allowing us to conduct the first large-scale assessment of fast disorder predictors on 25 833 different sequences with X-ray crystallographic structures. In addition to a comprehensive ranking of predictors, this analysis produced the following interesting observations. (i) The predictors cluster according to their disorder definition, with a consensus giving more confidence. (ii) Previous assessments appear over-reliant on data annotated at the PDB chain level and performance is lower on entire UniProt sequences. (iii) Long disordered regions are harder to predict. (iv) Depending on the structural and functional types of the proteins, differences in prediction performance of up to 10% are observed. The datasets are available from Web site at URL: http://mobidb.bio.unipd.it/lsd. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Assessing sustainable biophysical human-nature connectedness at regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorninger, Christian; Abson, David J.; Fischer, Joern; von Wehrden, Henrik

    2017-05-01

    Humans are biophysically connected to the biosphere through the flows of materials and energy appropriated from ecosystems. While this connection is fundamental for human well-being, many modern societies have—for better or worse—disconnected themselves from the natural productivity of their immediate regional environment. In this paper, we conceptualize the biophysical human-nature connectedness of land use systems at regional scales. We distinguish two mechanisms by which primordial connectedness of people to regional ecosystems has been circumvented via the use of external inputs. First, ‘biospheric disconnection’ refers to people drawing on non-renewable minerals from outside the biosphere (e.g. fossils, metals and other minerals). Second, ‘spatial disconnection’ arises from the imports and exports of biomass products and imported mineral resources used to extract and process ecological goods. Both mechanisms allow for greater regional resource use than would be possible otherwise, but both pose challenges for sustainability, for example, through waste generation, depletion of non-renewable resources and environmental burden shifting to distant regions. In contrast, biophysically reconnected land use systems may provide renewed opportunities for inhabitants to develop an awareness of their impacts and fundamental reliance on ecosystems. To better understand the causes, consequences, and possible remedies related to biophysical disconnectedness, new quantitative methods to assess the extent of regional biophysical human-nature connectedness are needed. To this end, we propose a new methodological framework that can be applied to assess biophysical human-nature connectedness in any region of the world.

  14. Fast voltage stability assessment for large-scale power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y. [Shandong Univ., Jinan (China). School of Electrical Engineering; Wang, L.; Yu, Z. [Shandong Electric Power Co., Jinan (China). Electric Power Control Center

    2007-07-01

    A new method of assessing online voltage stability in large-scale power systems was presented. A local voltage stability index was used to determine weak buses in the system. A case study of the Shandong power system in China was used to demonstrate the accuracy and speed of the method for online applications. The local method was based on the fact that the Thevenin equivalent as determined from the load bus and the apparent load impedance were equal at the point of voltage collapse. Participant buses and key power sources of both reactive and active power transmission paths were determined using electrical distance measurements. Participant buses and key power sources of the reactive and active power transmission paths were also determined. The case study demonstrated that the reactive power reserve of key generators has a significant impact on voltage stability. The study also demonstrated that the voltage stability of the weakest power transmission path can decline or shift when some generators reach their limits. It was concluded that combining voltage stability indices and reactive power reserves increases the accuracy of voltage stability assessments. 11 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  15. Risk Assessment and Scaling for the SLS LH2 ET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiychuk, Halyna; Ponizovskaya-Devine, Ekaterina; Luchinsky, Dmitry; Khasin, Michael; Osipov, Viatcheslav V.; Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.

    2012-01-01

    In this report the main physics processes in LH2 tank during prepress and rocket flight are studied. The goal of this investigation is to analyze possible hazards and to make risk assessment in proposed LH2 tank designs for SLS with 5 engines (the situation with 4 engines is less critical). For analysis we use the multinode model (MNM) developed by us and presented in a separate report and also 3D ANSYS simulations. We carry out simulation and theoretical analysis the physics processes such as (i) accumulation of bubbles in LH2 during replenish stage and their collapsing in the liquid during the prepress; (ii) condensation-evaporation at the liquid-vapor interface and tank wall, (iv) heating the liquid near the interface and wall due to condensation and environment heat, (v) injection of hot He during prepress and of hot GH2 during flight, (vi) mixing and cooling of the injected gases due to heat transfer between the gases, liquid and the tank wall. We analyze the effects of these physical processes on the thermo- and fluid gas dynamics in the ullage and on the stratification of temperature in the liquid and assess the associated hazards. A special emphasize is put on the scaling predictions for the larger SLS LH2 tank.

  16. Scaling studies and conceptual experiment designs for NGNP CFD assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. M. McEligot; G. E. McCreery

    2004-11-01

    The objective of this report is to document scaling studies and conceptual designs for flow and heat transfer experiments intended to assess CFD codes and their turbulence models proposed for application to prismatic NGNP concepts. The general approach of the project is to develop new benchmark experiments for assessment in parallel with CFD and coupled CFD/systems code calculations for the same geometry. Two aspects of the complex flow in an NGNP are being addressed: (1) flow and thermal mixing in the lower plenum ("hot streaking" issue) and (2) turbulence and resulting temperature distributions in reactor cooling channels ("hot channel" issue). Current prismatic NGNP concepts are being examined to identify their proposed flow conditions and geometries over the range from normal operation to decay heat removal in a pressurized cooldown. Approximate analyses have been applied to determine key non-dimensional parameters and their magnitudes over this operating range. For normal operation, the flow in the coolant channels can be considered to be dominant turbulent forced convection with slight transverse property variation. In a pressurized cooldown (LOFA) simulation, the flow quickly becomes laminar with some possible buoyancy influences. The flow in the lower plenum can locally be considered to be a situation of multiple hot jets into a confined crossflow -- with obstructions. Flow is expected to be turbulent with momentumdominated turbulent jets entering; buoyancy influences are estimated to be negligible in normal full power operation. Experiments are needed for the combined features of the lower plenum flows. Missing from the typical jet experiments available are interactions with nearby circular posts and with vertical posts in the vicinity of vertical walls - with near stagnant surroundings at one extreme and significant crossflow at the other. Two types of heat transfer experiments are being considered. One addresses the "hot channel" problem, if necessary

  17. Reliability and validity of the Acceptance Symptom Assessment Scale in assessing labour pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergh, Ingrid; Söderlund, Tina; Vinterskog, Linda; Mårtensson, Lena B

    2012-10-01

    to investigate the reliability and validity of the Acceptance Symptom Assessment Scale (ASAS) in assessing labour pain. a test-retest approach was used to assess reliability and validity. labour ward with approximately 2,400 deliveries annually in western part of Sweden. forty-seven pregnant women in the latent or active phase of labour. a total of five pain assessments with both the ASAS and the VAS were conducted in three sessions. correlation between ASAS and VAS. both scales demonstrated high and significant test-retest correlations (r=0.83-0.92; pVAS ratings at all five assessments. Construct validity was established when both the ASAS and the VAS identified a pain reduction (pVAS, mainly (n=30) because the ASAS provided more choices relating to the pain experience, making it possible to label pain acceptable/unacceptable. the ASAS is interchangeable with the VAS for assessing labour pain. Over two-thirds of the women preferred it to the VAS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of the Relationship Assessment Scale among Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    غلامرضا دهشیری

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research administrated to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Persian version of Relationship Assessment scale. Therefore, 315 married individuals (199 women and 116 men from Tehran city were volunteered to respond to four scales: the Relationship Assessment, the Kansas Marital Satisfaction, the Oxford Happiness and the Life Satisfaction. Results from exploratory & confirmatory factor analysis showed that factor structure of Relationship Assessment scale was unidimensional. The internal consistency of the scale in the total sample was 0.88. Significant correlations between scores of the Relationship Assessment scale with the scores of the Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale, the Life Satisfaction Scale and the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire demonstrated good convergent validity of the scale. Also, the results showed that there was no significant gender difference between the mean scores of relationship satisfaction. In conclusion, the Relationship Assessment scale is a valid and reliable tool to measure marital satisfaction in Iran.

  19. The scale for the assessment and rating of ataxia correlates with dysarthria assessment in Friedreich's ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigentler, Andreas; Rhomberg, Johanna; Nachbauer, Wolfgang; Ritzer, Irmgard; Poewe, Werner; Boesch, Sylvia

    2012-03-01

    Dysarthria is an acquired neurogenic sensorimotor speech symptom and an integral part within the clinical spectrum of ataxia syndromes. Ataxia measurements and disability scores generally focus on the assessment of motor functions. Since comprehensive investigations of dysarthria in ataxias are sparse, we assessed dysarthria in ataxia patients using the Frenchay Dysarthria Assessment. The Frenchay Dysarthria Assessment is a ten-item validated test in which eight items focus on the observation of oral structures and speech functions. Fifteen Friedreich's ataxia patients and 15 healthy control individuals were analyzed using clinical and logopedic methodology. All patients underwent neurological assessment applying the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia. In Friedreich's ataxia patients, the Frenchay sub-item voice showed to be most affected compared to healthy individuals followed by items such as reflexes, palate, tongue, and intelligibility. Scoring of lips, jaw, and respiration appeared to be mildly affected. Ataxia severity in Friedreich's ataxia patients revealed a significant correlation with the Frenchay dysarthria sum score. The introduction of a binary Adapted Dysarthria Score additionally allowed allocation to distinct dysarthria pattern in ataxias. The Frenchay Dysarthria Assessment proved to be a valid dysarthria measure in Friedreich's ataxia. Its availability in several languages provides a major advantage regarding the applicability in international clinical studies. Shortcomings of the Frenchay test are the multiplicity of items tested and its alphabetic coding. Numerical scoring and condensation of assessments in a modified version may, however, provide an excellent clinical tool for the measurement and scoring of dysarthria in ataxic speech disorders.

  20. Toward Instructional Leadership: Principals' Perceptions of Large-Scale Assessment in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prytula, Michelle; Noonan, Brian; Hellsten, Laurie

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a study of the perceptions that Saskatchewan school principals have regarding large-scale assessment reform and their perceptions of how assessment reform has affected their roles as principals. The findings revealed that large-scale assessments, especially provincial assessments, have affected the principal in Saskatchewan…

  1. NASA Standard for Models and Simulations: Credibility Assessment Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babula, Maria; Bertch, William J.; Green, Lawrence L.; Hale, Joseph P.; Mosier, Gary E.; Steele, Martin J.; Woods, Jody

    2009-01-01

    As one of its many responses to the 2003 Space Shuttle Columbia accident, NASA decided to develop a formal standard for models and simulations (M&S). Work commenced in May 2005. An interim version was issued in late 2006. This interim version underwent considerable revision following an extensive Agency-wide review in 2007 along with some additional revisions as a result of the review by the NASA Engineering Management Board (EMB) in the first half of 2008. Issuance of the revised, permanent version, hereafter referred to as the M&S Standard or just the Standard, occurred in July 2008. Bertch, Zang and Steeleiv provided a summary review of the development process of this standard up through the start of the review by the EMB. A thorough recount of the entire development process, major issues, key decisions, and all review processes are available in Ref. v. This is the second of a pair of papers providing a summary of the final version of the Standard. Its focus is the Credibility Assessment Scale, a key feature of the Standard, including an example of its application to a real-world M&S problem for the James Webb Space Telescope. The companion paper summarizes the overall philosophy of the Standard and an overview of the requirements. Verbatim quotes from the Standard are integrated into the text of this paper, and are indicated by quotation marks.

  2. Developing a comprehensive scale to assess college multicultural programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinckrodt, Brent; Miles, Joseph R; Bhaskar, Tripti; Chery, Nicole; Choi, Gahee; Sung, Mi-Ra

    2014-01-01

    A barrier to assessing effectiveness of multicultural programming is lack of a relatively brief instrument to measure the wide range of intended outcomes. A frequent goal of programming is to increase cultural empathy, but this is rarely the only intended outcome. We conducted focus groups of campus administrators, student affairs staff, and undergraduate instructors who identified a full range of racial/ethnic multicultural competencies that undergraduates should possess. An 84-item pool generated from these focus groups was combined with the 31-item Scale of Ethnocultural Empathy (SEE; Wang et al., 2003). These 115 items, together with instruments used to gauge concurrent validity, were administered to White undergraduate students in introductory psychology courses at the midpoint (n = 602) and end (n = 676) of fall semester. Exploratory factor analysis suggested 6 subscales for the Everyday Multicultural Competencies/Revised SEE (EMC/RSEE): (a) Cultural Openness and Desire to Learn; (b) Resentment and Cultural Dominance; (c) Anxiety and Lack of Multicultural Self-Efficacy; (d) Empathic Perspective-Taking; (e) Awareness of Contemporary Racism and Privilege; and (f) Empathic Feeling and Acting as an Ally. Item response theory principles guided final selection of subscale items. Analyses suggested good factor stability, reliability, and discriminant validity of the 48-item EMC/RSEE in these undergraduate samples. EMC/RSEE subscales were not strongly correlated with a measure of impression management and were significantly associated with measures of Openness to Diversity Challenge, and Universal-Diverse Orientation. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Do Balanced Scales Assess Bipolar Constructs? The Case of the STAI Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vautier, Stephane; Pohl, Steffi

    2009-01-01

    Balanced scales, that is, scales based on items whose content is either negatively or positively polarized, are often used in the hope of measuring a bipolar construct. Research has shown that usually balanced scales do not yield 1-dimensional measurements. This threatens their construct validity. The authors show how to test bipolarity while…

  4. The effect of scale in daily precipitation hazard assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Egozcue

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Daily precipitation is recorded as the total amount of water collected by a rain-gauge in 24 h. Events are modelled as a Poisson process and the 24 h precipitation by a Generalised Pareto Distribution (GPD of excesses. Hazard assessment is complete when estimates of the Poisson rate and the distribution parameters, together with a measure of their uncertainty, are obtained. The shape parameter of the GPD determines the support of the variable: Weibull domain of attraction (DA corresponds to finite support variables as should be for natural phenomena. However, Fréchet DA has been reported for daily precipitation, which implies an infinite support and a heavy-tailed distribution. Bayesian techniques are used to estimate the parameters. The approach is illustrated with precipitation data from the Eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula affected by severe convective precipitation. The estimated GPD is mainly in the Fréchet DA, something incompatible with the common sense assumption of that precipitation is a bounded phenomenon. The bounded character of precipitation is then taken as a priori hypothesis. Consistency of this hypothesis with the data is checked in two cases: using the raw-data (in mm and using log-transformed data. As expected, a Bayesian model checking clearly rejects the model in the raw-data case. However, log-transformed data seem to be consistent with the model. This fact may be due to the adequacy of the log-scale to represent positive measurements for which differences are better relative than absolute.

  5. Comparison of Three Consciousness Assessment Scales in Poisoned Patients and Recommendation of a New Scale: AVPU Plus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rajabi Kheirabadi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few methods have been introduced to assess the level of consciousness in critically-ill patients. This study was designed to evaluate how the AlertVerbalPainfulUnresponsive (AVPU responsive scale corresponds with the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS and Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS scores in drug-poisoned patients and to devise an augmented AVPU scale. Methods: In this prospective study, patients with diagnosis of acute drug poisoning were included and their level of consciousness was assessed using GCS, RASS and AVPU scales. Results: Overall, 165 poisoned patients (59% female were studied. According to AVPU scale, 123 patients (74.5% were graded as “alert”, 26 patients (15.8% as “responsive to verbal stimulation”, 10 patients (6.1% as “responsive to painful stimulation”, and 6 patients as “unresponsive” (3.6%. AVPU grades of "alert", "responsive to verbal stimulation", "responsive to painful stimulation" and "unresponsive" corresponded with median [IQR] GCS scores of 15 [15–15], 13 [12–13], 8 [7–10] and 6 [5–6], and median [IQR] RASS scores of -1 [-1 – +1], -2 [-3 – -1], -3 [-4 – -1], -5 [-5 – -5], respectively. By taking the median of RASS scores corresponding with each AVPU grade, an augmented AVPU scale for the assessment of consciousness was devised. The first proposed version of AVPU plus includes 14 qualitative grades of consciousness. By application of this scale, clinicians can evaluate both the alertness/attentiveness and arousal/excitability of poisoned and critical patients. Conclusion: The AVPU plus is a new scale designed for more detailed assessment of neurologic status of poisoned and critical patients. The prognostic-ability, reliability and validity of the scale should be investigated in future studies.

  6. Development of Scales to Assess Homeownership Consumption and Investment Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jeanette A.; Olson, Geraldine I.

    1986-01-01

    A method to measure homeowners' housing consumption and investment attitudes was developed. Dimensions in the consumption scale were space, tenure, structure, quality, and neighborhood. The investment scale included tax benefits, equity, rate of return, leverage, and risk. Personal variables were hypothesized to have an effect on overall…

  7. Assessing Africa-wide Pangolin exploitation by scaling local data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingram, Daniel J.; Coad, Lauren; Abernethy, Katharine A.

    2017-01-01

    Overexploitation is one of the main pressures driving wildlife closer to extinction, yet broad-scale data to evaluate species’ declines are limited. Using African pangolins (Family: Pholidota) as a case study, we demonstrate that collating local-scale data can provide crucial information on regio...

  8. Medicine in words and numbers: a cross-sectional survey comparing probability assessment scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koele Pieter

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the complex domain of medical decision making, reasoning under uncertainty can benefit from supporting tools. Automated decision support tools often build upon mathematical models, such as Bayesian networks. These networks require probabilities which often have to be assessed by experts in the domain of application. Probability response scales can be used to support the assessment process. We compare assessments obtained with different types of response scale. Methods General practitioners (GPs gave assessments on and preferences for three different probability response scales: a numerical scale, a scale with only verbal labels, and a combined verbal-numerical scale we had designed ourselves. Standard analyses of variance were performed. Results No differences in assessments over the three response scales were found. Preferences for type of scale differed: the less experienced GPs preferred the verbal scale, the most experienced preferred the numerical scale, with the groups in between having a preference for the combined verbal-numerical scale. Conclusion We conclude that all three response scales are equally suitable for supporting probability assessment. The combined verbal-numerical scale is a good choice for aiding the process, since it offers numerical labels to those who prefer numbers and verbal labels to those who prefer words, and accommodates both more and less experienced professionals.

  9. The Psychometric Properties of Scales that Assess Market Orientation and Team Leadership Skills: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Theresa J. B.

    2003-01-01

    This study assessed the psychometric properties of two scales that can be used in predicting team performance: specifically how team members assess the market orientation of their work unit as well the leadership skills present in the team. The first scale is a three-dimensional assessment of the unit's market orientation (innovative, process, or…

  10. Psychometric assessment of the Correa-Barrick Postpartum Depression Scale

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barrick, Christina; Kent, Vicky; Crusse, Elizabeth; Taylor, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study is to report on the psychometric properties of a new postpartum depression rating scale while at the same time showing a correlation between depression severity and impaired color sensitivity...

  11. Performance Assessment of a Large Scale Pulsejet- Driven Ejector System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxson, Daniel E.; Litke, Paul J.; Schauer, Frederick R.; Bradley, Royce P.; Hoke, John L.

    2006-01-01

    Unsteady thrust augmentation was measured on a large scale driver/ejector system. A 72 in. long, 6.5 in. diameter, 100 lb(sub f) pulsejet was tested with a series of straight, cylindrical ejectors of varying length, and diameter. A tapered ejector configuration of varying length was also tested. The objectives of the testing were to determine the dimensions of the ejectors which maximize thrust augmentation, and to compare the dimensions and augmentation levels so obtained with those of other, similarly maximized, but smaller scale systems on which much of the recent unsteady ejector thrust augmentation studies have been performed. An augmentation level of 1.71 was achieved with the cylindrical ejector configuration and 1.81 with the tapered ejector configuration. These levels are consistent with, but slightly lower than the highest levels achieved with the smaller systems. The ejector diameter yielding maximum augmentation was 2.46 times the diameter of the pulsejet. This ratio closely matches those of the small scale experiments. For the straight ejector, the length yielding maximum augmentation was 10 times the diameter of the pulsejet. This was also nearly the same as the small scale experiments. Testing procedures are described, as are the parametric variations in ejector geometry. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for general scaling of pulsed thrust ejector systems

  12. Reliability and validity of a physical activity social support assessment scale in adolescents - ASAFA Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cazuza de Farias Júnior

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the reliability and validity of a scale used to measure social support for physical activity in adolescents - ASAFA Scale. Methods: This study included 2,755 adolescents (57.6% girls, 16.5 ± 1.2 years of age, from Joao Pessoa, Paraiba, Brazil. Initially, the scale was consisted of 12 items (6 for social support from parents and 6 from friends. The reliability of the scale was estimated by Cronbach's alpha coefficient (α, by the Composite Reliability (CR, and by the model with two factors and factorial invariance by Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA adequacy. Results: The CFA results confirmed that the social support scale contained two factors (factor 1: social support from parents; factor 2: social support from friends with five items each (one item was excluded from each scale, all with high factor loadings (> 0.65 and acceptable adjustment indexes (RMR = 0.050; RMSEA = 0.063; 90%CI: 0.060 - 0.067; AGFI = 0.903; GFI = 0.940; CFI = 0.934, NNFI = 0.932. The internal consistency was satisfactory (parents: α ≥ 0.77 and CR ≥ 0.83; friends: α ≥ 0.87 and CR ≥ 0.91. The scale's factorial invariance was confirmed (p > 0.05; Δχ2 and ΔCFI ≤ 0.01 across all subgroups analyzed (gender, age, economic class. The construct validity was evidenced by the significant association (p < 0.05 between the adolescents physical activity level and the social support score of parents (rho = 0.29 and friends (rho = 0.39. Conclusions: The scale showed reliability, factorial invariance and satisfactory validity, so it can be used in studies with adolescents.

  13. Item reduction and psychometric validation of the Oily Skin Self Assessment Scale (OSSAS) and the Oily Skin Impact Scale (OSIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuckle, Robert; Clark, Marci; Harness, Jane; Bonner, Nicola; Scott, Jane; Draelos, Zoe; Rizer, Ronald; Yeh, Yating; Copley-Merriman, Kati

    2009-01-01

    Developed using focus groups, the Oily Skin Self Assessment Scale (OSSAS) and Oily Skin Impact Scale (OSIS) are patient-reported outcome measures of oily facial skin. The aim of this study was to finalize the item-scale structure of the instruments and perform psychometric validation in adults with self-reported oily facial skin. The OSSAS and OSIS were administered to 202 adult subjects with oily facial skin in the United States. A subgroup of 152 subjects returned, 4 to 10 days later, for test–retest reliability evaluation. Of the 202 participants, 72.8% were female; 64.4% had self-reported nonsevere acne. Item reduction resulted in a 14-item OSSAS with Sensation (five items), Tactile (four items) and Visual (four items) domains, a single blotting item, and an overall oiliness item. The OSIS was reduced to two three-item domains assessing Annoyance and Self-Image. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the construct validity of the final item-scale structures. The OSSAS and OSIS scales had acceptable item convergent validity (item-scale correlations >0.40) and floor and ceiling effects (oily skin severity (P oily skin (P oily facial skin), as assessments of self-reported oily facial skin severity and its emotional impact, respectively.

  14. Assessing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults: focus on rating scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kevin R; Adler, Lenard A

    2004-01-01

    The diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults can be a challenging process because it includes making judgments based on clinical interviews, rating scale results, informant ratings, and objective supporting evidence. The patient evaluation should gather information on the severity and frequency of symptoms, the establishment of childhood onset of symptoms, the chronicity and pervasiveness of symptoms, and the impact of symptoms on major life activities. Some of the rating scales being used in the adult population are the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales, the Brown Attention-Deficit Disorder Scale for Adults, the Wender Utah Rating Scale, the ADHD Rating Scale and ADHD Rating Scale-IV, the Current Symptoms Scale, and the recently-developed Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale-v1.1 Symptom Checklist. More research is needed to establish the usefulness of self-administered rating scales compared with investigator-administered scales in the assessment and diagnosis of adult ADHD.

  15. Risk assessment of sheep welfare at small-scale slaughter in Nordic countries, comparing with large-scale slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultgren, Jan; Algers, Bo; Atkinson, Sophie; Ellingsen, Kristian; Eriksson, Sofia; Hreinsson, Kjartan; Nordensten, Lotta; Valtari, Heidi; Mejdell, Cecilie Marie

    2016-06-01

    During the pre-slaughter period, animals experience novel environment and procedures which may cause reduced welfare and suffering. Over the last decades, the slaughter industry has restructured into fewer and larger abattoirs, implying potential risks of transport stress, injuries, and impaired animal welfare. Since recently, however, there is growing interest in small-scale slaughter to supply locally or regionally produced meat. Risk managers at all levels thus need to assess animal welfare risks also at small-scale operations. This study aimed to assess risks of poor animal welfare at small-scale lamb slaughter (≤5000 sheep/year and ≤70 sheep/day) in Norway, Iceland, Sweden and Finland, and to compare these risks to large-scale industrial slaughter. Assessment was done applying an individual expert opinion approach during a 2-day workshop. Nine experts in lamb slaughter procedures, behaviour, physiology, health, scoring schemes and/or risk assessment provided estimates of exposure, likelihood of negative consequences following exposure, and intensity and duration of negative consequences for 71 hazards. The methods applied mainly adhered to the risk assessment guidelines of the European Food Safety Authority. The list of hazards was modified from an earlier study and distributed to the experts before the assessment. No other literature was reviewed specifically for the purpose of the assessment. The highest risks to animal welfare identified in both small- and large-scale slaughter were related to inadequate conditions during overnight lairage at the slaughter plant. For most hazards, risk estimates were lower in small-scale slaughter. The reverse was true for splitting of groups and separation of one sheep from the group. Small-scale slaughter has a potential for improved sheep welfare in comparison with large-scale industrial slaughter. Keeping the animals overnight at the slaughterhouse and prolonged fasting before slaughter should be avoided. Solutions

  16. The Subjective Experiences of Psychosis Scale (SEPS): psychometric evaluation of a scale to assess outcome in psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Gillian; Wood, Lisa; Watts, Rachel; Dunn, Graham; Morrison, Anthony P; Price, Jason

    2011-12-01

    A range of outcome measures has been developed to assess psychotic symptoms. Many of these are observer based assessments which rate the presence and severity of broad symptom types. There is a need for service-user generated multi-dimensional scales to assess psychosis. To investigate the psychometric properties of a service user generated, self-report scale to assess recovery in relation to psychotic symptoms. The reliability and validity of the Subjective Experiences of Psychosis Scale (SEPS) was investigated with 100 participants experiencing psychosis against observer rated assessments of psychosis and self report measures of affect, esteem, recovery and functioning. Two factors emerged representing positive and negative aspects of psychotic experiences. Test-retest reliability, internal consistency and sensitivity to change were good and the scales correlated with the PANSS, PSYRATS and measures of affect, esteem, recovery and functioning. The SEPS is a reliable and valid tool which can be used to evaluate outcome from treatment and which reflects the multi-dimensional experience of psychosis. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Using Longitudinal Scales Assessment for Instrumental Music Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Samuel H.

    2014-01-01

    In music education, current assessment trends emphasize student reflection, tracking progress over time, and formative as well as summative measures. This view of assessment requires instrumental music educators to modernize their approaches without interfering with methods that have proven to be successful. To this end, the Longitudinal Scales…

  18. Landscape analysis – Assessing countries' readiness to scale up ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of the Landscape Analysis to assess strengths and weaknesses in combating malnutrition in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Landscape Analysis is an inter-agency initiative to assess gaps and constraints and to identify opportunities for effective nutrition actions in order to ...

  19. Connecticut Application of Item Response Theory to Large Scale Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecheone, Raymond; Rindone, Douglas A.

    The Connecticut Assessment of Educational Progress (CAEP) is designed to provide legislators and educators with information on the strengths and weaknesses of students in 11 curricula areas. In addition, the Educational Evaluation and Remedial Assistance (EERA) program was developed to assess student proficiency in the basic skills of reading,…

  20. Fatigue Assessment of Full-Scale Retrofitted Orthotropic Bridge Decks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teixeira De Freitas, S.; Kolstein, M.H.; Bijlaard, F.S.K.

    2017-01-01

    Full-scale fatigue tests were performed on two retrofitted orthotropic bridge decks (OBDs). The retrofitting systems consist of adding a second steel plate on the top of the existing deck. The aim is to reduce the stresses at the fatigue-sensitive details and therefore extend the fatigue life of

  1. Nursing-care dependency : Development of an assessment scale for demented and mentally handicapped patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Ate; Buist, Girbe; Dassen, T

    1996-01-01

    This article describing the first phase in the development of an assessment scale of nursing-care dependency (NCD) for Dutch demented and mentally handicapped patients focuses on the background to the study and the content validation of the nursing-care dependency scale. The scale aims to

  2. The Combat Exposure Scale: A Systematic Assessment of Trauma in the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Mary; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes the development of the Combat Exposure Scale, which assessed the combat experiences of 43 help-seeking Vietnam veterans. Scale scores related significantly to current diagnosis of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and symptom intensity. The Guttman scaling technique resulted in an ordering of events that provided clinically relevant…

  3. Assessing Laptop Use in Higher Education Classrooms: The Laptop Effectiveness Scale (LES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauricella, Sharon; Kay, Robin

    2010-01-01

    Considerable research has been conducted examining the use of laptops in higher education, however, a reliable and valid scale to assess in-class use of laptops has yet to be developed. The purpose of the following study was to develop and evaluate the "Laptop Effectiveness Scale" (LES). The scale consisted of four constructs: academic…

  4. Forum: The Rise of International Large-Scale Assessments and Rationales for Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addey, Camilla; Sellar, Sam; Steiner-Khamsi, Gita; Lingard, Bob; Verger, Antoni

    2017-01-01

    This Forum discusses the significant growth of international large-scale assessments (ILSAs) since the mid-1990s. Addey and Sellar's contribution ("A Framework for Analysing the Multiple Rationales for Participating in International Large-Scale Assessments") outlines a framework of rationales for participating in ILSAs and examines the…

  5. Impact assessment of illegal small scale mining on construction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bogoso-Ayanfuri Highway in Ghana. ... Journal of Applied Science and Technology ... The impact assessment presented in this paper reveals the negative effects of illegal mining on the road constructi-on project; particularly, project delivery ...

  6. Estimation of aquifer scale proportion using equal area grids: assessment of regional scale groundwater quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belitz, Kenneth; Jurgens, Bryant C.; Landon, Matthew K.; Fram, Miranda S.; Johnson, Tyler D.

    2010-01-01

    The proportion of an aquifer with constituent concentrations above a specified threshold (high concentrations) is taken as a nondimensional measure of regional scale water quality. If computed on the basis of area, it can be referred to as the aquifer scale proportion. A spatially unbiased estimate of aquifer scale proportion and a confidence interval for that estimate are obtained through the use of equal area grids and the binomial distribution. Traditionally, the confidence interval for a binomial proportion is computed using either the standard interval or the exact interval. Research from the statistics literature has shown that the standard interval should not be used and that the exact interval is overly conservative. On the basis of coverage probability and interval width, the Jeffreys interval is preferred. If more than one sample per cell is available, cell declustering is used to estimate the aquifer scale proportion, and Kish's design effect may be useful for estimating an effective number of samples. The binomial distribution is also used to quantify the adequacy of a grid with a given number of cells for identifying a small target, defined as a constituent that is present at high concentrations in a small proportion of the aquifer. Case studies illustrate a consistency between approaches that use one well per grid cell and many wells per cell. The methods presented in this paper provide a quantitative basis for designing a sampling program and for utilizing existing data.

  7. EI Scale: an environmental impact assessment scale related to the construction materials used in the reinforced concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Morales

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to create EI Scal, an environmental impact assessment scal, related to construction materials used in the reinforced concrete structure production. The main reason for that was based on the need to classify the environmental impact levels through indicators to assess the damage level process. The scale allowed converting information to estimate the environmental impact caused. Indicators were defined trough the requirements and classification criteria of impact aspects considering the eco-design theory. Moreover, the scale allowed classifying the materials and processes environmental impact through four score categories which resulted in a single final impact score. It was concluded that the EI scale could be cheap, accessible, and relevant tool for environmental impact controlling and reduction, allowing the planning and material specification to minimize the construction negative effects caused in the environment.

  8. A critical assessment of validity of scales and stadiometers in a Danish hospital setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Hørup Larsen, Sisse Marie; Stender, Steen

    Objective To critically assess the accuracy of scales and stadiometers at a Danish hospital. Conclusion Less than half the scales and stadiometers detected accurate weight and height. The margin of potential error may lead to suboptimal diagnostics of obesity and assessment of the nutritional sta...... status of both in and out patients. It is necessary at least yearly to calibrate scales and stadiometers, in order to obtain correct assessment of height and weight.......Objective To critically assess the accuracy of scales and stadiometers at a Danish hospital. Conclusion Less than half the scales and stadiometers detected accurate weight and height. The margin of potential error may lead to suboptimal diagnostics of obesity and assessment of the nutritional...

  9. Vulnerability of Forests in India: A National Scale Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jagmohan; Upgupta, Sujata; Jayaraman, Mathangi; Chaturvedi, Rajiv Kumar; Bala, Govindswamy; Ravindranath, N. H.

    2017-09-01

    Forests are subjected to stress from climatic and non-climatic sources. In this study, we have reported the results of inherent, as well as climate change driven vulnerability assessments for Indian forests. To assess inherent vulnerability of forests under current climate, we have used four indicators, namely biological richness, disturbance index, canopy cover, and slope. The assessment is presented as spatial profile of inherent vulnerability in low, medium, high and very high vulnerability classes. Fourty percent forest grid points in India show high or very high inherent vulnerability. Plantation forests show higher inherent vulnerability than natural forests. We assess the climate change driven vulnerability by combining the results of inherent vulnerability assessment with the climate change impact projections simulated by the Integrated Biosphere Simulator dynamic global vegetation model. While 46% forest grid points show high, very high, or extremely high vulnerability under future climate in the short term (2030s) under both representative concentration pathways 4.5 and 8.5, such grid points are 49 and 54%, respectively, in the long term (2080s). Generally, forests in the higher rainfall zones show lower vulnerability as compared to drier forests under future climate. Minimizing anthropogenic disturbance and conserving biodiversity can potentially reduce forest vulnerability under climate change. For disturbed forests and plantations, adaptive management aimed at forest restoration is necessary to build long-term resilience.

  10. Vulnerability of Forests in India: A National Scale Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jagmohan; Upgupta, Sujata; Jayaraman, Mathangi; Chaturvedi, Rajiv Kumar; Bala, Govindswamy; Ravindranath, N H

    2017-09-01

    Forests are subjected to stress from climatic and non-climatic sources. In this study, we have reported the results of inherent, as well as climate change driven vulnerability assessments for Indian forests. To assess inherent vulnerability of forests under current climate, we have used four indicators, namely biological richness, disturbance index, canopy cover, and slope. The assessment is presented as spatial profile of inherent vulnerability in low, medium, high and very high vulnerability classes. Fourty percent forest grid points in India show high or very high inherent vulnerability. Plantation forests show higher inherent vulnerability than natural forests. We assess the climate change driven vulnerability by combining the results of inherent vulnerability assessment with the climate change impact projections simulated by the Integrated Biosphere Simulator dynamic global vegetation model. While 46% forest grid points show high, very high, or extremely high vulnerability under future climate in the short term (2030s) under both representative concentration pathways 4.5 and 8.5, such grid points are 49 and 54%, respectively, in the long term (2080s). Generally, forests in the higher rainfall zones show lower vulnerability as compared to drier forests under future climate. Minimizing anthropogenic disturbance and conserving biodiversity can potentially reduce forest vulnerability under climate change. For disturbed forests and plantations, adaptive management aimed at forest restoration is necessary to build long-term resilience.

  11. Clinical and psychometric validation of the psychotic depression assessment scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren D; Pedersen, Christina H; Uggerby, Peter

    2015-01-01

    of the PDAS and its subscales was investigated by Spearman correlation analysis of the global severity ratings and the PDAS, HAM-D6, and BPRS5 total scores. The unidimensionality of the scales was tested by item response theory analysis (Mokken). RESULTS: Ratings from 39 participants with unipolar psychotic...... depression and nine participants with bipolar psychotic depression were included in the analysis. The Spearman correlation analysis indicated that the PDAS, HAM-D6 and BPRS5 were clinically valid (correlation coefficients from 0.78 to 0.85, p

  12. The Kirby-Desai Scale: A Proposed Scale to Assess Tattoo-removal Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Kirby, William; Desai, Alpesh; Desai, Tejas; Kartono, Francisca; Geeta, Patel

    2009-01-01

    Background: As tattoos have become increasingly popular in the Western world, tattoo-removal requests have also increased, as patients’ personal identities advance. Laser tattoo removal is the current treatment of choice given its safety and efficacy. However, due to varying types of tattoos, it has been difficult to quantify the number of laser treatments required with certainty when discussing laser tattoo removal with our patients. Objective: To propose a practical numerical scale to asses...

  13. Assessment of the hydrological impacts of green roof: From building scale to basin scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versini, P.-A.; Ramier, D.; Berthier, E.; de Gouvello, B.

    2015-05-01

    At the building scale, the use of green roof has shown a positive impact on urban runoff (decrease and slow-down in peak discharge, decrease in runoff volume). The present work aims to study whether similar effects are possible at the basin scale and what is the minimum spreading of green runoff needed to observe significant impacts. It is particularly focused on the circumstances of such impacts and how they can contribute to storm water management in urban environment. Based on observations on experimental green roofs, a conceptual model has been developed and integrated into the SWMM urban rainfall-runoff model to reproduce the hydrological behaviour of two different types of green roof. It has been combined with a method defining green roofing scenarios by estimating the maximum roof area that can be covered. This methodology has been applied on a long time series (18 years) to the Châtillon urban basin (Haut-de-Seine county, France) frequently affected by urban flooding. For comparison, the same methodology has been applied at the building scale and a complementary analysis has been conducted to study which hydrometeorological variables may affect the magnitude of these hydrological impacts at both scales. The results show green roofs, when they are widely implemented, can affect urban runoff in terms of peak discharge and volume, and avoid flooding in several cases. Both precipitation - generally accumulated during the whole event- and the initial substrate saturation are likely to have an impact on green roof effects. In this context, the studied green roofs seem useful to mitigate the effects of usual rainfall events but turn out being less helpful for the more severe ones. We conclude that, combined with other infrastructures, green roofs represent an interesting contribution to urban water management in the future.

  14. Equitable language practices in large-scale assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article is based on an HSRC study conducted for the Western Cape Education Department in which 75 000 Grade 8 learners were assessed in mathematics and language in 2006. The country's multilingual education policy is currently misinterpreted to mean that the learning of and use of indigenous African languages ...

  15. Assessment Of Small Scale Farmers\\' Strategies In Alleviating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the strategies employed by farmers in alleviating poverty in Delta State, Nigeria. An interview schedule was used to collect data from 90 randomly selected farmers. Findings showed that majority of the respondents were males (86.7%) with majority having low education. Majority of respondents were ...

  16. Quality Control Charts in Large-Scale Assessment Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, William D.; Coverdale, Bradley J.; Luxenberg, Harlan; Jin, Ying

    2011-01-01

    There are relatively few examples of quantitative approaches to quality control in educational assessment and accountability contexts. Among the several techniques that are used in other fields, Shewart charts have been found in a few instances to be applicable in educational settings. This paper describes Shewart charts and gives examples of how…

  17. Assessing Agency of University Students: Validation of the AUS Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskelä, Päivikki; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Vasalampi, Kati; Valleala, Ulla Maija; Rasku-Puttonen, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Fostering agency as a core component of professionalism is seen as a critical task of higher education. However, the tools for assessing university students' agency, and the pedagogical and relational resources needed for its development, are lacking. The present study describes the theoretical foundations and factor structure of the newly…

  18. Is stair negotiation measured appropriately in functional assessment scales?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel, M.B. van; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Mulley, G.P.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A decline in mobility may result in problems with the negotiation of stairs, which can potentially be hazardous. In practice, stair negotiation is an important aspect of daily living and therefore needs to be assessed carefully. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature review to

  19. Development of Self-Efficacy towards Using Alternative Assessment Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldur, Serkan; Tatar, Nilgun

    2011-01-01

    Determining the candidate teachers' opinions regarding self-efficacy towards alternative assessment will be beneficial in that this will improve their competencies while using these approaches in their applications within the classroom. In this article, the development and validation of the "Self-efficacy towards Using Alternative Assessment…

  20. Assessing severity of delirium by the Delirium Observation Screening Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffer, Alice C.; van Munster, Barbara C.; Schuurmans, Marieke J.; de Rooij, Sophia E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Delirium is the most common acute neuropsychiatric disorder in hospitalized elderly. Assessment of the severity of delirium is important for adjusting medication. The minimal dose of medication is preferable to prevent side effects. Only few nurse based severity measures are available.

  1. Assessing severity of delirium by the Delirium Observation Screening Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffer, Alice C.; van Munster, Barbara C.; Schuurmans, Marieke J.; de Rooij, Sophia E.

    Objective: Delirium is the most common acute neuropsychiatric disorder in hospitalized elderly. Assessment of the severity of delirium is important for adjusting medication. The minimal dose of medication is preferable to prevent side effects. Only few nurse based severity measures are available.

  2. Multi-scale landslide risk assessment in Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos Abella, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    Landslides cause a considerable amount of damage in the mountainous regions of Cuba, which cover about 25% of the territory. Until now, only a limited amount of research has been carried out in the field of landslide risk assessment in the country. This research presents a methodology and its

  3. [Psychometric assessment of a brief Modern Racism Scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo-Arias, Adalberto; Herazo, Edwin; Oviedo, Heidi C

    2016-06-01

    Objective To find the internal consistency of the Modern Racism Scale (MRS) among medical students in Bucaramanga, Colombia. Methods A total of 352 medical students, mean age=20.0 years (SD=1.9) reported their attitudes towards Afro-Colombians; 59.4 % were women. Students completed the 10-item version of MRS. Cronbach alpha and McDonald omega were calculated. Exploratory factor analyses were done to propose a brief version of the MRS. Results The 10-item version showed a Cronbach alpha of 0.48 and a McDonald omega of 0.15. The short version, the Brief Modern Racism Scale (BMRS) (items 1, 4, 5, 7 and 8) presented a Cronbach alpha of 0.64 and McDonald omega of 0.65. The BMRS showed one salient factor responsible of 41.6 % of the total variance. Conclusions A Spanish-language short version of the MRS shows better psychometric performance than the original version. Further study is needed to corroborate these findings or make adjustments for Colombian cultural regions.

  4. RMS Pictorial Scale (RMS-PS: An innovative scale for the assessment of child′s dental anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R M Shetty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental anxiety assessment for young children is as important as performing their treatment. Appropriate knowledge of patient′s anxiety boosts confidence and will help us to review potential management options specific to every child. Aim: This study aimed to validate (RMS Pictorial Scale (RMS-PS and to compare it with Venham Picture Test (VPT and Facial image scale (FIS in measuring dental anxiety for young children during their first dental visit. Materials and Methods: A total of 102 healthy children aged between 4 and 14 years during their first dental visit were randomly selected for the study. Childs anxiety level was measured using three different scales namely (i RMS-PS (ii VPT, and (iii FIS. Statistical Analysis: Student t test was used to compare the scores obtained from all the three scales. Pearson correlation test was used to obtain correlation among the scales used in the study. Results: A strong correlation (0·76 was found between the VPT and RMS-PS, and a moderate correlation (0.5 was found between RMS-PS and FIS, indicating good validity for the RMS-PS. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that the RMS-PS can be a newer and easiest means for the assessment of dental anxiety for young children in a clinical context.

  5. Assessing Politicized Sexual Orientation Identity: Validating the Queer Consciousness Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Lauren E; Mincer, Elizabeth; Dunn, Sarah R

    2017-01-01

    Building on psychological theories of motivation for collective action, we introduce a new individual difference measure of queer consciousness, defined as a politicized collective identity around sexual orientation. The Queer Consciousness Scale (QCS) consists of 12 items measuring five aspects of a politicized queer identity: sense of common fate, power discontent, system blame, collective orientation, and cognitive centrality. In four samples of adult women and men of varied sexual orientations, the QCS showed good test-retest and Cronbach's reliability and excellent known-groups and predictive validity. Specifically, the QCS was positively correlated with identification as a member of the LGBTQ community, political liberalism, personal political salience, and LGBTQ activism and negatively correlated with right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation. QCS mediated relationships between several individual difference variables and gay rights activism and can be used with both LGBTQ people and allies.

  6. Bench-scale co-processing economic assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gala, H.B.; Marker, T.L.; Miller, E.N.

    1994-11-01

    The UOP Co-Processing scheme is a single-stage slurry catalyzed process in which petroleum vacuum resid and coal are simultaneously upgraded to a high-quality synthetic oil. A highly active dispersed catalyst has been developed which enables the operation of the co-processing unit at relatively moderate and high temperatures and relatively high pressure. Under the current contract, a multi-year research program was undertaken to study the technical and economic feasibility of this technology. All the contractual tasks were completed. Autoclave experiments were carried out to evaluate dispersed vanadium catalysts, molybdenum catalysts, and a less costly UOP-proprietary catalyst preparation technique. Autoclave experiments were also carried out in support of the continuous pilot plant unit operation and to study the effects of the process variables (pressure, temperature, and metal loading on the catalyst). A total of 24 continuous pilot plant runs were made. Research and development efforts during the pilot plant operations were concentrated on addressing the cost effectiveness of the UOP single-stage slurry catalyzed co-processing concept based on UOP experience gained in the previous DOE contract. To this end, effect of catalyst metal concentration was studied and a highly-active Mo-based catalyst was developed. This catalyst enabled successful long-term operation (924 hours) of the continuous bench-scale plant at highly severe operating conditions of 3,000 psig, 465{degree}C temperature, and 2:1 resid-to-MAF (moisture- and ash-free) coal ratio with 0.1 wt % active metal. The metal loading of the catalyst was low enough to consider the catalyst as a disposable slurry catalyst. Also, liquid recycle was incorporated in the pilot plant design to increase the, reactor back mixing and to increase the flow of liquid through the reactor (to introduce turbulence in the reactor) and to represent the design of a commercial-scale reactor.

  7. Postoperative pain assessment using four behavioral scales in Pakistani children undergoing elective surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Shamim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several measurement tools have been used for assessment of postoperative pain in pediatric patients. Self-report methods have limitations in younger children and parent, nurse or physician assessment can be used as a surrogate measure. These tools should be tested in different cultures as pain can be influenced by sociocultural factors. The objective was to assess the inter-rater agreement on four different behavioral pain assessment scales in our local population. Materials and Methods: This prospective, descriptive, observational study was conducted in Pakistan. American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II children, 3-7 years of age, undergoing elective surgery were enrolled. Four pain assessment scales were used, Children′s Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale (CHEOPS, Toddler Preschool Postoperative Pain Scale (TPPPS, objective pain scale (OPS, and Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability (FLACC. After 15 and 60 min of arrival in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU, each child evaluated his/her postoperative pain by self-reporting and was also independently assessed by the PACU nurse, PACU anesthetist and the parent. The sensitivity and specificity of the responses of the four pain assessment scales were compared to the response of the child. Results: At 15 min, sensitivity and specificity were >60% for doctors and nurses on FLACC, OPS, and CHEOPS scales and for FLACC and CHEOPS scale for the parents. Parents showed poor agreement on OPS and TPPS. At 60 min, sensitivity was poor on the OPS scale by all three observers. Nurses showed a lower specificity on FLACC tool. Parents had poor specificity on CHEOPS and rate of false negatives was high with TPPS. Conclusions: We recommend the use of FLACC scale for assessment by parents, nurses, and doctors in Pakistani children aged between 3 and 7.

  8. Assessment of pruritus intensity: prospective study on validity and reliability of the visual analogue scale, numerical rating scale and verbal rating scale in 471 patients with chronic pruritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Ngoc Quan; Blome, Christine; Fritz, Fleur; Gerss, Joachim; Reich, Adam; Ebata, Toshiya; Augustin, Matthias; Szepietowski, Jacek C; Ständer, Sonja

    2012-09-01

    The most commonly used tool for self-report of pruritus intensity is the visual analogue scale (VAS). Similar tools are the numerical rating scale (NRS) and verbal rating scale (VRS). In the present study, initiated by the International Forum for the Study of Itch assessing reliability of these tools, 471 randomly selected patients with chronic itch (200 males, 271 females, mean age 58.44 years) recorded their pruritus intensity on VAS (100-mm line), NRS (0-10) and VRS (four-point) scales. Re-test reliability was analysed in a subgroup of 250 patients after one hour. Statistical analysis showed a high reliability and concurrent validity (r>0.8; pscales showed a high correlation. In conclusion, high reliability and concurrent validity was found for VAS, NRS and VRS. On re-test, higher correlation and less missing values were observed. A training session before starting a clinical trial is recommended.

  9. The Development and Validation of the Religious/Spiritually Integrated Practice Assessment Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxhandler, Holly K.; Parrish, Danielle E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This article describes the development and validation of the Religious/Spiritually Integrated Practice Assessment Scale (RSIPAS). The RSIPAS is designed to assess social work practitioners' self-efficacy, attitudes, behaviors, and perceived feasibility concerning the assessment or integration of clients' religious and spiritual beliefs…

  10. Evaluating the Risk of Child Abuse: The Child Abuse Risk Assessment Scale (CARAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ko Ling

    2012-01-01

    The present study developed the Child Abuse Risk Assessment Scale (CARAS), an actuarial instrument for the assessment of the risk of physical child abuse. Data of 2,363 Chinese parents (47.7% male) living in Hong Kong were used in the analyses. Participants were individually interviewed with a questionnaire assessing their perpetration of child…

  11. Quality Assessment of Physical and Organoleptic Instant Corn Rice on Scale-Up Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumalasari, R.; Ekafitri, R.; Indrianti, N.

    2017-12-01

    Development of instant corn rice product has been successfully conducted on a laboratory scale. Corn has high carbohydrate content but low in fiber. The addition of fiber in instant corn rice, intended to improve the functioning of the product, and replace fiber loss during the process. Scale up process of Instant corn rice required to increase the production capacity. Scale up was the process to get identic output on a larger scale based on predetermined production scale. This study aimed to assess the changes and differences in the quality of instant corn rice during scale up. Instant corn rice scale up was done on production capacity 3 kg, 4 kg and 5 kg. Results showed that scale up of instant corn rice producing products with rehydration ratio ranges between 514% - 570%, the absorption rate ranged between 414% - 470%, swelling rate ranging between 119% - 134%, bulk density ranged from 0.3661 to 0.4745 (g/ml) and porosity ranging between 30-37%. The physical quality of instant corn rice on scale up were stable from the ones at laboratory scale on swelling rate, rehydration ratio, and absorption rate but not stable on bulk density and porosity. Organoleptic qualities were stable at increased scale compared on a laboratory scale. Bulk density was higher than those at laboratory scale, and the porosity was lower than those at laboratory scale.

  12. Small scale water recycling systems--risk assessment and modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaper, C; Dixon, A; Bulier, D; Fewkes, A; Parsons, S A; Strathern, M; Stephenson, T; Strutt, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper aims to use quantitative risk analysis, risk modelling and simulation modelling tools to assess the performance of a proprietary single house grey water recycling system. A preliminary Hazard and Operability study (HAZOP) identified the main hazards, both health related and economic, associated with installing the recycling system in a domestic environment. The health related consequences of system failure were associated with the presence of increased concentrations of micro-organisms at the point of use, due to failure of the disinfection system and/or the pump. The risk model was used to assess the increase in the probability of infection for a particular genus of micro-organism, Salmonella spp, during disinfection failure. The increase in the number of cases of infection above a base rate rose from 0.001% during normal operation, to 4% for a recycling system with no disinfection. The simulation model was used to examine the possible effects of pump failure. The model indicated that the anaerobic COD release rate in the system storage tank increases over time and dissolved oxygen decreases during this failure mode. These conditions are likely to result in odour problems.

  13. Assessing motivation orientations in schizophrenia: Scale development and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Shanna; Lavaysse, Lindsey M.; Gard, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Motivation deficits are common in several disorders including schizophrenia, and are an important factor in both functioning and treatment adherence. Self-Determination Theory (SDT), a leading macro-theory of motivation, has contributed a number of insights into how motivation is impaired in schizophrenia. Nonetheless, self-report measures of motivation appropriate for people with severe mental illness (including those that emphasize SDT) are generally lacking in literature. To fill this gap, we adapted and abbreviated the well-validated General Causality Orientation Scale for use with people with schizophrenia and with other severe mental disorders (GCOS-clinical populations; GCOS-CP). In Study 1, we tested the similarity of our measure to the existing GCOS (using a college sample) and then validated this new measure in a schizophrenia and healthy control sample (Study 2). Results from Study 1 (N=360) indicated that the GCOS-CP was psychometrically similar to the original GCOS and provided good convergent and discriminant validity. In Study 2, the GCOS-CP was given to individuals with (N=44) and without schizophrenia (N=42). In line with both laboratory-based and observer-based research, people with schizophrenia showed lower motivational autonomy and higher impersonal/amotivated orientations. Additional applications of the GCOS-CP are discussed. PMID:25454115

  14. Assessing motivation orientations in schizophrenia: Scale development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Shanna; Lavaysse, Lindsey M; Gard, David E

    2015-01-30

    Motivation deficits are common in several disorders including schizophrenia, and are an important factor in both functioning and treatment adherence. Self-Determination Theory (SDT), a leading macro-theory of motivation, has contributed a number of insights into how motivation is impaired in schizophrenia. Nonetheless, self-report measures of motivation appropriate for people with severe mental illness (including those that emphasize SDT) are generally lacking in the literature. To fill this gap, we adapted and abbreviated the well-validated General Causality Orientation Scale for use with people with schizophrenia and with other severe mental disorders (GCOS-clinical populations; GCOS-CP). In Study 1, we tested the similarity of our measure to the existing GCOS (using a college sample) and then validated this new measure in a schizophrenia and healthy control sample (Study 2). Results from Study 1 (N=360) indicated that the GCOS-CP was psychometrically similar to the original GCOS and provided good convergent and discriminant validity. In Study 2, the GCOS-CP was given to individuals with (N=44) and without schizophrenia (N=42). In line with both laboratory-based and observer-based research, people with schizophrenia showed lower motivational autonomy and higher impersonal/amotivated orientations. Additional applications of the GCOS-CP are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Elaboration and validation of a diagrammatic scale to assess downy mildew severity in grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Regina Scapin Buffara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The downy mildew, caused by Plasmopora viticola, is one of the most important grapevine (Vitis vinifera diseases in Southern Brazil, causing defoliation and economic losses. The evaluation of disease severity is an important decision for adoption of strategies and tactics for disease control. Therefore, the objective of this work was to elaborate and to validate a diagrammatic scale to assess downy mildew severity in grapevine, respecting the limitations of visual acuity. The diagrammatic scale with seven levels of disease severity of 1, 3, 6, 12, 25, 50 and 75% was developed in two versions of black-and-white and color scale. The scales were tested and validated by eight raters with and without previous experience with grapevine downy mildew. The raters estimated the severity of 30 grapevine leaves with different downy mildew severity, with and without the use of the scales. Minimum, intermediate and maximum severity levels were collected according to Weber-Fechner's stimulus-response law. The accuracy and precision were analyzed by linear regression between the actual and the estimated severity. Actual severity was assessed with ASSESS(r Program. The scales provided good levels of accuracy (means of 88% and excellent levels of precision (means of 95%. The raters showed great precision and accuracy when used the diagrammatic scale. The color scale provided more precise and accurate estimates than the black-and-white scale. The scale proposed in this work presented appropriate applicability for downy mildew evaluation in grapevine.

  16. A comparative study on the validity of fall risk assessment scales in korean hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Keum Soon; Kim, Jin A; Choi, Yun-Kyoung; Kim, Yu Jeong; Park, Mi Hwa; Kim, Hyun-Young; Song, Mal Soon

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the validity of three fall risk assessment scales including the Morse Fall Scale (MFS), the Bobath Memorial Hospital Fall Risk Assessment Scale (BMFRAS), and the Johns Hopkins Hospital Fall Risk Assessment Tool (JHFRAT). This study was a prospective validation cohort study in five acute care hospitals in Seoul and Gyeonggi-Do, Korea. In total, 356 patients over the age of 18 years admitted from December 2009 to February 2010 participated. The three fall risk assessment scales listed above were tested for sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive and negative predictive values. A receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was generated to show sensitivities and specificities for predicting falls based on different threshold scores for considering patients at high risk. Based on the mean scores of each scale for falls, the MFS at a cut-off score of 50 had a sensitivity of 78.9%, specificity of 55.8%, positive predictive value of 30.8%, and negative predictive value of 91.4%, which were the highest values among the three fall assessment scales. Areas under the curve of the ROC curves were .761 for the MFS, .715 for the BMFRAS, and .708 for the JHFRAT. Accordingly, of the three fall risk assessment scales, the highest predictive validity for identifying patients at high risk for falls was achieved by the MFS. Copyright © 2011 Korean Society of Nursing Science. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Ozone time scale decomposition and trend assessment from surface observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boleti, Eirini; Hueglin, Christoph; Takahama, Satoshi

    2017-04-01

    Emissions of ozone precursors have been regulated in Europe since around 1990 with control measures primarily targeting to industries and traffic. In order to understand how these measures have affected air quality, it is now important to investigate concentrations of tropospheric ozone in different types of environments, based on their NOx burden, and in different geographic regions. In this study, we analyze high quality data sets for Switzerland (NABEL network) and whole Europe (AirBase) for the last 25 years to calculate long-term trends of ozone concentrations. A sophisticated time scale decomposition method, called the Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) (Huang,1998;Wu,2009), is used for decomposition of the different time scales of the variation of ozone, namely the long-term trend, seasonal and short-term variability. This allows subtraction of the seasonal pattern of ozone from the observations and estimation of long-term changes of ozone concentrations with lower uncertainty ranges compared to typical methodologies used. We observe that, despite the implementation of regulations, for most of the measurement sites ozone daily mean values have been increasing until around mid-2000s. Afterwards, we observe a decline or a leveling off in the concentrations; certainly a late effect of limitations in ozone precursor emissions. On the other hand, the peak ozone concentrations have been decreasing for almost all regions. The evolution in the trend exhibits some differences between the different types of measurement. In addition, ozone is known to be strongly affected by meteorology. In the applied approach, some of the meteorological effects are already captured by the seasonal signal and already removed in the de-seasonalized ozone time series. For adjustment of the influence of meteorology on the higher frequency ozone variation, a statistical approach based on Generalized Additive Models (GAM) (Hastie,1990;Wood,2006), which corrects for meteorological

  18. National-scale wave energy resource assessment for Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Michael G.; Heap, Andrew D. [Geoscience Australia, Marine and Coastal Environment Group, GPO Box 378, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia)

    2010-08-15

    A nationally consistent wave resource assessment is presented for Australian shelf (<300 m) waters. Wave energy and power were derived from significant wave height and period, and wave direction hindcast using the AusWAM model for the period 1 March 1997 to 29 February 2008 inclusive. The spatial distribution of wave energy and power is available on a 0.1 grid covering 110-156 longitude and 7-46 latitude. Total instantaneous wave energy on the entire Australian shelf is on average 3.47 PJ. Wave power is greatest on the 3000 km-long southern Australian shelf (Tasmania/Victoria, southern Western Australia and South Australia), where it widely attains a time-average value of 25-35 kW m{sup -1} (90th percentile of 60-78 kW m{sup -1}), delivering 800-1100 GJ m{sup -1} of energy in an average year. New South Wales and southern Queensland shelves, with moderate levels of wave power (time-average: 10-20 kW m{sup -1}; 90th percentile: 20-30 kW m{sup -1}), are also potential sites for electricity generation due to them having a similar reliability in resource delivery to the southern margin. Time-average wave power for most of the northern Australian shelf is <10 kW m{sup -1}. Seasonal variations in wave power are consistent with regional weather patterns, which are characterised by winter SE trade winds/summer monsoon in the north and winter temperate storms/summer sea breezes in the south. The nationally consistent wave resource assessment for Australian shelf waters can be used to inform policy development and site-selection decisions by industry. (author)

  19. Risk assessment of sheep welfare at small-scale slaughter in Nordic countries, comparing with large-scale slaughter

    OpenAIRE

    Hultgren, Jan; Algers, Bo; Atkinson, Sophie; Ellingsen, Kristian; Eriksson, Sofia; Hreinsson, Kjartan; Nordensten, Lotta; Valtari, Heidi; Mejdell, Cecilie Marie

    2016-01-01

    Background During the pre-slaughter period, animals experience novel environment and procedures which may cause reduced welfare and suffering. Over the last decades, the slaughter industry has restructured into fewer and larger abattoirs, implying potential risks of transport stress, injuries, and impaired animal welfare. Since recently, however, there is growing interest in small-scale slaughter to supply locally or regionally produced meat. Risk managers at all levels thus need to assess an...

  20. Development and validation of a scale assessing spiritual needs for Korean patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Jinsun; Kim, Juhu; Han, Sung-Suk; Puchalski, Christina M

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a scale assessing the spiritual needs of Korean patients with cancer. For the scale development, qualitative interviews and theoretical analyses were conducted to extract measurable constructs within the Korean culture. As a result, 26 items were developed for the validation of a scale. The scale was administered to 257 cancer patients; the reliability and validity of the scale were examined using Cronbach's alpha and factor analysis, respectively. The reliability was 0.92. The results of factor analysis revealed five subconstructs: love and connection, hope and peace, meaning and purpose, relationship with God, and acceptance of dying. Given these subconstructs, suggestions are provided for future studies. Spirituality has been shown to be important in the lives of patients with chronic disease. Therefore, having a scale which adequately assesses patients' spiritual needs is critical to determining how to address these needs in a clinical setting.

  1. Tools and Techniques for Basin-Scale Climate Change Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagona, E.; Rajagopalan, B.; Oakley, W.; Wilson, N.; Weinstein, P.; Verdin, A.; Jerla, C.; Prairie, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Department of Interior's WaterSMART Program seeks to secure and stretch water supplies to benefit future generations and identify adaptive measures to address climate change. Under WaterSMART, Basin Studies are comprehensive water studies to explore options for meeting projected imbalances in water supply and demand in specific basins. Such studies could be most beneficial with application of recent scientific advances in climate projections, stochastic simulation, operational modeling and robust decision-making, as well as computational techniques to organize and analyze many alternatives. A new integrated set of tools and techniques to facilitate these studies includes the following components: Future supply scenarios are produced by the Hydrology Simulator, which uses non-parametric K-nearest neighbor resampling techniques to generate ensembles of hydrologic traces based on historical data, optionally conditioned on long paleo reconstructed data using various Markov Chain techniuqes. Resampling can also be conditioned on climate change projections from e.g., downscaled GCM projections to capture increased variability; spatial and temporal disaggregation is also provided. The simulations produced are ensembles of hydrologic inputs to the RiverWare operations/infrastucture decision modeling software. Alternative demand scenarios can be produced with the Demand Input Tool (DIT), an Excel-based tool that allows modifying future demands by groups such as states; sectors, e.g., agriculture, municipal, energy; and hydrologic basins. The demands can be scaled at future dates or changes ramped over specified time periods. Resulting data is imported directly into the decision model. Different model files can represent infrastructure alternatives and different Policy Sets represent alternative operating policies, including options for noticing when conditions point to unacceptable vulnerabilities, which trigger dynamically executing changes in operations or other

  2. Process assessment of small scale low temperature methanol synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriyana, Susanto, Herri; Subagjo

    2015-12-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource and has the potential to make a significant impact on domestic fuel supplies. Biomass can be converted to fuel like methanol via several step process. The process can be split into following main steps: biomass preparation, gasification, gas cooling and cleaning, gas shift and methanol synthesis. Untill now these configuration still has a problem like high production cost, catalyst deactivation, economy of scale and a huge energy requirements. These problems become the leading inhibition for biomass conversion to methanol, which should be resolved to move towards the economical. To address these issues, we developed various process and new configurations for methanol synthesis via methyl formate. This configuration combining two reactors: the one reactor for the carbonylation of methanol and CO to form methyl formate, and the second for the hydrogenolysis of methyl formate and H2 to form two molecule of methanol. Four plant process configurations were compared with the biomass basis is 300 ton/day. The first configuration (A) is equipped with a steam reforming process for converting methane to CO and H2 for increasing H2/CO ratio. CO2 removal is necessary to avoid poisoning the catalyst. COSORB process used for the purpose of increasing the partial pressure of CO in the feed gas. The steam reforming process in B configuration is not used with the aim of reducing the number of process equipment, so expect lower investment costs. For C configuration, the steam reforming process and COSORB are not used with the aim of reducing the number of process equipment, so expect lower investment costs. D configuration is almost similar to the configuration A. This configuration difference is in the synthesis of methanol which was held in a single reactor. Carbonylation and hydrogenolysis reactions carried out in the same reactor one. These processes were analyzed in term of technical process, material and energy balance and economic

  3. The assessment of disability with the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale. Conceptual framework and psychometric properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, G.I J M; Miedema, I; Ormel, J.; Molenaar, W.

    1996-01-01

    The conceptual framework, psychometric properties, descriptive statistics, and the rules for administration and scoring of the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale (CARS) for assessing disability in the area of ADL (Activities of Daily Living including mobility) as well as IADL (Instrumental

  4. Reliability and Validity of a Rating Scale for Assessing Career Choice Appropriateness in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Bert W.; Sanford, Eleanor E.; Waters, Sandy

    1999-01-01

    A rating scale to assess career choices was tested with 143 high school students. Scores correlated with an objective testing method based on the American College Test (ACT) Career Planning Program. (SK)

  5. Chemical concentrations, exposures, health risks by census tract from National Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Chemical concentrations, exposures, health risks by census tract for the United States from National Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA). This dataset is associated...

  6. A visual scale of loss assessment for dried sweet potato chips due to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A visual scale of damage was established on dried sweet potJJto chips infested by Araeceru.s ja)·ciculatus under prevailing ambient conditions in ... Key words: Loss assessment, visual scale, damage, sweet potato, dried chips, Araecerusjasciculatus introauctio!! ..... post-harvest systems in Uganda: Strategies, constraints.

  7. Assessment of renewable energy resources potential for large scale and standalone applications in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucho, Gudina Terefe; Weesie, Peter D.M.; Nonhebel, Sanderine

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to determine the contribution of renewable energy to large scale and standalone application in Ethiopia. The assessment starts by determining the present energy system and the available potentials. Subsequently, the contribution of the available potentials for large scale and

  8. New Well-Being Measures: Short Scales to Assess Flourishing and Positive and Negative Feelings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Ed; Wirtz, Derrick; Tov, William; Kim-Prieto, Chu; Choi, Dong-won; Oishi, Shigehiro; Biswas-Diener, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Measures of well-being were created to assess psychological flourishing and feelings--positive feelings, negative feelings, and the difference between the two. The scales were evaluated in a sample of 689 college students from six locations. The Flourishing Scale is a brief 8-item summary measure of the respondent's self-perceived success in…

  9. Capturing subregional variability in regional-scale climate change vulnerability assessments of natural resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polly C. Buotte; David L. Peterson; Kevin S. McKelvey; Jeffrey A. Hicke

    2016-01-01

    Natural resource vulnerability to climate change can depend on the climatology and ecological conditions at a particular site. Here we present a conceptual framework for incorporating spatial variability in natural resource vulnerability to climate change in a regional-scale assessment. The framework was implemented in the first regional-scale vulnerability...

  10. Acidification of Earth: An assessment across mechanisms and scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Karen; Herman, Janet S.

    2012-01-01

    In this review article, anthropogenic activities that cause acidification of Earth’s air, waters, and soils are examined. Although there are many mechanisms of acidification, the focus is on the major ones, including emissions from combustion of fossil fuels and smelting of ores, mining of coal and metal ores, and application of nitrogen fertilizer to soils, by elucidating the underlying biogeochemical reactions as well as assessing the magnitude of the effects. These widespread activities have resulted in (1) increased CO2concentration in the atmosphere that acidifies the oceans; (2) acidic atmospheric deposition that acidifies soils and bodies of freshwater; (3) acid mine drainage that acidifies bodies of freshwater and groundwaters; and (4) nitrification that acidifies soils. Although natural geochemical reactions of mineral weathering and ion exchange work to buffer acidification, the slow reaction rates or the limited abundance of reactant phases are overwhelmed by the onslaught of anthropogenic acid loading. Relatively recent modifications of resource extraction and usage in some regions of the world have begun to ameliorate local acidification, but expanding use of resources in other regions is causing environmental acidification in previously unnoticed places. World maps of coal consumption, Cu mining and smelting, and N fertilizer application are presented to demonstrate the complex spatial heterogeneity of resource consumption as well as the overlap in acidifying potential derived from distinctly different phenomena. Projected population increase by country over the next four decades indicates areas with the highest potential for acidification, so enabling anticipation and planning to offset or mitigate the deleterious environmental effects associated with these global shifts in the consumption of energy, mineral, and food resources.

  11. The Nociception Coma Scale: a new tool to assess nociception in disorders of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnakers, Caroline; Chatelle, Camille; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Majerus, Steve; Ledoux, Didier; Boly, Melanie; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Boveroux, Pierre; Demertzi, Athena; Moonen, Gustave; Laureys, Steven

    2010-02-01

    Assessing behavioral responses to nociception is difficult in severely brain-injured patients recovering from coma. We here propose a new scale developed for assessing nociception in vegetative (VS) and minimally conscious (MCS) coma survivors, the Nociception Coma Scale (NCS), and explore its concurrent validity, inter-rater agreement and sensitivity. Concurrent validity was assessed by analyzing behavioral responses of 48 post-comatose patients to a noxious stimulation (pressure applied to the fingernail) (28 VS and 20 MCS; age range 20-82 years; 17 of traumatic etiology). Patients' were assessed using the NCS and four other scales employed in non-communicative patients: the 'Neonatal Infant Pain Scale' (NIPS) and the 'Faces, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability' (FLACC) used in newborns; and the 'Pain Assessment In Advanced Dementia Scale' (PAINAD) and the 'Checklist of Non-verbal Pain Indicators' (CNPI) used in dementia. For the establishment of inter-rater agreement, fifteen patients were concurrently assessed by two examiners. Concurrent validity, assessed by Spearman rank order correlations between the NCS and the four other validated scales, was good. Cohen's kappa analyses revealed a good to excellent inter-rater agreement for the NCS total and subscore measures, indicating that the scale yields reproducible findings across examiners. Finally, a significant difference between NCS total scores was observed as a function of diagnosis (i.e., VS or MCS). The NCS constitutes a sensitive clinical tool for assessing nociception in severely brain-injured patients. This scale constitutes the first step to a better management of patients recovering from coma.

  12. PUGS: A novel scale to assess perceptions of uncertainties in genome sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Biesecker, Barbara B.; Woolford, Samuel W.; Klein, William MP; Brothers, Kyle B.; Umstead, Kendall L.; Lewis, Katie L.; Biesecker, Leslie G.; Han, Paul KJ

    2017-01-01

    Expectations of results from genome sequencing by end users are influenced by perceptions of uncertainty. This study aimed to assess uncertainties about sequencing by developing, evaluating, and implementing a novel scale. The Perceptions of Uncertainties in Genome Sequencing (PUGS) scale comprised ten items to assess uncertainties within three domains: clinical, affective, and evaluative. Participants (n=535) from the ClinSeq® NIH sequencing study completed a baseline survey that included th...

  13. The reliability and validity of a new professionalism assessment scale for young health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianjun; He, Bosheng; Miao, Xudong; Huang, Xiaoqin; Lu, Yihua; Chen, Jianrong

    2017-06-01

    With the development of medical technique, many medical challenges have been solved. This cross-sectional study was aimed to assess the reliability and validity of a new developed scale for assessing the professionalism of young health care workers.This cross-sectional population-based study was conducted based on cluster sampling method in 2015. The participants were from 2 medical centers of Nantong city of Jiangsu province in China. The internal consistency reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha and split-half reliability coefficients. Construct validity was analyzed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Content, convergent, and discriminant validities were also assessed in this study.Total 749 individuals aged 29.09 ± 3.91 years old participated in this investigation. There were 745 valid questionnaires and 730 were complete. Cronbach's alpha value (0.944) and the split-half reliability coefficient (0.873) reflected satisfactory internal consistency reliability of this new professionalism assessment scale. EFA extracted a 7-factor model. About 63.4% of the total variance was explained by these factors. However, CFA showed a good model fit after excluding the items with factor loading lower than 0.5. Good discriminant validity of this new developed professionalism assessment scale was also shown (P professionalism assessment scale. However, this scale should be modified to improve the validity in further studies.

  14. Assessment of Competence in EVAR Procedures: A Novel Rating Scale Developed by the Delphi Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strøm, M; Lönn, L; Bech, B; Schroeder, T V; Konge, L

    2017-07-01

    To develop a procedure specific global rating scale for assessment of operator competence in endovascular aortic repair (EVAR). A Delphi approach was used to achieve expert consensus. A panel of 32 international experts (median 300 EVAR procedures, range 200-3000) from vascular surgery (n = 21) and radiology (n = 11) was established. The first Delphi round was based on a review of endovascular skills assessment papers, stent graft instructions for use, and structured interviews. It led to a primary pool of 83 items that were formulated as global rating scale items with tentative anchors. Iterative Delphi rounds were executed. The panellists rated the importance of each item on a 5 point Likert scale. Consensus was defined as 80% of the panel rating an item 4 or 5 in the primary round and 90% in subsequent rounds. Consensus on the final assessment tool was defined as Cronbach's alpha > .8 after a minimum of three rounds. Thirty-two of 35 invited experts participated. Three rounds of surveys were completed with a completion rate of 100% in the first two rounds and 91% in round three. The 83 primary assessment items were supplemented with five items suggested by the panel and reduced to seven pivotal assessment items that reached consensus, Cronbach's alpha = 0.82. The seven item rating scale covers key elements of competence in EVAR stent placement and deployment. Each item has well defined grades with explicit anchors at unacceptable, acceptable, and superior performance on a 5 point Likert scale. The Delphi methodology allowed for international consensus on a new procedure specific global rating scale for assessment of competence in EVAR. The resulting scale, EndoVascular Aortic Repair Assessment of Technical Expertise (EVARATE), represents key elements in the procedure. EVARATE constitutes an assessment tool for providing structured feedback to endovascular operators in training. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier

  15. Rasch analysis in the development of a rating scale for assessment of mobility after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, A; Garde, B; Kreiner, S

    1995-01-01

    The study describes the development of a rating scale for assessment of mobility after stroke. It was based on 74 first-stroke patients, 40 men and 34 women, each assessed three times during rehabilitation. Their median age was 69 years, and they represented all degrees of severity of paresis. Co...

  16. Nurses assessing pain with the Nociception Coma Scale: interrater reliability and validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, Peter; Eskes, Anne Maria; Lindeboom, Robert; van den Munckhof, Pepijn; Vermeulen, Hester

    2014-01-01

    The Nociception Coma Scale (NCS) is a pain observation tool, developed for patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) due to acquired brain injury (ABI). The aim of this study was to assess the interrater reliability of the NCS and NCS-R among nurses for the assessment of pain in ABI patients

  17. Including Performance Assessments in Accountability Systems: A Review of Scale-Up Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Rosann

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this literature and field review is to understand previous efforts at scaling up performance assessments for use across districts and states. Performance assessments benefit students and teachers by providing more opportunities for students to demonstrate their knowledge and complex skills, by providing teachers with better…

  18. On the Estimation of Hierarchical Latent Regression Models for Large-Scale Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Deping; Oranje, Andreas; Jiang, Yanlin

    2009-01-01

    To find population proficiency distributions, a two-level hierarchical linear model may be applied to large-scale survey assessments such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). The model and parameter estimation are developed and a simulation was carried out to evaluate parameter recovery. Subsequently, both a hierarchical and…

  19. Evidence Based Clinical Assessment of Child and Adolescent Social Phobia: A Critical Review of Rating Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulbure, Bogdan T.; Szentagotai, Aurora; Dobrean, Anca; David, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Investigating the empirical support of various assessment instruments, the evidence based assessment approach expands the scientific basis of psychotherapy. Starting from Hunsley and Mash's evaluative framework, we critically reviewed the rating scales designed to measure social anxiety or phobia in youth. Thirteen of the most researched social…

  20. Methods to assess landscape-scale risk of bark beetle infestation to support forest management decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. L. Shore; A. Fall; W. G. Riel; J. Hughes; M. Eng

    2010-01-01

    The objective of our paper is to provide practitioners with suggestions on how to select appropriate methods for risk assessment of bark beetle infestations at the landscape scale in order to support their particular management decisions and to motivate researchers to refine novel risk assessment methods. Methods developed to assist and inform management decisions for...

  1. Psychometric Comparison of the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) and the Questions about Behavioral Function (QABF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koritsas, S.; Iacono, T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) and the Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF) are frequently used to assess the learned function of challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disability (ID). The aim was to explore and compare the psychometric properties of the MAS and the QABF. Method: Seventy adults with ID and…

  2. Assessing flood risk at the global scale: model setup, results, and sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ward, P.J.; Jongman, B.; Sperna Weiland, F.; Bouwman, A.; Van Beek, R.; Bierkens, M.F.P.; Ligtvoet, W.; Winsemius, H.C.

    2013-01-01

    Globally, economic losses from flooding exceeded $19 billion in 2012, and are rising rapidly. Hence, there is an increasing need for global-scale flood risk assessments, also within the context of integrated global assessments. We have developed and validated a model cascade for producing global

  3. Use of simulated evaporation to assess the potential for scale formation during reverse osmosis desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, G.F.

    2004-01-01

    The tendency of solutes in input water to precipitate efficiency lowering scale deposits on the membranes of reverse osmosis (RO) desalination systems is an important factor in determining the suitability of input water for desalination. Simulated input water evaporation can be used as a technique to quantitatively assess the potential for scale formation in RO desalination systems. The technique was demonstrated by simulating the increase in solute concentrations required to form calcite, gypsum, and amorphous silica scales at 25??C and 40??C from 23 desalination input waters taken from the literature. Simulation results could be used to quantitatively assess the potential of a given input water to form scale or to compare the potential of a number of input waters to form scale during RO desalination. Simulated evaporation of input waters cannot accurately predict the conditions under which scale will form owing to the effects of potentially stable supersaturated solutions, solution velocity, and residence time inside RO systems. However, the simulated scale-forming potential of proposed input waters could be compared with the simulated scale-forming potentials and actual scale-forming properties of input waters having documented operational histories in RO systems. This may provide a technique to estimate the actual performance and suitability of proposed input waters during RO.

  4. Investigating the reliability and validity of the waterlow risk assessment scale: a literature review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Breda

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this review was to examine health literature on the reliability and validity of the Waterlow pressure sore assessment scale. A systematic review of published studies relating to the topic was conducted and literature was examined for its relevancy to the topic under investigation. Findings suggest that despite the availability of over 40 assessment tools, the Waterlow assessment scale is the most frequently used by health care staff. Research suggests that the Waterlow Scale is an unreliable method of assessing individuals at risk of pressure sore development with all studies indicating a poor interrater reliability status. Its validity has also been criticized because of its high-sensitivity but low-specificity levels.

  5. Investigating the reliability and validity of the waterlow risk assessment scale: a literature review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Breda

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this review was to examine health literature on the reliability and validity of the Waterlow pressure sore assessment scale. A systematic review of published studies relating to the topic was conducted and literature was examined for its relevancy to the topic under investigation. Findings suggest that despite the availability of over 40 assessment tools, the Waterlow assessment scale is the most frequently used by health care staff. Research suggests that the Waterlow Scale is an unreliable method of assessing individuals at risk of pressure sore development with all studies indicating a poor interrater reliability status. Its validity has also been criticized because of its high-sensitivity but low-specificity levels.

  6. Development and validation of a professionalism assessment scale for medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Klemenc-Ketis, Zalika; Vrecko, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To develop and validate a scale for the assess-ment of professionalism in medical students based on students' perceptions of and attitudes towards professional-ism in medicine. Methods This was a mixed methods study with under-graduate medical students. Two focus groups were carried out with 12 students, followed by a transcript analysis (grounded theory method with open coding). Then, a 3-round Delphi with 20 family medicine experts was carried out. A psychometric assessment of th...

  7. Assessing depression outcome in patients with moderate dementia: sensitivity of the HoNOS65+ scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, Alessandra; Rudhard-Thomazic, Valérie; Herrmann, François R; Delaloye, Christophe; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; Weber, Kerstin

    2009-08-15

    To date, there is no widely accepted clinical scale to monitor the evolution of depressive symptoms in demented patients. We assessed the sensitivity to treatment of a validated French version of the Health of the Nation Outcome Scale (HoNOS) 65+ compared to five routinely used scales. Thirty elderly inpatients with ICD-10 diagnosis of dementia and depression were evaluated at admission and discharge using paired t-test. Using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) "depressive mood" item as gold standard, a receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis assessed the validity of HoNOS65+F "depressive symptoms" item score changes. Unlike Geriatric Depression Scale, Mini Mental State Examination and Activities of Daily Living scores, BPRS scores decreased and Global Assessment Functioning Scale score increased significantly from admission to discharge. Amongst HoNOS65+F items, "behavioural disturbance", "depressive symptoms", "activities of daily life" and "drug management" items showed highly significant changes between the first and last day of hospitalization. The ROC analysis revealed that changes in the HoNOS65+F "depressive symptoms" item correctly classified 93% of the cases with good sensitivity (0.95) and specificity (0.88) values. These data suggest that the HoNOS65+F "depressive symptoms" item may provide a valid assessment of the evolution of depressive symptoms in demented patients.

  8. Objective structured assessment of technical skills and checklist scales reliability compared for high stakes assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Anthony G; O'Sullivan, Gerald C; Leonard, Gerald; Bunting, Brendan P; McGlade, Kieran J

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of assessment reliability at the level of the individual trainee is an important attribute of assessment methodologies, particularly for doctors who have been failed. This issue is of particular importance for the process of competence assessment in the USA, UK, Australia and New Zealand. We use data from 19 applicants for higher surgical training in 2008 at the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland to compare: (i) the objective structured assessment of technical skills (OSATS) method; and (ii) a procedure-specific checklist to assess surgical technical skills in the excision of a sebaceous cyst task by two experienced senior surgeons. The overall interrater reliability (IRR) of the OSATS assessment as determined by a correlation coefficient was 0.507 (P < 0.03) and 0.67 with coefficient alpha, considerably below the accepted 0.8 level of IRR. The checklist's overall IRR was 0.89. Individually, only five (26%) of the OSATS assessments reached the 0.8 level of IRR in contrast to 18 (95%) of the checklist assessments. We propose binary procedure-based assessment checklists as more reliable assessment instruments with more robust reproducibility. © 2012 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  9. Reliability of a Scale Assessing Depressed Mood in the Context of Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roane, Brandy M; Seifer, Ronald; Sharkey, Katherine M; Van Reen, Eliza; Bond, Tamara L Y; Raffray, Tifenn; Carskadon, Mary A

    2013-03-01

    The current study assessed the reliability of Kandel & Davies mood scale with and without sleep-related items. 178 Brown University first-year students (mean age=18.1 years; 108 females) completed online biweekly surveys after weeks 2, 6, 8, and 10 and on 2 consecutive days after weeks 4 and 12 of their first semester. The scale was examined as a 1) full 6-item scale, 2) 5-item scale excluding the sleep item, and 3) 4-item scale excluding the sleep and tired items. Intraclass correlations (ICC) values for consecutive-day assessments and 6 biweekly surveys were similar and not a function of the weeks evaluated. Total-item correlations and inter-measure correlations with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies - Depressed Mood Scale (CES-D) supported the removal of the sleep-related items from the 6-item scale. These analyses confirm the reliability of the original Kandel and Davies depressed mood scale as well as without the sleep-related items.

  10. Functional Assessment of School Attendance Problems: An Adapted Version of the School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyne, David A.; Vreeke, Leonie J.; Maric, Marija; Boelens, Harrie; Van Widenfelt, Brigit M.

    2017-01-01

    The "School Refusal Assessment Scale" (SRAS) was developed to identify four factors that might maintain a youth's school attendance problem (SAP), and thus be targeted for treatment. There is still limited support for the four-factor model inherent to the SRAS and its revision (SRAS-R). Recent studies indicate problems with the wording…

  11. The self-assessment scale of cognitive complaints in schizophrenia: a validation study in Tunisian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ines; Kebir, Oussama; Ben Azouz, Olfa; Dellagi, Lamia; Rabah, Yasmine; Tabbane, Karim

    2009-10-08

    Despite a huge well-documented literature on cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, little is known about the own perception of patients regarding their cognitive functioning. The purpose of our study was to create a scale to collect subjective cognitive complaints of patients suffering from schizophrenia with Tunisian Arabic dialect as mother tongue and to proceed to a validation study of this scale. The authors constructed the Self-Assessment Scale of Cognitive Complaints in Schizophrenia (SASCCS) based on a questionnaire covering five cognitive domains which are the most frequently reported in the literature to be impaired in schizophrenia. The scale consisted of 21 likert-type questions dealing with memory, attention, executive functions, language and praxia. In a second time, the authors proceeded to the study of psychometric qualities of the scale among 105 patients suffering from schizophrenia spectrum disorders (based on DSM- IV criteria). Patients were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Global Assessment Functioning Scale (GAF scale) and the Calgary Depression Scale (CDS). The scale's reliability was proven to be good through Cronbach alpha coefficient equal to 0.85 and showing its good internal consistency. The intra-class correlation coefficient at 11 weeks was equal to 0.77 suggesting a good stability over time. Principal component analysis with Oblimin rotation was performed and yielded to six factors accounting for 58.28% of the total variance of the scale. Given the good psychometric properties that have been revealed in this study, the SASCCS seems to be reliable to measure schizophrenic patients' perception of their own cognitive impairment. This kind of evaluation can't substitute for objective measures of cognitive performances in schizophrenia. The purpose of such an evaluation is to permit to the patient to express his own well-being and satisfaction of quality of life.

  12. The Self-Assessment Scale of Cognitive Complaints in Schizophrenia: A validation study in Tunisian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabah Yasmine

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a huge well-documented literature on cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, little is known about the own perception of patients regarding their cognitive functioning. The purpose of our study was to create a scale to collect subjective cognitive complaints of patients suffering from schizophrenia with Tunisian Arabic dialect as mother tongue and to proceed to a validation study of this scale. Methods The authors constructed the Self-Assessment Scale of Cognitive Complaints in Schizophrenia (SASCCS based on a questionnaire covering five cognitive domains which are the most frequently reported in the literature to be impaired in schizophrenia. The scale consisted of 21 likert-type questions dealing with memory, attention, executive functions, language and praxia. In a second time, the authors proceeded to the study of psychometric qualities of the scale among 105 patients suffering from schizophrenia spectrum disorders (based on DSM- IV criteria. Patients were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, the Global Assessment Functioning Scale (GAF scale and the Calgary Depression Scale (CDS. Results The scale's reliability was proven to be good through Cronbach alpha coefficient equal to 0.85 and showing its good internal consistency. The intra-class correlation coefficient at 11 weeks was equal to 0.77 suggesting a good stability over time. Principal component analysis with Oblimin rotation was performed and yielded to six factors accounting for 58.28% of the total variance of the scale. Conclusion Given the good psychometric properties that have been revealed in this study, the SASCCS seems to be reliable to measure schizophrenic patients' perception of their own cognitive impairment. This kind of evaluation can't substitute for objective measures of cognitive performances in schizophrenia. The purpose of such an evaluation is to permit to the patient to express his own well-being and satisfaction

  13. Assessing social isolation in motor neurone disease: a Rasch analysis of the MND Social Withdrawal Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Chris J; Thornton, Everard W; Ealing, John; Shaw, Pamela J; Talbot, Kevin; Tennant, Alan; Young, Carolyn A

    2013-11-15

    Social withdrawal is described as the condition in which an individual experiences a desire to make social contact, but is unable to satisfy that desire. It is an important issue for patients with motor neurone disease who are likely to experience severe physical impairment. This study aims to reassess the psychometric and scaling properties of the MND Social Withdrawal Scale (MND-SWS) domains and examine the feasibility of a summary scale, by applying scale data to the Rasch model. The MND Social Withdrawal Scale was administered to 298 patients with a diagnosis of MND, alongside the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The factor structure of the MND Social Withdrawal Scale was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis. Model fit, category threshold analysis, differential item functioning (DIF), dimensionality and local dependency were evaluated. Factor analysis confirmed the suitability of the four-factor solution suggested by the original authors. Mokken scale analysis suggested the removal of item five. Rasch analysis removed a further three items; from the Community (one item) and Emotional (two items) withdrawal subscales. Following item reduction, each scale exhibited excellent fit to the Rasch model. A 14-item Summary scale was shown to fit the Rasch model after subtesting the items into three subtests corresponding to the Community, Family and Emotional subscales, indicating that items from these three subscales could be summed together to create a total measure for social withdrawal. Removal of four items from the Social Withdrawal Scale led to a four factor solution with a 14-item hierarchical Summary scale that were all unidimensional, free for DIF and well fitted to the Rasch model. The scale is reliable and allows clinicians and researchers to measure social withdrawal in MND along a unidimensional construct. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Three new observational scales for use in Dutch nursing homes: scales from the Resident Assessment Instrument for Activities of Daily Living, cognition and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, D.; Ooms, M; Steverink, N.; Frijters, D.; Bezemer, D.; Ribbe, M

    2004-01-01

    The reliability and validity of three MDS scales for ADL, cognition and depression are described. The scales consist of items of the Minimum Data Set of the Resident Assessment Instrument and are available just after an MDS assessment. Data collection took place in nine Dutch nursing homes (N = 227)

  15. Episiotomy healing assessment: Redness, Oedema, Ecchymosis, Discharge, Approximation (REEDA scale reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Barreto Alvarenga

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to analyse the Redness, Oedema, Ecchymosis, Discharge, Approximation (REEDA scale reliability when evaluating perineal healing after a normal delivery with a right mediolateral episiotomy.METHOD: observational study based on data from a clinical trial conducted with 54 randomly selected women, who had their perineal healing assessed at four time points, from 6 hours to 10 days after delivery, by nurses trained in the use of this scale. The kappa coefficient was used in the reliability analysis of the REEDA scale.RESULTS: the results indicate good agreement in the evaluation of the discharge item (0.75< Kappa ≥0.88, marginal and good agreement in the first three assessments of oedema (0.16< Kappa ≥0.46, marginal agreement in the evaluation of ecchymosis (0.25< Kappa ≥0.42 and good agreement regarding redness (0.46< Kappa ≥0.66. For the item coaptation, the agreement decreased from excellent in the first assessment to good in the last assessment. In the fourth evaluation, the assessment of all items displayed excellent or good agreement among the evaluators.CONCLUSION: the difference in the scores among the evaluators when applying the scale indicates that this tool must be improved to allow an accurate assessment of the episiotomy healing process.

  16. A new method to assess farming system evolution at the landscape scale

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre Chopin; Jean-Marc Blazy; Thierry Doré

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Agriculture provides many ecosystem services such as food, fiber, clean water, and sequestration of carbon. The efficiency of such ecosystem services depends on crop composition and farmer decisions. Current knowledge on landscape changes is focused on crop allocation process at farm scale and rotations at field scale, whereas the impact of farmer decisions on the choice of crop acreages is poorly known. Therefore, we have built a method to assess the evolution of farm...

  17. Assessing the Everyday Discrimination Scale Among American Indians and Alaska Natives

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzales, Kelly L.; Noonan, Carolyn; Goins, R. Turner; Henderson, William G.; Beals, Janette; Manson, Spero M.; Acton, Kelly J.; Roubideaux, Yvette

    2015-01-01

    The Everyday Discrimination Scale (EDS) has been used widely as a measure of subjective experiences of discrimination. The usefulness of this measure for assessments of perceived experiences of discrimination by American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) peoples has not been explored. Data derived from the Special Diabetes Program for Indians – Healthy Heart Demonstration Project (SDPI-HH), a large-scale initiative to reduce cardiovascular risk among AI/ANs with Type 2 diabetes. Participants (...

  18. Assessment of scale formation and corrosion of drinking water supplies in Ilam city (Iran)

    OpenAIRE

    Zabihollah Yousefi; Farzad Kazemi; Reza Ali Mohammadpour5

    2016-01-01

    Background: Scaling and corrosion are the two most important indexes in water quality evaluation. Pollutants are released in water due to corrosion of pipelines. The aim of this study is to assess the scale formation and corrosion of drinking water supplies in Ilam city (Iran). Methods: This research is a descriptive and cross-sectional study which is based on the 20 drinking water sources in Ilam city. Experiments were carried out in accordance with the Water and Wastewater Co. ...

  19. Development of scales to assess children's perceptions of friend and parental influences on physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brockman Rowan

    2009-10-01

    . Conclusion Three scales that assess how parents, friends and group normative values may be associated with children's physical activity have been shown to be reliable and internally consistent. Examination of the extent to which these new scales improve our understanding of children's physical activity in datasets with a range of participant and family characteristics is needed.

  20. Assessment of a new self-rating scale for post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, J R; Book, S W; Colket, J T; Tupler, L A; Roth, S; David, D; Hertzberg, M; Mellman, T; Beckham, J C; Smith, R D; Davison, R M; Katz, R; Feldman, M E

    1997-01-01

    In post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) there is a need for self-rating scales that are sensitive to treatment effects and have been tested in a broad range of trauma survivors. Separate measures of frequency and severity may also provide an advantage. Three hundred and fifty-three men and women completed the Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS), a 17-item scale measuring each DSM-IV symptom of PTSD on 5-point frequency and severity scales. These subjects comprised war veterans, survivors of rape or hurricane and a mixed trauma group participating in a clinical trial. Other scales were included as validity checks as follows: Global ratings, SCL-90-R, Eysenck Scale, Impact of Event Scale and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R. The scale demonstrated good test-retest reliability (r = 0.86), internal consistency (r = 0.99). One main factor emerged for severity and a smaller one for intrusion. In PTSD diagnosed subjects, and the factor structure more closely resembled the traditional grouping of symptoms. Concurrent validity was obtained against the SCID, with a diagnostic accuracy of 83% at a DTS score of 40. Good convergent and divergent validity was obtained. The DTS showed predictive validity against response to treatment, as well as being sensitive to treatment effects. The DTS showed good reliability and validity, and offers promised as a scale which is particularly suited to assessing symptom severity, treatment outcome and in screening for the likely diagnosis of PTSD.

  1. Interrater agreement, reliability and validity of the Glamorgan Paediatric Pressure Ulcer Risk Assessment Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottner, Jan; Kenzler, Martina; Wilborn, Doris

    2014-04-01

    To determine (1) What is the degree of interrater agreement and reliability of Glamorgan scale item and sum scores? and (2) Are Glamorgan scale sum scores valid? Pressure ulcer risk assessment scales are recommended for use in clinical practice. For paediatric patients, 12 instruments are currently described. Empirical evidence about the performance of Glamorgan scale scores in clinical practice is limited. An observational validation study was conducted on a paediatric cardiac unit of a large university hospital in Germany in April and May 2010. Children were assessed simultaneously and independently by varying convenience samples of three nurses per assessment situation. Pressure ulcer risk was measured by the Glamorgan scale and a 100 mm Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Proportions of agreement (po ), multirater kappa and intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated. Thirty children were rated by 27 nurses. Median children's age was 5·5 years. Agreement among item scores was high, whereas reliability coefficients of item scores were low. Interrater reliability for the Glamorgan scale sum scores was higher than for VAS scores. Correlation between both scales was moderate. High agreement among item scores indicates that nurses are able to make precise judgements. The low interrater reliability of item and sum scores indicates that nurses were unable to differentiate the rated children based on their item and sum scores, thus providing little additional clinical relevant information about pressure ulcer risk in this setting. The Glamorgan scale and the VAS are unable to make clear distinctions in a low-risk setting. Therefore, it is unlikely that the tools in this setting provide additional information for clinical decision making. Both tools are not recommended for daily use. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Assessment of patient interpersonal behavior: Development and validation of a rating scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richtberg, Samantha; Jakob, Marion; Höfling, Volkmar; Weck, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Patient in-session interpersonal behavior, as part of the therapeutic alliance, is an important aspect of the psychotherapy process and impacts treatment outcome. In the present study, the development and validation of a rating scale of patient in-session interpersonal behavior is described. A 10-item rating scale, the Assessment Form of Patient Interpersonal Behavior (AFPIB), was developed using an inductive procedure. The AFPIB was then validated in a sample of patients with hypochondriasis (N = 30), by having two independent raters assess patients' interpersonal behaviors shown in videotaped psychotherapy sessions (N = 60). The AFPIB demonstrated good reliability and validity. Thus, the AFPIB seems to be a promising rating scale for the assessment of patient interpersonal behavior shown in psychotherapy sessions.

  3. Design and Psychometric Properties of Male Adolescent Health Needs-Assessment Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Zare

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Given the importance of adolescents’ health in establishing health in the newly thriving generation of every society, the first step for adolescents’ health promotion is health needs assessment. The present study was, therefore, conducted to design a valid and reliable scale for health needs assessment of male adolescents. Methods: This is an exploratory sequential mixed method study (2014-2015. The qualitative part was performed using content analysis approach and aimed to generate items pool. Data collection was performed by 7 focus group discussions with 51 male adolescents, and 10 semi-structured in-depth interviews with 10 other adolescents. Nine further in-depth interviews were also performed with 9 key informants. Purposive sampling was used and continued until data saturation. In the quantitative part, the designed scale was psychometrically assessed through the examination of the face and content validities using qualitative and quantitative methods and also the construct validity using the exploratory factor analysis along with the tool’s internal consistency and stability. Results: The content analysis of the data from the qualitative part led to the extraction of 4 main themes and 103 items, which moved to the quantitative stage. The mean content validity index of the scale was estimated 0.91 and content validity ratio was 0.89. The exploratory factor analysis showed 4 factors for the designed scale (49 items, including physical, psychological, social and sexual health needs. The internal consistency and the stability assessment of the scale showed 0.79 and 0.89, respectively. (P<0.001 Conclusion: According to the psychometric assessment, MAHNAS is a valid and reliable scale compatible with the Iranian culture that can be used in the health needs assessment of male adolescents.

  4. Objective assessment of isotretinoin-associated cheilitis: Isotretinoin Cheilitis Grading Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas, Jennifer; Rosamilia, Lorraine; Larsen, Larissa; Foolad, Negar; Wang, Quinlu; Li, Chin-Shang; Sivamani, Raja K

    2016-01-01

    Isotretinoin remains an effective treatment for severe acne. Despite its effectiveness, it includes many side effects, of which cheilitis is the most common. To develop an objective grading scale for assessment of isotretinoin-associated cheilitis. Cross-sectional clinical grading study. UC Davis Dermatology clinic. Subjects were older than 18 years old and actively treated with oral isotretinoin. Oral Isotretinoin. We developed an Isotretinoin Cheilitis Grading Scale (ICGS) incorporating the following four characteristics: erythema, scale/crust, fissures and inflammation of the commissures. Three board-certified dermatologists independently graded photographs of the subjects. The Kendall's coefficient of concordance (KCC) for the ICGS was 0.88 (p isotretinoin associated cheilitis.

  5. Comparison between full- and small-scale sensory assessments of air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Sabikova, J.; Lagercrantz, Love Per

    2002-01-01

    Thirty-nine untrained subjects made small- and full-scale evaluations of the acceptability of the quality of air at 22 deg.C and 40% RH, polluted by either carpet, felt floor covering, painted gypsum board, linoleum or chipboard. Small-scale evaluations were made on the air extracted from 200-L...... glass chambers ventilated at an airflow of 0.9 L/s. Full-scale assessments were made immediately upon entering offices ventilated at an outdoor air supply rate of 1.9 h-1. The ratio of ventilation rate to surface area of a building material was identical in the chambers and in the offices. Full...

  6. Credibility and validity of the self-assessment scale for aphasia patient care proficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    平, 木由里; 原, 修一; タイラ, ユズリ; ハラ, シュウイチ; Yuzuri, TAIRA; Shuichi, HARA

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study is a development of scale for measuring "knowledge and practice of aphasia patient nursing care" of nurses. Aphasia patient care proficiency self-assessment scale, which consists of 15 items, is simple for respondents to be able to respond in a short time and its credibility and validity have been recognized. The scale has obtained 0.87 of correlation coefficient by test-retest method conducted for 193 of nurses of recovery wings, showing 0.82�`0.87 of Cronbach �� con...

  7. Assessing climate change impacts on river flows and environmental flow requirements at catchment scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gül, G.O.; Rosbjerg, Dan; Gül, A.

    2010-01-01

    . In this Study, the regional impacts of climate change on river flow and environmental flow requirement. which is a negotiated trade-off between water uses, are analysed for a lowland catchment in Denmark through MIKE SHE/MIKE 11 coupling. The Coupled model possesses an important capacity for simulating stream......The fourth assessment report of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) suggests studies that increase the spatial resolution to solve the scale mismatch between large-scale climatic models and the catchment scale while addressing climate change impacts on aquatic ecosystems. Impacts occur...

  8. Assessment of Water Quality Parameters by Using the Multidimensional Scaling Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suheyla Yerel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface water quality parameters of the western region of Black Sea in Turkey were assessed by using multidimensional scaling analysis. This technique was applied to the surface water quality parameters obtained from the five monitoring stations. Multidimensional scaling analysis showed that Cl-, SO42-, Na+ and BOD5 are the most important parameters causing difference in the monitoring stations. These analysis results present from the domestic waste and organic pollution affected of surface water quality. Thus, this study represents the usefulness of multidimensional scaling analysis for interpretation in the river pollution problems.

  9. Scaling up success to improve health: Towards a rapid assessment guide for decision makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Paltzer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Evidence-based health interventions exist and are effectively implemented throughout resource-limited settings. The literature regarding scale-up strategies and frameworks is growing. The purpose of this paper is to identify and systematically document the variation in scale-up strategies to develop a rapid assessment tool for decision-makers looking to identify the most appropriate strategy for their organizational and environmental contexts. Methods A list of scale-up strategies and frameworks were identified through an in-depth literature review and conversations with scale-up and quality improvement leaders. The literature search included a broad range of terms that might be used interchangeably with scale-up of best practices. Terms included: implementation research, knowledge translation, translational research, quality improvement research, health systems improvement, scale-up, best practices, improvement collaborative, and community based research. Based on this research, 18 strategies and frameworks were identified, and nine met our inclusion criteria for scale-up of health-related strategies. We interviewed the key contact for four of the nine strategies to obtain additional information regarding the strategy’s scale-up components, targets, underlying theories, evaluation efforts, facilitating factors, and barriers. A comparative analysis of common elements and strategy characteristics was completed by two of the authors on the nine selected strategies. Key strategy characteristics and common factors that facilitate or hinder the strategy’s success in scaling up health-related interventions were identified. Results Common features of scale-up strategies include: 1 the development of context-specific evidence; 2 collaborative partnerships; 3 iterative processes; and 4 shared decision-making. Facilitating factors include strong leadership, community engagement, communication, government collaboration, and a focus on

  10. A systematic review of symptom assessment scales in children with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dupuis L

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to describe symptom assessment scales that have been used in children with cancer. Methods We conducted electronic searches of OVID Medline and EMBASE in order to identify all symptom assessment scales that have been used in pediatric cancer. Two reviewers abstracted information from each identified study. Data collected included study demographics and information related to the instrument and children enrolled. We also collected information about the purpose of instrument administration and whether treatment was altered as a result of this information. Results Fourteen studies were identified which evaluated eight different symptom assessment scales. Eight studies used child self-report and all studies included children on active treatment for cancer although 4 studies also included children following completion of treatment. The most common purpose of instrument administration was to measure the prevalence of symptom burden (n = 8. None of the 14 studies used the scale to screen for symptoms and none changed patient management on the basis of identified symptoms. Conclusions We failed to identify any symptom assessment scales that were used as a symptom screening tool. There is a need to develop such a tool for use in children with cancer.

  11. Development and testing of a scale for assessing the quality of home nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Chii-Jun; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Chang, Hsing-Yi

    2016-03-01

    To develop a home nursing quality scale and to evaluate its psychometric properties. This was a 3-year study. In the first year, 19 focus group interviews with caregivers of people using home nursing services were carried out in northern, central and southern Taiwan. Content analysis was carried out and a pool of questionnaire items compiled. In the second year (2007), study was carried out on a stratified random sample selected from home nursing organizations covered by the national health insurance scheme in southern Taiwan. The study population was the co-resident primary caregivers of home care nursing service users. Item analysis and exploratory factor analysis were carried out on data from 365 self-administered questionnaires collected from 13 selected home care organizations. In the third year (2008), a random sample of participants was selected from 206 hospital-based home care nursing organizations throughout Taiwan, resulting in completion of 294 questionnaires from 27 organizations. Confirmatory factor analysis was then carried out on the scale, and the validity and reliability of the scale assessed. The present study developed a reliable and valid home nursing quality scale from the perspective of users of home nursing services. The scale comprised three factors: dependability, communication skills and service usefulness. This scale is of practical value for the promotion of long-term community care aging in local policies. The scale is ready to be used to assess the quality of services provided by home care nursing organizations. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  12. Laboratory Scale Coal And Biomass To Drop-In Fuels (CBDF) Production And Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lux, Kenneth [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Imam, Tahmina [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Chevanan, Nehru [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Namazian, Mehdi [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Wang, Xiaoxing [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Song, Chunshan [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2016-06-29

    This Final Technical Report describes the work and accomplishments of the project entitled, “Laboratory Scale Coal and Biomass to Drop-In Fuels (CBDF) Production and Assessment.” The main objective of the project was to fabricate and test a lab-scale liquid-fuel production system using coal containing different percentages of biomass such as corn stover and switchgrass at a rate of 2 liters per day. The system utilizes the patented Altex fuel-production technology, which incorporates advanced catalysts developed by Pennsylvania State University. The system was designed, fabricated, tested, and assessed for economic and environmental feasibility relative to competing technologies.

  13. Development and properties of a brief scale to assess intimate partner relationship in the postnatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynter, Karen; Tran, Thach Duc; Rowe, Heather; Fisher, Jane

    2017-06-01

    Poor quality intimate partner relationship is associated with postnatal depression and anxiety among women. Existing scales assessing the quality of this relationship are long and measure stable aspects of the relationship rather than specific behaviours which may respond to targeted interventions. The aim was to develop and investigate the properties of a brief, life stage-specific scale to assess potentially modifiable partner behaviours in the postpartum period. Participants were primiparous women from diverse geographical and socio-economic backgrounds in Victoria, Australia. Seven study-specific items were developed to assess potentially modifiable aspects of the intimate partner relationship at 6 months postpartum. Women's mental health was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the Patient Health Questionnaire depression and generalised anxiety modules. Factor analysis was conducted on the 7 items, and associations calculated between factor scores. Factor scores were compared for women with and without mental health problems. Mean inter-item correlations were computed to assess internal consistency. Factor analysis on data from 355 women revealed two factors with good internal consistency: Caring Partner Behaviours and Emotionally Abusive Partner Behaviours. Having mental health problems was associated with lower Caring Partner Behaviours and higher Emotionally Abusive Partner Behaviours scores. Interaction between partners was not observed; thus external criterion validity was not assessed. This brief scale is a promising means of assessing potentially modifiable aspects of the intimate partner relationship in the postnatal period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Functional cognitive assessment scale (FUCAS): a new scale to assess executive cognitive function in daily life activities in patients with dementia and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounti, Fotini; Tsolaki, Magda; Kiosseoglou, Grigoris

    2006-07-01

    Several tests have been developed to examine performance of demented patients in daily life activities. However, most of them are based either on the subjective evaluation of performance by the patient him/herself, or on the reports of relatives. Functional Cognitive Assessment Scale (FUCAS) is a new reliable (alpha > 0.89 - 0.92) cognitive-behavioral scale that assesses executive function in daily life activities directly in patients with dementia. This study aimed at testing FUCAS' internal consistency of items, criterion-related validity, interrater reliability, discriminative ability, and effect of age, sex, and education on FUCAS scores. Criterion-related validity was supported by significant correlations between FUCAS, CAMCOG, MMSE, and FRSSD. The interrater reliability of FUCAS' total score for two raters was r 0.997 and we found no significant effect of age, sex, or education on FUCAS' total performance. Discriminant analysis has identified that FUCAS was able to sufficiently discriminate the patients with MCI from those with moderate-severe dementia. FUCAS is a useful and reliable diagnostic tool for MCI. Cognitive-behavioral assessment such as that provided by FUCAS can provide objective information that can serve to enhance the quality of clinical decision-making.

  15. Test-retest reliability of Brazilian version of Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale for assessing symptoms in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Josiane Roberta de; Luvisaro, Bianca Maria Oliveira; Rodrigues, Claudia Fernandes; Muzi, Camila Drumond; Guimarães, Raphael Mendonça

    2017-01-01

    To assess the test-retest reliability of the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale translated and culturally adapted into Brazilian Portuguese. The scale was applied in an interview format for 190 patients with various cancers type hospitalized in clinical and surgical sectors of the Instituto Nacional de Câncer José de Alencar Gomes da Silva and reapplied in 58 patients. Data from the test-retest were double typed into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and analyzed by the weighted Kappa. The reliability of the scale was satisfactory in test-retest. The weighted Kappa values obtained for each scale item had to be adequate, the largest item was 0.96 and the lowest was 0.69. The Kappa subscale was also evaluated and values were 0.84 for high frequency physic symptoms, 0.81 for low frequency physical symptoms, 0.81 for psychological symptoms, and 0.78 for Global Distress Index. High level of reliability estimated suggests that the process of measurement of Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale aspects was adequate. Avaliar a confiabilidade teste-reteste da versão traduzida e adaptada culturalmente para o português do Brasil do Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale. A escala foi aplicada em forma de entrevista em 190 pacientes com diversos tipos de câncer internados nos setores clínicos e cirúrgicos do Instituto Nacional de Câncer José de Alencar Gomes da Silva e reaplicada em 58 pacientes. Os dados dos testes-retestes foram inseridos num banco de dados por dupla digitação independente em Excel e analisados pelo Kappa ponderado. A confiabilidade da escala mostrou-se satisfatória nos testes-retestes. Os valores do Kappa ponderado obtidos para cada item da escala apresentaram-se adequados, sendo o maior item de 0,96 e o menor de 0,69. Também se avaliou o Kappa das subescalas, sendo de 0,84 para sintomas físicos de alta frequência, de 0,81 para sintomas físicos de baixa frequência, de 0,81 também para sintomas psicológicos, e de 0,78 para Índice Geral de Sofrimento

  16. Delirium assessed by Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale in advanced cancer patients admitted to an acute palliative/supportive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadante, Sebastiano; Adile, Claudio; Ferrera, Patrizia; Cortegiani, Andrea; Casuccio, Alessandra

    2017-07-01

    Delirium is often unrecognized in cancer patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of delirium assessed by the Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (MDAS) and possible associated factors on admission to an acute palliative/supportive care unit (APSCU). The secondary outcome was to assess changes in MDAS and symptom burden at time of discharge. A consecutive sample of advanced cancer patients who were admitted to an APSCU was prospectively assessed for a period of 10 months. Patient demographics, including age, gender, primary diagnosis, Karnofsky status, stage of disease, and educational level were collected. The Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS) and the MDAS were measured at hospital admission and discharge. A total of 314 patients were surveyed. Of 292 patients with MDAS available at T0, 74 (25.3%) and 24 (8.2%) had a MDAS of 7-12 and ≥13, respectively. At discharge, there was a significant decrease in the number of patients with a MDAS ≥7/30. Higher values of MDAS were associated with age (p = .028), a lower Karnofsky status (p Delirium is highly prevalent in patients admitted to APSCU, characterized by a low mortality due to early referral. Comprehensive assessment and treatment may allow a decrease in the level of cognitive disorders and symptom burden.

  17. Assessing Social Support, Companionship, and Distress: NIH Toolbox Adult Social Relationship Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyranowski, Jill M.; Zill, Nicholas; Bode, Rita; Butt, Zeeshan; Kelly, Morgen A. R.; Pilkonis, Paul A.; Salsman, John M.; Cella, David

    2013-01-01

    Objective The quality of our daily social interactions – including perceptions of support, feelings of loneliness, and distress stemming from negative social exchanges – influence physical health and well-being. Despite the importance of social relationships, brief yet precise, unidimensional scales that assess key aspects of social relationship quality are lacking. As part of the NIH Toolbox for the Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function, we developed brief self-report scales designed to assess aspects of social support, companionship, and social distress across age cohorts. This report details the development and psychometric testing of the adult NIH Toolbox Social Relationship scales. Methods Social relationship concepts were selected, and item sets were developed and revised based on expert feedback and literature review. Items were then tested across a community-dwelling U.S. internet panel sample of adults aged 18 and above (N=692) using traditional (classic) psychometric methods and item response theory (IRT) approaches to identify items for inclusion in 5–8 item unidimensional scales. Finally, concurrent validity of the newly-developed scales was evaluated with respect to their inter-relationships with classic social relationship validation instruments. Results Results provide support for the internal reliability and concurrent validity of resulting self-report scales assessing Emotional Support, Instrumental Support, Friendship, Loneliness, Perceived Rejection, and Perceived Hostility. Conclusion These brief social relationship scales provide the pragmatic utility and enhanced precision needed to promote future epidemiological and social neuroscience research on the impact of social relationships on physical and emotional health outcomes. PMID:23437856

  18. [Upper limb functional assessment scale for children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and Spinal muscular atrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Raúl G; Lucero, Nayadet; Solares, Carmen; Espinoza, Victoria; Moscoso, Odalie; Olguín, Polín; Muñoz, Karin T; Rosas, Ricardo

    2016-08-16

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) causes significant disability and progressive functional impairment. Readily available instruments that assess functionality, especially in advanced stages of the disease, are required to monitor the progress of the disease and the impact of therapeutic interventions. To describe the development of a scale to evaluate upper limb function (UL) in patients with DMD and SMA, and describe its validation process, which includes self-training for evaluators. The development of the scale included a review of published scales, an exploratory application of a pilot scale in healthy children and those with DMD, self-training of evaluators in applying the scale using a handbook and video tutorial, and assessment of a group of children with DMD and SMA using the final scale. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach and Kendall concordance and with intra and inter-rater test-retest, and validity with concordance and factorial analysis. A high level of reliability was observed, with high internal consistency (Cronbach α=0.97), and inter-rater (Kendall W=0.96) and intra-rater concordance (r=0.97 to 0.99). The validity was demonstrated by the absence of significant differences between results by different evaluators with an expert evaluator (F=0.023, P>.5), and by the factor analysis that showed that four factors account for 85.44% of total variance. This scale is a reliable and valid tool for assessing UL functionality in children with DMD and SMA. It is also easily implementable due to the possibility of self-training and the use of simple and inexpensive materials. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Functional assessment of a series of paediatric patients receiving neurointensive treatment: New Functional status scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madurga-Revilla, P; López-Pisón, J; Samper-Villagrasa, P; Garcés-Gómez, R; García-Íñiguez, J P; Domínguez-Cajal, M; Gil-Hernández, I; Viscor-Zárate, S

    2017-11-01

    Functional health, a reliable parameter of the impact of disease, should be used systematically to assess prognosis in paediatric intensive care units (PICU). Developing scales for the assessment of functional health is therefore essential. The Paediatric Overall and Cerebral Performance Category (POPC, PCPC) scales have traditionally been used in paediatric studies. The new Functional Status Scale (FSS) was designed to provide more objective results. This study aims to confirm the validity of the FSS compared to the classic POPC and PCPC scales, and to evaluate whether it may also be superior to the latter in assessing of neurological function. We conducted a retrospective descriptive study of 266 children with neurological diseases admitted to intensive care between 2012 and 2014. Functional health at discharge and at one year after discharge was evaluated using the PCPC and POPC scales and the new FSS. Global FSS scores were found to be well correlated with all POPC scores (P<.001), except in category 5 (coma/vegetative state). Global FSS score dispersion increases with POPC category. The neurological versions of both scales show a similar correlation. Comparison with classic POPC and PCPC categories suggests that the new FSS scale is a useful method for evaluating functional health in our setting. The dispersion of FSS values underlines the poor accuracy of POPC-PCPC compared to the new FSS scale, which is more disaggregated and objective. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessing Sexually Intrusive Thoughts: Parsing Unacceptable Thoughts on the Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterneck, Chad T; Siev, Jedidiah; Adams, Thomas G; Slimowicz, Joseph C; Smith, Angela H

    2015-07-01

    Sexual obsessions are a common symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), often classified in a broader symptom dimension that includes aggressive and religious obsessions, as well. Indeed, the Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (DOCS) Unacceptable Thoughts Scale includes obsessional content relating to sexual, violent, and religious themes associated with rituals that are often covert. However, there is reason to suspect that sexual obsessions differ meaningfully from other types of unacceptable thoughts. We conducted two studies to evaluate the factor structure, initial psychometric characteristics, and associated clinical features of a new DOCS scale for sexually intrusive thoughts (SIT). In the first study, nonclinical participants (N=475) completed the standard DOCS with additional SIT questions and we conducted an exploratory factor analysis on all items and examined clinical and cognitive correlates of the different scales, as well as test-retest reliability. The SIT Scale was distinct from the Unacceptable Thoughts Scale and was predicted by different obsessional cognitions. It had good internal consistency and there was evidence for convergent and divergent validity. In the second study, we examined the relationships among the standard DOCS and SIT scales, as well as types of obsessional cognitions and symptom severity, in a clinical sample of individuals with OCD (N=54). There were indications of both convergence and divergence between the Unacceptable Thoughts and SIT scales, which were strongly correlated with each other. Together, the studies demonstrate the potential utility of assessing sexually intrusive thoughts separately from the broader category of unacceptable thoughts. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Nurses assessing pain with the Nociception Coma Scale: interrater reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, Peter; Eskes, Anne Maria; Lindeboom, Robert; van den Munckhof, Pepijn; Vermeulen, Hester

    2014-12-01

    The Nociception Coma Scale (NCS) is a pain observation tool, developed for patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) due to acquired brain injury (ABI). The aim of this study was to assess the interrater reliability of the NCS and NCS-R among nurses for the assessment of pain in ABI patients with DOC. A secondary aim was further validation of both scales by assessing its discriminating abilities for the presence or absence of pain. Hospitalized patients with ABI (n = 10) were recorded on film during three conditions: baseline, after tactile stimulation, and after noxious stimulation. All stimulations were part of daily treatment for these patients. The 30 recordings were assessed with the NCS and NCS-R by 27 nurses from three university hospitals in the Netherlands. Each nurse viewed 9 to 12 recordings, totaling 270 assessments. Interrater reliability of the NCS/NCS-R items and total scores were estimated by intraclass correlations (ICC), which showed excellent and equal average measures reliability for the NCS and NCR-R total scores (ICC 0.95), and item scores (range 0.87-0.95). Secondary analysis was performed to assess differences in ICCs among nurses' education and experience and to assess the scales discriminating properties for the presence of pain. The NCS and NCS-R are valid and reproducible scales that can be used by nurses with an associate (of science) in nursing degree or baccalaureate (of science) in nursing degree. It seems that more experience with ABI patients is not a predictor for good agreement in the assessment of the NCS(-R). Copyright © 2014 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Spirituality in well and ill adolescents and their parents: the use of two assessment scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Daniel; Dodd, Melissa; Desai, Neelam; Pollock, Bradley; Graham-Pole, John

    2009-01-01

    The literature supporting a relationship between religion/spirituality and physical/mental health has led to recommendations that health professionals attend to these issues in patient assessment and intervention. Many studies indicate that spiritual issues are important to adolescents, especially those with physical and/or psychological health concerns. Although several instruments have been developed to measure religion/spirituality in adults, no validated instrument currently exists for assessing this concept in children or adolescents. The applicability of two adult scales, the SIBS and the SWBS, were assessed to explore the spiritual well-being of adolescents by comparing spirituality scores of 38 chronically ill and 38 healthy adolescents and their parents. No significant difference was found between ill and well adolescents on either scale. Parents scored significantly higher than adolescents on both scales. Although this could indicate that parents have greater spiritual well-being than their children, these two findings taken together suggest these measures may be insufficiently sensitive measures of spirituality in childhood. This is supported by the finding that most adolescents and their parents felt both scales to be ineffective measures of adolescent spirituality. The authors concluded that a more specific scale should be developed for measuring spirituality in the young, especially those with chronic illness. Such an instrument might best be developed through a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods.

  3. Development of a new measure for assessing insight: Psychometric properties of the insight orientation scale (IOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Alessio; Craparo, Giuseppe; Giannini, Marco; Loscalzo, Yura; Caretti, Vincenzo; La Barbera, Daniele; Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Tani, Franca; Ponti, Lucia; Dewey, Daniel; Schuldberg, David

    2015-12-01

    Given the centrality of insight in promoting change, the relevance of measures for assessing this construct has become increasingly clear. This paper describes a new self-report measure for assessing some of the characteristics of insight, the insight orientation scale (IOS). In study 1, we evaluated the factor structure and the reliability of the scale. In study 2, we analyzed the concurrent and discriminant validity of the scale in patients with different clinical diagnoses. In study 1 participants were 600 individuals (41.1% male, 58.9% female) with a mean age of 33.95 years (SD = 13.04). In study 2 participants were 136 individuals divided into the following groups: 1) schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders (n = 26); 2) substance-related disorders (n = 55); 3) depressive disorders (n = 27); and 4) personality disorders (n = 28). Instruments are the insight orientation scale (IOS) and the Beck cognitive insight scale. The goodness-of-fit indices showed a satisfactory fit of a one factor model. We found also a good internal consistency (α = .77). These findings support the dimensionality of the IOS and suggest that it may be useful as an assessment tool for use in guiding psychotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. An Integrated Assessment of Location-Dependent Scaling for Microalgae Biofuel Production Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Andre M.; Abodeely, Jared; Skaggs, Richard; Moeglein, William AM; Newby, Deborah T.; Venteris, Erik R.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2014-06-19

    Successful development of a large-scale microalgae-based biofuels industry requires comprehensive analysis and understanding of the feedstock supply chain—from facility siting/design through processing/upgrading of the feedstock to a fuel product. The evolution from pilot-scale production facilities to energy-scale operations presents many multi-disciplinary challenges, including a sustainable supply of water and nutrients, operational and infrastructure logistics, and economic competitiveness with petroleum-based fuels. These challenges are addressed in part by applying the Integrated Assessment Framework (IAF)—an integrated multi-scale modeling, analysis, and data management suite—to address key issues in developing and operating an open-pond facility by analyzing how variability and uncertainty in space and time affect algal feedstock production rates, and determining the site-specific “optimum” facility scale to minimize capital and operational expenses. This approach explicitly and systematically assesses the interdependence of biofuel production potential, associated resource requirements, and production system design trade-offs. The IAF was applied to a set of sites previously identified as having the potential to cumulatively produce 5 billion-gallons/year in the southeastern U.S. and results indicate costs can be reduced by selecting the most effective processing technology pathway and scaling downstream processing capabilities to fit site-specific growing conditions, available resources, and algal strains.

  5. Clinical monitoring scales in acute brain injury: assessment of coma, pain, agitation, and delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riker, Richard R; Fugate, Jennifer E

    2014-12-01

    Serial clinical examination represents the most fundamental and basic form of neurological monitoring, and is often the first and only form of such monitoring in patients. Even in patients subjected to physiological monitoring using a range of technologies, the clinical examination remains an essential tool to follow neurological progress. Key aspects of the clinical examination have now been systematized into scoring schemes, and address consciousness, pain, agitation, and delirium (PAD). The Glasgow Coma Scale has been the traditional tool to measure consciousness, but the full outline of unresponsiveness (FOUR) score has recently been validated in a variety of settings, and at present, both represent clinically useful tools. Assessment of PAD in neurologically compromised patients present special challenges. For pain, the Numeric Rating Scale is the preferred initial approach, with either the Behavioral Pain Scale or the Critical Care Pain Observation Tool in subjects who are not able to respond. The Nociception Coma Scale-Revised may be useful in patients with severe disorders of consciousness. Conventional sedation scoring tools for critical care, such as the Richmond Area Sedation Scale (RASS) and Sedation-Agitation Scale (SAS) may provide reasonable tools in some neurocritical care patients. The use of sedative drugs and neuromuscular blockers may invalidate the use of some clinical examination tools in others. The use of sedation interruption to assess neurological status can result in physiological derangement in unstable patients (such as those with uncontrolled intracranial hypertension), and is not recommended.

  6. Scale-Dependent Assessment of Relative Disease Resistance to Plant Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Skelsey

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenotyping trials may not take into account sufficient spatial context to infer quantitative disease resistance of recommended varieties in commercial production settings. Recent ecological theory—the dispersal scaling hypothesis—provides evidence that host heterogeneity and scale of host heterogeneity interact in a predictable and straightforward manner to produce a unimodal (“humpbacked” distribution of epidemic outcomes. This suggests that the intrinsic artificiality (scale and design of experimental set-ups may lead to spurious conclusions regarding the resistance of selected elite cultivars, due to the failure of experimental efforts to accurately represent disease pressure in real agricultural situations. In this model-based study we investigate the interaction of host heterogeneity and scale as a confounding factor in the inference from ex-situ assessment of quantitative disease resistance to commercial production settings. We use standard modelling approaches in plant disease epidemiology and a number of different agronomic scenarios. Model results revealed that the interaction of heterogeneity and scale is a determinant of relative varietal performance under epidemic conditions. This is a previously unreported phenomenon that could provide a new basis for informing the design of future phenotyping platforms, and optimising the scale at which quantitative disease resistance is assessed.

  7. Psychometric assessment of the Spiritual Climate Scale Arabic version for nurses in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Jonas Preposi; Albaqawi, Hamdan Mohammad; Alharbi, Sami Melbes; Alicante, Jerico G; Vitorino, Luciano M; Abunab, Hamzeh Y

    2017-12-07

    To assess the psychometric properties of the Spiritual Climate Scale Arabic version for Saudi nurses. Evidence showed that a high level of spiritual climate in the workplace is associated with increased productivity and performance, enhanced emotional intelligence, organisational commitment and job satisfaction among nurses. A convenient sample of 165 Saudi nurses was surveyed in this descriptive, cross-sectional study. Cronbach's α and intraclass correlation coefficient of the 2 week test-retest scores were computed to establish reliability. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to support the validity of the Spiritual Climate Scale Arabic version. The Spiritual Climate Scale Arabic version manifested excellent content validity. Exploratory factor analysis supported a single factor with an explained variance of 73.2%. The Cronbach's α values of the scale ranged from .79 to .88, while the intraclass correlation coefficient value was .90. The perceived spiritual climate was associated with the respondents' hospital, gender, age and years of experience. Findings of this study support the sound psychometric properties of the Spiritual Climate Scale Arabic version. The Spiritual Climate Scale Arabic version can be used by nurse managers to assess the nurses' perception of the spiritual climate in any clinical area. This process can lead to spiritually centred interventions, thereby ensuring a clinical climate that accepts and respects different spiritual beliefs and practices. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Development and Datametric Properties of a Scale Measuring Students' Perceptions of The Classroom Assessment Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Alkharusi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Each classroom has its own assessment environment perceived by the students and springs from the teacher's assessment practices. Although students' perceptions of the assessment environment may influence their achievement-related outcomes, little attention has been given to the measurement of perceived classroom assessment environment. This study reports on the development and datametric properties of a scale measuring students' perceptions of the classroom assessment environment. A total of 450 students enrolled in the tenth grade English language classes at Muscat public schools in Oman completed the scale. Results yielded two subscales of the perceived classroom assessment environment: learning-, and performance-oriented environments. The correlations between them suggested that they represented unique aspects of the classroom assessment environment as perceived by the students. Additional validity evidence was obtained through gender differences and correlations of the subscales scores with the total scores received in the subject at end of the semester. Reliability analyses showed that the subscales' scores had relatively moderate levels of internal consistency. Implications and recommendations for classroom instruction and assessment as well as for future research are discussed.

  9. Capturing subregional variability in regional-scale climate change vulnerability assessments of natural resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buotte, Polly C; Peterson, David L; McKelvey, Kevin S; Hicke, Jeffrey A

    2016-03-15

    Natural resource vulnerability to climate change can depend on the climatology and ecological conditions at a particular site. Here we present a conceptual framework for incorporating spatial variability in natural resource vulnerability to climate change in a regional-scale assessment. The framework was implemented in the first regional-scale vulnerability assessment conducted by the US Forest Service. During this assessment, five subregional workshops were held to capture variability in vulnerability and to develop adaptation tactics. At each workshop, participants answered a questionnaire to: 1) identify species, resources, or other information missing from the regional assessment, and 2) describe subregional vulnerability to climate change. Workshop participants divided into six resource groups; here we focus on wildlife resources. Participants identified information missing from the regional assessment and multiple instances of subregional variability in climate change vulnerability. We provide recommendations for improving the process of capturing subregional variability in a regional vulnerability assessment. We propose a revised conceptual framework structured around pathways of climate influence, each with separate rankings for exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. These revisions allow for a quantitative ranking of species, pathways, exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity across subregions. Rankings can be used to direct the development and implementation of future regional research and monitoring programs. The revised conceptual framework is equally applicable as a stand-alone model for assessing climate change vulnerability and as a nested model within a regional assessment for capturing subregional variability in vulnerability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Does the Coping Assessment for Laboring Moms (CALM) Scale Enhance Perception of Nursing Presence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Greta; D'Angelo, Darlene

    Traditional 0-to-10 pain assessment may be inadequate during labor. The Coping Assessment for Laboring Moms (CALM) scale was developed to focus on facial, behavioral, psychosocial, vocalization, and verbal expressions to aid holistic nursing support during childbirth. Using a comparative design, the 0-to-10 pain and CALM scales were evaluated to determine differences in women's perceptions of nursing presence using the Positive Presence Index during labor at a community hospital in the Pacific Northwest. Positive Presence Index scores for knowing what would work best for me, comforting touch, taking care of everything so I could concentrate, and understanding what I was saying were significantly higher among women when nurses used the CALM tool to guide labor support. The CALM scale needs further testing with a larger, more diverse population. © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  11. Assessing Students' Emotional Competence in Higher Education: Development and Validation of the Widener Emotional Learning Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Young, Thomas; Wilhite, Stephen C.; Marczyk, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the development and validation studies of the Widener Emotional Learning Scale (WELS), a self-report measure, for assessing students' social and emotional competence in higher education. Conceptual specifications, item development, psychometric properties, and factor structure of the instrument are reported in the article. The…

  12. Assessment of the depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS-21) in untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nanthakumar, Shenooka; Bucks, Romola S.; Skinner, Timothy C.

    2017-01-01

    The assessment of depression in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is confounded by symptom overlap. The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-short form (DASS-21) is a commonly used measure of negative affect, but it not known whether the DASS-21 is suitable for use in an OSA sample. This study...

  13. The Use of Bidimensional Scales to Assess Social Workers' Attitudes toward Lesbians and Gay Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert G.

    2005-01-01

    This research note provides a rationale for the use of gender-specific subscales, rather than a single global measurement device, to assess respondents' differential attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. It then evaluates the reliability and validity of equivalent forms of the Attitudes toward Lesbians and Gay Men scale (ATLG) (Herek, 1994) when…

  14. Interpretation and precision of the Observer Scar Assessment Scale improved by a revised scoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, J.A.; Bruijnesteijn van Coppenraet, E.S.; Kuijper, E.J.; Polsbroek, R.M.; Horsthuis, R.B.G.; Prins, J.M.; Lindeboom, R.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To apply Rasch measurement to develop a rule for clinical interpretation of the Observer Scar Assessment Scale (OSAS) to help surgeons judge reported sum scores clinically. Study Design and Setting We used cross-sectional data of a multicenter randomized clinical trial for the treatment of

  15. The internal consistency and validity of the Self-assessment Parkinson's Disease Disability Scale.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans, M.A.J.E.; Dekker, J.; Woude, L.H.V. van der

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the consistency and validity of the Self-assessment Parkinson's Disease Disability Scale in patients with Parkinson's disease living at home. DESIGN: Patients with Parkinson's disease responded to a set of questionnaires. In addition, an observation of the performance of daily

  16. Internal consistency and validity of the self-assessment Parkinson's Disease disability scale. Abstract.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.; Biemans, M.A.J.E.; Woude, L.H.V. van der

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the consistency and validity of the Self-assessment Parkinson's Disease Disability Scale in patients with Parkinson's disease living at home. DESIGN: Patients with Parkinson's disease responded to a set of questionnaires. In addition, an observation of the performance of daily

  17. On Applications of Rasch Models in International Comparative Large-Scale Assessments: A Historical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Heike; Bos, Wilfried; Goy, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Several current international comparative large-scale assessments of educational achievement (ICLSA) make use of "Rasch models", to address functions essential for valid cross-cultural comparisons. From a historical perspective, ICLSA and Georg Rasch's "models for measurement" emerged at about the same time, half a century ago. However, the…

  18. Designing a Review and Appeal Process for a Large Scale Writing Assessment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Gail Lynn; Walker-Bartnick, Leslie

    A formative evaluation of a pilot review and appeal process for the Maryland Writing Test (MWT) is described. The MWT is a large-scale direct assessment of writing. A three-year pilot phase was to culminate in the implementation of an operational procedure for the review and appeal of scores impacting a pass/fail decision for examinees. The MWT…

  19. Validating the Conceptions of Assessment-III Scale in Canadian Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Lia M.; Poth, Cheryl; Papile, Chiara; Hutchison, Marnie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the validity of the Teachers' Conceptions of Assessment Scale III-Abridged Version (CoA-IIIA; Brown, 2006), a measure created, validated, and applied outside of North America, in a sample of Canadian preservice teachers (n = 436). This work is important because although we have long known that teachers'…

  20. Reliability and Validity of the Child and Adolescent Behavior Assessment (CABA): A Brief Structured Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Amanda Leigh; Miller, Stacy Jo; Smith, Johan R; Johnson, Karen E

    2017-04-01

    Use of valid, affordable, accessible, and brief measures facilitates the assessment of mental health outcomes. The Child and Adolescent Behavior Assessment Scale, a brief, structured scale, assesses problem behavior through patient and/or informant report. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the scale's psychometric properties. In the cross-sectional study presented, a large national sample of youth (aged 5-18) admitted for psychiatric treatment (N = 32,689) was examined. The two major domains of problem behavior assessed were Internalizing and Externalizing. Reliability was good to excellent with alpha levels ranging from 0.874 to 0.917. Additional items measured Risk Behavior (α = 0.648). Subscale total scores correlated well with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale for Children, 9-item version (BPRS-C-9). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported the three-factor, multidimensional model of problem behavior as satisfactory for child and adolescent use, although further research is required to refine some items for clarity and improved model fit.

  1. The Role of Reading Comprehension in Large-Scale Subject-Matter Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed with the overall goal of understanding how difficulties in reading comprehension are associated with early adolescents' performance in large-scale assessments in subject domains including science and civic-related social studies. The current study extended previous research by taking a cognition-centered approach based on…

  2. An assessment of basin-scale glaciological and hydrological sensitivities in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shea, Joseph M.; Immerzeel, Walter W.

    2016-01-01

    Glacier responses to future climate change will affect hydrology at sub-basin scales. The main goal of this study is to assess glaciological and hydrological sensitivities of sub-basins throughout the Hindu Kush-Himalaya region. We use a simple geometrical analysis based on a full glacier inventory

  3. Forest biomass supply for bioenergy in the southeast: Evaluating assessment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher S. Galik; Robert C. Abt

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the potential impacts of expanded forest biomass use in the Southeast from present year through 2036, focusing on the forest supply, industrial, and GHG emissions implications of maximizing biomass co-firing with coal. We model demand scenarios at the state, subregional, and regional levels, and assess the influence of study scale on the observed...

  4. Validating the Language Domain Subtest in a Developmental Assessment Scale for Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Anita M. -Y.; Leung, Cynthia; Siu, Elaine K. -L.; Lam, Catherine C. -C.

    2012-01-01

    This study reports on the validation of the language domain subtest of a developmental assessment scale for Cantonese Chinese preschool children. Three hundred and seventy eight multi-stage randomly selected children between 3;4 and 6;3 years of age were tested on the 104-item subtest. Fifty-four of these children, spreading across three age…

  5. The "Classroom Systems Observation Scale": Development of an Instrument To Assess Classrooms Using a Systems Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Marian C.; Dane, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    Describes the development of the Classroom Systems Observation Scale (CSOS), which assesses preschool through sixth grade classroom functioning from a systems perspective using a theoretical framework based on the Circumplex Model of Marital and Family Systems. Discusses influences of home environment and parental support on learning; and…

  6. Factorial Validity of the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales for Referred Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaujean, A. Alexander; McGlaughlin, Sean M.; Margulies, Allison S.

    2009-01-01

    The Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS) is a recently developed, individually administered psychometric instrument designed to measure general cognitive ability, as well as verbal (crystallized) intelligence, nonverbal (fluid) intelligence, and memory. Test reviewers have recommended the use of the RIAS despite the fact that, although…

  7. The internal consistency and validity of the Self-assessment parkinsons's Disease Disability Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans, M.A.J.E.; Dekker, J.; van der Woude, L.H.V.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To test the consistency and validity of the Self-assessment Parkinson's Disease Disability Scale in patients with Parkinson's disease living at home. Design: Patients with Parkinson's disease responded to a set of questionnaires. In addition, an observation of the performance of daily

  8. Opening the Black Box: Prospects for Using International Large-Scale Assessments to Explore Classroom Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, William H.; Burroughs, Nathan A.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors review International Large-Scale Assessment (ILSA)-based research over the last several decades, with specific attention on cross-national analysis of mean differences between and variation within countries in mathematics education. They discuss the role of sampling design and "opportunity to learn" (OTL)…

  9. Impact of Design Effects in Large-Scale District and State Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes that sampling design effects have potentially huge unrecognized impacts on the results reported by large-scale district and state assessments in the United States. When design effects are unrecognized and unaccounted for they lead to underestimating the sampling error in item and test statistics. Underestimating the sampling…

  10. Translation and adaptation of the Disability Assessment for Dementia scale in the Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, Alicia; López-Roig, Sofia; Pampliega Pérez, Ana; Peral Gómez, Paula; Pastor, María Ángeles; Hurtado-Pomares, Miriam

    2017-09-20

    Functional assessment is especially relevant in patients with cognitive impairment (CI). The Disability Assessment for Dementia (DAD) scale assesses functional ability and its use is becoming increasingly popular. This study aims to perform the translation and cultural adaptation of the DAD scale in order to create a Spanish version: DAD-E. A double translation/back-translation process was developed, as well as a pilot study with 14 caregivers of patients with CI, and 3 review meetings to achieve general agreement. The DAD-E includes the 40 original items. Four response options and 8 scores were added in order to detect functional disability induced by CI independently of other possible causes. More detailed instructions for administration and scoring of the scale have been provided in order to improve the reliability of the content. The DAD-E was shown to be a cultural and linguistic adaptation equivalent of the original scale, which allows it to be applied to the Spanish population. It may be a useful instrument in clinical practice since it provides a more accurate assessment of functional disability due to cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. A Scale to Assess Science Activity Videos (SASAV): The Study of Validity and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Yilmaz; Bakirci, Hasan

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop an assessment scale for science activity videos that can be used to determine qualified science activity videos that can fulfill the objectives of activity based science education, help teachers to evaluate any science activity videos and decide whether to include into science learning process. The subjects…

  12. Comparison of two data assimilation methods for assessing PM10 exceedances on the European scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denby, B.; Schaap, M.; Segers, A.; Builtjes, P.; Horálek, J.

    2008-01-01

    Two different data assimilation techniques have been applied to assess exceedances of the daily and annual mean limit values for PM10 on the regional scale in Europe. The two methods include a statistical interpolation method (SI), based on residual kriging after linear regression of the model, and

  13. Comparison of two data assimilation methods for assessing PM 10 exceedances on the European scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denby, B.; Schaap, M.; Segers, A.J.; Builtjes, P.J.H.; Horalek, J.

    2008-01-01

    Two different data assimilation techniques have been applied to assess exceedances of the daily and annual mean limit values for PM10 on the regional scale in Europe. The two methods include a statistical interpolation method (SI), based on residual kriging after linear regression of the model, and

  14. Influencing Public School Policy in the United States: The Role of Large-Scale Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, William H.; Burroughs, Nathan A.

    2016-01-01

    The authors review the influence of state, national and international large-scale assessments (LSAs) on education policy and research. They distinguish between two main uses of LSAs: as a means for conducting research that informs educational reform and LSAs as a tool for implementing standards and enforcing accountability. The authors discuss the…

  15. Assessing heterogeneity in soil nitrogen cycling: a plot-scale approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Baas; Jacqueline E. Mohan; David Markewitz; Jennifer D. Knoepp

    2014-01-01

    The high level of spatial and temporal heterogeneity in soil N cycling processes hinders our ability to develop an ecosystem-wide understanding of this cycle. This study examined how incorporating an intensive assessment of spatial variability for soil moisture, C, nutrients, and soil texture can better explain ecosystem N cycling at the plot scale. Five sites...

  16. Development and psychometric testing of a scale assessing the sharing of medical information and interprofessional communication: the CSI scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthoine, Emmanuelle; Delmas, Christelle; Coutherut, Julie; Moret, Leïla

    2014-03-13

    Interprofessional collaboration is essential in creating a safer patient environment. It includes the need to develop communication and coordination between professionals, implying a better sharing of medical information. Several questionnaires exist in the literature, but none of them have been developed in the French context. The objective was to develop and test the psychometric properties of the communication and sharing information (CSI) scale which assesses specifically interprofessional communication, especially the sharing of medical information and the effectiveness of communication between members of the team. The questionnaire construction process used a literature review and involved a panel of voluntary professionals. A list of 32 items explored the quality of shared information delivered to patients and the effectiveness of interprofessional communication. The study was conducted in 16 voluntary units in a University Hospital (France), which included medical, surgical, obstetrics, intensive care, pediatrics, oncology and rehabilitation care. The scale-development process comprised an exploratory principal component analysis, Cronbach's α-coefficients and structural equation modeling (SEM). From these 16 units, a total of 503 health professionals took part in the study. Among them, 23.9% were physicians (n = 120), 43.9% nurses (n = 221) and 32.2% nurse assistants (n = 162).The validated questionnaire comprised 13 items and 3 dimensions relative to "the sharing of medical information" (5 items), "communication between physicians" (4 items) and "communication between nurses and nurse assistants" (4 items). The 3 dimensions accounted for 63.7% of the variance of the final questionnaire. Their respective Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0.80, 0.87 and 0.81. SEM confirmed the existence of the 3 latent dimensions but the best characteristics were obtained with a hierarchical model including the three latent factors and a global "communication

  17. Comparing the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale with the Mini-BESTest and Berg Balance Scale to assess postural control in patients with Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenstedt, Christian; Brombacher, Stephanie; Hartwigsen, Gesa; Weisser, Burkhard; Möller, Bettina; Deuschl, Günther

    2015-02-01

    To validate the Fullerton Advanced Balance (FAB) Scale for patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease (PD); and to compare the FAB Scale with the Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test (Mini-BESTest) and Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Observational study to assess concurrent validity, test-retest, and interrater reliability of the FAB Scale in patients with PD and to compare the distribution of the scale with the Mini-BESTest and BBS. University hospital in an urban community. Patients with idiopathic PD (N=85; Hoehn and Yahr stages 1-4). Not applicable. FAB Scale, Mini-BESTest, BBS, timed Up and Go test, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, and visual analog scale. Interrater (3 raters) and test-retest (3±1 d) reliability were high for all scales (ICCs≥.95). The FAB Scale was highly correlated with the Mini-BESTest (Spearman ρ=.87) and timed Up and Go test item of the Mini-BESTest (Spearman ρ=.83). In contrast with the BBS, the FAB Scale and Mini-BESTest have only minimal ceiling effects. The FAB Scale demonstrated the most symmetric distribution when compared with the Mini-BESTest and BBS (skewness: FAB scale: -.54; Mini-BESTest: -1.07; BBS: -2.14). The FAB Scale is a valid and reliable tool to assess postural control in patients with PD. No ceiling effect was noted for the FAB Scale. Although the items of the FAB Scale are more detailed when compared with the Mini-BESTest, interrater and test-retest reliability were excellent. The scale is a promising tool to detect small changes of the postural control system in individuals with PD. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gehan Elassal; Mona Elsheikh; Abdel Gawad Abu Zeid

    2014-01-01

    .... Subjects and methods: 80 COPD patients were assessed using SCID for establishing psychiatric diagnosis, Beck depression inventory for assessment of the severity of depressive symptoms, Hamilton anxiety scale...

  19. Development of the Health Literacy Assessment Scale for Adolescents (HAS-A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganello, Jennifer A.; DeVellis, Robert F.; Davis, Terry C.; Schottler-Thal, Carrin

    2016-01-01

    Background Health literacy has been found to be a crucial component of successful communication and navigation in health care. Various tools have been developed to measure health literacy skills, but few have been developed specifically for adolescents, and most require in-person administration. This study sought to develop a self-report health literacy scale for adolescents to assess four key health literacy domains: the ability to obtain, communicate, understand, and process health information. Methods We collected data from 272 youth aged 12–19 recruited from a pediatrics clinic (37%) and the community (63%). We administered the Rapid Estimate of Adolescent Literacy in Medicine-Teen, Newest Vital Sign, and three surveys, and used factor analysis to identify scale items. Results Using multiple health literacy assessments, it was clear that many teens struggle with low health literacy skills. When identifying items that can be used as self-report items in future research, factor analysis identified three subscales; a 5-item communication scale (alpha = 0.77), a 4-item confusion scale (alpha = 0.73), and a 6-item functional health literacy scale (alpha = 0.76). The scales performed reasonably well when compared with validation items. Conclusions Self-report items can be used to assess health literacy skills for adolescents when in-person administration is not possible or feasible. Such items will allow for greater study of how health literacy impacts communication in not only health care settings, but for all levels of health communication. The tool will also allow researchers to better understand how adolescent health literacy is related to a variety of health outcomes. Further testing of these scales with different populations is warranted. PMID:27656257

  20. Assessing attitude toward same-sex marriage: scale development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannutti, Pamela J; Lachlan, Kenneth A

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the results of three studies conducted to develop, refine, and validate a scale which assessed heterosexual adults' attitudes toward same-sex marriage, the Attitude Toward Same-Sex Marriage Scale (ASSMS). The need for such a scale is evidenced in the increasing importance of same-sex marriage in the political arena of the United States and other nations, as well as the growing body of empirical research examining same-sex marriage and related issues (e.g., Lannutti, 2005; Solomon, Rothblum, & Balsam, 2004). The results demonstrate strong reliability, convergent validity, and predictive validity for the ASSMS and suggest that the ASSMS may be adapted to measure attitudes toward civil unions and other forms of relational recognition for same-sex couples. Gender comparisons using the validated scale showed that in college and non-college samples, women had a significantly more positive attitude toward same-sex marriage than did men.

  1. Hypothesis testing on the fractal structure of behavioral sequences: the Bayesian assessment of scaling methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscoso del Prado Martín, Fermín

    2013-12-01

    I introduce the Bayesian assessment of scaling (BAS), a simple but powerful Bayesian hypothesis contrast methodology that can be used to test hypotheses on the scaling regime exhibited by a sequence of behavioral data. Rather than comparing parametric models, as typically done in previous approaches, the BAS offers a direct, nonparametric way to test whether a time series exhibits fractal scaling. The BAS provides a simpler and faster test than do previous methods, and the code for making the required computations is provided. The method also enables testing of finely specified hypotheses on the scaling indices, something that was not possible with the previously available methods. I then present 4 simulation studies showing that the BAS methodology outperforms the other methods used in the psychological literature. I conclude with a discussion of methodological issues on fractal analyses in experimental psychology. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Similarity Assessment of Engineering Designed Small Scaled Sodium Integral Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Soon Joon; Kim, Yong Hwy [FNC TECH, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jew Han; Eoh, Jae Hyuk [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    PGSFR (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) is a kind of GenIV reactor, and its thermal power is 392.2MWth and electric power is 150MWe. The small scaled integral test facility is to be design with linear scale 1/5, and the same aspect ratio. According to this requirement, an engineering design was carried out on the base of Ishii et al.'s scale law [3] in this study. The verification of the engineering design was conducted using MARS-LMR code according to the guide line of Ransom et al.. Engineering design based on Ishii et al.'s scale law and equivalent thermal property leads good similarity between model and prototype. Slight difference in fuel temperature need additional review and assessment.

  3. Sources of errors and uncertainties in the assessment of forest soil carbon stocks at different scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanguelova, E. I.; Bonifacio, E.; De Vos, B.

    2016-01-01

    for assessing SOC stocks with the highest possible accuracy at each scale. This review identifies where potential sources of errors and uncertainties related to forest SOC stock estimation occur at five different scales---sample, profile, plot, landscape/regional and European. Recommendations are also provided......Spatially explicit knowledge of recent and past soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in forests will improve our understanding of the effect of human- and non-human-induced changes on forest C fluxes. For SOC accounting, a minimum detectable difference must be defined in order to adequately determine...... to be defined: profile, plot, forests, catchment, national or wider. Scaling up SOC stocks from point sample to landscape unit is challenging, and thus requires reliable baseline data. Knowledge of the associated uncertainties related to SOC measures at each particular scale and how to reduce them is crucial...

  4. Assessment of executive function in ADHD adolescents: contribution of performance tests and rating scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Virginia; Amador-Campos, Juan Antonio

    2017-10-18

    This study aimed to analyze performance on measures of neuropsychological and behavioral executive functions (EF) in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and to evaluate the utility of performance-based tests for predicting scores on behavioral EF ratings. One hundred eighteen adolescents (75 ADHD and 43 controls) aged 12-16 years performed neuropsychological tests and completed a behavior rating scale of EF. The ADHD group presented significantly lower scores than controls on Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) and all indexes of the WISC-IV, except the verbal comprehension index (VCI). The ADHD group had significantly lower scores on performance-based tests of working memory, planning and inhibition, and on EF rating scales. Scores on the cognitive EF working memory, planning and flexibility modestly predicted performance on behavioral EF. The results suggest that the combined use of performance-based tests and rating scales provides valuable complementary information that can improve the assessment of executive domains in ADHD.

  5. Ranking of small scale proposals for water system repair using the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakib-Manesh, T.E.; Hirvonen, K.O.; Jalava, K.J.; Ålander, T.; Kuitunen, M.T., E-mail: markku.kuitunen@jyu.fi

    2014-11-15

    Environmental impacts of small scale projects are often assessed poorly, or not assessed at all. This paper examines the usability of the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) as a tool to prioritize project proposals for small scale water restoration projects in relation to proposals' potential to improve the environment. The RIAM scoring system was used to assess and rank the proposals based on their environmental impacts, the costs of the projects to repair the harmful impacts, and the size of human population living around the sites. A four-member assessment group (The expert panel) gave the RIAM-scores to the proposals. The assumed impacts of the studied projects at the Eastern Finland water systems were divided into the ecological and social impacts. The more detailed assessment categories of the ecological impacts in this study were impacts on landscape, natural state, and limnology. The social impact categories were impacts to recreational use of the area, fishing, industry, population, and economy. These impacts were scored according to their geographical and social significance, their magnitude of change, their character, permanence, reversibility, and cumulativeness. The RIAM method proved to be an appropriate and recommendable method for the small-scale assessment and prioritizing of project proposals. If the assessments are well documented, the RIAM can be a method for easy assessing and comparison of the various kinds of projects. In the studied project proposals there were no big surprises in the results: the best ranks were received by the projects, which were assumed to return watersheds toward their original state.

  6. Is small beautiful? A multicriteria assessment of small-scale energy technology applications in local governments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, Jonathan [University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom). Institute for Transport Studies; Hubacek, Klaus [University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom). School of Earth and Environment, Sustainability Research Institute

    2007-12-15

    In its 2003 White Paper the UK government set ambitious renewable energy targets. Local governments and households have an increasing role in the overall energy system as consumers, suppliers of smaller-scale applications and citizens discussing energy projects. In this paper, we consider if small-scale or large-scale approaches to renewable energy provision can achieve energy targets in the most socially, economically and environmentally (SEE) effective way. We take a local case study of renewable energy provision in the Metropolitan Borough of Kirklees in Yorkshire, UK, and apply a multi-criteria decision analysis methodology to compare the small-scale schemes implemented in Kirklees with large-scale alternatives. The results indicate that small-scale schemes are the most SEE effective, despite large-scale schemes being more financially viable. The selection of the criteria on which the alternatives are assessed and the assigned weights for each criterion are of crucial importance. It is thus very important to include the relevant stakeholders to elicit this information. (author)

  7. Response shift in severity assessment of hand eczema with visual analogue scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Annette; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2015-01-01

    1.94, p = 0.017). No other determinants were found. CONCLUSION: Patients may downwardly adjust their assessment of worst-ever disease severity according to the assessment of present disease severity. Regular photographic documentation of the hand eczema along with the patient's self-monitoring......BACKGROUND: Hand eczema is a common and fluctuating disease. Visual analogue scales (VASs) are used to assess disease severity, both currently and when at its worst. However, such patient-reported outcomes may be at risk of being flawed owing to recall bias or response shifts. OBJECTIVE: To explore...

  8. Development of the Hand Assessment for Infants: evidence of internal scale validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena; Ek, Linda; Sicola, Elisa; Sjöstrand, Lena; Guzzetta, Andrea; Sgandurra, Giuseppina; Cioni, Giovanni; Eliasson, Ann-Christin

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a descriptive and evaluative assessment of upper limb function for infants aged 3 to 12 months and to investigate its internal scale validity for use with infants at risk of unilateral cerebral palsy. The concepts of the test items and scoring criteria were developed. Internal scale validity and aspects of reliability were investigated on the basis of 156 assessments of infants at 3 to 12 months corrected age (mean 7.2mo, SD 2.5) with signs of asymmetric hand use. Rasch measurement model analysis and non-parametric statistics were used. The new test, the Hand Assessment for Infants (HAI), consists of 12 unimanual and five bimanual items, each scored on a 3-point rating scale. It demonstrated a unidimensional construct and good fit to the Rasch model requirements. The excellent person reliability enabled person separation to six significant ability strata. The HAI produced an interval-level measure of bilateral hand use as well as unimanual scores of each hand, allowing a quantification of possible asymmetry expressed as an asymmetry index. The HAI can be considered a valid assessment tool for measuring bilateral hand use and quantifying side difference between hands among infants at risk of developing unilateral cerebral palsy. The Hand Assessment for Infants (HAI) measures the use of both hands and quantifies a possible asymmetry of hand use. HAI is valid for infants at 3 to 12 months corrected age at risk of unilateral cerebral palsy. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  9. A comparison of two scales for assessing health professional students’ attitude toward interprofessional learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Désirée Annabel Lie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rationale : The validated 19-item Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS is often used for assessing attitudes toward interprofessional education (IPE. The 12-item Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale (IEPS, also used for this purpose, has not been validated among the professions of medicine, pharmacy, and physician assistants (PAs. The discriminatory ability of the two scales has not been directly compared. Comparison of the two will aid educators in selecting the optimal scale. Objective : To compare psychometric properties of the RIPLS and IEPS and to examine the ability of each scale to discriminate mean scores among student subgroups (gender, profession, seniority, and prior IPE exposure. Method : We conducted a cross-sectional (Qualtrics© survey (RIPLS and IEPS of junior and senior students in medicine (n=360, pharmacy (n=360, and the PA profession (n=106. Descriptive statistics were used to report aggregate mean scores of subgroups. The internal consistency of each scale was assessed using Cronbach's α. Concurrent validity was measured by Pearson's correlation coefficients. Independent-sample t-tests and analysis of variances (ANOVAs were performed to assess the discriminatory ability of each scale. Cohen's d effect sizes were calculated for all significant pair-wise comparisons. Results : Response rate was 82%. Cronbach's α was 0.85 (RIPLS and 0.91 (IEPS. The RIPLS discriminated scores by gender among junior students only, and scores by IPE exposure among all students. The IEPS distinguished score differences for the three professions among junior students and by prior IPE exposure for all three professions. Neither scale detected differences in mean scores by profession among all students or by level of training among the three professions. Conclusions : Neither the RIPLS nor the IEPS has greater discriminatory ability for detecting attitude differences among the student subgroups. Reason for differences may be

  10. A comparison of two scales for assessing health professional students' attitude toward interprofessional learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Désirée Annabel; Fung, Cha Chi; Trial, Janet; Lohenry, Kevin

    2013-12-02

    The validated 19-item Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS) is often used for assessing attitudes toward interprofessional education (IPE). The 12-item Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale (IEPS), also used for this purpose, has not been validated among the professions of medicine, pharmacy, and physician assistants (PAs). The discriminatory ability of the two scales has not been directly compared. Comparison of the two will aid educators in selecting the optimal scale. To compare psychometric properties of the RIPLS and IEPS and to examine the ability of each scale to discriminate mean scores among student subgroups (gender, profession, seniority, and prior IPE exposure). We conducted a cross-sectional (Qualtrics(©)) survey (RIPLS and IEPS) of junior and senior students in medicine (n=360), pharmacy (n=360), and the PA profession (n=106). Descriptive statistics were used to report aggregate mean scores of subgroups. The internal consistency of each scale was assessed using Cronbach's α. Concurrent validity was measured by Pearson's correlation coefficients. Independent-sample t-tests and analysis of variances (ANOVAs) were performed to assess the discriminatory ability of each scale. Cohen's d effect sizes were calculated for all significant pair-wise comparisons. Response rate was 82%. Cronbach's α was 0.85 (RIPLS) and 0.91 (IEPS). The RIPLS discriminated scores by gender among junior students only, and scores by IPE exposure among all students. The IEPS distinguished score differences for the three professions among junior students and by prior IPE exposure for all three professions. Neither scale detected differences in mean scores by profession among all students or by level of training among the three professions. Neither the RIPLS nor the IEPS has greater discriminatory ability for detecting attitude differences among the student subgroups. Reason for differences may be explained by slightly different scale constructs. The RIPLS

  11. Scale for Assessment of Giftedness - teacher's version: evidence of validity content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana de Cassia Nakano

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of high abilities is of great importance in psychology, despite scarce studies in literature. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify, through content validity, the appropriateness of the items of the High Assessment Scale Skills - Teacher Version. The judges were six post-graduate students in the psychological assessment area who rated the 41 items of the instrument in six factors (academic intellectual ability, specific academic skills, leadership, creativity, artistic talent. The results demonstrated the suitability of the items, most of them with concordance rates above 80% (n = 29 and between 60 and 80% (n = 8. Only four items showed agreement at or below 50%, suggesting the need for reformulation. The analysis of the Kappa coefficients showed indices between 0.69 and 0.81. In general, the results indicated the suitability of the scale to the contents of the pretended model.

  12. Concordance of Pharmacist Assessment of Medication Nonadherence With a Self-Report Medication Adherence Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael S; Moczygemba, Leticia R; Gatewood, Sharon S

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the concordance of the Modified Morisky Scale (MMS) with a pharmacist assessment of medication adherence during a medication review. This retrospective study examined the electronic medical records (EMRs) of patients ≥18 years who received a medication review by a pharmacist from October 2008 to September 2009 at a homeless behavioral health clinic. In addition to the 6-item MMS, adherence was assessed using the first 4 items of the MMS, which comprise the original Morisky Scale. A final pharmacist assessment of adherence based upon the medication review was documented in the EMR. The McNemar test was used to assess the agreement between the MMS (6 and 4 items) and the pharmacist assessment of medication adherence. A total of 288 patients were eligible for the study, which included 449 medication reviews. Nonadherence was identified in 61.7% and 49.7% of medication reviews using the 6 and 4 items of the MMS. The pharmacist assessment determined nonadherence in 23.8% of medication reviews. There were significant differences between the pharmacist adherence assessment and the 6 (P adherence. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Validity of self-assessment of hallux valgus using the Manchester scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wee Elin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hallux valgus (HV is a common condition involving the progressive subluxation of the first metatarsophalangeal joint due to lateral deviation of the hallux and medial deviation of the first metatarsal. The objective of this study was to evaluate the re-test reliability and validity of self-assessment of HV using a simple clinical screening tool involving four standardised photographs (the Manchester scale, in order to determine whether this tool could be used for postal surveys of the condition. Methods HV was assessed with the Manchester scale in 138 people aged 65 to 93 years of age (102 women and 36 men as part of a larger randomised controlled trial. At the six month follow-up assessment, HV was reassessed to determine re-test reliability, and participants were asked to self-assess their degree of HV independent of the examiners. Associations between (i baseline and follow-up assessments of the examiners and (ii participant and examiner assessments were performed using weighted kappa statistics. Analyses were then repeated after HV was dichotomised as present or absent using unweighted kappa, and sensitivity and specificity of self-assessment of HV was determined. Results Re-test reliability of the examiners was substantial to almost perfect (weighted kappa = 0.78 to 0.90, and there was a substantial level of agreement between observations of the participants and the examiners (weighted kappa = 0.71 to 0.80. Overall, there was a slight tendency for participants to rate their HV as less severe than the examiners. When the Manchester scale scores were dichotomised, agreement was substantial to almost perfect for both re-test comparisons (kappa = 0.80 to 0.89 and substantial for comparisons between participants and examiners (kappa = 0.64 to 0.76. The sensitivity and specificity of self-assessment of HV using the dichotomous scale were 85 and 88%, respectively. Conclusions The Manchester scale demonstrates high re

  14. Universal happiness? Cross-cultural measurement invariance of scales assessing positive mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieda, Angela; Hirschfeld, Gerrit; Schönfeld, Pia; Brailovskaia, Julia; Zhang, Xiao Chi; Margraf, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    Research into positive aspects of the psyche is growing as psychologists learn more about the protective role of positive processes in the development and course of mental disorders, and about their substantial role in promoting mental health. With increasing globalization, there is strong interest in studies examining positive constructs across cultures. To obtain valid cross-cultural comparisons, measurement invariance for the scales assessing positive constructs has to be established. The current study aims to assess the cross-cultural measurement invariance of questionnaires for 6 positive constructs: Social Support (Fydrich, Sommer, Tydecks, & Brähler, 2009), Happiness (Subjective Happiness Scale; Lyubomirsky & Lepper, 1999), Life Satisfaction (Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985), Positive Mental Health Scale (Lukat, Margraf, Lutz, van der Veld, & Becker, 2016), Optimism (revised Life Orientation Test [LOT-R]; Scheier, Carver, & Bridges, 1994) and Resilience (Schumacher, Leppert, Gunzelmann, Strauss, & Brähler, 2004). Participants included German (n = 4,453), Russian (n = 3,806), and Chinese (n = 12,524) university students. Confirmatory factor analyses and measurement invariance testing demonstrated at least partial strong measurement invariance for all scales except the LOT-R and Subjective Happiness Scale. The latent mean comparisons of the constructs indicated differences between national groups. Potential methodological and cultural explanations for the intergroup differences are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Measuring Numeracy in a Community College Context: Assessing the Reliability of the Subjective Numeracy Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate S. Wolfe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, our goals were to assess the suitability of the Subjective Numeracy Scale (SNS, developed for health-care use, in a new context with predominantly minority students at a South Bronx community college and to identify any race/ ethnicity, gender, and ESL enrollment effects. The scale assesses perceptions of quantitative reasoning skills and preferences for data presentation. This scale was given to a convenience sample of students in behavioral sciences classes. Results show that the SNS scale was reliable with our sample using the full thirteen-question scale or the shorter eight-item version. Gender, race/ ethnicity, and English as a Second Language (ESL are related to perceptions of QR/QL. This study may help researchers see the SNS as a reliable instrument across samples and as a way to measure numeracy. The results of the multivariate analyses raise questions for future research about cultural differences for numerical presentation among these ethnic groups and our international student population.

  16. Improving modified tardieu scale assessment using inertial measurement unit with visual biofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoyoung Choi; Jonghyun Kim

    2016-08-01

    Reliable spasticity assessment is important to provide appropriate intervention for spasticity. Modified Tardieu scale (MTS) assessment is simple and convenient enough to be used in clinical environment, but has poor or moderate reliability due to irregular passive stretch velocity and goniometric measurement. We proposed a novel inertial measurement unit (IMU)-based MTS assessment with gyroscope-based visual biofeedback to improve the reliability of MTS by providing regular passive stretch velocity. With five children with cerebral palsy and two raters, the IMU-based MTS assessment was compared with conventional MTS assessment. The results showed that the proposed one has good test-retest and inter-rater reliabilities (ICC > .08) while the conventional MTS has poor or moderate reliability. Moreover, it was shown that the proposed visual biofeedback is effective enough to provide regular passive stretch velocity.

  17. The Cultural Socialization Scale: Assessing family and peer socialization toward heritage and mainstream cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yijie; Benner, Aprile D; Kim, Su Yeong

    2015-12-01

    In a culturally diverse society, youth learn about multiple cultures from a variety of sources, yet the existing assessment of cultural socialization has been limited to parents' efforts to teach youth about their heritage culture. The current study adapted and extended an existing cultural socialization measure (Umaña-Taylor & Fine, 2004) to assess 4 types of socialization practices encountered specifically during adolescence: cultural socialization by families and peers toward both one's heritage culture and the mainstream culture. In a pilot study, we developed the Cultural Socialization Scale based on retrospective reports from 208 young adults, maximizing young adults' ability to reason and reflect their adolescent experiences with various socialization practices. In the primary study, we examined the psychometric properties of the scale using reports from 252 adolescents. Cultural socialization occurred from both socialization agents toward both cultures. Our Cultural Socialization Scale demonstrated stable factor structures and high reliabilities. We observed strong factorial invariance across the 4 subscales (6 items). Multiple indicators multiple causes models also demonstrated invariance for each subscale across adolescents' demographic characteristics (i.e., gender, race/ethnicity, nativity, socioeconomic status, language of assessment). The implications of the Cultural Socialization Scale are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Using Rasch measurement theory to assess three depression scales among adults with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Elizabeth Reisinger; Engelhard, George; Thompson, Nancy J

    2012-07-01

    People with chronic conditions, such as epilepsy, are at a high risk for depression; however depression is often under-recognized and undertreated. Depression scales, including one specific to people with epilepsy, have been used for screening in this population, although none have been assessed with Rasch measurement theory. This study used Rasch analyses in order to evaluate and compare the psychometric properties of the modified Beck Depression Inventory, the Patient Health Questionnaire, and the Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy in a sample of people with epilepsy and depression who participated in an intervention designed to reduce depressive symptoms. A secondary purpose was to assess item functioning across time. The sample includes 44 participants in the Project UPLIFT program who completed the assessments before and after taking part in the intervention. Results of the Rasch analysis indicate that the three depression scales functioned as intended. There was good overall targeting between the items and the sample, acceptable model-data fit, and good reliability of separation for persons, items, and time. The participants experienced a significant decrease in depressive symptoms from pretest to posttest. This study illustrates the value of using model-based measurement with the Rasch model to combine items across the three depression scales. It also demonstrates an approach for analyzing and evaluating the results of small scale intervention programs, such as the UPLIFT program. Copyright © 2012 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Psychometric properties of the Family Resilience Assessment Scale: A Singaporean perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Judith; Haase, Anne M

    2016-08-01

    Families of young people with chronic illnesses are more likely to experience higher levels of stress. In turn, their ability to cope with multiple demands is likely to affect young people's adaptation. The purpose of this study was to examine psychometric properties of the Family Resilience Assessment Scale (FRAS), an assessment tool that measures the construct of family resilience. A total of 152 young people with epilepsy, aged 13 to 16years old, from KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Singapore, completed the FRAS along with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Factor structure of the FRAS was examined. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in a 7-factor solution - meaning-making and positive outlook, transcendence and spirituality, flexibility and connectedness, social and economic resources (community), social and economic resources (neighbors), clarity and open emotional expression, and collaborative problem-solving - accounting for 83.0% of the variance. Internal consistency of the scale was high (α=0.92). Family resilience was significantly correlated with higher levels of self-esteem. Our study provides preliminary findings that suggest that FRAS is a reliable and valid scale for assessing the construct of family resilience among young people with epilepsy in Singapore. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A step toward regionalized scale-consistent agricultural life cycle assessment inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Tiago G; Teixeira, Ricardo Fm; Domingos, Tiago

    2017-09-01

    Life cycle inventory (LCI) regionalization (i.e., the determination of input and output flows from production processes at a subcountry scale) is a priority in life cycle assessment (LCA) studies, particularly in the agri-food sector. Many regionalized LCAs fail to ensure that microlevel inventories are consistent with country-level aggregated data-or "scale consistent." They also fail to construct LCIs using international reference guidelines and trustworthy standardized data sources. This failure generates inaccuracies and biases in inventories and can compromise comparability among international LCA studies. Our study introduces scale consistency as a principle for regionalized agri-food LCIs. We present a generic procedure that defines how scale-dependent LCI flows should be regionalized, depending on data availability. We then present a list of inventory flows that require regionalization and their suggested calculation procedures (methods and models) from 2 methodological guides developed by projects Agribalyse and World Food LCA Database. As proof of concept, we apply the procedure to Portugal and assess whether the methods and models proposed for each type of inventory flow in both guides can potentially be applied consistently with the data available. For 17 inventory flows, we apply calculated scale-consistent inventory flows for Portuguese agriculture, covering 260 products that can be used in future LCA studies. Comparing results with international databases, we show that this procedure can improve country-level estimates significantly. Our study is the first step in introducing scale consistency as a guiding principle for regionalized LCIs for agri-food LCA studies. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:939-951. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  1. Visual analogue scale for assessing breast nodularity in non-discrete lumpy breasts: the Lucknow-Cardiff breast nodularity scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Rai, Ruchi; Das, Vinita; Kumar, Surender; Dwivedi, Varsha; Agrawal, G G

    2010-06-01

    Objective measurement of benign non-discrete lumpy breasts is not performed routinely that would lead to disease measurement, inter-physician communication, therapeutic response assessment and a normative function of reducing unnecessary biopsies. A schematic 5-point ordinal visual analogue scale was developed. Two blinded experienced clinicians graded breast nodularity on a pre-determined five point analogue scale (grades 0-4) to determine its inter-observer reliability after its face validity that excluded inflammatory, nipple, areola and discrete lump problems. 784 Women (hospital 384; community 400) aged between 20 and 70 years (mean 31.9) underwent physical breast examination by 2 experienced clinicians. Inter-observer matched nodularity grading in women attending hospital were Grade 0 in 123 (32.03%), grade 1 in 67 (17.44%), grade 2 in 54 (14.06%), grade 3 in 52 (13.54%) and grade 4 in 23 (5.99%) and in community it was grade 0 in 172 (43%), grade 1 in 88 (22%), grade 2 in 60 (15%), grade 3 in 28 (7%) and grade 4 in 14 (3.5%) women. There was very good agreement (kappa = 0.7798) across all grades in hospital subjects and excellent agreement (kappa = 0.8659) in community subjects. Both estimates of kappa coefficients were highly significant from population kappa coefficient of zero (p validity. This tool should be useful for clinical drug trials in benign breast disorders and for wide routine clinical recording of patients. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Short scales to assess cannabis-related problems: a review of psychometric properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klempova Danica

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims The purpose of this paper is to summarize the psychometric properties of four short screening scales to assess problematic forms of cannabis use: Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS, Cannabis Use Disorders Identification Test (CUDIT, Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST and Problematic Use of Marijuana (PUM. Methods A systematic computer-based literature search was conducted within the databases of PubMed, PsychINFO and Addiction Abstracts. A total of 12 publications reporting measures of reliability or validity were identified: 8 concerning SDS, 2 concerning CUDIT and one concerning CAST and PUM. Studies spanned adult and adolescent samples from general and specific user populations in a number of countries worldwide. Results All screening scales tended to have moderate to high internal consistency (Cronbach's α ranging from .72 to .92. Test-retest reliability and item total correlation have been reported for SDS with acceptable results. Results of validation studies varied depending on study population and standards used for validity assessment, but generally sensitivity, specificity and predictive power are satisfactory. Standard diagnostic cut-off points that can be generalized to different populations do not exist for any scale. Conclusion Short screening scales to assess dependence and other problems related to the use of cannabis seem to be a time and cost saving opportunity to estimate overall prevalences of cannabis-related negative consequences and to identify at-risk persons prior to using more extensive diagnostic instruments. Nevertheless, further research is needed to assess the performance of the tests in different populations and in comparison to broader criteria of cannabis-related problems other than dependence.

  3. Trinity amputation and prosthesis experience scales: a psychometric assessment using classical test theory and rasch analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Pamela; Franchignoni, F; Giordano, A; MacLachlan, M

    2010-06-01

    To perform a detailed psychometric analysis using both classical test theory and Rasch analysis of the three main scales of the Trinity Amputation and Prosthesis Experience Scales (TAPES) in people with a lower-limb amputation. A sample of 498 persons who were prosthesis users with a lower-limb amputation was retrospectively studied, pooled from a number of studies undertaken across the United Kingdom and Ireland in the past decade in which the TAPES had been completed as part of a postal survey. Both factor analysis techniques and Rasch analysis were performed on TAPES data. Dimensionality, item fit to the model, response category performance, and internal construct validity were assessed. Category collapsing and item removal were considered to improve the questionnaire. The analyses suggested to restructure the TAPES as follows: (a) three psychosocial adjustment subscales with a four-point rating scale (and a reworded item); (b) an activity restriction scale based on ten items with their original three-point rating scale; and (c) two satisfaction with the prosthesis subscales using a three-point rating scale. All scales and subscales showed acceptable internal consistency and ability to define a distinct hierarchy of persons along the measured construct. This study empirically identified a revised version of the TAPES (TAPES-R) with a simplified general structure and psychometrically suitable for assessing the complex experience of amputation and adjustment to a lower-limb prosthesis. Additional studies are needed to confirm and further explore its measurement properties in other samples, thereby adding clinical validity to the instrument.

  4. The Cultural Validation of Two Scales to Assess Social Stigma in Leprosy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ruth M. H.; Dadun; Van Brakel, Wim H.; Zweekhorst, Marjolein B. M.; Damayanti, Rita; Bunders, Joske F. G.; Irwanto

    2014-01-01

    Background Stigma plays in an important role in the lives of persons affected by neglected tropical diseases, and assessment of stigma is important to document this. The aim of this study is to test the cross-cultural validity of the Community Stigma Scale (EMIC-CSS) and the Social Distance Scale (SDS) in the field of leprosy in Cirebon District, Indonesia. Methodology/principle findings Cultural equivalence was tested by assessing the conceptual, item, semantic, operational and measurement equivalence of these instruments. A qualitative exploratory study was conducted to increase our understanding of the concept of stigma in Cirebon District. A process of translation, discussions, trainings and a pilot study followed. A sample of 259 community members was selected through convenience sampling and 67 repeated measures were obtained to assess the psychometric measurement properties. The aspects and items in the SDS and EMIC-CSS seem equally relevant and important in the target culture. The response scales were adapted to ensure that meaning is transferred accurately and no changes to the scale format (e.g. lay out, statements or questions) of both scales were made. A positive correlation was found between the EMIC-CSS and the SDS total scores (r = 0.41). Cronbach's alphas of 0.83 and 0.87 were found for the EMIC-CSS and SDS. The exploratory factor analysis indicated for both scales an adequate fit as unidimensional scale. A standard error of measurement of 2.38 was found in the EMIC-CSS and of 1.78 in the SDS. The test-retest reliability coefficient was respectively, 0.84 and 0.75. No floor or ceiling effects were found. Conclusions/significance According to current international standards, our findings indicate that the EMIC-CSS and the SDS have adequate cultural validity to assess social stigma in leprosy in the Bahasa Indonesia-speaking population of Cirebon District. We believe the scales can be further improved, for instance, by adding, changing and

  5. The cultural validation of two scales to assess social stigma in leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ruth M H; Dadun; Van Brakel, Wim H; Zweekhorst, Marjolein B M; Damayanti, Rita; Bunders, Joske F G; Irwanto

    2014-01-01

    Stigma plays in an important role in the lives of persons affected by neglected tropical diseases, and assessment of stigma is important to document this. The aim of this study is to test the cross-cultural validity of the Community Stigma Scale (EMIC-CSS) and the Social Distance Scale (SDS) in the field of leprosy in Cirebon District, Indonesia. Cultural equivalence was tested by assessing the conceptual, item, semantic, operational and measurement equivalence of these instruments. A qualitative exploratory study was conducted to increase our understanding of the concept of stigma in Cirebon District. A process of translation, discussions, trainings and a pilot study followed. A sample of 259 community members was selected through convenience sampling and 67 repeated measures were obtained to assess the psychometric measurement properties. The aspects and items in the SDS and EMIC-CSS seem equally relevant and important in the target culture. The response scales were adapted to ensure that meaning is transferred accurately and no changes to the scale format (e.g. lay out, statements or questions) of both scales were made. A positive correlation was found between the EMIC-CSS and the SDS total scores (r=0.41). Cronbach's alphas of 0.83 and 0.87 were found for the EMIC-CSS and SDS. The exploratory factor analysis indicated for both scales an adequate fit as unidimensional scale. A standard error of measurement of 2.38 was found in the EMIC-CSS and of 1.78 in the SDS. The test-retest reliability coefficient was respectively, 0.84 and 0.75. No floor or ceiling effects were found. According to current international standards, our findings indicate that the EMIC-CSS and the SDS have adequate cultural validity to assess social stigma in leprosy in the Bahasa Indonesia-speaking population of Cirebon District. We believe the scales can be further improved, for instance, by adding, changing and rephrasing certain items. Finally, we provide suggestions for use with other

  6. A test of the factor structure of the patient spiritual needs assessment scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannelly, Kevin J; Galek, Kathleen; Flannelly, Laura T

    2006-01-01

    Factor analysis was conducted on the responses of 683 individuals who completed a 24-item version of the Patient Spiritual Needs Assessment Scale. The results provided strong support for 4 of the 6 dimensions of spiritual needs and weaker support for one of the others. The 6 dimensions were appreciation of art and beauty, meaning and purpose, love and belonging, death/resolution, positivity/gratitude/hope/peace, and the Divine. The coherence of the dimensions is discussed in the context of the scale's intended application.

  7. Marburg biosafety and biosecurity scale (MBBS): a framework for risk assessment and risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickmann, Petra; Apfel, Franklin; Biedenkopf, Nadine; Eickmann, Markus; Becker, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Current risk assessment and risk communication of biosafety and biosecurity concerns lack a convenient metric and conceptual framework. The absence of such a systematic tool makes communication more difficult and can lead to ambiguous public perception of and response to laboratory biosafety incidents and biosecurity threats. A new 7-category scoring scale is proposed for incidents and situations in laboratories related to the handling of human and animal pathogens. The scale aims to help clarify risk categories, facilitate coordination and communication, and improve public understanding of risk related to biosafety and biosecurity.

  8. A clinical rating scale for the assessment of facial aging in Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Sumit; Choudhury, Supriyo; Gangopadhyay, Anusree; Halder, Chinmay; Biswas, Projna; Jain, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Estimation of facial aging has assumed growing importance due to the advent of several antiaging therapies. Evidence-based estimation of global facial aging is often necessary, especially for validation of these treatment modalities. Most available methods are expensive and have been used in fair skinned individuals. We attempted to develop a clinical rating scale for the estimation of global facial aging applied on an Indian population which has brown to black skin. We have also measured the association of this rating scale score with the chronological age. Initially, a 14- item summated rating scale was developed with inputs from five dermatologists and a clinical pharmacologist. The rating scale was applied to 105 consenting subjects with healthy facial skin between 30 to 90 years of age. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was assessed. The summated rating score showed a significant positive correlation with the chronological age (Pearson's correlation coefficient 0.834, P age were identified on further computation. Participants of this study were limited to a particular ethnic group from West Bengal and other neighboring states of Eastern India. We have developed and validated a 13-item rating scale for the quantification of global facial aging suitable for Indian (brown to black) skin type. This scale can be utilized effectively for clinical estimation of global facial aging.

  9. The labour scale--assessment of the validity of a novel labour chart: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shazly, Sherif A M; Embaby, Lamiaa H O; Ali, Shymaa S

    2014-08-01

    Labour dystocia is the most common indication for caesarean section (CS). This study assessed the validity of the labour scale (WHO partograph modification) as an intrapartum management tool to minimise over-diagnosis of labour dystocia. The study included 77 women in the early active phase of labour using the scale. This scale covers the same titles as the partograph with the cervico-graph modified using National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) recommendations that adjust interference according to clinical circumstances. Labour progress was plotted on the labour scale then on the partograph to compare outcomes. Maternal and fetal outcomes were compared with international and local reports. Only 21 (27.3%) women crossed the 'membrane line', which promotes amniotomy, and 35 women (45.5%) crossed the 'augmentation line' and received oxytocin. Four women were delivered by CS for failure to progress. When the same data were re-plotted on the partograph, twenty-eight women were diagnosed with failure to progress. The outcome difference between the 'labour scale' and the partograph was significant (P < 0.0001). Maternal and neonatal outcomes were excellent. We suggest that the 'labour scale' is a promising tool for labour management that minimises labour dystocia without additional maternal or fetal risk. © 2014 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  10. Life-Space Assessment scale to assess mobility: validation in Latin American older women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, Carmen-Lucia; Alvarado, Beatriz E; Gomez, Fernando; Guerra, Ricardo; Guralnik, Jack; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria

    2013-10-01

    The Life-Space Assessment (LSA) instrument of the University of Alabama and Birmingham study is a useful and innovative measure of mobility in older populations. The purpose of this article was to assess the reliability, construct and convergent validity of the LSA in Latin American older populations. In a cross-sectional study, a total of 150 women and 150 men, aged 65-74 years, were recruited from seniors' community centers in Manizales, Colombia and Natal, Brazil. The LSA questionnaire summarizes where people travel (5 levels from room to places outside of town), how often and any assistance needed. Four LSA variables were obtained according to the maximum life space achieved and the level of independence. As correlates of LSA, education, perception of income sufficiency, depression, cognitive function, and functional measures (objective and subjectively measured) were explored. The possible modifying effect of the city on correlates of LSA was examined. Reliability for the composite LSA score was substantial (ICC = 0.70; 95 % CI 0.49-0.83) in Manizales. Average levels of LSA scores were higher in those with better functional performance and those who reported less mobility difficulties. Low levels of education, insufficient income, depressive symptoms, and low scores of cognitive function were all significantly related to lower LSA scores. Women in both cities were more likely to be restricted to their neighborhood and had lower LSA scores. This study provides evidence for the validity of LSA in two Latin American populations. Our results suggest that LSA is a good measure of mobility that reflects the interplay of physical functioning with gender and the social and physical environment.

  11. Catchment-scale vulnerability assessment of groundwater pollution from diffuse sources using the DRASTIC method: a case study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Y. S; Wang, L

    2010-01-01

    The catchment-scale groundwater vulnerability assessment that delineates zones representing different levels of groundwater susceptibility to contaminants from diffuse agricultural sources has become...

  12. Development of a Social Skills Assessment Screening Scale for Psychiatric Rehabilitation Settings: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhola, Poornima; Basavarajappa, Chethan; Guruprasad, Deepti; Hegde, Gayatri; Khanam, Fatema; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Chaturvedi, Santosh K

    2016-01-01

    Deficits in social skills may present in a range of psychiatric disorders, particularly in the more serious and persistent conditions, and have an influence on functioning across various domains. This pilot study aimed at developing a brief measure, for structured evaluation and screening for social skills deficits, which can be easily integrated into routine clinical practice. The sample consisted of 380 inpatients and their accompanying caregivers, referred to Psychiatric Rehabilitation Services at a tertiary care government psychiatric hospital. The evaluation included an Inpatient intake Proforma and the 20-item Social Skills Assessment Screening Scale (SSASS). Disability was assessed using the Indian Disability Evaluation and Assessment Scale (IDEAS) for a subset of 94 inpatients. The analysis included means and standard deviations, frequency and percentages, Cronbach's alpha to assess internal consistency, t -tests to assess differences in social skills deficits between select subgroups, and correlation between SSASS and IDEAS scores. The results indicated the profile of social skills deficits assessed among the inpatients with varied psychiatric diagnoses. The "psychosis" group exhibited significantly higher deficits than the "mood disorder" group. Results indicated high internal consistency of the SSASS and adequate criterion validity demonstrated by correlations with select IDEAS domains. Modifications were made to the SSASS following the pilot study. The SSASS has potential value as a measure for screening and individualised intervention plans for social skills training in mental health and rehabilitation settings. The implications for future work on the psychometric properties and clinical applications are discussed.

  13. Validation of a global scale to assess the quality of interprofessional teamwork in mental health settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomizawa, Ryoko; Yamano, Mayumi; Osako, Mitue; Hirabayashi, Naotugu; Oshima, Nobuo; Sigeta, Masahiro; Reeves, Scott

    2017-12-01

    Few scales currently exist to assess the quality of interprofessional teamwork through team members' perceptions of working together in mental health settings. The purpose of this study was to revise and validate an interprofessional scale to assess the quality of teamwork in inpatient psychiatric units and to use it multi-nationally. A literature review was undertaken to identify evaluative teamwork tools and develop an additional 12 items to ensure a broad global focus. Focus group discussions considered adaptation to different care systems using subjective judgements from 11 participants in a pre-test of items. Data quality, construct validity, reproducibility, and internal consistency were investigated in the survey using an international comparative design. Exploratory factor analysis yielded five factors with 21 items: 'patient/community centred care', 'collaborative communication', 'interprofessional conflict', 'role clarification', and 'environment'. High overall internal consistency, reproducibility, adequate face validity, and reasonable construct validity were shown in the USA and Japan. The revised Collaborative Practice Assessment Tool (CPAT) is a valid measure to assess the quality of interprofessional teamwork in psychiatry and identifies the best strategies to improve team performance. Furthermore, the revised scale will generate more rigorous evidence for collaborative practice in psychiatry internationally.

  14. Mobile app rating scale: a new tool for assessing the quality of health mobile apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanov, Stoyan R; Hides, Leanne; Kavanagh, David J; Zelenko, Oksana; Tjondronegoro, Dian; Mani, Madhavan

    2015-03-11

    The use of mobile apps for health and well being promotion has grown exponentially in recent years. Yet, there is currently no app-quality assessment tool beyond "star"-ratings. The objective of this study was to develop a reliable, multidimensional measure for trialling, classifying, and rating the quality of mobile health apps. A literature search was conducted to identify articles containing explicit Web or app quality rating criteria published between January 2000 and January 2013. Existing criteria for the assessment of app quality were categorized by an expert panel to develop the new Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS) subscales, items, descriptors, and anchors. There were sixty well being apps that were randomly selected using an iTunes search for MARS rating. There were ten that were used to pilot the rating procedure, and the remaining 50 provided data on interrater reliability. There were 372 explicit criteria for assessing Web or app quality that were extracted from 25 published papers, conference proceedings, and Internet resources. There were five broad categories of criteria that were identified including four objective quality scales: engagement, functionality, aesthetics, and information quality; and one subjective quality scale; which were refined into the 23-item MARS. The MARS demonstrated excellent internal consistency (alpha = .90) and interrater reliability intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC = .79). The MARS is a simple, objective, and reliable tool for classifying and assessing the quality of mobile health apps. It can also be used to provide a checklist for the design and development of new high quality health apps.

  15. Cognitive assessments in multicultural populations using the Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Raza M; Haider, Sehrish; Tomlinson, George; Alibhai, Shabbir

    2015-03-17

    Canada has a growing multinational immigrant population. Many commonly used cognitive assessment tools have known cultural biases and are difficult to use in ethnically diverse patient populations. The Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale (RUDAS) is a cognitive assessment tool that was created for culturally and linguistically diverse populations. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the psychometric characteristics of the RUDAS and to compare it with other available tools. We identified studies that assessed the psychometric properties of the RUDAS compared with a reference standard for diagnosing dementia or compared the RUDAS to other cognitive assessment tools. Two independent reviewers screened the abstracts and full-text articles and reviewed bibliographies for further references. We extracted data using standardized forms and assessed studies for risk of bias. Our search resulted in 148 articles, from which 11 were included. The RUDAS was assessed in 1236 participants and was found to have a pooled sensitivity of 77.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 67.4-84.5) and a pooled specificity of 85.9% (95% CI 74.8-92.6) yielding a positive likelihood ratio of 5.5 (95% CI 2.9-10.7) and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.27 (95% CI 0.17-0.40). A pooled estimate of the correlation between the RUDAS and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was 0.77 (95% CI 0.72-0.81). Results of the RUDAS were less affected by language and education level than the MMSE. The RUDAS is a brief and freely available cognitive assessment tool with reasonable psychometric characteristics that may be particularly useful in patients with diverse backgrounds. © 2015 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  16. A clinical rating scale for the assessment of facial aging in Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Sen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Estimation of facial aging has assumed growing importance due to the advent of several antiaging therapies. Evidence-based estimation of global facial aging is often necessary, especially for validation of these treatment modalities. Most available methods are expensive and have been used in fair skinned individuals. Aim: We attempted to develop a clinical rating scale for the estimation of global facial aging applied on an Indian population which has brown to black skin. We have also measured the association of this rating scale score with the chronological age. Methods: Initially, a 14- item summated rating scale was developed with inputs from five dermatologists and a clinical pharmacologist. The rating scale was applied to 105 consenting subjects with healthy facial skin between 30 to 90 years of age. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was assessed. Results: The summated rating score showed a significant positive correlation with the chronological age (Pearson′s correlation coefficient 0.834, P < 0.001. We omitted one item from the scale due to a low inter-rater agreement. The resulting 13-item rating scale was internally consistent (Cronbach′s alpha: 0.905, with substantial inter- and intra-rater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.973 and 0.788, respectively. Principal components and predictive equation for perceptible age were identified on further computation. Limitations: Participants of this study were limited to a particular ethnic group from West Bengal and other neighboring states of Eastern India. Conclusions: We have developed and validated a 13-item rating scale for the quantification of global facial aging suitable for Indian (brown to black skin type. This scale can be utilized effectively for clinical estimation of global facial aging.

  17. [Validation of a scale to assess the labour quality of life in public hospitals from Tlaxcala].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Vicente, Irma Alejandra; Lumbreras-Guzmán, Marivel; Méndez-Hernández, Pablo; Rojas-Lima, Elodia; Cervantes-Rodríguez, Margarita; Juárez-Flores, Clara Arlina

    2017-01-01

    To validate a scale for assessing the labour quality of life in public hospitals (LQL-PH) from Tlaxcala, Mexico. The instrument was validated among 669 health workers from six hospitals from the Ministry of Health of Tlaxcala, Mexico. Content validity was by inquiry to experts, construct validity by factor analysis, criterion validity by comparing with other scales, and reliability with Cronbach's Alpha. The factor analysis uncovered four dimensions: "individual welfare", "conditions and labour environment", "organization", and "well-being accomplished by the work"; reliability was 0.921. Workers who perceibed better LQL-PH were: under 50 years old, with temporary contract, with less seniority in job, with work schedule at daytime of weekends, and those with academic degree. LQL-PH showed to be an instrument phsycometrically valid and reliable. It's recommendable to prove this scale in other public and private health institutions, as well as its relationship with key health care indicators of labour performance and management.

  18. Accuracy assessment of planimetric large-scale map data for decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doskocz Adam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents decision-making risk estimation based on planimetric large-scale map data, which are data sets or databases which are useful for creating planimetric maps on scales of 1:5,000 or larger. The studies were conducted on four data sets of large-scale map data. Errors of map data were used for a risk assessment of decision-making about the localization of objects, e.g. for land-use planning in realization of investments. An analysis was performed for a large statistical sample set of shift vectors of control points, which were identified with the position errors of these points (errors of map data.

  19. Line staff use of the behavioral observation system: assessment of depression scale validity and cut scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LePage, James P; Mogge, Neil L; Sellers, David G; DelBen, Kevin

    2003-01-01

    The Behavioral Observation System (BOS) is an objective behavioral tool used by non-degreed line staff to assess depression, mania, psychosis, and acting out in psychiatric inpatients. The current study uses the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-1A to provide evidence for convergent validity for the BOS Depression Scale and to determine effective cut-scores to assist in BOS interpretation. Findings support substantial correlational agreement between the BOS Depression Scale and the BDI. A discriminant function analysis established a "hit rate" of 82% using a Depression Scale score of 7 or greater to identify those with at least moderate levels of depression. The study data lend further credibility to the use of non-degreed line staff as a source of data that can aid in treatment decisions. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Development of three new scales for assessing clients' perspectives on premarital counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumm, W R; West, D R

    2001-06-01

    Within a subsample of 73 men and 179 women from a larger study of current and former members of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), three new scales were developed to assess the value attributed to premarital counseling, quality of premarital counseling received, and a pastor's competence at premarital counseling. Although internal consistency reliability as measured by Cronbach alpha was marginally acceptable (.61) for the latter three-item scale, it was adequate for the three-item value (.84) and the seven-item quality (.87) scales. Evidence for construct validity was limited with respect to demographic variables for social class, sex, and religiosity. Those who attended church more frequently and women reported lower quality of premarital counseling.

  1. Mitigating the Dangers of a Single Story: Creating Large-Scale Writing Assessments Aligned With Sociocultural Theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Behizadeh, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    The dangers of a single story in current U.S. large-scale writing assessment are that assessment practice does not align with theory and this practice has negative effects on instruction and students...

  2. Development and Validation of the Body Size Scale for Assessing Body Weight Perception in African Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Cohen

    Full Text Available The social valorisation of overweight in African populations could promote high-risk eating behaviours and therefore become a risk factor of obesity. However, existing scales to assess body image are usually not accurate enough to allow comparative studies of body weight perception in different African populations. This study aimed to develop and validate the Body Size Scale (BSS to estimate African body weight perception.Anthropometric measures of 80 Cameroonians and 81 Senegalese were used to evaluate three criteria of adiposity: body mass index (BMI, overall percentage of fat, and endomorphy (fat component of the somatotype. To develop the BSS, the participants were photographed in full face and profile positions. Models were selected for their representativeness of the wide variability in adiposity with a progressive increase along the scale. Then, for the validation protocol, participants self-administered the BSS to assess self-perceived current body size (CBS, desired body size (DBS and provide a "body self-satisfaction index." This protocol included construct validity, test-retest reliability and convergent validity and was carried out with three independent samples of respectively 201, 103 and 1115 Cameroonians.The BSS comprises two sex-specific scales of photos of 9 models each, and ordered by increasing adiposity. Most participants were able to correctly order the BSS by increasing adiposity, using three different words to define body size. Test-retest reliability was consistent in estimating CBS, DBS and the "body self-satisfaction index." The CBS was highly correlated to the objective BMI, and two different indexes assessed with the BSS were consistent with declarations obtained in interviews.The BSS is the first scale with photos of real African models taken in both full face and profile and representing a wide and representative variability in adiposity. The validation protocol proved its reliability for estimating body weight

  3. Development and Validation of the Body Size Scale for Assessing Body Weight Perception in African Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Emmanuel; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Ponty, Amandine; Ndao, Amadou; Amougou, Norbert; Saïd-Mohamed, Rihlat; Pasquet, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background The social valorisation of overweight in African populations could promote high-risk eating behaviours and therefore become a risk factor of obesity. However, existing scales to assess body image are usually not accurate enough to allow comparative studies of body weight perception in different African populations. This study aimed to develop and validate the Body Size Scale (BSS) to estimate African body weight perception. Methods Anthropometric measures of 80 Cameroonians and 81 Senegalese were used to evaluate three criteria of adiposity: body mass index (BMI), overall percentage of fat, and endomorphy (fat component of the somatotype). To develop the BSS, the participants were photographed in full face and profile positions. Models were selected for their representativeness of the wide variability in adiposity with a progressive increase along the scale. Then, for the validation protocol, participants self-administered the BSS to assess self-perceived current body size (CBS), desired body size (DBS) and provide a “body self-satisfaction index.” This protocol included construct validity, test-retest reliability and convergent validity and was carried out with three independent samples of respectively 201, 103 and 1115 Cameroonians. Results The BSS comprises two sex-specific scales of photos of 9 models each, and ordered by increasing adiposity. Most participants were able to correctly order the BSS by increasing adiposity, using three different words to define body size. Test-retest reliability was consistent in estimating CBS, DBS and the “body self-satisfaction index.” The CBS was highly correlated to the objective BMI, and two different indexes assessed with the BSS were consistent with declarations obtained in interviews. Conclusion The BSS is the first scale with photos of real African models taken in both full face and profile and representing a wide and representative variability in adiposity. The validation protocol proved its

  4. Assessment of fatigue using the Identity- Consequence Fatigue Scale in patients with lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Correia Nogueira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the properties of the Identity-Consequence Fatigue Scale (ICFS in patients with lung cancer (LC, assessing the intensity of fatigue and associated factors. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving LC patients, treated at a teaching hospital in Brazil, who completed the ICFS. Patients with chronic heart disease (CHD and healthy controls, matched for age and gender, also completed the scale. Initially, a Brazilian Portuguese-language version of the ICFS was administered to 50 LC patients by two independent interviewers; to test for reproducibility, it was readministered to those same patients. At baseline, the LC patients were submitted to spirometry and the six-minute walk test, as well as completing the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36, and Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS. Inflammatory status was assessed by blood C-reactive protein (CRP levels. To validate the ICFS, we assessed the correlations of its scores with those variables. Results: The sample comprised 50 patients in each group (LC, CHD, and control. In the LC group, the intraclass correlation coefficients for intra-rater and inter-rater reliability regarding ICFS summary variables ranged from 0.94 to 0.76 and from 0.94 to 0.79, respectively. The ICFS presented excellent internal consistency, and Bland-Altman plots showed good test-retest reliability. The ICFS correlated significantly with FSS, HADS, and SF-36 scores, as well as with CRP levels. Mean ICFS scores in the LC group differed significantly from those in the CHD and control groups. Conclusions: The ICFS is a valid, reliable instrument for evaluating LC patients, in whom depression, quality of life, and CRP levels seem to be significantly associated with fatigue.

  5. The Neonatal Pain, Agitation and Sedation Scale and the bedside nurse's assessment of neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, B A; Tabrizi, M N; Gauda, E B; Carson, K A; Aucott, S W

    2015-02-01

    To determine the reliability of an objective measure of pain, agitation and sedation using the Neonatal Pain, Agitation and Sedation Scale (N-PASS) compared with nursing bedside assessment. Neonates admitted in neonatal intensive care unit over a 6-month period were eligible. Pain and sedation were assessed with N-PASS, and a subjective questionnaire was administered to the bedside nurse. A total of 218 neonates were eligible (median: gestational age 34.6 weeks, age at assessment 7 days). N-PASS pain score correlated significantly with both nurses' pain score (Spearman coefficient (r)=0.37; Psedation score correlated with nurses' sedation score (r=-0.39; Psedation in this broad population and provides a quantitative assessment of subjective descriptions that often drives patient therapy.

  6. The Neonatal Pain, Agitation and Sedation Scale and the bedside nurse’s assessment of neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, BA; Tabrizi, MN; Gauda, EB; Carson, KA; Aucott, SW

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the reliability of an objective measure of pain, agitation and sedation using the Neonatal Pain, Agitation and Sedation Scale (N-PASS) compared with nursing bedside assessment. STUDY DESIGN Neonates admitted in neonatal intensive care unit over a 6-month period were eligible. Pain and sedation were assessed with N-PASS, and a subjective questionnaire was administered to the bedside nurse. RESULT A total of 218 neonates were eligible (median: gestational age 34.6 weeks, age at assessment 7 days). N-PASS pain score correlated significantly with both nurses’ pain score (Spearman coefficient (r) = 0.37; Psedation score correlated with nurses’ sedation score (r = − 0.39; Psedation in this broad population and provides a quantitative assessment of subjective descriptions that often drives patient therapy. PMID:25144158

  7. Accumulation of Content Validation Evidence for the Critical Thinking Self-Assessment Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Girija Gopinathan; Hellsten, Laurie-Ann M; Stamler, Lynnette Leeseberg

    2017-04-01

    Critical thinking skills (CTS) are essential for nurses; assessing students' acquisition of these skills is a mandate of nursing curricula. This study aimed to develop a self-assessment instrument of critical thinking skills (Critical Thinking Self-Assessment Scale [CTSAS]) for students' self-monitoring. An initial pool of 196 items across 6 core cognitive skills and 16 subskills were generated using the American Philosophical Association definition of CTS. Experts' content review of the items and their ratings provided evidence of content relevance using the item-level content validity index (I-CVI) and Aiken's content validity coefficient (VIk). 115 items were retained (range of I-CVI values = .70 to .94 and range of VIk values = .69-.95; significant at p< .05). The CTSAS is the first CTS instrument designed specifically for self-assessment purposes.

  8. Lessons From a Large-Scale Assessment Project at Texas Tech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Beth

    2012-10-01

    Some results of a large-scale assessment project at Texas Tech University will be discussed. We will discuss (1) the use of both written pre- and post-tests and commonly used conceptual inventories as a measure of students' understanding in the introductory courses, (2) the efficacy of multiple choice assessment, based on research on the effect of problem format on students' answers and (3) the need for the development of a more comprehensive assessment instrument(s) that could be used to compare students' analytical, quantitative, computational, laboratory, and critical thinking skills, as well as their conceptual understanding, across courses and universities. We present results of the work done at Texas Tech University and discuss work being done nationally as part of the American Association of Physics Teachers (AAPT) to move towards a more comprehensive assessment of our introductory courses.

  9. Cultural adaptation of the scale Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia – PAINAD to Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Gallego Valera

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To translate and culturally adapt to Brazil the scale Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia(PAINAD.Method: The cultural adaptation process followed the methodology of a theorical reference, in five steps: translation to Brazilian Portuguese, consensual version of translations, back-translation to the original language, revision by a committee of specialists in the field and a equivalency pre-test. The instrument was assessed and applied by 27 health professionals in the last step. Results: The Escala de Avaliação de Dor em Demência Avançada was culturally adapted to Brazil and presented semantic equivalency to the original, besides clarity, applicability and easy comprehension of the instrument items. Conclusion: This process secured the psychometric properties as the reliability and content validity of the referred scale.

  10. Assessment of anhedonia in psychological trauma: development of the Hedonic Deficit and Interference Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Frewen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Symptoms of anhedonia, or deficits in the ability to experience positive affect, are increasingly recognized as an outcome of traumatic stress. Herein we demonstrate a phenomenon of “negative affective interference”, specifically, negative affective responses to positive events, in association with childhood trauma history. Young adults (n=99 completed a Hedonic Deficit & Interference Scale (HDIS, a self-report measure developed for this study, as well as a modified version of the Fawcette-Clarke Pleasure Capacity Scale that assessed not only positive but also negative affective responses to positive events. The two assessment approaches demonstrated convergent validity and predicted concurrent individual differences in trait positive and negative affect, and extraversion and neuroticism. Histories of childhood emotional and sexual abuse were differentially associated with negative affective responses to positive events. Future research and clinical directions are discussed.For the abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Reading Tools online.

  11. Reliability of measuring anomalous experience: the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollmer-Larsen, Anne; Handest, Peter; Parnas, Josef

    2007-01-01

    Studying subjective experience, apart from preformed self-rating questionnaires, has nearly vanished in psychiatry, partly due to reliability concerns. Recent research in early detection of schizophrenia has entailed an increasing interest in the subtle experiential anomalies that may assist...... in identifying the patients at risk of psychosis. Some of these anomalies are described in the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms (BSABS). We examined the reliability of this instrument. SAMPLING AND METHOD: 18 hospitalised patients accepted to participate in a psychopathological interview assessing...

  12. PUGS: A novel scale to assess perceptions of uncertainties in genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesecker, B B; Woolford, S W; Klein, W M P; Brothers, K B; Umstead, K L; Lewis, K L; Biesecker, L G; Han, P K J

    2017-08-01

    Expectations of results from genome sequencing by end users are influenced by perceptions of uncertainty. This study aimed to assess uncertainties about sequencing by developing, evaluating, and implementing a novel scale. The Perceptions of Uncertainties in Genome Sequencing (PUGS) scale comprised ten items to assess uncertainties within three domains: clinical, affective, and evaluative. Participants (n=535) from the ClinSeq® NIH sequencing study completed a baseline survey that included the PUGS; responses (mean = 3.4/5, SD=0.58) suggested modest perceptions of certainty. A confirmatory factor analysis identified factor loadings that led to elimination of two items. A revised eight-item PUGS scale was used to test correlations with perceived ambiguity (r = -0.303, p PUGS (mean = 3.4/5, SD = 0.72), and configural invariance was supported across the two datasets. As such, the PUGS is a promising scale for evaluating perceived uncertainties in genome sequencing, which can inform interventions to help patients form realistic expectations of these uncertainties. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Psychometric assessment of HIV/STI sexual risk scale among MSM: A Rasch model approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hui

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little research has assessed the degree of severity and ordering of different types of sexual behaviors for HIV/STI infection in a measurement scale. The purpose of this study was to apply the Rasch model on psychometric assessment of an HIV/STI sexual risk scale among men who have sex with men (MSM. Methods A cross-sectional study using respondent driven sampling was conducted among 351 MSM in Shenzhen, China. The Rasch model was used to examine the psychometric properties of an HIV/STI sexual risk scale including nine types of sexual behaviors. Results The Rasch analysis of the nine items met the unidimensionality and local independence assumption. Although the person reliability was low at 0.35, the item reliability was high at 0.99. The fit statistics provided acceptable infit and outfit values. Item difficulty invariance analysis showed that the item estimates of the risk behavior items were invariant (within error. Conclusions The findings suggest that the Rasch model can be utilized for measuring the level of sexual risk for HIV/STI infection as a single latent construct and for establishing the relative degree of severity of each type of sexual behavior in HIV/STI transmission and acquisition among MSM. The measurement scale provides a useful measurement tool to inform, design and evaluate behavioral interventions for HIV/STI infection among MSM.

  14. Subjective Narcosis Assessment Scale: measuring the subjective experience of nitrogen narcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Charles H; Meintjes, W A J

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of subjective experiences and objective measures of neuropsychological performance during hyperbaric exposure has received less attention in the literature, in part due to the shortage of available and appropriately standardized measures. This study aimed to describe the psychometric properties of a modified version of the Subjective High Assessment Scale when used in the hyperbaric context, by exploring internal reliability, factor structure, associations with psychological variables and simple cognitive delayed recall, and the effect of task focus on the recall of subjective experience. Seventy qualified divers completed dry hyperbaric chamber dives to 607.95 kPa, and completed ratings of their subjective experiences. Some also completed a delayed recall task and psychological measures prior to their dives. The scale displayed good internal consistency, with four meaningful factors emerging. It showed some significant but small associations with trait anxiety and transient mood states, and a small to moderate correlation with recall performance. There was no significant effect of task focus on self-report of subjective experiences. The modified scale, renamed the Subjective Narcosis Assessment Scale here, has useful psychometric properties, and promising potential for future use.

  15. Validity and reliability assessment of health belief scales for mammography screening in Greek asymptomatic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Dimitrakaki, Christine; Niakas, Dimitris; Tountas, Yannis

    2013-08-01

    The purpose was to assess the validity and reliability of health belief model variables (perceived benefits, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy beliefs) that are often the target of mammography screening interventions. Based on Champion's health belief model scales, questionnaire data were obtained from a nationally representative sample of 408 Greek women, 40 years of age or older and with no personal history of cancer. Using confirmatory factor analysis, we found all items to load significantly on their respective factors. Standardized factor loadings ranged from 0.55 to 0.88. An analysis of localized areas of respecification of a three-factor model revealed that measurement error correlations between a few items existed. Known-groups and criterion-related validity was supported for all scales, while internal consistency reliability of the scales was satisfactory, with Cronbach's alpha ranging from 0.71 to 0.88. The Greek version of the scales measuring perceived benefits, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy beliefs is a reliable and valid tool when used to assess health beliefs for mammography screening among women. Implications for intervention strategies aimed at increasing the likelihood of mammography utilization are considered. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. A practical scale for Multi-Faceted Organizational Health Climate Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweber, Zandra M; Henning, Robert A; Magley, Vicki J

    2016-04-01

    The current study sought to develop a practical scale to measure 3 facets of workplace health climate from the employee perspective as an important component of a healthy organization. The goal was to create a short, usable yet comprehensive scale that organizations and occupational health professionals could use to determine if workplace health interventions were needed. The proposed Multi-faceted Organizational Health Climate Assessment (MOHCA) scale assesses facets that correspond to 3 organizational levels: (a) workgroup, (b) supervisor, and (c) organization. Ten items were developed and tested on 2 distinct samples, 1 cross-organization and 1 within-organization. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses yielded a 9-item, hierarchical 3-factor structure. Tests confirmed MOHCA has convergent validity with related constructs, such as perceived organizational support and supervisor support, as well as discriminant validity with safety climate. Lastly, criterion-related validity was found between MOHCA and health-related outcomes. The multi-faceted nature of MOHCA provides a scale that has face validity and can be easily translated into practice, offering a means for diagnosing the shortcomings of an organization or workgroup's health climate to better plan health and well-being interventions. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Motor development of preterm infants assessed by the Alberta Infant Motor Scale: systematic review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubia do N. Fuentefria

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Premature newborns are considered at risk for motor development deficits, leading to the need for monitoring in early life. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature about gross motor development of preterm infants, assessed by the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS to identify the main outcomes in development. Data source: Systematic review of studies published from 2006 to 2015, indexed in Pubmed, Scielo, Lilacs, and Medline databases in English and Portuguese. The search strategy included the keywords: Alberta Infant Motor Scale, prematurity, preterm, motor development, postural control, and follow-up. Data summary: A total of 101 articles were identified and 23 were selected, according to the inclusion criteria. The ages of the children assessed in the studies varied, including the first 6 months up to 15 or 18 months of corrected age. The percentage variation in motor delay was identified in the motor outcome descriptions of ten studies, ranging from 4% to 53%, depending on the age when the infant was assessed. The studies show significant differences in the motor development of preterm and full-term infants, with a description of lower gross scores in the AIMS results of preterm infants. Conclusions: It is essential that the follow-up services of at-risk infants have assessment strategies and monitoring of gross motor development of preterm infants; AIMS is an assessment tool indicated to identify atypical motor development in this population.

  18. The use of the Visual Analogue Scale for the assessment of labour pain: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chin Ke; Leng, Chow Yeow; Siew Lin, Serena Koh

    2010-01-01

    The Visual Analogue Scale has been frequently used to assess parturients' pain intensity, but the psychometric properties of this scale have not been critically reviewed. In addition, limited research has been undertaken to investigate whether this is the most appropriate pain measurement tool in the obstetrical care setting. The overall objective of this review was to measure the psychometric properties (i.e. reliability, validity, sensitivity and specificity) of pain assessment tools that are used to assess women's childbirth pain. Types of participants Pregnant women at term (37-42 weeks gestation) who delivered in the hospital setting with cervical dilation from 0cm to 10cm were included.Types of intervention(s)/Phenomena of interest The Visual Analogue Scale and other pain measurement tools.Types of outcomes Reliability, validity, sensitivity and specificity of the pain measurement tools.Types of studies Randomised controlled trials (RCT) that examined the psychometric properties of the Visual Analogue Scale and other measurements for the assessment of labour pain were included. Due to a limited number of RCT on this subject, papers using secondary analysis, descriptive, correlational and comparative designs were also included. A three-step search strategy was utilised in this review. An initial limited search of MEDLINE and CINAHL was undertaken, followed by an analysis of the text words contained in the title and abstract, and of the index terms used to describe the article. A second search using all identified keywords and index terms was then undertaken and was extended to other relevant databases. Thirdly, the reference lists of all identified reports and articles were searched for additional studies. Papers selected for retrieval were assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological validity prior to inclusion in the review using the standardised critical appraisal instruments from the Joanna Briggs Institute Meta Analysis of Statistics

  19. Full-scale performance assessment of aircraft secondary sandwich structure using thermoelastic stress analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Crump, D.A.; Dulieu-Barton, J.M.; Savage, J

    2009-01-01

    The use of resin film infusion (RFI) has been proven to reduce the cost of production of aircraft secondary sandwich structure. In this paper thermoelastic stress analysis (TSA) is used to assess the performance of full scale aircraft sandwich structure panels produced using both the conventional autoclave process and RFI. Finite element (FE) models of both panel types are developed and TSA is used to validate the models.

  20. [assessment Of Self-esteem In Pregnant Women Using Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale].

    OpenAIRE

    Maçola, Ligia; do Vale, Ianê Nogueira; Carmona, Elenice Valentim

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this descriptive, cross-sectional study was to evaluate the self-esteem of 127 pregnant women seen in a prenatal care program conducted in a public school hospital. Data collection was performed using the Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale; unsatisfactory self-esteem was related to socio-demographic and health variables of the pregnant woman, and to the presence or absence of support systems. Descriptive and univariate statistical analysis were used to assess possible associations...

  1. Feasibility Assessment of Using Power Plant Waste Heat in Large Scale Horticulture Facility Energy Supply Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Min Gyung Yu; Yujin Nam

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the Korean government has been carrying out projects to construct several large scale horticulture facilities. However, it is difficult for an energy supply to operate stably and economically with only a conventional fossil fuel boiler system. For this reason, several unused energy sources have become attractive and it was found that power plant waste heat has the greatest potential for application in this scenario. In this study, we performed a feasibility assessment of power plant...

  2. Life cycle assessment of a small-scale anaerobic digestion plant from cattle waste

    OpenAIRE

    Mezzullo, William G.; Mcmanus, Marcelle C.; Hammond, Geoff P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper outlines the results of a comprehensive life cycle study of the production of energy, in the form of biogas, using a small scale farm based cattle waste fed anaerobic digestion (AD) plant. The life cycle assessment (LCA) shows that in terms of environmental and energy impact the plant manufacture contributes very little to the whole life cycle impacts. The results show that compared with alternative energy supply the production and use of biogas is beneficial in terms of greenhouse...

  3. Does the Assessment of Recovery Capital scale reflect a single or multiple domains?

    OpenAIRE

    Arndt S.; Sahker E; Hedden S

    2017-01-01

    Stephan Arndt,1–3 Ethan Sahker,1,4 Suzy Hedden1 1Iowa Consortium for Substance Abuse Research and Evaluation, 2Department of Psychiatry, Carver College of Medicine, 3Department of Biostatistics, College of Public Health, 4Department of Psychological and Quantitative Foundations, Counseling Psychology Program College of Education, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA Objective: The goal of this study was to determine whether the 50-item Assessment of Recovery Capital scale represen...

  4. An Instrument to Assess Self-Statements During Public Speaking: Scale Development and Preliminary Psychometric Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; DiBartolo, Patricia Marten

    2000-01-01

    Public speaking is the most commonly reported fearful social situation. Although a number of contemporary theories emphasize the importance of cognitive processes in social anxiety, there is no instrument available to assess fearful thoughts experienced during public speaking. The Self-Statements During Public Speaking (SSPS) scale is a 10-item questionnaire consisting of two 5-item subscales, the “Positive Self-Statements” (SSPS-P) and the “Negative Self-Statements” subscale (SSPS-N). Four s...

  5. [Self-rating scales in schizophrenia: assessment of the practical applicability of the Paranoid-Depression Scale (PD-S), the Frankfurt Self-feeling Scale (FBS) and of two visual analogue scales].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Ewa; Wciórka, Jacek

    2003-01-01

    To assess the practical feasibility of the Paranoid-Depressivity Scale (PD-S, Paranoid-Depresivitäts-Skala), the Frankfurt Self-feeling Scale (FBS, Frankfurter Befindlichkeitsskala), and two visual analogy scales of: sense of illness (WAC) and self-feeling (WAS). 210 patients with schizophrenia of various clinical courses. All patients in the study group were required to complete each scale twice, at 48 hr intervals. For statistical analysis, two sets of data were singled out (1) the relationship between refusal/inability to complete the scale repeatedly and the selected clinical variables; (2) observations made by the doctor, while the patient was completing the scales. Statistical analysis revealed, that clinical factors like restlessness, autism, maladaptation, recurrence/remission and lower educational status imply a significantly lower readiness of the patient towards completion of self-rating scales. The visual analogy scales were those more readily--and easily--completed by the patients; their interpretation, however, is difficult. Given this, the authors of this paper decided to shorten the questionnaire scales, which reducing the whole to aspects of vital diagnostic relevance. Whether this operation would influence the scales' diagnostic value, required ex-post analysis, which was subsequently performed. Summary analysis revealed that the application of the shortening of the PD-S and FBS had no significant impact on these scales' reliability and validity indices; furthermore, it resulted in a significant decline in the number of ambiguities and thus improved the comprehensiveness of the questionnaire's structure. Also, a significant increase in concordance between the self-rating results and the clinicians' diagnoses was observed. Visual analogy scales are the more readily and easily applied in practice; a comprehensive interpretation is, however, virtually impossible. On the other hand, the PD-S and FBS are the more difficult for the patients to complete

  6. Health consequence scales for use in health impact assessments of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Helen; Spickett, Jeffery

    2014-09-16

    While health impact assessment (HIA) has typically been applied to projects, plans or policies, it has significant potential with regard to strategic considerations of major health issues facing society such as climate change. Given the complexity of climate change, assessing health impacts presents new challenges that may require different approaches compared to traditional applications of HIA. This research focuses on the development of health consequence scales suited to assessing and comparing health effects associated with climate change and applied within a HIA framework. This assists in setting priorities for adaptation plans to minimize the public health impacts of climate change. The scales presented in this paper were initially developed for a HIA of climate change in Perth in 2050, but they can be applied across spatial and temporal scales. The design is based on a health effects pyramid with health measures expressed in orders of magnitude and linked to baseline population and health data. The health consequence measures are combined with a measure of likelihood to determine the level of risk associated with each health potential health impact. In addition, a simple visual framework that can be used to collate, compare and communicate the level of health risks associated with climate change has been developed.

  7. Health Consequence Scales for Use in Health Impact Assessments of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Helen; Spickett, Jeffery

    2014-01-01

    While health impact assessment (HIA) has typically been applied to projects, plans or policies, it has significant potential with regard to strategic considerations of major health issues facing society such as climate change. Given the complexity of climate change, assessing health impacts presents new challenges that may require different approaches compared to traditional applications of HIA. This research focuses on the development of health consequence scales suited to assessing and comparing health effects associated with climate change and applied within a HIA framework. This assists in setting priorities for adaptation plans to minimize the public health impacts of climate change. The scales presented in this paper were initially developed for a HIA of climate change in Perth in 2050, but they can be applied across spatial and temporal scales. The design is based on a health effects pyramid with health measures expressed in orders of magnitude and linked to baseline population and health data. The health consequence measures are combined with a measure of likelihood to determine the level of risk associated with each health potential health impact. In addition, a simple visual framework that can be used to collate, compare and communicate the level of health risks associated with climate change has been developed. PMID:25229697

  8. The translation and psychometric assessment of the persian version of the sheehan disability scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Amin-Esmaeili

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS assesses disability in four domains of home management, work responsibilities, close relationships and social life. The main objective of this study was to develop the Persian version of the SDS.Two steps of field work followed the Persian translation and cultural adaptation of the tool: First, the internal consistency and convergent validity was examined in 104 clinical cases recruited from inpatient and outpatient psychiatric services, using 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF. Then 88 individuals were randomly selected from the adult general population to assess internal consistency, inter-rater reliability and known group validity.In the clinical settings, Cronbach's α coefficient was 0.88 and item-total correlation ranged from 0.71 to 0.78 in various domains. The correlation between SDS and SF-36 (P< 0.001 was significant in all the areas of the performance; and neither of the correlations was statistically significant when SDS and GAF were compared. In the general population study, the SDS met a good internal consistency (α = 0.81 and known group validity, and the inter-rater reliability was perfect for "school/work responsibility ."The Persian translation of the SDS is a simple and short scale, and it seems to be a valid scale for the measurement of disability in clinical settings and in the Iranian general population.

  9. Assessing water deprivation at the sub-river basin scale in LCA integrating downstream cascade effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubet, Philippe; Roux, Philippe; Núñez, Montserrat; Belaud, Gilles; Bellon-Maurel, Véronique

    2013-12-17

    Physical water deprivation at the midpoint level is assessed in water-related LCIA methods using water scarcity indicators (e.g., withdrawal-to-availability and consumption-to-availability) at the river basin scale. Although these indicators represent a great step forward in the assessment of water-use-related impacts in LCA, significant challenges still remain in improving their accuracy and relevance. This paper presents a methodology that can be used to derive midpoint characterization factors for water deprivation taking into account downstream cascade effects within a single river basin. This effect is considered at a finer scale because a river basin must be split into different subunits. The proposed framework is based on a two-step approach. First, water scarcity is defined at the sub-river basin scale with the consumption-to-availability (CTA) ratio, and second, characterization factors for water deprivation (CFWD) are calculated, integrating the effects on downstream sub-river basins. The sub-river basin CTA and CFWD were computed based on runoff data, water consumption data and a water balance for two different river basins. The results show significant differences between the CFWD in a given river basin, depending on the upstream or downstream position. Finally, an illustrative example is presented, in which different land planning scenarios, taking into account additional water consumption in a city, are assessed. Our work demonstrates how crucial it is to localize the withdrawal and release positions within a river basin.

  10. Development and Validation of a Scale to Assess Students' Attitude towards Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazas, Beatriz; Rosario Fernández Manzanal, Mª; Zarza, Francisco Javier; Adolfo María, Gustavo

    2013-07-01

    This work presents the development of a scale of attitudes of secondary-school and university students towards animal welfare. A questionnaire was drawn up following a Likert-type scale attitude assessment model. Four components or factors, which globally measure animal welfare, are proposed to define the object of the attitude. The components are animal abuse for pleasure or due to ignorance (C1), leisure with animals (C2), farm animals (C3) and animal abandonment (C4). The final version of the questionnaire contains 29 items that are evenly distributed among the four components indicated, guaranteeing that each component is one-dimensional. A sample of 329 students was used to validate the scale. These students were aged between 11 and 25, and were from secondary schools in Aragon and the University in Zaragoza (Aragon's main and largest city, located in NE Spain). The scale shows good internal reliability, with a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.74. The questionnaire was later given to 1,007 students of similar levels and ages to the sample used in the validation, the results of which are presented in this study. The most relevant results show significant differences in gender and level of education in some of the components of the scale, observing that women and university students rate animal welfare more highly.

  11. Methodological artifacts in dimensionality assessment of the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straat, J Hendrik; van der Ark, L Andries; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2013-02-01

    The hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) is a brief, self-administered questionnaire for the assessment of anxiety and depression in hospital patients. A recent review discussed the disagreement among different studies with respect to the dimensionality of the HADS, leading Coyne and Van Sonderen to conclude from this disagreement that the HADS must be abandoned. Our study argues that the disagreement is mainly due to a methodological artifact, and that the HADS needs revision rather than abandonment. We used Mokken scale analysis (MSA) to investigate the dimensionality of the HADS items in a representative sample from the Dutch non-clinical population (N=3643) and compared the dimensionality structure with the results that Emons, Sijtsma, and Pedersen obtained in a Dutch cardiac-patient sample. We demonstrated how MSA can retrieve either one scale, two subscales, or three subscales, and that the result not only depends on the data structure but also on choices that the researcher makes. Two 5-item HADS scales for anxiety and depression seemed adequate. Four HADS items constituted a weak scale and contributed little to reliable measurement. We argued that several psychometric methods show only one level of a hierarchical dimensionality structure and that users of psychometric methods are often unaware of this phenomenon and miss information about other levels. In addition, we argued that a theory about the attribute may guide the researcher but that well-tested theories are often absent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Development and validation of a visual grading scale for assessing image quality of AP pelvis radiographic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Andrew; Cassidy, Simon; Eachus, Peter; Dominguez, Alejandro; Hogg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this article was to apply psychometric theory to develop and validate a visual grading scale for assessing the visual perception of digital image quality anteroposterior (AP) pelvis. Methods: Psychometric theory was used to guide scale development. Seven phantom and seven cadaver images of visually and objectively predetermined quality were used to help assess scale reliability and validity. 151 volunteers scored phantom images, and 184 volunteers scored cadaver images. Factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha were used to assess scale validity and reliability. Results: A 24-item scale was produced. Aggregated mean volunteer scores for each image correlated with the rank order of the visually and objectively predetermined image qualities. Scale items had good interitem correlation (≥0.2) and high factor loadings (≥0.3). Cronbach's alpha (reliability) revealed that the scale has acceptable levels of internal reliability for both phantom and cadaver images (α = 0.8 and 0.9, respectively). Factor analysis suggested that the scale is multidimensional (assessing multiple quality themes). Conclusion: This study represents the first full development and validation of a visual image quality scale using psychometric theory. It is likely that this scale will have clinical, training and research applications. Advances in knowledge: This article presents data to create and validate visual grading scales for radiographic examinations. The visual grading scale, for AP pelvis examinations, can act as a validated tool for future research, teaching and clinical evaluations of image quality. PMID:26943836

  13. Measurement Invariance of the Digital Natives Assessment Scale across Gender in a Sample of Turkish University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursavas, Ömer Faruk; Kabakçi Yurdakul, Isil; Türk, Mesut; Mcilroy, David

    2016-01-01

    With reference to the digital natives' debate, there is a gap on digital natives' characteristics. To fill this gap, the Digital Natives Assessment Scale was developed to measure students' assessment of the degree to which they perceived themselves to possess the attributes of digital natives. The scale was developed within the Turkish language…

  14. DNA barcoding at riverscape scales: Assessing biodiversity among fishes of the genus Cottus (Teleostei) in northern Rocky Mountain streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael K. Young; Kevin S. McKelvey; Kristine L. Pilgrim; Michael K. Schwartz

    2013-01-01

    There is growing interest in broad-scale biodiversity assessments that can serve as benchmarks for identifying ecological change. Genetic tools have been used for such assessments for decades, but spatial sampling considerations have largely been ignored. Here, we demonstrate how intensive sampling efforts across a large geographical scale can influence identification...

  15. Brief scales to assess physical activity and sedentary equipment in the home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durant Nefertiti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sedentary behaviors such as TV viewing are associated with childhood obesity, while physical activity promotes healthy weight. The role of the home environment in shaping these behaviors among youth is poorly understood. The study purpose was to examine the reliability of brief parental proxy-report and adolescent self-report measures of electronic equipment and physical activity equipment in the home and to assess the construct validity of these scales by examining their relationship to physical activity, sedentary behavior, and weight status of children and adolescents. Methods Participants were adolescents (n = 189; mean age = 14.6, parents of adolescents (n = 171; mean age = 45.0, and parents of younger children (n = 116; parents mean age = 39.6; children's mean age = 8.3 who completed two surveys approximately one month apart. Measures included a 21-item electronic equipment scale (to assess sedentary behavior facilitators in the home, in the child or adolescent's bedroom, and portable electronics and a 14-item home physical activity equipment scale. Home environment factors were examined as correlates of children's and adolescents' physical activity, sedentary behavior, and weight status after adjusting for child age, sex, race/ethnicity, household income, and number of children in the home. Results Most scales had acceptable test-retest reliability (intraclass correlations were .54 - .92. Parent and adolescent reports were correlated. Electronic equipment in adolescents' bedrooms was positively related to sedentary behavior. Activity equipment in the home was inversely associated with television time in adolescents and children, and positively correlated with adolescents' physical activity. Children's BMI z-score was positively associated with having a television in their bedroom. Conclusions The measures of home electronic equipment and activity equipment were similarly reliable when reported by parents and by

  16. Brief Self-Report Scales Assessing Life History Dimensions of Mating and Parenting Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Daniel J

    2017-01-01

    Life history theory (LHT) is a powerful evolutionary framework for understanding physiological, psychological, and behavioral variation both between and within species. Researchers and theorists are increasingly integrating LHT into evolutionary psychology, as it provides a strong foundation for research across many topical areas. Human life history variation has been represented in psychological and behavioral research in several ways, including indicators of conditions in the developmental environment, indicators of conditions in the current environment, and indicators of maturation and life milestones (e.g., menarche, initial sexual activity, first pregnancy), and in self-report survey scale measures. Survey scale measures have included constructs such as time perspective and future discounting, although the most widely used index is a constellation of indicators assessing the K-factor, thought to index general life history speed (from fast to slow). The current project examined the utility of two brief self-report survey measures assessing the life history dimensions of mating effort and parenting effort with a large undergraduate sample in the United States. Consistent with the theory, items reflected two inversely related dimensions. In regressions including the K-factor, the Mating Effort Scale proved to be a powerful predictor of other constructs and indicators related to life history variation. The Parenting Effort Scale had less predictive power overall, although it explained unique variance across several constructs and was the only unique predictor of the number of long-term (serious and committed) relationships. These scales may be valuable additions to self-report survey research projects examining life history variation.

  17. Large-scale model-based assessment of deer-vehicle collision risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothorn, Torsten; Brandl, Roland; Müller, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Ungulates, in particular the Central European roe deer Capreolus capreolus and the North American white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus, are economically and ecologically important. The two species are risk factors for deer-vehicle collisions and as browsers of palatable trees have implications for forest regeneration. However, no large-scale management systems for ungulates have been implemented, mainly because of the high efforts and costs associated with attempts to estimate population sizes of free-living ungulates living in a complex landscape. Attempts to directly estimate population sizes of deer are problematic owing to poor data quality and lack of spatial representation on larger scales. We used data on >74,000 deer-vehicle collisions observed in 2006 and 2009 in Bavaria, Germany, to model the local risk of deer-vehicle collisions and to investigate the relationship between deer-vehicle collisions and both environmental conditions and browsing intensities. An innovative modelling approach for the number of deer-vehicle collisions, which allows nonlinear environment-deer relationships and assessment of spatial heterogeneity, was the basis for estimating the local risk of collisions for specific road types on the scale of Bavarian municipalities. Based on this risk model, we propose a new "deer-vehicle collision index" for deer management. We show that the risk of deer-vehicle collisions is positively correlated to browsing intensity and to harvest numbers. Overall, our results demonstrate that the number of deer-vehicle collisions can be predicted with high precision on the scale of municipalities. In the densely populated and intensively used landscapes of Central Europe and North America, a model-based risk assessment for deer-vehicle collisions provides a cost-efficient instrument for deer management on the landscape scale. The measures derived from our model provide valuable information for planning road protection and defining hunting quota. Open

  18. Brief Self-Report Scales Assessing Life History Dimensions of Mating and Parenting Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Kruger

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Life history theory (LHT is a powerful evolutionary framework for understanding physiological, psychological, and behavioral variation both between and within species. Researchers and theorists are increasingly integrating LHT into evolutionary psychology, as it provides a strong foundation for research across many topical areas. Human life history variation has been represented in psychological and behavioral research in several ways, including indicators of conditions in the developmental environment, indicators of conditions in the current environment, and indicators of maturation and life milestones (e.g., menarche, initial sexual activity, first pregnancy, and in self-report survey scale measures. Survey scale measures have included constructs such as time perspective and future discounting, although the most widely used index is a constellation of indicators assessing the K-factor, thought to index general life history speed (from fast to slow. The current project examined the utility of two brief self-report survey measures assessing the life history dimensions of mating effort and parenting effort with a large undergraduate sample in the United States. Consistent with the theory, items reflected two inversely related dimensions. In regressions including the K-factor, the Mating Effort Scale proved to be a powerful predictor of other constructs and indicators related to life history variation. The Parenting Effort Scale had less predictive power overall, although it explained unique variance across several constructs and was the only unique predictor of the number of long-term (serious and committed relationships. These scales may be valuable additions to self-report survey research projects examining life history variation.

  19. A multi-scale health impact assessment of air pollution over the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhvar, Victoria N; Pascal, Mathilde; Markakis, Konstantinos; Colette, Augustin; Hauglustaine, Didier; Valari, Myrto; Klimont, Zbigniew; Medina, Sylvia; Kinney, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    Ozone and PM₂.₅ are current risk factors for premature death all over the globe. In coming decades, substantial improvements in public health may be achieved by reducing air pollution. To better understand the potential of emissions policies, studies are needed that assess possible future health impacts under alternative assumptions about future emissions and climate across multiple spatial scales. We used consistent climate-air-quality-health modeling framework across three geographical scales (World, Europe and Ile-de-France) to assess future (2030-2050) health impacts of ozone and PM₂.₅ under two emissions scenarios (Current Legislation Emissions, CLE, and Maximum Feasible Reductions, MFR). Consistently across the scales, we found more reductions in deaths under MFR scenario compared to CLE. 1.5 [95% CI: 0.4, 2.4] million CV deaths could be delayed each year in 2030 compared to 2010 under MFR scenario, 84% of which would occur in Asia, especially in China. In Europe, the benefits under MFR scenario (219000 CV deaths) are noticeably larger than those under CLE (109,000 CV deaths). In Ile-de-France, under MFR more than 2830 annual CV deaths associated with PM₂.₅ changes could be delayed in 2050 compared to 2010. In Paris, ozone-related respiratory mortality should increase under both scenarios. Multi-scale HIAs can illustrate the difference in direct consequences of costly mitigation policies and provide results that may help decision-makers choose between different policy alternatives at different scales. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Linking Supply Chain Network Complexity to Interdependence and Risk-Assessment: Scale Development and Empirical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samyadip Chakraborty

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Concepts like supply chain network complexity, interdependence and risk assessment have been prominently discussed directly and indirectly in management literature over past decades and plenty of frameworks and conceptual prescriptive research works have been published contributing towards building the body of knowledge. However previous studies often lacked quantification of the findings. Consequently, the need for suitable scales becomes prominent for measuring those constructs to empirically support the conceptualized relationships. This paper expands the understanding of supply chain network complexity (SCNC and also highlights its implications on interdependence (ID between the actors and risk assessment (RAS in transaction relationships. In doing so, SCNC and RAS are operationalized to understand how SCNC affects interdependence and risk assessment between the actors in the supply chain network. The contribution of this study lies in developing and validating multi-item scales for these constructs and empirically establishing the hypothesized relationships in the Indian context based on firm data collected using survey–based questionnaire. The methodology followed included structural equation modeling. The study findings indicate that SCNC had significant relationship with interdependence, which in turn significantly affected risk assessment. This study carries both academic and managerial implications and provides an empirically supported framework linking network complexity with the two key variables (ID and RAS, playing crucial roles in managerial decision making. This study contributes to the body of knowledge and aims at guiding managers in better understanding transaction relationships.

  1. Observable Social Cognition--A Rating Scale: an interview-based assessment for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Kristin M; Combs, Dennis R; Gibson, Clare M; Keefe, Richard S E; Roberts, David L; Penn, David L

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia consistently show impairments in social cognition (SC). SC has become a potential treatment target due to its association with functional outcomes. An alternative method of assessment is to administer an observer-based scale incorporating an informant's "first hand" impressions in ratings. The present study used the Observable Social Cognition: A Rating Scale (OSCARS) in 62 outpatients and 50 non-psychiatric controls (NPCs) to assess performance in domains of SC (e.g. emotion perception, theory of mind). The OSCARS demonstrated sufficient internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Construct validity was assessed through an exploratory factor analysis. Patient OSCARS indices were not significantly correlated with measures of SC with the exception of aggressive attributional style. Individuals with less impairment in SC reacted more aggressively to ambiguous situations. NPC OSCARS were significantly correlated with measures of theory of mind and attributional style. In a combined sample of patients and controls, six of eight items were significantly correlated with the SC task assessing the same domain, providing modest evidence of convergent validity. In patients, the OSCARS was significantly correlated with measures of functional outcome and neurocognition. Last, the OSCARS was found to be significantly associated with functional outcome after the influence of objective measures of SC was statistically removed. The present study provides preliminary evidence that the OSCARS may be useful for clinicians in collecting data about patients' potential real-world SC deficits, in turn increasing the degree to which these impairments may be targeted in treatment.

  2. Assessing postural balance in early Parkinson's Disease-validity of the BDL balance scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claesson, Ingrid M; Grooten, Wilhelmus Ja; Lökk, Johan; Ståhle, Agneta

    2017-06-01

    There is a need for a valid assessment test of balance in early Parkinson's disease (PD). To validate the Bäckstrand Dahlberg Liljenäs Balance Scale (BDL), a test of balance performance constructed to assess mild to moderate balance disability due to neurological disease, for use in persons with early PD. Cross-sectional psychometric evaluation study from a convenience sample community-dwelling persons with PD (n = 28). The BDL was validated using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), the motor part of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (mUPDRS), the Timed Up and Go (TUG) and Timed Up and Go-cognition (CTUG). Correlations were calculated by Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rho). Rasch analyses were used to test the internal construct of the BDL. The result from the BDL was compared to a healthy reference group. The correlation between the BDL and the BBS (rho = 0.703) was high positive, while for mUPDRS (rho = -0.280), TUG (rho = -0.321) and CTUG (rho = -0.361) the correlations with the BDL were negligible to low negative. The Rasch analyses for the BDL showed a good distribution of the task difficulties with neither ceiling nor floor effect among individual measures. There was a significant difference (p = 0.03) in performance of the BDL between the PD group and the healthy reference group. The BDL Balance Scale can be considered a valid clinical assessment test when evaluating balance training interventions in persons with early PD. It can be recommended as an outcome measure in clinical practice and in clinical research within this population.

  3. Assessment of family functioning: evaluation of the General Functioning Scale in a Swedish Bariatric Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylund, Ami; Årestedt, Kristofer; Benzein, Eva; Thorell, Anders; Persson, Carina

    2016-09-01

    The General Functioning Scale (GFS) was developed to assess self-perceived overall family functioning. The scale has satisfactory psychometric properties, is internationally recognised and has been used in different contexts. However, no validated Swedish version is available. Healthy family functioning can support patients and help them adhere to treatment regimens. Moreover, it maintains the physical and emotional health and that of the family as a unit. Yet, there is limited information regarding family functioning postgastric bypass surgery. Thus, it is important to use validated instruments to understand family functioning in bariatric contexts. To evaluate aspects of reliability and validity in GFS in a Swedish bariatric sample, focusing on factor structure. The Swedish version of the GFS (S-GFS) was administered on two occasions to 163 participants who had undergone gastric bypass surgery 6-8 weeks prior to testing. Internal consistency, temporal stability and construct validity were assessed. Data were positively skewed. The S-GFS showed good internal consistency (ordinal α = 0.92) with a sufficient overall mean interitem correlation (0.500) and adequate temporal stability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.833). After modifying response alternatives, confirmatory factor analysis indicated acceptable fit for a one-factor model. The scale is a promising tool for assessing family functioning in bariatric settings. The S-GFS showed satisfactory reliability - consistent with prior research - and acceptable validity in the study sample. This study contributes to the limited research on the scale's validity. However, the S-GFS needs to be evaluated in different cultural and clinical contexts, focusing on various aspects of validity and responsiveness (sensitivity to detect significant change over time) in different samples. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  4. Validity of visual analog scales for assessing psychological states in patients with chronic neck pain. Journal of Musculoskeletal pain

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitriadis, Zacharias; Strimpakos, Nikolaos; Kapreli, Eleni; Oldham, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Examination of visual analog scale’s [VAS] validity for assessing psychological states in patients with chronic neck pain.Methods: Forty-five patients with chronic neck pain completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, and Pain Catastrophizing Scale. Anxiety, depression, kinesiophobia, and catastrophizing were additionally assessed by using a VAS for each.Results: Only the anxiety VAS could correlate high enough with its corresponding questio...

  5. [Comparison of two assessment tools of antidepressant side-effects: UKU scale versus spontaneous notification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruwez, B; Gury, C; Poirier, M-F; Bouvet, O; Gérard, A; Bourdel, M-C; Baylé, F-J; Olié, J-P

    2004-01-01

    Overall, the efficacy of the newer antidepressants: serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), selective serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant (NaSSA) and tianeptine is similar to that of the tricyclics, and so their acceptability/safety becomes a selection criterion for the clinician. However, side-effect assessment comes up against several difficulties: distinguishing between somatic symptoms caused by the depression and those caused by the treatment -- which assessment tool to use (spontaneous notification, standardized scales that are not specific for the side effects caused by psychotropic drugs, standardised scales specific for the side effects caused by psychotropic drugs, meta-analysis, etc.) -- which data sources to consult (anecdotal reports, reviews, prospective studies), and which data set to use, etc. As a result, the question of the exhaustiveness and reliability of the data consulted by the clinician can arise. We therefore conducted a comparative study in patients treated with these newer antidepressants, of 2 antidepressants side-effect assessment tools: spontaneous notification (SN) versus the UKU scale, a standardised scale specific for the side effects of psychotropic drugs. The depressed outpatients were selected from a psychiatric unit in a French psychiatric hospital and from a non-hospital consulting room. The main inclusion criteria were: male or female subjects, suffering from major depression without melancholia or psychotic features or suffering from mood disorders (according to DSM IV criteria), who had been treated for at least 4 weeks with one of the newer antidepressants. The main exclusion criteria were: any other psychiatric disorder, a serious physical disorder, treatment with neuroleptics, mood-changing drugs or other antidepressants, and patients who were not able to understand the questionnaire. The investigation was carried out by a clinical pharmacist

  6. Assessing fluvial ecosystem fragmentation at the global scale using high resolution hydrographic and hydrological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, G. O.; Lehner, B.

    2012-12-01

    The ongoing fragmentation of the world's large rivers through hydropower and irrigation dams has been an issue of concern for ecologists and conservationists for many decades. The main negative effects of dams result from their role as a barrier for migratory fish species as well as from the alteration of the natural flow regime as a result of unnatural water release schedules. On the other hand, dam construction has recently received new interest as an alternative and renewable source of energy especially in developing countries and as a means to provide water security in regions with naturally variable water flows. The trade-offs between these antagonistic effects are usually assessed locally by conducting environmental impact assessments at and in the vicinity of the construction site, but the effects at larger scales are generally neglected in such plans. These large scale effects include potential flow alterations for hundreds of kilometers downstream of the dam, and barrier effects for migratory species traveling long distances along the mainstem of large rivers. Furthermore, the effects of multiple dams located in the same basin, are often neglected. To address the cumulative effects of dams at the river and network scale, we developed a new dam impact assessment model by combining state-of-the-art global scale hydrographic (HydroSHEDS) and hydrological datasets (WaterGAP) with a river routing model (HydroROUT). We assessed the relative impact of individual and multiple dams regarding flow alteration and habitat fragmentation. In addition to a purely accessibility-driven fragmentation index, we implemented a set of indicators that include eco-hydrological classification schemes as well as species richness and diversity information. The model allows to include tailor-made weighting schemes to adjust dam impact assessment for more local conditions. Although our model is applicable worldwide at a high resolution (500m), we tested the indicator set in the Mekong

  7. Validity and reliability of self-assessed physical fitness using visual analogue scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøyer, Jesper; Essendrop, Morten; Jensen, Lone Donbaek

    2007-01-01

    To test the validity and reliability of self-assessed physical fitness samples included healthcare assistants working at a hospital (women=170, men=17), persons working with physically and mentally handicapped patients (women=530, men= 123), and two separate groups of healthcare students (a) women......=91 and men=5 and (b) women=159 and men=10. Five components of physical fitness were self-assessed by Visual Analogue Scales with illustrations and verbal anchors for the extremes: aerobic fitness, muscle strength, endurance, flexibility, and balance. Convergent and divergent validity were evaluated...... by age-adjusted correlations stratified by sex with performance-based measures of physical fitness. Self-assessed aerobic fitness (r = .36 - .64) (women/men), muscle strength (r = .30 - .51), and flexibility (r = .36 - .31) showed moderate convergent validity. The divergent validity was satisfactory...

  8. Empirical assessment of debris flow risk on a regional scale in Yunnan province, southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xilin; Yue, Zhong Qi; Tham, Lesliw George; Lee, Chack Fan

    2002-08-01

    Adopting the definition suggested by the United Nations, a risk model for regional debris flow assessment is presented. Risk is defined as the product of hazard and vulnerability, both of which are necessary for evaluation. A Multiple-Factor Composite Assessment Model is developed for quantifying regional debris flow hazard by taking into account eight variables that contribute to debris flow magnitude and its frequency of occurrence. Vulnerability is a measure of the potential total losses. On a regional scale, it can be measured by the fixed asset, gross domestic product, land resources, population density, as well as the age, education, and wealth of the inhabitants. A nonlinear power-function assessment model that accounts for these indexes is developed. As a case study, the model is applied to compute the hazard, vulnerability and risk for each prefecture of the Yunnan province in southwestern China.

  9. Clinical utility of Standardised Assessment of Personality - Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS) among patients with first episode depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Jens Drachmann; Bock, Camilla; Vinberg, Maj

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Personality disorder frequently co-occurs with depression and seems to be associated with a poorer outcome of treatment and increased risk for recurrences. However, the diagnosing of personality disorder can be lengthy and requires some training. Therefore, a brief screening interview...... for comorbid personality disorder among patients suffering from depression would be of clinical use. METHOD: The present study aimed to assess the utility of the Standardised Assessment of Personality - Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS) as a screen for personality disorder in a population of patients recently...... diagnosed with first episode depression. A total number of 394 patients with an ICD-10 diagnosis of a single depressive episode were sampled consecutively via the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register during a 2years inclusion period and assessed by the screening interview and, subsequently...

  10. Metrics for assessing the performance of morphodynamic models of braided rivers at event and reach scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard; Measures, Richard; Hicks, Murray; Brasington, James

    2017-04-01

    Advances in geomatics technologies have transformed the monitoring of reach-scale (100-101 km) river morphodynamics. Hyperscale Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) can now be acquired at temporal intervals that are commensurate with the frequencies of high-flow events that force morphological change. The low vertical errors associated with such DEMs enable DEMs of Difference (DoDs) to be generated to quantify patterns of erosion and deposition, and derive sediment budgets using the morphological approach. In parallel with reach-scale observational advances, high-resolution, two-dimensional, physics-based numerical morphodynamic models are now computationally feasible for unsteady, reach-scale simulations. In light of this observational and predictive progress, there is a need to identify appropriate metrics that can be extracted from DEMs and DoDs to assess model performance. Nowhere is this more pertinent than in braided river environments, where numerous mobile channels that intertwine around mid-channel bars result in complex patterns of erosion and deposition, thus making model assessment particularly challenging. This paper identifies and evaluates a range of morphological and morphological-change metrics that can be used to assess predictions of braided river morphodynamics at the timescale of single storm events. A depth-averaged, mixed-grainsize Delft3D morphodynamic model was used to simulate morphological change during four discrete high-flow events, ranging from 91 to 403 m3s-1, along a 2.5 x 0.7 km reach of the braided, gravel-bed Rees River, New Zealand. Pre- and post-event topographic surveys, using a fusion of Terrestrial Laser Scanning and optical-empirical bathymetric mapping, were used to produce 0.5 m resolution DEMs and DoDs. The pre- and post-event DEMs for a moderate (227m3s-1) high-flow event were used to calibrate the model. DEMs and DoDs from the other three high-flow events were used for model assessment using two approaches. First

  11. UPC Scaling-up methodology for Deterministic Safety Assessment and Support to Plant Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Quiroga, V.; Reventós, F.; Batet, Il.

    2015-07-01

    Best Estimate codes along with necessary nodalizations are widely used tools in nuclear engineering for both Deterministic Safety Assessment (DSA) and Support to Plant Operation and Control. In this framework, the application of quality assurance procedures in both codes and nodalizations becomes an essential step prior any significant study. Along these lines the present paper introduces the UPC SCUP, a systematic methodology based on the extrapolation of the Integral Test Facilities (ITF) post-test simulations by means of scaling analyses. In that sense, SCUP fulfills a gap in current nodalization qualification procedures, the related with the validation of NPP nodalizations for Design Basis Accidents conditions. Three are the pillars that support SCUP: judicial selection of the experimental transients, full confidence in the quality of the ITF simulations, and simplicity in justifying discrepancies that appear between ITF and NPP counterpart transients. The techniques that are presented include the socalled Kv scaled calculations as well as the use of two new approaches, ”Hybrid nodalizations” and ”Scaled-up nodalizations”. These last two methods have revealed themselves to be very helpful in producing the required qualification and in promoting further improvements in nodalization. The study of both LSTF and PKL counterpart tests have allowed to qualify the methodology by the comparison with experimental data. Post-test simulations at different sizes allowed to define which phenomena could be well reproduced by system codes and which not, in this way also establishing the basis for the extrapolation to an NPP scaled calculation. Furthermore, the application of the UPC SCUP methodology demonstrated that selected phenomena can be scaled-up and explained between counterpart simulations by carefully considering the differences in scale and design. (Author)

  12. Assessment of test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the Wisconsin Gait Scale in hemiparetic post-stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzik Agnieszka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A proper assessment of gait pattern is a significant aspect in planning the process of teaching gait in hemiparetic post-stroke patients. The Wisconsin Gait Scale (WGS is an observational tool for assessing post-stroke patients’ gait. The aim of the study was to assess test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the WGS and examine correlations between gait assessment made with the WGS and gait speed, Brunnström scale, Ashworth’s scale and the Barthel Index.

  13. Risk assessment of flood disaster and forewarning model at different spatial-temporal scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Jin, Juliang; Xu, Jinchao; Guo, Qizhong; Hang, Qingfeng; Chen, Yaqian

    2017-04-01

    Aiming at reducing losses from flood disaster, risk assessment of flood disaster and forewarning model is studied. The model is built upon risk indices in flood disaster system, proceeding from the whole structure and its parts at different spatial-temporal scales. In this study, on the one hand, it mainly establishes the long-term forewarning model for the surface area with three levels of prediction, evaluation, and forewarning. The method of structure-adaptive back-propagation neural network on peak identification is used to simulate indices in prediction sub-model. Set pair analysis is employed to calculate the connection degrees of a single index, comprehensive index, and systematic risk through the multivariate connection number, and the comprehensive assessment is made by assessment matrixes in evaluation sub-model. The comparison judging method is adopted to divide warning degree of flood disaster on risk assessment comprehensive index with forewarning standards in forewarning sub-model and then the long-term local conditions for proposing planning schemes. On the other hand, it mainly sets up the real-time forewarning model for the spot, which introduces the real-time correction technique of Kalman filter based on hydrological model with forewarning index, and then the real-time local conditions for presenting an emergency plan. This study takes Tunxi area, Huangshan City of China, as an example. After risk assessment and forewarning model establishment and application for flood disaster at different spatial-temporal scales between the actual and simulated data from 1989 to 2008, forewarning results show that the development trend for flood disaster risk remains a decline on the whole from 2009 to 2013, despite the rise in 2011. At the macroscopic level, project and non-project measures are advanced, while at the microcosmic level, the time, place, and method are listed. It suggests that the proposed model is feasible with theory and application, thus

  14. Assessing midwives' breastfeeding knowledge: Properties of the Newborn Feeding Ability questionnaire and Breastfeeding Initiation Practices scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantrill Ruth M

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few reliable and valid tools to assess lactation and infant feeding knowledge and practices. This study tested the psychometric properties of two new scales, the Newborn Feeding Ability (NFA questionnaire and Breastfeeding Initiation Practices (BIP scale to assess midwives' breastfeeding knowledge and practices specific to breastfeeding initiation. Methods A national postal survey of Australian midwives (n = 3500 was conducted in October 2001. Reliability was determined through Cronbach's alpha coefficient and stability determined by a test-retest. Content validity was established through a critical review of literature and review by an expert panel. Construct validity was informed by an exploratory factor analysis and principle component analysis with varimax rotation. Correlations between NFA and BKQ knowledge subscale scores and BIP and BKQ practice subscale scores assessed criterion validity. A multiple hierarchical regression analysis determined predictive validity of the NFA and BIP. Results A response rate of 31.6% (n = 1107 was achieved. Adequate internal consistency was established for both instruments. Five factors on the NFA questionnaire were congruent with knowledge about effects of skin-to-skin contact, physiological stability, newborn innate abilities, work practices and effective breastfeeding. The BIP revealed three factors related to observing pre-feeding behavior, mother/baby care and attachment and positioning practices. Predictive validity of knowledge was moderate (r = 0.481, p Conclusion The Newborn Feeding Ability questionnaire and the Breastfeeding Initiation Practices scale can contribute to practice development by assessing lactation and infant feeding knowledge and practice deficits. Individual learning needs can be identified, and effectiveness of education interventions evaluated using these tools. Further testing is required with other samples of midwives and health professionals

  15. The suicide assessment scale: Psychometric properties of a Norwegian language version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koldsland Bjørn

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rating scales are valuable tools in suicide research and can also be useful supplements to the clinical interview in suicide risk assessments. This study describes the psychometric properties of a Norwegian language version of the Suicide Assessment Scale Self-report version (SUAS-S. Methods Participants were fifty-two patients (mean age = 39.3 years, SD = 10.7 with major depression (53.8%, bipolar disorder (25.0% and/or a personality disorder (63.5% referred to a psychiatric outpatient clinic. The SUAS-S, the screening section of the Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation (BSS-5, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Beck’s Hopelessness Scale (BHS, the Symptom Check-List-90 R (SCL-90R and the Clinical Global Impression for Severity of Suicidality (CGI-SS were administered. One week later, the patients completed the SUAS-S a second time. Results Cronbach’s alpha for SUAS-S was 0.88 and the test–retest reliability was 0.95 (95% CI: 0.93– 0.97. SUAS-S was positively correlated with the BSS-5 (r = 0.66; 95% CI: 0.47–0.85 for the study sample as a whole and for the suicidal (r = 0.52 and non-suicidal groups (r = 0.50 respectively. There was no difference between the SUAS-S and the BSS-5 in the ability to identify suicidality. This ability was more pronounced when the suicide risk was high. There was a substantial intercorrelation between the score on the SUAS-S and the BDI (0.81 and the BHS (0.76. The sensitivity and specificity of the SUAS-S was explored and an appropriate clinical cut-off value was assessed. Conclusions The study revealed good internal consistency, test–retest reliability and concurrent validity for the Suicide Assessment Scale Self-report version. The discriminatory ability for suicidality was comparable to that of the BSS-5.

  16. Visual assessment of breast density using Visual Analogue Scales: observer variability, reader attributes and reading time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Teri; Harkness, Elaine F.; Maxwell, Anthony J.; Lim, Yit Y.; Emsley, Richard; Howell, Anthony; Evans, D. Gareth; Astley, Susan; Gadde, Soujanya

    2017-03-01

    Breast density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer and has potential use in breast cancer risk prediction, with subjective methods of density assessment providing a strong relationship with the development of breast cancer. This study aims to assess intra- and inter-observer variability in visual density assessment recorded on Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) among trained readers, and examine whether reader age, gender and experience are associated with assessed density. Eleven readers estimated the breast density of 120 mammograms on two occasions 3 years apart using VAS. Intra- and inter-observer agreement was assessed with Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and variation between readers visualised on Bland-Altman plots. The mean scores of all mammograms per reader were used to analyse the effect of reader attributes on assessed density. Excellent intra-observer agreement (ICC>0.80) was found in the majority of the readers. All but one reader had a mean difference of gender, or with reading time. Overall, the readers were consistent in their scores, although some large variations were observed. Reader evaluation and targeted training may alleviate this problem.

  17. Foraging Behaviour in Magellanic Woodpeckers Is Consistent with a Multi-Scale Assessment of Tree Quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo M Vergara

    Full Text Available Theoretical models predict that animals should make foraging decisions after assessing the quality of available habitat, but most models fail to consider the spatio-temporal scales at which animals perceive habitat availability. We tested three foraging strategies that explain how Magellanic woodpeckers (Campephilus magellanicus assess the relative quality of trees: 1 Woodpeckers with local knowledge select trees based on the available trees in the immediate vicinity. 2 Woodpeckers lacking local knowledge select trees based on their availability at previously visited locations. 3 Woodpeckers using information from long-term memory select trees based on knowledge about trees available within the entire landscape. We observed foraging woodpeckers and used a Brownian Bridge Movement Model to identify trees available to woodpeckers along foraging routes. Woodpeckers selected trees with a later decay stage than available trees. Selection models indicated that preferences of Magellanic woodpeckers were based on clusters of trees near the most recently visited trees, thus suggesting that woodpeckers use visual cues from neighboring trees. In a second analysis, Cox's proportional hazards models showed that woodpeckers used information consolidated across broader spatial scales to adjust tree residence times. Specifically, woodpeckers spent more time at trees with larger diameters and in a more advanced stage of decay than trees available along their routes. These results suggest that Magellanic woodpeckers make foraging decisions based on the relative quality of trees that they perceive and memorize information at different spatio-temporal scales.

  18. Translation and transcultural adaptation of Pain Quality Assessment Scale (PQAS) to Brazilian version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Anamada Barros; Garcia, João Batista Santos; Silva, Thayanne Kelly Muniz; Ribeiro, João Victor Fonseca

    2016-01-01

    Most cancer patients are treated with chemotherapy, and peripheral neuropathy is a serious and common clinical problem affecting patients undergoing cancer treatment. However, the symptoms are subjective and underdiagnosed by health professionals. Thus, it becomes necessary to develop self-report instruments to overcome this limitation and improve the patient's perception about his medical condition or treatment. Translate and culturally adapt the Brazilian version of the Pain Quality Assessment Scale, constituting a useful tool for assessing the quality of neuropathic pain in cancer patients. The procedure followed the steps of translation, back translation, analysis of Portuguese and English versions by a committee of judges, and pretest. Pretest was conducted with 30 cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy following internationally recommended standards, and the final versions were compared and evaluated by a committee of researchers from Brazil and MAPI Research Trust, the scale's creators. Versions one and two showed 100% semantic equivalence with the original version. Back-translation showed difference between the linguistic translation and the original version. After evaluation by the committee of judges, a flaw was found in the empirical equivalence and idiomatic equivalence. In pretest, two people did not understand the item 12 of the scale, without interfering in the final elaboration. The translated and culturally adapted instrument is now presented in this publication, and currently it is in the process of clinical validation in Brazil. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. The use of test scores from large-scale assessment surveys: psychometric and statistical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Braun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economists are making increasing use of measures of student achievement obtained through large-scale survey assessments such as NAEP, TIMSS, and PISA. The construction of these measures, employing plausible value (PV methodology, is quite different from that of the more familiar test scores associated with assessments such as the SAT or ACT. These differences have important implications both for utilization and interpretation. Although much has been written about PVs, it appears that there are still misconceptions about whether and how to employ them in secondary analyses. Methods We address a range of technical issues, including those raised in a recent article that was written to inform economists using these databases. First, an extensive review of the relevant literature was conducted, with particular attention to key publications that describe the derivation and psychometric characteristics of such achievement measures. Second, a simulation study was carried out to compare the statistical properties of estimates based on the use of PVs with those based on other, commonly used methods. Results It is shown, through both theoretical analysis and simulation, that under fairly general conditions appropriate use of PV yields approximately unbiased estimates of model parameters in regression analyses of large scale survey data. The superiority of the PV methodology is particularly evident when measures of student achievement are employed as explanatory variables. Conclusions The PV methodology used to report student test performance in large scale surveys remains the state-of-the-art for secondary analyses of these databases.

  20. Impact of modelling scale on probabilistic flood risk assessment: the Malawi case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudari Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the early months of 2015, destructive floods hit Malawi, causing deaths and economic losses. Flood risk assessment outcomes can be used to increase scientific-supported awareness of risk. The recent increase in availability of high resolution data such as TanDEM-X at 12m resolution makes possible the use of detailed physical based flood hazard models in risk assessment. Nonetheless the scale of hazard modelling still remains an issue, which requires a compromise between level of detail and computational efforts. This work presents two different approaches on hazard modelling. Both methods rely on 32-years of numeric weather re-analysis and rainfall-runoff transformation through a fully distributed WFLOW-type hydrological model. The first method, applied at national scale, uses fast post-processing routines, which estimate flood water depth at a resolution of about 1×1km. The second method applies a full 2D hydraulic model to propagate water discharge into the flood plains and best suites for small areas where assets are concentrated. At the 12m resolution, three hot spots with a model area of approximately 10×10 km are analysed. Flood hazard maps obtained with both approaches are combined with flood impact models at the same resolution to generate indicators for flood risk. A quantitative comparison of the two approaches is presented in order to show the effects of modelling scale on both hazard and impact losses.

  1. An Integrated Assessment Approach to Address Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niladri Basu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM is growing in many regions of the world including Ghana. The problems in these communities are complex and multi-faceted. To help increase understanding of such problems, and to enable consensus-building and effective translation of scientific findings to stakeholders, help inform policies, and ultimately improve decision making, we utilized an Integrated Assessment approach to study artisanal and small-scale gold mining activities in Ghana. Though Integrated Assessments have been used in the fields of environmental science and sustainable development, their use in addressing specific matter in public health, and in particular, environmental and occupational health is quite limited despite their many benefits. The aim of the current paper was to describe specific activities undertaken and how they were organized, and the outputs and outcomes of our activity. In brief, three disciplinary workgroups (Natural Sciences, Human Health, Social Sciences and Economics were formed, with 26 researchers from a range of Ghanaian institutions plus international experts. The workgroups conducted activities in order to address the following question: What are the causes, consequences and correctives of small-scale gold mining in Ghana? More specifically: What alternatives are available in resource-limited settings in Ghana that allow for gold-mining to occur in a manner that maintains ecological health and human health without hindering near- and long-term economic prosperity? Several response options were identified and evaluated, and are currently being disseminated to various stakeholders within Ghana and internationally.

  2. A preliminary psychometric evaluation of Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Orii; Orgeta, Vasiliki; Ridder, Hanne Mette; Orrell, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS), an observational outcome measure for music therapy with people with moderate to severe dementia, was developed from qualitative data of focus groups and interviews. Expert and peer consultations were conducted at each stage of the scale development to maximize its content validity. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of MiDAS. Care home residents with dementia attended weekly group music therapy for up to ten sessions. Music therapists and care home staff were requested to complete weekly MiDAS ratings. The Quality of Life Scale (QoL-AD) was completed at three time-points. A total of 629 (staff = 306, therapist = 323) MiDAS forms were completed. The statistical analysis revealed that MiDAS has high therapist inter-rater reliability, low staff inter-rater reliability, adequate staff test-retest reliability, adequate concurrent validity, and good construct validity. High factor loadings between the five MiDAS Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) items, levels of Interest, Response, Initiation, Involvement, and Enjoyment, were found. This study indicates that MiDAS has good psychometric properties despite the small sample size. Future research with a larger sample size could provide a more in-depth psychometric evaluation, including further exploration of the underlying factors. MiDAS provides a measure of engagement with musical experience and offers insight into who is likely to benefit on other outcomes such as quality of life or reduction in psychiatric symptoms.

  3. Assessment of dispositional and contextual variables in educational settings: IEPA and AYES scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchini Estrada, José A; González-Pienda, Julio A; Méndez-Giménez, Antonio; Fernández-Río, Javier; Fernández-Losa, Jorge L; González González-Mesa, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that there are a few instruments designed to measure dispositional and contextual variables in educational contexts, the goal of this study is to elaborate and validate two questionnaires to measure learning interest, effort and progression as dispositional (IEPA) and contextual (AYEs) variables in secondary education students. An initial version of both scales was developed. They were reviewed by a panel of experts and tested on two pilot studies. The final versions were administered to the described sample and their psychometric properties were tested. Factor analyses (exploratory and confirmatory) were conducted on three sets of data: Mathematics (n = 290), Spanish Language and Literature (n = 283), and Physical Education (n = 289). Both final scales had three dimensions with four items in each dimension. All standardized loads and critical values of t were overwhelmingly positive, while alpha coefficients ranged from .85 to .91. Both scales showed adequate construct validity, convergent validity, discriminant validity and concurrent validity. Results showed that these new scales have adequate psychometric properties, allowing a valid and reliable assessment.

  4. Assessment of Small-scale Buffalo Milk Dairy Production-A Premise for a Durable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian MIHAIU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo husbandry is an important source of income for a number of small-scale producers in Romania that is why an assessment of its� product�s quality is much needed for improvement and evaluation of their vulnerability to international competition. In order to ascertain possible developments in the buffalo dairy sector and to broadly identify areas of intervention that favor small-scale dairy producers, the study examined the potential to improve buffalo milk production by evaluating its authenticity and hygienic quality. The methods used involved the molecular testing (PCR-technique for identifying cow, sheep or goat DNA in the dairy products� samples collected from the small-scale producers market. The hygienic quality of these samples was determined through classical microbiology methods, highly developed techniques (Trek System and PCR for bacterial species confirmation. The results showed that a high percent (65%, from the products found were adulterated with other species milk, mostly cow milk. The most commonly falsified buffalo dairy products were the cheese and the traditional product �telemea�. The prevalence of the bacterial species identified belonged to Listeria innocua and Listeria welshmeri. The conclusion of this study is the need of a durable development system in this particular dairy chain to improve and assure the authenticity and quality of the small-scale producers� products and their reliability for the consumers.

  5. Assessment of Small-scale Buffalo Milk Dairy Production-A Premise for a Durable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian MIHAIU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo husbandry is an important source of income for a number of small-scale producers in Romania that is why an assessment of its products quality is much needed for improvement and evaluation of their vulnerability to international competition. In order to ascertain possible developments in the buffalo dairy sector and to broadly identify areas of intervention that favor small-scale dairy producers, the study examined the potential to improve buffalo milk production by evaluating its authenticity and hygienic quality. The methods used involved the molecular testing (PCR-technique for identifying cow, sheep or goat DNA in the dairy products samples collected from the small-scale producers market. The hygienic quality of these samples was determined through classical microbiology methods, highly developed techniques (Trek System and PCR for bacterial species confirmation. The results showed that a high percent (65%, from the products found were adulterated with other species milk, mostly cow milk. The most commonly falsified buffalo dairy products were the cheese and the traditional product telemea. The prevalence of the bacterial species identified belonged to Listeria innocua and Listeria welshmeri. The conclusion of this study is the need of a durable development system in this particular dairy chain to improve and assure the authenticity and quality of the small-scale producers products and their reliability for the consumers.

  6. Assessment of snow-dominated water resources: (Ir-)relevant scales for observation and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefli, Bettina; Ceperley, Natalie; Michelon, Anthony; Larsen, Joshua; Beria, Harsh

    2017-04-01

    High Alpine catchments play an essential role for many world regions since they 1) provide water resources to low lying and often relatively dry regions, 2) are important for hydropower production as a result of their high hydraulic heads, 3) offer relatively undisturbed habitat for fauna and flora and 4) provide a source of cold water often late into the summer season (due to snowmelt), which is essential for many downstream river ecosystems. However, the water balance of such high Alpine hydrological systems is often difficult to accurately estimate, in part because of seasonal to interannual accumulation of precipitation in the form of snow and ice and by relatively low but highly seasonal evapotranspiration rates. These processes are strongly driven by the topography and related vegetation patterns, by air temperature gradients, solar radiation and wind patterns. Based on selected examples, we will discuss how the spatial scale of these patterns dictates at which scales we can make reliable water balance assessments. Overall, this contribution will provide an overview of some of the key open questions in terms of observing and modelling the dominant hydrological processes in Alpine areas at the right scale. A particular focus will be on the observation and modelling of snow accumulation and melt processes, discussing in particular the usefulness of simple models versus fully physical models at different spatial scales and the role of observed data.

  7. The Vitiligo Impact Patient Scale (VIPs): Development and Validation of a Vitiligo Burden Assessment Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzes, Camille; Abadie, Sophie; Seneschal, Julien; Whitton, Maxine; Meurant, Jean-Marie; Jouary, Thomas; Ballanger, Fabienne; Boralevi, Franck; Taieb, Alain; Taieb, Charles; Ezzedine, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo has a major impact on health-related quality of life. Although a few vitiligo-specific quality of life instruments exist, there is no specific vitiligo burden tool. We developed and validated a specific vitiligo burden tool according to skin phototype. In total, 301 patients completed 35 items of the Vitiligo Impact Patient scale, of whom 235 were of skin phototype I to III and 66 of phototype IV to VI. The dimensionality of the items was evaluated using factor analyses, with results suggesting three factors in fair- and dark-skinned patients ("Psychological effects on daily life," "Relationships and Sexuality," and "Economic Constraints, Care & Management of Disease"). Unidimensionality was confirmed by higher order factor analysis. Cronbach's α were high-and intradimensional coherences all demonstrated good reliability (α > 0.8). The final instrument consists of 29 items (19 items common to all patients, 3 specific to fair skin, and 7 to dark skin). The test-retest reliability demonstrated very good reproducibility. The intraclass correlation of each dimension was greater than 0.90 for each population. External validity was confirmed by the correlation coefficients and Bland and Altman plots of the Vitiligo Impact Patient scale-Fair Skin and Vitiligo Impact Patient scale-Dark Skin versus the Short-Form-12, PVC Metra, Body Image States Scale, and Daily Life Quality Index assessment tools. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Coastal erosion risk assessment using natural and human factors in different scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrakis, George; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Climate change, including sea-level rise and increasing storms, raise the threats of coastal erosion. Mitigating and adapting to coastal erosion risks in areas of human interest, like urban areas, culture heritage sites, and areas of economic interest, present a major challenge for society. In this context, decision making needs to be based in reliable risk assessment that includes environmental, social and economic factors. By integrating coastal hazard and risk assessments maps into coastal management plans, risks in areas of interest can be reduced. To address this, the vulnerability of the coast to sea level rise and associated erosion, in terms of expected land loss and socioeconomic importance need to be identified. A holistic risk assessment based in environmental, socioeconomic and economics approach can provide managers information how to mitigate the impact of coastal erosion and plan protection measures. Such an approach needs to consider social, economic and environmental factors, which interactions can be better assessed when distributed and analysed along the geographical space. In this work, estimations of climate change impact to coastline are based on a combination of environmental and economic data analysed in a GIS database. The risk assessment is implemented through the estimation of the vulnerability and exposure variables of the coast in two scales. The larger scale estimates the vulnerability in a regional level, with the use environmental factors with the use of CVI. The exposure variable is estimated by the use of socioeconomic factors. Subsequently, a smaller scale focuses on highly vulnerable beaches with high social and economic value. The vulnerability assessment of the natural processes to the environmental characteristics of the beach is estimated with the use of the Beach Vulnerability Index. As exposure variable, the value of beach width that is capitalized in revenues is implemented through a hedonic pricing model. In this

  9. Assessment of the spatial scaling behaviour of floods in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formetta, Giuseppe; Stewart, Elizabeth; Bell, Victoria

    2017-04-01

    Floods are among the most dangerous natural hazards, causing loss of life and significant damage to private and public property. Regional flood-frequency analysis (FFA) methods are essential tools to assess the flood hazard and plan interventions for its mitigation. FFA methods are often based on the well-known index flood method that assumes the invariance of the coefficient of variation of floods with drainage area. This assumption is equivalent to the simple scaling or self-similarity assumption for peak floods, i.e. their spatial structure remains similar in a particular, relatively simple, way to itself over a range of scales. Spatial scaling of floods has been evaluated at national scale for different countries such as Canada, USA, and Australia. According our knowledge. Such a study has not been conducted for the United Kingdom even though the standard FFA method there is based on the index flood assumption. In this work we present an integrated approach to assess of the spatial scaling behaviour of floods in the United Kingdom using three different methods: product moments (PM), probability weighted moments (PWM), and quantile analysis (QA). We analyse both instantaneous and daily annual observed maximum floods and performed our analysis both across the entire country and in its sub-climatic regions as defined in the Flood Studies Report (NERC, 1975). To evaluate the relationship between the k-th moments or quantiles and the drainage area we used both regression with area alone and multiple regression considering other explanatory variables to account for the geomorphology, amount of rainfall, and soil type of the catchments. The latter multiple regression approach was only recently demonstrated being more robust than the traditional regression with area alone that can lead to biased estimates of scaling exponents and misinterpretation of spatial scaling behaviour. We tested our framework on almost 600 rural catchments in UK considered as entire region and

  10. Landslide susceptibility assessment in the Pays d'Auge plateau (Normandy, France): application at different scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fressard, M.; Thiery, Y.; Maquaire, O.

    2012-04-01

    This research takes place in the hilly valleys of the Pays d'Auge where few scientific works have been conducted on landslide risk in spite of the activity of the processes. Moreover, the local authorities are still lacking operational mapping resources in order to improve the landuse planning and risk reduction. The susceptibility or hazard maps performed by statistical approaches can sometimes be difficult to understand by end-users. Therefore, they usually prefer to work with direct methods (i.e. expert mapping), even if they are often considered as subjective by scientists. Independently of the mapping method, it is difficult to obtain rapidly susceptibility maps on large areas that fit to the operational scale. These small scale maps are often not accepted by end-users, particularly because of the lack of accuracy of the available datasets. Then, this presentation focus on the production of landslide susceptibility maps at different scales, using GIS as a first stage towards operational landslide hazard assessment. The main objective is to show the research process coupling the geomorphological approach and the statistical modelling. This study is splitted in three major steps: (1) a geomorphological approach at the landslide scale; (2) a landslide susceptibility mapping at regional scale; and finally (3) a landslide susceptibility mapping at detailed scale. (1) Due to the lack of bibliographical and expert references on the existing landslides in this area, a first geomorphological study was conducted in order to build a landslide inventory with a detailed typology. Then, for each landslide type, the predisposing and triggering factors were defined. This first step is essential in order to supply the geomorphologist's expert opinion on this specific site. (2) These observations on predisposing factors were formalized into a heuristic model (SMCE) in order to assess the regional landslide susceptibility at small scale i.e. 1/100.000. In this case, only simple

  11. The German version of the Individualized Care Scaleassessing validity and reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köberich, Stefan; Suhonen, Riitta; Feuchtinger, Johanna; Farin, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Aim To assess validity and reliability of the German version of the Individualized Care Scale (ICS). Background Individualized nursing care plays a pivotal role in establishing patient-centered care. To assess individualized nursing care and to compare it in different settings and countries, valid and reliable instruments are needed. No psychometric-tested instrument for comparing individualized nursing care with other countries is available in Germany. Design Cross-sectional study. Methods Data were collected between September 2013 and June 2014 from 606 patients in 20 wards in five hospitals across Germany. Unidimensionality of the ICS scales ICSA (patients’ views on how individuality is supported through nursing interventions) and ICSB (patients’ perceptions of individualized nursing care) was analyzed by confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency was assessed by calculating Cronbach’s alpha. The Smoliner Scale (patients’ perceptions of the decision-making process in nursing care) and results from participating hospitals’ assessment of the nursing care delivery systems were used to assess known-groups validity and concurrent validity. Results Fit indices of confirmatory factor analysis indicate unidimensionality of the ICSA (Comparative Fit Index: 0.92; Tucker-Lewis Index: 0.902; root mean square error of approximation: 0.09; standardized root mean square residual: 0.05) and the ICSB (Comparative Fit Index: 0.91; Tucker-Lewis Index: 0.89; root mean square error of approximation: 0.09; standardized root mean square residual: 0.05). Internal consistency using Cronbach’s alpha was 0.95 (95% confidence interval: 0.94–0.95) for ICSA and 0.93 (95% confidence interval: 0.92–0.94) for the ICSB. Concurrent validity was established by a significant relationship between the Smoliner Scale and ICSA (r=0.66; Pnursing care delivery systems and patients’ perceptions of decision-making style. Conclusion The German version of the ICS is deemed a valid

  12. A preliminary psychometric evaluation of Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDermott, Orii; Orgeta, Vasiliki; Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2014-01-01

    Background: Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS), an observational outcome measure for music therapy with people with moderate to severe dementia, was developed from qualitative data of focus groups and interviews. Expert and peer consultations were conducted at each stage of the scale...... development to maximize its content validity. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of MiDAS. Methods: Care home residents with dementia attended weekly group music therapy for up to ten sessions. Music therapists and care home staff were requested to complete weekly MiDAS ratings...... despite the small sample size. Future research with a larger sample size could provide a more in-depth psychometric evaluation, including further exploration of the underlying factors. MiDAS provides a measure of engagement with musical experience and offers insight into who is likely to benefit on other...

  13. Assessing flood risk at the global scale: model setup, results, and sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Philip J.; Jongman, Brenden; Sperna Weiland, Frederiek; Bouwman, Arno; van Beek, Rens; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; Ligtvoet, Willem; Winsemius, Hessel C.

    2013-12-01

    Globally, economic losses from flooding exceeded 19 billion in 2012, and are rising rapidly. Hence, there is an increasing need for global-scale flood risk assessments, also within the context of integrated global assessments. We have developed and validated a model cascade for producing global flood risk maps, based on numerous flood return-periods. Validation results indicate that the model simulates interannual fluctuations in flood impacts well. The cascade involves: hydrological and hydraulic modelling; extreme value statistics; inundation modelling; flood impact modelling; and estimating annual expected impacts. The initial results estimate global impacts for several indicators, for example annual expected exposed population (169 million); and annual expected exposed GDP (1383 billion). These results are relatively insensitive to the extreme value distribution employed to estimate low frequency flood volumes. However, they are extremely sensitive to the assumed flood protection standard; developing a database of such standards should be a research priority. Also, results are sensitive to the use of two different climate forcing datasets. The impact model can easily accommodate new, user-defined, impact indicators. We envisage several applications, for example: identifying risk hotspots; calculating macro-scale risk for the insurance industry and large companies; and assessing potential benefits (and costs) of adaptation measures.

  14. Assessing DUI risk: examination of the Behaviors & Attitudes Drinking & Driving Scale (BADDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Jeremy D; Hupp, Stephen D A; Segrist, Daniel J

    2008-07-01

    Despite research findings indicating attitudinal differences among drivers with and without a history of driving under the influence (DUI) offenses, there are no well-established instruments specifically designed to clinically assess drinking and driving attitudes and behaviors among adults. The purpose of this current series of three studies was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Behaviors & Attitudes Drinking & Driving Scale (BADDS). The BADDS was developed in previous studies by the authors and assesses respondents' rationalizations for drinking and driving, likelihood of future drinking and driving, drinking and driving behaviors, and riding with a drinking driver behavior in the previous month. Study 1 (N=179) and Study 2 (N=338) assessed college participants, while Study 3 gathered data from adult DUI offenders (N=160) and non-DUI offenders (N=166). Results indicate good to excellent test-retest reliability and internal consistency estimates for BADDS scale scores. Support for the construct validity as well as concurrent and predictive criterion validity of BADDS scores was also demonstrated. Potential applications for the measure, as well as need for future research are described.

  15. A sensitive scale to assess nociceptive pain in patients with disorders of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelle, Camille; Majerus, Steve; Whyte, John; Laureys, Steven; Schnakers, Caroline

    2012-12-01

    To determine the sensitivity of the Nociception Coma Scale (NCS), the first scale developed to assess nociceptive pain in vegetative state and minimally conscious state patients, in comparing behavioural changes in response to noxious versus non-noxious stimulation. The NCS was administered to assess patients' responses in three conditions: (1) baseline (observation of spontaneous behaviours), (2) non-noxious/tactile stimulation (taps on the patient's shoulder), and (3) noxious stimulation (pressure on the nail bed). We included 64 patients (27 vegetative state and 37 minimally conscious state; age range 20-82 years; 22 traumatic brain injury; 21 in the acute stage). The NCS total scores and subscores (motor, verbal and facial) were higher for the noxious versus the non-noxious stimulation conditions. We did not observe a difference between the non-noxious and the noxious stimulation conditions for the visual subscale. We also found a NCS cut-off value of 4 differentiating the patients receiving a noxious stimulation from patients receiving a non-noxious stimulation. The exclusion of the visual subscale increased the cut-off sensitivity (from 46% to 73%; specificity of 97% and accuracy of 85%). We propose a new version of the NCS excluding the visual subscale, the NCS-R, which constitutes a highly sensitive tool to assess responses to nociceptive pain in severely brain injured patients.

  16. A Methodology for Integrated, Multiregional Life Cycle Assessment Scenarios under Large-Scale Technological Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibon, Thomas; Wood, Richard; Arvesen, Anders; Bergesen, Joseph D; Suh, Sangwon; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2015-09-15

    Climate change mitigation demands large-scale technological change on a global level and, if successfully implemented, will significantly affect how products and services are produced and consumed. In order to anticipate the life cycle environmental impacts of products under climate mitigation scenarios, we present the modeling framework of an integrated hybrid life cycle assessment model covering nine world regions. Life cycle assessment databases and multiregional input-output tables are adapted using forecasted changes in technology and resources up to 2050 under a 2 °C scenario. We call the result of this modeling "technology hybridized environmental-economic model with integrated scenarios" (THEMIS). As a case study, we apply THEMIS in an integrated environmental assessment of concentrating solar power. Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions for this plant range from 33 to 95 g CO2 eq./kWh across different world regions in 2010, falling to 30-87 g CO2 eq./kWh in 2050. Using regional life cycle data yields insightful results. More generally, these results also highlight the need for systematic life cycle frameworks that capture the actual consequences and feedback effects of large-scale policies in the long term.

  17. Market Assessment of Biomass Gasification and Combustion Technology for Small- and Medium-Scale Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, D.; Haase, S.

    2009-07-01

    This report provides a market assessment of gasification and direct combustion technologies that use wood and agricultural resources to generate heat, power, or combined heat and power (CHP) for small- to medium-scale applications. It contains a brief overview of wood and agricultural resources in the U.S.; a description and discussion of gasification and combustion conversion technologies that utilize solid biomass to generate heat, power, and CHP; an assessment of the commercial status of gasification and combustion technologies; a summary of gasification and combustion system economics; a discussion of the market potential for small- to medium-scale gasification and combustion systems; and an inventory of direct combustion system suppliers and gasification technology companies. The report indicates that while direct combustion and close-coupled gasification boiler systems used to generate heat, power, or CHP are commercially available from a number of manufacturers, two-stage gasification systems are largely in development, with a number of technologies currently in demonstration. The report also cites the need for a searchable, comprehensive database of operating combustion and gasification systems that generate heat, power, or CHP built in the U.S., as well as a national assessment of the market potential for the systems.

  18. Enabling Wide-Scale Computer Science Education through Improved Automated Assessment Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boe, Bryce A.

    There is a proliferating demand for newly trained computer scientists as the number of computer science related jobs continues to increase. University programs will only be able to train enough new computer scientists to meet this demand when two things happen: when there are more primary and secondary school students interested in computer science, and when university departments have the resources to handle the resulting increase in enrollment. To meet these goals, significant effort is being made to both incorporate computational thinking into existing primary school education, and to support larger university computer science class sizes. We contribute to this effort through the creation and use of improved automated assessment tools. To enable wide-scale computer science education we do two things. First, we create a framework called Hairball to support the static analysis of Scratch programs targeted for fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students. Scratch is a popular building-block language utilized to pique interest in and teach the basics of computer science. We observe that Hairball allows for rapid curriculum alterations and thus contributes to wide-scale deployment of computer science curriculum. Second, we create a real-time feedback and assessment system utilized in university computer science classes to provide better feedback to students while reducing assessment time. Insights from our analysis of student submission data show that modifications to the system configuration support the way students learn and progress through course material, making it possible for instructors to tailor assignments to optimize learning in growing computer science classes.

  19. Adapting and Validating the Family Resilience Assessment Scale in an Afrikaans Rural Community in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Serena Ann; Roman, Nicolette Vanessa; Savahl, Shazly; Sui, Xin-Cheng

    2018-01-01

    A family resilience framework understands families as having the potential to not only face adversities but to overcome them; although its measurement is not always agreed upon. The aim of this study is to explain the processes involved in the adaptation of the 54-item family resilience assessment scale into Afrikaans, and to further examine its psychometric properties. Data were collected via the door-to-door method with the assistance of fieldworkers in two rounds. The pilot sample included 82 participants whilst the larger study included 656 participants. The internal consistency and construct validity was assessed using Cronbach's alphas and Exploratory Factor Analysis implementing a Principal Component Analysis and Promax rotation, respectively. The factors which were found are similar to those of Sixbey's, however, a new factor emerged replacing Maintaining a positive outlook which was named Family and community outlook. The processes described in this study facilitated the assessment of the feasibility and efficiency of the full-scale study and reduced the number of unanticipated problems associated with large sample data collection particularly using fieldworkers.

  20. Do large-scale assessments measure students' ability to integrate scientific knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee-Sun

    2010-03-01

    Large-scale assessments are used as means to diagnose the current status of student achievement in science and compare students across schools, states, and countries. For efficiency, multiple-choice items and dichotomously-scored open-ended items are pervasively used in large-scale assessments such as Trends in International Math and Science Study (TIMSS). This study investigated how well these items measure secondary school students' ability to integrate scientific knowledge. This study collected responses of 8400 students to 116 multiple-choice and 84 open-ended items and applied an Item Response Theory analysis based on the Rasch Partial Credit Model. Results indicate that most multiple-choice items and dichotomously-scored open-ended items can be used to determine whether students have normative ideas about science topics, but cannot measure whether students integrate multiple pieces of relevant science ideas. Only when the scoring rubric is redesigned to capture subtle nuances of student open-ended responses, open-ended items become a valid and reliable tool to assess students' knowledge integration ability.

  1. Modelling of Source Areas and Runout for Debris Flow Susceptibility Assessment at Regional Scale (Norway)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiorre, Caterina; Stalsberg, Knut; Horton, Pascal

    2010-05-01

    This contribution focuses on combined methods to map debris flow susceptibility at regional scale. Classification of watersheds and an index approach framework, based on topographic/hydrological characteristics, was used to discriminate debris flow source areas, whereas runout areas were assessed by means of an energy-limited model coupled with a routing algorithm based on the random walk concept. Those methods were tested at basin scale in the Balsfjord municipality in northern Norway, where debris flows frequently affect road transportation. For this area a DEM at 5 m, a quaternary map at 5:000, and a map of debris flow tracks and source areas at 5:000 are available. The classification of watersheds was performed first by extracting attributes related to sediment production and internal relief, and then by means of multivariate analysis. The selection of source area cells was done only on debris flow watersheds by following an index approach framework. The runout model was then executed on those cells. The model uses hydrological routines to calculate the runout path and empirical relationship of debris flow trajectories to assess the runout distance. A preliminary analysis of the results shows that circa 90% or the debris flow watersheds were correctly classified. A good correlation between mapped and modelled source and runout areas was found. Future work will consist of evaluating different strategies to quantitatively assess the quality of the obtained susceptibility map. A complete validation of the model is difficult due to the sparse information on debris flows in the area.

  2. Validity and reliability assessment of the Brazilian version of the game addiction scale (GAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Igor Lins; Cardoso, Adriana; Sougey, Everton Botelho

    2016-05-01

    The uncontrolled use of video games can be addictive. The Game Addiction Scale (GAS) is an instrument that was developed to assess this type of addiction. The GAS consists of 21 items that are divided into the following seven factors: salience, tolerance, mood modification, relapse, withdrawal, conflict and problems. This study assessed the convergent validity and reliability of the GAS according to measures of internal consistency and test-retest stability. Three hundred and eighty four students completed the GAS, the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Video Game Addiction Test (VAT). A subgroup of the participants (n=76) completed the GAS again after 30days to determine test-retest stability. The GAS demonstrated excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.92), was highly correlated with the VAT (r=0.883) and was moderately correlated with the BDI (r=0.358), the LSAS (r=0.326) and the IAT (r=0.454). In the Brazilian Portuguese population, the GAS shows good internal consistency. These data indicate that the GAS can be used to assess video game addiction due to its demonstrated psychometric validity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessing repeatability and validity of a visual analogue scale questionnaire for use in assessing pain and lameness in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Jonathan T; Slater, Margaret R; Taylor, Lathrop; Scott, H Morgan; Kerwin, Sharon C

    2004-12-01

    To develop a visual analogue scale (VAS) questionnaire that is repeatable and valid for use in assessing pain and lameness in dogs. 48 client-owned dogs with mild to moderate lameness. The dogs were from 3 studies conducted during a 3-year period. Of the 48 dogs, 19 were used in repeatability assessment, 48 were used in principal component analysis, and 44 were used in model selection procedures and validity testing. A test-retest measure of repeatability was conducted on dogs with a change of validity of the questionnaire. 19 of 39 questions were found to be repeatable on the basis of a Spearman rank-correlation cut point of > 0.6. Model selection procedures resulted in 3 overlapping subsets of questions that were considered valid representations of the forces measured (vertical peak, vertical impulse, and propulsion peak). Each reduced model fit the data as well as the full model. The VAS questionnaire was repeatable and valid for use in assessing the degree of mild to moderate lameness in dogs.

  4. Cut points on 0-10 numeric rating scales for symptoms included in the edmonton symptom assessment scale in cancer patients: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Oldenmenger, Wendy; Raaf, Pleun; Klerk, Cora; Rijt, Carin

    2013-01-01

    textabstractContext: To improve the management of cancer-related symptoms, systematic screening is necessary, often performed by using 0-10 numeric rating scales. Cut points are used to determine if scores represent clinically relevant burden. Objectives: The aim of this systematic review was to explore the evidence on cut points for the symptoms of the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale. Methods: Relevant literature was searched in PubMed, CINAHL®, Embase, and PsycINFO®. We defined a cut poin...

  5. Informing species conservation at multiple scales using data collected for marine mammal stock assessments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Grech

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Conservation planning and the design of marine protected areas (MPAs requires spatially explicit information on the distribution of ecological features. Most species of marine mammals range over large areas and across multiple planning regions. The spatial distributions of marine mammals are difficult to predict using habitat modelling at ecological scales because of insufficient understanding of their habitat needs, however, relevant information may be available from surveys conducted to inform mandatory stock assessments. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: We use a 20-year time series of systematic aerial surveys of dugong (Dugong dugong abundance to create spatially-explicit models of dugong distribution and relative density at the scale of the coastal waters of northeast Australia (∼136,000 km(2. We interpolated the corrected data at the scale of 2 km * 2 km planning units using geostatistics. Planning units were classified as low, medium, high and very high dugong density on the basis of the relative density of dugongs estimated from the models and a frequency analysis. Torres Strait was identified as the most significant dugong habitat in northeast Australia and the most globally significant habitat known for any member of the Order Sirenia. The models are used by local, State and Federal agencies to inform management decisions related to the Indigenous harvest of dugongs, gill-net fisheries and Australia's National Representative System of Marine Protected Areas. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: In this paper we demonstrate that spatially-explicit population models add value to data collected for stock assessments, provide a robust alternative to predictive habitat distribution models, and inform species conservation at multiple scales.

  6. Informing species conservation at multiple scales using data collected for marine mammal stock assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Alana; Sheppard, James; Marsh, Helene

    2011-03-28

    Conservation planning and the design of marine protected areas (MPAs) requires spatially explicit information on the distribution of ecological features. Most species of marine mammals range over large areas and across multiple planning regions. The spatial distributions of marine mammals are difficult to predict using habitat modelling at ecological scales because of insufficient understanding of their habitat needs, however, relevant information may be available from surveys conducted to inform mandatory stock assessments. We use a 20-year time series of systematic aerial surveys of dugong (Dugong dugong) abundance to create spatially-explicit models of dugong distribution and relative density at the scale of the coastal waters of northeast Australia (∼136,000 km(2)). We interpolated the corrected data at the scale of 2 km * 2 km planning units using geostatistics. Planning units were classified as low, medium, high and very high dugong density on the basis of the relative density of dugongs estimated from the models and a frequency analysis. Torres Strait was identified as the most significant dugong habitat in northeast Australia and the most globally significant habitat known for any member of the Order Sirenia. The models are used by local, State and Federal agencies to inform management decisions related to the Indigenous harvest of dugongs, gill-net fisheries and Australia's National Representative System of Marine Protected Areas. In this paper we demonstrate that spatially-explicit population models add value to data collected for stock assessments, provide a robust alternative to predictive habitat distribution models, and inform species conservation at multiple scales.

  7. How to assess common somatic symptoms in large-scale studies: a systematic review of questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijlema, Wilma L; Stolk, Ronald P; Löwe, Bernd; Rief, Winfried; White, Peter D; Rosmalen, Judith G M

    2013-06-01

    Many questionnaires for assessment of common somatic symptoms or functional somatic symptoms are available and their use differs greatly among studies. The prevalence and incidence of symptoms are partially determined by the methods used to assess them. As a result, comparison across studies is difficult. This article describes a systematic review of self-report questionnaires for somatic symptoms for use in large-scale studies and recommends two questionnaires for use in such studies. A literature search was performed in the databases Medline, PsycINFO and EMBASE. Articles that reported the development, evaluation, or review of a self-report somatic symptom measure were included. Instrument evaluation was based on validity and reliability, and their fitness for purpose in large scale studies, according to the PhenX criteria. The literature search identified 40 questionnaires. The number of items within the questionnaires ranged from 5 to 78 items. In 70% of the questionnaires, headaches were included, followed by nausea/upset stomach (65%), shortness of breath/breathing trouble (58%), dizziness (55%), and (low) back pain/backaches (55%). Data on validity and reliability were reported and used for evaluation. Questionnaires varied regarding usability and burden to participants, and relevance to a variety of populations and regions. Based on our criteria, the Patient Health Questionnaire-15 and the Symptom Checklist-90 somatization scale seem the most fit for purpose for use in large-scale studies. These two questionnaires have well-established psychometric properties, contain relevant symptoms, are relatively short, and are available in multiple languages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Affective Slider: A Digital Self-Assessment Scale for the Measurement of Human Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betella, Alberto; Verschure, Paul F M J

    2016-01-01

    Self-assessment methods are broadly employed in emotion research for the collection of subjective affective ratings. The Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM), a pictorial scale developed in the eighties for the measurement of pleasure, arousal, and dominance, is still among the most popular self-reporting tools, despite having been conceived upon design principles which are today obsolete. By leveraging on state-of-the-art user interfaces and metacommunicative pictorial representations, we developed the Affective Slider (AS), a digital self-reporting tool composed of two slider controls for the quick assessment of pleasure and arousal. To empirically validate the AS, we conducted a systematic comparison between AS and SAM in a task involving the emotional assessment of a series of images taken from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), a database composed of pictures representing a wide range of semantic categories often used as a benchmark in psychological studies. Our results show that the AS is equivalent to SAM in the self-assessment of pleasure and arousal, with two added advantages: the AS does not require written instructions and it can be easily reproduced in latest-generation digital devices, including smartphones and tablets. Moreover, we compared new and normative IAPS ratings and found a general drop in reported arousal of pictorial stimuli. Not only do our results demonstrate that legacy scales for the self-report of affect can be replaced with new measurement tools developed in accordance to modern design principles, but also that standardized sets of stimuli which are widely adopted in research on human emotion are not as effective as they were in the past due to a general desensitization towards highly arousing content.

  9. The Affective Slider: A Digital Self-Assessment Scale for the Measurement of Human Emotions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Betella

    Full Text Available Self-assessment methods are broadly employed in emotion research for the collection of subjective affective ratings. The Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM, a pictorial scale developed in the eighties for the measurement of pleasure, arousal, and dominance, is still among the most popular self-reporting tools, despite having been conceived upon design principles which are today obsolete. By leveraging on state-of-the-art user interfaces and metacommunicative pictorial representations, we developed the Affective Slider (AS, a digital self-reporting tool composed of two slider controls for the quick assessment of pleasure and arousal. To empirically validate the AS, we conducted a systematic comparison between AS and SAM in a task involving the emotional assessment of a series of images taken from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS, a database composed of pictures representing a wide range of semantic categories often used as a benchmark in psychological studies. Our results show that the AS is equivalent to SAM in the self-assessment of pleasure and arousal, with two added advantages: the AS does not require written instructions and it can be easily reproduced in latest-generation digital devices, including smartphones and tablets. Moreover, we compared new and normative IAPS ratings and found a general drop in reported arousal of pictorial stimuli. Not only do our results demonstrate that legacy scales for the self-report of affect can be replaced with new measurement tools developed in accordance to modern design principles, but also that standardized sets of stimuli which are widely adopted in research on human emotion are not as effective as they were in the past due to a general desensitization towards highly arousing content.

  10. Selection of spatial scale for assessing impacts of groundwater-based water supply on freshwater resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybel, A-M; Godskesen, B; Rygaard, M

    2015-09-01

    Indicators of the impact on freshwater resources are becoming increasingly important in the evaluation of urban water systems. To reveal the importance of spatial resolution, we investigated how the choice of catchment scale influenced the freshwater impact assessment. Two different indicators were used in this study: the Withdrawal-To-Availability ratio (WTA) and the Water Stress Index (WSI). Results were calculated for three groundwater based Danish urban water supplies (Esbjerg, Aarhus, and Copenhagen). The assessment was carried out at three spatial levels: (1) the groundwater body level, (2) the river basin level, and (3) the regional level. The assessments showed that Copenhagen's water supply had the highest impact on the freshwater resource per cubic meter of water abstracted, with a WSI of 1.75 at Level 1. The WSI values were 1.64 for Aarhus's and 0.81 for Esbjerg's water supply. Spatial resolution was identified as a major factor determining the outcome of the impact assessment. For the three case studies, WTA and WSI were 27%-583% higher at Level 1 than impacts calculated for the regional scale. The results highlight that freshwater impact assessments based on regional data, rather than sub-river basin data, may dramatically underestimate the actual impact on the water resource. Furthermore, this study discusses the strengths and shortcomings of the applied indicator approaches. A sensitivity analysis demonstrates that although WSI has the highest environmental relevance, it also has the highest uncertainty, as it requires estimations of non-measurable environmental water requirements. Hence, the development of a methodology to obtain more site-specific and relevant estimations of environmental water requirements should be prioritized. Finally, the demarcation of the groundwater resource in aquifers remains a challenge for establishing a consistent method for benchmarking freshwater impacts caused by groundwater abstraction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  11. A Coastal Risk Assessment Framework Tool to Identify Hotspots at the Regional Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dongeren, A.; Viavattene, C.; Jimenez, J. A.; Ferreira, O.; Bolle, A.; Owen, D.; Priest, S.

    2016-02-01

    Extreme events in combination with an increasing population on the coast, future sea level rise and the deterioration of coastal defences can lead to catastrophic consequences for coastal communities and their activities. The Resilience-Increasing Strategies for Coasts - toolkit (RISC-KIT) FP7 EU project is producing a set of EU-coherent open-source and open-access tools in support of coastal managers and decision-makers. This paper presents one of these tools, the Coastal Risk Assessment Framework (CRAF) which assesses coastal risk at a regional scale to identify potential impact hotspots for more detailed assessment. Applying a suite of complex models at a full and detailed regional scale remains difficult and may not be efficient, therefore a 2-phase approach is adopted. CRAF Phase 1 is a screening process based on a coastal-index approach delimiting several hotspots in alongshore length by assessing the potential exposure for every kilometre along the coast. CRAF Phase 2 uses a suite of more complex modelling process (including X-beach 1D, inundation model, impact assessment and Multi-Criteria Analysis approach) to analyse and compare the risks between the aforementioned identified hotspots. Results of its application are compared on 3 European Case Studies, the Flemish highly protected low-lying coastal plain with important urbanization and harbors, a Portuguese coastal lagoon protected by a multi-inlet barrier system, the highly urbanized Catalonian coast with touristic activities at threat. The flexibility of the tool allows tailoring the comparative analysis to these different contexts and to adapt to the quality of resources and data available. Key lessons will be presented.

  12. A comparison of low IQ scores from the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umphress, Thomas B

    2008-06-01

    Twenty people with suspected intellectual disability took the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS; C. R. Reynolds & R. W. Kamphaus, 1998) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-3rd Edition (WAIS-III; D. Wechsler, 1997) to see if the 2 IQ tests produced comparable results. A t test showed that the RIAS Composite Intelligence Index scores were significantly higher than WAIS-III Full Scale IQ scores at the alpha level of .01. There was a significant difference between the RIAS Nonverbal Intelligence and WAIS-III Performance Scale, but there was no significant difference between the RIAS Verbal Intelligence Index and the WAIS-III Verbal Scale IQ. The results raise questions concerning test selection for diagnosing intellectual disability and the use of the correlation statistic for comparing intelligence tests.

  13. Recovery Assessment Scale: Testing validity with Portuguese community-based mental health organization users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge-Monteiro, Maria F; Ornelas, José H

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop the Portuguese version of the Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS-P), and to assess the validity of the findings using the revised test, with 213 users from 5 nonprofit community-based mental health organizations. Participants in the assessment completed a self-reported survey investigating their sense of personal recovery, personal empowerment, capabilities achievement, psychiatric symptoms' frequency, and demographic data. Evidence from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses using the 24-item version of the test, validated a 4-factor structure for the RAS-P model based on the dimensions of Personal Goals and Hope, Managing Help Needs, Supportive Interpersonal Relationships, and Life Beyond Symptoms, consistent with components of the recovery process. Convergent and discriminant validity was also achieved using bivariate correlation coefficients among the 4 subscales' scores, between the overall scale and the subscales, and in relation to external variables. Findings allowed for the interpretation that the RAS-P is measuring a particular psychological construct, which is different from symptoms of the mental illness. A hypothesized significant association with personal empowerment and with capabilities achievement was demonstrated. Positive association was also found between participants' use of recovery-oriented services such as independent housing or supported employment programs. The RAS-P scores also revealed excellent internal consistency for the overall scale (α = .90), and good consistency for the subscales (>.75), which attest to its precision in measurement. In conclusion, the study proved the RAS-P a reliable and useful tool in the context of the community mental health practice. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Personality profiles between obese and control subjects assessed with five standardized personality scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Pantoja, José L; Cabranes, José A; Sanchez-Quintero, Sabrina; Velao, Manuel; Sanz, Montserrat; Torres-Pardo, Beatriz; Ancín, Inés; Cabrerizo, Lucio; Rubio, Miguel A; Lopez-Ibor, Juan J; Barabash, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Psychopathology may exert influence on developing and maintaining obesity. Studies of personality traits or psychopathology of personality in obesity are scarce and contradictory. The aim of this study was to compare personality profiles between obese and normal-weight subjects and to determine the most useful tool to detect differences, considering that psychological assessment and psychotherapeutical support should be included within the overall management of these patients.* We examined 55 obese subjects (mean BMI=43kg/ m2) and 66 controls (mean BMI =21.7kg/m2). We used the personality assessment tools: MCMI-II, TCI-R, EPQ-A, BIS-111 and SSS. Factorial multivariate analysis of variance was applied; with factors BMI, Gender and Age as a covariate. Significant differences between groups were more marked in the clinical syndrome scales of MCMI-II, particularly in Major-Depression, Thought-Disorder, Anxiety, Somatoform and Alcohol-Dependence. Among obese, women scored higher than men in all scales but not significantly. We have found significant differences in normal personality dimensions between both groups in TCI-R. Obese showed higher scores in Harm Avoidance, and lower in Novelty Seeking, Persistence and Self-transcendence. The remaining tests have not been useful for differentiating personality traits between both groups. Obese subjects showed different personality profiles than control subjects. The most useful scales for determining these differences might be those designed to assess pathological personality such as MCMI-II. Less important would be those intended to measure normal personality traits, such as TCI-R and EPQ-A.

  15. Holistic impact assessment and cost savings of rainwater harvesting at the watershed scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh R. Ghimire

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the impacts of domestic and agricultural rainwater harvesting (RWH systems in three watersheds within the Albemarle-Pamlico river basin (southeastern U.S. using life cycle assessment (LCA and life cycle cost assessment. Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA categories included energy demand, fossil fuel, metals, ozone depletion, global warming, acidification, smog, blue and green water use, ecotoxicity, eutrophication, and human health effects. Building upon previous LCAs of near-optimal domestic and agricultural RWH systems in the region, we scaled functional unit LCIA scores for adoption rates of 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% and compared these to conventional municipal water and well water systems. In addition to investigating watershed-scale impacts of RWH adoption, which few studies have addressed, potential life cycle cost savings due to reduced cumulative energy demand were scaled in each watershed for a more comprehensive analysis. The importance of managing the holistic water balance, including blue water (surface/ground water, green water (rainwater use, and annual precipitation and their relationship to RWH are also addressed. RWH contributes to water resource sustainability by offsetting surface and ground water consumption and by reducing environmental and human health impacts compared to conventional sources. A watershed-wide RWH adoption rate of 25% has a number of ecological and human health benefits including blue water use reduction ranging from 2–39 Mm3, cumulative energy savings of 12–210 TJ, and reduced global warming potential of 600–10,100 Mg CO2 eq. Potential maximum lifetime energy cost savings were estimated at $5M and $24M corresponding to domestic RWH in Greens Mill and agricultural RWH in Back Creek watersheds.

  16. Field scale experiments to assess the effects of offshore wind farms on marine organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, Andrew; Mueller-Blenkle, Christina; McGregor, Peter K.; Andersson, Mathias H.; Metcalfe, Julian; Bendall, Victoria; Sigray, Peter; Wood, Daniel; Wearmouth, Victoria; Thomsen, Frank

    2011-07-01

    Full text: There are different phases in the life of an Offshore Wind Farm (OWF) that need to be considered in terms of how it interacts with the coastal ecosystem: the survey and construction, operation and decommissioning. Taking these phases and identifying the associated effectors and whether they have an effect on coastal organisms is an important step before going on to determine whether actual impact may occur. Hence, we have developed studies focussing first on assessing the effects on species individuals at an appropriate scale and, subsequently looking at the effect across multiple individuals which could then be used to assess effects at the level of the population, thereby providing evidence for an impact (either positive or negative). To obtain ecologically relevant results at a scale appropriate for OWFs, we have taken the experimental approach, incorporating a treatment and control, into the coastal environment using large underwater netted structures (mesocosms) to provide a more realistic setting. To date, our studies have used the mesocosm approach to increase understanding of two relatively unknown effectors on fish: underwater pile-driving noise (Construction Phase) and Electromagnetic Fields (EMF), associated with the production of the electricity by OWFs (Operational Phase). The approach presented here clearly demonstrates that specific effects of OWFs on fish (and potentially other marine organisms) can be determined at a scale that is ecologically relevant. Furthermore, it that provides an important step in assessing what effectors need to be considered in terms of their possible impacts, thereby moving the research agenda forward whilst also meeting the needs of the stake holders involved with OWF. (Author)

  17. Large-scale Assessment Yields Evidence of Minimal Use of Reasoning Skills in Traditionally Taught Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Beth

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale assessment data from Texas Tech University yielded evidence that most students taught traditionally in large lecture classes with online homework and predominantly multiple choice question exams, when asked to answer free-response (FR) questions, did not support their answers with logical arguments grounded in physics concepts. In addition to a lack of conceptual understanding, incorrect and partially correct answers lacked evidence of the ability to apply even lower level reasoning skills in order to solve a problem. Correct answers, however, did show evidence of at least lower level thinking skills as coded using a rubric based on Bloom's taxonomy. With the introduction of evidence-based instruction into the labs and recitations of the large courses and in a small, completely laboratory-based, hands-on course, the percentage of correct answers with correct explanations increased. The FR format, unlike other assessment formats, allowed assessment of both conceptual understanding and the application of thinking skills, clearly pointing out weaknesses not revealed by other assessment instruments, and providing data on skills beyond conceptual understanding for course and program assessment. Supported by National Institutes of Health (NIH) Challenge grant #1RC1GM090897-01.

  18. Open source database of images DEIMOS: extension for large-scale subjective image quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vítek, Stanislav

    2014-09-01

    DEIMOS (Database of Images: Open Source) is an open-source database of images and video sequences for testing, verification and comparison of various image and/or video processing techniques such as compression, reconstruction and enhancement. This paper deals with extension of the database allowing performing large-scale web-based subjective image quality assessment. Extension implements both administrative and client interface. The proposed system is aimed mainly at mobile communication devices, taking into account advantages of HTML5 technology; it means that participants don't need to install any application and assessment could be performed using web browser. The assessment campaign administrator can select images from the large database and then apply rules defined by various test procedure recommendations. The standard test procedures may be fully customized and saved as a template. Alternatively the administrator can define a custom test, using images from the pool and other components, such as evaluating forms and ongoing questionnaires. Image sequence is delivered to the online client, e.g. smartphone or tablet, as a fully automated assessment sequence or viewer can decide on timing of the assessment if required. Environmental data and viewing conditions (e.g. illumination, vibrations, GPS coordinates, etc.), may be collected and subsequently analyzed.

  19. Multi-Scale Monitoring and Assessment of Nonpoint Source Pollution in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, T.; Vanderschans, M.; Leijnse, A.; Mathews, M. C.; Meyer, R. D.

    2003-04-01

    The California dairy industry produces 20% of US milk and is the largest animal industry in the state. Many of the dairy facilities are located in low-relief valleys and basins with vulnerable groundwater resources. The continued influx of dairies into California's Central Valley has raised critical questions regarding their environmental performance, in particular with respect to groundwater quality impacts. While animal farming systems are considered among the leading sources of groundwater nitrate,little is known about the actual impact of dairy farming practices on groundwater quality in the extensive alluvial aquifers underlying the Central Valley. With our work we attempt to characterize and assess shallow groundwater underneath dairies in a relatively vulnerable hydrogeologic region and to discern the impact from various individual sources and management practices within dairies. An extensive shallow groundwater monitoring network was installed on five representative dairy operations in the northeastern San Joaquin Valley, California. The monitoring network spans all dairy management units: manure water lagoons, corrals, storage areas, and manure treated forage fields under various management practices. We recently also surveyed production well water quality. Water quality is found to be highly variable, both in time and space. We propose that a meaningful interpretation of these (nonpoint source pollution) data is only possible by explicitly considering the various scales affiliated with groundwater measurement, pollution source management, regulatory control, and beneficial use. Using statistical analysis and innovative modeling tools, we provide an interpretation of the observed data that is meaningful at the field scale (the scale unit of management decisions), the farm scale (considered to be a regulatory and planning unit), and the regional scale (considered to be a planning unit).

  20. Career-success scale - a new instrument to assess young physicians' academic career steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddeberg-Fischer, Barbara; Stamm, Martina; Buddeberg, Claus; Klaghofer, Richard

    2008-06-02

    Within the framework of a prospective cohort study of Swiss medical school graduates, a Career-Success Scale (CSS) was constructed in a sample of young physicians choosing different career paths in medicine. Furthermore the influence of personality factors, the participants' personal situation, and career related factors on their career success was investigated. 406 residents were assessed in terms of career aspired to, and their career progress. The Career-Success Scale, consisting of 7 items, was developed and validated, addressing objective criteria of academic career advancement. The influence of gender and career aspiration was investigated by a two-factorial analysis of variance, the relationships between personality factors, personal situation, career related factors and the Career-Success Scale by a multivariate linear regression analysis. The unidimensional Career-Success Scale has an internal consistency of 0.76. It is significantly correlated at the bivariate level with gender, instrumentality, and all career related factors, particularly with academic career and received mentoring. In multiple regression, only gender, academic career, surgery as chosen specialty, and received mentoring are significant predictors. The highest values were observed in participants aspiring to an academic career, followed by those pursuing a hospital career and those wanting to run a private practice. Independent of the career aspired to, female residents have lower scores than their male colleagues. The Career-Success Scale proved to be a short, reliable and valid instrument to measure career achievements. As mentoring is an independent predictor of career success, mentoring programs could be an important instrument to specifically enhance careers of female physicians in academia.

  1. Traditional Masculinity and Femininity: Validation of a New Scale Assessing Gender Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachel, Sven; Steffens, Melanie C; Niedlich, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Gender stereotype theory suggests that men are generally perceived as more masculine than women, whereas women are generally perceived as more feminine than men. Several scales have been developed to measure fundamental aspects of gender stereotypes (e.g., agency and communion, competence and warmth, or instrumentality and expressivity). Although omitted in later version, Bem's original Sex Role Inventory included the items "masculine" and "feminine" in addition to more specific gender-stereotypical attributes. We argue that it is useful to be able to measure these two core concepts in a reliable, valid, and parsimonious way. We introduce a new and brief scale, the Traditional Masculinity-Femininity (TMF) scale, designed to assess central facets of self-ascribed masculinity-femininity. Studies 1-2 used known-groups approaches (participants differing in gender and sexual orientation) to validate the scale and provide evidence of its convergent validity. As expected the TMF reliably measured a one-dimensional masculinity-femininity construct. Moreover, the TMF correlated moderately with other gender-related measures. Demonstrating incremental validity, the TMF predicted gender and sexual orientation in a superior way than established adjective-based measures. Furthermore, the TMF was connected to criterion characteristics, such as judgments as straight by laypersons for the whole sample, voice pitch characteristics for the female subsample, and contact to gay men for the male subsample, and outperformed other gender-related scales. Taken together, as long as gender differences continue to exist, we suggest that the TMF provides a valuable methodological addition for research into gender stereotypes.

  2. Traditional Masculinity and Femininity: Validation of a New Scale Assessing Gender Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachel, Sven; Steffens, Melanie C.; Niedlich, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Gender stereotype theory suggests that men are generally perceived as more masculine than women, whereas women are generally perceived as more feminine than men. Several scales have been developed to measure fundamental aspects of gender stereotypes (e.g., agency and communion, competence and warmth, or instrumentality and expressivity). Although omitted in later version, Bem's original Sex Role Inventory included the items “masculine” and “feminine” in addition to more specific gender-stereotypical attributes. We argue that it is useful to be able to measure these two core concepts in a reliable, valid, and parsimonious way. We introduce a new and brief scale, the Traditional Masculinity-Femininity (TMF) scale, designed to assess central facets of self-ascribed masculinity-femininity. Studies 1–2 used known-groups approaches (participants differing in gender and sexual orientation) to validate the scale and provide evidence of its convergent validity. As expected the TMF reliably measured a one-dimensional masculinity-femininity construct. Moreover, the TMF correlated moderately with other gender-related measures. Demonstrating incremental validity, the TMF predicted gender and sexual orientation in a superior way than established adjective-based measures. Furthermore, the TMF was connected to criterion characteristics, such as judgments as straight by laypersons for the whole sample, voice pitch characteristics for the female subsample, and contact to gay men for the male subsample, and outperformed other gender-related scales. Taken together, as long as gender differences continue to exist, we suggest that the TMF provides a valuable methodological addition for research into gender stereotypes. PMID:27458394

  3. An Instrument to Assess Self-Statements During Public Speaking: Scale Development and Preliminary Psychometric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; DiBartolo, Patricia Marten

    2006-01-01

    Public speaking is the most commonly reported fearful social situation. Although a number of contemporary theories emphasize the importance of cognitive processes in social anxiety, there is no instrument available to assess fearful thoughts experienced during public speaking. The Self-Statements During Public Speaking (SSPS) scale is a 10-item questionnaire consisting of two 5-item subscales, the “Positive Self-Statements” (SSPS-P) and the “Negative Self-Statements” subscale (SSPS-N). Four studies report on the development and the preliminary psychometric properties of this instrument. PMID:16763666

  4. Validation of the Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale for Multicultural Screening in Danish Memory Clinics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Rune; Andersen, Birgitte Bo; Gottrup, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims: The Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale (RUDAS) is a brief cognitive screening test that was developed to detect dementia in multicultural populations. The RUDAS has not previously been validated in multicultural populations outside of Australia. The aim of this study...... was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the RUDAS in a multicultural sample of patients referred to Danish memory clinics. Methods: Data were collected from 137 consecutive patients (34 with an immigrant background) in three Danish memory clinics. All patients were given the RUDAS as a supplement...

  5. Insufficient cross-cultural adaptations and psychometric properties for many translated health assessment scales: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal-Bozkir, Özgül; Parlevliet, Juliette L; de Rooij, Sophia E

    2013-06-01

    If researchers want to assess reliably different aspects of general health in the migrant populations, they need translations of internationally used health assessment scales with appropriate cross-cultural adaptations and satisfactory psychometric properties. A systematic review was performed to assess the quality of the cross-cultural adaptations and the psychometric properties of health assessment scales measuring cognition, mood, activities of daily living, health-related quality of life, and loneliness. We focused on the scales that were adapted for use with Turkish, Arab, and Surinamese (Creole and Hindi) individuals aged 65 years and older. PubMed, PsycINFO, and EMBASE databases were systematically searched, and selected articles were cross-checked for other relevant publications. In total, 68 relevant studies of the Turkish, Arab, and Surinamese populations were identified. To arrive at an appropriate cross-culturally adapted scale, five steps are required. Six studies followed this complete process. Only a few studies assessed all the psychometric properties of the cross-culturally adapted scales. The studies in which these were best assessed primarily involved cognitive and functional scales. Cross-cultural adaptations are insufficient, and psychometric properties are unknown for many translated health assessment scales. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessing Communication Skills of Medical Students in Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCE)--A Systematic Review of Rating Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cömert, Musa; Zill, Jördis Maria; Christalle, Eva; Dirmaier, Jörg; Härter, Martin; Scholl, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Teaching and assessment of communication skills have become essential in medical education. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) has been found as an appropriate means to assess communication skills within medical education. Studies have demonstrated the importance of a valid assessment of medical students' communication skills. Yet, the validity of the performance scores depends fundamentally on the quality of the rating scales used in an OSCE. Thus, this systematic review aimed at providing an overview of existing rating scales, describing their underlying definition of communication skills, determining the methodological quality of psychometric studies and the quality of psychometric properties of the identified rating scales. We conducted a systematic review to identify psychometrically tested rating scales, which have been applied in OSCE settings to assess communication skills of medical students. Our search strategy comprised three databases (EMBASE, PsycINFO, and PubMed), reference tracking and consultation of experts. We included studies that reported psychometric properties of communication skills assessment rating scales used in OSCEs by examiners only. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the COnsensus based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. The quality of psychometric properties was evaluated using the quality criteria of Terwee and colleagues. Data of twelve studies reporting on eight rating scales on communication skills assessment in OSCEs were included. Five of eight rating scales were explicitly developed based on a specific definition of communication skills. The methodological quality of studies was mainly poor. The psychometric quality of the eight rating scales was mainly intermediate. Our results reveal that future psychometric evaluation studies focusing on improving the methodological quality are needed in order to yield psychometrically

  7. Assessing Communication Skills of Medical Students in Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCE) - A Systematic Review of Rating Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cömert, Musa; Zill, Jördis Maria; Christalle, Eva; Dirmaier, Jörg; Härter, Martin; Scholl, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Background Teaching and assessment of communication skills have become essential in medical education. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) has been found as an appropriate means to assess communication skills within medical education. Studies have demonstrated the importance of a valid assessment of medical students’ communication skills. Yet, the validity of the performance scores depends fundamentally on the quality of the rating scales used in an OSCE. Thus, this systematic review aimed at providing an overview of existing rating scales, describing their underlying definition of communication skills, determining the methodological quality of psychometric studies and the quality of psychometric properties of the identified rating scales. Methods We conducted a systematic review to identify psychometrically tested rating scales, which have been applied in OSCE settings to assess communication skills of medical students. Our search strategy comprised three databases (EMBASE, PsycINFO, and PubMed), reference tracking and consultation of experts. We included studies that reported psychometric properties of communication skills assessment rating scales used in OSCEs by examiners only. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the COnsensus based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. The quality of psychometric properties was evaluated using the quality criteria of Terwee and colleagues. Results Data of twelve studies reporting on eight rating scales on communication skills assessment in OSCEs were included. Five of eight rating scales were explicitly developed based on a specific definition of communication skills. The methodological quality of studies was mainly poor. The psychometric quality of the eight rating scales was mainly intermediate. Discussion Our results reveal that future psychometric evaluation studies focusing on improving the methodological quality are needed

  8. Life cycle assessment of biogas production in small-scale household digesters in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, T.K.V.; Vu, D.Q.; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2015-01-01

    Small-scale household digesters have been promoted across Asia as a sustainable way of handling manure. The major advantages are that they produce biogas and reduce odor. However their disadvantages include the low recycling of nutrients, because digestate is dilute and therefore difficult...... to transport, and the loss of biogas as a result of cracks and the intentional release of excess biogas. In this study, life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was used to assess the environmental impacts associated with biogas digesters in Vietnam. Handling 1,000 kg of liquid manure and 100 kg of solid manure...... in a system with a biogas digester reduced the impact potential from 4.4 kg carbon dioxide (CO 2) equivalents to 3.2 kg CO2 equivalents compared with traditional manure management. However, this advantage could easily be compromised if digester construction is considered in the LCA or in situations where...

  9. Does Wechsler Intelligence Scale administration and scoring proficiency improve during assessment training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Tyson L; Zachar, Peter; Ray, Glen E; Lobello, Steven G; Underhill, Andrea T

    2007-04-01

    Studies have found that Wechsler scale administration and scoring proficiency is not easily attained during graduate training. These findings may be related to methodological issues. Using a single-group repeated measures design, this study documents statistically significant, though modest, error reduction on the WAIS-III and WISC-III during a graduate course in assessment. The study design does not permit the isolation of training factors related to error reduction, or assessment of whether error reduction is a function of mere practice. However, the results do indicate that previous study findings of no or inconsistent improvement in scoring proficiency may have been the result of methodological factors. Implications for teaching individual intelligence testing and further research are discussed.

  10. Life cycle assessment of biogas production in small-scale household digesters in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, T.K.V.; Vu, D.Q.; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2015-01-01

    in a system with a biogas digester reduced the impact potential from 4.4 kg carbon dioxide (CO 2) equivalents to 3.2 kg CO2 equivalents compared with traditional manure management. However, this advantage could easily be compromised if digester construction is considered in the LCA or in situations where......Small-scale household digesters have been promoted across Asia as a sustainable way of handling manure. The major advantages are that they produce biogas and reduce odor. However their disadvantages include the low recycling of nutrients, because digestate is dilute and therefore difficult...... to transport, and the loss of biogas as a result of cracks and the intentional release of excess biogas. In this study, life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was used to assess the environmental impacts associated with biogas digesters in Vietnam. Handling 1,000 kg of liquid manure and 100 kg of solid manure...

  11. Validation of the Hester Davis Scale for fall risk assessment in a neurosciences population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Amy L; Davis, Dees M

    2013-10-01

    Fall risk assessment is a necessary component of fall prevention programs. Accurate instruments to predict the risk of falling are paramount in identifying the correct patients in need of fall prevention measures. The purpose of this study was to prospectively validate the Hester Davis Scale (HDS) for fall risk assessment in an acute care setting in the South Central United States. The HDS was prospectively validated in 1,904 patients on a neurosciences unit. Using an initial cut score of 7 produced a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 24.9%. Receiver Operating Characteristic Analysis evidenced a cut score of 10 that would produce a more desirable sensitivity and specificity of 90.9% and 47.1%, respectively. The results of the psychometric evaluation and validation of the HDS support its use in clinical practice.

  12. A pilot application of regional scale risk assessment to the forestry management of the upper Grand Ronde watershed, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzanne M. Anderson; Wayne G. Landis

    2012-01-01

    An issue in forestry management has been the integration of a variety of different information into a threat analysis or risk assessment. In this instance, regional scale risk assessment was applied to the Upper Grande Ronde watershed in eastern Oregon to examine the potential of risk assessment for use in the management of broad landscapes. The site was a focus of...

  13. Observable Social Cognition: A Rating Scale (OSCARS): An Interview-Based Assessment for Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Kristin M.; Combs, Dennis R.; Gibson, Clare M.; Keefe, Richard S.E.; Roberts, David L.; Penn, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Individuals with schizophrenia consistently show impairments in social cognition (SC). SC has become a potential treatment target due to its association with functional outcomes. An alternative method of assessment is to administer an observer-based scale incorporating an informant’s “first hand” impressions in ratings. Methods The present study used the Observable Social Cognition: A Rating Scale (OSCARS) in 62 outpatients and 50 non-psychiatric controls (NPCs) to assess performance in domains of SC (e.g. emotion perception, theory of mind). Results The OSCARS demonstrated sufficient internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Construct validity was assessed through an exploratory factor analysis. Patient OSCARS indices were not significantly correlated with measures of SC with the exception of aggressive attributional style. Individuals with less impairment in SC reacted more aggressively to ambiguous situations. NPC OSCARS were significantly correlated with measures of theory of mind and attributional style. In a combined sample of patients and controls, six of eight items were significantly correlated with the SC task assessing the same domain, providing modest evidence of convergent validity. In patients, the OSCARS was significantly correlated with measures of functional outcome and neurocognition. Lastly, the OSCARS was found to be significantly associated with functional outcome after the influence of objective measures of SC was statistically removed. Conclusions The present study provides preliminary evidence that the OSCARS may be useful for clinicians in collecting data about patients’ potential real-world SC deficits, in turn increasing the degree to which these impairments may be targeted in treatment. PMID:25675960

  14. Analysis of Frequency of Use of Different Scar Assessment Scales Based on the Scar Condition and Treatment Method

    OpenAIRE

    Seong Hwan Bae; Yong Chan Bae

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of scars in various conditions is essential, but no consensus had been reached on the scar assessment scale to select for a given condition. We reviewed papers to determine the scar assessment scale selected depending on the scar condition and treatment method. We searched PubMed for articles published since 2000 with the contents of the scar evaluation using a scar assessment scale with a Journal Citation Report impact factor >0.5. Among them, 96 articles that conducted a scar evalu...

  15. Comparison of the construct validity and sensitivity to change of the visual analog scale and a modified rating scale as measures of patient global assessment in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lati, Chili; Guthrie, Lori C; Ward, Michael M

    2010-04-01

    Patient global assessment (PGA) is commonly measured using a visual analog scale (VAS). The VAS asks patients to integrate many dimensions of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) activity, yet its scope is poorly defined and its endpoints are vague. We investigated whether a modified Rating Scale that used marker states and more defined endpoints would provide a more valid measure of PGA. In our prospective longitudinal study, 164 patients with active RA rated their global arthritis activity using the VAS and Rating Scale before and after treatment. To compare construct validity, we correlated each score with 2 reference measures of RA activity, the 28-joint count Disease Activity Score (DAS28) and the physician global assessment, and examined how each measure was associated with different aspects of RA activity, including pain, functioning, and depressive symptoms, in multivariate regression analyses. We also examined sensitivity to change. Both measures were correlated with the DAS28 (r = 0.39 for VAS; r = 0.35 for Rating Scale) and physician global assessment (r = 0.41 for VAS; r = 0.26 for Rating Scale) at the baseline visit. Pain and depressive symptoms had the strongest association with the VAS, while functional limitations and depressive symptoms had the strongest association with the Rating Scale. Residual analysis showed no differences in heterogeneity of patients' ratings. VAS was more sensitive to change than the Rating Scale (standardized response means of 0.55 and 0.45). As measures of PGA, the VAS and Rating Scale had comparable construct validity, but differed in which aspects of arthritis activity influenced scores. VAS was more sensitive to change.

  16. Reliability and Validity of the Spanish Version of the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale in Oncology Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas Ramos, Inés; Llamas Ramos, Rocío; Martín Nogueras, Ana María; Alvarado Omenat, Jorge Juan; Calvo Arenillas, José Ignacio; Fonseca Sánchez, Emilio; Cortés Rodríguez, María

    2016-12-01

    Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS) is a multidimensional tool developed to evaluate frequency, severity, and distress of common symptoms present in cancer patients. To translate the original English version of MSAS and prove the reliability and validity of the Spanish version. MSAS scale was translated into Spanish and administered to 246 cancer patients aged between 18 and 85 years. They attended the Day Hospital to receive chemotherapy. European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 and Rotterdam Symptom Checklist were used to test criterion validity. TOTAL MSAS, Physical Symptom Subscale (PHYS), Psychological Symptom Subscale (PSYCH), and Global Distress Index (GDI) reported high internal consistency: 0.891, 0.801, 0.825, 0.813, respectively. Exploratory factor analysis identified two-factors structure and confirmatory factor analysis showed good adjustment rates. The emotional functioning subscale of European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 highly correlated with PSYCH (r = -0.868; P PSYCH (r = -0.704; P PSYCH with PSYCH (r = 0.872; P < 0.001). The Spanish version of MSAS was determined to be a valid and reliable scale in cancer patients. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of Social Cognition and Theory of Mind: Initial Validation of the Geneva Social Cognition Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martory, Marie-Dominique; Pegna, Alan John; Sheybani, Laurent; Métral, Mélanie; Bernasconi Pertusio, Françoise; Annoni, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Social cognition is widely studied in neurology. At present, such evaluations are designed for research or for specific diseases and simple general clinical tools are lacking. We propose a clinical evaluation tool for social cognition, the Geneva Social Cognition Scale (GeSoCS). The GeSoCS is a 100-point scale composed of 6 subtests (theory of mind stories, recognition of social emotions, false beliefs, inferences, absurdity judgement and planning abilities) chosen from different validated tests of social and cognitive evaluation. Eighty-four patients with neurological disorders and 52 controls participated in the study. Evaluation duration lasted 20-60 min. Mean scores were 92.6 ± 4.5 for controls and 76.5 ± 15.3 for patients and differentiate patients and controls in all subtests. With a cut-off score of 84, the scale had a sensitivity of 62% and a specificity of 94%. In our stroke subgroup, right CVAs failed in cartoons, inferences, 'mind in the eyes', and in the temporal rule task while left CVAs were impaired in verbal/discourse tasks (social cognition, inferences, absurd stories, and cartoons. The GeSoCS is a medium duration assessment tool that appears to detect and characterize significant social impairment in neurological patients. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Content Validity for a Child Care Self-assessment Tool: Creating Healthy Eating Environments Scale (CHEERS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafave, Lynne; Tyminski, Sheila; Riege, Theresa; Hoy, Diane; Dexter, Bria

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop and content validate both a formative and summative self-assessment scale designed to measure the nutrition and physical activity environment in community-based child care programs. The study followed a mixed-method modified Ebel procedure. An expert group with qualifications in nutrition, physical activity, and child care were recruited for content validation. The survey was subjected to expert review through digital communication followed by a face-to-face validation meeting. To establish consensus for content validity beyond the standard error of proportion (P validity index (CVI) required was ≥0.78. Of the initial 64 items, 44 scored an acceptable CVI for inclusion. The remaining items were discussed, missing concepts identified, and a final CVI employed to determine inclusion. The final tool included 62 items with 5 subscales: food served, healthy eating program planning, healthy eating environment, physical activity environment, and healthy body image environment. Content validation is an integral step in scale development that is often overlooked or poorly carried out. Initial content validity of this scale has been established and will be of value to researchers and practitioners interested in conducting healthy eating interventions in child care.

  19. Large-scale model-based assessment of deer-vehicle collision risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Hothorn

    Full Text Available Ungulates, in particular the Central European roe deer Capreolus capreolus and the North American white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus, are economically and ecologically important. The two species are risk factors for deer-vehicle collisions and as browsers of palatable trees have implications for forest regeneration. However, no large-scale management systems for ungulates have been implemented, mainly because of the high efforts and costs associated with attempts to estimate population sizes of free-living ungulates living in a complex landscape. Attempts to directly estimate population sizes of deer are problematic owing to poor data quality and lack of spatial representation on larger scales. We used data on >74,000 deer-vehicle collisions observed in 2006 and 2009 in Bavaria, Germany, to model the local risk of deer-vehicle collisions and to investigate the relationship between deer-vehicle collisions and both environmental conditions and browsing intensities. An innovative modelling approach for the number of deer-vehicle collisions, which allows nonlinear environment-deer relationships and assessment of spatial heterogeneity, was the basis for estimating the local risk of collisions for specific road types on the scale of Bavarian municipalities. Based on this risk model, we propose a new "deer-vehicle collision index" for deer management. We show that the risk of deer-vehicle collisions is positively correlated to browsing intensity and to harvest numbers. Overall, our results demonstrate that the number of deer-vehicle collisions can be predicted with high precision on the scale of municipalities. In the densely populated and intensively used landscapes of Central Europe and North America, a model-based risk assessment for deer-vehicle collisions provides a cost-efficient instrument for deer management on the landscape scale. The measures derived from our model provide valuable information for planning road protection and defining

  20. Quantitative assessment of changes in landslide risk using a regional scale run-out model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussin, Haydar; Chen, Lixia; Ciurean, Roxana; van Westen, Cees; Reichenbach, Paola; Sterlacchini, Simone

    2015-04-01

    The risk of landslide hazard continuously changes in time and space and is rarely a static or constant phenomena in an affected area. However one of the main challenges of quantitatively assessing changes in landslide risk is the availability of multi-temporal data for the different components of risk. Furthermore, a truly "quantitative" landslide risk analysis requires the modeling of the landslide intensity (e.g. flow depth, velocities or impact pressures) affecting the elements at risk. Such a quantitative approach is often lacking in medium to regional scale studies in the scientific literature or is left out altogether. In this research we modelled the temporal and spatial changes of debris flow risk in a narrow alpine valley in the North Eastern Italian Alps. The debris flow inventory from 1996 to 2011 and multi-temporal digital elevation models (DEMs) were used to assess the susceptibility of debris flow triggering areas and to simulate debris flow run-out using the Flow-R regional scale model. In order to determine debris flow intensities, we used a linear relationship that was found between back calibrated physically based Flo-2D simulations (local scale models of five debris flows from 2003) and the probability values of the Flow-R software. This gave us the possibility to assign flow depth to a total of 10 separate classes on a regional scale. Debris flow vulnerability curves from the literature and one curve specifically for our case study area were used to determine the damage for different material and building types associated with the elements at risk. The building values were obtained from the Italian Revenue Agency (Agenzia delle Entrate) and were classified per cadastral zone according to the Real Estate Observatory data (Osservatorio del Mercato Immobiliare, Agenzia Entrate - OMI). The minimum and maximum market value for each building was obtained by multiplying the corresponding land-use value (€/msq) with building area and number of floors

  1. Assessing nursing students' basic communication and interviewing skills: the development and testing of a rating scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, D

    1999-03-01

    This study explores the communication skills of a group of nursing students who were required to interview a simulated client as part of their studies. In order to assess the students and to improve the process of learning discrete skills, an instrument was developed and tested as part of this process. The subjects were 212 nurses enrolled in a bachelor of nursing programme, in New South Wales, Australia, who were studying a problem-based learning package the focus of which was 'alcohol early intervention'. The sub-groups within the sample included registered nurses, a significant percentage of whom had completed their basic nursing education in overseas countries. The Simulated Client Interview Rating Scale (SCIRS) was developed to assess basic humanistic communication skills as well as beginning motivational interviewing skills. The students were required to interview a simulated client and demonstrate competence in interviewing. This was assessed by the SCIRS which was completed by the students and the simulated clients. The instrument proved to be a reliable and valid means of assessing student interview technique as well as a flexible educational tool, while valuable insights into students' interviewing techniques were gained.

  2. Assessment and evaluation of the high risk neonate: the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Barry M; Andreozzi-Fontaine, Lynne; Tronick, Edward; Bigsby, Rosemarie

    2014-08-25

    There has been a long-standing interest in the assessment of the neurobehavioral integrity of the newborn infant. The NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) was developed as an assessment for the at-risk infant. These are infants who are at increased risk for poor developmental outcome because of insults during prenatal development, such as substance exposure or prematurity or factors such as poverty, poor nutrition or lack of prenatal care that can have adverse effects on the intrauterine environment and affect the developing fetus. The NNNS assesses the full range of infant neurobehavioral performance including neurological integrity, behavioral functioning, and signs of stress/abstinence. The NNNS is a noninvasive neonatal assessment tool with demonstrated validity as a predictor, not only of medical outcomes such as cerebral palsy diagnosis, neurological abnormalities, and diseases with risks to the brain, but also of developmental outcomes such as mental and motor functioning, behavior problems, school readiness, and IQ. The NNNS can identify infants at high risk for abnormal developmental outcome and is an important clinical tool that enables medical researchers and health practitioners to identify these infants and develop intervention programs to optimize the development of these infants as early as possible. The video shows the NNNS procedures, shows examples of normal and abnormal performance and the various clinical populations in which the exam can be used.

  3. The Development Study of Thoughts Scale Towards Measurement and Assessment Course on High Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat SÜRAL

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering that measurement and assessment, the most critical component of the education process, should be properly carried out by educators, it is necessary to make sure that education faculties deliver the measurement and assessment course meticulously and more importantly, positive and negative views of teacher candidates, who will teach future generations, should be determined with respect to measurement and evaluation. The present paper aims to develop “Opinions Scale” for measurement and assessment to see attitudes of teacher candidates of education faculties in terms of different perspectives. In this vein, it was aimed to reach all students attending the department of education faculty in 2016-2017 academic years and the study was carried out with 433 teacher candidates. To test teacher candidates’ attitudes towards measurement and assessment, the Annals of Factor Analysis (AFA and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (DFA were employed. The scale was based on 3 sub-levels namely the requirement of the course, the course content and the instructor.

  4. Earthquake Hazard and Risk Assessment Based on Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes: State of Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvez, Imtiyaz A.; Nekrasova, Anastasia; Kossobokov, Vladimir

    2017-03-01

    The Gujarat state of India is one of the most seismically active intercontinental regions of the world. Historically, it has experienced many damaging earthquakes including the devastating 1819 Rann of Kachchh and 2001 Bhuj earthquakes. The effect of the later one is grossly underestimated by the Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP). To assess a more adequate earthquake hazard for the state of Gujarat, we apply Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes (USLE), which generalizes the Gutenberg-Richter recurrence relation taking into account naturally fractal distribution of earthquake loci. USLE has evident implications since any estimate of seismic hazard depends on the size of the territory considered and, therefore, may differ dramatically from the actual one when scaled down to the proportion of the area of interest (e.g. of a city) from the enveloping area of investigation. We cross-compare the seismic hazard maps compiled for the same standard regular grid 0.2° × 0.2° (1) in terms of design ground acceleration based on the neo-deterministic approach, (2) in terms of probabilistic exceedance of peak ground acceleration by GSHAP, and (3) the one resulted from the USLE application. Finally, we present the maps of seismic risks for the state of Gujarat integrating the obtained seismic hazard, population density based on India's Census 2011 data, and a few model assumptions of vulnerability.

  5. Basic numerical competences in large-scale assessment data: Structure and long-term relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Stefa; Lambert, Katharina; Coppens, Karien; Moeller, Korbinian

    2018-03-01

    Basic numerical competences are seen as building blocks for later numerical and mathematical achievement. The current study aimed at investigating the structure of early numeracy reflected by different basic numerical competences in kindergarten and its predictive value for mathematical achievement 6 years later using data from large-scale assessment. This allowed analyses based on considerably large sample sizes (N > 1700). A confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a model differentiating five basic numerical competences at the end of kindergarten fitted the data better than a one-factor model of early numeracy representing a comprehensive number sense. In addition, these basic numerical competences were observed to reliably predict performance in a curricular mathematics test in Grade 6 even after controlling for influences of general cognitive ability. Thus, our results indicated a differentiated view on early numeracy considering basic numerical competences in kindergarten reflected in large-scale assessment data. Consideration of different basic numerical competences allows for evaluating their specific predictive value for later mathematical achievement but also mathematical learning difficulties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Linking rainfall-induced landslides with debris flows runout patterns towards catchment scale hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Linfeng; Lehmann, Peter; McArdell, Brian; Or, Dani

    2017-03-01

    Debris flows and landslides induced by heavy rainfall represent an ubiquitous and destructive natural hazard in steep mountainous regions. For debris flows initiated by shallow landslides, the prediction of the resulting pathways and associated hazard is often hindered by uncertainty in determining initiation locations, volumes and mechanical state of the mobilized debris (and by model parameterization). We propose a framework for linking a simplified physically-based debris flow runout model with a novel Landslide Hydro-mechanical Triggering (LHT) model to obtain a coupled landslide-debris flow susceptibility and hazard assessment. We first compared the simplified debris flow model of Perla (1980) with a state-of-the art continuum-based model (RAMMS) and with an empirical model of Rickenmann (1999) at the catchment scale. The results indicate that predicted runout distances by the Perla model are in reasonable agreement with inventory measurements and with the other models. Predictions of localized shallow landslides by LHT model provides information on water content of released mass. To incorporate effects of water content and flow viscosity as provided by LHT on debris flow runout, we adapted the Perla model. The proposed integral link between landslide triggering susceptibility quantified by LHT and subsequent debris flow runout hazard calculation using the adapted Perla model provides a spatially and temporally resolved framework for real-time hazard assessment at the catchment scale or along critical infrastructure (roads, railroad lines).

  7. Assessing the Everyday Discrimination Scale among American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Kelly L; Noonan, Carolyn; Goins, R Turner; Henderson, William G; Beals, Janette; Manson, Spero M; Acton, Kelly J; Roubideaux, Yvette

    2016-01-01

    The Everyday Discrimination Scale (EDS) has been used widely as a measure of subjective experiences of discrimination. The usefulness of this measure for assessments of perceived experiences of discrimination by American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) peoples has not been explored. Data derived from the Special Diabetes Program for Indians--Healthy Heart Demonstration Project (SDPI-HH), a large-scale initiative to reduce cardiovascular risk among AI/ANs with Type 2 diabetes. Participants (N = 3,039) completed a self-report survey that included the EDS and measures of convergent and divergent validity. Missing data were estimated by multiple imputation techniques. Reliability estimates for the EDS were calculated, yielding a single factor with high internal consistency (α = .92). Younger, more educated respondents reported greater perceived discrimination; retired or widowed respondents reported less. Convergent validity was evidenced by levels of distress, anger, and hostility, which increased as the level of perceived discrimination increased (all p discrimination (p = .61 and 0.16, respectively). However, general diabetes-related health knowledge was significantly associated with perceived discrimination (p = .02). The EDS is a promising measure for assessing perceived experiences of discrimination among those AI/ANs who participated in the SDPI-HH. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Rockfall hazard and risk assessments along roads at a regional scale: example in Swiss Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Michoud

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Unlike fragmental rockfall runout assessments, there are only few robust methods to quantify rock-mass-failure susceptibilities at regional scale. A detailed slope angle analysis of recent Digital Elevation Models (DEM can be used to detect potential rockfall source areas, thanks to the Slope Angle Distribution procedure. However, this method does not provide any information on block-release frequencies inside identified areas. The present paper adds to the Slope Angle Distribution of cliffs unit its normalized cumulative distribution function. This improvement is assimilated to a quantitative weighting of slope angles, introducing rock-mass-failure susceptibilities inside rockfall source areas previously detected. Then rockfall runout assessment is performed using the GIS- and process-based software Flow-R, providing relative frequencies for runout. Thus, taking into consideration both susceptibility results, this approach can be used to establish, after calibration, hazard and risk maps at regional scale. As an example, a risk analysis of vehicle traffic exposed to rockfalls is performed along the main roads of the Swiss alpine valley of Bagnes.

  9. Coverage of the migrant population in large-scale assessment surveys. Experiences from PIAAC in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora B. Maehler

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background European countries, and especially Germany, are currently very much affected by human migration flows, with the result that the task of integration has become a challenge. Only very little empirical evidence on topics such as labor market participation and processes of social integration of migrant subpopulations is available to date from large-scale population surveys. The present paper provides an overview of the representation of the migrant population in the German Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC sample and evaluates reasons for the under-coverage of this population. Methods We examine outcome rates and reasons for nonresponse among the migrant population based on sampling frame data, and we also examine para data from the interviewers’ contact protocols to evaluate time patterns for the successful contacting of migrants. Results and Conclusions This is the first time that results of this kind have been presented for a large-scale assessment in educational research. These results are also discussed in the context of future PIAAC cycles. Overall, they confirm the expectations in the literature that factors such as language problems result in lower contact and response rates among migrants.

  10. Rockfall hazard and risk assessments along roads at a regional scale: example in Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michoud, C.; Derron, M.-H.; Horton, P.; Jaboyedoff, M.; Baillifard, F.-J.; Loye, A.; Nicolet, P.; Pedrazzini, A.; Queyrel, A.

    2012-03-01

    Unlike fragmental rockfall runout assessments, there are only few robust methods to quantify rock-mass-failure susceptibilities at regional scale. A detailed slope angle analysis of recent Digital Elevation Models (DEM) can be used to detect potential rockfall source areas, thanks to the Slope Angle Distribution procedure. However, this method does not provide any information on block-release frequencies inside identified areas. The present paper adds to the Slope Angle Distribution of cliffs unit its normalized cumulative distribution function. This improvement is assimilated to a quantitative weighting of slope angles, introducing rock-mass-failure susceptibilities inside rockfall source areas previously detected. Then rockfall runout assessment is performed using the GIS- and process-based software Flow-R, providing relative frequencies for runout. Thus, taking into consideration both susceptibility results, this approach can be used to establish, after calibration, hazard and risk maps at regional scale. As an example, a risk analysis of vehicle traffic exposed to rockfalls is performed along the main roads of the Swiss alpine valley of Bagnes.

  11. [Pain assessment of tracheal suctioning on brain injury patients by pain behavioral indicator scale (ESCID)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, C; Murillo-Pérez, M A; Morales-Sánchez, C; Torrente-Vela, S; Orejana-Martín, M; García-Iglesias, M; Cuenca-Solanas, M; Alted-López, E

    2014-01-01

    To assess pain response on patients with moderate to severe head injury before a common nursing procedure: tracheal suctioning. An observational longitudinal pilot study with consecutive sampling performed from September to December of 2012. Pain was assessed by a pain behavioral indicator scale 5 minutes before, meanwhile and 15 minutes after tracheal suctioning the days 1, 3 and 6 of their intensive care unit (ICU) stay, as well as a non-painful procedure: rubbing with gauze the forearm of the patient. Pseudo-analgesia and hemodynamic variables were also recorded. Descriptive analysis of the variables, inferential statistics with t-student and Anova with SPSS 17.0; statistical tests were considered significant if the critical level observed was less than 5% (P.05) were shown. Data for the painless procedure were significantly different on day 6 (P<.05) CONCLUSION: During tracheal suctioning in patients with head injury in the first 6 days in the ICU, objective mild-moderate pain according to ESCID scale has been detected. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  12. Validation of the standardised assessment of personality--abbreviated scale in a general population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Marcella Lei-Yee; Seegobin, Seth; Frissa, Souci; Hatch, Stephani L; Hotopf, Matthew; Hayes, Richard D; Moran, Paul

    2015-11-01

    Personality disorder (PD) is associated with important health outcomes in the general population. However, the length of diagnostic interviews poses a significant barrier to obtaining large scale, population-based data on PD. A brief screen for the identification of people at high risk of PD in the general population could be extremely valuable for both clinicians and researchers. We set out to validate the Standardised Assessment of Personality - Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS), in a general population sample, using the Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SCID-II) as a gold standard. One hundred and ten randomly selected, community-dwelling adults were administered the SAPAS screening interview. The SCID-II was subsequently administered by a clinical interviewer blind to the initial SAPAS score. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to assess the discriminatory performance of the SAPAS, relative to the SCID-II. Area under the curve for the SAPAS was 0.70 (95% CI = 0.60 to 0.80; p < 0.001), indicating moderate overall discriminatory accuracy. A cut point score of 4 on the SAPAS correctly classified 58% of participants. At this cut point, the sensitivity and specificity were 0.69 and 0.53 respectively. The SAPAS operates less efficiently as a screen in general population samples and is probably most usefully applied in clinical populations. © 2015 The Authors Personality and Mental Health published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Assessing insomnia in adolescents: comparison of Insomnia Severity Index, Athens Insomnia Scale and Sleep Quality Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ka-Fai; Kan, Katherine Ka-Ki; Yeung, Wing-Fai

    2011-05-01

    To compare the psychometric properties of the Chinese versions of Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) and Sleep Quality Index (SQI) for assessment and screening of insomnia in adolescents. This is a school-based survey of 1516 adolescents aged 12-19 years. Sleep-wake habit questionnaire, ISI, AIS, SQI, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) were administered. Insomnia Interview Schedule was used to assess the severity of insomnia symptoms and DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of insomnia. The Cronbach's alpha of ISI, AIS and SQI were 0.83, 0.81 and 0.65, respectively, and the 2-week test-retest reliability were 0.79, 0.80 and 0.72. All three scales had a 2-factor structure, and their scores were significantly correlated with sleep-wake variables, ESS and GHQ-12 scores, smoking and drinking habits, and academic performance. The areas under curve of ISI, AIS and SQI for detecting clinical insomnia were 0.85, 0.80 and 0.85, respectively. The optimal cut-offs for ISI, AIS and SQI were a total score of nine (sensitivity/specificity: 0.87/0.75), seven (sensitivity/specificity: 0.78/0.74) and five (sensitivity/specificity: 0.83/0.79), respectively. The Chinese versions of ISI, AIS and SQI are reliable and valid instruments. The ISI and AIS appear to have better psychometric properties than the SQI. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Towards a New Assessment of Urban Areas from Local to Global Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaduri, B. L.; Roy Chowdhury, P. K.; McKee, J.; Weaver, J.; Bright, E.; Weber, E.

    2015-12-01

    Since early 2000s, starting with NASA MODIS, satellite based remote sensing has facilitated collection of imagery with medium spatial resolution but high temporal resolution (daily). This trend continues with an increasing number of sensors and data products. Increasing spatial and temporal resolutions of remotely sensed data archives, from both public and commercial sources, have significantly enhanced the quality of mapping and change data products. However, even with automation of such analysis on evolving computing platforms, rates of data processing have been suboptimal largely because of the ever-increasing pixel to processor ratio coupled with limitations of the computing architectures. Novel approaches utilizing spatiotemporal data mining techniques and computational architectures have emerged that demonstrates the potential for sustained and geographically scalable landscape monitoring to be operational. We exemplify this challenge with two broad research initiatives on High Performance Geocomputation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: (a) mapping global settlement distribution; (b) developing national critical infrastructure databases. Our present effort, on large GPU based architectures, to exploit high resolution (1m or less) satellite and airborne imagery for extracting settlements at global scale is yielding understanding of human settlement patterns and urban areas at unprecedented resolution. Comparison of such urban land cover database, with existing national and global land cover products, at various geographic scales in selected parts of the world is revealing intriguing patterns and insights for urban assessment. Early results, from the USA, Taiwan, and Egypt, indicate closer agreements (5-10%) in urban area assessments among databases at larger, aggregated geographic extents. However, spatial variability at local scales could be significantly different (over 50% disagreement).

  15. Quality of life outcome measures following partial glossectomy: Assessment using the UW-QOL scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The consequences of a diagnosis of head and neck cancer and the impact of treatment have a clear and direct influence on well-being and associated quality of life (QOL in these patients. Aims: To determine the QOL in head and neck cancer patients following a partial glossectomy operation. Design and Setting: Cross-sectional cohort study; Head and Neck Oncology Unit, tertiary referral center. Materials and Methods: 38 patients with partial glossectomy were assessed with the University of Washington head and neck quality of life (UW-QOL scale, version 4. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences 10.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago version III. Information from the scale was correlated using the Mann Whitney test. A P value less than/equal to 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The mean (sd composite score of the QOL in our series was 73.6 (16.1. The majority (71.8% quoted their QOL as good or very good. Swallowing (n = 16, 47.1%, speech (n = 15, 44.1% and saliva (n = 15, 44.1% were most commonly cited issues over the last 7 days. On the other hand, the groups with reconstruction, neck dissection, complications and radiotherapy demonstrated a significant reduction of quality of life scores (Mann Whitney test, P < 0.05. Conclusion: The composite score and overall QOL as assessed using the UW-QOL scale (version 4 were modestly high in our series of partial glossectomy patients. Swallowing, speech, and saliva are regarded as the most important issues. Stage of the disease, neck dissection, reconstruction, complications, radiotherapy and time since operation were seen to significantly affect domain scores.

  16. Psychometric assessment of the Brazilian version of the Male Body Dissatisfaction Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Berbert de Carvalho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The study of male body image has increased substantially, but there are few assessment tools available for this population. The Male Body Dissatisfaction Scale (MBDS has been widely used among students to research body image disturbances and eating disorders. However, the psychometric properties of this instrument have not been tested in the Brazilian context.Objectives To explore the psychometric properties (convergent validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability and factor structure of the Brazilian version of the MBDS.Methods Two-hundred sixty-four undergraduate students were evaluated. Pearson’s correlation was used to test the convergent validity of the MBDS and the Drive for Muscularity Scale, the Swansea Muscularity Attitudes Questionnaire, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Eating Attitudes Test-26, and the Commitment to Exercise Scale. Test-retest reliability was evaluated using t-tests for repeated measures and by calculating the coefficient of intraclass correlation. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted, and Cronbach’s α coefficients were determined. A significance level of 5% was adopted.Results The MBDS had an adequate factor structure, with two factors explaining 52.67% of the total variance. It showed excellent internal consistency (Cronbach’s α between 0.90 and 0.92, a high intraclass correlation coefficient (0.81, and convergent validity with the drive for muscularity, the psychological commitment to exercise, low self-esteem, and eating disorder risk behaviour measures.Discussion The MBDS appears to be a valid and reliable tool for evaluating Brazilian male body image dissatisfaction.

  17. Adaptation into Spanish of the Internalised Stigma of Mental Illness scale to assess personal stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengochea-Seco, Rosario; Arrieta-Rodríguez, Marta; Fernández-Modamio, Mar; Santacoloma-Cabero, Iciar; Gómez de Tojeiro-Roce, Juan; García-Polavieja, Bárbara; Santos-Zorrozúa, Borja; Gil-Sanz, David

    2016-03-09

    Patients with schizophrenia sometimes internalise social stigma associated to mental illness, and they develop personal stigma. Personal stigma includes self-stigma (internalisation of negative stereotypes), perceived stigma (perception of rejection), and experienced stigma (experiences of discrimination). Personal stigma is linked with a poorer treatment adherence, and worst social functioning. For this reason, it is important to have good measurements of personal stigma. One of the most frequently used measurements is the Internalised Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale. There is a Spanish version of the scale available, although its psychometric properties have not been studied. The main aim of this study is to analyse the psychometric properties of a new Spanish version of the ISMI scale. The new version was translated as Estigma Interiorizado de Enfermedad Mental (EIEM). Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were calculated in a sample of 69 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. The rate of patients showing personal stigma was also studied, as well as the relationship between personal stigma and sociodemographic and clinical variables. The adapted version obtained good values of internal consistency and test-retest reliability, for the total score of the scale (0.91 and 0.95 respectively), as well as for the five subscales of the EIEM, except for the Stigma Resistance subscale (Cronbach's alpha 0.42). EIEM is an appropriate measurement tool to assess personal stigma in a Spanish population with severe mental disorder, at least in those with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier España.

  18. Long term post-flood damage assessments to analyze the strategies of adaptation at individual scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brémond, Pauline; Bonte, Bruno; Erdlenbruch, Katrin; Grelot, Frédéric; Richert, Claire

    2015-04-01

    RETINA is a project which studies the opportunity for adaptation in the aftermath of flood events. To handle this research question, we consider adaptation to flood risk at individual and collective scale as well as the influence of the urban planning regulation (Flood risk mapping). For the purpose of this research, collective adaptation means actions that are undertaken at collective scale such as dikes, relocation of collective infrastructures (roads, treatment plant...) and individual adaptation means actions decided at individual level (households, enterprises or farmers) such as relocation, elevation of critical components, new organization.... In this presentation, we focus on individual adaptation and analyse which are the mechanisms that incite or constrain the adaptation to flood risk of individual assets considering their own trajectory. The originality of our approach is to carry out long term post-flood assessments and comprehensive interviews at individual scale. To catch the drivers of adaptation, we sequenced the interview guide in three periods: 1/ the situation before the reference event occurred, 2/ what happened during and just after the flood event, 3/ what happened from the flood event until the moment of the interview. Two case studies have been chosen. The first case study is the Aude department where an exceptional flooding occurred in 1999. The second case study is the Var department where more recent and frequent flood events occurred in 2010, 2011, 2014. On each case study, we plan to conduct about fifty interviews including households and economic activities. In this presentation, we will develop methodological aspects on long term post-flood damage assessments. Carrying out a long term post-flood assessment enabled us to consider adaptation to flood risk among the whole of strategic decisions a household or an enterprise has to take. Moreover, we found out that contrary to what is usually assumed, the fact that the reference event was

  19. The Hassles Assessment Scale for Students in College: measuring the frequency and unpleasantness of and dwelling on stressful events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafino, E P; Ewing, M

    1999-09-01

    Development of the Hassles Assessment Scale for Students in College, a new scale to measure students' stress, is described. In the scale, students rate each of 54 hassles for its frequency and unpleasantness in the past month and indicate the degree to which they dwelt or ruminated on it. Very high levels of internal consistency for the frequency, unpleasantness, and dwelling measures were found. Correlational analyses demonstrated the scale's criterion validity (scores were negatively correlated with the number of hours respondents reported engaging in physical exercise) and congruent validity (scores were positively correlated with scores on the Inventory of College Students' Recent Life Experience, an established scale for assessing student hassles). Exploratory factor analyses suggested the possibility that many items on the scale are independent, with each contributing some specific variance to the total variance of the item pool that is not shared with other items.

  20. Psychometric assessment of the Rat Grimace Scale and development of an analgesic intervention score.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Oliver

    Full Text Available Our limited ability to assess spontaneous pain in rodent models of painful human conditions may be associated with a translational failure of promising analgesic compounds in to clinical use. If measurement of spontaneous pain behaviours can be used to generate an analgesic intervention score their use could expand to guide the use of analgesics, as mandated by regulatory bodies and ethical and welfare obligations. One such measure of spontaneous pain, the Rat Grimace Scale (RGS, has recently been described and shown to exhibit reliability. However, reliability of measurement scores is context and content specific, and further testing required to assess translation to a heterogenous setting (different model, raters, environment. The objectives of this study were to perform reliability testing with the Rat Grimace Scale in a heterogenous setting and generate an analgesic intervention score for its use. In a randomised, blinded study, sixteen adult female rats received one of three analgesia treatments (0.05 mg/kg buprenorphine subcutaneously, 1 mg/kg meloxicam subcutaneously, 0.2 mg/kg oral buprenorphine in jelly peri-operatively (telemetry unit implantation surgery. Rats were video-recorded (before, 1-6 and 12 hours post-operatively and images collected for independent scoring by three blinded raters using the RGS, and five experts based on "pain/no pain" assessment. Scores were used to calculate inter- and intra-rater reliability with an intraclass correlation coefficient and generate an analgesic intervention score with receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The RGS scores showed very good inter- and intra-rater reliability (0.85 [0.78-0.90 95% CI] and 0.83 [0.76-0.89], respectively. An analgesic intervention threshold of greater than 0.67 was determined. These data demonstrate that the RGS is a useful tool which can be successfully employed in a heterogenous setting, and has the potential to guide analgesic intervention.

  1. The construct validity of the MMPI-2/MMPI-2-RF Restructured Clinical (RC) scales and the assessment of personality disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Barth, Mathew John

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined the construct validity of the Restructured Clinical (RC) scales (Tellegen et al., 2003) of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989) and MMPI-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008) and the assessment of personality disorders. Tellegen et al. (2003) constructed the RC scales to address the perceived psychometric limitations of the Clinical scales and to measur...

  2. Groundwater recharge assessment at local and episodic scale in a soil mantled perched karst aquifer in southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allocca, V.; De Vita, P.; Manna, F.; Nimmo, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater recharge assessment of karst aquifers, at various spatial and temporal scales, is a major scientific topic of current importance, since these aquifers play an essential role for both socio-economic development and fluvial ecosystems.

  3. Assessment of the prediction error in a large-scale application of a dynamic soil acidification model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kros, J.; Mol-Dijkstra, J.P.; Pebesma, E.J.

    2002-01-01

    The prediction error of a relatively simple soil acidification model (SMART2) was assessed before and after calibration, focussing on the aluminium and nitrate concentrations on a block scale. Although SMART2 is especially developed for application ona national to European scale, it still runs at a

  4. Establishing the cut-off score for remission and severity-ranges on the Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren D; Rothschild, Anthony J; Flint, Alastair J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS) is a rating scale dedicated to the measurement of severity in psychotic depression (PD). The aim of this study was to establish the PDAS cut-off for remission of PD as well as PDAS score-ranges for mild, moderate, and severe PD. The sec...

  5. Reliability of the Modified Ashworth Scale in the Assessment of Plantarflexor Muscle Spasticity in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, S. C.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This attempt to determine the reliability of the Modified Ashworth Scale for assessing the severity of muscle spasticity for ankle plantarflexors in 30 patients with traumatic brain injury concluded that the reliability was minimally adequate to support the scale's continued use. Interrater reliability was less than that previously reported for…

  6. Drug and herb induced liver injury: Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale for causality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Rolf; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Schwarzenboeck, Alexander; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2014-01-27

    Causality assessment of suspected drug induced liver injury (DILI) and herb induced liver injury (HILI) is hampered by the lack of a standardized approach to be used by attending physicians and at various subsequent evaluating levels. The aim of this review was to analyze the suitability of the liver specific Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) scale as a standard tool for causality assessment in DILI and HILI cases. PubMed database was searched for the following terms: drug induced liver injury; herb induced liver injury; DILI causality assessment; and HILI causality assessment. The strength of the CIOMS lies in its potential as a standardized scale for DILI and HILI causality assessment. Other advantages include its liver specificity and its validation for hepatotoxicity with excellent sensitivity, specificity and predictive validity, based on cases with a positive reexposure test. This scale allows prospective collection of all relevant data required for a valid causality assessment. It does not require expert knowledge in hepatotoxicity and its results may subsequently be refined. Weaknesses of the CIOMS scale include the limited exclusion of alternative causes and qualitatively graded risk factors. In conclusion, CIOMS appears to be suitable as a standard scale for attending physicians, regulatory agencies, expert panels and other scientists to provide a standardized, reproducible causality assessment in suspected DILI and HILI cases, applicable primarily at all assessing levels involved.

  7. HEDEN Pain Scale: A Shortened Behavioral Scale for Assessment of Prolonged Cancer or Postsurgical Pain in Children Aged 2 to 6 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marec-Berard, Perrine; Gomez, Frédéric; Combet, Sylvie; Thibault, Pascale; Moine, Philippe Le; Bergeron, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Few observational scales are available for assessing chronic or recurrent pain in children with cancer because overt behavioral signs of chronic pain dissipate as time passes, making them difficult to detect reliably. The Douleur Enfant Gustave Roussy (DEGR) scale developed by Gauvain-Piquard to monitor prolonged pain in children with cancer aged 2-6 years is currently the only validated tool available for this purpose, but is time consuming and difficult to use in daily clinical practice. To shorten composite measurement scales, we developed the Hétero Evaluation Douleur Enfant (HEDEN) scale from the DEGR scale. We present here the process and validation of this scale. Expert consensus was used for the elaboration of HEDEN: 5/10 DEGR items were chosen with three rating levels. Concurrent validity was tested in a first cohort with correlation analysis between HEDEN and DEGR. The HEDEN scale was then validated in a second cohort. In the first step, the study (59 children) showed acceptable correlation between DEGR and HEDEN (r = 0.5), with good reliability (α = 0.61), and interrater agreement (r = 0.62). Subsequent validation in 48 children showed a significant correlation between DEGR and HEDEN (r = 0.6). Reliability was good (α = 0.75), with excellent interrater agreement [r = 0.67 (95% CI: 0.48-0.79)]. On average, the evaluation took 23 minutes (SD = 10.4) for DEGR versus 4.42 minutes (SD = 5.9) for HEDEN. This study shows a good correlation between HEDEN and DEGR scales. HEDEN allows accurate assessment of prolonged pain in young children with cancer.

  8. Reliability and validity of the Farsi version of the standardized assessment of personality-abbreviated scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sepehri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A short screening tool for high-risk individuals with personality disorder (PD is useful both for clinicians and researchers. The aim of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Farsi version of the Standardized Assessment of Personality-Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS. Methods: The original English version of the SAPAS questionnaire was translated into Farsi, and then, translated back into English by two professionals. A survey was then conducted using the questionnaire on 150 clients of primary health care centers in Tabriz, Iran. A total of 235 medical students were also studied for the reliability assessment of the questionnaire. The SAPAS was compared to the short form of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI. The data analysis was performed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve technique, operating characteristic for diagnostic efficacy, Cronbach's alpha, and test-retest for reliability evaluation. Results: We found an area under the curve (AUC of 0.566 [95% confidence intervals (CI: 0.455-0.677]; sensitivity of 0.89 and specificity of 0.26 at the cut-off score of 2 and higher. The total Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.38 and Cohen's kappa ranged between 0.5 and 0.8. Conclusion: The current study showed that the Farsi version of the SAPAS was relatively less efficient, in term of validity and reliability, in the screening of PD in the population.

  9. Trauma and countertransference: development and validity of the Assessment of Countertransference Scale (ACS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira Júnior, Erico de Moura; Polanczyk, Guilherme Vanoni; Eizirik, Mariana; Hauck, Simone; Eizirik, Cláudio Laks; Ceitlin, Lúcia Helena Freitas

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the construct validity of the Assessment of Countertransference Scale (ACS) in the context of the trauma care, through the identification of the underlying latent constructs of the measured items and their homogeneity. ACS assesses 23 feelings of CT in three factors: closeness, rejection and indifference. ACS was applied to 50 residents in psychiatry after the first appointment with 131 victims of trauma consecutively selected during 4 years. ACS was analyzed by exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory (CFA) factor analysis, internal consistence and convergent-discriminant validity. RESULTS In spite of the fact that closeness items obtained the highest scores, the EFA showed that the factor rejection (24% of variance, α = 0.88) presented a more consistent intercorrelation of the items, followed by closeness (15% of variance, α = 0.82) and, a distinct factor, sadness (9% of variance, α = 0.72). Thus, a modified version was proposed. In the comparison between the original and the proposed version, CFA detected better goodness-of-fit indexes for the proposed version (GFI = 0.797, TLI = 0.867, CFI = 0.885 vs. GFI = 0.824, TLI = 0.904, CFI = 0.918). ACS is a promising instrument for assessing CT feelings, making it valid to access during the care of trauma victims.

  10. Heart rate variability for assessing comatose patients with different Glasgow Coma Scale scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Ferrer, Yazmina; Estévez, Mario; Machado, Calixto; Hernández-Cruz, Adrián; Carrick, Frederick R; Leisman, Gerry; Melillo, Robert; Defina, Phillip; Chinchilla, Mauricio; Machado, Yanín

    2013-03-01

    To assess the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in coma by heart rate variability (HRV). Sixteen comatose patients and 22 normal subjects with comparable ages and genders were studied. Patients were classified in two subgroups according to the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). Time, frequency, and informational HRV domain indices were calculated. A notable reduction of HRV was found in patients. Regarding the time domain indices, the triangular index, and the Delta_RRs, were significantly reduced in the subgroup with GCS=3. Absolute power for the whole frequency spectrum decreased whenever GCS scores were lower. A significant decrement was found for absolute power of the VLF and LF bands in the subgroup of GCS=3, and although it was lower for the HF band in these patients, those changes were not statistically significantly different. The LF/HF ratio and the Shannon´s entropy indices were significantly reduced in the subgroup with GCS=3. Our results are discussed regarding the progressive dysfunction the ANS networks when coma deepens. The HRV procedure is a powerful tool to assess the ANS in comatose patients. HRV is a minimally invasive, low-cost methodology, suitable for assessing the ANS in coma. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Prevalence of Food Addiction as Assessed by the Yale Food Addiction Scale: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirrilly M. Pursey

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global issue and it has been suggested that an addiction to certain foods could be a factor contributing to overeating and subsequent obesity. Only one tool, the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS has been developed to specifically assess food addiction. This review aimed to determine the prevalence of food addiction diagnosis and symptom scores, as assessed by the YFAS. Published studies to July 2014 were included if they reported the YFAS diagnosis or symptom score and were published in the English language. Twenty-five studies were identified including a total of 196,211 predominantly female, overweight/obese participants (60%. Using meta-analysis, the weighted mean prevalence of YFAS food addiction diagnosis was 19.9%. Food addiction (FA diagnosis was found to be higher in adults aged >35 years, females, and overweight/obese participants. Additionally, YFAS diagnosis and symptom score was higher in clinical samples compared to non-clinical counterparts. YFAS outcomes were related to a range of other eating behavior measures and anthropometrics. Further research is required to explore YFAS outcomes across a broader spectrum of ages, other types of eating disorders and in conjunction with weight loss interventions to confirm the efficacy of the tool to assess for the presence of FA.

  12. Advancing effects analysis for integrated, large-scale wildfire risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Matthew P; Calkin, David E; Gilbertson-Day, Julie W; Ager, Alan A

    2011-08-01

    In this article, we describe the design and development of a quantitative, geospatial risk assessment tool intended to facilitate monitoring trends in wildfire risk over time and to provide information useful in prioritizing fuels treatments and mitigation measures. The research effort is designed to develop, from a strategic view, a first approximation of how both fire likelihood and intensity influence risk to social, economic, and ecological values at regional and national scales. Three main components are required to generate wildfire risk outputs: (1) burn probability maps generated from wildfire simulations, (2) spatially identified highly valued resources (HVRs), and (3) response functions that describe the effects of fire (beneficial or detrimental) on the HVR. Analyzing fire effects has to date presented a major challenge to integrated risk assessments, due to a limited understanding of the type and magnitude of changes wrought by wildfire to ecological and other nonmarket values. This work advances wildfire effects analysis, recognizing knowledge uncertainty and appropriately managing it through the use of an expert systems approach. Specifically, this work entailed consultation with 10 fire and fuels program management officials from federal agencies with fire management responsibilities in order to define quantitative resource response relationships as a function of fire intensity. Here, we demonstrate a proof-of-concept application of the wildland fire risk assessment tool, using the state of Oregon as a case study.

  13. Local scale multiple quantitative risk assessment and uncertainty evaluation in a densely urbanised area (Brescia, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lari, S.; Frattini, P.; Crosta, G. B.

    2012-11-01

    The study of the interactions between natural and anthropogenic risks is necessary for quantitative risk assessment in areas affected by active natural processes, high population density and strong economic activities. We present a multiple quantitative risk assessment on a 420 km2 high risk area (Brescia and surroundings, Lombardy, Northern Italy), for flood, seismic and industrial accident scenarios. Expected economic annual losses are quantified for each scenario and annual exceedance probability-loss curves are calculated. Uncertainty on the input variables is propagated by means of three different methodologies: Monte-Carlo-Simulation, First Order Second Moment, and point estimate. Expected losses calculated by means of the three approaches show similar values for the whole study area, about 64 000 000 € for earthquakes, about 10 000 000 € for floods, and about 3000 € for industrial accidents. Locally, expected losses assume quite different values if calculated with the three different approaches, with differences up to 19%. The uncertainties on the expected losses and their propagation, performed with the three methods, are compared and discussed in the paper. In some cases, uncertainty reaches significant values (up to almost 50% of the expected loss). This underlines the necessity of including uncertainty in quantitative risk assessment, especially when it is used as a support for territorial planning and decision making. The method is developed thinking at a possible application at a regional-national scale, on the basis of data available in Italy over the national territory.

  14. Developing scales for the assessment of fatigue in Turkish pediatric oncology patients aged 13-18 and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektas, Murat; Kudubes, Asli Akdeniz

    2014-01-01

    This study was planned in an attempt to develop scales for the assessment of fatigue in pediatric oncology patients aged 13-18 and also for their parents. In collecting the study data, we used the Child and Parent Information Form, Visual Fatigue Scale, Scale for the Assessment of Fatigue in Pediatric Oncology Patients Aged 13-18 and the Scale for the Assessment of Fatigue in Pediatric Oncology Patients Aged 13-18 for Parents. We also used Pearson correlation analysis, Cronbach alpha coefficient, factor analysis and ROC analysis for the study data. In this study, the total Cronbach alpha value of the parent form was 0.99, the total factor load was 0.72-0.94 with 95% the total variance being explained. The cutoff point of the parent form is 73 points. The total Cronbach alpha value of the child form was 0.99, the total factor load was 0.82-0.95, with 89.4% of the total variance being explained. The cutoff point of the child form was 75.5 points. This study suggests that the Scale for the Assessment of Fatigue in Pediatric Oncology Patients Aged 13-18 and the Scale for the Assessment of Fatigue in Pediatric Oncology Patients Aged 13-18 for Parents are valid and reliable instruments in assessing the fatigue symptoms of children in Turkey.

  15. Coupling transfer function and GIS for assessing non-point-source groundwater vulnerability at regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, A.; Comegna, V.; de Simone, L.

    2009-04-01

    Non-point source (NPS) pollution in the vadose zone is a global environmental problem. The knowledge and information required to address the problem of NPS pollutants in the vadose zone cross several technological and sub disciplinary lines: spatial statistics, geographic information systems (GIS), hydrology, soil science, and remote sensing. The main issues encountered by NPS groundwater vulnerability assessment, as discussed by Stewart [2001], are the large spatial scales, the complex processes that govern fluid flow and solute transport in the unsaturated zone, the absence of unsaturated zone measurements of diffuse pesticide concentrations in 3-D regional-scale space as these are difficult, time consuming, and prohibitively costly, and the computational effort required for solving the nonlinear equations for physically-based modeling of regional scale, heterogeneous applications. As an alternative solution, here is presented an approach that is based on coupling of transfer function and GIS modeling that: a) is capable of solute concentration estimation at a depth of interest within a known error confidence class; b) uses available soil survey, climatic, and irrigation information, and requires minimal computational cost for application; c) can dynamically support decision making through thematic mapping and 3D scenarios This result was pursued through 1) the design and building of a spatial database containing environmental and physical information regarding the study area, 2) the development of the transfer function procedure for layered soils, 3) the final representation of results through digital mapping and 3D visualization. One side GIS modeled environmental data in order to characterize, at regional scale, soil profile texture and depth, land use, climatic data, water table depth, potential evapotranspiration; on the other side such information was implemented in the up-scaling procedure of the Jury's TFM resulting in a set of texture based travel time

  16. Sea cliff instability susceptibility at regional scale: A statistically based assessment in southern Algarve, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, F.; Matildes, R.; Redweik, P.

    2012-04-01

    /year in strong sandstones to 5x10-2m/year in Miocene calcarenites with frequent karst sinkholes filled with Plio-pleistocene silty sands, reflecting the strength variations of the rock masses that compose the cliffs. The maximum value of local retreat of the cliff top was up to 33m, in man induced failure, with more frequent values in the range of 2m to 6m. For the susceptibility assessment a set of predisposing factors was studied using two statistical methods, the bi-variate Information Value method, and the multi-variate Logistic Regression method, along successive constant length stretches of cliffs. The predisposing factors included: a) major lithostratigraphical units adapted from existing geological surveys; b) rock mass structure based in field observations; c) cliff height measured in 1:2,000 scale aerophotogrammetric surveys; d) general cliff slope angle generated from photogrammetric stereoploting of cliff top and toe; e) maximum cliff slope angle derived from the 1:2,000 scale aerophotogrammetric surveys; f) presence and type of cliff toe protection (plunging cliffs, fallen blocks, beaches, wave cut platforms) obtained in aerial photo interpretation and field work; g) land use; h) cliff exposure; i) cliff face aspect; j) presence of faults or dykes. The two instability assessment models produced were validated using standard Receiver Operator Curves using the cliff failures inventory, and provided very promising results, indicating that these methods are adequate to assess cliff instability susceptibility at regional scale, enabling an objective and validated assessment in this highly complex natural environment.

  17. Assessment of nurse's knowledge about Glasgow coma scale at a university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Wesley Cajaíba; Vancini-Campanharo, Cássia Regina; Lopes, Maria Carolina Barbosa Teixeira; Okuno, Meiry Fernanda Pinto; Batista, Ruth Ester Assayag

    2016-01-01

    To assess knowledge of nurses of emergency services and intensive care units about Glasgow Coma Scale. This cross-sectional analytical study included 127 nurses of critical units of an university hospital. We used structured interview with 12 questions to evaluate their knowledge about the scale. Association of Knowledge with professionals' sociodemographic variables were verified by the Fisher-test, χ2 and likelihood ratio. Most of participants were women mean aged 31.1 years, they had graduated more than 5 years previously, and had 1 to 3 years of work experience. In the assessment of best score possible for Glasgow scale (question 3) nurses who had graduate more than 5 years ago presented a lower percentage success rate (p=0.0476). However, in the question 7, which evaluated what interval of the scale indicated moderate severity of brain trauma injury, those with more years of experience had higher percentage of correct answers (p=0.0251). In addition, nurses from emergency service had more correct answers than nurses from intensive care unit (p=0.0143) in the same question. Nurses graduated for more than 5 years ago had a lower percentage of correct answers in question 7 (p=0.0161). Nurses with more work experience had a better score (p=0.0119) to identify how assessment of motor response should be started. Number of year since graduation, experience, and work at critical care units interfered in nurses' knowledge about the scale, which indicates the need of training. Avaliar o conhecimento de enfermeiros de unidades críticas, serviços de emergência e unidades de terapia intensiva em relação à escala de coma de Glasgow. Estudo transversal e analítico com 127 enfermeiros de unidades críticas de um hospital universitário. Utilizou-se entrevista estruturada com 12 questões que avaliaram conhecimento sobre a escala. Associação do conhecimento com variáveis sociodemográficas dos profissionais foi verificada pelo teste de Fisher, teste χ2 e razão de

  18. Creating a brief rating scale for the assessment of learning disabilities using reliability and true score estimates of the scale's items based on the Rasch model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideridis, Georgios; Padeliadu, Susana

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present studies was to provide the means to create brief versions of instruments that can aid the diagnosis and classification of students with learning disabilities and comorbid disorders (e.g., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder). A sample of 1,108 students with and without a diagnosis of learning disabilities took part in study 1. Using information from modern theory methods (i.e., the Rasch model), a scale was created that included fewer than one third of the original battery items designed to assess reading skills. This best item synthesis was then evaluated for its predictive and criterion validity with a valid external reading battery (study 2). Using a sample of 232 students with and without learning disabilities, results indicated that the brief version of the scale was equally effective as the original scale in predicting reading achievement. Analysis of the content of the brief scale indicated that the best item synthesis involved items from cognition, motivation, strategy use, and advanced reading skills. It is suggested that multiple psychometric criteria be employed in evaluating the psychometric adequacy of scales used for the assessment and identification of learning disabilities and comorbid disorders.

  19. Monitoring and assessment of soil erosion at micro-scale and macro-scale in forests affected by fire damage in northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarzadeh, Ali; Ghorbani-Dashtaki, Shoja; Naderi-Khorasgani, Mehdi; Kerry, Ruth; Taghizadeh-Mehrjardi, Ruhollah

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the occurrence of erosion processes at large scales is very difficult without studying them at small scales. In this study, soil erosion parameters were investigated at micro-scale and macro-scale in forests in northern Iran. Surface erosion and some vegetation attributes were measured at the watershed scale in 30 parcels of land which were separated into 15 fire-affected (burned) forests and 15 original (unburned) forests adjacent to the burned sites. The soil erodibility factor and splash erosion were also determined at the micro-plot scale within each burned and unburned site. Furthermore, soil sampling and infiltration studies were carried out at 80 other sites, as well as the 30 burned and unburned sites, (a total of 110 points) to create a map of the soil erodibility factor at the regional scale. Maps of topography, rainfall, and cover-management were also determined for the study area. The maps of erosion risk and erosion risk potential were finally prepared for the study area using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) procedure. Results indicated that destruction of the protective cover of forested areas by fire had significant effects on splash erosion and the soil erodibility factor at the micro-plot scale and also on surface erosion, erosion risk, and erosion risk potential at the watershed scale. Moreover, the results showed that correlation coefficients between different variables at the micro-plot and watershed scales were positive and significant. Finally, assessment and monitoring of the erosion maps at the regional scale showed that the central and western parts of the study area were more susceptible to erosion compared with the western regions due to more intense crop-management, greater soil erodibility, and more rainfall. The relationships between erosion parameters and the most important vegetation attributes were also used to provide models with equations that were specific to the study region. The results of this

  20. Reliability and Photographic Equivalency of the Scar Cosmesis Assessment and Rating (SCAR) Scale, an Outcome Measure for Postoperative Scars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantor, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Until recently, no ideal valid, feasible, and reliable scar scale existed to effectively assess the quality of postoperative linear scars. The Scar Cosmesis Assessment and Rating (SCAR) scale was developed and validated as a tool to assess the quality of postoperative scars in clinical and research settings. To assess the reliability of using photographs in lieu of live patient scar rating assessments, and to determine the interrater and intrarater reliability of the SCAR scale. This was a reliability study to assess clinicians' interrater and intrarater reliability, as well as the reliability of using high-quality macrophotographs of postoperative scars. Patients were from a private practice dermatology clinic, with assessed scars representing a range of surgical procedures including those performed by dermatologists, plastic surgeons, and general surgeons. Assessments were performed by an international multidisciplinary team from dermatology, plastic surgery, surgical oncology, emergency medicine, and physiatry, using photographs and live patient assessments. A single photograph was assessed for each patient's scar. Data were obtained between August 3, 2015, and January 18, 2016. Data analysis occurred between January 18, 2016, and July 29, 2016. Using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), the scale was tested for photographic equivalency as well as interrater reliability and intrarater reliability by 5 raters on a set of 80 total patient scars, 20 of which were analyzed for photographic equivalency and the remaining 60 of which were analyzed for interrater and intrarater reliability. The SCAR scale that measures postoperative scar cosmesis, with scores ranging from 0 (best possible scar) to 15 (worst possible scar), based on 6 clinician and 2 patient items was used. Of those 60 in the photographic subgroup, 10 were rated using not only the SCAR scale but also the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale and the Vancouver Scar Scale, and 10 were

  1. Scale dependency of forest functional diversity assessed using imaging spectroscopy and airborne laser scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, F. D.; Morsdorf, F.; Schmid, B.; Petchey, O. L.; Hueni, A.; Schimel, D.; Schaepman, M. E.

    2016-12-01

    Forest functional traits offer a mechanistic link between ecological processes and community structure and assembly rules. However, measuring functional traits of forests in a continuous and consistent way is particularly difficult due to the complexity of in-situ measurements and geo-referencing. New imaging spectroscopy measurements overcome these limitations allowing to map physiological traits on broad spatial scales. We mapped leaf chlorophyll, carotenoids and leaf water content over 900 ha of temperate mixed forest (Fig. 1a). The selected traits are functionally important because they are indicating the photosynthetic potential of trees, leaf longevity and protection, as well as tree water and drought stress. Spatially continuous measurements on the scale of individual tree crowns allowed to assess functional diversity patterns on a range of ecological extents. We used indexes of functional richness, divergence and evenness to map different aspects of diversity. Fig. 1b shows an example of physiological richness at an extent of 240 m radius. We compared physiological to morphological diversity patterns, derived based on plant area index, canopy height and foliage height diversity. Our results show that patterns of physiological and morphological diversity generally agree, independently measured by airborne imaging spectroscopy and airborne laser scanning, respectively. The occurrence of disturbance areas and mixtures of broadleaf and needle trees were the main drivers of the observed diversity patterns. Spatial patterns at varying extents and richness-area relationships indicated that environmental filtering is the predominant community assembly process. Our results demonstrate the potential for mapping physiological and morphological diversity in a temperate mixed forest between and within species on scales relevant to study community assembly and structure from space and test the corresponding measurement schemes.

  2. Regional scale groundwater resource assessment in the Australian outback - Geophysics is the only way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, T. J.; Davis, A. C.; Gilfedder, M.; Annetts, D.

    2015-12-01

    Resource development, whether in agriculture, mining and/or energy, is set to have significant consequences for the groundwater resources of Australia in the short to medium term. These industry sectors are of significant economic value to the country and consequently their support remains a priority for State and Federal Governments alike. The scale of potential developments facilitated in large part by the Government Programs, like the West Australian (WA) Government's "Water for Food" program, and the South Australian's Government's PACE program, will result in an increase in infrastructure requirements, including access to water resources and Aboriginal lands to support these developments. However, the increased demand for water, particularly groundwater, is likely to be compromised by the limited information we have about these resources. This is particularly so for remote parts of the country which are targeted as primary development areas. There is a recognised need to expand this knowledge so that water availability is not a limiting factor to development. Governments of all persuasions have therefore adopted geophysical technologies, particularly airborne electromagnetics (AEM), as a basis for extending the hydrogeological knowledge of data poor areas. In WA, the State Government has employed regional-scale AEM surveys as a basis for defining groundwater resources to support mining, regional agricultural developments whilst aiming to safeguard regional population centres, and environmental assets. A similar approach is being employed in South Australia. These surveys are being used to underpin conceptual hydrogeological frameworks, define basin-scale hydrogeological models, delimit the extent of saltwater intrusion in coastal areas, and to determine the groundwater resource potential of remote alluvial systems aimed at supporting new, irrigation-based, agricultural developments in arid parts of the Australian outback. In the absence of conventional

  3. [The School Refusal Assessment Scale: Psychometric properties and validation of a modified version].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knollmann, Martin; Sicking, Alexander; Hebebrand, Johannes; Reissner, Volker

    2017-07-01

    Psychometric properties of the original and a modified version of the «Einschätzungsskala der Schulverweigerung» (German version of the School Refusal Assessment Scale, SRAS; Kearney & Silverman, 1993; Overmeyer et al., 1994) were analyzed in order to identify alternative ways to revise the SRAS/ESV compared to the existing revision SRAS-R (Kearney, 2002). The SRAS/ESV consists of a parent and a child version and measures four functions of school refusal (avoidance of negative affect related to school settings, escape from aversive social or evaluative situations, attention-getting behavior, positive tangible reinforcement). Data from N = 124 (parent version) respectively N = 156 (child version) patients of a specialized psychiatric outpatient unit for children and adolescents with school-avoiding behavior were obtained. Analyzes included characteristics of items and scales, face-, factorial-, and construct-validity (correlations with other questionnaires, e. g., YSR, CBCL were analyzed). Many items seem to measure overall anxiety instead of the functional aspects of school refusal, one item measures expansive behavior. Four factors were obtained, but they did not reflect the assumed structure of the ESV (e. g., overlap of the two avoidance-related scales). Post-hoc-analyzes with a modified version (elimination of several items with problematic content validity) suggested three factors, convergent and discriminative validity of the modified version was confirmed. Because only some of the afore-mentioned problems have been addressed in the revised version (SRAS-R; Kearney, 2002), a new revision and extension of the German version of the questionnaire covering more aspects of school avoidance behavior (e. g., bullying, depression, somatic complaints, psychosocial factors) is discussed.

  4. The psychometric properties of the self-assessment of the Interpersonal Relationship Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearing, Karen S; Steadman, Sheryl

    2011-10-01

    The specific aims of this study were to establish the reliability and validity of the Self-Assessment of the Interpersonal Relationship Scale (SAIRS) and to ascertain whether the SAIRS measured the development of interpersonal competencies. This was an exploratory methodological study undertaken to analyze the psychometric properties of the SAIRS. The sample was composed of 248 subjects between the ages of 18 and 60. The factor analysis yielded a one-factor solution that explained 33.3% of the variance with one component explaining 21% of the variance. Cronbach's alpha (0.92), demonstrated high internal consistency. SAIRS can provide nurses, supervisors, and educators with information regarding competency areas that need further instruction/practice to enhance the interpersonal relationship. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Large-scale assessment of activity landscape feature probabilities of bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayastha, Shilva; Dimova, Dilyana; Iyer, Preeti; Vogt, Martin; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2014-02-24

    Activity landscape representations integrate pairwise compound similarity and potency relationships and provide direct access to characteristic structure-activity relationship features in compound data sets. Because pairwise compound comparisons provide the foundation of activity landscape design, the assessment of specific landscape features such as activity cliffs has generally been confined to the level of compound pairs. A conditional probability-based approach has been applied herein to assign most probable activity landscape features to individual compounds. For example, for a given data set compound, it was determined if it would preferentially engage in the formation of activity cliffs or other landscape features. In a large-scale effort, we have determined conditional activity landscape feature probabilities for more than 160,000 compounds with well-defined activity annotations contained in 427 different target-based data sets. These landscape feature probabilities provide a detailed view of how different activity landscape features are distributed over currently available bioactive compounds.

  6. A conceptual framework for developing a critical thinking self-assessment scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Girija G; Stamler, Lynnette Leeseberg

    2013-03-01

    Nurses must be talented critical thinkers to cope with the challenges related to the ever-changing health care system, population trends, and extended role expectations. Several countries now recognize critical thinking skills (CTS) as an expected outcome of nursing education programs. Critical thinking has been defined in multiple ways by philosophers, critical thinking experts, and educators. Nursing experts conceptualize critical thinking as a process involving cognitive and affective domains of reasoning. Nurse educators are often challenged with teaching and measuring CTS because of their latent nature and the lack of a uniform definition of the concept. In this review of the critical thinking literature, we examine various definitions, identify a set of constructs that define critical thinking, and suggest a conceptual framework on which to base a self-assessment scale for measuring CTS. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Factor Structure and Sensitivity to Change of the Recovery Assessment Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Salene M W; Ludman, Evette J

    2017-07-19

    The focus on recovery, not just symptom reduction, in mental health care brings a need for psychometrically sound measures of recovery. This study examined the factor structure and sensitivity to change of a common measure of mental health recovery, the Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS). We conducted a secondary data analysis from a randomized clinical trial of self-management for depression (n = 302). We tested both bifactor and the previously found five-factor model. Sensitivity to change was examined three ways: (1) between the intervention and control group; (2) across time in the intervention group; and (3) in those whose depression remitted. The previous five-factor model was supported. One subscale, no domination by symptoms, was particularly sensitive to change and showed sensitivity to change whereas the subscale reliance on others did not show change in any of the comparisons. Results suggest that the subscales of the RAS should be examined separately in future studies of recovery.

  8. Validating the language domain subtest in a developmental assessment scale for preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Anita M-Y; Leung, Cynthia; Siu, Elaine K-L; Lam, Catherine C-C

    2012-01-01

    This study reports on the validation of the language domain subtest of a developmental assessment scale for Cantonese Chinese preschool children. Three hundred and seventy eight multi-stage randomly selected children between 3;4 and 6;3 years of age were tested on the 104-item subtest. Fifty-four of these children, spreading across three age groups, demonstrated developmental problems. Results from the Rasch analyses suggested that the original and the shortened 66-item version demonstrated adequate measurement properties, including targeting and uni-dimensionality. Statistical analyses of the shortened version suggested that the subtest demonstrated strong test-retest reliability, and adequate convergent and criterion validity. This study contributes to good practice in the development of standardized normative tests, particularly those for investigations of language problems in Chinese children given that reports on existing tests' psychometric properties were often incomplete. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF SMALL- SCALE WOOD INDUSTRIES IN IKOT EKPENE, AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael AKPAN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the environmental impactsassociated with Small Scale Wood Industries (SSWl inIkot Expene town, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Three (3industrial locations, namely sawmill (SM, Furniture (Fand Wood Carving (WC, including a Control (C wererandomly sampled for the study. Data were collected withthe aid of measurements, using standard instruments,and compared with those of National (FMENV andInternational (WHO regulatory limits. Analysis ofVariance (ANOVA statistics was used in data analysis.Results revealed that the measured environmentalparameters (air quality, soil and noise pollutions did notdiffer significantly (P<0.05 from the 3 industrial locations,but significant differences between the various locationsand control were obtained.

  10. Evaluation of treatment related fear using a newly developed fear scale for children: "Fear assessment picture scale" and its association with physiological response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishidha Tiwari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dental treatment is usually a poignant phenomenon for children. Projective scales are preferred over psychometric scales to recognize it, and to obtain the self-report from children. Aims: The aims were to evaluate treatment related fear using a newly developed fear scale for children, fear assessment picture scale (FAPS, and anxiety with colored version of modified facial affective scale (MFAS - three faces along with physiologic responses (pulse rate and oxygen saturation obtained by pulse oximeter before and during pulpectomy procedure. Settings and Design: Total, 60 children of age 6-8 years who were visiting the dental hospital for the first time and needed pulpectomy treatment were selected. Children selected were of sound physical, physiological, and mental condition. Two projective scales were used; one to assess fear - FAPS and to assess anxiety - colored version of MFAS - three faces. These were co-related with the physiological responses (oxygen saturation and pulse rate of children obtained by pulse oximeter before and during the pulpectomy procedure. Statistical Analysis Used: Shapiro-Wilk test, McNemar′s test, Wilcoxon signed ranks test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney test were applied in the study. Results: The physiological responses showed association with FAPS and MFAS though not significant. However, oxygen saturation with MFAS showed a significant change between "no anxiety" and "some anxiety" as quantified by Kruskal-Wallis test value 6.287, P = 0.043 (<0.05 before pulpectomy procedure. Conclusions: The FAPS can prove to be a pragmatic tool in spotting the fear among young children. This test is easy and fast to apply on children and reduces the chair-side time.

  11. Quantitative assessment of thermodynamic constraints on the solution space of genome-scale metabolic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Joshua J; Dwivedi, Vivek; Reed, Jennifer L

    2013-07-16

    Constraint-based methods provide powerful computational techniques to allow understanding and prediction of cellular behavior. These methods rely on physiochemical constraints to eliminate infeasible behaviors from the space of available behaviors. One such constraint is thermodynamic feasibility, the requirement that intracellular flux distributions obey the laws of thermodynamics. The past decade has seen several constraint-based methods that interpret this constraint in different ways, including those that are limited to small networks, rely on predefined reaction directions, and/or neglect the relationship between reaction free energies and metabolite concentrations. In this work, we utilize one such approach, thermodynamics-based metabolic flux analysis (TMFA), to make genome-scale, quantitative predictions about metabolite concentrations and reaction free energies in the absence of prior knowledge of reaction directions, while accounting for uncertainties in thermodynamic estimates. We applied TMFA to a genome-scale network reconstruction of Escherichia coli and examined the effect of thermodynamic constraints on the flux space. We also assessed the predictive performance of TMFA against gene essentiality and quantitative metabolomics data, under both aerobic and anaerobic, and optimal and suboptimal growth conditions. Based on these results, we propose that TMFA is a useful tool for validating phenotypes and generating hypotheses, and that additional types of data and constraints can improve predictions of metabolite concentrations. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Vulnerability assessments, identity and spatial scale challenges in disaster-risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward R. Carr

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Current approaches to vulnerability assessment for disaster-risk reduction (DRR commonly apply generalised, a priori determinants of vulnerability to particular hazards in particular places. Although they may allow for policy-level legibility at high levels of spatial scale, these approaches suffer from attribution problems that become more acute as the level of analysis is localised and the population under investigation experiences greater vulnerability. In this article, we locate the source of this problem in a spatial scale mismatch between the essentialist framings of identity behind these generalised determinants of vulnerability and the intersectional, situational character of identity in the places where DRR interventions are designed and implemented. Using the Livelihoods as Intimate Government (LIG approach to identify and understand different vulnerabilities to flooding in a community in southern Zambia, we empirically demonstrate how essentialist framings of identity produce this mismatch. Further, we illustrate a means of operationalising intersectional, situational framings of identity to achieve greater and more productive understandings of hazard vulnerability than available through the application of general determinants of vulnerability to specific places and cases.

  13. Using the Personality Assessment Inventory Antisocial and Borderline Features Scales to Predict Behavior Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penson, Brittany N; Ruchensky, Jared R; Morey, Leslie C; Edens, John F

    2016-11-01

    A substantial amount of research has examined the developmental trajectory of antisocial behavior and, in particular, the relationship between antisocial behavior and maladaptive personality traits. However, research typically has not controlled for previous behavior (e.g., past violence) when examining the utility of personality measures, such as self-report scales of antisocial and borderline traits, in predicting future behavior (e.g., subsequent violence). Examination of the potential interactive effects of measures of both antisocial and borderline traits also is relatively rare in longitudinal research predicting adverse outcomes. The current study utilizes a large sample of youthful offenders ( N = 1,354) from the Pathways to Desistance project to examine the separate effects of the Personality Assessment Inventory Antisocial Features (ANT) and Borderline Features (BOR) scales in predicting future offending behavior as well as trends in other negative outcomes (e.g., substance abuse, violence, employment difficulties) over a 1-year follow-up period. In addition, an ANT × BOR interaction term was created to explore the predictive effects of secondary psychopathy. ANT and BOR both explained unique variance in the prediction of various negative outcomes even after controlling for past indicators of those same behaviors during the preceding year.

  14. Quantitative Assessment of Thermodynamic Constraints on the Solution Space of Genome-Scale Metabolic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Joshua J.; Dwivedi, Vivek; Reed, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Constraint-based methods provide powerful computational techniques to allow understanding and prediction of cellular behavior. These methods rely on physiochemical constraints to eliminate infeasible behaviors from the space of available behaviors. One such constraint is thermodynamic feasibility, the requirement that intracellular flux distributions obey the laws of thermodynamics. The past decade has seen several constraint-based methods that interpret this constraint in different ways, including those that are limited to small networks, rely on predefined reaction directions, and/or neglect the relationship between reaction free energies and metabolite concentrations. In this work, we utilize one such approach, thermodynamics-based metabolic flux analysis (TMFA), to make genome-scale, quantitative predictions about metabolite concentrations and reaction free energies in the absence of prior knowledge of reaction directions, while accounting for uncertainties in thermodynamic estimates. We applied TMFA to a genome-scale network reconstruction of Escherichia coli and examined the effect of thermodynamic constraints on the flux space. We also assessed the predictive performance of TMFA against gene essentiality and quantitative metabolomics data, under both aerobic and anaerobic, and optimal and suboptimal growth conditions. Based on these results, we propose that TMFA is a useful tool for validating phenotypes and generating hypotheses, and that additional types of data and constraints can improve predictions of metabolite concentrations. PMID:23870272

  15. The development of Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Orii; Orrell, Martin; Ridder, Hanne Mette

    2015-01-01

    There is a need to develop an outcome measure specific to music therapy in dementia that reflects a holistic picture of the therapy process and outcome. This study aimed to develop a clinically relevant and scientifically robust music therapy outcome measure incorporating the values and views of people with dementia. Focus groups and interviews were conducted to obtain qualitative data on what music meant to people with dementia and the observed effects of music. Expert and peer consultations were conducted at each stage of the measure development to maximise its content validity. The new measure was field-tested by clinicians in a care home. Feedback from the clinicians and music therapy experts were incorporated during the review and refinement process of the measure. A review of the existing literature, the experiential results and the consensus process enabled the development of the new outcome measure “Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS)”. Analysis of the qualitative data identified five key areas of the impact of music on people with dementia and they were transformed as the five Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) items: levels of Interest, Response, Initiation, Involvement and Enjoyment. MiDAS comprises the five VAS items and a supplementary checklist of notable positive and negative reactions from the individual. This study demonstrates that it is possible to design and develop an easy to apply and rigorous quantitative outcome measure which has a high level of clinical relevance for people with dementia, care home staff and music therapists. PMID:26246670

  16. A large-scale assessment of European rabbit damage to agriculture in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delibes-Mateos, Miguel; Farfán, Miguel Ángel; Rouco, Carlos; Olivero, Jesús; Márquez, Ana Luz; Fa, John E; Vargas, Juan Mario; Villafuerte, Rafael

    2018-01-01

    Numerous small and medium-sized mammal pests cause widespread and economically significant damage to crops all over the globe. However, most research on pest species has focused on accounts of the level of damage. There are fewer studies concentrating on the description of crop damage caused by pests at large geographical scales, or on analysis of the ecological and anthropogenic factors correlated with these observed patterns. We investigated the relationship between agricultural damage by the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and environmental and anthropogenic variables throughout Spain. Rabbit damage was mainly concentrated within the central-southern regions of Spain. We found that rabbit damage increased significantly between the early 2000s and 2013. Greater losses were typical of those areas where farming dominated and natural vegetation was scarce, where main railways and highways were present, and where environmental conditions were generally favourable for rabbit populations to proliferate. From our analysis, we suggest that roads and railway lines act as potential corridors along which rabbits can spread. The recent increase in Spain of such infrastructure may explain the rise in rabbit damage reported in this study. Our approach is valuable as a method for assessing drivers of wildlife pest damage at large spatial scales, and can be used to propose methods to reduce human - wildlife conflict. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. The influence of impression management scales on the Personality Assessment Inventory in the epilepsy monitoring unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdom, Catherine L; Kirlin, Kristin A; Hoerth, Matthew T; Noe, Katherine H; Drazkowski, Joseph F; Sirven, Joseph I; Locke, Dona E C

    2012-12-01

    The Somatic Complaints scale (SOM) and Conversion subscale (SOM-C) of the Personality Assessment Inventory perform best in classifying psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) from epileptic seizures (ES); however, the impact of positive impression management (PIM) and negative impression management (NIM) scales on SOM and SOM-C classification has not been examined. We studied 187 patients from an epilepsy monitoring unit with confirmed PNES or ES. On SOM, the best cut score was 72.5 T when PIM was elevated and 69.5 T when there was no bias. On SOM-C, when PIM was elevated, the best cut score was 67.5 T and 76.5 T when there was no bias. Negative impression management elevations (n=9) were too infrequent to analyze separately. Despite similarities in classification accuracy, there were differences in sensitivity and specificity with and without PIM, impacting positive and negative predictive values. The presence of PIM bias generally increases positive predictive power of SOM and SOM-C but decreases negative predictive power. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Large-scale terrestrial solar cell power generation cost: A preliminary assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spakowski, A. E.; Shure, L. I.

    1972-01-01

    A cost study was made to assess the potential of the large-scale use of solar cell power for terrestrial applications. The incentive is the attraction of a zero-pollution source of power for wide-scale use. Unlike many other concepts for low-pollution power generation, even thermal pollution is avoided since only the incident solar flux is utilized. To provide a basis for comparison and a perspective for evaluation, the pertinent technology was treated in two categories: current and optimistic. Factors considered were solar cells, array assembly, power conditioning, site preparation, buildings, maintenance, and operation. The capital investment was assumed to be amortized over 30 years. The useful life of the solar cell array was assumed to be 10 years, and the cases of zero and 50-percent performance deg-radation were considered. Land costs, taxes, and profits were not included in this study because it was found too difficult to provide good generalized estimates of these items. On the basis of the factors considered, it is shown that even for optimistic projections of technology, electric power from large-sclae terrestrial use of solar cells is approximately two to three orders of magnitude more costly than current electric power generation from either fossil or nuclear fuel powerplants. For solar cell power generation to be a viable competitor on a cost basis, technological breakthroughs would be required in both solar cell and array fabrication and in site preparation.

  19. Assessing children's emotional security in the interparental relationship: the Security in the Interparental Subsystem Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Patrick T; Forman, Evan M; Rasi, Jennifer A; Stevens, Kristopher I

    2002-01-01

    Guided by the emotional security hypothesis, this study reports on the development of a new self-report measure that assesses children's strategies for preserving emotional security in the context of interparental conflict. Participants were 924 sixth, seventh, and eighth graders and a subset of their mothers, fathers, and teachers. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the Security in the Interparental Subsystem (SIS) Scale supported a seven-factor solution, corresponding well to the three component processes (i.e., emotional reactivity, regulation of exposure to parent affect, and internal representations) outlined in the emotional security hypothesis. The SIS subscales demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Support for the validity of the SIS Scale is evidenced by its significant links with parent reports of children's overt reactivity to conflict, children's responses to interparental conflict simulations 6 months later, and children's psychological maladjustment and experiential histories with interparental conflict across multiple informants (i.e., child, mother, father, and teacher). Results are discussed in the context of developing recommendations for use of the SIS and advancing the emotional security hypothesis.

  20. Assessment of Preterm Infants Using the Bayley-III Scales in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sung Ho; Kim, Soo A

    2017-10-01

    To assess the well-being of preterm newborns using the Bayley-III scales in a Korean-based population, and to evaluate the perinatal risk factors influencing developmental outcome. Using the Bayley-III scales, we assessed 120 preterm infants who were referred for evaluation of neurodevelopmental performance. We subdivided them into an extremely preterm group (n=18) and a very/moderate to late preterm group (n=102). Bayley-III mean scores and the rate of infants showing a delay were compared for both groups. The relationship between perinatal risk factors and Bayley-III scores was analyzed. The risk factors were considered as very low birth weight, history of neonatal medical problems, and abnormal radiologic findings in brain magnetic resonance images (MRIs). Although no significant differences in mean scores were observed between the extremely preterm group and the very/moderate to late preterm group, the rate of babies showing developmental delay in motor composite scores was significantly higher in the extremely preterm group. The proportions of preterm infants with cognitive, language, and motor delays were 38.3%, 26.7%, and 35.0%, respectively. Very low birth weight was a significant risk factor for low cognitive, language, and motor composite scores. Also, abnormal radiologic findings on brain MRI were significant indicators of lower motor composite scores. Cognitive development was the most frequently delayed domain in preterm infants and motor development was more frequently delayed in the extremely preterm group. The very low birth weight and abnormal radiologic findings in brain MRI were predictive factors for neurodevelopmental outcome.

  1. Psychometric characteristics of the mental health crisis assessment scale in youth with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalb, Luther G; Hagopian, Louis P; Gross, Alden L; Vasa, Roma A

    2017-05-19

    Youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit high rates of psychopathology. These symptoms can pose a risk of injury to self or others when the child is in crisis. Despite this danger, there are no instruments available to identify those with ASD who are at risk or actively in crisis. This study examined the psychometric properties of the Mental Health Crisis Assessment Scale (MCAS), a 28 item parent report measure. The MCAS was administered to the parents of 606 children and young adults (aged 3-25 years, M age = 13 years, SD = 5 years) enrolled in the Interactive Autism Network, an online registry of families raising a child with ASD. The MCAS asks parents to rate the severity of various emotional and behavioral symptoms exhibited by their child. The parent then selects the behavior they perceive as the most dangerous behavior and rates the acuity of as well as their efficacy in managing this behavior. The MCAS was tested for internal consistency, construct validity, criterion validity, and convergent validity. The MCAS demonstrated strong internal consistency (Total Scale Cronbach's α = .88). The exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses suggested that a two factor (acuity and behavioral efficacy) model fit the data well, providing evidence of construct validity. Criterion validity, which was assessed by comparing the MCAS to clinician determination of crisis, indicated high levels of agreement (ROC = .85). Strong positive relationships emerged between the MCAS and measures of family distress (r = .56), parental stress, and frustration (r = .48), and use of emergency psychiatric services (OR = 24.2, 95% CI: 8.6-68.2), indicating convergent validity of the measure (all p mental health crises in youth with ASD. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  2. Automated DNA-based plant identification for large-scale biodiversity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Anna; Chesters, Douglas; Coronado, Indiana; De la Cadena, Gissela; Cardoso, Anabela; Reyes, Jazmina C; Maes, Jean-Michel; Rueda, Ricardo M; Gómez-Zurita, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Rapid degradation of tropical forests urges to improve our efficiency in large-scale biodiversity assessment. DNA barcoding can assist greatly in this task, but commonly used phenetic approaches for DNA-based identifications rely on the existence of comprehensive reference databases, which are infeasible for hyperdiverse tropical ecosystems. Alternatively, phylogenetic methods are more robust to sparse taxon sampling but time-consuming, while multiple alignment of species-diagnostic, typically length-variable, markers can be problematic across divergent taxa. We advocate the combination of phylogenetic and phenetic methods for taxonomic assignment of DNA-barcode sequences against incomplete reference databases such as GenBank, and we developed a pipeline to implement this approach on large-scale plant diversity projects. The pipeline workflow includes several steps: database construction and curation, query sequence clustering, sequence retrieval, distance calculation, multiple alignment and phylogenetic inference. We describe the strategies used to establish these steps and the optimization of parameters to fit the selected psbA-trnH marker. We tested the pipeline using infertile plant samples and herbivore diet sequences from the highly threatened Nicaraguan seasonally dry forest and exploiting a valuable purpose-built resource: a partial local reference database of plant psbA-trnH. The selected methodology proved efficient and reliable for high-throughput taxonomic assignment, and our results corroborate the advantage of applying 'strict' tree-based criteria to avoid false positives. The pipeline tools are distributed as the scripts suite 'BAGpipe' (pipeline for Biodiversity Assessment using GenBank data), which can be readily adjusted to the purposes of other projects and applied to sequence-based identification for any marker or taxon. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Assessing the potential of economic instruments for managing drought risk at river basin scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Lopez-Nicolas, A.; Macian-Sorribes, H.

    2015-12-01

    Economic instruments work as incentives to adapt individual decisions to collectively agreed goals. Different types of economic instruments have been applied to manage water resources, such as water-related taxes and charges (water pricing, environmental taxes, etc.), subsidies, markets or voluntary agreements. Hydroeconomic models (HEM) provide useful insight on optimal strategies for coping with droughts by simultaneously analysing engineering, hydrology and economics of water resources management. We use HEMs for evaluating the potential of economic instruments on managing drought risk at river basin scale, considering three criteria for assessing drought risk: reliability, resilience and vulnerability. HEMs allow to calculate water scarcity costs as the economic losses due to water deliveries below the target demands, which can be used as a vulnerability descriptor of drought risk. Two generic hydroeconomic DSS tools, SIMGAMS and OPTIGAMS ( both programmed in GAMS) have been developed to evaluate water scarcity cost at river basin scale based on simulation and optimization approaches. The simulation tool SIMGAMS allocates water according to the system priorities and operating rules, and evaluate the scarcity costs using economic demand functions. The optimization tool allocates water resources for maximizing net benefits (minimizing total water scarcity plus operating cost of water use). SIMGAS allows to simulate incentive water pricing policies based on water availability in the system (scarcity pricing), while OPTIGAMS is used to simulate the effect of ideal water markets by economic optimization. These tools have been applied to the Jucar river system (Spain), highly regulated and with high share of water use for crop irrigation (greater than 80%), where water scarcity, irregular hydrology and groundwater overdraft cause droughts to have significant economic, social and environmental consequences. An econometric model was first used to explain the variation

  4. Assessing scales of spatial & temporal variability in radiocarbon contents of soil organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Voort, Tessa Sophia; Feng, Xiaojuan; Hagedorn, Frank; Eglinton, Timothy

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) forms the largest terrestrial reservoir of carbon outside of sedimentary rocks and it provides the fundamental reservoir for nutrients that sustains vegetation and the microbial communities. With ongoing changes in land-use and climate, SOM is also subject to change, with potentially major consequences for soil as a resource and for global biogeochemical cycles. Radiocarbon is a powerful tool for assessing SOM dynamics and is increasingly used in studies of carbon turnover. However, due to the nature of the measurement, comprehensive 14C studies of soils systems are rare. In particular, information on spatial variability in the radiocarbon contents of soils is limited. The present study aims to develop and apply a comprehensive four-dimensional approach to explore heterogeneity in bulk SOM 14C, with a broader goal of assessing controls on organic matter stability and vulnerability in soils across Switzerland. Focusing on range of Swiss soil types, we examine lateral variability in 14C over plot (decimeter to meter) to regional scales, vertical variability from surface to deeper soil horizons, and temporal variability by comparing present-day with archived (legacy) samples. Preliminary results show that there are large differences in SOM 14C age across small lateral and vertical distances within soil systems. Ultimately, studies of bulk variability will be followed up with analyses of SOM sub-fractions, including 14C measurements at the molecular level. Investigating 14C variability over various space and time domains may shed light on the scales of processes that dictate the composition and vulnerability of SOM, and provide valuable constraints on models of SOM turnover.

  5. Use of large-scale acoustic monitoring to assess anthropogenic pressures on Orthoptera communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penone, Caterina; Le Viol, Isabelle; Pellissier, Vincent; Julien, Jean-François; Bas, Yves; Kerbiriou, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Biodiversity monitoring at large spatial and temporal scales is greatly needed in the context of global changes. Although insects are a species-rich group and are important for ecosystem functioning, they have been largely neglected in conservation studies and policies, mainly due to technical and methodological constraints. Sound detection, a nondestructive method, is easily applied within a citizen-science framework and could be an interesting solution for insect monitoring. However, it has not yet been tested at a large scale. We assessed the value of a citizen-science program in which Orthoptera species (Tettigoniidae) were monitored acoustically along roads. We used Bayesian model-averaging analyses to test whether we could detect widely known patterns of anthropogenic effects on insects, such as the negative effects of urbanization or intensive agriculture on Orthoptera populations and communities. We also examined site-abundance correlations between years and estimated the biases in species detection to evaluate and improve the protocol. Urbanization and intensive agricultural landscapes negatively affected Orthoptera species richness, diversity, and abundance. This finding is consistent with results of previous studies of Orthoptera, vertebrates, carabids, and butterflies. The average mass of communities decreased as urbanization increased. The dispersal ability of communities increased as the percentage of agricultural land and, to a lesser extent, urban area increased. Despite changes in abundances over time, we found significant correlations between yearly abundances. We identified biases linked to the protocol (e.g., car speed or temperature) that can be accounted for ease in analyses. We argue that acoustic monitoring of Orthoptera along roads offers several advantages for assessing Orthoptera biodiversity at large spatial and temporal extents, particularly in a citizen science framework. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Development of an Attitude Scale to Assess K-12 Teachers' Attitudes toward Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yu-Ling

    2012-05-01

    To maximize the contributions of nanotechnology to this society, at least 60 countries have put efforts into this field. In Taiwan, a government-funded K-12 Nanotechnology Programme was established to train K-12 teachers with adequate nanotechnology literacy to foster the next generation of Taiwanese people with sufficient knowledge in nanotechnology. In the present study, the Nanotechnology Attitude Scale for K-12 teachers (NAS-T) was developed to assess K-12 teachers' attitudes toward nanotechnology. The NAS-T included 23 Likert-scale items that can be grouped into three components: importance of nanotechnology, affective tendencies in science teaching, and behavioural tendencies to teach nanotechnology. A sample of 233 K-12 teachers who have participated in the K-12 Nanotechnology Programme was included in the present study to investigate the psychometric properties of the NAS-T. The exploratory factor analysis of this teacher sample suggested that the NAS-T was a three-factor model that explained 64.11% of the total variances. This model was also confirmed by the confirmatory factor analysis to validate the factor structure of the NAS-T. The Cronbach's alpha values of three NAS-T subscales ranged from 0.89 to 0.95. Moderate to strong correlations among teachers' NAS-T domain scores, self-perception of own nanoscience knowledge, and their science-teaching efficacy demonstrated good convergent validity of the NAS-T. As a whole, psychometric properties of the NAS-T indicated that this instrument is an effective instrument for assessing K-12 teachers' attitudes toward nanotechnology. The NAS-T will serve as a valuable tool to evaluate teachers' attitude changes after participating in the K-12 Nanotechnology Programme.

  7. Assessing coral reefs on a Pacific-wide scale using the microbialization score.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey McDole

    Full Text Available The majority of the world's coral reefs are in various stages of decline. While a suite of disturbances (overfishing, eutrophication, and global climate change have been identified, the mechanism(s of reef system decline remain elusive. Increased microbial and viral loading with higher percentages of opportunistic and specific microbial pathogens have been identified as potentially unifying features of coral reefs in decline. Due to their relative size and high per cell activity, a small change in microbial biomass may signal a large reallocation of available energy in an ecosystem; that is the microbialization of the coral reef. Our hypothesis was that human activities alter the energy budget of the reef system, specifically by altering the allocation of metabolic energy between microbes and macrobes. To determine if this is occurring on a regional scale, we calculated the basal metabolic rates for the fish and microbial communities at 99 sites on twenty-nine coral islands throughout the Pacific Ocean using previously established scaling relationships. From these metabolic rate predictions, we derived a new metric for assessing and comparing reef health called the microbialization score. The microbialization score represents the percentage of the combined fish and microbial predicted metabolic rate that is microbial. Our results demonstrate a strong positive correlation between reef microbialization scores and human impact. In contrast, microbialization scores did not significantly correlate with ocean net primary production, local chla concentrations, or the combined metabolic rate of the fish and microbial communities. These findings support the hypothesis that human activities are shifting energy to the microbes, at the expense of the macrobes. Regardless of oceanographic context, the microbialization score is a powerful metric for assessing the level of human impact a reef system is experiencing.

  8. The Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) and Global Assessment of Psychosocial Disability (GAPD) in clinical practice--substance and reliability as judged by intraclass correlations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrborg, J; Larsen, F W; Nielsen, S

    2000-01-01

    Studies on the inter-rater reliability on the Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) and the Global Assessment of Psychosocial Disability (GAPD) involving different subgroups of 145 outpatients from 4 to 16 years of age showed fair to substantial intraclass correlations of 0.59 to 0.90. Raters...

  9. Development of a scale to assess Hwa-Byung, a Korean culture-bound syndrome, using the Korean MMPI-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Miguel E; Han, Kyunghee; Weed, Nathan C

    2006-09-01

    This study documents the development of an MMPI-2 scale designed to assess features of the Korean culture-bound syndrome, Hwa-Byung (HB). An American research team and psychiatric practitioners in Korea created an 18-item HB scale via rational item selection and psycho-metric refinement. Principal components analysis of scale items revealed four components, reflecting content domains of general health, gastrointestinal symptoms, hopelessness, and anger. This four-component solution applied well to both Korean men and women, but not to an American sample. Although some findings were encouraging, future studies employing clinical samples are needed to provide further validation of this scale.

  10. Rasch Analysis of a New Hierarchical Scoring System for Evaluating Hand Function on the Motor Assessment Scale for Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce S. Sabari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. (1 To develop two independent measurement scales for use as items assessing hand movements and hand activities within the Motor Assessment Scale (MAS, an existing instrument used for clinical assessment of motor performance in stroke survivors; (2 To examine the psychometric properties of these new measurement scales. Design. Scale development, followed by a multicenter observational study. Setting. Inpatient and outpatient occupational therapy programs in eight hospital and rehabilitation facilities in the United States and Canada. Participants. Patients (N=332 receiving stroke rehabilitation following left (52% or right (48% cerebrovascular accident; mean age 64.2 years (sd 15; median 1 month since stroke onset. Intervention. Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures. Data were tested for unidimensionality and reliability, and behavioral criteria were ordered according to difficulty level with Rasch analysis. Results. The new scales assessing hand movements and hand activities met Rasch expectations of unidimensionality and reliability. Conclusion. Following a multistep process of test development, analysis, and refinement, we have redesigned the two scales that comprise the hand function items on the MAS. The hand movement scale contains an empirically validated 10-behavior hierarchy and the hand activities item contains an empirically validated 8-behavior hierarchy.

  11. The Development of a Formative and a Reflective Scale for the Assessment of On-Line Store Usability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Christophersen

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In usability research, difference between formative and reflective measurement models for the assessment of latent variables has been ignored largely. As a consequence, many usability scales are misspecified. This might result in reduced scale validity because of the elimination of important usability facets within the procedure of scale development. The aim of the current study was to develop a questionnaire for the evaluation of On-line store usability (UFOS-V2 that includes both a formative and a reflective scale. 378 subjects participated in a laboratory experimental study. Each participant visited two out of 35 On-line stores. The usability and intention to buy was assessed for both stores. In addition, actual purchase behaviour was observed by combining the subjects' reward with the decision to buy. In a two-construct PLS structural equation model the formative usability scale was used as a predictor for the reflective usability measure. Results indicate that the formative usability scale UFOS-V2f forms a valid set of items for the user-based assessment of online store usability. The reflective usability scale shows high internal consistency. Positive relationships to intention and decision to buy confirm high scale validity.

  12. [Psychometric assessment and development of a shorter version of a new anxiety scale in a hospital sample from Lima, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Vargas, Antonio; Vega-Dienstmaier, Johann

    2013-04-01

    To assess psychometric properties and to develop a shorter version of a new anxiety scale. The 130-item new anxiety scale (NAS-130) was administered to 254 psychiatric outpatients of a general hospital in Lima, Peru. A categorical principal component analysis (CATPCA) was performed with the 130 items and based on these results and the relation of each item with a Clinical Global Impressions Severity Scale for anxiety (CGI-S) the scale was simplified. In addition, the CGI-S was used to assess the concurrent validity of the scale. The NAS-130 had a Cronbach's alpha of 0.97 and a Spearman correlation coefficient (Rho) with CGI-S of 0.44 (panxiety in our population; however, the scores should be interpreted differently in men and women.

  13. A Review of the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales, Second Edition, and Reynolds Intellectual Screening Test, Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicholas, Patrick J.; Floyd, Randy G.

    2017-01-01

    The Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales, Second Edition (RIAS-2; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2015) is an intelligence test for those aged 3 to 94 years. It contains eight subtests designed to assess general intelligence, verbal and nonverbal intelligence, memory, and processing speed. The two subtests targeting processing speed are new to the…

  14. Examiners and Content and Site: Oh My! a National Organization's Investigation of Score Variation in Large-Scale Performance Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebok, Stefanie S.; Roy, Marguerite; Klinger, Don A.; De Champlain, André F.

    2015-01-01

    Examiner effects and content specificity are two well known sources of construct irrelevant variance that present great challenges in performance-based assessments. National medical organizations that are responsible for large-scale performance based assessments experience an additional challenge as they are responsible for administering…

  15. Validation Study of the Scale for "Assessment of the Teaching-Learning Process", Student Version (ATLP-S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Jesus; Sander, Paul; Justicia, Fernando; Pichardo, M. Carmen; Garcia-Berben, Ana B.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The main goal of this study is to evaluate the psychometric and assessment features of the Scale for the "Assessment of the Teaching-Learning Process, Student Version" (ATLP-S), for both practical and theoretical reasons. From an applied point of view, this self-report measurement instrument has been designed to encourage…

  16. Designing Groundwater Monitoring Networks for Regional-Scale Water Quality Assessment: A Bayesian Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, M. J.; Wagner, B. J.

    2002-12-01

    The design of groundwater monitoring networks is an important concern of regional-scale water-quality assessment programs because of the high cost of data collection. The work presented here addresses regional-scale design issues using ground-water simulation and optimization set within a Bayesian framework. The regional-scale design approach focuses on reducing the uncertainty associated with a fundamental quantity: the proportion of a subsurface water resource which exceeds a specified threshold concentration, such as a mandated maximum contaminant level. This proportion is hereafter referred to as the threshold proportion. The goal is to identify optimal or near-optimal sampling designs that reduce the threshold proportion uncertainty to an acceptable level. In the Bayesian approach, there is a probability density function (pdf) associated with the unknown threshold proportion before sampling. This function is known as the prior pdf. The form of the prior pdf, which is dependent on the information available regarding the distribution of water quality within the aquifer system, controls the amount of sampling needed. In the absence of information, the form of the prior pdf is uniform; however, if a ground-water flow and transport model is available, a Monte Carlo analysis of ground-water flow and transport simulations can be used to generate a prior pdf which is non-uniform and which contains the information available regarding solute sources, pathways and transport. After sampling, the prior pdf is conditioned on the sampling data. The conditional distribution is known as the posterior pdf. In most cases there is a reduction in uncertainty associated with conditioning. The reduction in uncertainty achieved after collecting samples can be explored for different combinations of prior pdf distribution and sampling method. Three scenarios are considered: (i) uniform prior pdf with random sampling; (ii) non-uniform prior pdf with random sampling; and (iii) non

  17. Scaling of postinjection-induced seismicity: An approach to assess hydraulic fracturing related processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johann, Lisa; Dinske, Carsten; Shapiro, Serge

    2017-04-01

    diffusion with a power-law dependent hydraulic diffusivity on pressure and generate catalogues of synthetic seismicity. We study spatio-temporal features of the seismic clouds and compare the results to theoretical values predicted by the novel scaling law. Subsequently, we apply the scaling relation to real hydraulic fracturing and Enhanced Geothermal System data. Our results show that the derived scaling relations well describe synthetic and real data. Thus, the methodology can be used to obtain hydraulic reservoir properties and can contribute significantly to a general understanding of injection related processes as well as to hazard assessment.

  18. Assessment of fatigue using the Identity-Consequence Fatigue Scale in patients with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Ingrid Correia; Araújo, Amanda Souza; Morano, Maria Tereza; Cavalcante, Antonio George; Bruin, Pedro Felipe de; Paddison, Johana Susan; Silva, Guilherme Pinheiro da; Pereira, Eanes Delgado

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the properties of the Identity-Consequence Fatigue Scale (ICFS) in patients with lung cancer (LC), assessing the intensity of fatigue and associated factors. This was a cross-sectional study involving LC patients, treated at a teaching hospital in Brazil, who completed the ICFS. Patients with chronic heart disease (CHD) and healthy controls, matched for age and gender, also completed the scale. Initially, a Brazilian Portuguese-language version of the ICFS was administered to 50 LC patients by two independent interviewers; to test for reproducibility, it was readministered to those same patients. At baseline, the LC patients were submitted to spirometry and the six-minute walk test, as well as completing the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), and Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). Inflammatory status was assessed by blood C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. To validate the ICFS, we assessed the correlations of its scores with those variables. The sample comprised 50 patients in each group (LC, CHD, and control). In the LC group, the intraclass correlation coefficients for intra-rater and inter-rater reliability regarding ICFS summary variables ranged from 0.94 to 0.76 and from 0.94 to 0.79, respectively. The ICFS presented excellent internal consistency, and Bland-Altman plots showed good test-retest reliability. The ICFS correlated significantly with FSS, HADS, and SF-36 scores, as well as with CRP levels. Mean ICFS scores in the LC group differed significantly from those in the CHD and control groups. The ICFS is a valid, reliable instrument for evaluating LC patients, in whom depression, quality of life, and CRP levels seem to be significantly associated with fatigue. Avaliar as propriedades da Escala de Identificação e Consequências da Fadiga (EICF) em pacientes com câncer de pulmão (CP), analisando a intensidade da fadiga e fatores associados

  19. Psychometric study of the Required Care Levels for People with Severe Mental Disorder Assessment Scale (ENAR-TMG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascorz, David; López, Victoria; Pinedo, Carmen; Trujols, Joan; Vegué, Joan; Pérez, Víctor

    2016-03-08

    People with severe mental disorder have significant difficulties in everyday life that involve the need for continued support. These needs are not easily measurable with the currently available tools. Therefore, a multidimensional scale that assesses the different levels of need for care is proposed, including a study of its psychometric properties. One-hundred and thirty-nine patients (58% men) with a severe mental disorder were assessed using the Required Care Levels for People with Severe Mental Disorder Assessment Scale (ENAR-TMG), the Camberwell Assessment of Need scale, and the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales. ENAR-TMG's psychometric features were examined by: a) evaluating 2 sources of validity evidence (evidence based on internal structure and evidence based on relations to other variables), and b) estimating the internal consistency, temporal stability, inter-rater reliability, and sensitivity to change of scores of the ENAR-TMG's subscales. Exploratory factor analyses revealed a one-factor structure for each of the theoretical dimensions of the scale, in which all but one showed a significant and positive correlation with the Camberwell Assessment of Need (range of r: 0.143-0.557) and Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (range of r: 0.241-0.474) scales. ENAR-TMG subscale scores showed acceptable internal consistency (range of ordinal α coefficients: 0.682-0.804), excellent test-retest (range of intraclass correlation coefficients: 0.889-0.999) and inter-rater reliabilities (range of intraclass correlation coefficients: 0.926-0.972), and satisfactory sensitivity to treatment-related changes (range of η(2): 0.003-0.103). The satisfactory psychometric behaviour of the ENAR-TMG makes the scale a promising tool to assess global functioning in people with a severe mental disorder. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. A procedure for assessing future trends of subdaily precipitation values on point scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rianna, Guido; Villani, Veronica; Mercogliano, Paola; Vezzoli, Renata

    2015-04-01

    In many areas of Italy, urban flooding or floods in small mountain basins, induced by heavy precipitations on subdaily scale, represent remarkable hazards able to cause huge damages and casualties often increased by very high population density. A proper assessment about how frequency and magnitude of such events could change under the effect of Climate Changes (CC) is crucial for the development of future territorial planning (such as early warning systems). The current constraints of climate modeling, also using high resolution RCM, prevent an adequate representation of subdaily precipitation patterns (mainly concerning extreme values) while available observed datasets are often unsuitable for the application of the bias-correction (BC) techniques requiring long time series. In this work, a new procedure is proposed: at point scale, precipitation outputs on 24 and 48 hours are provided by high resolution (about 8km) climate simulation performed through the RCM COSMO_CLM driven by GCM CMCC_CM and bias-corrected by quantile mapping approach. These ones are adopted for a monthly stochastic disaggregation approach combining Random Parameter Bartlett-Lewis (RPBL) gamma model with appropriate rainfall disaggregation technique. The last one implements empirical correction procedures, called adjusting procedures, to modify the model rainfall output, so that it is consistent with the observed rainfall values on daily time scale. In order to take into account the great difficulties related to minimization of objective function required by retrieving the 7 RPBL parameters, for each dataset the computations are repeated twenty times. Moreover, adopting statistical properties on 24 and 48 hours to retrieve RPBL parameters allows, according Bo et al. (1994), to infer statistical properties until hourly scale maintaining the information content about the possible changes in precipitation patterns due to CC. The entire simulation chain is tested on Baiso weather station, in

  1. Neuropsychological assessment and the Disability Rating Scale (DRS): a concurrent validity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neese, L E; Caroselli, J S; Klaas, P; High, W M; Becker, L J; Scheibel, R S

    2000-08-01

    Assessment of current level of functioning among clients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) often guides the establishment of realistic outcome goals for post-acute rehabilitation. Further, data generated from neuropsychological testing provide a clinician with a better understanding of a client's pattern of cognitive strengths and weaknesses. The Disability Rating Scale (DRS) is commonly used by TBI rehabilitation facilities to assess a client's general level of functioning in terms of impairment, disability, and handicap. Previous studies have used clients' neuropsychological test results to predict future level of functioning. These studies have shown mixed results regarding the predictive validity of the test findings; however, they usually employ only a limited number of tests for prediction representing a limited number of cognitive domains. Using a concurrent validity design, the present study investigated the bivariate associations between various neuropsychological testing domains (i.e. intellectual, academic, language, visuoperceptual, memory, and executive functioning) and level of functioning as indexed by the DRS. Participants were administered the DRS and the neuropsychological evaluation during the initial part of post-acute rehabilitation. Composite scores were derived for each of the neuropsychological domains. Most participants were categorized as sustaining a severe TBI. The mean age and education of this predominately male sample was 28.84 years (SD = 9.13) and 11.83 years (SD = 1.7), respectively. Results revealed a significant positive relationship between performances in intellectual, executive, academic, and visuoperceptual domains and level of functioning.

  2. Assessing Perceived Stress in Medical Personnel: In Search of an Appropriate Scale for the Bengali Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborti, Amrita; Ray, Prasenjit; Sanyal, Debasish; Thakurta, Rajarshi Guha; Bhattacharayya, Amit K.; Mallick, Asim Kumar; Das, Ranjan; Ali, Syed Naiyer

    2013-01-01

    Background: The occurrence of stress and stress related anxiety and depression in medical personnel are being increasingly reported in literature. The perceived stress scale (PSS) is the most widely used psychological instrument for measuring the perception of stress. It is needed to assess perceived stress in our population using appropriately translated version of PSS. The objectives of study were to prepare a Bengali version of PSS-10 and to establish its psychometric properties in the study population. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in a teaching hospital among medical students and interns (N=37). The translated Bengali version and the original English version of PSS-10 were separately handed over to the individual subjects. The scores were compared across different subgroups and psychometric properties of the translated version were assessed using SPSS 16. Results: Internal consistency of PSS English (α=0.79) and Bengali (α=0.80) was satisfactory. Intra-rater reliability was adequate (κ>0.5) for most of the items, but showed an inadequate value (κBengali version, a new six-item PSS in Bengali was derived that showed good internal consistency (α=0.699). Conclusion: This new version needs to be validated in a larger study population. Perceived stress score using PSS-10 was considerably high in our study population, although there was no significant difference between the subgroups (male/female, intern/student). PMID:23833339

  3. Assessment of adolescents' victimization, aggression, and problem behaviors: Evaluation of the Problem Behavior Frequency Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Albert D; Sullivan, Terri N; Goncy, Elizabeth A; Le, Anh-Thuy H

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the Problem Behavior Frequency Scale (PBFS), a self-report measure designed to assess adolescents' frequency of victimization, aggression, and other problem behaviors. Analyses were conducted on a sample of 5,532 adolescents from 37 schools at 4 sites. About half (49%) of participants were male; 48% self-identified as Black non-Hispanic; 21% as Hispanic, 18% as White non-Hispanic. Adolescents completed the PBFS and measures of beliefs and values related to aggression, and delinquent peer associations at the start of the 6th grade and over 2 years later. Ratings of participants' behavior were also obtained from teachers on the Behavioral Assessment System for Children. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a 7-factor model that differentiated among 3 forms of aggression (physical, verbal, and relational), 2 forms of victimization (overt and relational), drug use, and other delinquent behavior. Support was found for strong measurement invariance across gender, sites, and time. The PBFS factors generally showed the expected pattern of correlations with teacher ratings of adolescents' behavior and self-report measures of relevant constructs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Examining the Psychometric Quality of Multiple-Choice Assessment Items using Mokken Scale Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Stefanie A

    The concept of invariant measurement is typically associated with Rasch measurement theory (Engelhard, 2013). Concerned with the appropriateness of the parametric transformation upon which the Rasch model is based, Mokken (1971) proposed a nonparametric procedure for evaluating the quality of social science measurement that is theoretically and empirically related to the Rasch model. Mokken's nonparametric procedure can be used to evaluate the quality of dichotomous and polytomous items in terms of the requirements for invariant measurement. Despite these potential benefits, the use of Mokken scaling to examine the properties of multiple-choice (MC) items in education has not yet been fully explored. A nonparametric approach to evaluating MC items is promising in that this approach facilitates the evaluation of assessments in terms of invariant measurement without imposing potentially inappropriate transformations. Using Rasch-based indices of measurement quality as a frame of reference, data from an eighth-grade physical science assessment are used to illustrate and explore Mokken-based techniques for evaluating the quality of MC items. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  5. Life Cycle Assessment of Biogas Production in Small-scale Household Digesters in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. V. Vu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale household digesters have been promoted across Asia as a sustainable way of handling manure. The major advantages are that they produce biogas and reduce odor. However their disadvantages include the low recycling of nutrients, because digestate is dilute and therefore difficult to transport, and the loss of biogas as a result of cracks and the intentional release of excess biogas. In this study, life cycle assessment (LCA methodology was used to assess the environmental impacts associated with biogas digesters in Vietnam. Handling 1,000 kg of liquid manure and 100 kg of solid manure in a system with a biogas digester reduced the impact potential from 4.4 kg carbon dioxide (CO2 equivalents to 3.2 kg CO2 equivalents compared with traditional manure management. However, this advantage could easily be compromised if digester construction is considered in the LCA or in situations where there is an excess of biogas which is intentionally released. A sensitivity analysis showed that biogas digesters could be a means of reducing global warming if methane emissions can be kept low. In terms of eutrophication, farms with biogas digesters had 3 to 4 times greater impacts. In order to make biogas digesters sustainable, methods for recycling digestates are urgently required.

  6. A Large-Scale Assessment of Nucleic Acids Binding Site Prediction Programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichao Miao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Computational prediction of nucleic acid binding sites in proteins are necessary to disentangle functional mechanisms in most biological processes and to explore the binding mechanisms. Several strategies have been proposed, but the state-of-the-art approaches display a great diversity in i the definition of nucleic acid binding sites; ii the training and test datasets; iii the algorithmic methods for the prediction strategies; iv the performance measures and v the distribution and availability of the prediction programs. Here we report a large-scale assessment of 19 web servers and 3 stand-alone programs on 41 datasets including more than 5000 proteins derived from 3D structures of protein-nucleic acid complexes. Well-defined binary assessment criteria (specificity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy… are applied. We found that i the tools have been greatly improved over the years; ii some of the approaches suffer from theoretical defects and there is still room for sorting out the essential mechanisms of binding; iii RNA binding and DNA binding appear to follow similar driving forces and iv dataset bias may exist in some methods.

  7. Assessing landscape scale wildfire exposure for highly valued resources in a Mediterranean area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcasena, Fermín J; Salis, Michele; Ager, Alan A; Arca, Bachisio; Molina, Domingo; Spano, Donatella

    2015-05-01

    We used a fire simulation modeling approach to assess landscape scale wildfire exposure for highly valued resources and assets (HVR) on a fire-prone area of 680 km(2) located in central Sardinia, Italy. The study area was affected by several wildfires in the last half century: some large and intense fire events threatened wildland urban interfaces as well as other socioeconomic and cultural values. Historical wildfire and weather data were used to inform wildfire simulations, which were based on the minimum travel time algorithm as implemented in FlamMap. We simulated 90,000 fires that replicated recent large fire events in the area spreading under severe weather conditions to generate detailed maps of wildfire likelihood and intensity. Then, we linked fire modeling outputs to a geospatial risk assessment framework focusing on buffer areas around HVR. The results highlighted a large variation in burn probability and fire intensity in the vicinity of HVRs, and allowed us to identify the areas most exposed to wildfires and thus to a higher potential damage. Fire intensity in the HVR buffers was mainly related to fuel types, while wind direction, topographic features, and historically based ignition pattern were the key factors affecting fire likelihood. The methodology presented in this work can have numerous applications, in the study area and elsewhere, particularly to address and inform fire risk management, landscape planning and people safety on the vicinity of HVRs.

  8. Numerical fatigue life assessment of cardiovascular stents: A two-scale plasticity-damage model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, H. A. F. A.; Auricchio, F.; Conti, M.

    2013-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease has become a major global health care problem in the last decades. To tackle this problem, the use of cardiovascular stents has been considered a promising and effective approach. Numerical simulations to evaluate the in vivo behavior of stents are becoming more and more important to assess potential failures. As the material failure of a stent device has been often associated with fatigue issues, numerical approaches for fatigue life assessment of stents have gained special interest in the engineering community. Numerical fatigue life predictions can be used to modify the design and prevent failure without making and testing numerous physical devices, thus preventing from undesired fatigue failures. We present a numerical fatigue life model for the analysis of cardiovascular balloon-expandable stainless steel stents that can hopefully provide useful information either to be used for product improvement or for clinicians to make life-saving decisions. This model incorporates a two-scale continuum damage mechanics model and the so-called Soderberg fatigue failure criterion. We provide numerical results for both Palmaz-Schatz and Cypher stent designs and demonstrate that a good agreement is found between the numerical and the available experimental results.

  9. Large-Scale Quantitative Assessment of Binding Preferences in Protein-Nucleic Acid Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubec, Dávid; Hostas, Jirí; Laskowski, Roman A; Hobza, Pavel; Vondrásek, Jirí

    2015-04-14

    The growing number of high-quality experimental (X-ray, NMR) structures of protein–DNA complexes has sufficient enough information to assess whether universal rules governing the DNA sequence recognition process apply. While previous studies have investigated the relative abundance of various modes of amino acid–base contacts (van der Waals contacts, hydrogen bonds), relatively little is known about the energetics of these noncovalent interactions. In the present study, we have performed the first large-scale quantitative assessment of binding preferences in protein–DNA complexes by calculating the interaction energies in all 80 possible amino acid–DNA base combinations. We found that several mutual amino acid–base orientations featuring bidentate hydrogen bonds capable of unambiguous one-to-one recognition correspond to unique minima in the potential energy space of the amino acid–base pairs. A clustering algorithm revealed that these contacts form a spatially well-defined group offering relatively little conformational freedom. Various molecular mechanics force field and DFT-D ab initio calculations were performed, yielding similar results.

  10. Rapid assessment of large scale vegetation change based on multi-temporal phenological analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Danlu; Guan, Yanning; Guo, Shan; Yan, Baoping; Xing, Zhi; Zhang, Chunyan; Piao, Yingchao; An, Xudong; Kang, Lihua

    2011-11-01

    Detecting vegetation change is critical for earth system and sustainability science. The existing methods, however, show several limitations, including inevitable selection of imagery acquisition dates, affection from vegetation related noise on temporal trajectory analysis, and assumptions due to vegetation classification model. This paper presents a multitemporal phenological frequency analysis over a relatively short period (MTPFA-SP) methodology to detect vegetation changes. This MTPFA-SP methodology bases on the amplitude components of fast Fourier transforming (FFT) and is implemented with two steps. First, NDVI time series over two periods are transformed with FFT into frequency domain, separately. Second, amplitude components with phenological information from Step 1 are selected for further change comparison. In this methodology, component selection shows physical meanings of natural vegetation process in frequency domain. Comparisons among those selected components help enhance the ability to rapidly detect vegetation changes. To validate this MTPFA-SP methodology, we detect changes between two periods (2001-2005 and 2006-2010) in the eastern Tibet Plateau area and make two kinds of assessments. The first is for a larger scale, including statistic analysis of altitudinal zonality and latitudinal zonality. The second assessment is for rapid detection of vegetation change location. Landsat TM image were employed to validate the result.

  11. Risk assessment method for the implementation of materials divided up to the nanometric scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gridelet, L.; Delbecq, P.; Hervé, L.; Fayet, G.; Fleury, D.; Kowal, S.; Boissolle, P.

    2013-04-01

    A new approach of assessing the risks inherent in the implementation of powders, including nanomaterials has been developed. This tool is based on the method of the OHB (Occupational Hazard Band) widely spread in the chemical industry. The European classification and CLP scales of toxicity have not been modified; only the control of exposure has been worked at. The method applies essentially to the prevention of the exposures by airborne materials, whatever their particle size. The skin exposure is not treated there specifically for the time being. The method considers exposure based on seven parameters to take into account the characteristics of the materials used, their emission potential, the conditions of use, as well as classic parameters of the characterization of the exposure as the duration and the frequency. The method stresses on a pragmatic exploitation of the current knowledge and of the available data, bearing in mind that a lot of them are not easily accessible to plant operators. The product of the reflection is then positioned on a hazard x exposure matrix from which 3 levels of priority of action are defined, as in the classical OHB method applied to pure chemical risk. This approach fills in a gap in term of risk assessment and avoids jeopardizing all that had been set up for years, while introducing newelements of reflection accessible to all operators.

  12. Electrophysiological evaluation of the Modified Tardieu Scale (MTS) in assessing poststroke wrist flexor spasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghdi, Soofia; Ansari, Noureddin Nakhostin; Abolhasani, Hamid; Mansouri, Korosh; Ghotbi, Nastaran; Hasson, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Spasticity is a common impairment following upper motor neuron lesions such as stroke. The appropriate measurement of muscle spasticity using validated tools to evaluate the outcome of therapies is important in clinical and research settings. To determine the concurrent criterion-related validity of the Modified Tardieu Scale (MTS) in assessing poststroke wrist flexor muscle spasticity based on its correlation with H-reflex tests. A total of 20 adult patients poststroke underwent clinical and electrophysiological assessment of wrist flexor muscle spasticity on the affected side. The primary outcome measures were: R2-R1 of the MTS; and the H-reflex indices of Hmax/Mmax ratio and Hslp/Mslp ratio. The Hslp and the latency of H-reflex were also measured. Correlations tests did not reveal significant associations between the clinical and H-reflex tests. This study suggests that the MTS may not be a valid tool to evaluate muscle spasticity in this sample of patients after stroke.

  13. Assessing Attitude towards Religion: The Astley-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Theistic Faith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astley, Jeff; Francis, Leslie J.; Robbins, Mandy

    2012-01-01

    This study builds on the research tradition modelled by the Francis Scale of Attitude towards Christianity, the Katz-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Judaism, the Sahin-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Islam and the Santosh-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Hinduism to propose a generic instrument concerned with attitudes towards theistic faith.…

  14. Getting the scale right: a comparison of analytical methods for vulnerability assessment and household-level targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, L; Downing, T E

    2001-06-01

    This paper introduces broad concepts of vulnerability, food security and famine. It argues that the concepts and theories driving development and implementation of vulnerability assessment tools are related to their utility. The review concludes that socio-geographic scale is a key issue, and challenge. It analyses three vulnerability assessment (VA) methods, using Ethiopia as a case study. Facing the challenges of vulnerability assessment and early warning requires providing accurate information at the required scale, useful for multiple decision-makers within realistic institutional capacities.

  15. The scaling law of climate change and its relevance to assessing (palaeo)biological responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiessling, Wolfgang; Eichenseer, Kilian

    20