Sample records for assessment scale psas

  1. Effect of Character-Audience Similarity on the Perceived Effectiveness of Antismoking PSAs via Engagement. (United States)

    Kim, Minji; Shi, Rui; Cappella, Joseph N


    This study assesses the impact of character-audience similarity, a core aspect of tailored communication, on evaluation of antismoking public service announcements (PSAs). Smoker and persuader characters are distinguished to explore their different roles in message effectiveness. Daily adult smokers (n = 1,160) were exposed to four video PSAs randomly selected from a larger pool. Similarity scores were determined from matching in demographic (age, gender, race) and motivational factors (quitting status) between the audience and the PSA's characters. Results show that PSAs featuring distinctive smoker and/or persuader characters yielded significantly higher message engagement and perceived effectiveness (PE) than PSAs without characters. Given the presence of characters, smoker-audience similarity was positively associated with the engagement, which in turn enhanced PE. Persuader-audience similarity failed to predict increases in either engagement or PE.

  2. Main: BOXC'PSAS1 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BOXC'PSAS1 S000227 17-May-1998 (last modified) kehi Box C' in pea asparagine synthetase (AS...1) gene; Found at -88; AS1 is negatively regulated by light; Box C' binds with nuclear proteins, which was... competed by a putative repressor element RE1 (see S000195); BOX C'; AS; AS1; pea (Pisum sativum); TCCCGGTACACACTTCTT ...

  3. Reference: BOXC'PSAS1 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BOXC'PSAS1 Ngai N, Tsai FY, Coruzzi G Light-induced transcriptional repression of the pea AS1 gene: identifi...cation of cis-elements and transfactors Plant J 12:1021-1234 (1997) PubMed: 9418044; ...

  4. Television station acceptance of AIDS prevention PSAs and condom advertisements. (United States)

    Abernethy, A M; Wicks, J L


    AIDS is a fatal, though preventable disease with more than 56,000 new cases reported in 1996 alone. Condom advertisements and AIDS public service announcements (AIDS PSAs) can help prevent the spread of AIDS, but these AIDS PSAs often contain controversial subject matter and are thus rejected for broadcast by television stations. It is for this reason why a large-scale national mail survey was conducted. The survey, which examined the impact of personal ethical considerations of television station management on AIDS acceptance decisions in the US, was based on five hypothetical questions. It used questionnaires mailed to television station managers. Responses were received from 364 stations, yielding a 40.63% response rate. Significant results were found related to the impact of personal ethical concerns of television managers on AIDS acceptance decision. Most stations were unlikely to accept condom or safe sex advertisements but were more likely to accept generic AIDS messages. These findings pose a dilemma for public health officials, which include the high cost of television advertisements and the difficulty in choosing a creative execution type. The most effective approach would be to appeal to sales managers to run the advertisements since they are important for the community and serve the public interest.

  5. Evaluating the educational potential of health PSAs with preschoolers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linebarger, D.L.; Piotrowski, J.


    Children learn from a variety of televised programs, including the short public service announcements (PSAs) that air between children's programs. PSAs are designed to repetitively expose children to important content ranging from the benefits of reading to health-related messages. The purpose of th

  6. Sensation Seeking and Targeting of Televised Anti-Drug PSAs. (United States)

    Donohew, Lewis; And Others

    A study was conducted to determine how to reach out in an effective manner via televised public service announcements (PSAs) to particular at-risk audiences to motivate participation in drug abuse prevention programs. The subjects (207 young adults in Fayette County, Kentucky) responded to the M. Zuckerman sensation-seeking questionnaire. They…

  7. The Application of Digital Media arts in the Public Service Advertisements(PSAs)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Digital Media Arts is the combination of technology and the arts has a very broad application. In modern society,PSAs is also a combination of technology and the arts. As the development of digital media arts,the forms of spread,expression language,methods of making etc. of PSAs have changed quickly.

  8. Visual attention to anti-smoking PSAs: smoking cues versus other attention-grabbing features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders-Jackson, A.N.; Cappella, J.N.; Linebarger, D.L.; Piotrowski, J.; O'Keeffe, M.; Strasser, A.A.


    This study examines how addicted smokers attend visually to smoking-related public service announcements (PSAs) in adults smokers. Smokers' onscreen visual fixation is an indicator of cognitive resources allocated to visual attention. Characteristic of individuals with addictive tendencies, smokers

  9. Application of an Error Statistics Estimation Method to the PSAS Forecast Error Covariance Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In atmospheric data assimilation systems, the forecast error covariance model is an important component. However, the parameters required by a forecast error covariance model are difficult to obtain due to the absence of the truth. This study applies an error statistics estimation method to the Physical-space Statistical Analysis System (PSAS) height-wind forecast error covariance model. This method consists of two components: the first component computes the error statistics by using the National Meteorological Center (NMC) method, which is a lagged-forecast difference approach, within the framework of the PSAS height-wind forecast error covariance model; the second obtains a calibration formula to rescale the error standard deviations provided by the NMC method. The calibration is against the error statistics estimated by using a maximum-likelihood estimation (MLE) with rawindsonde height observed-minus-forecast residuals. A complete set of formulas for estimating the error statistics and for the calibration is applied to a one-month-long dataset generated by a general circulation model of the Global Model and Assimilation Office (GMAO), NASA. There is a clear constant relationship between the error statistics estimates of the NMC-method and MLE. The final product provides a full set of 6-hour error statistics required by the PSAS height-wind forecast error covariance model over the globe. The features of these error statistics are examined and discussed.

  10. Engineering of ultra-violet ray curable PSAs%UV固化压敏胶工程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    压敏胶及其制品工业需要向节能、减排、绿色方面发展.其中以UV固化压敏胶制品的工业化最为先进.UV固化压敏胶工业化,即UV固化压教胶工程分为4部分予以实现:1)UV固化压敏胶制备;2)UV固化辐照设备设计;3)UV固化压敏胶涂布生产线的建造和改造;4)工厂管理和成本测算.%Pressure-sensitive adhesive products industry needs to save energy,reduce emission and realize green. Wherein,the industrialization of the UV curable PSA products is the most prominent.The industrialization, that is the engineering, of the UV curable PSAs is divided into four sections: 1. The preparation of the UV curable PSAs,2. The designment of UV radiation devices,3. The construction and modification of coating production line,and,4.the factory management and the cost estimates.

  11. A clinimetric overview of scar assessment scales. (United States)

    van der Wal, M B A; Verhaegen, P D H M; Middelkoop, E; van Zuijlen, P P M


    Standardized validated evaluation instruments are mandatory to increase the level of evidence in scar management. Scar assessment scales are potentially suitable for this purpose, but the most appropriate scale still needs to be determined. This review will elaborate on several clinically relevant scar features and critically discuss the currently available scar scales in terms of basic clinimetric requirements. Many current scales can produce reliable measurements but seem to require multiple observers to obtain these results reliably, which limits their feasibility in clinical practice. The validation process of scar scales is hindered by the lack of a "gold standard" in subjective scar assessment or other reliable objective instruments which are necessary for a good comparison. The authors conclude that there are scar scales available that can reliably measure scar quality. However, further research may lead to improvement of their clinimetric properties and enhance the level of evidence in scar research worldwide.

  12. Sedation assessment using the Ramsay scale. (United States)

    Dawson, Rachel; von Fintel, Nicholas; Nairn, Stuart


    Patients undergoing sedation in emergency departments (EDs) must be monitored carefully to ensure that, when they are being transferred to different departments, they are safe and that information about them is accurate. However, sedation scoring, for which several tools are available, should not be confused with assessment of consciousness, which is undertaken using the Glasgow Coma Scale. This article considers the validity and reliability of sedation scoring tools, and discusses how ED staff can choose and integrate them into patient care pathways.

  13. Establishment and assessment of code scaling capability (United States)

    Lim, Jaehyok

    In this thesis, a method for using RELAP5/MOD3.3 (Patch03) code models is described to establish and assess the code scaling capability and to corroborate the scaling methodology that has been used in the design of the Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integral Test Assembly for ESBWR applications (PUMA-E) facility. It was sponsored by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) under the program "PUMA ESBWR Tests". PUMA-E facility was built for the USNRC to obtain data on the performance of the passive safety systems of the General Electric (GE) Nuclear Energy Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR). Similarities between the prototype plant and the scaled-down test facility were investigated for a Gravity-Driven Cooling System (GDCS) Drain Line Break (GDLB). This thesis presents the results of the GDLB test, i.e., the GDLB test with one Isolation Condenser System (ICS) unit disabled. The test is a hypothetical multi-failure small break loss of coolant (SB LOCA) accident scenario in the ESBWR. The test results indicated that the blow-down phase, Automatic Depressurization System (ADS) actuation, and GDCS injection processes occurred as expected. The GDCS as an emergency core cooling system provided adequate supply of water to keep the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) coolant level well above the Top of Active Fuel (TAF) during the entire GDLB transient. The long-term cooling phase, which is governed by the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) condensation, kept the reactor containment system that is composed of Drywell (DW) and Wetwell (WW) below the design pressure of 414 kPa (60 psia). In addition, the ICS continued participating in heat removal during the long-term cooling phase. A general Code Scaling, Applicability, and Uncertainty (CSAU) evaluation approach was discussed in detail relative to safety analyses of Light Water Reactor (LWR). The major components of the CSAU methodology that were highlighted particularly focused on the

  14. Pain Assessment Scale for Patients With Disorders of Consciousness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Ingrid; Brix, Pia; Andersen, Sylvia;


    and sensitivity to change over time of an assessment scale developed for the evaluation of pain in severely brain-injured patients with disorders of consciousness. METHODS: We developed a pain assessment scale based on scientific literature and clinical experience with severely brain-injured patients. It consists......BACKGROUND: Patients with acquired brain injury undergoing rehabilitation are often unable to verbalize pain because of disorders of consciousness. Hence, observational pain assessment instruments are warranted for these patients. AIM: The aim of this study was to study interrater agreement...... and validated scale for the assessment of pain in patients with disorders of consciousness....

  15. Assessing Pretreatment Reactor Scaling Through Empirical Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lischeske, James J.; Crawford, Nathan C.; Kuhn, Erik; Nagle, Nicholas J.; Schell, Daniel J.; Tucker, Melvin P.; McMillan, James D.; Wolfrum, Edward J.


    Pretreatment is a critical step in the biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. Due to the complexity of the physicochemical transformations involved, predictively scaling up technology from bench- to pilot-scale is difficult. This study examines how pretreatment effectiveness under nominally similar reaction conditions is influenced by pretreatment reactor design and scale using four different pretreatment reaction systems ranging from a 3 g batch reactor to a 10 dry-ton/d continuous reactor. The reactor systems examined were an Automated Solvent Extractor (ASE), Steam Explosion Reactor (SER), ZipperClave(R) reactor (ZCR), and Large Continuous Horizontal-Screw Reactor (LHR). To our knowledge, this is the first such study performed on pretreatment reactors across a range of reaction conditions (time and temperature) and at different reactor scales. The comparative pretreatment performance results obtained for each reactor system were used to develop response surface models for total xylose yield after pretreatment and total sugar yield after pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. Near- and very-near-optimal regions were defined as the set of conditions that the model identified as producing yields within one and two standard deviations of the optimum yield. Optimal conditions identified in the smallest-scale system (the ASE) were within the near-optimal region of the largest scale reactor system evaluated. A reaction severity factor modeling approach was shown to inadequately describe the optimal conditions in the ASE, incorrectly identifying a large set of sub-optimal conditions (as defined by the RSM) as optimal. The maximum total sugar yields for the ASE and LHR were 95%, while 89% was the optimum observed in the ZipperClave. The optimum condition identified using the automated and less costly to operate ASE system was within the very-near-optimal space for the total xylose yield of both the ZCR and the LHR, and was

  16. Population-scale assessment endpoints in ecological risk assessment part II: selection of assessment endpoint attributes. (United States)

    Landis, Wayne G; Kaminski, Laurel A


    Because ecological services often are tied to specific species, the risk to populations is a critical endpoint and important feature of ecological risk assessments. In Part 1 of this series it was demonstrated that population scale assessment endpoints are important expressions of the valued components of ecological structures. This commentary reviews several of the characteristics of populations that can be evaluated and used in population scale risk assessments. Two attributes are evaluated as promising. The 1st attribute is the change in potential productivity of the population over a specified time period. The 2nd attribute is the change in the age structure of a population, expressed graphically or as a normalized effects vector (NEV). The NEV is a description of the change in age structure due to a toxicant or other stressor and appears to be characteristic of specific stressor effects.

  17. Assessment scales in stroke: clinimetric and clinical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison JK


    Full Text Available Jennifer K Harrison,1 Katherine S McArthur,2 Terence J Quinn21Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK; 2Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UKAbstract: As stroke care has developed, there has been a need to robustly assess the efficacy of interventions both at the level of the individual stroke survivor and in the context of clinical trials. To describe stroke-survivor recovery meaningfully, more sophisticated measures are required than simple dichotomous end points, such as mortality or stroke recurrence. As stroke is an exemplar disabling long-term condition, measures of function are well suited as outcome assessment. In this review, we will describe functional assessment scales in stroke, concentrating on three of the more commonly used tools: the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, the modified Rankin Scale, and the Barthel Index. We will discuss the strengths, limitations, and application of these scales and use the scales to highlight important properties that are relevant to all assessment tools. We will frame much of this discussion in the context of "clinimetric" analysis. As they are increasingly used to inform stroke-survivor assessments, we will also discuss some of the commonly used quality-of-life measures. A recurring theme when considering functional assessment is that no tool suits all situations. Clinicians and researchers should chose their assessment tool based on the question of interest and the evidence base around clinimetric properties.Keywords: Barthel Index, clinimetrics, clinical trial, disability, methodology, modified Rankin Scale, National Institutes Health Stroke Scale, scales, stroke, outcomes

  18. Measurement, Sampling, and Equating Errors in Large-Scale Assessments (United States)

    Wu, Margaret


    In large-scale assessments, such as state-wide testing programs, national sample-based assessments, and international comparative studies, there are many steps involved in the measurement and reporting of student achievement. There are always sources of inaccuracies in each of the steps. It is of interest to identify the source and magnitude of…

  19. Do pressure ulcer risk assessment scales improve clinical practice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kottner


    Full Text Available Jan Kottner1, Katrin Balzer21Department of Nursing Science, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany; 2Nursing Research Group, Institute for Social Medicine, Universitätsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Lübeck, GermanyAbstract: Standardized assessment instruments are deemed important for estimating pressure ulcer risk. Today, more than 40 so-called pressure ulcer risk assessment scales are available but still there is an ongoing debate about their usefulness. From a measurement point of view pressure ulcer (PU risk assessment scales have serious limitations. Empirical evidence supporting the validity of PU risk assessment scale scores is weak and obtained scores contain varying amounts of measurement error. The concept of pressure ulcer risk is strongly related to the general health status and severity of illness. A clinical impact due do the application of these scales could also not be demonstrated. It is questionable whether completion of standardized pressure ulcer risk scales in clinical practice is really needed.Keywords: Braden pressure ulcer, prevention, risk assessment, nursing assessment, predictive value, clinical effectiveness, review

  20. National-Scale Wind Resource Assessment for Power Generation (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E. I.


    This presentation describes the current standards for conducting a national-scale wind resource assessment for power generation, along with the risk/benefit considerations to be considered when beginning a wind resource assessment. The presentation describes changes in turbine technology and viable wind deployment due to more modern turbine technology and taller towers and shows how the Philippines national wind resource assessment evolved over time to reflect changes that arise from updated technologies and taller towers.

  1. Scale for the assessment and rating of ataxia: development of a new clinical scale.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz-Hubsch, T.; Montcel, S.T. du; Baliko, L.; Berciano, J.; Boesch, S.; Depondt, C.; Giunti, P.; Globas, C.; Infante, J.; Kang, J.S.; Kremer, H.P.H.; Mariotti, C.; Melegh, B.; Pandolfo, M.; Rakowicz, M.; Ribai, P.; Rola, R.; Schols, L.; Szymanski, S.; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Durr, A.; Klockgether, T.; Fancellu, R.


    OBJECTIVE: To develop a reliable and valid clinical scale measuring the severity of ataxia. METHODS: The authors devised the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) and tested it in two trials of 167 and 119 patients with spinocerebellar ataxia. RESULTS: The mean time to administer SARA

  2. Cross-Scale: Multi-Scale Coupling in Space Plasma, Assessment Study Report

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Steve; Fujimoto, Masaki; Hellinger, Petr; Kessel, Mona; Le, Guan; Liu, William; Louarn, Philippe; Mann, Ian; Nakamura, Rumi; Owen, Chris; Pinçon, Jean-Louis; Sorriso-Valvo, Luca; Vaivads, Andris; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F


    Driven by the support and interest of the international space plasma community to examine simultaneous physical plasma scales and their interactions, the Cross-Scale Mission concept was submitted and accepted as an ESA Cosmic Vision M-class candidate mission. This report presents an overview of the assessment study phase of the 7 ESA spacecraft Cross-Scale mission. Where appropriate, discussion of the benefit of international collaboration with the SCOPE mission, as well as other interested parties, is included.

  3. Basin-Scale Opportunity Assessment Initiative Background Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saulsbury, Bo [ORNL; Geerlofs, Simon H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Cada, Glenn F [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL


    As called for in the March 24, 2010, Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for Hydropower, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), environmental stakeholders, and the hydropower industry are collaborating to identify opportunities to simultaneously increase electricity generation and improve environmental services in river basins of the United States. New analytical tools provide an improved ability to understand, model, and visualize environmental and hydropower systems. Efficiencies and opportunities that might not be apparent in site-by-site analyses can be revealed through assessments at the river-basin scale. Information from basin-scale assessments could lead to better coordination of existing hydropower projects, or to inform siting decisions (e.g., balancing the removal of some dams with the construction of others), in order to meet renewable energy production and environmental goals. Basin-scale opportunity assessments would inform energy and environmental planning and address the cumulative effects of hydropower development and operations on river basin environmental quality in a way that quantifies energy-environment tradeoffs. Opportunity assessments would create information products, develop scenarios, and identify specific actions that agencies, developers, and stakeholders can take to locate new sustainable hydropower projects, increase the efficiency and environmental performance of existing projects, and restore and protect environmental quality in our nation's river basins. Government agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGO) have done significant work to understand and assess opportunities for both hydropower and environmental protection at the basin scale. Some initiatives have been successful, others less so, and there is a need to better understand the legacy of work on which this current project can build. This background literature review is intended

  4. Do pressure ulcer risk assessment scales improve clinical practice?


    Jan Kottner; Katrin Balzer


    Jan Kottner1, Katrin Balzer21Department of Nursing Science, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany; 2Nursing Research Group, Institute for Social Medicine, Universitätsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Lübeck, GermanyAbstract: Standardized assessment instruments are deemed important for estimating pressure ulcer risk. Today, more than 40 so-called pressure ulcer risk assessment scales are available but still there is an ongoing debate about their usefulne...

  5. Twelve tips for assessing surgical performance and use of technical assessment scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandbygaard, Jeanett; Scheele, Fedde; Sørensen, Jette Led


    Using validated assessment scales for technical competence can help structure and standardize assessment and feedback for both the trainee and the supervisor and thereby avoid bias and drive learning. Correct assessment of operative skills can establish learning curves and allow adequate monitori...

  6. Objective estimation of patient age through a new composite scale for facial aging assessment: The face - Objective assessment scale. (United States)

    La Padula, Simone; Hersant, Barbara; SidAhmed, Mounia; Niddam, Jeremy; Meningaud, Jean Paul


    Most patients requesting aesthetic rejuvenation treatment expect to look healthier and younger. Some scales for ageing assessment have been proposed, but none is focused on patient age prediction. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new facial rating scale assessing facial ageing sign severity. One thousand Caucasian patients were included and assessed. The Rasch model was used as part of the validation process. A score was attributed to each patient, based on the scales we developed. The correlation between the real age and scores obtained, the inter-rater reliability and test-retest reliability were analysed. The objective was to develop a tool enabling the assigning of a patient to a specific age range based on the calculated score. All scales exceeded criteria for acceptability, reliability and validity. The real age strongly correlated with the total facial score in both sex groups. The test-retest reliability confirmed this strong correlation. We developed a facial ageing scale which could be a useful tool to assess patients before and after rejuvenation treatment and an important new metrics to be used in facial rejuvenation and regenerative clinical research.

  7. Assessing Laptop Use in Higher Education: The Laptop Use Scale (United States)

    Kay, Robin; Lauricella, Sharon


    The laptop computer is considered one of the most used and important technological devices in higher education, yet limited systematic research has been conducted to develop a measure of laptop use in college and university. The purpose of the following study was to develop a research-based, theoretically grounded scale to assess student use of…

  8. A generic scale for assessment of attitudes towards social robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The research field into social robotics is expanding and with it the need for consistent methods for assessing attitudinal stance towards social robots. In this paper we describe the development and planned validation of the Attitudes towards social robots scale (ASOR-5): a generic questionnaire...

  9. Clinical and psychometric validation of the psychotic depression assessment scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren Dinesen; Pedersen, Christina H; Uggerby, Peter


    recordings of these interviews were assessed by two experienced psychiatrists (global severity rating of psychotic depression, depressive symptoms and psychotic symptoms) and by two young physicians (rating on 27 symptom items, including the 11 PDAS items). The clinical validity and responsiveness......BACKGROUND: Recent studies have indicated that the 11-item Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS), consisting of the 6-item melancholia subscale (HAM-D6) of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and 5 psychosis items from the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), is a valid measure...... for the severity of psychotic depression. The aim of this study was to subject the PDAS, and its depression (HAM-D6) and psychosis (BPRS5) subscales to further validation. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with psychotic depression at Danish psychiatric hospitals participated in semi-structured interviews. Video...

  10. Implications of spatial scale on climate change assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingale Santosh


    Full Text Available While assessing the effects of climate change at global or regional scales, local factors responsible for climate change are generalized, which results in the averaging of effects. However, climate change assessment is required at a micro-scale to determine the severity of climate change. To ascertain the impact of spatial scales on climate change assessments, trends and shifts in annual and seasonal (monsoon and non-monsoon, rainfall and temperature (minimum, average and maximum were determined at three different spatial resolutions in India (Ajmer city, Ajmer District and Rajasthan State. The Mann–Kendall (MK, MK test with pre-whitening of series (MK–PW, and Modified Mann–Kendall (MMK test, along with other statistical techniques were used for the trend analysis. The Pettitt–Mann–Whitney (PMW test was applied to detect the temporal shift in climatic parameters. The Sen’s slope and % change in rainfall and temperature were also estimated over the study period (35 years. The annual and seasonal average temperature indicates significant warming trends, when assessed at a fine spatial resolution (Ajmer city compared to a coarser spatial resolution (Ajmer District and Rajasthan State resolutions. Increasing trend was observed in minimum, mean and maximum temperature at all spatial scales; however, trends were more pronounced at a finer spatial resolution (Ajmer city. The PMW test indicates only the significant shift in non-monsoon season rainfall, which shows an increase in rainfall after 1995 in Ajmer city. The Kurtosis and coefficient of variation also revealed significant climate change, when assessed at a finer spatial resolution (Ajmer city compared to a coarser resolution. This shows the contribution of land use/land cover change and several other local anthropogenic activities on climate change. The results of this study can be useful for the identification of optimum climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies based on

  11. Visual vertigo analogue scale: an assessment questionnaire for visual vertigo. (United States)

    Dannenbaum, Elizabeth; Chilingaryan, Gevorg; Fung, Joyce


    A common symptom for people with vestibulopathy is dizziness induced by dynamic visual input, known as visual vertigo (VV). The goal of this study is to present a novel method to assess VV, using a nine-item analog scale. The subjects rated the intensity of their dizziness on each item of the Visual Vertigo Analogue Scale (VVAS), which represented a daily situation typically inducing VV. The questionnaire was completed by participants with vestibulopathy (n=102) and by subjects receiving out-patient orthopaedic physiotherapy (n=102). The dizziness handicap inventory (DHI) was also completed by the vestibulopathic group. The Cronbach's Alpha index indicated the VVAS is internally consistent and reliable (Cronbach's Alpha=0.94). The study also found that the VVAS severity scores from vestibular and a non-vestibular population were significantly different (Wilcoxon-Mann Whitney test p scale may be useful in providing a quantitative evaluation scale of visual vertigo.

  12. Scaling for Robust Assessment and Predictions of Aquatic Ecosystem Health (United States)

    Abdul-Aziz, O.; Ishtiaq, K. S.


    This presentation demonstrates the development and applications of a unique scaling technique for robust assessment and predictions of aquatic ecosystem health. We developed scaling-based, robust empirical and semi-empirical models for standardizing grab samples of stream dissolved oxygen (DO) and for predicting (hindcasting and forecasting) stream DO time-series. A reference clock-time, single observation from the diurnal cycle is used as the scaling parameter to collapse hourly DO time-series of different days into a single diurnal curve, which is parameterized by developing an extended stochastic harmonic analysis (ESHA). The scaling technique was previously applied to develop an algorithm for converting grab samples of stream DO collected at any time of the day to a reference clock time. The research is extended to develop an algorithm for simulating the diurnal DO cycles at different stream sites from their corresponding single reference observations of the day. The scaling concept was tested for spatio-temporal robustness with hourly DO data for eight streams representing five distinct Level III Ecoregions of Minnesota. Estimated model parameters demonstrated notable robustness in time and space. Scaling is often used to develop robust modeling and application tools in many physical engineering disciplines. Presented research exemplifies utilization of the scaling concept in Ecological Engineering applications.

  13. Epilepsy: Quality of life and assessment scale evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fayun Hu; Xiaoyi Zou


    BACKGROUND: Quality of life (QOL) is an important topic in current international research of epilepsy. In countries other than China, QOL in epilepsy has been well studied, and many assessment scales or QOL of epilepsy have been developed and used in the clinical practice. In China, concern for QOL of epilepsy patients is very recent, and QOL assessment scales, which correspond to China's basic conditions, are still needed.OBJECTIVE: This review aimed to analyze the primary influencing factors and assessment scales of QOL in epilepsy, to investigate the topics of current and future research for QOL of epilepsy patients, and to highlight the importance of QOL for epilepsy patients, according to China's basic conditions. RETRIEVAL STRATEGY: Using the terms "quality of life in epilepsy", we computer-retrieved from the PubMed ( database human studies published between January 1998 and April 2007 in the English language. A total of 745 manuscripts were searched, of which 243 were review papers. At the same time, we computer-searched the China National Knowledge Infrastructure with the terms "epilepsy and quality and life" in the Chinese language for studies published between 2002 and 2007. Altogether, 181 Chinese literatures were retrieved, 32 of which were from high-impact journals. LITERATURE EVALUATION: The retrieved manuscripts were initially selected, but 50 were kept for further analysis. The selected manuscripts were as follows: 31 Chinese and/or English studies addressed the influencing factors of QOL for epilepsy patients, as well as assessment scales for QOL in different populations of epilepsy patients, of which 5 were review articles and the remaining 26 were clinical studies; and 19 Chinese and/or English literatures were rejected, because they were not in accordance with the inclusive criteria. DATA SYNTHESIS: QOL for epilepsy patients is an emerging field. At present, "the Liverpool group model for determining QOL in

  14. Refining a self-assessment of informatics competency scale using Mokken scaling analysis. (United States)

    Yoon, Sunmoo; Shaffer, Jonathan A; Bakken, Suzanne


    Healthcare environments are increasingly implementing health information technology (HIT) and those from various professions must be competent to use HIT in meaningful ways. In addition, HIT has been shown to enable interprofessional approaches to health care. The purpose of this article is to describe the refinement of the Self-Assessment of Nursing Informatics Competencies Scale (SANICS) using analytic techniques based upon item response theory (IRT) and discuss its relevance to interprofessional education and practice. In a sample of 604 nursing students, the 93-item version of SANICS was examined using non-parametric IRT. The iterative modeling procedure included 31 steps comprising: (1) assessing scalability, (2) assessing monotonicity, (3) assessing invariant item ordering, and (4) expert input. SANICS was reduced to an 18-item hierarchical scale with excellent reliability. Fundamental skills for team functioning and shared decision making among team members (e.g. "using monitoring systems appropriately," "describing general systems to support clinical care") had the highest level of difficulty, and "demonstrating basic technology skills" had the lowest difficulty level. Most items reflect informatics competencies relevant to all health professionals. Further, the approaches can be applied to construct a new hierarchical scale or refine an existing scale related to informatics attitudes or competencies for various health professions.

  15. [Reliability of neurological assessment scales in patients with stroke]. (United States)

    de Caneda, Marco Aurélio Gralha; Fernandes, Jefferson Gomes; de Almeida, Andrea Garcia; Mugnol, Fabiana Eloisa


    Scales for the assessment of neurological impairment are employed in clinical trials, outcome evaluation and in therapeutic decisions. We evaluated the reliability of the Portuguese version of the Rankin Scale (RS), Barthel Index (BI) and the NIHSS (National Institute of Health Stroke Scale) in 51 stroke patients, estimating the agreement of the results for examiners. The interrater reliability was measured using the Kappa Coefficient and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient. The RS showed moderate, substantial and excellent coefficients of agreement. The BI showed from substantial to excellent coefficients of agreement as a whole and also for its constituents. This scale was stratified in prognostic and functional groups, both presenting coefficients of agreement from substantial to excellent. The NIHSS presented excellent agreement on its total and substantial agreements on its individual items. The NIHSS was also stratified in groups of points, which presented moderate or excellent coefficient, and in groups of congruous items, wich showed a moderate to excellent agreement. These results suggest that the Portuguese version of the RS, BI and the NIHSS present adequate reliability.

  16. Assessment of Scaled Rotors for Wind Tunnel Experiments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maniaci, David Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kelley, Christopher Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chiu, Phillip [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Rotor design and analysis work has been performed to support the conceptualization of a wind tunnel test focused on studying wake dynamics. This wind tunnel test would serve as part of a larger model validation campaign that is part of the Department of Energy Wind and Water Power Program’s Atmosphere to electrons (A2e) initiative. The first phase of this effort was directed towards designing a functionally scaled rotor based on the same design process and target full-scale turbine used for new rotors for the DOE/SNL SWiFT site. The second phase focused on assessing the capabilities of an already available rotor, the G1, designed and built by researchers at the Technical University of München.

  17. A Social Development Assessment Scale for Mexican Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Aguiar Sierra


    Full Text Available This work described the design of an instrument able to measure social development for Mexican children and the process of the establishment of its psychometric properties. Theoretical aspects considered for its construction and the process of validating forms for parents and teachers are described in a three stage processes that resulted in a final version of the Social Development Scale that measures, disruptive behavior, social interaction, cooperation, acceptance and attachment as core dimensions associated with the concept of social competence. The importance of assessing social development and competence for education, children rearing and general well being are analyzed and discussed.

  18. Development of an assessment of functioning scale for prison environments. (United States)

    Shelton, Deborah; Wakai, Sara


    This paper reports the development of a global assessment of functioning (GAF), modified from the DSM Axis V GAF for the prison environment. Focus groups, which were conducted with 36 correctional officers and clinicians in two prisons, provided descriptions of behavior in prison settings to re-align the GAF scale. Face validity was established. It was found that Habitation/Behavior, Social, and Symptoms emerged as important domains of functioning in prison. Gender differences were noted with regard to cleanliness, relationships and coping strategies. The cut-off score was identified at a score where offenders were unable to participate in a disciplinary process due to their mental illness. The structure of prison alters human functioning, requiring different assessment language and ratings to measure perceived behavioral norms and/or expectations. Front-line staff need the ability to observe and communicate behavioral changes quickly and accurately in a prison environment without undue burden upon their workload. This assessment was modified by front-line staff specifically for the prison environment to document quick and frequent assessments of observed changes over time in the offender population.

  19. Assessment on validity,Reliability and Simplicity of Stroke Scales and Design ora New Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Zuming; Hu wanbao


    Background:A lot of rating systems have been devcloped, but none of them was univcrsally accepted in clinical stroke trials. Objective: The aim of this study was to authenticatc the four stroke scales, which has becn generally used, by comparing their validity, reliaoiiity and simplicity. We also designed a new scalc and assessed it. Methods:l.Predictive validity was investigated in 103 patients with acute stroke within 72 hours after onset. The neurological deficit was mcasurcd by a observer with CNS, NIHSS, ESS and MESSS. The correlative analysis was performed between their scores and thc Barthel Index(BI) at the end of the second month and the third month after onset. The logistic regression was used to examine whether the four scales were predictive for mortality. 2.To establish the reliabiltiy and simplicity of scales, twenty patients with acute stroke were investigated. The neurological deficit was scored independently by two raters using four scales at an interval of two hours. Time needed to complete each scale was recorded. The degree of interrater agreement for each items on the four scales was determined by calculation of the kappa statstic and wcighted k statistic. 3. Items that can typically prcdict functionaloutcome were identified by stepwisc regression and correlativc analysis between BI and 43 items on the four scalcs. Thc ncw scale was composed of these items with their weight givcn a new. 4. The predictive validity of the ncw scale was determined by correlative, stcpwisc regression and logistic regression analysis with its original data. The reliability and simplicity of the new scale were assessed in another 15 patients with acute stroke. Results: The correlative values between BI and each scale of MESSS, CNS and NIHSS or ESS werc -0.804-0.833, 0.694-0,812 and 0.72 1-0.827 individuallv. The values of MESSS wcrc sigificantly higher than that of CNS(P<0.05), but there were no significant differences among those of NIHSS, ESS and MESSS(P>0

  20. Assessment on validity,Reliability and Simplicity of Stroke Scales and Design ora New Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Zuming; Hu wanbao


    Background:A lot of rating systems have been devcloped, but none of them was univcrsally accepted in clinical stroke trials. Objective: The aim of this study was to authenticatc the four stroke scales, which has becn generally used, by comparing their validity, reliaoiiity and simplicity. We also designed a new scalc and assessed it. Methods:l.Predictive validity was investigated in 103 patients with acute stroke within 72 hours after onset. The neurological deficit was mcasurcd by a observer with CNS, NIHSS, ESS and MESSS. The correlative analysis was performed between their scores and thc Barthel Index(BI) at the end of the second month and the third month after onset. The logistic regression was used to examine whether the four scales were predictive for mortality. 2.To establish the reliabiltiy and simplicity of scales, twenty patients with acute stroke were investigated. The neurological deficit was scored independently by two raters using four scales at an interval of two hours. Time needed to complete each scale was recorded. The degree of interrater agreement for each items on the four scales was determined by calculation of the kappa statstic and wcighted k statistic. 3. Items that can typically prcdict functionaloutcome were identified by stepwisc regression and correlativc analysis between BI and 43 items on the four scalcs. Thc ncw scale was composed of these items with their weight givcn a new. 4. The predictive validity of the ncw scale was determined by correlative, stcpwisc regression and logistic regression analysis with its original data. The reliability and simplicity of the new scale were assessed in another 15 patients with acute stroke. Results: The correlative values between BI and each scale of MESSS, CNS and NIHSS or ESS werc -0.804-0.833, 0.694-0,812 and 0.72 1-0.827 individuallv. The values of MESSS wcrc sigificantly higher than that of CNS(P<0.05), but there were no significant differences among those of NIHSS, ESS and MESSS(P>0

  1. The scale for the assessment and rating of ataxia correlates with dysarthria assessment in Friedreich's ataxia. (United States)

    Eigentler, Andreas; Rhomberg, Johanna; Nachbauer, Wolfgang; Ritzer, Irmgard; Poewe, Werner; Boesch, Sylvia


    Dysarthria is an acquired neurogenic sensorimotor speech symptom and an integral part within the clinical spectrum of ataxia syndromes. Ataxia measurements and disability scores generally focus on the assessment of motor functions. Since comprehensive investigations of dysarthria in ataxias are sparse, we assessed dysarthria in ataxia patients using the Frenchay Dysarthria Assessment. The Frenchay Dysarthria Assessment is a ten-item validated test in which eight items focus on the observation of oral structures and speech functions. Fifteen Friedreich's ataxia patients and 15 healthy control individuals were analyzed using clinical and logopedic methodology. All patients underwent neurological assessment applying the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia. In Friedreich's ataxia patients, the Frenchay sub-item voice showed to be most affected compared to healthy individuals followed by items such as reflexes, palate, tongue, and intelligibility. Scoring of lips, jaw, and respiration appeared to be mildly affected. Ataxia severity in Friedreich's ataxia patients revealed a significant correlation with the Frenchay dysarthria sum score. The introduction of a binary Adapted Dysarthria Score additionally allowed allocation to distinct dysarthria pattern in ataxias. The Frenchay Dysarthria Assessment proved to be a valid dysarthria measure in Friedreich's ataxia. Its availability in several languages provides a major advantage regarding the applicability in international clinical studies. Shortcomings of the Frenchay test are the multiplicity of items tested and its alphabetic coding. Numerical scoring and condensation of assessments in a modified version may, however, provide an excellent clinical tool for the measurement and scoring of dysarthria in ataxic speech disorders.

  2. Extending large-scale forest inventories to assess urban forests. (United States)

    Corona, Piermaria; Agrimi, Mariagrazia; Baffetta, Federica; Barbati, Anna; Chiriacò, Maria Vincenza; Fattorini, Lorenzo; Pompei, Enrico; Valentini, Riccardo; Mattioli, Walter


    Urban areas are continuously expanding today, extending their influence on an increasingly large proportion of woods and trees located in or nearby urban and urbanizing areas, the so-called urban forests. Although these forests have the potential for significantly improving the quality the urban environment and the well-being of the urban population, data to quantify the extent and characteristics of urban forests are still lacking or fragmentary on a large scale. In this regard, an expansion of the domain of multipurpose forest inventories like National Forest Inventories (NFIs) towards urban forests would be required. To this end, it would be convenient to exploit the same sampling scheme applied in NFIs to assess the basic features of urban forests. This paper considers approximately unbiased estimators of abundance and coverage of urban forests, together with estimators of the corresponding variances, which can be achieved from the first phase of most large-scale forest inventories. A simulation study is carried out in order to check the performance of the considered estimators under various situations involving the spatial distribution of the urban forests over the study area. An application is worked out on the data from the Italian NFI.

  3. Risk Assessment and Scaling for the SLS LH2 ET (United States)

    Hafiychuk, Halyna; Ponizovskaya-Devine, Ekaterina; Luchinsky, Dmitry; Khasin, Michael; Osipov, Viatcheslav V.; Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.


    In this report the main physics processes in LH2 tank during prepress and rocket flight are studied. The goal of this investigation is to analyze possible hazards and to make risk assessment in proposed LH2 tank designs for SLS with 5 engines (the situation with 4 engines is less critical). For analysis we use the multinode model (MNM) developed by us and presented in a separate report and also 3D ANSYS simulations. We carry out simulation and theoretical analysis the physics processes such as (i) accumulation of bubbles in LH2 during replenish stage and their collapsing in the liquid during the prepress; (ii) condensation-evaporation at the liquid-vapor interface and tank wall, (iv) heating the liquid near the interface and wall due to condensation and environment heat, (v) injection of hot He during prepress and of hot GH2 during flight, (vi) mixing and cooling of the injected gases due to heat transfer between the gases, liquid and the tank wall. We analyze the effects of these physical processes on the thermo- and fluid gas dynamics in the ullage and on the stratification of temperature in the liquid and assess the associated hazards. A special emphasize is put on the scaling predictions for the larger SLS LH2 tank.

  4. The Greek Nurses' job satisfaction scale: development and psychometric assessment. (United States)

    Moumtzoglou, Anastasius


    The growing literature relating to job satisfaction among nurses concludes that more research is required to understand the organizational, professional, and personal variables that improve nurse satisfaction and retention. This study developed and psychometrically tested a nurse satisfaction questionnaire, suitable for the nurses' working conditions in Greece. A cross-sectional survey, in Greek, was conducted in three public hospitals. Two-hundred and twenty-five Greek nurses evaluated the psychometric properties of the Greek Nurses' Job Satisfaction Scale (GNJSS). The 18-item questionnaire showed a high degree of internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.907) and revealed four factors that are consistent with the predetermined subscales and the conceptual base of the GNJSS. The factors, which explain 62.420% of variance, are associated with interaction and recognition, leadership style and organizational policies, self-growth and responsibility, and remuneration and work itself. Although it would be useful to carry out further analyses to assess time-based properties of reliability, the GNJSS questionnaire is a reliable and valid instrument to assess nurses' job satisfaction.

  5. Scaling studies and conceptual experiment designs for NGNP CFD assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. M. McEligot; G. E. McCreery


    The objective of this report is to document scaling studies and conceptual designs for flow and heat transfer experiments intended to assess CFD codes and their turbulence models proposed for application to prismatic NGNP concepts. The general approach of the project is to develop new benchmark experiments for assessment in parallel with CFD and coupled CFD/systems code calculations for the same geometry. Two aspects of the complex flow in an NGNP are being addressed: (1) flow and thermal mixing in the lower plenum ("hot streaking" issue) and (2) turbulence and resulting temperature distributions in reactor cooling channels ("hot channel" issue). Current prismatic NGNP concepts are being examined to identify their proposed flow conditions and geometries over the range from normal operation to decay heat removal in a pressurized cooldown. Approximate analyses have been applied to determine key non-dimensional parameters and their magnitudes over this operating range. For normal operation, the flow in the coolant channels can be considered to be dominant turbulent forced convection with slight transverse property variation. In a pressurized cooldown (LOFA) simulation, the flow quickly becomes laminar with some possible buoyancy influences. The flow in the lower plenum can locally be considered to be a situation of multiple hot jets into a confined crossflow -- with obstructions. Flow is expected to be turbulent with momentumdominated turbulent jets entering; buoyancy influences are estimated to be negligible in normal full power operation. Experiments are needed for the combined features of the lower plenum flows. Missing from the typical jet experiments available are interactions with nearby circular posts and with vertical posts in the vicinity of vertical walls - with near stagnant surroundings at one extreme and significant crossflow at the other. Two types of heat transfer experiments are being considered. One addresses the "hot channel" problem, if necessary

  6. A novel visual facial anxiety scale for assessing preoperative anxiety (United States)

    Cao, Xuezhao; Yumul, Roya; Elvir Lazo, Ofelia Loani; Friedman, Jeremy; Durra, Omar; Zhang, Xiao; White, Paul F.


    Background There is currently no widely accepted instrument for measuring preoperative anxiety. The objective of this study was to develop a simple visual facial anxiety scale (VFAS) for assessing acute preoperative anxiety. Methods The initial VFAS was comprised of 11 similarly styled stick-figure reflecting different types of facial expressions (Fig 1). After obtaining IRB approval, a total of 265 participant-healthcare providers (e.g., anesthesiologists, anesthesiology residents, and perioperative nurses) were recruited to participate in this study. The participants were asked to: (1) rank the 11 faces from 0–10 (0 = no anxiety, while 10 = highest anxiety) and then to (2) match one of the 11 facial expression with a numeric verbal rating scale (NVRS) (0 = no anxiety and 10 = highest level of anxiety) and a specific categorical level of anxiety, namely no anxiety, mild, mild-moderate, moderate, moderate-high or highest anxiety. Based on these data, the Spearman correlation and frequencies of the 11 faces in relation to the 11-point numerical anxiety scale and 6 categorical anxiety levels were calculated. The highest frequency of a face assigned to a level of the numerical anxiety scale resulted in a finalized order of faces corresponding to the 11-point numeric rating scale. Results The highest frequency for each of the NVRS anxiety scores were as follow: A0, A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A7, A6, A8, A9 and A10 (Fig 2). For the six categorical anxiety levels, a total of 260 (98.1%) participants chose the face A0 as representing ‘no’ anxiety, 250 (94.3%) participants chose the face A10 as representing ‘highest’ anxiety and 147 (55.5%) participants chose the face A8 as representing ‘moderate-high’ anxiety. Spearman analysis showed a significant correlation between the faces A3 and A5 assigned to the mild-moderate anxiety category (r = 0.58), but A5 was ultimately chosen due to its higher frequency compared to the frequency of A3 (30.6% vs 24.9%)(Fig 3

  7. Numerical analysis and geotechnical assessment of mine scale model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khanal Manoj; Adhikary Deepak; Balusu Rao


    Various numerical methods are available to model,simulate,analyse and interpret the results; however a major task is to select a reliable and intended tool to perform a realistic assessment of any problem.For a model to be a representative of the realistic mining scenario,a verified tool must be chosen to perform an assessment of mine roof support requirement and address the geotechnical risks associated with longwall mining.The dependable tools provide a safe working environment,increased production,efficient management of resources and reduce environmental impacts of mining.Although various methods,for example,analytical,experimental and empirical are being adopted in mining,in recent days numerical tools are becoming popular due to the advancement in computer hardware and numerical methods.Empirical rules based on past experiences do provide a general guide,however due to the heterogeneous nature of mine geology (i.e.,none of the mine sites are identical),numerical simulations of mine site specific conditions would lend better insights into some underlying issues.The paper highlights the use of a continuum mechanics based tool in coal mining with a mine scale model.The continuum modelling can provide close to accurate stress fields and deformation.The paper describes the use of existing mine data to calibrate and validate the model parameters,which then are used to assess geotechnical issues related with installing a new high capacity longwall mine at the mine site.A variety of parameters,for example,chock convergences,caveability of overlying sandstones,abutment and vertical stresses have been estimated.

  8. Assessing the Accuracy of Landscape-Scale Phenology Products (United States)

    Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Nightingale, Joanne; Nickeson, Jaime


    An International Workshop on the Validation of Satellite-Based Phenology Products; Dublin, Ireland, 18 June 2010; A 1-day international workshop on the accuracy assessment of phenology products derived from satellite observations of the land surface was held at Trinity College Dublin. This was in conjunction with the larger 4-day Phenology 2010 conference. Phenology is the study of recurring plant and animal life cycle stages (such as leafing and flowering, maturation of agricultural plants, emergence of insects, and migration of birds). The workshop brought together producers of continental- to global-scale phenology products based on satellite data, as well as providers of field observations and tower-mounted near-surface imaging sensors whose data are useful for evaluating the satellite products. The meeting was held under the auspices of the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites (CEOS) Land Product Validation (LPV) subgroup. The mission of LPV is to foster quantitative validation of high-level global land products derived from remotely sensed data and relay results that are relevant to users.

  9. Developing a comprehensive scale to assess college multicultural programming. (United States)

    Mallinckrodt, Brent; Miles, Joseph R; Bhaskar, Tripti; Chery, Nicole; Choi, Gahee; Sung, Mi-Ra


    A barrier to assessing effectiveness of multicultural programming is lack of a relatively brief instrument to measure the wide range of intended outcomes. A frequent goal of programming is to increase cultural empathy, but this is rarely the only intended outcome. We conducted focus groups of campus administrators, student affairs staff, and undergraduate instructors who identified a full range of racial/ethnic multicultural competencies that undergraduates should possess. An 84-item pool generated from these focus groups was combined with the 31-item Scale of Ethnocultural Empathy (SEE; Wang et al., 2003). These 115 items, together with instruments used to gauge concurrent validity, were administered to White undergraduate students in introductory psychology courses at the midpoint (n = 602) and end (n = 676) of fall semester. Exploratory factor analysis suggested 6 subscales for the Everyday Multicultural Competencies/Revised SEE (EMC/RSEE): (a) Cultural Openness and Desire to Learn; (b) Resentment and Cultural Dominance; (c) Anxiety and Lack of Multicultural Self-Efficacy; (d) Empathic Perspective-Taking; (e) Awareness of Contemporary Racism and Privilege; and (f) Empathic Feeling and Acting as an Ally. Item response theory principles guided final selection of subscale items. Analyses suggested good factor stability, reliability, and discriminant validity of the 48-item EMC/RSEE in these undergraduate samples. EMC/RSEE subscales were not strongly correlated with a measure of impression management and were significantly associated with measures of Openness to Diversity Challenge, and Universal-Diverse Orientation.

  10. The Psychometric Properties of Scales that Assess Market Orientation and Team Leadership Skills: A Preliminary Study (United States)

    Kline, Theresa J. B.


    This study assessed the psychometric properties of two scales that can be used in predicting team performance: specifically how team members assess the market orientation of their work unit as well the leadership skills present in the team. The first scale is a three-dimensional assessment of the unit's market orientation (innovative, process, or…

  11. Medicine in words and numbers: a cross-sectional survey comparing probability assessment scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koele Pieter


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the complex domain of medical decision making, reasoning under uncertainty can benefit from supporting tools. Automated decision support tools often build upon mathematical models, such as Bayesian networks. These networks require probabilities which often have to be assessed by experts in the domain of application. Probability response scales can be used to support the assessment process. We compare assessments obtained with different types of response scale. Methods General practitioners (GPs gave assessments on and preferences for three different probability response scales: a numerical scale, a scale with only verbal labels, and a combined verbal-numerical scale we had designed ourselves. Standard analyses of variance were performed. Results No differences in assessments over the three response scales were found. Preferences for type of scale differed: the less experienced GPs preferred the verbal scale, the most experienced preferred the numerical scale, with the groups in between having a preference for the combined verbal-numerical scale. Conclusion We conclude that all three response scales are equally suitable for supporting probability assessment. The combined verbal-numerical scale is a good choice for aiding the process, since it offers numerical labels to those who prefer numbers and verbal labels to those who prefer words, and accommodates both more and less experienced professionals.

  12. Neurobehavioral Assessment from Fetus to Infant: The NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale and the Fetal Neurobehavior Coding Scale (United States)

    Salisbury, Amy L.; Fallone, Melissa Duncan; Lester, Barry


    This review provides an overview and definition of the concept of neurobehavior in human development. Two neurobehavioral assessments used by the authors in current fetal and infant research are discussed: the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Assessment Scale and the Fetal Neurobehavior Coding System. This review will present how the two assessments…

  13. Spatial uncertainty assessment in modelling reference evapotranspiration at regional scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Buttafuoco


    Full Text Available Evapotranspiration is one of the major components of the water balance and has been identified as a key factor in hydrological modelling. For this reason, several methods have been developed to calculate the reference evapotranspiration (ET0. In modelling reference evapotranspiration it is inevitable that both model and data input will present some uncertainty. Whatever model is used, the errors in the input will propagate to the output of the calculated ET0. Neglecting information about estimation uncertainty, however, may lead to improper decision-making and water resources management. One geostatistical approach to spatial analysis is stochastic simulation, which draws alternative and equally probable, realizations of a regionalized variable. Differences between the realizations provide a measure of spatial uncertainty and allow to carry out an error propagation analysis. Among the evapotranspiration models, the Hargreaves-Samani model was used.

    The aim of this paper was to assess spatial uncertainty of a monthly reference evapotranspiration model resulting from the uncertainties in the input attributes (mainly temperature at regional scale. A case study was presented for Calabria region (southern Italy. Temperature data were jointly simulated by conditional turning bands simulation with elevation as external drift and 500 realizations were generated.

    The ET0 was then estimated for each set of the 500 realizations of the input variables, and the ensemble of the model outputs was used to infer the reference evapotranspiration probability distribution function. This approach allowed to delineate the areas characterized by greater uncertainty, to improve supplementary sampling strategies and ET0 value predictions.

  14. The effect of scale in daily precipitation hazard assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Egozcue


    Full Text Available Daily precipitation is recorded as the total amount of water collected by a rain-gauge in 24 h. Events are modelled as a Poisson process and the 24 h precipitation by a Generalised Pareto Distribution (GPD of excesses. Hazard assessment is complete when estimates of the Poisson rate and the distribution parameters, together with a measure of their uncertainty, are obtained. The shape parameter of the GPD determines the support of the variable: Weibull domain of attraction (DA corresponds to finite support variables as should be for natural phenomena. However, Fréchet DA has been reported for daily precipitation, which implies an infinite support and a heavy-tailed distribution. Bayesian techniques are used to estimate the parameters. The approach is illustrated with precipitation data from the Eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula affected by severe convective precipitation. The estimated GPD is mainly in the Fréchet DA, something incompatible with the common sense assumption of that precipitation is a bounded phenomenon. The bounded character of precipitation is then taken as a priori hypothesis. Consistency of this hypothesis with the data is checked in two cases: using the raw-data (in mm and using log-transformed data. As expected, a Bayesian model checking clearly rejects the model in the raw-data case. However, log-transformed data seem to be consistent with the model. This fact may be due to the adequacy of the log-scale to represent positive measurements for which differences are better relative than absolute.

  15. Do Balanced Scales Assess Bipolar Constructs? The Case of the STAI Scales (United States)

    Vautier, Stephane; Pohl, Steffi


    Balanced scales, that is, scales based on items whose content is either negatively or positively polarized, are often used in the hope of measuring a bipolar construct. Research has shown that usually balanced scales do not yield 1-dimensional measurements. This threatens their construct validity. The authors show how to test bipolarity while…

  16. Development and Assessment of the Social Issues Advocacy Scale (United States)

    Nilsson, Johanna E.; Marszalek, Jacob M.; Linnemeyer, Rachel M.; Bahner, Angela D.; Misialek, Leah Hanson


    This article describes the development and the initial psychometric evaluation of the Social Issues Advocacy Scale in two studies. In the first study, an exploratory factor analysis (n = 278) revealed a four-factor scale, accounting for 71.4% of the variance, measuring different aspects of social issue advocacy: Political and Social Advocacy,…

  17. [Concurrent validation of the suicidal risk assessment scale (R.S.D.) with the Beck's suicidal ideation scale]. (United States)

    Ducher, J-L; Daléry, J


    The prevention of suicide is a top priority in mental health. The determination of high risk suicidal groups is not sufficient. The expressing suicidal ideas is not a protective factor, but in contrary a risk factor to take into account, or even to search and to quantify: 80% of the subjects who attempt to commit suicide or commit suicide express such ideas months before. Several evaluation instruments try to help the practitioners or the research workers in this reasoning. The suicidal risk assessment scale RSD can be cited in particular. It is composed of eleven sections. The 0 level corresponds to the absence of particular ideas of death or suicide. Levels 1 and 2, the presence of ideas of death. Levels 3-4-5, the presence of suicidal ideas. The difference compared to the majority of the other scales consecrated to the same subject, the passif desire of death, occupies a place totally particular in the RSD (level 6). From the level 7, the risk of acting out seems to become more important. It stops being a simple idea of suicide, but becomes a real will of dying, firstly retained by something or someone (level 7), the fear of causing suffering to dear ones or a religious belief., then determined (level 8). Finally, the patient has elaborated a concrete plan (level 9) or he has already started the preparation of acting out (level 10). It is just necessary to evaluate and to note the highest level of the scale. The inclusion of the suicidal risk assessment scale RSD and of the Suicidal Ideation Scale by Beck in an international multicenters, phase IV, double-blind study, according to two parallel groups, with a fixed dose of fluoxétine or fluvoxamine for six weeks, allowed to search correlations which could exist between the two scales. The ana-lysis before the beginning of the treatment was done on 108 outpatients depressive, male and female, aged 18 or over. It finds a satisfactory concurrent validity between the suicidal risk assessment scale RSD and the

  18. A Comparison of Pain Assessment Measures in Pediatric Sickle Cell Disease: Visual Analog Scale Versus Numeric Rating Scale. (United States)

    Myrvik, Matthew P; Drendel, Amy L; Brandow, Amanda M; Yan, Ke; Hoffmann, Raymond G; Panepinto, Julie A


    Given the availability of various pain severity scales, greater understanding of the agreement between pain scales is warranted. We compared Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) pain severity ratings in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) to identify the relationship and agreement between pain scale ratings. Twenty-eight patients (mean ± SD age, 14.65 ± 3.12 y, 50% female) receiving pain interventions within the emergency department completed serial VAS and NRS pain severity ratings every 30 minutes. Data were used to calculate the relationship (Spearman correlation) and agreement (Bland-Altman approach) between the VAS and NRS. One hundred twenty-eight paired VAS-NRS measurements were obtained. VAS and NRS ratings were significantly correlated for the initial assessment (rs = 0.88, P < 0.001) and all assessments (rs = 0.87, P < 0.001). Differences between VAS and NRS means were -0.52 (P = 0.006) for the initial assessment and -0.86 (P < 0.001) across all assessments. The difference between VAS and NRS ratings decreased as pain severity increased across all assessments (P = 0.027), but not the initial assessment. Within pediatric patients with SCD, VAS and NRS ratings were found to trend together; however, VAS scores were found to be significantly lower than NRS scores across assessments. The agreement between the 2 measures improved at increasing levels of pain severity. These findings demonstrate that the VAS and NRS are similar, but cannot be used interchangeably when assessing self-reported pain in SCD.

  19. Intervention Validity of Social Behavior Rating Scales: Features of Assessments that Link Results to Treatment Plans (United States)

    Elliott, Stephen N.; Gresham, Frank M.; Frank, Jennifer L.; Beddow, Peter A., III


    The term "intervention validity" refers to the extent to which assessment results can be used to guide the selection of interventions and evaluation of outcomes. In this article, the authors review the defining attributes of rating scales that distinguish them from other assessment tools, assumptions regarding the use of rating scales to measure…

  20. An Analysis of Large-Scale Writing Assessments in Canada (Grades 5-8) (United States)

    Peterson, Shelley Stagg; McClay, Jill; Main, Kristin


    This paper reports on an analysis of large-scale assessments of Grades 5-8 students' writing across 10 provinces and 2 territories in Canada. Theory, classroom practice, and the contributions and constraints of large-scale writing assessment are brought together with a focus on Grades 5-8 writing in order to provide both a broad view of…

  1. Preparing Students with Learning Disabilities for Large-Scale Writing Assessments (United States)

    Olinghouse, Natalie G.; Colwell, Ryan P.


    This article provides recommendations for teachers to better prepare 3rd through 12th grade students with learning disabilities for large-scale writing assessments. The variation across large-scale writing assessments and the multiple needs of struggling writers indicate the need for test preparation to be embedded within a comprehensive,…

  2. Self-reported attitude scales: current practice in adequate assessment of reliability, validity, and dimensionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrick, T.A.M.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Tobi, H.; Frewer, L.J.


    The development of methods to create self-reported attitude scales has lost momentum, in part because of increased research focused on implicit measures. This paper reviews 162 papers on methodological approaches applied to the validation and assessment of attitude scales. Assessment of methodologic

  3. The Motivation of Stereotypic and Repetitive Behavior: Examination of Construct Validity of the Motivation Assessment Scale (United States)

    Joosten, Annette V.; Bundy, Anita C.


    Construct validity of the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) (Durand, Crimmins, The Motivation Assessment Scale 1988) was studied using Rasch analysis data from 67 children (246 MASs), with dual diagnosis of autism and intellectual disability or with intellectual disability only. Results failed to support the proposed unidimensional construct or…

  4. Large-Scale Assessment, Rationality, and Scientific Management: The Case of No Child Left Behind (United States)

    Roach, Andrew T.; Frank, Jennifer


    This article examines the ways in which NCLB and the movement towards large-scale assessment systems are based on Weber's concept of formal rationality and tradition of scientific management. Building on these ideas, the authors use Ritzer's McDonaldization thesis to examine some of the core features of large-scale assessment and accountability…

  5. Large scale features and assessment of spatial scale correspondence between TMPA and IMD rainfall datasets over Indian landmass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Uma; T V Lakshmi Kumar; M S Narayanan; M Rajeevan; Jyoti Bhate; K Niranjan Kumar


    Daily rainfall datasets of 10 years (1998–2007) of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) version 6 and India Meteorological Department (IMD) gridded rain gauge have been compared over the Indian landmass, both in large and small spatial scales. On the larger spatial scale, the pattern correlation between the two datasets on daily scales during individual years of the study period is ranging from 0.4 to 0.7. The correlation improved significantly (∼0.9) when the study was confined to specific wet and dry spells each of about 5–8 days. Wavelet analysis of intraseasonal oscillations (ISO) of the southwest monsoon rainfall show the percentage contribution of the major two modes (30–50 days and 10–20 days), to be ranging respectively between ∼30–40% and 5–10% for the various years. Analysis of inter-annual variability shows the satellite data to be underestimating seasonal rainfall by ∼110 mm during southwest monsoon and overestimating by ∼150 mm during northeast monsoon season. At high spatio-temporal scales, viz., 1° × 1° grid, TMPA data do not correspond to ground truth. We have proposed here a new analysis procedure to assess the minimum spatial scale at which the two datasets are compatible with each other. This has been done by studying the contribution to total seasonal rainfall from different rainfall rate windows (at 1 mm intervals) on different spatial scales (at daily time scale). The compatibility spatial scale is seen to be beyond 5° × 5° average spatial scale over the Indian landmass. This will help to decide the usability of TMPA products, if averaged at appropriate spatial scales, for specific process studies, e.g., cloud scale, meso scale or synoptic scale.

  6. Scaling, Linking, and Reporting in a Periodic Assessment System (United States)

    Mislevy, Robert J.; Zwick, Rebecca


    A new entry in the testing lexicon is through-course summative assessment, a system consisting of components administered periodically during the academic year. As defined in the Race to the Top program, these assessments are intended to yield a yearly summative score for accountability purposes. They must provide for both individual and group…

  7. EI Scale: an environmental impact assessment scale related to the construction materials used in the reinforced concrete


    Gilson Morales; Antonio Edésio Jungles; Sheila Elisa Scheidemantel Klein; Juliana Guarda


    This study aimed to create EI Scal, an environmental impact assessment scal, related to construction materials used in the reinforced concrete structure production. The main reason for that was based on the need to classify the environmental impact levels through indicators to assess the damage level process. The scale allowed converting information to estimate the environmental impact caused. Indicators were defined trough the requirements and classification criteria of impact aspects consid...

  8. Assessing Young Children's Moral Development: A Standardized and Objective Scale. (United States)

    Enright, Robert D.; And Others

    A paired-comparisons measure of distributive justice development, the Distributive Justice Scale (DJS), was developed and validated in four studies. Pictures were drawn to represent the different stages of distributive justice for a given dilemma and the DJS was scored by selecting the child's preferred stage via the picture comparisons for each…

  9. Inter-Rater Reliability of the Modified Ashworth Scale and Modified Modified Ashworth Scale in Assessing Poststroke Elbow Flexor Spasticity (United States)

    Kaya, Taciser; Goksel Karatepe, Altinay; Gunaydin, Rezzan; Koc, Aysegul; Altundal Ercan, Ulku


    The Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) is commonly used in clinical practice for grading spasticity. However, it was modified recently by omitting grade "1+" of the MAS and redefining grade "2". The aim of this study was to investigate the inter-rater reliability of MAS and modified MAS (MMAS) for the assessment of poststroke elbow flexor spasticity.…

  10. EI Scale: an environmental impact assessment scale related to the construction materials used in the reinforced concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Morales


    Full Text Available This study aimed to create EI Scal, an environmental impact assessment scal, related to construction materials used in the reinforced concrete structure production. The main reason for that was based on the need to classify the environmental impact levels through indicators to assess the damage level process. The scale allowed converting information to estimate the environmental impact caused. Indicators were defined trough the requirements and classification criteria of impact aspects considering the eco-design theory. Moreover, the scale allowed classifying the materials and processes environmental impact through four score categories which resulted in a single final impact score. It was concluded that the EI scale could be cheap, accessible, and relevant tool for environmental impact controlling and reduction, allowing the planning and material specification to minimize the construction negative effects caused in the environment.

  11. The Development and Validation of the Religious/Spiritually Integrated Practice Assessment Scale (United States)

    Oxhandler, Holly K.; Parrish, Danielle E.


    Objective: This article describes the development and validation of the Religious/Spiritually Integrated Practice Assessment Scale (RSIPAS). The RSIPAS is designed to assess social work practitioners' self-efficacy, attitudes, behaviors, and perceived feasibility concerning the assessment or integration of clients' religious and spiritual beliefs…

  12. Alignment of Scores on Large-Scale Assessments and Report-Card Grades (United States)

    Ross, John A.; Gray, Peter


    We examined how much agreement there was between scores from large-scale mandated assessments and report-card grades for 14,776 students in grades 3, 6, and 9 of a district in which conditions were conducive to alignment of assessments. We found significant mean differences between internal and external assessments: effect sizes were 0.29 to 0.63…

  13. Evaluating the Risk of Child Abuse: The Child Abuse Risk Assessment Scale (CARAS) (United States)

    Chan, Ko Ling


    The present study developed the Child Abuse Risk Assessment Scale (CARAS), an actuarial instrument for the assessment of the risk of physical child abuse. Data of 2,363 Chinese parents (47.7% male) living in Hong Kong were used in the analyses. Participants were individually interviewed with a questionnaire assessing their perpetration of child…

  14. Postoperative pain assessment using four behavioral scales in Pakistani children undergoing elective surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Shamim


    Full Text Available Background: Several measurement tools have been used for assessment of postoperative pain in pediatric patients. Self-report methods have limitations in younger children and parent, nurse or physician assessment can be used as a surrogate measure. These tools should be tested in different cultures as pain can be influenced by sociocultural factors. The objective was to assess the inter-rater agreement on four different behavioral pain assessment scales in our local population. Materials and Methods: This prospective, descriptive, observational study was conducted in Pakistan. American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II children, 3-7 years of age, undergoing elective surgery were enrolled. Four pain assessment scales were used, Children′s Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale (CHEOPS, Toddler Preschool Postoperative Pain Scale (TPPPS, objective pain scale (OPS, and Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability (FLACC. After 15 and 60 min of arrival in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU, each child evaluated his/her postoperative pain by self-reporting and was also independently assessed by the PACU nurse, PACU anesthetist and the parent. The sensitivity and specificity of the responses of the four pain assessment scales were compared to the response of the child. Results: At 15 min, sensitivity and specificity were >60% for doctors and nurses on FLACC, OPS, and CHEOPS scales and for FLACC and CHEOPS scale for the parents. Parents showed poor agreement on OPS and TPPS. At 60 min, sensitivity was poor on the OPS scale by all three observers. Nurses showed a lower specificity on FLACC tool. Parents had poor specificity on CHEOPS and rate of false negatives was high with TPPS. Conclusions: We recommend the use of FLACC scale for assessment by parents, nurses, and doctors in Pakistani children aged between 3 and 7.

  15. Reliability assessment for components of large scale photovoltaic systems (United States)

    Ahadi, Amir; Ghadimi, Noradin; Mirabbasi, Davar


    Photovoltaic (PV) systems have significantly shifted from independent power generation systems to a large-scale grid-connected generation systems in recent years. The power output of PV systems is affected by the reliability of various components in the system. This study proposes an analytical approach to evaluate the reliability of large-scale, grid-connected PV systems. The fault tree method with an exponential probability distribution function is used to analyze the components of large-scale PV systems. The system is considered in the various sequential and parallel fault combinations in order to find all realistic ways in which the top or undesired events can occur. Additionally, it can identify areas that the planned maintenance should focus on. By monitoring the critical components of a PV system, it is possible not only to improve the reliability of the system, but also to optimize the maintenance costs. The latter is achieved by informing the operators about the system component's status. This approach can be used to ensure secure operation of the system by its flexibility in monitoring system applications. The implementation demonstrates that the proposed method is effective and efficient and can conveniently incorporate more system maintenance plans and diagnostic strategies.

  16. Multi-scale landslide risk assessment in Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos Abella, E.A.


    Landslides cause a considerable amount of damage in the mountainous regions of Cuba, which cover about 25% of the territory. Until now, only a limited amount of research has been carried out in the field of landslide risk assessment in the country. This research presents a methodology and its implem

  17. Development of Self-Efficacy towards Using Alternative Assessment Scale (United States)

    Buldur, Serkan; Tatar, Nilgun


    Determining the candidate teachers' opinions regarding self-efficacy towards alternative assessment will be beneficial in that this will improve their competencies while using these approaches in their applications within the classroom. In this article, the development and validation of the "Self-efficacy towards Using Alternative Assessment…

  18. Quality Control Charts in Large-Scale Assessment Programs (United States)

    Schafer, William D.; Coverdale, Bradley J.; Luxenberg, Harlan; Jin, Ying


    There are relatively few examples of quantitative approaches to quality control in educational assessment and accountability contexts. Among the several techniques that are used in other fields, Shewart charts have been found in a few instances to be applicable in educational settings. This paper describes Shewart charts and gives examples of how…

  19. Assessing severity of delirium by the Delirium Observation Screening Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffer, Alice C.; van Munster, Barbara C.; Schuurmans, Marieke J.; de Rooij, Sophia E.


    Objective: Delirium is the most common acute neuropsychiatric disorder in hospitalized elderly. Assessment of the severity of delirium is important for adjusting medication. The minimal dose of medication is preferable to prevent side effects. Only few nurse based severity measures are available. Th

  20. RMS Pictorial Scale (RMS-PS: An innovative scale for the assessment of child′s dental anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R M Shetty


    Full Text Available Background: Dental anxiety assessment for young children is as important as performing their treatment. Appropriate knowledge of patient′s anxiety boosts confidence and will help us to review potential management options specific to every child. Aim: This study aimed to validate (RMS Pictorial Scale (RMS-PS and to compare it with Venham Picture Test (VPT and Facial image scale (FIS in measuring dental anxiety for young children during their first dental visit. Materials and Methods: A total of 102 healthy children aged between 4 and 14 years during their first dental visit were randomly selected for the study. Childs anxiety level was measured using three different scales namely (i RMS-PS (ii VPT, and (iii FIS. Statistical Analysis: Student t test was used to compare the scores obtained from all the three scales. Pearson correlation test was used to obtain correlation among the scales used in the study. Results: A strong correlation (0·76 was found between the VPT and RMS-PS, and a moderate correlation (0.5 was found between RMS-PS and FIS, indicating good validity for the RMS-PS. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that the RMS-PS can be a newer and easiest means for the assessment of dental anxiety for young children in a clinical context.

  1. Scaling earthquake ground motions for performance-based assessment of buildings (United States)

    Huang, Y.-N.; Whittaker, A.S.; Luco, N.; Hamburger, R.O.


    The impact of alternate ground-motion scaling procedures on the distribution of displacement responses in simplified structural systems is investigated. Recommendations are provided for selecting and scaling ground motions for performance-based assessment of buildings. Four scaling methods are studied, namely, (1)geometric-mean scaling of pairs of ground motions, (2)spectrum matching of ground motions, (3)first-mode-period scaling to a target spectral acceleration, and (4)scaling of ground motions per the distribution of spectral demands. Data were developed by nonlinear response-history analysis of a large family of nonlinear single degree-of-freedom (SDOF) oscillators that could represent fixed-base and base-isolated structures. The advantages and disadvantages of each scaling method are discussed. The relationship between spectral shape and a ground-motion randomness parameter, is presented. A scaling procedure that explicitly considers spectral shape is proposed. ?? 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  2. Full-scale Data Assessment in OWC Pico Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito-Melo, A.; Neumann, F. [Wave Energy Centre Lisbon (Portugal); Sarmento, A.J.N.A. [Wave Energy Centre, Lisbon (Portugal)]|[Instituto Superior Tecnico, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Lisbon (Portugal)


    After being idle for a period of several years after its first commissioning in 1999, the European OWC pilot plant on the island of Pico in the Azores has been reactivated by 2005 and initial tests have been performed since then. The refurbishment, co-ordinated by the Wave Energy Centre in Portugal, started in 2004, and was supported by National funding under a new Portuguese funding scheme for scientific pilot projects (PRIME/DEMTEC). The activities included the complete replacement of the degraded electrical equipment and refurbishments of the existing mechanical components. This paper describes the Pico plant monitoring during the full-scale demonstration from September 2005 to October 2006 and discusses the data and results obtained so far.

  3. Assessing Politicized Sexual Orientation Identity: Validating the Queer Consciousness Scale. (United States)

    Duncan, Lauren E; Mincer, Elizabeth; Dunn, Sarah R


    Building on psychological theories of motivation for collective action, we introduce a new individual difference measure of queer consciousness, defined as a politicized collective identity around sexual orientation. The Queer Consciousness Scale (QCS) consists of 12 items measuring five aspects of a politicized queer identity: sense of common fate, power discontent, system blame, collective orientation, and cognitive centrality. In four samples of adult women and men of varied sexual orientations, the QCS showed good test-retest and Cronbach's reliability and excellent known-groups and predictive validity. Specifically, the QCS was positively correlated with identification as a member of the LGBTQ community, political liberalism, personal political salience, and LGBTQ activism and negatively correlated with right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation. QCS mediated relationships between several individual difference variables and gay rights activism and can be used with both LGBTQ people and allies.

  4. Matrix Sampling of Items in Large-Scale Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A. Childs


    Full Text Available Matrix sampling of items -' that is, division of a set of items into different versions of a test form..-' is used by several large-scale testing programs. Like other test designs, matrixed designs have..both advantages and disadvantages. For example, testing time per student is less than if each..student received all the items, but the comparability of student scores may decrease. Also,..curriculum coverage is maintained, but reporting of scores becomes more complex. In this paper,..matrixed designs are compared with more traditional designs in nine categories of costs:..development costs, materials costs, administration costs, educational costs, scoring costs,..reliability costs, comparability costs, validity costs, and reporting costs. In choosing among test..designs, a testing program should examine the costs in light of its mandate(s, the content of the..tests, and the financial resources available, among other considerations.

  5. A multi-scale metrics approach to forest fragmentation for Strategic Environmental Impact Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eunyoung, E-mail: [Korea Environment Institute, 215 Jinheungno, Eunpyeong-gu, Seoul 122-706 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Wonkyong, E-mail: [Suwon Research Institute, 145 Gwanggyo-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dongkun, E-mail: [Department of Landscape Architecture and Rural System Engineering, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanakro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of)


    Forests are becoming severely fragmented as a result of land development. South Korea has responded to changing community concerns about environmental issues. The nation has developed and is extending a broad range of tools for use in environmental management. Although legally mandated environmental compliance requirements in South Korea have been implemented to predict and evaluate the impacts of land-development projects, these legal instruments are often insufficient to assess the subsequent impact of development on the surrounding forests. It is especially difficult to examine impacts on multiple (e.g., regional and local) scales in detail. Forest configuration and size, including forest fragmentation by land development, are considered on a regional scale. Moreover, forest structure and composition, including biodiversity, are considered on a local scale in the Environmental Impact Assessment process. Recently, the government amended the Environmental Impact Assessment Act, including the SEA, EIA, and small-scale EIA, to require an integrated approach. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish an impact assessment system that minimizes the impacts of land development using an approach that is integrated across multiple scales. This study focused on forest fragmentation due to residential development and road construction sites in selected Congestion Restraint Zones (CRZs) in the Greater Seoul Area of South Korea. Based on a review of multiple-scale impacts, this paper integrates models that assess the impacts of land development on forest ecosystems. The applicability of the integrated model for assessing impacts on forest ecosystems through the SEIA process is considered. On a regional scale, it is possible to evaluate the location and size of a land-development project by considering aspects of forest fragmentation, such as the stability of the forest structure and the degree of fragmentation. On a local scale, land-development projects should

  6. Bench-scale co-processing economic assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gala, H.B.; Marker, T.L.; Miller, E.N.


    The UOP Co-Processing scheme is a single-stage slurry catalyzed process in which petroleum vacuum resid and coal are simultaneously upgraded to a high-quality synthetic oil. A highly active dispersed catalyst has been developed which enables the operation of the co-processing unit at relatively moderate and high temperatures and relatively high pressure. Under the current contract, a multi-year research program was undertaken to study the technical and economic feasibility of this technology. All the contractual tasks were completed. Autoclave experiments were carried out to evaluate dispersed vanadium catalysts, molybdenum catalysts, and a less costly UOP-proprietary catalyst preparation technique. Autoclave experiments were also carried out in support of the continuous pilot plant unit operation and to study the effects of the process variables (pressure, temperature, and metal loading on the catalyst). A total of 24 continuous pilot plant runs were made. Research and development efforts during the pilot plant operations were concentrated on addressing the cost effectiveness of the UOP single-stage slurry catalyzed co-processing concept based on UOP experience gained in the previous DOE contract. To this end, effect of catalyst metal concentration was studied and a highly-active Mo-based catalyst was developed. This catalyst enabled successful long-term operation (924 hours) of the continuous bench-scale plant at highly severe operating conditions of 3,000 psig, 465{degree}C temperature, and 2:1 resid-to-MAF (moisture- and ash-free) coal ratio with 0.1 wt % active metal. The metal loading of the catalyst was low enough to consider the catalyst as a disposable slurry catalyst. Also, liquid recycle was incorporated in the pilot plant design to increase the, reactor back mixing and to increase the flow of liquid through the reactor (to introduce turbulence in the reactor) and to represent the design of a commercial-scale reactor.

  7. Assessment of the hydrological impacts of green roof: From building scale to basin scale (United States)

    Versini, P.-A.; Ramier, D.; Berthier, E.; de Gouvello, B.


    At the building scale, the use of green roof has shown a positive impact on urban runoff (decrease and slow-down in peak discharge, decrease in runoff volume). The present work aims to study whether similar effects are possible at the basin scale and what is the minimum spreading of green runoff needed to observe significant impacts. It is particularly focused on the circumstances of such impacts and how they can contribute to storm water management in urban environment. Based on observations on experimental green roofs, a conceptual model has been developed and integrated into the SWMM urban rainfall-runoff model to reproduce the hydrological behaviour of two different types of green roof. It has been combined with a method defining green roofing scenarios by estimating the maximum roof area that can be covered. This methodology has been applied on a long time series (18 years) to the Châtillon urban basin (Haut-de-Seine county, France) frequently affected by urban flooding. For comparison, the same methodology has been applied at the building scale and a complementary analysis has been conducted to study which hydrometeorological variables may affect the magnitude of these hydrological impacts at both scales. The results show green roofs, when they are widely implemented, can affect urban runoff in terms of peak discharge and volume, and avoid flooding in several cases. Both precipitation - generally accumulated during the whole event- and the initial substrate saturation are likely to have an impact on green roof effects. In this context, the studied green roofs seem useful to mitigate the effects of usual rainfall events but turn out being less helpful for the more severe ones. We conclude that, combined with other infrastructures, green roofs represent an interesting contribution to urban water management in the future.

  8. The development of Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDermott, Orii; Orrell, Martin; Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner


    of the new outcome measure “Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS)”. Analysis of the qualitative data identified five key areas of the impact of music on people with dementia and they were transformed as the five Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) items: levels of Interest, Response, Initiation, Involvement...

  9. Brief Assessment of Motor Function: Content Validity and Reliability of the Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale (United States)

    Cintas, Holly Lea; Parks, Rebecca; Don, Sarah; Gerber, Lynn


    Content validity and reliability of the Brief Assessment of Motor Function (BAMF) Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale (UEGMS) were evaluated in this prospective, descriptive study. The UEGMS is one of five BAMF ordinal scales designed for quick documentation of gross, fine, and oral motor skill levels. Designed to be independent of age and…

  10. The Aberrant Behavior Checklist: A Behavior Rating Scale for the Assessment of Treatment Effects. (United States)

    Aman, Michael G.; And Others


    The development of a scale to assess drug and other treatment effects on severely mentally retarded individuals is described. Separate factor analyses of the data from two samples resulted in a five-factor scale: (1) Irritability, Agitation, Crying; (2) Lethargy, Social Withdrawal; (3) Stereotypic Behavior; (4) Hyperactivity, Noncompliance; and…

  11. Aligning the NWEA RIT Scale with the Maryland School Assessment (MSA) (United States)

    Bowe, Branin; Cronin, John


    Recently NWEA completed a project to connect the scale of the Maryland School Assessment (MSA) with NWEA's RIT scale. One large school system participated in the study, using test information from a group of over 24,000 students enrolled in third, fourth and fifth grade who took both the MSA and NWEA reading tests in the spring of 2005.…

  12. Assessing competition with the Panzar-Rosse model : the role of scale, costs, and equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, Jacob A.; Shaffer, Sherrill; Spierdijk, Laura


    The Panzar-Rosse test has been widely applied to assess competitive conduct, often in specifications controlling for firm scale or using a price equation. We show that neither a price equation nor a scaled revenue function yields a valid measure for competitive conduct. Moreover, even an unscaled re

  13. Development of a short scale for self-assessment of experiences of hearing loss. The hearing coping assessment. (United States)

    Andersson, G; Melin, L; Lindberg, P; Scott, B


    A short scale for self-assessment of experiences of hearing impairment--the Hearing Coping Assessment (HCA) was developed and administered to 114 consecutive hearing-impaired patients at a Swedish hearing centre. The scale was evaluated in terms of descriptive statistics, reliability, principal components analysis, and validity. The results showed high internal consistency, high split-half correlation, and high item-total correlations. Significant correlations were found between the HCA questionnaire and measures of optimism, depressive syndrome, and audiogram (PTA). The principal component analysis showed two meaningful factors. The first mainly represents disability, and the second emotional reactions due to hearing loss. Aspects of handicap were present in both factors. The subjects in this study were no less optimistic nor did they show more signs of depressive syndrome than comparable norm groups. Still, optimists reported fewer hearing problems as measured by the HCA. The HCA is proposed as a suitable assessment scale in studies on the effects of counselling.

  14. Urban Ecosystem Health Assessment and Its Application in Management: A Multi-Scale Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwei Zhao


    Full Text Available Urban ecosystem health assessments can be applied extensively in urban management to evaluate the status quo of the urban ecosystem, identify the limiting factors, identify key problems, optimize the scheme and guide ecological regulation. Regarding the multi-layer roles of urban ecosystems, urban ecosystem health should be assessed at different scales with each assessment providing a specific reference to urban management from its own viewpoint. Therefore, a novel framework of multi-scale urban ecosystem health assessment is established on global, national, regional and local scales. A demonstration of the framework is shown by using a case study in Guangzhou City, China, where urban ecosystem health assessment is conducted in the order of global, national, regional, and local scales, from macro to micro, and rough to detailed analysis. The new multi-scale framework can be utilized to generate a more comprehensive understanding of urban ecosystem health, more accurate orientation of urban development, and more feasible regulation and management programs when compared with the traditional urban ecosystem health assessment focusing at the local scale.

  15. Assessment of pruritus intensity: prospective study on validity and reliability of the visual analogue scale, numerical rating scale and verbal rating scale in 471 patients with chronic pruritus. (United States)

    Phan, Ngoc Quan; Blome, Christine; Fritz, Fleur; Gerss, Joachim; Reich, Adam; Ebata, Toshiya; Augustin, Matthias; Szepietowski, Jacek C; Ständer, Sonja


    The most commonly used tool for self-report of pruritus intensity is the visual analogue scale (VAS). Similar tools are the numerical rating scale (NRS) and verbal rating scale (VRS). In the present study, initiated by the International Forum for the Study of Itch assessing reliability of these tools, 471 randomly selected patients with chronic itch (200 males, 271 females, mean age 58.44 years) recorded their pruritus intensity on VAS (100-mm line), NRS (0-10) and VRS (four-point) scales. Re-test reliability was analysed in a subgroup of 250 patients after one hour. Statistical analysis showed a high reliability and concurrent validity (r>0.8; pscales showed a high correlation. In conclusion, high reliability and concurrent validity was found for VAS, NRS and VRS. On re-test, higher correlation and less missing values were observed. A training session before starting a clinical trial is recommended.

  16. Nitrate contamination risk assessment in groundwater at regional scale (United States)

    Daniela, Ducci


    Nitrate groundwater contamination is widespread in the world, due to the intensive use of fertilizers, to the leaking from the sewage network and to the presence of old septic systems. This research presents a methodology for groundwater contamination risk assessment using thematic maps derived mainly from the land-use map and from statistical data available at the national institutes of statistic (especially demographic and environmental data). The potential nitrate contamination is considered as deriving from three sources: agricultural, urban and periurban. The first one is related to the use of fertilizers. For this reason the land-use map is re-classified on the basis of the crop requirements in terms of fertilizers. The urban source is the possibility of leaks from the sewage network and, consequently, is linked to the anthropogenic pressure, expressed by the population density, weighted on the basis of the mapped urbanized areas of the municipality. The periurban sources include the un-sewered areas, especially present in the periurban context, where illegal sewage connections coexist with on-site sewage disposal (cesspools, septic tanks and pit latrines). The potential nitrate contamination map is produced by overlaying the agricultural, urban and periurban maps. The map combination process is very easy, being an algebraic combination: the output values are the arithmetic average of the input values. The groundwater vulnerability to contamination can be assessed using parametric methods, like DRASTIC or easier, like AVI (that involves a limited numbers of parameters). In most of cases, previous documents produced at regional level can be used. The pollution risk map is obtained by combining the thematic maps of the potential nitrate contamination map and the groundwater contamination vulnerability map. The criterion for the linkages of the different GIS layers is very easy, corresponding to an algebraic combination. The methodology has been successfully

  17. Assessing motivation orientations in schizophrenia: Scale development and validation. (United States)

    Cooper, Shanna; Lavaysse, Lindsey M; Gard, David E


    Motivation deficits are common in several disorders including schizophrenia, and are an important factor in both functioning and treatment adherence. Self-Determination Theory (SDT), a leading macro-theory of motivation, has contributed a number of insights into how motivation is impaired in schizophrenia. Nonetheless, self-report measures of motivation appropriate for people with severe mental illness (including those that emphasize SDT) are generally lacking in the literature. To fill this gap, we adapted and abbreviated the well-validated General Causality Orientation Scale for use with people with schizophrenia and with other severe mental disorders (GCOS-clinical populations; GCOS-CP). In Study 1, we tested the similarity of our measure to the existing GCOS (using a college sample) and then validated this new measure in a schizophrenia and healthy control sample (Study 2). Results from Study 1 (N=360) indicated that the GCOS-CP was psychometrically similar to the original GCOS and provided good convergent and discriminant validity. In Study 2, the GCOS-CP was given to individuals with (N=44) and without schizophrenia (N=42). In line with both laboratory-based and observer-based research, people with schizophrenia showed lower motivational autonomy and higher impersonal/amotivated orientations. Additional applications of the GCOS-CP are discussed.

  18. Can the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale Assess Perfeccionismo? (United States)

    Burgess, Alexandra M; DiBartolo, Patricia Marten; Rendón, María Jose


    Although culture-based measurement bias threatens the validity of intergroup comparison research, measurement invariance is often assumed rather than demonstrated by researchers who draw conclusions about cross-cultural similarities or differences. The current article investigates the cross-cultural invariance of a popular measure of perfectionism, the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (F-MPS; Frost, Marten, Lahart, & Rosenblate, 1990) for a Hispanic/Latina sample. Perfectionism, which encompasses high goal setting and sensitivity to critical evaluation, is a transdiagnostic risk factor for internalizing psychopathology that especially warrants focus among groups burdened by mental health disparities. Multiple samples were used in a series of analyses to construct a baseline first-order measurement model and test for cross-group equivalence. For model development, confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were used with 320 female participants (Mage = 19.61 years) who identified primarily (n = 301) as European/European American. Measurement invariance testing was conducted with multigroup CFAs using another sample of female adults (n = 574; Mage = 21.21 years), identifying either as European/European American (n = 217) or Hispanic/Latina/Latin American (n = 357). Evidence was found for invariance across the revised F-MPS factor structure, pattern of factor loadings, and factor variances/covariances. Results indicate that predictive relationships may be compared across these groups, but caution is suggested when interpreting raw mean score differences due to intercept nonequivalence. Further, second-order model testing demonstrated support for the bidimensional model of perfectionism cross-culturally. Future research on perfectionism within the Latino/a population is encouraged using this equivalent item set. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Secondary Analysis of Large-Scale Assessment Data: An Alternative to Variable-Centred Analysis (United States)

    Chow, Kui Foon; Kennedy, Kerry John


    International large-scale assessments are now part of the educational landscape in many countries and often feed into major policy decisions. Yet, such assessments also provide data sets for secondary analysis that can address key issues of concern to educators and policymakers alike. Traditionally, such secondary analyses have been based on a…

  20. Reliability of measuring anomalous experience: the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollmer-Larsen, Anne; Handest, Peter; Parnas, Josef


    in identifying the patients at risk of psychosis. Some of these anomalies are described in the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms (BSABS). We examined the reliability of this instrument. SAMPLING AND METHOD: 18 hospitalised patients accepted to participate in a psychopathological interview assessing...

  1. Problematizing Rating Scales in EFL Academic Writing Assessment: Voices from Iranian Context (United States)

    Ghanbar, Batoul; Barati, Hossein; Moinzadeh, Ahmad


    Along with a more humanitarian movement in language testing, accountability to contextual variables in the design and development of any assessment enterprise is emphasized. However, when it comes to writing assessment, it is found that multiplicity of rating scales developed to fit diverse contexts is mainly headed by well-known native testing…

  2. The Verbal Behavior Assessment Scale (VerBAS): Construct Validity, Reliability, and Internal Consistency. (United States)

    Duker, Pieter C.


    To assess the psychometric characteristics of the Verbal Behavior Assessment Scale, the 15-item questionnaire was administered to pairs of caregivers of 115 individuals with developmental disabilities. Exploratory factor analysis involving 11 more participants revealed evidence concerning the distinction of three different communicative functions…

  3. Evidence Based Clinical Assessment of Child and Adolescent Social Phobia: A Critical Review of Rating Scales (United States)

    Tulbure, Bogdan T.; Szentagotai, Aurora; Dobrean, Anca; David, Daniel


    Investigating the empirical support of various assessment instruments, the evidence based assessment approach expands the scientific basis of psychotherapy. Starting from Hunsley and Mash's evaluative framework, we critically reviewed the rating scales designed to measure social anxiety or phobia in youth. Thirteen of the most researched social…

  4. Validation of the Evidence-Based Practice Process Assessment Scale--Short Version (United States)

    Parrish, Danielle E.; Rubin, Allen


    Objective: This report describes the reliability and validity of the Evidence-Based Practice Process Assessment Scale (EBPPAS)--Short Version, validated with three disciplines (Social Work, Licensed Marriage and Family Therapists (LMFTs), and Psychologists), that assesses practitioners' perceived familiarity with, attitudes about, and…

  5. Process assessment of small scale low temperature methanol synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendriyana [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Jenderal Achmad Yani Univerity (Indonesia); Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Industrial Technology, InstitutTeknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Susanto, Herri, E-mail:; Subagjo [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Industrial Technology, InstitutTeknologi Bandung (Indonesia)


    Biomass is a renewable energy resource and has the potential to make a significant impact on domestic fuel supplies. Biomass can be converted to fuel like methanol via several step process. The process can be split into following main steps: biomass preparation, gasification, gas cooling and cleaning, gas shift and methanol synthesis. Untill now these configuration still has a problem like high production cost, catalyst deactivation, economy of scale and a huge energy requirements. These problems become the leading inhibition for biomass conversion to methanol, which should be resolved to move towards the economical. To address these issues, we developed various process and new configurations for methanol synthesis via methyl formate. This configuration combining two reactors: the one reactor for the carbonylation of methanol and CO to form methyl formate, and the second for the hydrogenolysis of methyl formate and H{sub 2} to form two molecule of methanol. Four plant process configurations were compared with the biomass basis is 300 ton/day. The first configuration (A) is equipped with a steam reforming process for converting methane to CO and H{sub 2} for increasing H{sub 2}/CO ratio. CO{sub 2} removal is necessary to avoid poisoning the catalyst. COSORB process used for the purpose of increasing the partial pressure of CO in the feed gas. The steam reforming process in B configuration is not used with the aim of reducing the number of process equipment, so expect lower investment costs. For C configuration, the steam reforming process and COSORB are not used with the aim of reducing the number of process equipment, so expect lower investment costs. D configuration is almost similar to the configuration A. This configuration difference is in the synthesis of methanol which was held in a single reactor. Carbonylation and hydrogenolysis reactions carried out in the same reactor one. These processes were analyzed in term of technical process, material and energy

  6. Tools and Techniques for Basin-Scale Climate Change Assessment (United States)

    Zagona, E.; Rajagopalan, B.; Oakley, W.; Wilson, N.; Weinstein, P.; Verdin, A.; Jerla, C.; Prairie, J. R.


    The Department of Interior's WaterSMART Program seeks to secure and stretch water supplies to benefit future generations and identify adaptive measures to address climate change. Under WaterSMART, Basin Studies are comprehensive water studies to explore options for meeting projected imbalances in water supply and demand in specific basins. Such studies could be most beneficial with application of recent scientific advances in climate projections, stochastic simulation, operational modeling and robust decision-making, as well as computational techniques to organize and analyze many alternatives. A new integrated set of tools and techniques to facilitate these studies includes the following components: Future supply scenarios are produced by the Hydrology Simulator, which uses non-parametric K-nearest neighbor resampling techniques to generate ensembles of hydrologic traces based on historical data, optionally conditioned on long paleo reconstructed data using various Markov Chain techniuqes. Resampling can also be conditioned on climate change projections from e.g., downscaled GCM projections to capture increased variability; spatial and temporal disaggregation is also provided. The simulations produced are ensembles of hydrologic inputs to the RiverWare operations/infrastucture decision modeling software. Alternative demand scenarios can be produced with the Demand Input Tool (DIT), an Excel-based tool that allows modifying future demands by groups such as states; sectors, e.g., agriculture, municipal, energy; and hydrologic basins. The demands can be scaled at future dates or changes ramped over specified time periods. Resulting data is imported directly into the decision model. Different model files can represent infrastructure alternatives and different Policy Sets represent alternative operating policies, including options for noticing when conditions point to unacceptable vulnerabilities, which trigger dynamically executing changes in operations or other

  7. Outcome assessment of stroke convalescence using multiple scales based on different dimensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingrong Lao; Xinfeng Guo; Shilong Lai; Weixiong Liang; Zehuai Wen; Qi Wang; Peixin Huang; Yan Huang


    BACKGROUND: Convalescence is an important stage of stroke treatment. A lot of patients have somatic and mental disorders at various degrees. The primary standard can only reflect partial conditions of somatic disorder; in addition, multiple dimensions of patients at the phase of stroke convalescence are further observed by using a lot of standards, such as signs and symptoms of traditional Chinese medicine, daily activity and psychological status.OBJECTTVE: To analyze the outcome assessments of the cases of stroke convalescence measured with different criteria consisting of various dimensions by a cross-sectional investigation of the condition of stroke convalescent patients.DESIGN : Scale evaluation.SETTING: Departments of Clinical Epidemiology Exploratory Development and Neurology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; National Center for Training of Design, Measurement and Evaluation in Clinical Research,Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 194 stroke convalescent patients treated in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine from July 26, 2000 to February 28, 2001 were taken as subjects of the study. There were 126 males and 68 females aged from 40 to 89 years, and the illness course ranged from 14 to 181 days. All patients met diagnosis-treatment criteria of stroke (the second version)[DTCS(V2.0)] and various kinds of diagnostic points of cerebrovascular diseases; moreover, all patients provided confirmed consents.METHODS: They were assessed by assessment methods including the following assessment instruments:DTCS(V2.0), self-designed scale of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) symptoms (28 symptoms and physical signs were scored as 0, 1, 2 marks from none to severity), modified Edinburgh-Scandinavia stroke scale (a total of 45 marks, 0 to 15 marks as mild defect, 16 to 30 as moderate defect, 31 to 45 as severe defect

  8. Investigating the reliability and validity of the waterlow risk assessment scale: a literature review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Breda


    The aim of this review was to examine health literature on the reliability and validity of the Waterlow pressure sore assessment scale. A systematic review of published studies relating to the topic was conducted and literature was examined for its relevancy to the topic under investigation. Findings suggest that despite the availability of over 40 assessment tools, the Waterlow assessment scale is the most frequently used by health care staff. Research suggests that the Waterlow Scale is an unreliable method of assessing individuals at risk of pressure sore development with all studies indicating a poor interrater reliability status. Its validity has also been criticized because of its high-sensitivity but low-specificity levels.

  9. Investigating the reliability and validity of the waterlow risk assessment scale: a literature review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Breda


    The aim of this review was to examine health literature on the reliability and validity of the Waterlow pressure sore assessment scale. A systematic review of published studies relating to the topic was conducted and literature was examined for its relevancy to the topic under investigation. Findings suggest that despite the availability of over 40 assessment tools, the Waterlow assessment scale is the most frequently used by health care staff. Research suggests that the Waterlow Scale is an unreliable method of assessing individuals at risk of pressure sore development with all studies indicating a poor interrater reliability status. Its validity has also been criticized because of its high-sensitivity but low-specificity levels.

  10. Use of simulated evaporation to assess the potential for scale formation during reverse osmosis desalination (United States)

    Huff, G.F.


    The tendency of solutes in input water to precipitate efficiency lowering scale deposits on the membranes of reverse osmosis (RO) desalination systems is an important factor in determining the suitability of input water for desalination. Simulated input water evaporation can be used as a technique to quantitatively assess the potential for scale formation in RO desalination systems. The technique was demonstrated by simulating the increase in solute concentrations required to form calcite, gypsum, and amorphous silica scales at 25??C and 40??C from 23 desalination input waters taken from the literature. Simulation results could be used to quantitatively assess the potential of a given input water to form scale or to compare the potential of a number of input waters to form scale during RO desalination. Simulated evaporation of input waters cannot accurately predict the conditions under which scale will form owing to the effects of potentially stable supersaturated solutions, solution velocity, and residence time inside RO systems. However, the simulated scale-forming potential of proposed input waters could be compared with the simulated scale-forming potentials and actual scale-forming properties of input waters having documented operational histories in RO systems. This may provide a technique to estimate the actual performance and suitability of proposed input waters during RO.

  11. Adaptation and psychometric assessment of the Hebrew version of the Recovery Promoting Relationships Scale (RPRS). (United States)

    Moran, Galia S; Zisman-Ilani, Yaara; Garber-Epstein, Paula; Roe, David


    Recovery is supported by relationships that are characterized by human centeredness, empowerment and a hopeful approach. The Recovery Promoting Relationships Scale (RPRS; Russinova, Rogers, & Ellison, 2006) assesses consumer-provider relationships from the consumer perspective. Here we present the adaptation and psychometric assessment of a Hebrew version of the RPRS. The RPRS was translated to Hebrew (RPRS-Heb) using multiple strategies to assure conceptual soundness. Then 216 mental health consumers were administered the RPRS-Heb as part of a larger project initiative implementing illness management and recovery intervention (IMR) in community settings. Psychometric testing included assessment of the factor structure, reliability, and validity using the Hope Scale, the Working Alliance Inventory, and the Recovery Assessment Scale. The RPRS-Heb factor structure replicated the two factor structures found in the original scale with minor exceptions. Reliability estimates were good: Cronbach's alpha for the total scale was 0.94. An estimate of 0.93 for the Recovery-Promoting Strategies factor, and 0.86 for the Core Relationship. Concurrent validity was confirmed using the Working Alliance Scale (rp = .51, p relationships with Hebrew speaking population.

  12. Episiotomy healing assessment: Redness, Oedema, Ecchymosis, Discharge, Approximation (REEDA) scale reliability1 (United States)

    Alvarenga, Marina Barreto; Francisco, Adriana Amorim; de Oliveira, Sonia Maria Junqueira Vasconcellos; da Silva, Flora Maria Barbosa; Shimoda, Gilcéria Tochika; Damiani, Lucas Petri


    OBJECTIVE: to analyse the Redness, Oedema, Ecchymosis, Discharge, Approximation (REEDA) scale reliability when evaluating perineal healing after a normal delivery with a right mediolateral episiotomy. METHOD: observational study based on data from a clinical trial conducted with 54 randomly selected women, who had their perineal healing assessed at four time points, from 6 hours to 10 days after delivery, by nurses trained in the use of this scale. The kappa coefficient was used in the reliability analysis of the REEDA scale. RESULTS: the results indicate good agreement in the evaluation of the discharge item (0.75< Kappa ≥0.88), marginal and good agreement in the first three assessments of oedema (0.16< Kappa ≥0.46), marginal agreement in the evaluation of ecchymosis (0.25< Kappa ≥0.42) and good agreement regarding redness (0.46< Kappa ≥0.66). For the item coaptation, the agreement decreased from excellent in the first assessment to good in the last assessment. In the fourth evaluation, the assessment of all items displayed excellent or good agreement among the evaluators. CONCLUSION: the difference in the scores among the evaluators when applying the scale indicates that this tool must be improved to allow an accurate assessment of the episiotomy healing process. PMID:25806645

  13. Episiotomy healing assessment: Redness, Oedema, Ecchymosis, Discharge, Approximation (REEDA scale reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Barreto Alvarenga


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to analyse the Redness, Oedema, Ecchymosis, Discharge, Approximation (REEDA scale reliability when evaluating perineal healing after a normal delivery with a right mediolateral episiotomy.METHOD: observational study based on data from a clinical trial conducted with 54 randomly selected women, who had their perineal healing assessed at four time points, from 6 hours to 10 days after delivery, by nurses trained in the use of this scale. The kappa coefficient was used in the reliability analysis of the REEDA scale.RESULTS: the results indicate good agreement in the evaluation of the discharge item (0.75< Kappa ≥0.88, marginal and good agreement in the first three assessments of oedema (0.16< Kappa ≥0.46, marginal agreement in the evaluation of ecchymosis (0.25< Kappa ≥0.42 and good agreement regarding redness (0.46< Kappa ≥0.66. For the item coaptation, the agreement decreased from excellent in the first assessment to good in the last assessment. In the fourth evaluation, the assessment of all items displayed excellent or good agreement among the evaluators.CONCLUSION: the difference in the scores among the evaluators when applying the scale indicates that this tool must be improved to allow an accurate assessment of the episiotomy healing process.

  14. [Three new observational scales for use in Dutch nursing homes: scales from the Resident Assessment Instrument for Activities of Daily Living, cognition and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, D.; Ooms, M; Steverink, N.; Frijters, D.; Bezemer, D.; Ribbe, M


    The reliability and validity of three MDS scales for ADL, cognition and depression are described. The scales consist of items of the Minimum Data Set of the Resident Assessment Instrument and are available just after an MDS assessment. Data collection took place in nine Dutch nursing homes (N = 227)

  15. Visual analogue scale: evaluation of the instrument for the assessment of pruritus. (United States)

    Reich, Adam; Heisig, Monika; Phan, Ngoc Quan; Taneda, Kenichi; Takamori, Kenji; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Furue, Masutaka; Blome, Christine; Augustin, Matthias; Ständer, Sonja; Szepietowski, Jacek C


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the visual analogue scale (VAS) as a method of pruritus assessment. A total of 310 subjects with pruritic dermatoses (148 Caucasian subjects and 162 Asian subjects) were recruited. The patients assessed pruritus intensity using the horizontal and vertical VAS, numeric rating scale (NRS) and verbal rating scale (VRS). All scales showed very good reproducibility (intraclass coefficient (ICC) > 0.8). No significant differences were found between the horizontal and vertical VAS (5.3 ± 2.9 vs. 5.3 ± 3.0 points, p = 0.34). Using NRS, patients rated their pruritus significantly higher than with VAS (5.7 ± 2.6 points, p 0-< 4 points = mild pruritus, ≥ 4-< 7 points = moderate pruritus, ≥ 7-< 9 points = severe pruritus, and ≥ 9 points = very severe pruritus. In conclusion, the VAS is a valuable method of pruritus measurement.

  16. Brief Sensation Seeking Scale for Chinese - Cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Assessment. (United States)

    Chen, Xinguang; Li, Fang; Nydegger, Liesl; Gong, Jie; Ren, Yuanjing; Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Sun, Huiling; Stanton, Bonita


    International behavioral research requires instruments that are not culturally-biased to assess sensation seeking. In this study we described a culturally adapted version of the Brief Sensation Seeking Scale for Chinese (BSSS-C) and its psychometric characteristics. The adapted scale was assessed using an adult sample (n=238) with diverse educational and residential backgrounds. The BSSS-C (Cronbach alpha=0.90) was correlated with the original Brief Sensation Seeking Scale (r = 0.85, p<0.01) and fitted the four-factor model well (CFI=0.98, SRMR=0.03). The scale scores significantly predicted intention to and actual engagement in a number of health risk behaviors, including alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and sexual risk behaviors. In conclusion, the BSSS-C has adequate reliability and validity, supporting its utility in China and potential in other developing countries.

  17. The Self-Assessment Scale of Cognitive Complaints in Schizophrenia: A validation study in Tunisian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabah Yasmine


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a huge well-documented literature on cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, little is known about the own perception of patients regarding their cognitive functioning. The purpose of our study was to create a scale to collect subjective cognitive complaints of patients suffering from schizophrenia with Tunisian Arabic dialect as mother tongue and to proceed to a validation study of this scale. Methods The authors constructed the Self-Assessment Scale of Cognitive Complaints in Schizophrenia (SASCCS based on a questionnaire covering five cognitive domains which are the most frequently reported in the literature to be impaired in schizophrenia. The scale consisted of 21 likert-type questions dealing with memory, attention, executive functions, language and praxia. In a second time, the authors proceeded to the study of psychometric qualities of the scale among 105 patients suffering from schizophrenia spectrum disorders (based on DSM- IV criteria. Patients were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, the Global Assessment Functioning Scale (GAF scale and the Calgary Depression Scale (CDS. Results The scale's reliability was proven to be good through Cronbach alpha coefficient equal to 0.85 and showing its good internal consistency. The intra-class correlation coefficient at 11 weeks was equal to 0.77 suggesting a good stability over time. Principal component analysis with Oblimin rotation was performed and yielded to six factors accounting for 58.28% of the total variance of the scale. Conclusion Given the good psychometric properties that have been revealed in this study, the SASCCS seems to be reliable to measure schizophrenic patients' perception of their own cognitive impairment. This kind of evaluation can't substitute for objective measures of cognitive performances in schizophrenia. The purpose of such an evaluation is to permit to the patient to express his own well-being and satisfaction

  18. Assessing Positional Accuracy and Correcting Point Data for Digital Soil Mapping at Varying Scales


    Dorantes, Minerva J.


    Accuracy, timeliness, and the effect of scale of soil maps are rarely assessed. The recent increase in the use of GIS technologies and modelling software in natural resources and land management, has increased the demand for soil information at a finer resolution worldwide. Most of the world's developing countries rely on soils information at a scale that is too coarse for practical planning, and have obstacles impeding collection of new data, such as civil war and a lack of collection resour...

  19. Development and Validation of the Body Size Scale for Assessing Body Weight Perception in African Populations


    Cohen, Emmanuel; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Ponty, Amandine; Ndao, Amadou; Amougou, Norbert; Saïd-Mohamed, Rihlat; Pasquet, Patrick


    Background The social valorisation of overweight in African populations could promote high-risk eating behaviours and therefore become a risk factor of obesity. However, existing scales to assess body image are usually not accurate enough to allow comparative studies of body weight perception in different African populations. This study aimed to develop and validate the Body Size Scale (BSS) to estimate African body weight perception. Methods Anthropometric measures of 80 Cameroonians and 81 ...

  20. A systematic review of symptom assessment scales in children with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dupuis L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to describe symptom assessment scales that have been used in children with cancer. Methods We conducted electronic searches of OVID Medline and EMBASE in order to identify all symptom assessment scales that have been used in pediatric cancer. Two reviewers abstracted information from each identified study. Data collected included study demographics and information related to the instrument and children enrolled. We also collected information about the purpose of instrument administration and whether treatment was altered as a result of this information. Results Fourteen studies were identified which evaluated eight different symptom assessment scales. Eight studies used child self-report and all studies included children on active treatment for cancer although 4 studies also included children following completion of treatment. The most common purpose of instrument administration was to measure the prevalence of symptom burden (n = 8. None of the 14 studies used the scale to screen for symptoms and none changed patient management on the basis of identified symptoms. Conclusions We failed to identify any symptom assessment scales that were used as a symptom screening tool. There is a need to develop such a tool for use in children with cancer.

  1. A modified visual analogue scale for the assessment of chronic pain. (United States)

    Dones, I; Messina, G; Nazzi, V; Franzini, A


    The present common evaluation of pain is scored through the use of visual analogue scale (VAS) to assess the intensity of pain and, sometimes, an additional table in which the frequency of pain attacks during the day is reported. We propose a modified 2D-VAS to assess both the intensity and the frequency (expressed by the percentage of the time in which pain is experienced during the day). Thus with only one scale and graphic representation, we can have a clear picture of the patient's condition before and during any treatment to relieve his pain.

  2. Extending the validity of the Memorial Anxiety Scale for Prostate Cancer (MAX-PC) at the time of prostate biopsy in a racially-mixed population. (United States)

    Dale, William; Hemmerich, Joshua; Meltzer, David


    The Memorial Anxiety Scale for Prostate Cancer (MAX-PC) has been validated for assessing men with prostate cancer for cancer-specific anxiety. It was originally validated in a predominantly white population. The MAX-PC Prostate Cancer Anxiety Subscale (MAX-PC-PCAS) may be relevant for measuring cancer-specific anxiety in undiagnosed men at risk for prostate cancer. We assess the validity of the MAX-PC-PCAS at the time of prostate biopsy (n = 178). Questions assessed socio-demographic information, health status, patient-estimated risk of cancer, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale--Anxiety Subscale (HADS-A), and the MAX-PC-PCAS. The patients' most recent PSA was recorded. Cronbach's alpha, inter-item correlations, and Pearson correlations with both the HADS-A and clinical variables were compared with the original validation sample. Our sample was younger (63.1 vs 71.1 years), had a larger fraction of African-Americans (43 vs 10%), and had higher PSAs. Cronbach's alpha was equivalent (0.91 vs 0.90), median inter-item correlation was equivalent (0.63 vs 0.61), and Pearson correlation with HADS-A was higher (0.71 vs 0.57). Anxiety levels were not correlated with PSA levels, and there were minor differences in the validation findings by race. The validity of the MAX-PC-PCAS extends to men without cancer undergoing biopsy and to African-Americans.

  3. Development of scales to assess patients' perception of physicians' cultural competence in health care interactions. (United States)

    Ahmed, Rukhsana; Bates, Benjamin R


    This study describes the development of scales to measure patients' perception of physicians' cultural competence in health care interactions and thus contributes to promoting awareness of physician-patient intercultural interaction processes. Surveys were administrated to a total of 682 participants. Exploratory factor analyses were employed to assess emergent scales and subscales to develop reliable instruments. The first two phases were devoted to formative research and pilot study. The third phase was devoted to scale development, which resulted in a five-factor solution to measure patient perception of physicians' cultural competence for patient satisfaction.

  4. The assessment of protective behavioral strategies: comparing the absolute frequency and contingent frequency response scales. (United States)

    Kite, Benjamin A; Pearson, Matthew R; Henson, James M


    The purpose of the present studies was to examine the effects of response scale on the observed relationships between protective behavioral strategies (PBS) measures and alcohol-related outcomes. We reasoned that an "absolute frequency" scale (stem: "how many times …"; response scale: 0 times to 11+ times) conflates the frequency of using PBS with the frequency of consuming alcohol; thus, we hypothesized that the use of an absolute frequency response scale would result in positive relationships between types of PBS and alcohol-related outcomes. Alternatively, a "contingent frequency" scale (stem: "When drinking … how often …"; response scale: never to always) does not conflate frequency of alcohol use with use of PBS; therefore, we hypothesized that use of a contingent frequency scale would result in negative relationships between use of PBS and alcohol-related outcomes. Two published measures of PBS were used across studies: the Protective Behavioral Strategies Survey (PBSS) and the Strategy Questionnaire (SQ). Across three studies, we demonstrate that when measured using a contingent frequency response scale, PBS measures relate negatively to alcohol-related outcomes in a theoretically consistent manner; however, when PBS measures were measured on an absolute frequency response scale, they were nonsignificantly or positively related to alcohol-related outcomes. We discuss the implications of these findings for the assessment of PBS.

  5. Using a Mixed IRT Model to Assess the Scale Usage in the Measurement of Job Satisfaction. (United States)

    Kutscher, Tanja; Crayen, Claudia; Eid, Michael


    This study investigated the adequacy of a rating scale with a large number of response categories that is often used in panel surveys for assessing diverse aspects of job satisfaction. An inappropriate scale usage is indicative of overstraining respondents and of diminished psychometric scale quality. The mixed Item Response Theory (IRT) approach for polytomous data allows exploring heterogeneous patterns of inappropriate scale usage in form of avoided categories and response styles. In this study, panel data of employees (n = 7036) on five aspects of job satisfaction measured on an 11-point rating scale within the "Household, Income and Labor Dynamics in Australia" (wave 2001) were analyzed. A three-class solution of the restricted mixed generalized partial credit model fit the data best. The results showed that in no class the 11-point scale was appropriately used but that the number of categories used was reduced in all three classes. Respondents of the large class (40%) appropriately differentiate between up to six categories. The two smaller classes (33 and 27%) avoid even more categories and show some kind of extreme response style. Furthermore, classes differ in socio-demographic and job-related factors. In conclusion, a two- to six-point scale without the middle point might be more adequate for assessing job satisfaction.

  6. Nurses assessing pain with the Nociception Coma Scale: interrater reliability and validity. (United States)

    Vink, Peter; Eskes, Anne Maria; Lindeboom, Robert; van den Munckhof, Pepijn; Vermeulen, Hester


    The Nociception Coma Scale (NCS) is a pain observation tool, developed for patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) due to acquired brain injury (ABI). The aim of this study was to assess the interrater reliability of the NCS and NCS-R among nurses for the assessment of pain in ABI patients with DOC. A secondary aim was further validation of both scales by assessing its discriminating abilities for the presence or absence of pain. Hospitalized patients with ABI (n = 10) were recorded on film during three conditions: baseline, after tactile stimulation, and after noxious stimulation. All stimulations were part of daily treatment for these patients. The 30 recordings were assessed with the NCS and NCS-R by 27 nurses from three university hospitals in the Netherlands. Each nurse viewed 9 to 12 recordings, totaling 270 assessments. Interrater reliability of the NCS/NCS-R items and total scores were estimated by intraclass correlations (ICC), which showed excellent and equal average measures reliability for the NCS and NCR-R total scores (ICC 0.95), and item scores (range 0.87-0.95). Secondary analysis was performed to assess differences in ICCs among nurses' education and experience and to assess the scales discriminating properties for the presence of pain. The NCS and NCS-R are valid and reproducible scales that can be used by nurses with an associate (of science) in nursing degree or baccalaureate (of science) in nursing degree. It seems that more experience with ABI patients is not a predictor for good agreement in the assessment of the NCS(-R).

  7. Assessing Social Support, Companionship, and Distress: NIH Toolbox Adult Social Relationship Scales (United States)

    Cyranowski, Jill M.; Zill, Nicholas; Bode, Rita; Butt, Zeeshan; Kelly, Morgen A. R.; Pilkonis, Paul A.; Salsman, John M.; Cella, David


    Objective The quality of our daily social interactions – including perceptions of support, feelings of loneliness, and distress stemming from negative social exchanges – influence physical health and well-being. Despite the importance of social relationships, brief yet precise, unidimensional scales that assess key aspects of social relationship quality are lacking. As part of the NIH Toolbox for the Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function, we developed brief self-report scales designed to assess aspects of social support, companionship, and social distress across age cohorts. This report details the development and psychometric testing of the adult NIH Toolbox Social Relationship scales. Methods Social relationship concepts were selected, and item sets were developed and revised based on expert feedback and literature review. Items were then tested across a community-dwelling U.S. internet panel sample of adults aged 18 and above (N=692) using traditional (classic) psychometric methods and item response theory (IRT) approaches to identify items for inclusion in 5–8 item unidimensional scales. Finally, concurrent validity of the newly-developed scales was evaluated with respect to their inter-relationships with classic social relationship validation instruments. Results Results provide support for the internal reliability and concurrent validity of resulting self-report scales assessing Emotional Support, Instrumental Support, Friendship, Loneliness, Perceived Rejection, and Perceived Hostility. Conclusion These brief social relationship scales provide the pragmatic utility and enhanced precision needed to promote future epidemiological and social neuroscience research on the impact of social relationships on physical and emotional health outcomes. PMID:23437856

  8. Capturing subregional variability in regional-scale climate change vulnerability assessments of natural resources. (United States)

    Buotte, Polly C; Peterson, David L; McKelvey, Kevin S; Hicke, Jeffrey A


    Natural resource vulnerability to climate change can depend on the climatology and ecological conditions at a particular site. Here we present a conceptual framework for incorporating spatial variability in natural resource vulnerability to climate change in a regional-scale assessment. The framework was implemented in the first regional-scale vulnerability assessment conducted by the US Forest Service. During this assessment, five subregional workshops were held to capture variability in vulnerability and to develop adaptation tactics. At each workshop, participants answered a questionnaire to: 1) identify species, resources, or other information missing from the regional assessment, and 2) describe subregional vulnerability to climate change. Workshop participants divided into six resource groups; here we focus on wildlife resources. Participants identified information missing from the regional assessment and multiple instances of subregional variability in climate change vulnerability. We provide recommendations for improving the process of capturing subregional variability in a regional vulnerability assessment. We propose a revised conceptual framework structured around pathways of climate influence, each with separate rankings for exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. These revisions allow for a quantitative ranking of species, pathways, exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity across subregions. Rankings can be used to direct the development and implementation of future regional research and monitoring programs. The revised conceptual framework is equally applicable as a stand-alone model for assessing climate change vulnerability and as a nested model within a regional assessment for capturing subregional variability in vulnerability.

  9. Values of a Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale to Evaluate the Facial Skin Graft Scar (United States)

    Chae, Jin Kyung; Kim, Eun Jung; Park, Kun


    Background The patient and observer scar assessment scale (POSAS) recently emerged as a promising method, reflecting both observer's and patient's opinions in evaluating scar. This tool was shown to be consistent and reliable in burn scar assessment, but it has not been tested in the setting of skin graft scar in skin cancer patients. Objective To evaluate facial skin graft scar applied to POSAS and to compare with objective scar assessment tools. Methods Twenty three patients, who diagnosed with facial cutaneous malignancy and transplanted skin after Mohs micrographic surgery, were recruited. Observer assessment was performed by three independent rates using the observer component of the POSAS and Vancouver scar scale (VSS). Patient self-assessment was performed using the patient component of the POSAS. To quantify scar color and scar thickness more objectively, spectrophotometer and ultrasonography was applied. Results Inter-observer reliability was substantial with both VSS and the observer component of the POSAS (average measure intraclass coefficient correlation, 0.76 and 0.80, respectively). The observer component consistently showed significant correlations with patients' ratings for the parameters of the POSAS (all p-values<0.05). The correlation between subjective assessment using POSAS and objective assessment using spectrophotometer and ultrasonography showed low relationship. Conclusion In facial skin graft scar assessment in skin cancer patients, the POSAS showed acceptable inter-observer reliability. This tool was more comprehensive and had higher correlation with patient's opinion. PMID:27746642

  10. 跨文化交际下中西公益广告之异与同%The Differences and Similarities of Chinese & Western PSAs from Crosscultural Communication Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨珺; 齐丹媛


    The author aims to appreciate the differences in modern public service ads (PSAs) from the perspective of Hofstede’s cross-cultural organizational value dimensions. It’s found that because of difference cultures, Chinese and western PSAs are different. In the PSAs Chinese focus on the interests collective and group, while the westerners focus on individual rights. Chinese power distance is relative large and people admire seniority and superior, while westerners are not but focus on equality between people. Chinese avoid facing uncertainty, so they express indirectly. But the westerners are not afraid of uncertainty, they express directly. The two sides also have different views on gender. Meanwhile the similarities are analyzed in the PSAs. Based on the ifndings the author concludes that the theme and atmosphere are similar, the similarities and differences co-exist, and the same cognitive aspects can be relfected even though in different expressions. Suggestion is given that these ifndings should be beneifcial to the success of cross-cultural communication.%以Hofstede的文化四维度理论对现代中西方公益广告进行分析为基础,从而发现中西方由于文化差异,在公益广告上也有所差异,主要表现为:公益广告中,中国人注重集体和团体的利益,而西方比较重视个人的权利;中国人权利距离相对大,对有辈分有声望的人比较敬仰,而西方人权利距离相对小,比较重视人与人之间的平等;中国人对不确定的因素比较规避,所以表达比较间接,而西方人不规避不确定因素,表达方式较直接;中国和西方在男女性别观念上也有所差别。另外,对公益广告中相似的内容进行分析研究后,发现双方在主题与氛围方面比较相似,因此跨文化交际下中西方相似与相异的文化可以共存,不同的表达方式下也有共同的认知方面。明白中西文化异同有利于国际跨文化

  11. Validity, reliability and support for implementation of independence-scaled procedural assessment in laparoscopic surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramp, Kelvin H.; van Det, Marc J.; Veeger, Nic J. G. M.; Pierie, Jean-Pierre E. N.


    Background There is no widely used method to evaluate procedure-specific laparoscopic skills. The first aim of this study was to develop a procedure-based assessment method. The second aim was to compare its validity, reliability and feasibility with currently available global rating scales (GRSs).

  12. Converting Data to Knowledge: One District's Experience Using Large-Scale Proficiency Assessment (United States)

    Davin, Kristin J.; Rempert, Tania A.; Hammerand, Amy A.


    The present study reports data from a large-scale foreign language proficiency assessment to explore trends across a large urban school district. These data were used in conjunction with data from teacher and student questionnaires to make recommendations for foreign language programs across the district. This evaluation process resulted in…

  13. The internal consistency and validity of the Self-Assessment Parkinson's Disease Disability Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans, M A; Dekker, J; van der Woude, L H


    OBJECTIVE: To test the consistency and validity of the Self-assessment Parkinson's Disease Disability Scale in patients with Parkinson's disease living at home. DESIGN: Patients with Parkinson's disease responded to a set of questionnaires. In addition, an observation of the performance of daily act

  14. The assessment of disability with the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale. Conceptual framework and psychometric properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, G.I J M; Miedema, I; Ormel, J.; Molenaar, W.


    The conceptual framework, psychometric properties, descriptive statistics, and the rules for administration and scoring of the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale (CARS) for assessing disability in the area of ADL (Activities of Daily Living including mobility) as well as IADL (Instrumental Activit

  15. The Psychometric Properties of the Swedish Version of the EB Process Assessment Scale (United States)

    Nyström, Siv; Åhsberg, Elizabeth


    Objective: This study examines whether the psychometric properties of the short version of the Evidence-Based Practice Process Assessment Scale (EBPPAS) remain satisfactory when translated and transferred to the context of Swedish welfare services. Method: The Swedish version of EBPPAS was tested on a sample of community-based professionals in…

  16. Parent-child parallel nutritional status assessment using silhouette rating scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorga Jagoda B.


    Full Text Available Introduction The aim of this study was to determine the validity of silhouettes in assessing genetic factors of obesity in school children aged 12-14. Material and methods 290 primary school students aged 12-14 from Belgrade had undergone body height and weight measurements as well as answering questionnaires. Silhouette rating scales were used to assess the nutritional status of students (6-silhouette scale and their parents (9-silhouette scale. Results Significant differences in body mass index (BMI were found among children whose parents had been rated "normal" and those rated “problematic”. BMI status and gender significantly affected assessment of the nutritional status. An interaction between factors was found (F (1.230 =7.017, p<0.01. The majority of children from the normal BMI category (64.5% selected silhouettes 3 and 4 to describe their current appearance. On the other hand, 70% of children with problematic BMI selected silhouettes 5 and 6. Girls generally selected significantly smaller silhouettes than boys. Girls within the problematic BMI category selected significantly bigger silhouettes for their mother's than the other children. Boys within the normal BMI category, selected significantly bigger silhouettes representing their father’s body size. Discussion According to the results, silhouette rating scales appear to be reliable in parallel assessment of the nutritional status of children and their parents. This subject can be further developed by acquiring data on parents` height and body mass.

  17. Assessment of a Refined Short Acculturation Scale for Latino Preteens in Rural Colorado. (United States)

    Serrano, Elena; Anderson, Jennifer


    The Short Acculturation Scale for Hispanic Youth (SASH-Y) was used to assess acculturation among 137 fourth- and fifth-grade children in rural southern Colorado, including 11 Mexican, 33 Mexican American, and 93 Euro-American children. The SASH-Y, especially questions related to language use, was found to be robust with a young, rural Latino…

  18. Response shift in severity assessment of hand eczema with visual analogue scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Annette; Johansen, Jeanne D


    BACKGROUND: Hand eczema is a common and fluctuating disease. Visual analogue scales (VASs) are used to assess disease severity, both currently and when at its worst. However, such patient-reported outcomes may be at risk of being flawed owing to recall bias or response shifts. OBJECTIVE: To explore...

  19. Lessons from a Large-Scale Assessment: Results from Conceptual Inventories (United States)

    Thacker, Beth; Dulli, Hani; Pattillo, Dave; West, Keith


    We report conceptual inventory results of a large-scale assessment project at a large university. We studied the introduction of materials and instructional methods informed by physics education research (PER) (physics education research-informed materials) into a department where most instruction has previously been traditional and a significant…

  20. Taxometric Analysis of the Antisocial Features Scale of the Personality Assessment Inventory in Federal Prison Inmates (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Magaletta, Philip R.; Geyer, Matthew D.; Duncan, Scott A.


    The Antisocial Features (ANT) scale of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) was subjected to taxometric analysis in a group of 2,135 federal prison inmates. Scores on the three ANT subscales--Antisocial Behaviors (ANT-A), Egocentricity (ANT-E), and Stimulus Seeking (ANT-S)--served as indicators in this study and were evaluated using the…

  1. Influencing Public School Policy in the United States: The Role of Large-Scale Assessments (United States)

    Schmidt, William H.; Burroughs, Nathan A.


    The authors review the influence of state, national and international large-scale assessments (LSAs) on education policy and research. They distinguish between two main uses of LSAs: as a means for conducting research that informs educational reform and LSAs as a tool for implementing standards and enforcing accountability. The authors discuss the…

  2. On Applications of Rasch Models in International Comparative Large-Scale Assessments: A Historical Review (United States)

    Wendt, Heike; Bos, Wilfried; Goy, Martin


    Several current international comparative large-scale assessments of educational achievement (ICLSA) make use of "Rasch models", to address functions essential for valid cross-cultural comparisons. From a historical perspective, ICLSA and Georg Rasch's "models for measurement" emerged at about the same time, half a century ago. However, the…

  3. The Role of Reading Comprehension in Large-Scale Subject-Matter Assessments (United States)

    Zhang, Ting


    This study was designed with the overall goal of understanding how difficulties in reading comprehension are associated with early adolescents' performance in large-scale assessments in subject domains including science and civic-related social studies. The current study extended previous research by taking a cognition-centered approach based on…

  4. Examiner Errors on the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales Committed by Graduate Student Examiners (United States)

    Loe, Scott A.


    Protocols from 108 administrations of the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales were evaluated to determine the frequency of examiner errors and their impact on the accuracy of three test composite scores, the Composite Ability Index (CIX), Verbal Ability Index (VIX), and Nonverbal Ability Index (NIX). Students committed at least one…

  5. Analysing Item Position Effects due to Test Booklet Design within Large-Scale Assessment (United States)

    Hohensinn, Christine; Kubinger, Klaus D.; Reif, Manuel; Schleicher, Eva; Khorramdel, Lale


    For large-scale assessments, usually booklet designs administering the same item at different positions within a booklet are used. Therefore, the occurrence of position effects influencing the difficulty of the item is a crucial issue. Not taking learning or fatigue effects into account would result in a bias of estimated item difficulty. The…

  6. Small and Medium Scale Agribusiness Assessment. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Reprint No. TR43. (United States)

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    This manual is intended for Peace Corps volunteer use as they assist small- and medium-scale farmers in feasibility assessment and business plan development for agribusiness. Part I discusses the role of the Peace Corps in agribusiness development. It defines agribusiness, outlines the significance of agribusiness in economic development,…

  7. Explore the Usefulness of Person-Fit Analysis on Large-Scale Assessment (United States)

    Cui, Ying; Mousavi, Amin


    The current study applied the person-fit statistic, l[subscript z], to data from a Canadian provincial achievement test to explore the usefulness of conducting person-fit analysis on large-scale assessments. Item parameter estimates were compared before and after the misfitting student responses, as identified by l[subscript z], were removed. The…

  8. Balancing Tensions in Educational Policy Reforms: Large-Scale Implementation of Assessment for Learning in Norway (United States)

    Hopfenbeck, Therese N.; Flórez Petour, María Teresa; Tolo, Astrid


    This study investigates how different stakeholders in Norway experienced a government-initiated, large-scale policy implementation programme on "Assessment for Learning" ("AfL"). Data were collected through 58 interviews with stakeholders in charge of the policy; Ministers of Education and members of the Directorate of…

  9. Assessing Students' Emotional Competence in Higher Education: Development and Validation of the Widener Emotional Learning Scale (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Young, Thomas; Wilhite, Stephen C.; Marczyk, Geoffrey


    This article reports the development and validation studies of the Widener Emotional Learning Scale (WELS), a self-report measure, for assessing students' social and emotional competence in higher education. Conceptual specifications, item development, psychometric properties, and factor structure of the instrument are reported in the article. The…

  10. Development and psychometric properties of the scale for self-consciousness assessment. (United States)

    Mylonas, Kostas; Veligekas, Panayiotis; Gari, Aikaterini; Kontaxopoulou, Dionysia


    This scale development employed Duval and Wicklund's (1972), Carver's (1979), and Zaborowski's (1987) theories on self-consciousness. The aim of the study was to create a new method to assess the self-consciousness construct, in an effort to operationally express self-consciousness, while circumventing existing metric and other impediments. Initially, 38 pilot interviews were conducted with undergraduate psychology students, and two studies followed, one on 494 participants and one on 248 participants. Exploratory factor analysis models, equivalence testing, followed by a third confirmatory factor analysis study on a separate sample of 216 participants, resulted in a final 24-item scale. A four-factor structure of two public and two private self-consciousness dimensions emerged. The Scale for Self-Consciousness Assessment (SSCA) can be of use in various areas of psychological research, possibly in concurrent use with other constructs of interest, due to its theoretical and research importance and its adequate psychometric properties.

  11. Scale-Dependent Assessment of Relative Disease Resistance to Plant Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Skelsey


    Full Text Available Phenotyping trials may not take into account sufficient spatial context to infer quantitative disease resistance of recommended varieties in commercial production settings. Recent ecological theory—the dispersal scaling hypothesis—provides evidence that host heterogeneity and scale of host heterogeneity interact in a predictable and straightforward manner to produce a unimodal (“humpbacked” distribution of epidemic outcomes. This suggests that the intrinsic artificiality (scale and design of experimental set-ups may lead to spurious conclusions regarding the resistance of selected elite cultivars, due to the failure of experimental efforts to accurately represent disease pressure in real agricultural situations. In this model-based study we investigate the interaction of host heterogeneity and scale as a confounding factor in the inference from ex-situ assessment of quantitative disease resistance to commercial production settings. We use standard modelling approaches in plant disease epidemiology and a number of different agronomic scenarios. Model results revealed that the interaction of heterogeneity and scale is a determinant of relative varietal performance under epidemic conditions. This is a previously unreported phenomenon that could provide a new basis for informing the design of future phenotyping platforms, and optimising the scale at which quantitative disease resistance is assessed.

  12. An Integrated Assessment of Location-Dependent Scaling for Microalgae Biofuel Production Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Andre M.; Abodeely, Jared; Skaggs, Richard; Moeglein, William AM; Newby, Deborah T.; Venteris, Erik R.; Wigmosta, Mark S.


    Successful development of a large-scale microalgae-based biofuels industry requires comprehensive analysis and understanding of the feedstock supply chain—from facility siting/design through processing/upgrading of the feedstock to a fuel product. The evolution from pilot-scale production facilities to energy-scale operations presents many multi-disciplinary challenges, including a sustainable supply of water and nutrients, operational and infrastructure logistics, and economic competitiveness with petroleum-based fuels. These challenges are addressed in part by applying the Integrated Assessment Framework (IAF)—an integrated multi-scale modeling, analysis, and data management suite—to address key issues in developing and operating an open-pond facility by analyzing how variability and uncertainty in space and time affect algal feedstock production rates, and determining the site-specific “optimum” facility scale to minimize capital and operational expenses. This approach explicitly and systematically assesses the interdependence of biofuel production potential, associated resource requirements, and production system design trade-offs. The IAF was applied to a set of sites previously identified as having the potential to cumulatively produce 5 billion-gallons/year in the southeastern U.S. and results indicate costs can be reduced by selecting the most effective processing technology pathway and scaling downstream processing capabilities to fit site-specific growing conditions, available resources, and algal strains.

  13. Application of a microplate scale fluorochrome staining assay for the assessment of viability of probiotic preparations. (United States)

    Alakomi, H-L; Mättö, J; Virkajärvi, I; Saarela, M


    Cell viability in probiotic preparations is traditionally assessed by the plate count technique. Additionally, fluorescent staining combined with epifluorescence microscopy or flow cytometry has been developed for the viability assessment, but the currently available assays are either laborious or require highly sophisticated equipment. The aim of this study was to investigate the applicability of a microplate scale fluorochrome assay for predicting the cell state of freeze-dried Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis preparations. In addition to viability assessment with LIVE/DEAD BacLight Bacterial Viability Kit, DiBAC(4)3 stain was used for the kinetic measurement of changes in bifidobacterial cell membrane functions during exposure to low pH. The microplate scale fluorochrome assay results on the viability and cell numbers of probiotic preparations correlated well with the results obtained with the culture-based technique and (with few exceptions) with epifluorescence microscopy. The assay was applicable also for the viability assessment of stressed (acid-treated) cells provided that the cell density in treatments was adjusted to the optimal measurement level of the fluorometer. The microplate scale fluorochrome assay offers a rapid and robust tool for the viability assessment of probiotic preparations, and enables also kinetic measurements.

  14. Design and Psychometric Properties of Male Adolescent Health Needs-Assessment Scale (United States)

    Zare, Elham; Simbar, Masoumeh; Shahhosseini, Zohreh; Alavi Majd, Hamid


    ABSTRACT Background: Given the importance of adolescents’ health in establishing health in the newly thriving generation of every society, the first step for adolescents’ health promotion is health needs assessment. The present study was, therefore, conducted to design a valid and reliable scale for health needs assessment of male adolescents. Methods: This is an exploratory sequential mixed method study (2014-2015). The qualitative part was performed using content analysis approach and aimed to generate items pool. Data collection was performed by 7 focus group discussions with 51 male adolescents, and 10 semi-structured in-depth interviews with 10 other adolescents. Nine further in-depth interviews were also performed with 9 key informants. Purposive sampling was used and continued until data saturation. In the quantitative part, the designed scale was psychometrically assessed through the examination of the face and content validities using qualitative and quantitative methods and also the construct validity using the exploratory factor analysis along with the tool’s internal consistency and stability. Results: The content analysis of the data from the qualitative part led to the extraction of 4 main themes and 103 items, which moved to the quantitative stage. The mean content validity index of the scale was estimated 0.91 and content validity ratio was 0.89. The exploratory factor analysis showed 4 factors for the designed scale (49 items), including physical, psychological, social and sexual health needs. The internal consistency and the stability assessment of the scale showed 0.79 and 0.89, respectively. (Phealth needs assessment of male adolescents. PMID:27713893

  15. The Obsessive Compulsive Cocaine Scale: assessment of factor structure, reliability, and validity. (United States)

    Jardin, Bianca F; Larowe, Steven D; Hall, Brian J; Malcolm, Robert J


    The present study assessed the factor structure, reliability, test retest, convergent validity, and predictive validity of the Obsessive Compulsive Cocaine Scale (OCCS), a newly developed questionnaire adapted from the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS). The questionnaire was administered to 189 cocaine-dependent individuals participating in two medication treatment trials for cocaine dependence. Confirmatory factor analysis of this measure revealed that it primarily assesses two factors, obsessions and compulsions. In addition, the data provided strong support for the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, predictive validity, and convergent validity of this two-factor measure. Overall, the data provide support for the psychometric strength of a modified version of the OCDS specifically designed to assess obsessive and compulsive cocaine use among those with cocaine dependence.

  16. Sources of errors and uncertainties in the assessment of forest soil carbon stocks at different scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanguelova, E. I.; Bonifacio, E.; De Vos, B.;


    for assessing SOC stocks with the highest possible accuracy at each scale. This review identifies where potential sources of errors and uncertainties related to forest SOC stock estimation occur at five different scales---sample, profile, plot, landscape/regional and European. Recommendations are also provided...... temporal changes and spatial differences in SOC. This requires sufficiently detailed data to predict SOC stocks at appropriate scales within the required accuracy so that only significant changes are accounted for. When designing sampling campaigns, taking into account factors influencing SOC spatial...... and temporal distribution (such as soil type, topography, climate and vegetation) are needed to optimise sampling depths and numbers of samples, thereby ensuring that samples accurately reflect the distribution of SOC at a site. Furthermore, the appropriate scales related to the research question need...

  17. Hypothesis testing on the fractal structure of behavioral sequences: the Bayesian assessment of scaling methodology. (United States)

    Moscoso del Prado Martín, Fermín


    I introduce the Bayesian assessment of scaling (BAS), a simple but powerful Bayesian hypothesis contrast methodology that can be used to test hypotheses on the scaling regime exhibited by a sequence of behavioral data. Rather than comparing parametric models, as typically done in previous approaches, the BAS offers a direct, nonparametric way to test whether a time series exhibits fractal scaling. The BAS provides a simpler and faster test than do previous methods, and the code for making the required computations is provided. The method also enables testing of finely specified hypotheses on the scaling indices, something that was not possible with the previously available methods. I then present 4 simulation studies showing that the BAS methodology outperforms the other methods used in the psychological literature. I conclude with a discussion of methodological issues on fractal analyses in experimental psychology.

  18. Assessing attitude toward same-sex marriage: scale development and validation. (United States)

    Lannutti, Pamela J; Lachlan, Kenneth A


    This paper reports the results of three studies conducted to develop, refine, and validate a scale which assessed heterosexual adults' attitudes toward same-sex marriage, the Attitude Toward Same-Sex Marriage Scale (ASSMS). The need for such a scale is evidenced in the increasing importance of same-sex marriage in the political arena of the United States and other nations, as well as the growing body of empirical research examining same-sex marriage and related issues (e.g., Lannutti, 2005; Solomon, Rothblum, & Balsam, 2004). The results demonstrate strong reliability, convergent validity, and predictive validity for the ASSMS and suggest that the ASSMS may be adapted to measure attitudes toward civil unions and other forms of relational recognition for same-sex couples. Gender comparisons using the validated scale showed that in college and non-college samples, women had a significantly more positive attitude toward same-sex marriage than did men.

  19. Monitoring acute equine visceral pain with the Equine Utrecht University Scale for Composite Pain Assessment (EQUUS-COMPASS) and the Equine Utrecht University Scale for Facial Assessment of Pain (EQUUS-FAP): A scale-construction study. (United States)

    van Loon, Johannes P A M; Van Dierendonck, Machteld C


    Although recognition of equine pain has been studied extensively over the past decades there is still need for improvement in objective identification of pain in horses with acute colic. This study describes scale construction and clinical applicability of the Equine Utrecht University Scale for Composite Pain Assessment (EQUUS-COMPASS) and the Equine Utrecht University Scale for Facial Assessment of Pain (EQUUS-FAP) in horses with acute colic. A cohort follow-up study was performed using 50 adult horses (n = 25 with acute colic, n = 25 controls). Composite pain scores were assessed by direct observations, Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores were assessed from video clips. Colic patients were assessed at arrival, and on the first and second mornings after arrival. Both the EQUUS-COMPASS and EQUUS-FAP scores showed high inter-observer reliability (ICC = 0.98 for EQUUS-COMPASS, ICC = 0.93 for EQUUS-FAP, P scores was found (ICC = 0.63, P <0.001). The cut-off value for differentiation between healthy and colic horses for the EQUUS-COMPASS was 5, and for differentiation between conservatively treated and surgically treated or euthanased patients it was 11. For the EQUUS-FAP, cut-off values were 4 and 6, respectively. Internal sensitivity and specificity were good for both EQUUS-COMPASS (sensitivity 95.8%, specificity 84.0%) and EQUUS-FAP (sensitivity 87.5%, specificity 88.0%). The use of the EQUUS-COMPASS and EQUUS-FAP enabled repeated and objective scoring of pain in horses with acute colic. A follow-up study with new patients and control animals will be performed to further validate the constructed scales that are described in this study.

  20. A comparison of two scales for assessing health professional students’ attitude toward interprofessional learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Désirée Annabel Lie


    Full Text Available Rationale : The validated 19-item Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS is often used for assessing attitudes toward interprofessional education (IPE. The 12-item Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale (IEPS, also used for this purpose, has not been validated among the professions of medicine, pharmacy, and physician assistants (PAs. The discriminatory ability of the two scales has not been directly compared. Comparison of the two will aid educators in selecting the optimal scale. Objective : To compare psychometric properties of the RIPLS and IEPS and to examine the ability of each scale to discriminate mean scores among student subgroups (gender, profession, seniority, and prior IPE exposure. Method : We conducted a cross-sectional (Qualtrics© survey (RIPLS and IEPS of junior and senior students in medicine (n=360, pharmacy (n=360, and the PA profession (n=106. Descriptive statistics were used to report aggregate mean scores of subgroups. The internal consistency of each scale was assessed using Cronbach's α. Concurrent validity was measured by Pearson's correlation coefficients. Independent-sample t-tests and analysis of variances (ANOVAs were performed to assess the discriminatory ability of each scale. Cohen's d effect sizes were calculated for all significant pair-wise comparisons. Results : Response rate was 82%. Cronbach's α was 0.85 (RIPLS and 0.91 (IEPS. The RIPLS discriminated scores by gender among junior students only, and scores by IPE exposure among all students. The IEPS distinguished score differences for the three professions among junior students and by prior IPE exposure for all three professions. Neither scale detected differences in mean scores by profession among all students or by level of training among the three professions. Conclusions : Neither the RIPLS nor the IEPS has greater discriminatory ability for detecting attitude differences among the student subgroups. Reason for differences may be

  1. The influence of different rating scales on impression management in high stakes assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lale Khorramdel


    Full Text Available The impact of different rating scales on intentional response distortion in personality questionnaires in high stakes assessment was investigated by administering the Personality Research Form (PRF; Stumpf, Angleitner, Wieck, Jackson, & Beloch-Till, 1984 to 268 applicants in real selection situations. The applicants responded with either a 6-point rating scale (n = 184 or a 2-point rating scale (n = 84. It was hypothesised that a 6-point rating scale leads to less intentional response distortion than a 2-point rating scale, as it might be more difficult to adjust responses to a faking good schema. Both applicant groups were additionally compared to a volunteer sample (n = 184 randomly selected from the PRF norm sample. Results provide evidence of faking tendencies in the applicant samples and show an advantage of the 6-point rating scale (less faking tendencies. Moreover, it is assumed that the type of response format might interact with item content and wording. Nevertheless, even the applicant group with the 6-point rating scale seems to have faked responses compared to a volunteer sample.

  2. Internal consistency & validity of Indian Disability Evaluation and Assessment Scale (IDEAS in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Grover


    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The Indian Disability Evaluation and Assessment Scale (IDEAS has been recommended for assessment and certification of disability by the Government of India (GOI. However, the psychometric properties of IDEAS as adopted by GOI remain understudied. Our aim, thus, was to study the internal consistency and validity of IDEAS in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: A total of 103 consenting patients with residual schizophrenia were assessed for disability, quality of life (QOL and psychopathology using the IDEAS, WHO QOL-100 and Positive and Negative symptom scale (PANSS respectively. Internal consistency was calculated using Cronbach′s alpha. For construct validity, relations between IDEAS, and psychopathology and QOL were studied. Results: The inter-item correlations for IDEAS were significant with a Cronbach′s alpha of 0.721. All item scores other than score on communication and understanding; total and global IDEAS scores correlated significantly with the positive, negative and general sub-scales, and total PANSS scores. Communication and understanding was significantly related to negative sub-scale score only. Total and global disability scores correlated negatively with all the domains of WHOQOL-100 (ρ<0.01. The individual IDEAS item scores correlated negatively with various WHOQOL-100 domains (ρ0< 0.01. Interpretation & conclusions: This study findings showed that the GOI-modified IDEAS had good internal consistency and construct validity as tested in patients with residual schizophrenia. Similar studies need to be done with other groups of patients.

  3. The Cultural Socialization Scale: Assessing family and peer socialization toward heritage and mainstream cultures. (United States)

    Wang, Yijie; Benner, Aprile D; Kim, Su Yeong


    In a culturally diverse society, youth learn about multiple cultures from a variety of sources, yet the existing assessment of cultural socialization has been limited to parents' efforts to teach youth about their heritage culture. The current study adapted and extended an existing cultural socialization measure (Umaña-Taylor & Fine, 2004) to assess 4 types of socialization practices encountered specifically during adolescence: cultural socialization by families and peers toward both one's heritage culture and the mainstream culture. In a pilot study, we developed the Cultural Socialization Scale based on retrospective reports from 208 young adults, maximizing young adults' ability to reason and reflect their adolescent experiences with various socialization practices. In the primary study, we examined the psychometric properties of the scale using reports from 252 adolescents. Cultural socialization occurred from both socialization agents toward both cultures. Our Cultural Socialization Scale demonstrated stable factor structures and high reliabilities. We observed strong factorial invariance across the 4 subscales (6 items). Multiple indicators multiple causes models also demonstrated invariance for each subscale across adolescents' demographic characteristics (i.e., gender, race/ethnicity, nativity, socioeconomic status, language of assessment). The implications of the Cultural Socialization Scale are discussed.

  4. A quick and easy-to-use clinical scale to assess balance in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieberman A


    Full Text Available Abraham Lieberman,1 Sara Dhanani,1 Rohit Dhall,1 Di Pan21Muhammad Ali Parkinson Center (MAPC of Barrow Neurological Institute, St Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ, USA; 2Center for Health Information and Research, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USABackground: Balance difficulty is a major contributor to falls in Parkinson's disease (PD. However, the new Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS motor examination contains only one subtest – postural instability – and it is only 3% of the total that assesses balance. There are several balance scales, but they were not developed for PD and they do not complement the MDS-UPDRS. There is a need for a quick and easy-to-use balance scale in PD and one that complements the MDS-UPDRS.Methods: The Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI balance scale was developed as a complement to the MDS-UPDRS and was used to evaluate the risk of falling in 53 PD patients. There were nine patients who fell three times per month ("fallers". The BNI scale was compared with the widely used Tinetti scale. The Tinetti scale has 16 subtests; the BNI scale has five.Results: The nine fallers had a significantly longer PD duration, a higher MDS-UPDRS score, a higher (worse BNI balance score, and a lower (worse Tinetti score compared to 44 nonfallers. Fallers were significantly more impaired on the MDS-UPDRS subtest of postural stability and on the BNI scale. A BNI scale score ≥ 13 had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 88.6% in identifying fallers, whereas a Tinetti scale score ≤ 18 had a sensitivity of 55.6% and a specificity of 95.5% in identifying fallers. The BNI scale with five subtests is easier to perform than the Tinetti with 16 subtests.Conclusion: The BNI balance scale is more sensitive and specific in predicting falls than the Tinetti. It is a useful adjunct to the MDS-UPDRS.Keywords: balance, falls, Parkinson’s disease, Tinetti scale

  5. Short scales to assess cannabis-related problems: a review of psychometric properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klempova Danica


    Full Text Available Abstract Aims The purpose of this paper is to summarize the psychometric properties of four short screening scales to assess problematic forms of cannabis use: Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS, Cannabis Use Disorders Identification Test (CUDIT, Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST and Problematic Use of Marijuana (PUM. Methods A systematic computer-based literature search was conducted within the databases of PubMed, PsychINFO and Addiction Abstracts. A total of 12 publications reporting measures of reliability or validity were identified: 8 concerning SDS, 2 concerning CUDIT and one concerning CAST and PUM. Studies spanned adult and adolescent samples from general and specific user populations in a number of countries worldwide. Results All screening scales tended to have moderate to high internal consistency (Cronbach's α ranging from .72 to .92. Test-retest reliability and item total correlation have been reported for SDS with acceptable results. Results of validation studies varied depending on study population and standards used for validity assessment, but generally sensitivity, specificity and predictive power are satisfactory. Standard diagnostic cut-off points that can be generalized to different populations do not exist for any scale. Conclusion Short screening scales to assess dependence and other problems related to the use of cannabis seem to be a time and cost saving opportunity to estimate overall prevalences of cannabis-related negative consequences and to identify at-risk persons prior to using more extensive diagnostic instruments. Nevertheless, further research is needed to assess the performance of the tests in different populations and in comparison to broader criteria of cannabis-related problems other than dependence.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Systematic assessment of pain is difficult in intensive care units, because most of the patients are non-communicative and are unable to self-report pain. The Behavioral Pain Scale (BPS is one of the assessment tools for uncommunicative and sedated intensive care unit patients. This study is to assess and evaluate the efficacy and reliability of BPS scale in mechanically ventilated patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS Prospective observational study in 71 mechanically ventilated medical ICU patients who were unable to report pain was assessed with BPS. RESULTS Post procedure there was a significant difference in the percentage of patients with an increased BPS score for repositioning, but not for oral care. CONCLUSIONS This study showed that the BPS is reliable and valid for use in sedated ICU patients. We conclude that pain scales should be incorporated into pain management as protocols to target the desired levels of analgesia in order to optimize inter-professional practices and to achieve better patient outcomes

  7. Integrated Basin Scale Hydropower and Environmental Opportunity Assessment in the Deschutes River Basin, Oregon (United States)

    Voisin, N.; Geerlofs, S. H.; Vail, L. W.; Ham, K. D.; Tagestad, J. D.; Hanrahan, T. P.; Seiple, T. E.; Coleman, A. M.; Stewart, K.


    The Deschutes River Basin in Oregon, USA, is home to a number of diverse groups of stakeholders that rely upon the complex snowmelt and groundwater-dominated river system to support their needs, livelihoods, and interests. Basin system operations that vary across various temporal and spatial scales often must balance an array of competing demands including maintaining adequate municipal water supply, recreation, hydropower generation, regulations related to environmental flows, mitigation programs for salmon returns, and in-stream and storage rights for irrigation water supplied by surface water diversions and groundwater pumping. The U.S. Department of Energy's Integrated Basin-scale Opportunity Assessment initiative is taking a system-wide approach to identifying opportunities and actions to increase hydropower and enhance environmental conditions while sustaining reliable supply for other uses. Opportunity scenarios are analyzed in collaboration with stakeholders, through nested integrated modeling and visualization software to assess tradeoffs and system-scale effects. Opportunity assessments are not intended to produce decisional documents or substitute for basin planning processes; assessments are instead intended to provide tools, information, and a forum for catalyzing conversation about scenarios where both environmental and hydropower gains can be realized within a given basin. We present the results of the nested integrated modeling approach and the modeling scenarios in order to identify and explore opportunities for the system.

  8. The cognitive subscale of the "Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale" in a Brazilian sample


    Schultz R.R.; Siviero M.O.; Bertolucci P.H.F.


    The cognitive subscale of the "Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale" (ADAS-Cog) is widely used for the evaluation of dementia and is very popular in dementia drug trials because of the characteristics of the scale. The objective of the present study was to adapt the ADAS-Cog for use for the Brazilian population. A major problem is that education is variable, a fact that may influence performance in cognitive evaluation. This study was conducted on a control group (CG) of 96 subjects (25 males...

  9. The cultural validation of two scales to assess social stigma in leprosy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth M H Peters

    Full Text Available Stigma plays in an important role in the lives of persons affected by neglected tropical diseases, and assessment of stigma is important to document this. The aim of this study is to test the cross-cultural validity of the Community Stigma Scale (EMIC-CSS and the Social Distance Scale (SDS in the field of leprosy in Cirebon District, Indonesia.Cultural equivalence was tested by assessing the conceptual, item, semantic, operational and measurement equivalence of these instruments. A qualitative exploratory study was conducted to increase our understanding of the concept of stigma in Cirebon District. A process of translation, discussions, trainings and a pilot study followed. A sample of 259 community members was selected through convenience sampling and 67 repeated measures were obtained to assess the psychometric measurement properties. The aspects and items in the SDS and EMIC-CSS seem equally relevant and important in the target culture. The response scales were adapted to ensure that meaning is transferred accurately and no changes to the scale format (e.g. lay out, statements or questions of both scales were made. A positive correlation was found between the EMIC-CSS and the SDS total scores (r=0.41. Cronbach's alphas of 0.83 and 0.87 were found for the EMIC-CSS and SDS. The exploratory factor analysis indicated for both scales an adequate fit as unidimensional scale. A standard error of measurement of 2.38 was found in the EMIC-CSS and of 1.78 in the SDS. The test-retest reliability coefficient was respectively, 0.84 and 0.75. No floor or ceiling effects were found.According to current international standards, our findings indicate that the EMIC-CSS and the SDS have adequate cultural validity to assess social stigma in leprosy in the Bahasa Indonesia-speaking population of Cirebon District. We believe the scales can be further improved, for instance, by adding, changing and rephrasing certain items. Finally, we provide suggestions for use

  10. Assessing the performance of multi-purpose channel management measures at increasing scales (United States)

    Wilkinson, Mark; Addy, Steve


    In addition to hydroclimatic drivers, sediment deposition from high energy river systems can reduce channel conveyance capacity and lead to significant increases in flood risk. There is an increasing recognition that we need to work with the interplay of natural hydrological and morphological processes in order to attenuate flood flows and manage sediment (both coarse and fine). This typically includes both catchment (e.g. woodland planting, wetlands) and river (e.g. wood placement, floodplain reconnection) restoration approaches. The aim of this work was to assess at which scales channel management measures (notably wood placement and flood embankment removal) are most appropriate for flood and sediment management in high energy upland river systems. We present research findings from two densely instrumented research sites in Scotland which regularly experience flood events and have associated coarse sediment problems. We assessed the performance of a range of novel trial measures for three different scales: wooded flow restrictors and gully tree planting at the small scale (engineered log jams at the intermediate scale (5-60 km2), and flood embankment lowering at the large scale (350 km2). Our results suggest that at the smallest scale, care is needed in the installation of flow restrictors. It was found for some restrictors that vertical erosion can occur if the tributary channel bed is disturbed. Preliminary model evidence suggested they have a very limited impact on channel discharge and flood peak delay owing to the small storage areas behind the structures. At intermediate scales, the ability to trap sediment by engineered log jams was limited. Of the 45 engineered log jams installed, around half created a small geomorphic response and only 5 captured a significant amount of coarse material (during one large flood event). As scale increases, the chance of damage or loss of wood placement is greatest. Monitoring highlights the importance of structure design

  11. Assessing cumulative pressures and impacts in a regional scale: HELCOM Baltic Sea Impact Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korpinen, S.; Meski, L.; Andersen, Jesper;

    of identifying hot spots needs to be replaced by spatial high-resolution maps associated with estimated impacts on key ecosystem components. The Baltic Sea Marine Environment Protection Commission (HELCOM) took a first step towards an initial regional assessment of anthropogenic pressures in the Initial Holistic...... of macrozoobenthic communities in some Baltic sub-basins and the results have suggested that more specific selection of pressures is needed in order to assess anthropogenic impacts on benthic habitats. Such an adaptation of the tool has already been tested to assess the sea-floor integrity under the MSFD qualitative...... Assessment of the Baltic Sea by producing the Baltic Sea Pressure Index (BSPI) and the Baltic Sea Impact Index (BSII). The BSPI visualizes cumulative anthropogenic pressures in the Baltic Sea scale, whereas the BSII consists of potential impacts of anthropogenic pressures on key ecosystem components...

  12. A Comparison of Low IQ Scores from the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Third Edition (United States)

    Umphress, Thomas B.


    Twenty people with suspected intellectual disability took the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS; C. R. Reynolds & R. W. Kamphaus, 1998) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--3rd Edition (WAIS-III; D. Wechsler, 1997) to see if the 2 IQ tests produced comparable results. A t test showed that the RIAS Composite Intelligence Index…

  13. Outcome assessment in epilepsy: available rating scales for adults and methodological issues pertaining to the development of scales for childhood epilepsy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.F.M. Arts (Willem Frans); J.A. Carpay (Hans)


    textabstractDuring the past decade, several scales have been developed to improve the assessment of outcome in epilepsy. These scales were developed for adults and their reliability, validity and usefulness have been established. However, there is also a need for alternative measures of outcome in c

  14. Comparison between full- and small-scale sensory assessments of air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Sabikova, J.; Lagercrantz, Love Per


    Thirty-nine untrained subjects made small- and full-scale evaluations of the acceptability of the quality of air at 22 deg.C and 40% RH, polluted by either carpet, felt floor covering, painted gypsum board, linoleum or chipboard. Small-scale evaluations were made on the air extracted from 200-L g...... the perceived air quality in spaces, sensory emission rates estimated in small scale may require a correction, probably depending on the nature of the chemicals emitted by a building material.......Thirty-nine untrained subjects made small- and full-scale evaluations of the acceptability of the quality of air at 22 deg.C and 40% RH, polluted by either carpet, felt floor covering, painted gypsum board, linoleum or chipboard. Small-scale evaluations were made on the air extracted from 200-L...... glass chambers ventilated at an airflow of 0.9 L/s. Full-scale assessments were made immediately upon entering offices ventilated at an outdoor air supply rate of 1.9 h-1. The ratio of ventilation rate to surface area of a building material was identical in the chambers and in the offices. Full...

  15. Reliability and validity of head posture assessment by observation and a four-category scale. (United States)

    Silva, Anabela G; Punt, T David; Johnson, Mark I


    Head posture (HP) is assessed as part of the clinical examination of patients with neck pain using observation and qualitative descriptors. In research, HP is characterised through the measurement of angles and distances between anatomical landmarks. This study investigated whether the assessment of HP as performed in clinical practice is reliable and valid. Ten physiotherapists assessed forward HP, head extension and side-flexion from images of 40 individuals with and without previous experience of neck pain using a four-category scale. The assessment was repeated twice with a 1-week gap. Physiotherapists' ratings were then compared with angular measurements of the same components of HP. K values for intra-rater reliability varied between 0.22 and 0.81 for forward HP, between 0.19 and 0.69 for head extension and between 0.38 and 0.67 for side-flexion. K values for inter-rater reliability were 0.02 for forward HP, 0.07 for head extension and 0.19 for side-flexion. Correlation coefficients between the ratings and the angular measurements varied between -0.16 and -0.49 for forward HP, between -0.17 and 0.68 for head extension and between -0.04 and 0.37 for side-flexion. The assessment of HP by observation and a four-category scale showed poor reliability and validity.

  16. Developing a pressure ulcer risk assessment scale for patients in long-term care. (United States)

    Lepisto, Mervi; Eriksson, Elina; Hietanen, Helvi; Lepisto, Jyri; Lauri, Sirkka


    Previous pressure ulcer risk assessment scales appear to have relied on opinions about risk factors and are based on care setting rather than research evidence. Utilizing 21 existing risk assessment scales and relevant risk factor literature, an instrument was developed by Finnish researchers that takes into account individual patient risk factors, devices and methods applied in nursing care, and organizational characteristics. The instrument underwent two pilot tests to assess the relevance and clarity of the instrument: the first involved 43 nurses and six patients; the second involved 50 nurses with expertise in wound care. Changes to questionnaire items deemed necessary as a result of descriptive analysis and agreement percentages were completed. After pilot testing, the final instrument addressed the following issues: 1) patient risks: activity, mobility in bed, mental status, nutrition, urinary incontinence, fecal incontinence, sensory perception, and skin condition; 2) devices and methods used in patient care: technical devices, bed type, mattress, overlay, seat cushions, and care methods; and 3) staff number and structure, maximum number of beds, and beds in use (the last group of questions were included to ensure participants understood the items; results were not analyzed). The phases of the study provided an expeditious means of data collection and a suitable opportunity to assess how the instrument would function in practice. Instrument reliability and validity were improved as a result of the pilot testing and can be enhanced further with continued use and assessment.

  17. Development of a Scale for Assessing Three Aspects of Sleep: Regularity, Quality, and Quantity. (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yuuki; Ishitake, Tatsuya; Uchimura, Naohisa; Ishida, Tetsuya; Morimatsu, Yoshitaka; Hoshiko, Michiko; Mori, Mihoko; Kushino, Nanae


    Objectives: It is difficult to assess sleep habits using one factor (i.e., sleep duration) alone. Regularity and quality of sleep have to be considered to assess sleep accurately. However, to our knowledge there is no scale which scores the three factors simultaneously. The purpose of this study was to inspect the reliability and validity (content, construct, and discriminant validity) of a scale we developed to screen for poor sleep habits. This scale was constructed to assess three aspects of sleep: regularity, quality, and quantity. Methods: Subjects were 563 day workers (370 men and 193 women; average age = 40.4 yr) from the manufacturing and service industries. We created a 21-item questionnaire (7 items for each of 3 factors) based on earlier studies and discussions with specialists. Reliability and construct validity of the questionnaire were assessed through item and factor analyses and Cronbach's alpha. In addition, subjects' scores were using principal component analysis, and subjects were classified according to their scores through a cluster analysis. We compared lifestyles, daytime sleepiness, stress, and chronic disease among the subjects to examine the instrument's discriminant validity. Results: Although our analysis revealed 6 items were invalid, the questionnaire assessed the three factors (regularity, quality and quantity) as expected: Cronbach's alpha was 0.744, 0.757, and 0.548, respectively. Two of the 7 quantity items were identified as assessing regularity instead, but all other items performed as expected. Four items measuring insomnia (disturbance of sleep induction, disturbance of sound sleep, nocturnal awakening, and early morning awakening) included constant burden as a quality factor. Chi-squared tests showed that the ratio of participants who took good care of their health and had less stress and daytime sleepiness was significantly high in the highest-scoring group, while the ratio of people reporting stress and chronic disease was

  18. Rasch analysis in the development of a rating scale for assessment of mobility after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, A; Garde, B; Kreiner, S


    The study describes the development of a rating scale for assessment of mobility after stroke. It was based on 74 first-stroke patients, 40 men and 34 women, each assessed three times during rehabilitation. Their median age was 69 years, and they represented all degrees of severity of paresis. Co...... in the 10-item subscores; 3) the score sum is independent of age, side of hemiparesis, and gender of the patient. Latent trait analysis (Rasch) was found to be an ideal model for statistical investigation of these properties....

  19. Assessment of anhedonia in psychological trauma: development of the Hedonic Deficit and Interference Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Frewen


    Full Text Available Symptoms of anhedonia, or deficits in the ability to experience positive affect, are increasingly recognized as an outcome of traumatic stress. Herein we demonstrate a phenomenon of “negative affective interference”, specifically, negative affective responses to positive events, in association with childhood trauma history. Young adults (n=99 completed a Hedonic Deficit & Interference Scale (HDIS, a self-report measure developed for this study, as well as a modified version of the Fawcette-Clarke Pleasure Capacity Scale that assessed not only positive but also negative affective responses to positive events. The two assessment approaches demonstrated convergent validity and predicted concurrent individual differences in trait positive and negative affect, and extraversion and neuroticism. Histories of childhood emotional and sexual abuse were differentially associated with negative affective responses to positive events. Future research and clinical directions are discussed.For the abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Reading Tools online.

  20. Cultural adaptation of the scale Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia – PAINAD to Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Gallego Valera


    Full Text Available Objective: To translate and culturally adapt to Brazil the scale Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia(PAINAD.Method: The cultural adaptation process followed the methodology of a theorical reference, in five steps: translation to Brazilian Portuguese, consensual version of translations, back-translation to the original language, revision by a committee of specialists in the field and a equivalency pre-test. The instrument was assessed and applied by 27 health professionals in the last step. Results: The Escala de Avaliação de Dor em Demência Avançada was culturally adapted to Brazil and presented semantic equivalency to the original, besides clarity, applicability and easy comprehension of the instrument items. Conclusion: This process secured the psychometric properties as the reliability and content validity of the referred scale.

  1. Assessing the assumption of symmetric proximity measures in the context of multidimensional scaling. (United States)

    Kelley, Ken


    Applications of multidimensional scaling often make the assumption of symmetry for the population matrix of proximity measures. Although the likelihood of such an assumption holding true varies from one area of research to another, formal assessment of such an assumption has received little attention. The present article develops a nonparametric procedure that can be used in a confirmatory fashion or in an exploratory fashion in order to probabilistically assess the assumption of population symmetry for proximity measures in a multidimensional scaling context. The proposed procedure makes use of the bootstrap technique and alleviates the assumptions of parametric statistical procedures. Computer code for R and S-Plus is included in an appendix in order to carry out the proposed procedures.

  2. Predictive capacity of risk assessment scales and clinical judgment for pressure ulcers: a meta-analysis. (United States)

    García-Fernández, Francisco Pedro; Pancorbo-Hidalgo, Pedro L; Agreda, J Javier Soldevilla


    A systematic review with meta-analysis was completed to determine the capacity of risk assessment scales and nurses' clinical judgment to predict pressure ulcer (PU) development. Electronic databases were searched for prospective studies on the validity and predictive capacity of PUs risk assessment scales published between 1962 and 2010 in English, Spanish, Portuguese, Korean, German, and Greek. We excluded gray literature sources, integrative review articles, and retrospective or cross-sectional studies. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed according to the guidelines of the Critical Appraisal Skills Program. Predictive capacity was measured as relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals. When 2 or more valid original studies were found, a meta-analysis was conducted using a random-effect model and sensitivity analysis. We identified 57 studies, including 31 that included a validation study. We also retrieved 4 studies that tested clinical judgment as a risk prediction factor. Meta-analysis produced the following pooled predictive capacity indicators: Braden (RR = 4.26); Norton (RR = 3.69); Waterlow (RR = 2.66); Cubbin-Jackson (RR = 8.63); EMINA (RR = 6.17); Pressure Sore Predictor Scale (RR = 21.4); and clinical judgment (RR = 1.89). Pooled analysis of 11 studies found adequate risk prediction capacity in various clinical settings; the Braden, Norton, EMINA (mEntal state, Mobility, Incontinence, Nutrition, Activity), Waterlow, and Cubbin-Jackson scales showed the highest predictive capacity. The clinical judgment of nurses was found to achieve inadequate predictive capacity when used alone, and should be used in combination with a validated scale.

  3. Development and Validation of the Body Size Scale for Assessing Body Weight Perception in African Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Cohen

    Full Text Available The social valorisation of overweight in African populations could promote high-risk eating behaviours and therefore become a risk factor of obesity. However, existing scales to assess body image are usually not accurate enough to allow comparative studies of body weight perception in different African populations. This study aimed to develop and validate the Body Size Scale (BSS to estimate African body weight perception.Anthropometric measures of 80 Cameroonians and 81 Senegalese were used to evaluate three criteria of adiposity: body mass index (BMI, overall percentage of fat, and endomorphy (fat component of the somatotype. To develop the BSS, the participants were photographed in full face and profile positions. Models were selected for their representativeness of the wide variability in adiposity with a progressive increase along the scale. Then, for the validation protocol, participants self-administered the BSS to assess self-perceived current body size (CBS, desired body size (DBS and provide a "body self-satisfaction index." This protocol included construct validity, test-retest reliability and convergent validity and was carried out with three independent samples of respectively 201, 103 and 1115 Cameroonians.The BSS comprises two sex-specific scales of photos of 9 models each, and ordered by increasing adiposity. Most participants were able to correctly order the BSS by increasing adiposity, using three different words to define body size. Test-retest reliability was consistent in estimating CBS, DBS and the "body self-satisfaction index." The CBS was highly correlated to the objective BMI, and two different indexes assessed with the BSS were consistent with declarations obtained in interviews.The BSS is the first scale with photos of real African models taken in both full face and profile and representing a wide and representative variability in adiposity. The validation protocol proved its reliability for estimating body weight

  4. Assessment of fatigue using the Identity- Consequence Fatigue Scale in patients with lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Correia Nogueira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the properties of the Identity-Consequence Fatigue Scale (ICFS in patients with lung cancer (LC, assessing the intensity of fatigue and associated factors. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving LC patients, treated at a teaching hospital in Brazil, who completed the ICFS. Patients with chronic heart disease (CHD and healthy controls, matched for age and gender, also completed the scale. Initially, a Brazilian Portuguese-language version of the ICFS was administered to 50 LC patients by two independent interviewers; to test for reproducibility, it was readministered to those same patients. At baseline, the LC patients were submitted to spirometry and the six-minute walk test, as well as completing the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36, and Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS. Inflammatory status was assessed by blood C-reactive protein (CRP levels. To validate the ICFS, we assessed the correlations of its scores with those variables. Results: The sample comprised 50 patients in each group (LC, CHD, and control. In the LC group, the intraclass correlation coefficients for intra-rater and inter-rater reliability regarding ICFS summary variables ranged from 0.94 to 0.76 and from 0.94 to 0.79, respectively. The ICFS presented excellent internal consistency, and Bland-Altman plots showed good test-retest reliability. The ICFS correlated significantly with FSS, HADS, and SF-36 scores, as well as with CRP levels. Mean ICFS scores in the LC group differed significantly from those in the CHD and control groups. Conclusions: The ICFS is a valid, reliable instrument for evaluating LC patients, in whom depression, quality of life, and CRP levels seem to be significantly associated with fatigue.

  5. Revised Hammersmith Scale for spinal muscular atrophy: A SMA specific clinical outcome assessment tool (United States)

    Scoto, Mariacristina; Mayhew, Anna; Main, Marion; Mazzone, Elena S.; Montes, Jacqueline; de Sanctis, Roberto; Dunaway Young, Sally; Salazar, Rachel; Glanzman, Allan M.; Pasternak, Amy; Quigley, Janet; Mirek, Elizabeth; Duong, Tina; Gee, Richard; Civitello, Matthew; Tennekoon, Gihan; Pane, Marika; Pera, Maria Carmela; Bushby, Kate; Day, John; Darras, Basil T.; De Vivo, Darryl; Finkel, Richard; Mercuri, Eugenio; Muntoni, Francesco


    Recent translational research developments in Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA), outcome measure design and demands from regulatory authorities require that clinical outcome assessments are ‘fit for purpose’. An international collaboration (SMA REACH UK, Italian SMA Network and PNCRN USA) undertook an iterative process to address discontinuity in the recorded performance of the Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale Expanded and developed a revised functional scale using Rasch analysis, traditional psychometric techniques and the application of clinical sensibility via expert panels. Specifically, we intended to develop a psychometrically and clinically robust functional clinician rated outcome measure to assess physical abilities in weak SMA type 2 through to strong ambulant SMA type 3 patients. The final scale, the Revised Hammersmith Scale (RHS) for SMA, consisting of 36 items and two timed tests, was piloted in 138 patients with type 2 and 3 SMA in an observational cross-sectional multi-centre study across the three national networks. Rasch analysis demonstrated very good fit of all 36 items to the construct of motor performance, good reliability with a high Person Separation Index PSI 0.98, logical and hierarchical scoring in 27/36 items and excellent targeting with minimal ceiling. The RHS differentiated between clinically different groups: SMA type, World Health Organisation (WHO) categories, ambulatory status, and SMA type combined with ambulatory status (all p < 0.001). Construct and concurrent validity was also confirmed with a strong significant positive correlation with the WHO motor milestones rs = 0.860, p < 0.001. We conclude that the RHS is a psychometrically sound and versatile clinical outcome assessment to test the broad range of physical abilities of patients with type 2 and 3 SMA. Further longitudinal testing of the scale with regards change in scores over 6 and 12 months are required prior to its adoption in clinical trials. PMID:28222119

  6. Development and Validation of the Body Size Scale for Assessing Body Weight Perception in African Populations (United States)

    Cohen, Emmanuel; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Ponty, Amandine; Ndao, Amadou; Amougou, Norbert; Saïd-Mohamed, Rihlat; Pasquet, Patrick


    Background The social valorisation of overweight in African populations could promote high-risk eating behaviours and therefore become a risk factor of obesity. However, existing scales to assess body image are usually not accurate enough to allow comparative studies of body weight perception in different African populations. This study aimed to develop and validate the Body Size Scale (BSS) to estimate African body weight perception. Methods Anthropometric measures of 80 Cameroonians and 81 Senegalese were used to evaluate three criteria of adiposity: body mass index (BMI), overall percentage of fat, and endomorphy (fat component of the somatotype). To develop the BSS, the participants were photographed in full face and profile positions. Models were selected for their representativeness of the wide variability in adiposity with a progressive increase along the scale. Then, for the validation protocol, participants self-administered the BSS to assess self-perceived current body size (CBS), desired body size (DBS) and provide a “body self-satisfaction index.” This protocol included construct validity, test-retest reliability and convergent validity and was carried out with three independent samples of respectively 201, 103 and 1115 Cameroonians. Results The BSS comprises two sex-specific scales of photos of 9 models each, and ordered by increasing adiposity. Most participants were able to correctly order the BSS by increasing adiposity, using three different words to define body size. Test-retest reliability was consistent in estimating CBS, DBS and the “body self-satisfaction index.” The CBS was highly correlated to the objective BMI, and two different indexes assessed with the BSS were consistent with declarations obtained in interviews. Conclusion The BSS is the first scale with photos of real African models taken in both full face and profile and representing a wide and representative variability in adiposity. The validation protocol proved its

  7. Cross-scale assessment of potential habitat shifts in a rapidly changing climate (United States)

    Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Holcombe, Tracy R.; Bella, Elizabeth S.; Carlson, Matthew L.; Graziano, Gino; Lamb, Melinda; Seefeldt, Steven S.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.


    We assessed the ability of climatic, environmental, and anthropogenic variables to predict areas of high-risk for plant invasion and consider the relative importance and contribution of these predictor variables by considering two spatial scales in a region of rapidly changing climate. We created predictive distribution models, using Maxent, for three highly invasive plant species (Canada thistle, white sweetclover, and reed canarygrass) in Alaska at both a regional scale and a local scale. Regional scale models encompassed southern coastal Alaska and were developed from topographic and climatic data at a 2 km (1.2 mi) spatial resolution. Models were applied to future climate (2030). Local scale models were spatially nested within the regional area; these models incorporated physiographic and anthropogenic variables at a 30 m (98.4 ft) resolution. Regional and local models performed well (AUC values > 0.7), with the exception of one species at each spatial scale. Regional models predict an increase in area of suitable habitat for all species by 2030 with a general shift to higher elevation areas; however, the distribution of each species was driven by different climate and topographical variables. In contrast local models indicate that distance to right-of-ways and elevation are associated with habitat suitability for all three species at this spatial level. Combining results from regional models, capturing long-term distribution, and local models, capturing near-term establishment and distribution, offers a new and effective tool for highlighting at-risk areas and provides insight on how variables acting at different scales contribute to suitability predictions. The combinations also provides easy comparison, highlighting agreement between the two scales, where long-term distribution factors predict suitability while near-term do not and vice versa.

  8. Calcareous scales formed by cathodic protection—an assessment of characteristics and kinetics (United States)

    Neville, Anne; Morizot, Arnaud P.


    An electrochemical technique using the assessment of the rate of oxygen reduction at a rotating disk electrode has been used in conjunction with surface analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to study the first layer formation of calcareous deposits under cathodic protection in various solutions. The study has shown that the electrochemical technique is an effective means of monitoring scale formation and that the existing models which predict scale formation by a basal layer of Mg(OH) 2 followed by CaCO 3 are over-simplified. The advantages of using an integrated approach of electrochemical analysis and a surface sensitive analysis technique in characterising the initial scale as a function of the solution composition are presented and discussed and revised models describing the temporal development of calcareous layers in saline solutions are suggested.

  9. Accuracy assessment of planimetric large-scale map data for decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doskocz Adam


    Full Text Available This paper presents decision-making risk estimation based on planimetric large-scale map data, which are data sets or databases which are useful for creating planimetric maps on scales of 1:5,000 or larger. The studies were conducted on four data sets of large-scale map data. Errors of map data were used for a risk assessment of decision-making about the localization of objects, e.g. for land-use planning in realization of investments. An analysis was performed for a large statistical sample set of shift vectors of control points, which were identified with the position errors of these points (errors of map data.

  10. Content Validity for a Child Care Self-assessment Tool: Creating Healthy Eating Environments Scale (CHEERS). (United States)

    Lafave, Lynne; Tyminski, Sheila; Riege, Theresa; Hoy, Diane; Dexter, Bria


    The purpose of this project was to develop and content validate both a formative and summative self-assessment scale designed to measure the nutrition and physical activity environment in community-based child care programs. The study followed a mixed-method modified Ebel procedure. An expert group with qualifications in nutrition, physical activity, and child care were recruited for content validation. The survey was subjected to expert review through digital communication followed by a face-to-face validation meeting. To establish consensus for content validity beyond the standard error of proportion (P healthy eating program planning, healthy eating environment, physical activity environment, and healthy body image environment. Content validation is an integral step in scale development that is often overlooked or poorly carried out. Initial content validity of this scale has been established and will be of value to researchers and practitioners interested in conducting healthy eating interventions in child care.

  11. Detecting Parental Deception Using a Behavior Rating Scale during Assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An Experimental Study (United States)

    Norfolk, Philip A.; Floyd, Randy G.


    It is often assumed that parents completing behavior rating scales during the assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can deliberately manipulate the outcomes of the assessment. To detect these actions, items designed to detect over-reporting or under-reporting of results are sometimes embedded in such rating scales. This…

  12. Measurement Invariance of the Digital Natives Assessment Scale across Gender in a Sample of Turkish University Students (United States)

    Ursavas, Ömer Faruk; Kabakçi Yurdakul, Isil; Türk, Mesut; Mcilroy, David


    With reference to the digital natives' debate, there is a gap on digital natives' characteristics. To fill this gap, the Digital Natives Assessment Scale was developed to measure students' assessment of the degree to which they perceived themselves to possess the attributes of digital natives. The scale was developed within the Turkish language…

  13. Assessing Predictive Validity of Pressure Ulcer Risk Scales- A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis



    Background: The purpose of this study was to present a scientific reason for pressure ulcer risk scales: Cubbin& Jackson modified Braden, Norton, and Waterlow, as a nursing diagnosis tool by utilizing predictive validity of pressure sores. Methods: Articles published between 1966 and 2013 from periodicals indexed in the Ovid Medline, Embase, CINAHL, KoreaMed, NDSL, and other databases were selected using the key word “pressure ulcer”. QUADAS-II was applied for assessment for internal validity...

  14. An interdisciplinary assessment of regional-scale nonpoint source ground-water vulnerability; theory and application (United States)

    Bernknopf, Richard L.; Dinitz, Laura B.; Loague, Keith


    An integrated earth science-economics model, developed within a geographic information system (GIS), combines a regional-scale nonpoint source vulnerability assessment with a specific remediation measure to avoid unnecessary agricultural production costs associated with the use of agrochemicals in the Pearl Harbor basin on the island of Oahu, Hawaii. This approach forms the core of a risk-based regulation for the application of agrochemicals and estimates the benefits of an information-based approach to decisionmaking.

  15. Study of Validity, Reliability in Accordance with Turkey Conditions in Ego Functions Assessment Scale


    Çevik, Yadigar; Ünsal Barlas, Gül


    Objective: In schizophrenia, evaluating ego functions such as disintegration of thought processes, sexual or aggressive behaviour, insufficient occur in various settings. The Ego Function Assessment (EFA) Scale developed by Bellak (1973) allows identifying which ego function is associated with the problematic behaviour and determining the level of function disturbance in patients with schizophrenia. The present study aimed to conduct the validation, reliability and norm study for Ego Function...

  16. Psychometric assessment of HIV/STI sexual risk scale among MSM: A Rasch model approach

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    Liu Hui


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little research has assessed the degree of severity and ordering of different types of sexual behaviors for HIV/STI infection in a measurement scale. The purpose of this study was to apply the Rasch model on psychometric assessment of an HIV/STI sexual risk scale among men who have sex with men (MSM. Methods A cross-sectional study using respondent driven sampling was conducted among 351 MSM in Shenzhen, China. The Rasch model was used to examine the psychometric properties of an HIV/STI sexual risk scale including nine types of sexual behaviors. Results The Rasch analysis of the nine items met the unidimensionality and local independence assumption. Although the person reliability was low at 0.35, the item reliability was high at 0.99. The fit statistics provided acceptable infit and outfit values. Item difficulty invariance analysis showed that the item estimates of the risk behavior items were invariant (within error. Conclusions The findings suggest that the Rasch model can be utilized for measuring the level of sexual risk for HIV/STI infection as a single latent construct and for establishing the relative degree of severity of each type of sexual behavior in HIV/STI transmission and acquisition among MSM. The measurement scale provides a useful measurement tool to inform, design and evaluate behavioral interventions for HIV/STI infection among MSM.

  17. Impact Assessment of Uncertainty Propagation of Ensemble NWP Rainfall to Flood Forecasting with Catchment Scale

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    Wansik Yu


    Full Text Available The common approach to quantifying the precipitation forecast uncertainty is ensemble simulations where a numerical weather prediction (NWP model is run for a number of cases with slightly different initial conditions. In practice, the spread of ensemble members in terms of flood discharge is used as a measure of forecast uncertainty due to uncertain precipitation forecasts. This study presents the uncertainty propagation of rainfall forecast into hydrological response with catchment scale through distributed rainfall-runoff modeling based on the forecasted ensemble rainfall of NWP model. At first, forecast rainfall error based on the BIAS is compared with flood forecast error to assess the error propagation. Second, the variability of flood forecast uncertainty according to catchment scale is discussed using ensemble spread. Then we also assess the flood forecast uncertainty with catchment scale using an estimation regression equation between ensemble rainfall BIAS and discharge BIAS. Finally, the flood forecast uncertainty with RMSE using specific discharge in catchment scale is discussed. Our study is carried out and verified using the largest flood event by typhoon “Talas” of 2011 over the 33 subcatchments of Shingu river basin (2,360 km2, which is located in the Kii Peninsula, Japan.

  18. A practical scale for Multi-Faceted Organizational Health Climate Assessment. (United States)

    Zweber, Zandra M; Henning, Robert A; Magley, Vicki J


    The current study sought to develop a practical scale to measure 3 facets of workplace health climate from the employee perspective as an important component of a healthy organization. The goal was to create a short, usable yet comprehensive scale that organizations and occupational health professionals could use to determine if workplace health interventions were needed. The proposed Multi-faceted Organizational Health Climate Assessment (MOHCA) scale assesses facets that correspond to 3 organizational levels: (a) workgroup, (b) supervisor, and (c) organization. Ten items were developed and tested on 2 distinct samples, 1 cross-organization and 1 within-organization. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses yielded a 9-item, hierarchical 3-factor structure. Tests confirmed MOHCA has convergent validity with related constructs, such as perceived organizational support and supervisor support, as well as discriminant validity with safety climate. Lastly, criterion-related validity was found between MOHCA and health-related outcomes. The multi-faceted nature of MOHCA provides a scale that has face validity and can be easily translated into practice, offering a means for diagnosing the shortcomings of an organization or workgroup's health climate to better plan health and well-being interventions.

  19. A new air quality perception scale for global assessment of air pollution health effects. (United States)

    Deguen, Séverine; Ségala, Claire; Pédrono, Gaëlle; Mesbah, Mounir


    Despite improvements in air quality in developed countries, air pollution remains a major public health issue. To fully assess the health impact, we must consider that air pollution exposure has both physical and psychological effects; this latter dimension, less documented, is more difficult to measure and subjective indicators constitute an appropriate alternative. In this context, this work presents the methodological development of a new scale to measure the perception of air quality, useful as an exposure or risk appraisal metric in public health contexts. On the basis of the responses from 2,522 subjects in eight French cities, psychometric methods are used to construct the scale from 22 items that assess risk perception (anxiety about health and quality of life) and the extent to which air pollution is a nuisance (sensorial perception and symptoms). The scale is robust, reproducible, and discriminates between subpopulations more susceptible to poor air pollution perception. The individual risk factors of poor air pollution perception are coherent with those findings in the risk perception literature. Perception of air pollution by the general public is a key issue in the development of comprehensive risk assessment studies as well as in air pollution risk management and policy. This study offers a useful new tool to measure such efforts and to help set priorities for air quality improvements in combination with air quality measurements.

  20. Examining item-position effects in large-scale assessment using the Linear Logistic Test Model

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    Full Text Available When administering large-scale assessments, item-position effects are of particular importance because the applied test designs very often contain several test booklets with the same items presented at different test positions. Establishing such position effects would be most critical; it would mean that the estimated item parameters do not depend exclusively on the items’ difficulties due to content but also on their presentation positions. As a consequence, item calibration would be biased. By means of the linear logistic test model (LLTM, item-position effects can be tested. In this paper, the results of a simulation study demonstrating how LLTM is indeed able to detect certain position effects in the framework of a large-scale assessment are presented first. Second, empirical item-position effects of a specific large-scale competence assessment in mathematics (4th grade students are analyzed using the LLTM. The results indicate that a small fatigue effect seems to take place. The most important consequence of the given paper is that it is advisable to try pertinent simulation studies before an analysis of empirical data takes place; the reason is, that for the given example, the suggested Likelihood-Ratio test neither holds the nominal type-I-risk, nor qualifies as “robust”, and furthermore occasionally shows very low power.

  1. Assessing water deprivation at the sub-river basin scale in LCA integrating downstream cascade effects. (United States)

    Loubet, Philippe; Roux, Philippe; Núñez, Montserrat; Belaud, Gilles; Bellon-Maurel, Véronique


    Physical water deprivation at the midpoint level is assessed in water-related LCIA methods using water scarcity indicators (e.g., withdrawal-to-availability and consumption-to-availability) at the river basin scale. Although these indicators represent a great step forward in the assessment of water-use-related impacts in LCA, significant challenges still remain in improving their accuracy and relevance. This paper presents a methodology that can be used to derive midpoint characterization factors for water deprivation taking into account downstream cascade effects within a single river basin. This effect is considered at a finer scale because a river basin must be split into different subunits. The proposed framework is based on a two-step approach. First, water scarcity is defined at the sub-river basin scale with the consumption-to-availability (CTA) ratio, and second, characterization factors for water deprivation (CFWD) are calculated, integrating the effects on downstream sub-river basins. The sub-river basin CTA and CFWD were computed based on runoff data, water consumption data and a water balance for two different river basins. The results show significant differences between the CFWD in a given river basin, depending on the upstream or downstream position. Finally, an illustrative example is presented, in which different land planning scenarios, taking into account additional water consumption in a city, are assessed. Our work demonstrates how crucial it is to localize the withdrawal and release positions within a river basin.

  2. Accuracy assessment of planimetric large-scale map data for decision-making (United States)

    Doskocz, Adam


    This paper presents decision-making risk estimation based on planimetric large-scale map data, which are data sets or databases which are useful for creating planimetric maps on scales of 1:5,000 or larger. The studies were conducted on four data sets of large-scale map data. Errors of map data were used for a risk assessment of decision-making about the localization of objects, e.g. for land-use planning in realization of investments. An analysis was performed for a large statistical sample set of shift vectors of control points, which were identified with the position errors of these points (errors of map data). In this paper, empirical cumulative distribution function models for decision-making risk assessment were established. The established models of the empirical cumulative distribution functions of shift vectors of control points involve polynomial equations. An evaluation of the compatibility degree of the polynomial with empirical data was stated by the convergence coefficient and by the indicator of the mean relative compatibility of model. The application of an empirical cumulative distribution function allows an estimation of the probability of the occurrence of position errors of points in a database. The estimated decision-making risk assessment is represented by the probability of the errors of points stored in the database.

  3. Work disability among workers with osteoarthritis of the knee: risks factors, assessment scales, and interventions. (United States)

    Gaudreault, Nathaly; Maillette, Pascale; Coutu, Marie-France; Durand, Marie-José; Hagemeister, Nicola; Hébert, Luc J


    The prevalence of knee osteoarthritis (OA) among individuals active in the workforce will increase considerably in the next generation and a significant percentage of these individuals are expected to experience work disability because of this disease. The aim of this review was to summarize the existing knowledge on the following: (a) work disability risk factors; (b) reliable and valid work disability assessment tools; and (c) efficient interventions to reduce work disability in individuals with knee OA. An electronic document search using key words and MeSH terms was performed with various databases. Two independent investigators were tasked with the screening of articles and quality assessment. A critical appraisal of what is known was performed and recommendations for clinical practice and future research were formulated. The database search yielded 61 references. One article on risk factors, three related to assessment tools, and two on interventions were retained. Age and previous work absence episodes were found to be risk factors of workplace disability. The Work Limitation Questionnaire, the Work Instability Scale for Rheumatoid Arthritis, and the Workplace Activity Limitations Scale were psychometrically sound for the population studied. Education-based interventions seem to be more effective than conventional interventions in helping individuals with knee OA return to work faster, reduce the number of days absent from work, and improve their overall well-being. This review is the first to summarize the evidence on work disability risk factors, assessment tools, and interventions for this growing population and to show a critical gap in the existing knowledge.

  4. Linking Supply Chain Network Complexity to Interdependence and Risk-Assessment: Scale Development and Empirical Investigation

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    Samyadip Chakraborty


    Full Text Available Concepts like supply chain network complexity, interdependence and risk assessment have been prominently discussed directly and indirectly in management literature over past decades and plenty of frameworks and conceptual prescriptive research works have been published contributing towards building the body of knowledge. However previous studies often lacked quantification of the findings. Consequently, the need for suitable scales becomes prominent for measuring those constructs to empirically support the conceptualized relationships. This paper expands the understanding of supply chain network complexity (SCNC and also highlights its implications on interdependence (ID between the actors and risk assessment (RAS in transaction relationships. In doing so, SCNC and RAS are operationalized to understand how SCNC affects interdependence and risk assessment between the actors in the supply chain network. The contribution of this study lies in developing and validating multi-item scales for these constructs and empirically establishing the hypothesized relationships in the Indian context based on firm data collected using survey–based questionnaire. The methodology followed included structural equation modeling. The study findings indicate that SCNC had significant relationship with interdependence, which in turn significantly affected risk assessment. This study carries both academic and managerial implications and provides an empirically supported framework linking network complexity with the two key variables (ID and RAS, playing crucial roles in managerial decision making. This study contributes to the body of knowledge and aims at guiding managers in better understanding transaction relationships.

  5. Development and Validation of a Scale to Assess Students' Attitude towards Animal Welfare (United States)

    Mazas, Beatriz; Rosario Fernández Manzanal, Mª; Zarza, Francisco Javier; Adolfo María, Gustavo


    This work presents the development of a scale of attitudes of secondary-school and university students towards animal welfare. A questionnaire was drawn up following a Likert-type scale attitude assessment model. Four components or factors, which globally measure animal welfare, are proposed to define the object of the attitude. The components are animal abuse for pleasure or due to ignorance (C1), leisure with animals (C2), farm animals (C3) and animal abandonment (C4). The final version of the questionnaire contains 29 items that are evenly distributed among the four components indicated, guaranteeing that each component is one-dimensional. A sample of 329 students was used to validate the scale. These students were aged between 11 and 25, and were from secondary schools in Aragon and the University in Zaragoza (Aragon's main and largest city, located in NE Spain). The scale shows good internal reliability, with a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.74. The questionnaire was later given to 1,007 students of similar levels and ages to the sample used in the validation, the results of which are presented in this study. The most relevant results show significant differences in gender and level of education in some of the components of the scale, observing that women and university students rate animal welfare more highly.

  6. Assessing fluvial ecosystem fragmentation at the global scale using high resolution hydrographic and hydrological data (United States)

    Grill, G. O.; Lehner, B.


    The ongoing fragmentation of the world's large rivers through hydropower and irrigation dams has been an issue of concern for ecologists and conservationists for many decades. The main negative effects of dams result from their role as a barrier for migratory fish species as well as from the alteration of the natural flow regime as a result of unnatural water release schedules. On the other hand, dam construction has recently received new interest as an alternative and renewable source of energy especially in developing countries and as a means to provide water security in regions with naturally variable water flows. The trade-offs between these antagonistic effects are usually assessed locally by conducting environmental impact assessments at and in the vicinity of the construction site, but the effects at larger scales are generally neglected in such plans. These large scale effects include potential flow alterations for hundreds of kilometers downstream of the dam, and barrier effects for migratory species traveling long distances along the mainstem of large rivers. Furthermore, the effects of multiple dams located in the same basin, are often neglected. To address the cumulative effects of dams at the river and network scale, we developed a new dam impact assessment model by combining state-of-the-art global scale hydrographic (HydroSHEDS) and hydrological datasets (WaterGAP) with a river routing model (HydroROUT). We assessed the relative impact of individual and multiple dams regarding flow alteration and habitat fragmentation. In addition to a purely accessibility-driven fragmentation index, we implemented a set of indicators that include eco-hydrological classification schemes as well as species richness and diversity information. The model allows to include tailor-made weighting schemes to adjust dam impact assessment for more local conditions. Although our model is applicable worldwide at a high resolution (500m), we tested the indicator set in the Mekong

  7. Development of a social skills assessment screening scale for psychiatric rehabilitation settings: A pilot study

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    Poornima Bhola


    Full Text Available Context: Deficits in social skills may present in a range of psychiatric disorders, particularly in the more serious and persistent conditions, and have an influence on functioning across various domains. Aims: This pilot study aimed at developing a brief measure, for structured evaluation and screening for social skills deficits, which can be easily integrated into routine clinical practice. Settings and Design: The sample consisted of 380 inpatients and their accompanying caregivers, referred to Psychiatric Rehabilitation Services at a tertiary care government psychiatric hospital. Materials and Methods: The evaluation included an Inpatient intake Proforma and the 20-item Social Skills Assessment Screening Scale (SSASS. Disability was assessed using the Indian Disability Evaluation and Assessment Scale (IDEAS for a subset of 94 inpatients. Statistical Analysis Used: The analysis included means and standard deviations, frequency and percentages, Cronbach's alpha to assess internal consistency, t-tests to assess differences in social skills deficits between select subgroups, and correlation between SSASS and IDEAS scores. Results: The results indicated the profile of social skills deficits assessed among the inpatients with varied psychiatric diagnoses. The “psychosis” group exhibited significantly higher deficits than the “mood disorder” group. Results indicated high internal consistency of the SSASS and adequate criterion validity demonstrated by correlations with select IDEAS domains. Modifications were made to the SSASS following the pilot study. Conclusions: The SSASS has potential value as a measure for screening and individualised intervention plans for social skills training in mental health and rehabilitation settings. The implications for future work on the psychometric properties and clinical applications are discussed.

  8. Large-scale model-based assessment of deer-vehicle collision risk. (United States)

    Hothorn, Torsten; Brandl, Roland; Müller, Jörg


    Ungulates, in particular the Central European roe deer Capreolus capreolus and the North American white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus, are economically and ecologically important. The two species are risk factors for deer-vehicle collisions and as browsers of palatable trees have implications for forest regeneration. However, no large-scale management systems for ungulates have been implemented, mainly because of the high efforts and costs associated with attempts to estimate population sizes of free-living ungulates living in a complex landscape. Attempts to directly estimate population sizes of deer are problematic owing to poor data quality and lack of spatial representation on larger scales. We used data on >74,000 deer-vehicle collisions observed in 2006 and 2009 in Bavaria, Germany, to model the local risk of deer-vehicle collisions and to investigate the relationship between deer-vehicle collisions and both environmental conditions and browsing intensities. An innovative modelling approach for the number of deer-vehicle collisions, which allows nonlinear environment-deer relationships and assessment of spatial heterogeneity, was the basis for estimating the local risk of collisions for specific road types on the scale of Bavarian municipalities. Based on this risk model, we propose a new "deer-vehicle collision index" for deer management. We show that the risk of deer-vehicle collisions is positively correlated to browsing intensity and to harvest numbers. Overall, our results demonstrate that the number of deer-vehicle collisions can be predicted with high precision on the scale of municipalities. In the densely populated and intensively used landscapes of Central Europe and North America, a model-based risk assessment for deer-vehicle collisions provides a cost-efficient instrument for deer management on the landscape scale. The measures derived from our model provide valuable information for planning road protection and defining hunting quota. Open

  9. Brief Self-Report Scales Assessing Life History Dimensions of Mating and Parenting Effort. (United States)

    Kruger, Daniel J


    Life history theory (LHT) is a powerful evolutionary framework for understanding physiological, psychological, and behavioral variation both between and within species. Researchers and theorists are increasingly integrating LHT into evolutionary psychology, as it provides a strong foundation for research across many topical areas. Human life history variation has been represented in psychological and behavioral research in several ways, including indicators of conditions in the developmental environment, indicators of conditions in the current environment, and indicators of maturation and life milestones (e.g., menarche, initial sexual activity, first pregnancy), and in self-report survey scale measures. Survey scale measures have included constructs such as time perspective and future discounting, although the most widely used index is a constellation of indicators assessing the K-factor, thought to index general life history speed (from fast to slow). The current project examined the utility of two brief self-report survey measures assessing the life history dimensions of mating effort and parenting effort with a large undergraduate sample in the United States. Consistent with the theory, items reflected two inversely related dimensions. In regressions including the K-factor, the Mating Effort Scale proved to be a powerful predictor of other constructs and indicators related to life history variation. The Parenting Effort Scale had less predictive power overall, although it explained unique variance across several constructs and was the only unique predictor of the number of long-term (serious and committed) relationships. These scales may be valuable additions to self-report survey research projects examining life history variation.

  10. Brief scales to assess physical activity and sedentary equipment in the home

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    Durant Nefertiti


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sedentary behaviors such as TV viewing are associated with childhood obesity, while physical activity promotes healthy weight. The role of the home environment in shaping these behaviors among youth is poorly understood. The study purpose was to examine the reliability of brief parental proxy-report and adolescent self-report measures of electronic equipment and physical activity equipment in the home and to assess the construct validity of these scales by examining their relationship to physical activity, sedentary behavior, and weight status of children and adolescents. Methods Participants were adolescents (n = 189; mean age = 14.6, parents of adolescents (n = 171; mean age = 45.0, and parents of younger children (n = 116; parents mean age = 39.6; children's mean age = 8.3 who completed two surveys approximately one month apart. Measures included a 21-item electronic equipment scale (to assess sedentary behavior facilitators in the home, in the child or adolescent's bedroom, and portable electronics and a 14-item home physical activity equipment scale. Home environment factors were examined as correlates of children's and adolescents' physical activity, sedentary behavior, and weight status after adjusting for child age, sex, race/ethnicity, household income, and number of children in the home. Results Most scales had acceptable test-retest reliability (intraclass correlations were .54 - .92. Parent and adolescent reports were correlated. Electronic equipment in adolescents' bedrooms was positively related to sedentary behavior. Activity equipment in the home was inversely associated with television time in adolescents and children, and positively correlated with adolescents' physical activity. Children's BMI z-score was positively associated with having a television in their bedroom. Conclusions The measures of home electronic equipment and activity equipment were similarly reliable when reported by parents and by

  11. Assessing midwives' breastfeeding knowledge: Properties of the Newborn Feeding Ability questionnaire and Breastfeeding Initiation Practices scale

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    Cantrill Ruth M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few reliable and valid tools to assess lactation and infant feeding knowledge and practices. This study tested the psychometric properties of two new scales, the Newborn Feeding Ability (NFA questionnaire and Breastfeeding Initiation Practices (BIP scale to assess midwives' breastfeeding knowledge and practices specific to breastfeeding initiation. Methods A national postal survey of Australian midwives (n = 3500 was conducted in October 2001. Reliability was determined through Cronbach's alpha coefficient and stability determined by a test-retest. Content validity was established through a critical review of literature and review by an expert panel. Construct validity was informed by an exploratory factor analysis and principle component analysis with varimax rotation. Correlations between NFA and BKQ knowledge subscale scores and BIP and BKQ practice subscale scores assessed criterion validity. A multiple hierarchical regression analysis determined predictive validity of the NFA and BIP. Results A response rate of 31.6% (n = 1107 was achieved. Adequate internal consistency was established for both instruments. Five factors on the NFA questionnaire were congruent with knowledge about effects of skin-to-skin contact, physiological stability, newborn innate abilities, work practices and effective breastfeeding. The BIP revealed three factors related to observing pre-feeding behavior, mother/baby care and attachment and positioning practices. Predictive validity of knowledge was moderate (r = 0.481, p Conclusion The Newborn Feeding Ability questionnaire and the Breastfeeding Initiation Practices scale can contribute to practice development by assessing lactation and infant feeding knowledge and practice deficits. Individual learning needs can be identified, and effectiveness of education interventions evaluated using these tools. Further testing is required with other samples of midwives and health professionals

  12. The suicide assessment scale: Psychometric properties of a Norwegian language version

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    Koldsland Bjørn


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rating scales are valuable tools in suicide research and can also be useful supplements to the clinical interview in suicide risk assessments. This study describes the psychometric properties of a Norwegian language version of the Suicide Assessment Scale Self-report version (SUAS-S. Methods Participants were fifty-two patients (mean age = 39.3 years, SD = 10.7 with major depression (53.8%, bipolar disorder (25.0% and/or a personality disorder (63.5% referred to a psychiatric outpatient clinic. The SUAS-S, the screening section of the Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation (BSS-5, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Beck’s Hopelessness Scale (BHS, the Symptom Check-List-90 R (SCL-90R and the Clinical Global Impression for Severity of Suicidality (CGI-SS were administered. One week later, the patients completed the SUAS-S a second time. Results Cronbach’s alpha for SUAS-S was 0.88 and the test–retest reliability was 0.95 (95% CI: 0.93– 0.97. SUAS-S was positively correlated with the BSS-5 (r = 0.66; 95% CI: 0.47–0.85 for the study sample as a whole and for the suicidal (r = 0.52 and non-suicidal groups (r = 0.50 respectively. There was no difference between the SUAS-S and the BSS-5 in the ability to identify suicidality. This ability was more pronounced when the suicide risk was high. There was a substantial intercorrelation between the score on the SUAS-S and the BDI (0.81 and the BHS (0.76. The sensitivity and specificity of the SUAS-S was explored and an appropriate clinical cut-off value was assessed. Conclusions The study revealed good internal consistency, test–retest reliability and concurrent validity for the Suicide Assessment Scale Self-report version. The discriminatory ability for suicidality was comparable to that of the BSS-5.

  13. The validity and reliability study of Turkish version of the multiple intelligences developmental assessment scales

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    Ayten İflazoğlu Saban


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to adapt Multiple Intelligences Developmental Assessment Scales (MIDAS to Turkish. After examining and confirming equivalency between English and Turkish versions the scale was administered to a sample (1466 participant including undergraduate, graduate students at the Cukurova University and adult in Adana, Turkey. In addition, test-retest reliability was assessed using a sample of undergraduate, graduate and adults in Adana,Turkey (N=100. In order to examine the validity and reliability properties of the scale, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, Cronbach Alpha correlation coefficients, corrected item-total correlations and t-tests between items’ means of upper 27%-lower 27% points were used. The final analysis accounted for 41.93 % of the variance under 93 items and 7 factors. The internal consistency coefficient (α = .87 was within ideal ranges. Also results of confirmatory factor analysis show that the model fitness indicator indexes meet the statistical standards [χ2=16558.65 (sd=4164, p<.001, (χ2/sd=3.98, NNFI= 0.95, NFI=0.93, CFI=0.95, IFI= 0.95, RMSEA=0.052, and SRMR= 0.062].

  14. Foraging Behaviour in Magellanic Woodpeckers Is Consistent with a Multi-Scale Assessment of Tree Quality.

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    Pablo M Vergara

    Full Text Available Theoretical models predict that animals should make foraging decisions after assessing the quality of available habitat, but most models fail to consider the spatio-temporal scales at which animals perceive habitat availability. We tested three foraging strategies that explain how Magellanic woodpeckers (Campephilus magellanicus assess the relative quality of trees: 1 Woodpeckers with local knowledge select trees based on the available trees in the immediate vicinity. 2 Woodpeckers lacking local knowledge select trees based on their availability at previously visited locations. 3 Woodpeckers using information from long-term memory select trees based on knowledge about trees available within the entire landscape. We observed foraging woodpeckers and used a Brownian Bridge Movement Model to identify trees available to woodpeckers along foraging routes. Woodpeckers selected trees with a later decay stage than available trees. Selection models indicated that preferences of Magellanic woodpeckers were based on clusters of trees near the most recently visited trees, thus suggesting that woodpeckers use visual cues from neighboring trees. In a second analysis, Cox's proportional hazards models showed that woodpeckers used information consolidated across broader spatial scales to adjust tree residence times. Specifically, woodpeckers spent more time at trees with larger diameters and in a more advanced stage of decay than trees available along their routes. These results suggest that Magellanic woodpeckers make foraging decisions based on the relative quality of trees that they perceive and memorize information at different spatio-temporal scales.

  15. Foraging Behaviour in Magellanic Woodpeckers Is Consistent with a Multi-Scale Assessment of Tree Quality. (United States)

    Vergara, Pablo M; Soto, Gerardo E; Moreira-Arce, Darío; Rodewald, Amanda D; Meneses, Luis O; Pérez-Hernández, Christian G


    Theoretical models predict that animals should make foraging decisions after assessing the quality of available habitat, but most models fail to consider the spatio-temporal scales at which animals perceive habitat availability. We tested three foraging strategies that explain how Magellanic woodpeckers (Campephilus magellanicus) assess the relative quality of trees: 1) Woodpeckers with local knowledge select trees based on the available trees in the immediate vicinity. 2) Woodpeckers lacking local knowledge select trees based on their availability at previously visited locations. 3) Woodpeckers using information from long-term memory select trees based on knowledge about trees available within the entire landscape. We observed foraging woodpeckers and used a Brownian Bridge Movement Model to identify trees available to woodpeckers along foraging routes. Woodpeckers selected trees with a later decay stage than available trees. Selection models indicated that preferences of Magellanic woodpeckers were based on clusters of trees near the most recently visited trees, thus suggesting that woodpeckers use visual cues from neighboring trees. In a second analysis, Cox's proportional hazards models showed that woodpeckers used information consolidated across broader spatial scales to adjust tree residence times. Specifically, woodpeckers spent more time at trees with larger diameters and in a more advanced stage of decay than trees available along their routes. These results suggest that Magellanic woodpeckers make foraging decisions based on the relative quality of trees that they perceive and memorize information at different spatio-temporal scales.

  16. Foraging Behaviour in Magellanic Woodpeckers Is Consistent with a Multi-Scale Assessment of Tree Quality (United States)

    Vergara, Pablo M.; Soto, Gerardo E.; Rodewald, Amanda D.; Meneses, Luis O.; Pérez-Hernández, Christian G.


    Theoretical models predict that animals should make foraging decisions after assessing the quality of available habitat, but most models fail to consider the spatio-temporal scales at which animals perceive habitat availability. We tested three foraging strategies that explain how Magellanic woodpeckers (Campephilus magellanicus) assess the relative quality of trees: 1) Woodpeckers with local knowledge select trees based on the available trees in the immediate vicinity. 2) Woodpeckers lacking local knowledge select trees based on their availability at previously visited locations. 3) Woodpeckers using information from long-term memory select trees based on knowledge about trees available within the entire landscape. We observed foraging woodpeckers and used a Brownian Bridge Movement Model to identify trees available to woodpeckers along foraging routes. Woodpeckers selected trees with a later decay stage than available trees. Selection models indicated that preferences of Magellanic woodpeckers were based on clusters of trees near the most recently visited trees, thus suggesting that woodpeckers use visual cues from neighboring trees. In a second analysis, Cox’s proportional hazards models showed that woodpeckers used information consolidated across broader spatial scales to adjust tree residence times. Specifically, woodpeckers spent more time at trees with larger diameters and in a more advanced stage of decay than trees available along their routes. These results suggest that Magellanic woodpeckers make foraging decisions based on the relative quality of trees that they perceive and memorize information at different spatio-temporal scales. PMID:27416115

  17. Visual assessment of posterior atrophy development of a MRI rating scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koedam, Esther L.G.E.; Scheltens, Philip; Pijnenburg, Yolande A.L. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Neurology and Alzheimer Centre, PO Box 7057, MB, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lehmann, Manja; Fox, Nick [UCL Institute of Neurology, Dementia Research Centre, London (United Kingdom); Flier, Wiesje M. van der [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Neurology and Alzheimer Centre, PO Box 7057, MB, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Department Epidemiology and Biostatistics, PO Box 7057, MB, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Barkhof, Frederik; Wattjes, Mike P. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, PO Box 7057, MB, Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    To develop a visual rating scale for posterior atrophy (PA) assessment and to analyse whether this scale aids in the discrimination between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias. Magnetic resonance imaging of 118 memory clinic patients were analysed for PA (range 0-3), medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) (range 0-4) and global cortical atrophy (range 0-3) by different raters. Weighted-kappas were calculated for inter- and intra-rater agreement. Relationships between PA and MTA with the MMSE and age were estimated with linear-regression analysis. Intra-rater agreement ranged between 0.93 and 0.95 and inter-rater agreement between 0.65 and 0.84. Mean PA scores were higher in AD compared to controls (1.6 {+-} 0.9 and 0.6 {+-} 0.7, p < 0.01), and other dementias (0.8 {+-} 0.8, p < 0.01). PA was not associated with age compared to MTA (B = 1.1 (0.8) versus B = 3.1 (0.7), p < 0.01). PA and MTA were independently negatively associated with the MMSE (B = -1.6 (0.5), p < 0.01 versus B = -1.4 (0.5), p < 0.01). This robust and reproducible scale for PA assessment conveys independent information in a clinical setting and may be useful in the discrimination of AD from other dementias. (orig.)

  18. An Integrated Assessment Approach to Address Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niladri Basu


    Full Text Available Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM is growing in many regions of the world including Ghana. The problems in these communities are complex and multi-faceted. To help increase understanding of such problems, and to enable consensus-building and effective translation of scientific findings to stakeholders, help inform policies, and ultimately improve decision making, we utilized an Integrated Assessment approach to study artisanal and small-scale gold mining activities in Ghana. Though Integrated Assessments have been used in the fields of environmental science and sustainable development, their use in addressing specific matter in public health, and in particular, environmental and occupational health is quite limited despite their many benefits. The aim of the current paper was to describe specific activities undertaken and how they were organized, and the outputs and outcomes of our activity. In brief, three disciplinary workgroups (Natural Sciences, Human Health, Social Sciences and Economics were formed, with 26 researchers from a range of Ghanaian institutions plus international experts. The workgroups conducted activities in order to address the following question: What are the causes, consequences and correctives of small-scale gold mining in Ghana? More specifically: What alternatives are available in resource-limited settings in Ghana that allow for gold-mining to occur in a manner that maintains ecological health and human health without hindering near- and long-term economic prosperity? Several response options were identified and evaluated, and are currently being disseminated to various stakeholders within Ghana and internationally.

  19. An Integrated Assessment Approach to Address Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana (United States)

    Basu, Niladri; Renne, Elisha P.; Long, Rachel N.


    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is growing in many regions of the world including Ghana. The problems in these communities are complex and multi-faceted. To help increase understanding of such problems, and to enable consensus-building and effective translation of scientific findings to stakeholders, help inform policies, and ultimately improve decision making, we utilized an Integrated Assessment approach to study artisanal and small-scale gold mining activities in Ghana. Though Integrated Assessments have been used in the fields of environmental science and sustainable development, their use in addressing specific matter in public health, and in particular, environmental and occupational health is quite limited despite their many benefits. The aim of the current paper was to describe specific activities undertaken and how they were organized, and the outputs and outcomes of our activity. In brief, three disciplinary workgroups (Natural Sciences, Human Health, Social Sciences and Economics) were formed, with 26 researchers from a range of Ghanaian institutions plus international experts. The workgroups conducted activities in order to address the following question: What are the causes, consequences and correctives of small-scale gold mining in Ghana? More specifically: What alternatives are available in resource-limited settings in Ghana that allow for gold-mining to occur in a manner that maintains ecological health and human health without hindering near- and long-term economic prosperity? Several response options were identified and evaluated, and are currently being disseminated to various stakeholders within Ghana and internationally. PMID:26393627

  20. Coastal erosion risk assessment using natural and human factors in different scales. (United States)

    Alexandrakis, George; Kampanis, Nikolaos


    Climate change, including sea-level rise and increasing storms, raise the threats of coastal erosion. Mitigating and adapting to coastal erosion risks in areas of human interest, like urban areas, culture heritage sites, and areas of economic interest, present a major challenge for society. In this context, decision making needs to be based in reliable risk assessment that includes environmental, social and economic factors. By integrating coastal hazard and risk assessments maps into coastal management plans, risks in areas of interest can be reduced. To address this, the vulnerability of the coast to sea level rise and associated erosion, in terms of expected land loss and socioeconomic importance need to be identified. A holistic risk assessment based in environmental, socioeconomic and economics approach can provide managers information how to mitigate the impact of coastal erosion and plan protection measures. Such an approach needs to consider social, economic and environmental factors, which interactions can be better assessed when distributed and analysed along the geographical space. In this work, estimations of climate change impact to coastline are based on a combination of environmental and economic data analysed in a GIS database. The risk assessment is implemented through the estimation of the vulnerability and exposure variables of the coast in two scales. The larger scale estimates the vulnerability in a regional level, with the use environmental factors with the use of CVI. The exposure variable is estimated by the use of socioeconomic factors. Subsequently, a smaller scale focuses on highly vulnerable beaches with high social and economic value. The vulnerability assessment of the natural processes to the environmental characteristics of the beach is estimated with the use of the Beach Vulnerability Index. As exposure variable, the value of beach width that is capitalized in revenues is implemented through a hedonic pricing model. In this

  1. Mitigating the Dangers of a Single Story: Creating Large-Scale Writing Assessments Aligned with Sociocultural Theory (United States)

    Behizadeh, Nadia


    The dangers of a single story in current U.S. large-scale writing assessment are that assessment practice does not align with theory and this practice has negative effects on instruction and students. In this article, I analyze the connections or lack of connections among writing theory, writing assessment, and writing instruction, critique the…

  2. The Affective Slider: A Digital Self-Assessment Scale for the Measurement of Human Emotions.

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    Alberto Betella

    Full Text Available Self-assessment methods are broadly employed in emotion research for the collection of subjective affective ratings. The Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM, a pictorial scale developed in the eighties for the measurement of pleasure, arousal, and dominance, is still among the most popular self-reporting tools, despite having been conceived upon design principles which are today obsolete. By leveraging on state-of-the-art user interfaces and metacommunicative pictorial representations, we developed the Affective Slider (AS, a digital self-reporting tool composed of two slider controls for the quick assessment of pleasure and arousal. To empirically validate the AS, we conducted a systematic comparison between AS and SAM in a task involving the emotional assessment of a series of images taken from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS, a database composed of pictures representing a wide range of semantic categories often used as a benchmark in psychological studies. Our results show that the AS is equivalent to SAM in the self-assessment of pleasure and arousal, with two added advantages: the AS does not require written instructions and it can be easily reproduced in latest-generation digital devices, including smartphones and tablets. Moreover, we compared new and normative IAPS ratings and found a general drop in reported arousal of pictorial stimuli. Not only do our results demonstrate that legacy scales for the self-report of affect can be replaced with new measurement tools developed in accordance to modern design principles, but also that standardized sets of stimuli which are widely adopted in research on human emotion are not as effective as they were in the past due to a general desensitization towards highly arousing content.

  3. Selection of spatial scale for assessing impacts of groundwater-based water supply on freshwater resources. (United States)

    Hybel, A-M; Godskesen, B; Rygaard, M


    Indicators of the impact on freshwater resources are becoming increasingly important in the evaluation of urban water systems. To reveal the importance of spatial resolution, we investigated how the choice of catchment scale influenced the freshwater impact assessment. Two different indicators were used in this study: the Withdrawal-To-Availability ratio (WTA) and the Water Stress Index (WSI). Results were calculated for three groundwater based Danish urban water supplies (Esbjerg, Aarhus, and Copenhagen). The assessment was carried out at three spatial levels: (1) the groundwater body level, (2) the river basin level, and (3) the regional level. The assessments showed that Copenhagen's water supply had the highest impact on the freshwater resource per cubic meter of water abstracted, with a WSI of 1.75 at Level 1. The WSI values were 1.64 for Aarhus's and 0.81 for Esbjerg's water supply. Spatial resolution was identified as a major factor determining the outcome of the impact assessment. For the three case studies, WTA and WSI were 27%-583% higher at Level 1 than impacts calculated for the regional scale. The results highlight that freshwater impact assessments based on regional data, rather than sub-river basin data, may dramatically underestimate the actual impact on the water resource. Furthermore, this study discusses the strengths and shortcomings of the applied indicator approaches. A sensitivity analysis demonstrates that although WSI has the highest environmental relevance, it also has the highest uncertainty, as it requires estimations of non-measurable environmental water requirements. Hence, the development of a methodology to obtain more site-specific and relevant estimations of environmental water requirements should be prioritized. Finally, the demarcation of the groundwater resource in aquifers remains a challenge for establishing a consistent method for benchmarking freshwater impacts caused by groundwater abstraction.

  4. Developmental Disabilities Modification of Children’s Global Assessment Scale (DD-CGAS) (United States)

    Wagner, Ann; Lecavalier, Luc; Arnold, L. Eugene; Aman, Michael G.; Scahill, Lawrence; Stigler, Kimberly A.; Johnson, Cynthia R.; McDougle, Christopher J.; Vitiello, Benedetto


    Background Interventions for pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) aim to alleviate symptoms and improve functioning. To measure global functioning in treatment studies, the Children’s Global Assessment Scale was modified and psychometric properties of the revised version (DD-CGAS) were assessed in children with PDD. Methods Developmental disabilities-relevant descriptors were developed for the DD-CGAS and administration procedures were established to enhance rater consistency. Ratings of clinical case vignettes were used to assess inter-rater reliability and temporal stability. Validity was assessed by correlating the DD-CGAS with measures of functioning and symptoms in 83 youngsters with PDD. Sensitivity to change was assessed by comparing change from baseline to post-treatment with change on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist – Irritability and Clinical Global Impressions–Improvement subscale scores in a subset of 14 children. Results Inter-rater reliability (ICC=.79) and temporal stability (average ICC = .86) were excellent. DD-CGAS scores correlated with measures of functioning and symptoms with moderate to large effect sizes. Changes on the DD-CGAS correlated with changes on the ABC-I (r=.−71) and CGI-I (r=−.52). The pre-post DD-CGAS change had an effect size of .72. Conclusions The DD-CGAS is a reliable instrument with apparent convergent validity for measuring global functioning of children with PDD in treatment studies. PMID:17276748

  5. Large-scale Assessment Yields Evidence of Minimal Use of Reasoning Skills in Traditionally Taught Classes (United States)

    Thacker, Beth


    Large-scale assessment data from Texas Tech University yielded evidence that most students taught traditionally in large lecture classes with online homework and predominantly multiple choice question exams, when asked to answer free-response (FR) questions, did not support their answers with logical arguments grounded in physics concepts. In addition to a lack of conceptual understanding, incorrect and partially correct answers lacked evidence of the ability to apply even lower level reasoning skills in order to solve a problem. Correct answers, however, did show evidence of at least lower level thinking skills as coded using a rubric based on Bloom's taxonomy. With the introduction of evidence-based instruction into the labs and recitations of the large courses and in a small, completely laboratory-based, hands-on course, the percentage of correct answers with correct explanations increased. The FR format, unlike other assessment formats, allowed assessment of both conceptual understanding and the application of thinking skills, clearly pointing out weaknesses not revealed by other assessment instruments, and providing data on skills beyond conceptual understanding for course and program assessment. Supported by National Institutes of Health (NIH) Challenge grant #1RC1GM090897-01.

  6. Reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Scale for Assessment and Rating of Ataxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Song; NIU Hui-xia; ZHAO Lu; GAO Yuan; LU Jia-meng; SHI Chang-he; Chandra Avinash


    Background The Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) was shown to be a reliable and valid measurement for patients with spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA).The Brazilian version and the Japanese version of SARAwere favorable for good reliability and validity.This study aimed to translate SARA into Chinese and test its reliability and validity in measurement of cerebellar ataxia.Methods SARA was translated into Chinese.A total 39 patients with degeneration cerebellar ataxia were evaluated independently by two neurologists with the Chinese version of SARA.Then the patients were evaluated by one of above neurologists with International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS).The statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 17.0 for Windows.Results The Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the Chinese version of SARA was 0.78,which represents a good internal consistence.The correlation coefficient of the Chinese version of SARA scores between the two evaluators was 0.86,illustrating that the inter-rater reliability of Chinese version of SARA was good.The correlation coefficient between the Chinese version of SARA and ICARS was 0.91,illustrating that the criterion validity of Chinese version of SARA was not bad.Conclusions The Chinese version of SARA is reliable and effective for the assessment of degeneration cerebellar ataxia.Compared with ICARS,the evaluation of Chinese version of SARA is more objective,the assessment time is shortened,and the maneuverability is better.

  7. Do large-scale assessments measure students' ability to integrate scientific knowledge? (United States)

    Lee, Hee-Sun


    Large-scale assessments are used as means to diagnose the current status of student achievement in science and compare students across schools, states, and countries. For efficiency, multiple-choice items and dichotomously-scored open-ended items are pervasively used in large-scale assessments such as Trends in International Math and Science Study (TIMSS). This study investigated how well these items measure secondary school students' ability to integrate scientific knowledge. This study collected responses of 8400 students to 116 multiple-choice and 84 open-ended items and applied an Item Response Theory analysis based on the Rasch Partial Credit Model. Results indicate that most multiple-choice items and dichotomously-scored open-ended items can be used to determine whether students have normative ideas about science topics, but cannot measure whether students integrate multiple pieces of relevant science ideas. Only when the scoring rubric is redesigned to capture subtle nuances of student open-ended responses, open-ended items become a valid and reliable tool to assess students' knowledge integration ability.

  8. Market Assessment of Biomass Gasification and Combustion Technology for Small- and Medium-Scale Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, D.; Haase, S.


    This report provides a market assessment of gasification and direct combustion technologies that use wood and agricultural resources to generate heat, power, or combined heat and power (CHP) for small- to medium-scale applications. It contains a brief overview of wood and agricultural resources in the U.S.; a description and discussion of gasification and combustion conversion technologies that utilize solid biomass to generate heat, power, and CHP; an assessment of the commercial status of gasification and combustion technologies; a summary of gasification and combustion system economics; a discussion of the market potential for small- to medium-scale gasification and combustion systems; and an inventory of direct combustion system suppliers and gasification technology companies. The report indicates that while direct combustion and close-coupled gasification boiler systems used to generate heat, power, or CHP are commercially available from a number of manufacturers, two-stage gasification systems are largely in development, with a number of technologies currently in demonstration. The report also cites the need for a searchable, comprehensive database of operating combustion and gasification systems that generate heat, power, or CHP built in the U.S., as well as a national assessment of the market potential for the systems.

  9. Enabling Wide-Scale Computer Science Education through Improved Automated Assessment Tools (United States)

    Boe, Bryce A.

    There is a proliferating demand for newly trained computer scientists as the number of computer science related jobs continues to increase. University programs will only be able to train enough new computer scientists to meet this demand when two things happen: when there are more primary and secondary school students interested in computer science, and when university departments have the resources to handle the resulting increase in enrollment. To meet these goals, significant effort is being made to both incorporate computational thinking into existing primary school education, and to support larger university computer science class sizes. We contribute to this effort through the creation and use of improved automated assessment tools. To enable wide-scale computer science education we do two things. First, we create a framework called Hairball to support the static analysis of Scratch programs targeted for fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students. Scratch is a popular building-block language utilized to pique interest in and teach the basics of computer science. We observe that Hairball allows for rapid curriculum alterations and thus contributes to wide-scale deployment of computer science curriculum. Second, we create a real-time feedback and assessment system utilized in university computer science classes to provide better feedback to students while reducing assessment time. Insights from our analysis of student submission data show that modifications to the system configuration support the way students learn and progress through course material, making it possible for instructors to tailor assignments to optimize learning in growing computer science classes.

  10. The Vitiligo Impact Patient Scale (VIPs): Development and Validation of a Vitiligo Burden Assessment Tool. (United States)

    Salzes, Camille; Abadie, Sophie; Seneschal, Julien; Whitton, Maxine; Meurant, Jean-Marie; Jouary, Thomas; Ballanger, Fabienne; Boralevi, Franck; Taieb, Alain; Taieb, Charles; Ezzedine, Khaled


    Vitiligo has a major impact on health-related quality of life. Although a few vitiligo-specific quality of life instruments exist, there is no specific vitiligo burden tool. We developed and validated a specific vitiligo burden tool according to skin phototype. In total, 301 patients completed 35 items of the Vitiligo Impact Patient scale, of whom 235 were of skin phototype I to III and 66 of phototype IV to VI. The dimensionality of the items was evaluated using factor analyses, with results suggesting three factors in fair- and dark-skinned patients ("Psychological effects on daily life," "Relationships and Sexuality," and "Economic Constraints, Care & Management of Disease"). Unidimensionality was confirmed by higher order factor analysis. Cronbach's α were high-and intradimensional coherences all demonstrated good reliability (α > 0.8). The final instrument consists of 29 items (19 items common to all patients, 3 specific to fair skin, and 7 to dark skin). The test-retest reliability demonstrated very good reproducibility. The intraclass correlation of each dimension was greater than 0.90 for each population. External validity was confirmed by the correlation coefficients and Bland and Altman plots of the Vitiligo Impact Patient scale-Fair Skin and Vitiligo Impact Patient scale-Dark Skin versus the Short-Form-12, PVC Metra, Body Image States Scale, and Daily Life Quality Index assessment tools.

  11. The validity of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 Narcissistic Personality Disorder scale for assessing pathological grandiosity. (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J; Donnellan, M Brent; Ackerman, Robert A; Thomas, Katherine M; Morey, Leslie C; Skodol, Andrew E


    Although controversy surrounds the definition and measurement of narcissism, the claim that pathological grandiosity is central to the construct generates little disagreement. Yet representations of pathological grandiosity vary across measures of narcissism, leading to conceptual confusion in the literature. The validity of a DSM-based measure of pathological narcissism, the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 Narcissistic Personality Disorder scale (PDQ-4 NPD), was evaluated in 1 clinical and 3 nonclinical samples (total N=2,391) for its ability to measure pathological grandiosity. Findings were generally supportive: average scores were higher in the clinical than nonclinical samples and the PDQ-4 NPD scale correlated most strongly with (a) other measures of NPD; (b) other DSM Cluster B personality disorders; (c) traits involving antagonism, hostility, and assertiveness; and (d) interpersonal distress and disaffiliative dominance. However, the low internal consistency of the PDQ-4 NPD scale and unexpected associations with Cluster A and obsessive-compulsive features point to potential psychometric weaknesses with this instrument. These findings are useful for evaluating the PDQ-4 NPD scale and for informing ongoing debates regarding how to define and assess pathological narcissism.

  12. Assessment of Small-scale Buffalo Milk Dairy Production-A Premise for a Durable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian MIHAIU


    Full Text Available Buffalo husbandry is an important source of income for a number of small-scale producers in Romania that is why an assessment of its products quality is much needed for improvement and evaluation of their vulnerability to international competition. In order to ascertain possible developments in the buffalo dairy sector and to broadly identify areas of intervention that favor small-scale dairy producers, the study examined the potential to improve buffalo milk production by evaluating its authenticity and hygienic quality. The methods used involved the molecular testing (PCR-technique for identifying cow, sheep or goat DNA in the dairy products samples collected from the small-scale producers market. The hygienic quality of these samples was determined through classical microbiology methods, highly developed techniques (Trek System and PCR for bacterial species confirmation. The results showed that a high percent (65%, from the products found were adulterated with other species milk, mostly cow milk. The most commonly falsified buffalo dairy products were the cheese and the traditional product telemea. The prevalence of the bacterial species identified belonged to Listeria innocua and Listeria welshmeri. The conclusion of this study is the need of a durable development system in this particular dairy chain to improve and assure the authenticity and quality of the small-scale producers products and their reliability for the consumers.

  13. Assessment of Small-scale Buffalo Milk Dairy Production-A Premise for a Durable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian MIHAIU


    Full Text Available Buffalo husbandry is an important source of income for a number of small-scale producers in Romania that is why an assessment of its� product�s quality is much needed for improvement and evaluation of their vulnerability to international competition. In order to ascertain possible developments in the buffalo dairy sector and to broadly identify areas of intervention that favor small-scale dairy producers, the study examined the potential to improve buffalo milk production by evaluating its authenticity and hygienic quality. The methods used involved the molecular testing (PCR-technique for identifying cow, sheep or goat DNA in the dairy products� samples collected from the small-scale producers market. The hygienic quality of these samples was determined through classical microbiology methods, highly developed techniques (Trek System and PCR for bacterial species confirmation. The results showed that a high percent (65%, from the products found were adulterated with other species milk, mostly cow milk. The most commonly falsified buffalo dairy products were the cheese and the traditional product �telemea�. The prevalence of the bacterial species identified belonged to Listeria innocua and Listeria welshmeri. The conclusion of this study is the need of a durable development system in this particular dairy chain to improve and assure the authenticity and quality of the small-scale producers� products and their reliability for the consumers.

  14. Application of Fractal Dimension to Assess the Effect of Scale on the Sensitivity of Landscape Metrics

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    R. Afrakhteh


    Full Text Available The sensitivity of landscape metrics to the scale effect is one of the most challenging issues in landscape ecology and quantification of land use spatial patterns. In this study, fractal dimension was employed to assess the effect of scale on the sensitivity of landscape metric in the north of Iran (around Sari as the case study. Land use/ cover maps were derived from Landsat-8 (OLI sensor image processing and its spatial scale was downgraded to 30, 60, 120, 150, 200, 250, and 300 by cell-center method. After that, landscape-level metrics were quantified. Finally, linear regressions were formed for the every metric based on the logarithmic transformation and the Coefficient of Determination and Fractal Dimension were computed as well. The coefficient of determination for all measures of diversity was zero and for other measures in two general categories: high sensitivity (R- redundant and without sensitivity (N- no effect. Results acquired from the two indicators were perfectly delineated the sensitivity of landscape metrics to the scale effect (Coefficient of Determination as well as the direction and magnitude of the landscape metrics (Fractal dimension.

  15. Assessing Communication Skills of Medical Students in Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCE--A Systematic Review of Rating Scales.

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    Musa Cömert

    Full Text Available Teaching and assessment of communication skills have become essential in medical education. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE has been found as an appropriate means to assess communication skills within medical education. Studies have demonstrated the importance of a valid assessment of medical students' communication skills. Yet, the validity of the performance scores depends fundamentally on the quality of the rating scales used in an OSCE. Thus, this systematic review aimed at providing an overview of existing rating scales, describing their underlying definition of communication skills, determining the methodological quality of psychometric studies and the quality of psychometric properties of the identified rating scales.We conducted a systematic review to identify psychometrically tested rating scales, which have been applied in OSCE settings to assess communication skills of medical students. Our search strategy comprised three databases (EMBASE, PsycINFO, and PubMed, reference tracking and consultation of experts. We included studies that reported psychometric properties of communication skills assessment rating scales used in OSCEs by examiners only. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the COnsensus based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN checklist. The quality of psychometric properties was evaluated using the quality criteria of Terwee and colleagues.Data of twelve studies reporting on eight rating scales on communication skills assessment in OSCEs were included. Five of eight rating scales were explicitly developed based on a specific definition of communication skills. The methodological quality of studies was mainly poor. The psychometric quality of the eight rating scales was mainly intermediate.Our results reveal that future psychometric evaluation studies focusing on improving the methodological quality are needed in order to yield

  16. Assessing Communication Skills of Medical Students in Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCE) - A Systematic Review of Rating Scales (United States)

    Cömert, Musa; Zill, Jördis Maria; Christalle, Eva; Dirmaier, Jörg; Härter, Martin; Scholl, Isabelle


    Background Teaching and assessment of communication skills have become essential in medical education. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) has been found as an appropriate means to assess communication skills within medical education. Studies have demonstrated the importance of a valid assessment of medical students’ communication skills. Yet, the validity of the performance scores depends fundamentally on the quality of the rating scales used in an OSCE. Thus, this systematic review aimed at providing an overview of existing rating scales, describing their underlying definition of communication skills, determining the methodological quality of psychometric studies and the quality of psychometric properties of the identified rating scales. Methods We conducted a systematic review to identify psychometrically tested rating scales, which have been applied in OSCE settings to assess communication skills of medical students. Our search strategy comprised three databases (EMBASE, PsycINFO, and PubMed), reference tracking and consultation of experts. We included studies that reported psychometric properties of communication skills assessment rating scales used in OSCEs by examiners only. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the COnsensus based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. The quality of psychometric properties was evaluated using the quality criteria of Terwee and colleagues. Results Data of twelve studies reporting on eight rating scales on communication skills assessment in OSCEs were included. Five of eight rating scales were explicitly developed based on a specific definition of communication skills. The methodological quality of studies was mainly poor. The psychometric quality of the eight rating scales was mainly intermediate. Discussion Our results reveal that future psychometric evaluation studies focusing on improving the methodological quality are needed

  17. Landslide susceptibility assessment in the Pays d'Auge plateau (Normandy, France): application at different scales (United States)

    Fressard, M.; Thiery, Y.; Maquaire, O.


    This research takes place in the hilly valleys of the Pays d'Auge where few scientific works have been conducted on landslide risk in spite of the activity of the processes. Moreover, the local authorities are still lacking operational mapping resources in order to improve the landuse planning and risk reduction. The susceptibility or hazard maps performed by statistical approaches can sometimes be difficult to understand by end-users. Therefore, they usually prefer to work with direct methods (i.e. expert mapping), even if they are often considered as subjective by scientists. Independently of the mapping method, it is difficult to obtain rapidly susceptibility maps on large areas that fit to the operational scale. These small scale maps are often not accepted by end-users, particularly because of the lack of accuracy of the available datasets. Then, this presentation focus on the production of landslide susceptibility maps at different scales, using GIS as a first stage towards operational landslide hazard assessment. The main objective is to show the research process coupling the geomorphological approach and the statistical modelling. This study is splitted in three major steps: (1) a geomorphological approach at the landslide scale; (2) a landslide susceptibility mapping at regional scale; and finally (3) a landslide susceptibility mapping at detailed scale. (1) Due to the lack of bibliographical and expert references on the existing landslides in this area, a first geomorphological study was conducted in order to build a landslide inventory with a detailed typology. Then, for each landslide type, the predisposing and triggering factors were defined. This first step is essential in order to supply the geomorphologist's expert opinion on this specific site. (2) These observations on predisposing factors were formalized into a heuristic model (SMCE) in order to assess the regional landslide susceptibility at small scale i.e. 1/100.000. In this case, only simple

  18. An assessment of the formation of electrodeposited scales using scanning electron and atomic force microscopy (United States)

    Morizot, A. P.; Neville, A.; Taylor, J. D.


    The deposition of insoluble salts onto surfaces in process systems represents an important operational problem. Mineral scale formation (e.g. CaCO 3 and BaSO 4) can result from fluid streams becoming supersaturated when incompatible waters combine (e.g. in oil recovery) or can be formed when cathodic protection is applied and electrodeposition occurs. In this study, electrodeposition is studied on metal rotating disk electrodes (RDE) in artificial seawater under static conditions and under rotation at 400 rpm. Also, a Ca-free brine and a Mg-free brine of the same dissolved solids level were used in static tests. The focus of the study is the assessment of the electrochemical response of the system under potentiostatic control and correlation of the current versus time measurements to the characteristics of the scale determined via scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy analysis.

  19. Assessment of alexithymia with the Rorschach Comprehensive System: the Rorschach Alexithymia Scale (RAS). (United States)

    Porcelli, Piero; Mihura, Joni L


    In this study, we developed the Rorschach Alexithymia Scale (RAS) to be used with protocols scored with the Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 1993). A total of 92 patients with medical disease and 127 psychiatric outpatients were administered the Rorschach and the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (Bagby, Parker, & Taylor, 1994a, 1994b). We used a systematic approach, including cross-validation, to reduce a pool of 27 CS codes issued from an earlier investigation (Porcelli & Meyer, 2002) to 3 variables: Form%, CDI, and Pop. The RAS showed excellent diagnostic accuracy (hit rate of 92%, sensitivity of 88%, specificity of 94%, and area under the curve of .96). We suggest that the RAS can be used as a reliable integrative tool in a multimethod assessment approach to measuring alexithymia.

  20. Analysis of Frequency of Use of Different Scar Assessment Scales Based on the Scar Condition and Treatment Method


    Bae, Seong Hwan; Bae, Yong Chan


    Analysis of scars in various conditions is essential, but no consensus had been reached on the scar assessment scale to select for a given condition. We reviewed papers to determine the scar assessment scale selected depending on the scar condition and treatment method. We searched PubMed for articles published since 2000 with the contents of the scar evaluation using a scar assessment scale with a Journal Citation Report impact factor >0.5. Among them, 96 articles that conducted a scar evalu...

  1. Informing species conservation at multiple scales using data collected for marine mammal stock assessments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Grech

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Conservation planning and the design of marine protected areas (MPAs requires spatially explicit information on the distribution of ecological features. Most species of marine mammals range over large areas and across multiple planning regions. The spatial distributions of marine mammals are difficult to predict using habitat modelling at ecological scales because of insufficient understanding of their habitat needs, however, relevant information may be available from surveys conducted to inform mandatory stock assessments. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: We use a 20-year time series of systematic aerial surveys of dugong (Dugong dugong abundance to create spatially-explicit models of dugong distribution and relative density at the scale of the coastal waters of northeast Australia (∼136,000 km(2. We interpolated the corrected data at the scale of 2 km * 2 km planning units using geostatistics. Planning units were classified as low, medium, high and very high dugong density on the basis of the relative density of dugongs estimated from the models and a frequency analysis. Torres Strait was identified as the most significant dugong habitat in northeast Australia and the most globally significant habitat known for any member of the Order Sirenia. The models are used by local, State and Federal agencies to inform management decisions related to the Indigenous harvest of dugongs, gill-net fisheries and Australia's National Representative System of Marine Protected Areas. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: In this paper we demonstrate that spatially-explicit population models add value to data collected for stock assessments, provide a robust alternative to predictive habitat distribution models, and inform species conservation at multiple scales.

  2. Recovery Assessment Scale: Testing validity with Portuguese community-based mental health organization users. (United States)

    Jorge-Monteiro, Maria F; Ornelas, José H


    The aim of the present study was to develop the Portuguese version of the Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS-P), and to assess the validity of the findings using the revised test, with 213 users from 5 nonprofit community-based mental health organizations. Participants in the assessment completed a self-reported survey investigating their sense of personal recovery, personal empowerment, capabilities achievement, psychiatric symptoms' frequency, and demographic data. Evidence from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses using the 24-item version of the test, validated a 4-factor structure for the RAS-P model based on the dimensions of Personal Goals and Hope, Managing Help Needs, Supportive Interpersonal Relationships, and Life Beyond Symptoms, consistent with components of the recovery process. Convergent and discriminant validity was also achieved using bivariate correlation coefficients among the 4 subscales' scores, between the overall scale and the subscales, and in relation to external variables. Findings allowed for the interpretation that the RAS-P is measuring a particular psychological construct, which is different from symptoms of the mental illness. A hypothesized significant association with personal empowerment and with capabilities achievement was demonstrated. Positive association was also found between participants' use of recovery-oriented services such as independent housing or supported employment programs. The RAS-P scores also revealed excellent internal consistency for the overall scale (α = .90), and good consistency for the subscales (>.75), which attest to its precision in measurement. In conclusion, the study proved the RAS-P a reliable and useful tool in the context of the community mental health practice.

  3. Korean Version of the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia in Ataxic Stroke Patients


    Kim, Bo-Ram; Lee, Jin-Youn; Kim, Min Jeong; Jung, Heeyoune; Lee, Jongmin


    Objective To investigate the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability and usefulness of the Korean version of the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (K-SARA) in ataxic stroke patients. Methods The original SARA was translated into Korean, back translated to English, and compared to the original version. Stroke patients (n=60) with ataxia were evaluated using the K-SARA by one physiatrist and one occupational therapist. All subjects were rated twice. We divided the subjects into 5 gr...

  4. An instrument to assess self-statements during public speaking: scale development and preliminary psychometric properties. (United States)

    Hofmann, S G; Dibartolo, P M


    Public speaking is the most commonly reported fearful social situation. Although a number of contemporary theories emphasize the importance of cognitive processes in social anxiety, there is no instrument available to assess fearful thoughts experienced during public speaking. The Self-Statements During Public Speaking (SSPS) scale is a 10-item questionnaire consisting of two 5-item subscales, the "Positive Self-Statements" (SSPS-P) and the "Negative Self-Statements" subscale (SSPS-N). Four studies report on the development and the preliminary psychometric properties of this instrument.

  5. Generic framework for meso-scale assessment of climate change hazards in coastal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelquist, Lars Rosendahl


    This paper presents a generic framework for assessing inherent climate change hazards in coastal environments through a combined coastal classification and hazard evaluation system. The framework is developed to be used at scales relevant for regional and national planning and aims to cover all...... coastal environments worldwide through a specially designed coastal classification system containing 113 generic coastal types. The framework provides information on the degree to which key climate change hazards are inherent in a particular coastal environment, and covers the hazards of ecosystem...... disruption, gradual inundation, salt water intrusion, erosion and flooding. The system includes a total of 565 individual hazard evaluations, each graduated into four different hazard levels based on a scientific literature review. The framework uses a simple assessment methodology with limited data...

  6. The Verbal Rating Scale Is Reliable for Assessment of Postoperative Pain in Hip Fracture Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, R. D.; Lauritsen, J.; Ovesen, O.


    Background. Hip fracture patients represent a challenge to pain rating due to the high prevalence of cognitive impairment. Methods. Patients prospectively rated pain on the VRS. Furthermore, patients described the changes in pain after raising their leg, with one of five descriptors. Agreement...... of assessing possible change in pain from the selected descriptors. Cognitive status was quantified by the short Orientation-Memory-Concentration Test. Results. 110 patients were included. Paired scores with maximum disagreement of one scale point reached 97% at rest and 95% at straight leg raise. Linear....... The VRS is reliable for assessment of pain after hip fracture. The validity of intermittent questioning about possible change in pain intensity is poor....

  7. Selection of spatial scale for assessing impacts of groundwater-based water supply on freshwater resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybel, Anne-Marie; Godskesen, Berit; Rygaard, Martin


    the highest uncertainty, as it requires estimations of non-measurable environmental water requirements. Hence, the development of a methodology to obtain more site-specific and relevant estimations of environmental water requirements should be prioritized. Finally, the demarcation of the groundwater resource......Indicators of the impact on freshwater resources are becoming increasingly important in the evaluation of urban water systems. To reveal the importance of spatial resolution, we investigated how the choice of catchment scale influenced the freshwater impact assessment. Two different indicators were...... used in this study: the Withdrawal-To-Availability ratio (WTA) and the Water Stress Index (WSI). Results were calculated for three groundwater based Danish urban water supplies (Esbjerg, Aarhus, and Copenhagen). The assessment was carried out at three spatial levels: (1) the groundwater body level, (2...

  8. Traditional Masculinity and Femininity: Validation of a New Scale Assessing Gender Roles. (United States)

    Kachel, Sven; Steffens, Melanie C; Niedlich, Claudia


    Gender stereotype theory suggests that men are generally perceived as more masculine than women, whereas women are generally perceived as more feminine than men. Several scales have been developed to measure fundamental aspects of gender stereotypes (e.g., agency and communion, competence and warmth, or instrumentality and expressivity). Although omitted in later version, Bem's original Sex Role Inventory included the items "masculine" and "feminine" in addition to more specific gender-stereotypical attributes. We argue that it is useful to be able to measure these two core concepts in a reliable, valid, and parsimonious way. We introduce a new and brief scale, the Traditional Masculinity-Femininity (TMF) scale, designed to assess central facets of self-ascribed masculinity-femininity. Studies 1-2 used known-groups approaches (participants differing in gender and sexual orientation) to validate the scale and provide evidence of its convergent validity. As expected the TMF reliably measured a one-dimensional masculinity-femininity construct. Moreover, the TMF correlated moderately with other gender-related measures. Demonstrating incremental validity, the TMF predicted gender and sexual orientation in a superior way than established adjective-based measures. Furthermore, the TMF was connected to criterion characteristics, such as judgments as straight by laypersons for the whole sample, voice pitch characteristics for the female subsample, and contact to gay men for the male subsample, and outperformed other gender-related scales. Taken together, as long as gender differences continue to exist, we suggest that the TMF provides a valuable methodological addition for research into gender stereotypes.

  9. Multi-Scale Monitoring and Assessment of Nonpoint Source Pollution in Groundwater (United States)

    Harter, T.; Vanderschans, M.; Leijnse, A.; Mathews, M. C.; Meyer, R. D.


    The California dairy industry produces 20% of US milk and is the largest animal industry in the state. Many of the dairy facilities are located in low-relief valleys and basins with vulnerable groundwater resources. The continued influx of dairies into California's Central Valley has raised critical questions regarding their environmental performance, in particular with respect to groundwater quality impacts. While animal farming systems are considered among the leading sources of groundwater nitrate,little is known about the actual impact of dairy farming practices on groundwater quality in the extensive alluvial aquifers underlying the Central Valley. With our work we attempt to characterize and assess shallow groundwater underneath dairies in a relatively vulnerable hydrogeologic region and to discern the impact from various individual sources and management practices within dairies. An extensive shallow groundwater monitoring network was installed on five representative dairy operations in the northeastern San Joaquin Valley, California. The monitoring network spans all dairy management units: manure water lagoons, corrals, storage areas, and manure treated forage fields under various management practices. We recently also surveyed production well water quality. Water quality is found to be highly variable, both in time and space. We propose that a meaningful interpretation of these (nonpoint source pollution) data is only possible by explicitly considering the various scales affiliated with groundwater measurement, pollution source management, regulatory control, and beneficial use. Using statistical analysis and innovative modeling tools, we provide an interpretation of the observed data that is meaningful at the field scale (the scale unit of management decisions), the farm scale (considered to be a regulatory and planning unit), and the regional scale (considered to be a planning unit).

  10. Assessments of habitat preferences and quality depend on spatial scale and metrics of fitness (United States)

    Chalfoun, A.D.; Martin, T.E.


    1. Identifying the habitat features that influence habitat selection and enhance fitness is critical for effective management. Ecological theory predicts that habitat choices should be adaptive, such that fitness is enhanced in preferred habitats. However, studies often report mismatches between habitat preferences and fitness consequences across a wide variety of taxa based on a single spatial scale and/or a single fitness component. 2. We examined whether habitat preferences of a declining shrub steppe songbird, the Brewer's sparrow Spizella breweri, were adaptive when multiple reproductive fitness components and spatial scales (landscape, territory and nest patch) were considered. 3. We found that birds settled earlier and in higher densities, together suggesting preference, in landscapes with greater shrub cover and height. Yet nest success was not higher in these landscapes; nest success was primarily determined by nest predation rates. Thus landscape preferences did not match nest predation risk. Instead, nestling mass and the number of nesting attempts per pair increased in preferred landscapes, raising the possibility that landscapes were chosen on the basis of food availability rather than safe nest sites. 4. At smaller spatial scales (territory and nest patch), birds preferred different habitat features (i.e. density of potential nest shrubs) that reduced nest predation risk and allowed greater season-long reproductive success. 5. Synthesis and applications. Habitat preferences reflect the integration of multiple environmental factors across multiple spatial scales, and individuals may have more than one option for optimizing fitness via habitat selection strategies. Assessments of habitat quality for management prescriptions should ideally include analysis of diverse fitness consequences across multiple ecologically relevant spatial scales. ?? 2007 The Authors.

  11. Psychometric properties of a single-item scale to assess sleep quality among individuals with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadosky Alesia B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleep disturbances are a common and bothersome symptom of fibromyalgia (FM. This study reports psychometric properties of a single-item scale to assess sleep quality among individuals with FM. Methods Analyses were based on data from two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of pregabalin (studies 1056 and 1077. In a daily diary, patients reported the quality of their sleep on a numeric rating scale ranging from 0 ("best possible sleep" to 10 ("worst possible sleep". Test re-test reliability of the Sleep Quality Scale was evaluated by computing intraclass correlation coefficients. Pearson correlation coefficients were computed between baseline Sleep Quality scores and baseline pain diary and Medical Outcomes Study (MOS Sleep scores. Responsiveness to treatment was evaluated by standardized effect sizes computed as the difference between least squares mean changes in Sleep Quality scores in the pregabalin and placebo groups divided by the standard deviation of Sleep Quality scores across all patients at baseline. Results Studies 1056 and 1077 included 748 and 745 patients, respectively. Most patients were female (study 1056: 94.4%; study 1077: 94.5% and white (study 1056: 90.2%; study 1077: 91.0%. Mean ages were 48.8 years (study 1056 and 50.1 years (study 1077. Test re-test reliability coefficients of the Sleep Quality Scale were 0.91 and 0.90 in the 1056 and 1077 studies, respectively. Pearson correlation coefficients between baseline Sleep Quality scores and baseline pain diary scores were 0.64 (p Conclusion These results provide evidence of the reproducibility, convergent validity, and responsiveness to treatment of the Sleep Quality Scale and provide a foundation for its further use and evaluation in FM patients.

  12. Correlation between the selective control assessment of lower extremity and pediatric balance scale scores in children with spastic cerebral palsy (United States)

    Lim, Hyoungwon


    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between the Selective Control Assessment of Lower Extremity (SCALE) and Pediatric Balance Scales (PBS) in children with spastic cerebral palsy and further to test whether the SCALE is a valid tool to predict the PBS. [Subjects and Methods] A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the SCALE and PBS in 23 children (9 females, 14 males, GMFCS level I–III) with spastic cerebral palsy. [Results] Both the SCALE and PBS scores for children with spastic hemiplegia were significantly higher than those for children with spastic diplegia. The scores for SCALE items were low for distal parts. The PBS items that were difficult for the participants to perform were items 8, 9, 10, and 14 with the highest difficulty experienced for item 8 followed by items 9, 10, and 14. The correlation coefficient (0.797) between the SCALE and PBS scores was statistically significant. The correlations between each SCALE item and the PBS scores were also statistically significant. SCALE items were significantly correlated with two PBS dimensions (standing and postural change). [Conclusion] In SCALE assessment, more severe deficits were observed in the distal parts. Standing and postural changes in the PBS method were difficult for the participants to perform. The two tests, that is, the SCALE and PBS, were highly correlated. Therefore, the SCALE is useful to prediction of PBS outcomes and is also applicable as a prognostic indicator for treatment planning. PMID:26834323

  13. On somatic symptoms measurement: The scale for assessment of somatic symptoms revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Desai


    Full Text Available Background: Scale for assessment of somatic symptoms (SASS has been widely used for assessing somatic complaints since many years. With impending changes in the classificatory system on somatoform disorders, we re- assessed the test-retest reliability and inter-rater reliability of SASS. Materials and Methods: SASS was administered twice with a gap of 24 h on 20 subjects for test retest reliability. Two clinicians assessed inter-rater reliability on 20 subjects. Kendall tau B and Cronbach′s alpha were calculated from the data. Results: All of the items except burning sensation, weakness of mind and trembling had strong correlation with values >±0.40 on both test retest and inter-rater reliability; burning sensation and trembling were not reported by any subject. On inter-rater reliability the items constipation, diarrhea, lack of libido weren′t scored by any subjects. Cronbach′s alpha for test retest was 0.982 and 0.840 indicating good internal consistency. Conclusion: Majority of the symptoms in SASS had high correlation in both test retest reliability as well as inter-rater reliability, however few items needs revision.

  14. Assessment and evaluation of the high risk neonate: the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale. (United States)

    Lester, Barry M; Andreozzi-Fontaine, Lynne; Tronick, Edward; Bigsby, Rosemarie


    There has been a long-standing interest in the assessment of the neurobehavioral integrity of the newborn infant. The NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) was developed as an assessment for the at-risk infant. These are infants who are at increased risk for poor developmental outcome because of insults during prenatal development, such as substance exposure or prematurity or factors such as poverty, poor nutrition or lack of prenatal care that can have adverse effects on the intrauterine environment and affect the developing fetus. The NNNS assesses the full range of infant neurobehavioral performance including neurological integrity, behavioral functioning, and signs of stress/abstinence. The NNNS is a noninvasive neonatal assessment tool with demonstrated validity as a predictor, not only of medical outcomes such as cerebral palsy diagnosis, neurological abnormalities, and diseases with risks to the brain, but also of developmental outcomes such as mental and motor functioning, behavior problems, school readiness, and IQ. The NNNS can identify infants at high risk for abnormal developmental outcome and is an important clinical tool that enables medical researchers and health practitioners to identify these infants and develop intervention programs to optimize the development of these infants as early as possible. The video shows the NNNS procedures, shows examples of normal and abnormal performance and the various clinical populations in which the exam can be used.

  15. Comparison of the Behavioural Inattention Test and the Catherine Bergego Scale in assessment of hemispatial neglect. (United States)

    Luukkainen-Markkula, R; Tarkka, I M; Pitkanen, K; Sivenius, J; Hamalainen, H


    The objective of the study was to correlate visual and behavioural assessments of hemispatial neglect caused by cerebrovascular accident. We assessed 17 consecutive right-hemisphere stroke patients with hemispatial neglect: the Catherine Bergego Scale (CBS) was used to evaluate neglect in spontaneous behaviour and the conventional subtests of the Behavioural Inattention Test (BIT C) were used to assess visual neglect. The proportional severity of both visual and behavioural neglect was calculated in each individual patient. Dissociations were found between mild neglect in visual screening tasks and moderate or severe neglect in behaviour, although in most patients, neglect was equally evident in both tests. Only the line bisection subtest from the BIT correlated significantly with the CBS, yet both tests showed good internal consistency. The line bisection test and several items of the CBS were especially sensitive in detecting the combination of visual field deficit and hemispatial neglect. In conclusion, we propose that visual fields should always be assessed in patients with neglect because neglect may be exacerbated by a visual field deficit and this can cause prolonged functional disability in everyday life situations. Specific rehabilitation methods might also be needed in neglect with or without hemianopia.

  16. BioCAS: Biometeorological Climate impact Assessment System for building-scale impact assessment of heat-stress related mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim, Kyu Rang


    Full Text Available An urban climate analysis system for Seoul was combined with biometeorological models for the spatially distributed assessment of heat stress risks. The Biometeorological Climate impact Assessment System (BioCAS is based on the Climate Analysis Seoul (CAS workbench which provides urban planners with gridded data relevant for local climate assessment at 25 m and 5 m spatial resolutions. The influence of building morphology and vegetation on mean radiant temperature Tmrt was simulated by the SOLWEIG model. Gridded hourly perceived temperature PT was computed using the Klima-Michel Model for a hot day in 2012. Daily maximum perceived temperature PTmax was then derived from these data and applied to an empirical-statistical model that explains the relationship between PTmax and excess mortality rate rEM in Seoul. The resultant rEM map quantifies the detrimental impact of hot weather at the building scale. Mean (maximum values of rEM in old and new town areas in an urban re-development site in Seoul were estimated at 2.3 % (50.7 % and 0 % (8.6 %, respectively, indicating that urban re-development in the new town area has generally resulted in a strong reduction of heat-stress related mortality. The study illustrates that BioCAS can generally be applied for the quantification of the impacts of hot weather on human health for different urban development scenarios. Further improvements are required, particularly to consider indoor climate conditions causing heat stress, as well as socio-economic status and population structure of local residents.

  17. Bias-correction and Spatial Disaggregation for Climate Change Impact Assessments at a basin scale (United States)

    Nyunt, Cho; Koike, Toshio; Yamamoto, Akio; Nemoto, Toshihoro; Kitsuregawa, Masaru


    Basin-scale climate change impact studies mainly rely on general circulation models (GCMs) comprising the related emission scenarios. Realistic and reliable data from GCM is crucial for national scale or basin scale impact and vulnerability assessments to build safety society under climate change. However, GCM fail to simulate regional climate features due to the imprecise parameterization schemes in atmospheric physics and coarse resolution scale. This study describes how to exclude some unsatisfactory GCMs with respect to focused basin, how to minimize the biases of GCM precipitation through statistical bias correction and how to cover spatial disaggregation scheme, a kind of downscaling, within in a basin. GCMs rejection is based on the regional climate features of seasonal evolution as a bench mark and mainly depends on spatial correlation and root mean square error of precipitation and atmospheric variables over the target region. Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and Japanese 25-uear Reanalysis Project (JRA-25) are specified as references in figuring spatial pattern and error of GCM. Statistical bias-correction scheme comprises improvements of three main flaws of GCM precipitation such as low intensity drizzled rain days with no dry day, underestimation of heavy rainfall and inter-annual variability of local climate. Biases of heavy rainfall are conducted by generalized Pareto distribution (GPD) fitting over a peak over threshold series. Frequency of rain day error is fixed by rank order statistics and seasonal variation problem is solved by using a gamma distribution fitting in each month against insi-tu stations vs. corresponding GCM grids. By implementing the proposed bias-correction technique to all insi-tu stations and their respective GCM grid, an easy and effective downscaling process for impact studies at the basin scale is accomplished. The proposed method have been examined its applicability to some of the basins in various climate

  18. Drug and herb induced liver injury: Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale for causality assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rolf; Teschke; Albrecht; Wolff; Christian; Frenzel; Alexander; Schwarzenboeck; Johannes; Schulze; Axel; Eickhoff


    Causality assessment of suspected drug induced liver injury(DILI) and herb induced liver injury(HILI) is hampered by the lack of a standardized approach to be used by attending physicians and at various subsequent evaluating levels. The aim of this review was to analyze the suitability of the liver specific Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences(CIOMS) scale as a standard tool for causality assessment in DILI and HILI cases. PubMed database was searched for the following terms: drug induced liver injury; herb induced liver injury; DILI causality assessment; and HILI causality assessment. The strength of the CIOMS lies in its potential as a standardized scale for DILI and HILI causality assessment. Other advantages include its liver specificity and its validation for hepatotoxicity with excellent sensitivity, specificity and predictive validity, based on cases with a positive reexposure test. This scale allows prospective collection of all relevant data required for a valid causality assessment. It does not require expert knowledge in hepatotoxicity and its results may subsequently be refined. Weaknesses of the CIOMS scale include the limited exclusion of alternative causes and qualitatively graded risk factors. In conclusion, CIOMS appears to be suitable as a standard scale for attending physicians, regulatory agencies, expert panels and other scientists to provide a standardized, reproducible causality assessment in suspected DILI and HILI cases, applicable primarily at all assessing levels involved. 2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Co., Limited. All rights

  19. Database support for adaptation to climate change: An assessment of web-based portals across scales. (United States)

    Sanderson, Hans; Hilden, Mikael; Russel, Duncan; Dessai, Suraje


    The widely recognized increase in greenhouse gas emissions is necessitating adaptation to a changing climate, and policies are being developed and implemented worldwide, across sectors, and between government scales globally. The aim of this article is to reflect on one of the major challenges: facilitating and sharing information on the next adaptation practices. Web portals (i.e., web sites) for disseminating information are important tools in meeting this challenge, and therefore, we assessed the characteristics of select major portals across multiple scales. We found that there is a rather limited number of case studies available in the portals-between 900 and 1000 in total-with 95 that include cost information and 195 that include the participation of stakeholders globally. Portals are rarely cited by researchers, suggesting a suboptimal connection between the practical, policy-related, and scientific development of adaptation. The government portals often lack links on search results between US and European Union (EU) web sites, for example. With significant investments and policy development emerging in both the United States and the European Union, there is great potential to share information via portals. Moreover, there is the possibility of better connecting the practical adaptation experience from bottom-up projects to the science of adaptation. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:627-631. © 2016 SETAC.

  20. Modelling future impacts of air pollution using the multi-scale UK Integrated Assessment Model (UKIAM). (United States)

    Oxley, Tim; Dore, Anthony J; ApSimon, Helen; Hall, Jane; Kryza, Maciej


    Integrated assessment modelling has evolved to support policy development in relation to air pollutants and greenhouse gases by providing integrated simulation tools able to produce quick and realistic representations of emission scenarios and their environmental impacts without the need to re-run complex atmospheric dispersion models. The UK Integrated Assessment Model (UKIAM) has been developed to investigate strategies for reducing UK emissions by bringing together information on projected UK emissions of SO2, NOx, NH3, PM10 and PM2.5, atmospheric dispersion, criteria for protection of ecosystems, urban air quality and human health, and data on potential abatement measures to reduce emissions, which may subsequently be linked to associated analyses of costs and benefits. We describe the multi-scale model structure ranging from continental to roadside, UK emission sources, atmospheric dispersion of emissions, implementation of abatement measures, integration with European-scale modelling, and environmental impacts. The model generates outputs from a national perspective which are used to evaluate alternative strategies in relation to emissions, deposition patterns, air quality metrics and ecosystem critical load exceedance. We present a selection of scenarios in relation to the 2020 Business-As-Usual projections and identify potential further reductions beyond those currently being planned.

  1. Assessing the validity and reliability of the perceptions of the Consent To Sex Scale. (United States)

    Jozkowski, Kristen N; Peterson, Zoë D


    Although sexual assault prevention education tends to focus on consent promotion as a means to reduce rates of sexual assault, little is known about how college students consent to sexual activity. The current study aimed to better understand college students' consent via the systematic development of the Consent to Sex Scale (CSS), utilizing mixed methods via three phases and two waves of data collection. In Phase 1, qualitative data were collected from college students (n = 185) to provide a foundation for item writing. In Phase 2, closed-ended items were written for a quantitative instrument and reviewed by a team of experts. In Phase 3, a quantitative survey, including items written in Phase 2, was administered to college students (n = 685); the measure was assessed for its psychometric properties. Exploratory factor analysis was utilized, resulting in a five-factor solution. The CSS and corresponding factors demonstrated high internal consistency reliability and expected gender differences, supporting the construct validity of the measure. The CSS assesses college students' cues for indicating consent to sex, a construct not addressed by previous measures. The validated scale may be useful in future research to better understand how consent relates to other behaviors or constructs.

  2. Assessing perceived stress in medical personnel: In search of an appropriate scale for the Bengali population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Chakraborti


    Full Text Available Background: The occurrence of stress and stress related anxiety and depression in medical personnel are being increasingly reported in literature. The perceived stress scale (PSS is the most widely used psychological instrument for measuring the perception of stress. It is needed to assess perceived stress in our population using appropriately translated version of PSS. The objectives of study were to prepare a Bengali version of PSS-10 and to establish its psychometric properties in the study population. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in a teaching hospital among medical students and interns ( N=37. The translated Bengali version and the original English version of PSS-10 were separately handed over to the individual subjects. The scores were compared across different subgroups and psychometric properties of the translated version were assessed using SPSS 16. Results: Internal consistency of PSS English (α=0.79 and Bengali (α=0.80 was satisfactory. Intra-rater reliability was adequate (κ>0.5 for most of the items, but showed an inadequate value (κ<0.5 for four items on the scale. After deleting these four items from the Bengali version, a new six-item PSS in Bengali was derived that showed good internal consistency (α=0.699. Conclusion: This new version needs to be validated in a larger study population. Perceived stress score using PSS-10 was considerably high in our study population, although there was no significant difference between the subgroups (male/female, intern/student.

  3. Linking rainfall-induced landslides with debris flows runout patterns towards catchment scale hazard assessment (United States)

    Fan, Linfeng; Lehmann, Peter; McArdell, Brian; Or, Dani


    Debris flows and landslides induced by heavy rainfall represent an ubiquitous and destructive natural hazard in steep mountainous regions. For debris flows initiated by shallow landslides, the prediction of the resulting pathways and associated hazard is often hindered by uncertainty in determining initiation locations, volumes and mechanical state of the mobilized debris (and by model parameterization). We propose a framework for linking a simplified physically-based debris flow runout model with a novel Landslide Hydro-mechanical Triggering (LHT) model to obtain a coupled landslide-debris flow susceptibility and hazard assessment. We first compared the simplified debris flow model of Perla (1980) with a state-of-the art continuum-based model (RAMMS) and with an empirical model of Rickenmann (1999) at the catchment scale. The results indicate that predicted runout distances by the Perla model are in reasonable agreement with inventory measurements and with the other models. Predictions of localized shallow landslides by LHT model provides information on water content of released mass. To incorporate effects of water content and flow viscosity as provided by LHT on debris flow runout, we adapted the Perla model. The proposed integral link between landslide triggering susceptibility quantified by LHT and subsequent debris flow runout hazard calculation using the adapted Perla model provides a spatially and temporally resolved framework for real-time hazard assessment at the catchment scale or along critical infrastructure (roads, railroad lines).

  4. Debris-flow hazard assessment at regional scale by combining susceptibility mapping and radar rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Berenguer


    Full Text Available This work presents a technique for debris flow (DF hazard assessment able to be used in the framework of DF early warning systems at regional scale. The developed system is applied at subbasin scale and is based on the concepts of fuzzy logic to combine two ingredients: (i DF subbasin susceptibility assessment based on geomorphological variables, and (ii the magnitude of the rainfall situation as depicted from radar rainfall estimates. The output of the developed technique is a three-class hazard level ("low", "moderate" and "high" in each subbasin when a new radar rainfall map is available. The developed technique has been applied in a domain in the Eastern Pyrenees (Spain from May to October 2010. The estimated hazard level stayed "low" during the entire period in 20% of the subbasins, while, in the most susceptible subbasins, the hazard level was at least moderate for up to10 days. Quantitative evaluation of the estimated hazard level was possible in a subbasin where debris flows were monitored during the analysis period. The technique was able to identify the 3 events observed in the catchment (1 debris flow and 2 hyperconcentrated flow events and produced no false alarm.

  5. Earthquake Hazard and Risk Assessment Based on Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes: State of Gujarat, India (United States)

    Parvez, Imtiyaz A.; Nekrasova, Anastasia; Kossobokov, Vladimir


    The Gujarat state of India is one of the most seismically active intercontinental regions of the world. Historically, it has experienced many damaging earthquakes including the devastating 1819 Rann of Kachchh and 2001 Bhuj earthquakes. The effect of the later one is grossly underestimated by the Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP). To assess a more adequate earthquake hazard for the state of Gujarat, we apply Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes (USLE), which generalizes the Gutenberg-Richter recurrence relation taking into account naturally fractal distribution of earthquake loci. USLE has evident implications since any estimate of seismic hazard depends on the size of the territory considered and, therefore, may differ dramatically from the actual one when scaled down to the proportion of the area of interest (e.g. of a city) from the enveloping area of investigation. We cross-compare the seismic hazard maps compiled for the same standard regular grid 0.2° × 0.2° (1) in terms of design ground acceleration based on the neo-deterministic approach, (2) in terms of probabilistic exceedance of peak ground acceleration by GSHAP, and (3) the one resulted from the USLE application. Finally, we present the maps of seismic risks for the state of Gujarat integrating the obtained seismic hazard, population density based on India's Census 2011 data, and a few model assumptions of vulnerability.

  6. Quantitative assessment of changes in landslide risk using a regional scale run-out model (United States)

    Hussin, Haydar; Chen, Lixia; Ciurean, Roxana; van Westen, Cees; Reichenbach, Paola; Sterlacchini, Simone


    The risk of landslide hazard continuously changes in time and space and is rarely a static or constant phenomena in an affected area. However one of the main challenges of quantitatively assessing changes in landslide risk is the availability of multi-temporal data for the different components of risk. Furthermore, a truly "quantitative" landslide risk analysis requires the modeling of the landslide intensity (e.g. flow depth, velocities or impact pressures) affecting the elements at risk. Such a quantitative approach is often lacking in medium to regional scale studies in the scientific literature or is left out altogether. In this research we modelled the temporal and spatial changes of debris flow risk in a narrow alpine valley in the North Eastern Italian Alps. The debris flow inventory from 1996 to 2011 and multi-temporal digital elevation models (DEMs) were used to assess the susceptibility of debris flow triggering areas and to simulate debris flow run-out using the Flow-R regional scale model. In order to determine debris flow intensities, we used a linear relationship that was found between back calibrated physically based Flo-2D simulations (local scale models of five debris flows from 2003) and the probability values of the Flow-R software. This gave us the possibility to assign flow depth to a total of 10 separate classes on a regional scale. Debris flow vulnerability curves from the literature and one curve specifically for our case study area were used to determine the damage for different material and building types associated with the elements at risk. The building values were obtained from the Italian Revenue Agency (Agenzia delle Entrate) and were classified per cadastral zone according to the Real Estate Observatory data (Osservatorio del Mercato Immobiliare, Agenzia Entrate - OMI). The minimum and maximum market value for each building was obtained by multiplying the corresponding land-use value (€/msq) with building area and number of floors

  7. An integrated model for assessing both crop productivity and agricultural water resources at a large scale (United States)

    Okada, M.; Sakurai, G.; Iizumi, T.; Yokozawa, M.


    Agricultural production utilizes regional resources (e.g. river water and ground water) as well as local resources (e.g. temperature, rainfall, solar energy). Future climate changes and increasing demand due to population increases and economic developments would intensively affect the availability of water resources for agricultural production. While many studies assessed the impacts of climate change on agriculture, there are few studies that dynamically account for changes in water resources and crop production. This study proposes an integrated model for assessing both crop productivity and agricultural water resources at a large scale. Also, the irrigation management to subseasonal variability in weather and crop response varies for each region and each crop. To deal with such variations, we used the Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique to quantify regional-specific parameters associated with crop growth and irrigation water estimations. We coupled a large-scale crop model (Sakurai et al. 2012), with a global water resources model, H08 (Hanasaki et al. 2008). The integrated model was consisting of five sub-models for the following processes: land surface, crop growth, river routing, reservoir operation, and anthropogenic water withdrawal. The land surface sub-model was based on a watershed hydrology model, SWAT (Neitsch et al. 2009). Surface and subsurface runoffs simulated by the land surface sub-model were input to the river routing sub-model of the H08 model. A part of regional water resources available for agriculture, simulated by the H08 model, was input as irrigation water to the land surface sub-model. The timing and amount of irrigation water was simulated at a daily step. The integrated model reproduced the observed streamflow in an individual watershed. Additionally, the model accurately reproduced the trends and interannual variations of crop yields. To demonstrate the usefulness of the integrated model, we compared two types of impact assessment of

  8. Narrative review of scales assessing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Evangelina Herrán Paz


    Full Text Available Context. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a common neurobehavioral disorder in school-age population and is a major driver of mental health consultation. Diagnosis is hindered by the difficulty of objectively assessing subjective aspects such as inattention or impulsivity. Purpose. To briefly describe the most widely used rating scales as tools for the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, subtypes and comorbidities, based on a review of information available in MEDLINE, Medic America, Academic Search Complete and Mendeley databases. Analysis. This disorder is poorly understood in the family and school environment, which hampers detection and timely treatment. Rating scales have advantages and disadvantages, but they are undoubtedly important for an initial approach to the clinical manifestations of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Conclusion. There is a need for better diagnostic tools or scales that take into account the stage of neurodevelopment, other developmental stages, gender differences, sociocultural aspects and diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition.

  9. Including A-Priori Assessment of Actual Evapotranspiration for Green Roof Daily Scale Hydrological Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirka Mobilia


    Full Text Available In the last decades, there has been a widespread implementation of Green Infrastructures worldwide. Among these, green roofs appear to be particularly flexible sustainable drainage facilities. To predict their effectiveness for planning purposes, a tool is required that provides information as a function of local meteorological variables. Thus, a relatively simple daily scale, one-dimensional water balance approach has been proposed. The crucial evapotranspiration process, usually considered as a water balance dependent variable, is replaced here by empirical relationships providing an a-priori assessment of soil water losses through actual evapotranspiration. The modelling scheme, which under some simplification can be used without a calibration process, has been applied to experimental runoff data monitored at a green roof located near Bernkastel (Germany, between April 2005 and December 2006. Two different empirical relationships have been used to model actual evapotranspiration, considering a water availability limited and an energy limited scheme. Model errors quantification, ranging from 2% to 40% on the long-term scale and from 1% to 36% at the event scale, appear strongly related to the particularly considered relationship.

  10. Large-scale model-based assessment of deer-vehicle collision risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Hothorn

    Full Text Available Ungulates, in particular the Central European roe deer Capreolus capreolus and the North American white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus, are economically and ecologically important. The two species are risk factors for deer-vehicle collisions and as browsers of palatable trees have implications for forest regeneration. However, no large-scale management systems for ungulates have been implemented, mainly because of the high efforts and costs associated with attempts to estimate population sizes of free-living ungulates living in a complex landscape. Attempts to directly estimate population sizes of deer are problematic owing to poor data quality and lack of spatial representation on larger scales. We used data on >74,000 deer-vehicle collisions observed in 2006 and 2009 in Bavaria, Germany, to model the local risk of deer-vehicle collisions and to investigate the relationship between deer-vehicle collisions and both environmental conditions and browsing intensities. An innovative modelling approach for the number of deer-vehicle collisions, which allows nonlinear environment-deer relationships and assessment of spatial heterogeneity, was the basis for estimating the local risk of collisions for specific road types on the scale of Bavarian municipalities. Based on this risk model, we propose a new "deer-vehicle collision index" for deer management. We show that the risk of deer-vehicle collisions is positively correlated to browsing intensity and to harvest numbers. Overall, our results demonstrate that the number of deer-vehicle collisions can be predicted with high precision on the scale of municipalities. In the densely populated and intensively used landscapes of Central Europe and North America, a model-based risk assessment for deer-vehicle collisions provides a cost-efficient instrument for deer management on the landscape scale. The measures derived from our model provide valuable information for planning road protection and defining

  11. Making Governance "Good": The Production of Scale in the Environmental Impact Assessment and Governance of the Salween River


    Vanessa Lamb


    Environmental impact assessments (EIAs) are generally considered an important component of formal decision-making processes about development, serving to ensure that a project′s environmental impacts are considered in decisions about whether and how it will proceed. Scale is an important part of the narrative built into the assessment. Building on a rich literature at the intersection of human geography and political ecology, I focus on the way that scale is remade through the environmental i...

  12. Towards a New Assessment of Urban Areas from Local to Global Scales (United States)

    Bhaduri, B. L.; Roy Chowdhury, P. K.; McKee, J.; Weaver, J.; Bright, E.; Weber, E.


    Since early 2000s, starting with NASA MODIS, satellite based remote sensing has facilitated collection of imagery with medium spatial resolution but high temporal resolution (daily). This trend continues with an increasing number of sensors and data products. Increasing spatial and temporal resolutions of remotely sensed data archives, from both public and commercial sources, have significantly enhanced the quality of mapping and change data products. However, even with automation of such analysis on evolving computing platforms, rates of data processing have been suboptimal largely because of the ever-increasing pixel to processor ratio coupled with limitations of the computing architectures. Novel approaches utilizing spatiotemporal data mining techniques and computational architectures have emerged that demonstrates the potential for sustained and geographically scalable landscape monitoring to be operational. We exemplify this challenge with two broad research initiatives on High Performance Geocomputation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: (a) mapping global settlement distribution; (b) developing national critical infrastructure databases. Our present effort, on large GPU based architectures, to exploit high resolution (1m or less) satellite and airborne imagery for extracting settlements at global scale is yielding understanding of human settlement patterns and urban areas at unprecedented resolution. Comparison of such urban land cover database, with existing national and global land cover products, at various geographic scales in selected parts of the world is revealing intriguing patterns and insights for urban assessment. Early results, from the USA, Taiwan, and Egypt, indicate closer agreements (5-10%) in urban area assessments among databases at larger, aggregated geographic extents. However, spatial variability at local scales could be significantly different (over 50% disagreement).

  13. Regional scale landslide risk assessment with a dynamic physical model - development, application and uncertainty analysis (United States)

    Luna, Byron Quan; Vidar Vangelsten, Bjørn; Liu, Zhongqiang; Eidsvig, Unni; Nadim, Farrokh


    Landslide risk must be assessed at the appropriate scale in order to allow effective risk management. At the moment, few deterministic models exist that can do all the computations required for a complete landslide risk assessment at a regional scale. This arises from the difficulty to precisely define the location and volume of the released mass and from the inability of the models to compute the displacement with a large amount of individual initiation areas (computationally exhaustive). This paper presents a medium-scale, dynamic physical model for rapid mass movements in mountainous and volcanic areas. The deterministic nature of the approach makes it possible to apply it to other sites since it considers the frictional equilibrium conditions for the initiation process, the rheological resistance of the displaced flow for the run-out process and fragility curve that links intensity to economic loss for each building. The model takes into account the triggering effect of an earthquake, intense rainfall and a combination of both (spatial and temporal). The run-out module of the model considers the flow as a 2-D continuum medium solving the equations of mass balance and momentum conservation. The model is embedded in an open source environment geographical information system (GIS), it is computationally efficient and it is transparent (understandable and comprehensible) for the end-user. The model was applied to a virtual region, assessing landslide hazard, vulnerability and risk. A Monte Carlo simulation scheme was applied to quantify, propagate and communicate the effects of uncertainty in input parameters on the final results. In this technique, the input distributions are recreated through sampling and the failure criteria are calculated for each stochastic realisation of the site properties. The model is able to identify the released volumes of the critical slopes and the areas threatened by the run-out intensity. The obtained final outcome is the estimation

  14. Long term post-flood damage assessments to analyze the strategies of adaptation at individual scale (United States)

    Brémond, Pauline; Bonte, Bruno; Erdlenbruch, Katrin; Grelot, Frédéric; Richert, Claire


    RETINA is a project which studies the opportunity for adaptation in the aftermath of flood events. To handle this research question, we consider adaptation to flood risk at individual and collective scale as well as the influence of the urban planning regulation (Flood risk mapping). For the purpose of this research, collective adaptation means actions that are undertaken at collective scale such as dikes, relocation of collective infrastructures (roads, treatment plant...) and individual adaptation means actions decided at individual level (households, enterprises or farmers) such as relocation, elevation of critical components, new organization.... In this presentation, we focus on individual adaptation and analyse which are the mechanisms that incite or constrain the adaptation to flood risk of individual assets considering their own trajectory. The originality of our approach is to carry out long term post-flood assessments and comprehensive interviews at individual scale. To catch the drivers of adaptation, we sequenced the interview guide in three periods: 1/ the situation before the reference event occurred, 2/ what happened during and just after the flood event, 3/ what happened from the flood event until the moment of the interview. Two case studies have been chosen. The first case study is the Aude department where an exceptional flooding occurred in 1999. The second case study is the Var department where more recent and frequent flood events occurred in 2010, 2011, 2014. On each case study, we plan to conduct about fifty interviews including households and economic activities. In this presentation, we will develop methodological aspects on long term post-flood damage assessments. Carrying out a long term post-flood assessment enabled us to consider adaptation to flood risk among the whole of strategic decisions a household or an enterprise has to take. Moreover, we found out that contrary to what is usually assumed, the fact that the reference event was

  15. The Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) and Global Assessment of Psychosocial Disability (GAPD) in clinical practice--substance and reliability as judged by intraclass correlations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrborg, J; Larsen, F W; Nielsen, S;


    Studies on the inter-rater reliability on the Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) and the Global Assessment of Psychosocial Disability (GAPD) involving different subgroups of 145 outpatients from 4 to 16 years of age showed fair to substantial intraclass correlations of 0.59 to 0.90. Raters...

  16. Large-scale assessment of flood risk and the effects of mitigation measures along the Elbe River

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, de J.L.; Grossmann, M.


    The downstream effects of flood risk mitigation measures and the necessity to develop flood risk management strategies that are effective on a basin scale call for a flood risk assessment methodology that can be applied at the scale of a large river. We present an example of a rapid flood risk asses

  17. Assessment of the prediction error in a large-scale application of a dynamic soil acidification model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kros, J.; Mol-Dijkstra, J.P.; Pebesma, E.J.


    The prediction error of a relatively simple soil acidification model (SMART2) was assessed before and after calibration, focussing on the aluminium and nitrate concentrations on a block scale. Although SMART2 is especially developed for application ona national to European scale, it still runs at a

  18. Psychometric assessment of the Rat Grimace Scale and development of an analgesic intervention score.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Oliver

    Full Text Available Our limited ability to assess spontaneous pain in rodent models of painful human conditions may be associated with a translational failure of promising analgesic compounds in to clinical use. If measurement of spontaneous pain behaviours can be used to generate an analgesic intervention score their use could expand to guide the use of analgesics, as mandated by regulatory bodies and ethical and welfare obligations. One such measure of spontaneous pain, the Rat Grimace Scale (RGS, has recently been described and shown to exhibit reliability. However, reliability of measurement scores is context and content specific, and further testing required to assess translation to a heterogenous setting (different model, raters, environment. The objectives of this study were to perform reliability testing with the Rat Grimace Scale in a heterogenous setting and generate an analgesic intervention score for its use. In a randomised, blinded study, sixteen adult female rats received one of three analgesia treatments (0.05 mg/kg buprenorphine subcutaneously, 1 mg/kg meloxicam subcutaneously, 0.2 mg/kg oral buprenorphine in jelly peri-operatively (telemetry unit implantation surgery. Rats were video-recorded (before, 1-6 and 12 hours post-operatively and images collected for independent scoring by three blinded raters using the RGS, and five experts based on "pain/no pain" assessment. Scores were used to calculate inter- and intra-rater reliability with an intraclass correlation coefficient and generate an analgesic intervention score with receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The RGS scores showed very good inter- and intra-rater reliability (0.85 [0.78-0.90 95% CI] and 0.83 [0.76-0.89], respectively. An analgesic intervention threshold of greater than 0.67 was determined. These data demonstrate that the RGS is a useful tool which can be successfully employed in a heterogenous setting, and has the potential to guide analgesic intervention.

  19. Assessing field-scale migration of mobile radionuclides at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Q; Rose, T P; Smith, D K; Moran, J E; Zavarin, M


    Numerous long-lived radionuclides, including {sup 99}Tc (technetium) and {sup 129}I (iodine), are present in groundwater at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) as a result of 828 underground nuclear weapons tests conducted between 1951 and 1992. We synthesize a body of groundwater data collected on the distribution of a number of radionuclides ({sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I), which are presumably mobile in the subsurface and potentially toxic to down-gradient receptors, to assess their migration at NTS, at field scales over distances of hundreds of meters and for durations of more than thirty years. Qualitative evaluation of field-scale migration of these radionuclides in the saturated zone provides an independent approach to validating their presumably conservative transport in the performance assessment of the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain, which is located on the western edge of NTS. The analyses show that the interaction of {sup 3}H with a solid surface via an isotopic exchange with clay lattice hydroxyls may cause a slight delay in the transport of {sup 3}H. The transport of {sup 14}C could be retarded by its isotopic exchange with carbonate minerals, and the exchange may be more pronounced in the alluvial aquifer. In particular, {sup 99}Tc may not necessarily exist as a mobile and conservative species {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}, as commonly assumed for NTS groundwater. This is corroborated with recent in situ redox potential measurements, both across and near Yucca Mountain, showing that groundwater at multiple locations is not oxidizing. Speciation of iodine and its associated reactivity and mobility is also complex in the groundwater at the NTS and deserves further attention. The assumption of no retardation for the transport of {sup 99}Tc (especially) and {sup 129}I, used at the performance assessment of Yucca Mountain repository, is probably overly conservative and results in unrealistically high estimated doses for

  20. Assessment of biosecurity practices of small-scale broiler producers in central Egypt. (United States)

    Negro-Calduch, E; Elfadaly, S; Tibbo, M; Ankers, P; Bailey, E


    In the current situation of endemicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in Egypt, improving the biosecurity of poultry production has become essential to the progressive reduction the incidence of the disease. A significant proportion of the Egyptian commercial poultry system consists of small-scale poultry producers operating with low to minimal biosecurity measures. An investigation was conducted into the level of adoption of standard biosecurity measures of the small-scale commercial chicken growers, including both farm- and home-based commercial production, input suppliers and other actors along the meat chicken value chain in Fayoum, Egypt. The study which used direct observations and group discussions of nearly 160 participants and structured interviews with 463 respondents, assessed biosecurity implementation to improve management practices and ultimately to control and prevent highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). The survey found that overall, biosecurity measures are rarely implemented in small-scale commercial poultry production units. Compliance with recommended biosecurity practices did not greatly vary from home-based to farm-based commercial production. Furthermore, serious risk practices were identified, such as unsafe disposal of poultry carcasses and potential disease spread posed by poor biosecurity measures implemented during vaccination. HPAI control measures have been ineffective due to limited cooperation between public and private sector, aggravated by the unpopular measures taken in the event of outbreaks and no compensation paid for incurred losses. Outreach and biosecurity awareness raising initiatives should be specifically developed for small-scale producers with the objective of improving general poultry management and thus preventing HPAI and other poultry diseases.

  1. 平衡评价量表在临床中的应用%Clinical Application of Balance Assessment Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雅琴; 王拥军; 冯涛; 张玉梅


    There are so many ways of assessment on balance, among which scale assessment is the most used method. This article introduced the frequently used balance assessment scales in clinical medicine and researches, such as Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Tinetti Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment (Tinetti POMA), Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT), Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale(ABC),Brunel Balance Assessment (BBA), Dynamic Gait Index(DGI), Functional Gait Assessment(FGA), Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BEST), and the researches of reliability and validity on those scales. The reliable and valid tools to assess balance and gait are suggested for clinical medicine.%临床评定平衡障碍的方法很多,其中最常用的是量表评定法.本文介绍Berg平衡量表((BBS)、Tinetti平衡与步态量表(Tinetti POMA)、计时起立一步行测验(TUGT)、特异性活动平衡自信量表(ABC),Brunei平衡量表(BRA)、动态步态指数(DGI)、功能性步态评价(FGA)、平衡评价系统测试(BEST)等国内外常用的平衡评价量表及其信度、效度分析结果.并为临床推荐较好的平衡及步态障碍评价工具.

  2. [PSP Scale: German version of the Personal and Social Performance Scale: valid instrument for the assessment of psychosocial functioning in the treatment of schizophrenia]. (United States)

    Schaub, D; Juckel, G


    In the treatment of schizophrenia, the domain of psychosocial functioning is an important aspect of therapeutic success that should be considered in addition to the reduction of psychopathology. Valid and standardised measures are necessary for diagnostics and the assessment of patients" personal, social and professional functioning. The German version of the Personal and Social Performance (PSP) Scale (with its four subdimensions: "socially useful activities, work and study included", "personal and social relationships", "self-care" and "disturbing and aggressive behaviour") was administered to patients with schizophrenia in previous studies. These data demonstrated this scale to be a reliable, valid and efficient tool for measuring psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia. Thus, it is argued that, for everyday clinical practice, the PSP Scale is useful for the assessment of psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia during short, medium and long-term treatment courses.

  3. Advancing effects analysis for integrated, large-scale wildfire risk assessment. (United States)

    Thompson, Matthew P; Calkin, David E; Gilbertson-Day, Julie W; Ager, Alan A


    In this article, we describe the design and development of a quantitative, geospatial risk assessment tool intended to facilitate monitoring trends in wildfire risk over time and to provide information useful in prioritizing fuels treatments and mitigation measures. The research effort is designed to develop, from a strategic view, a first approximation of how both fire likelihood and intensity influence risk to social, economic, and ecological values at regional and national scales. Three main components are required to generate wildfire risk outputs: (1) burn probability maps generated from wildfire simulations, (2) spatially identified highly valued resources (HVRs), and (3) response functions that describe the effects of fire (beneficial or detrimental) on the HVR. Analyzing fire effects has to date presented a major challenge to integrated risk assessments, due to a limited understanding of the type and magnitude of changes wrought by wildfire to ecological and other nonmarket values. This work advances wildfire effects analysis, recognizing knowledge uncertainty and appropriately managing it through the use of an expert systems approach. Specifically, this work entailed consultation with 10 fire and fuels program management officials from federal agencies with fire management responsibilities in order to define quantitative resource response relationships as a function of fire intensity. Here, we demonstrate a proof-of-concept application of the wildland fire risk assessment tool, using the state of Oregon as a case study.

  4. Lessons from a Large-Scale Assessment: Results from Conceptual Inventories

    CERN Document Server

    Thacker, Beth; Pattillo, Dave; West, Keith


    We report the conceptual inventory results of a large-scale assessment project at a large university. We studied an attempt at introducing materials and instructional methods informed by physics education research (PER-informed materials) into a department where most instruction has been traditional and a significant number of faculty are hesitant, ambivalent or even resistant about the introduction of such reforms. The changes were made in the laboratories and recitation sections of the introductory classes, both calculus-based and algebra-based, introducing PER-informed materials and training the teaching assistants in student-centered instructional methods. In addition to the results found in the large lecture classes, we present the results of a small PER-informed, inquiry-based, laboratory-based class that has been taught as a special section of the algebra-based course for about 10 years. The assessment reported in this paper was done using available PER-developed assessment instruments. The results of ...

  5. Validation Study of the Scale for "Assessment of the Teaching-Learning Process", Student Version (ATLP-S) (United States)

    de la Fuente, Jesus; Sander, Paul; Justicia, Fernando; Pichardo, M. Carmen; Garcia-Berben, Ana B.


    Introduction: The main goal of this study is to evaluate the psychometric and assessment features of the Scale for the "Assessment of the Teaching-Learning Process, Student Version" (ATLP-S), for both practical and theoretical reasons. From an applied point of view, this self-report measurement instrument has been designed to encourage…

  6. Can International Large-Scale Assessments Inform a Global Learning Goal? Insights from the Learning Metrics Task Force (United States)

    Winthrop, Rebecca; Simons, Kate Anderson


    In recent years, the global community has developed a range of initiatives to inform the post-2015 global development agenda. In the education community, International Large-Scale Assessments (ILSAs) have an important role to play in advancing a global shift in focus to access plus learning. However, there are a number of other assessment tools…

  7. Validation Study of the Scale for "Assessment of the Teaching-Learning Process", Student Version (ATLP-S) (United States)

    de la Fuente, Jesus; Sander, Paul; Justicia, Fernando; Pichardo, M. Carmen; Garcia-Berben, Ana B.


    Introduction: The main goal of this study is to evaluate the psychometric and assessment features of the Scale for the "Assessment of the Teaching-Learning Process, Student Version" (ATLP-S), for both practical and theoretical reasons. From an applied point of view, this self-report measurement instrument has been designed to encourage student…

  8. Sea cliff instability susceptibility at regional scale: A statistically based assessment in southern Algarve, Portugal. (United States)

    Marques, F.; Matildes, R.; Redweik, P.


    /year in strong sandstones to 5x10-2m/year in Miocene calcarenites with frequent karst sinkholes filled with Plio-pleistocene silty sands, reflecting the strength variations of the rock masses that compose the cliffs. The maximum value of local retreat of the cliff top was up to 33m, in man induced failure, with more frequent values in the range of 2m to 6m. For the susceptibility assessment a set of predisposing factors was studied using two statistical methods, the bi-variate Information Value method, and the multi-variate Logistic Regression method, along successive constant length stretches of cliffs. The predisposing factors included: a) major lithostratigraphical units adapted from existing geological surveys; b) rock mass structure based in field observations; c) cliff height measured in 1:2,000 scale aerophotogrammetric surveys; d) general cliff slope angle generated from photogrammetric stereoploting of cliff top and toe; e) maximum cliff slope angle derived from the 1:2,000 scale aerophotogrammetric surveys; f) presence and type of cliff toe protection (plunging cliffs, fallen blocks, beaches, wave cut platforms) obtained in aerial photo interpretation and field work; g) land use; h) cliff exposure; i) cliff face aspect; j) presence of faults or dykes. The two instability assessment models produced were validated using standard Receiver Operator Curves using the cliff failures inventory, and provided very promising results, indicating that these methods are adequate to assess cliff instability susceptibility at regional scale, enabling an objective and validated assessment in this highly complex natural environment.

  9. Rasch Analysis of a New Hierarchical Scoring System for Evaluating Hand Function on the Motor Assessment Scale for Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce S. Sabari


    Full Text Available Objectives. (1 To develop two independent measurement scales for use as items assessing hand movements and hand activities within the Motor Assessment Scale (MAS, an existing instrument used for clinical assessment of motor performance in stroke survivors; (2 To examine the psychometric properties of these new measurement scales. Design. Scale development, followed by a multicenter observational study. Setting. Inpatient and outpatient occupational therapy programs in eight hospital and rehabilitation facilities in the United States and Canada. Participants. Patients (N=332 receiving stroke rehabilitation following left (52% or right (48% cerebrovascular accident; mean age 64.2 years (sd 15; median 1 month since stroke onset. Intervention. Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures. Data were tested for unidimensionality and reliability, and behavioral criteria were ordered according to difficulty level with Rasch analysis. Results. The new scales assessing hand movements and hand activities met Rasch expectations of unidimensionality and reliability. Conclusion. Following a multistep process of test development, analysis, and refinement, we have redesigned the two scales that comprise the hand function items on the MAS. The hand movement scale contains an empirically validated 10-behavior hierarchy and the hand activities item contains an empirically validated 8-behavior hierarchy.

  10. Assessment of small-scale integrated water vapour variability during HOPE (United States)

    Steinke, S.; Eikenberg, S.; Löhnert, U.; Dick, G.; Klocke, D.; Di Girolamo, P.; Crewell, S.


    The spatio-temporal variability of integrated water vapour (IWV) on small scales of less than 10 km and hours is assessed with data from the 2 months of the High Definition Clouds and Precipitation for advancing Climate Prediction (HD(CP)2) Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE). The statistical intercomparison of the unique set of observations during HOPE (microwave radiometer (MWR), Global Positioning System (GPS), sun photometer, radiosondes, Raman lidar, infrared and near-infrared Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the satellites Aqua and Terra) measuring close together reveals a good agreement in terms of random differences (standard deviation ≤1 kg m-2) and correlation coefficient (≥ 0.98). The exception is MODIS, which appears to suffer from insufficient cloud filtering. For a case study during HOPE featuring a typical boundary layer development, the IWV variability in time and space on scales of less than 10 km and less than 1 h is investigated in detail. For this purpose, the measurements are complemented by simulations with the novel ICOsahedral Nonhydrostatic modelling framework (ICON), which for this study has a horizontal resolution of 156 m. These runs show that differences in space of 3-4 km or time of 10-15 min induce IWV variabilities on the order of 0.4 kg m-2. This model finding is confirmed by observed time series from two MWRs approximately 3 km apart with a comparable temporal resolution of a few seconds. Standard deviations of IWV derived from MWR measurements reveal a high variability (> 1 kg m-2) even at very short time scales of a few minutes. These cannot be captured by the temporally lower-resolved instruments and by operational numerical weather prediction models such as COSMO-DE (an application of the Consortium for Small-scale Modelling covering Germany) of Deutscher Wetterdienst, which is included in the comparison. However, for time scales larger than 1 h, a sampling resolution of 15 min is

  11. Assessment of small-scale integrated water vapour variability during HOPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Steinke


    Full Text Available The spatio-temporal variability of integrated water vapour (IWV on small-scales of less than 10 km and hours is assessed with data from the two months of the High Definition Clouds and Precipitation for advancing Climate Prediction (HD(CP2 Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE. The statistical intercomparison of the unique set of observations during HOPE (microwave radiometer (MWR, Global Positioning System (GPS, sunphotometer, radiosondes, Raman Lidar, infrared and near infrared Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS on the satellites Aqua and Terra measuring close together reveals a good agreement in terms of standard deviation (≤ 1 kg m−2 and correlation coefficient (≥ 0.98. The exception is MODIS, which appears to suffer from insufficient cloud filtering. For a case study during HOPE featuring a typical boundary layer development, the IWV variability in time and space on scales of less than 10 km and less than 1 h is investigated in detail. For this purpose, the measurements are complemented by simulations with the novel ICOsahedral Non-hydrostatic modelling framework (ICON which for this study has a horizontal resolution of 156 m. These runs show that differences in space of 3–4 km or time of 10–15 min induce IWV variabilities in the order of 4 kg m−2. This model finding is confirmed by observed time series from two MWRs approximately 3 km apart with a comparable temporal resolution of a few seconds. Standard deviations of IWV derived from MWR measurements reveal a high variability (> 1 kg m−2 even at very short time scales of a few minutes. These cannot be captured by the temporally lower resolved instruments and by operational numerical weather prediction models such as COSMO-DE (an application of the Consortium for Small-scale Modelling covering Germany of Deutscher Wetterdienst, which is included in the comparison. However, for time scales larger than 1 h, a sampling resolution of 15 min is sufficient

  12. The Development of a Formative and a Reflective Scale for the Assessment of On-Line Store Usability

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    Timo Christophersen


    Full Text Available In usability research, difference between formative and reflective measurement models for the assessment of latent variables has been ignored largely. As a consequence, many usability scales are misspecified. This might result in reduced scale validity because of the elimination of important usability facets within the procedure of scale development. The aim of the current study was to develop a questionnaire for the evaluation of On-line store usability (UFOS-V2 that includes both a formative and a reflective scale. 378 subjects participated in a laboratory experimental study. Each participant visited two out of 35 On-line stores. The usability and intention to buy was assessed for both stores. In addition, actual purchase behaviour was observed by combining the subjects' reward with the decision to buy. In a two-construct PLS structural equation model the formative usability scale was used as a predictor for the reflective usability measure. Results indicate that the formative usability scale UFOS-V2f forms a valid set of items for the user-based assessment of online store usability. The reflective usability scale shows high internal consistency. Positive relationships to intention and decision to buy confirm high scale validity.

  13. A conceptual framework for developing a critical thinking self-assessment scale. (United States)

    Nair, Girija G; Stamler, Lynnette Leeseberg


    Nurses must be talented critical thinkers to cope with the challenges related to the ever-changing health care system, population trends, and extended role expectations. Several countries now recognize critical thinking skills (CTS) as an expected outcome of nursing education programs. Critical thinking has been defined in multiple ways by philosophers, critical thinking experts, and educators. Nursing experts conceptualize critical thinking as a process involving cognitive and affective domains of reasoning. Nurse educators are often challenged with teaching and measuring CTS because of their latent nature and the lack of a uniform definition of the concept. In this review of the critical thinking literature, we examine various definitions, identify a set of constructs that define critical thinking, and suggest a conceptual framework on which to base a self-assessment scale for measuring CTS.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael AKPAN


    Full Text Available This study assessed the environmental impactsassociated with Small Scale Wood Industries (SSWl inIkot Expene town, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Three (3industrial locations, namely sawmill (SM, Furniture (Fand Wood Carving (WC, including a Control (C wererandomly sampled for the study. Data were collected withthe aid of measurements, using standard instruments,and compared with those of National (FMENV andInternational (WHO regulatory limits. Analysis ofVariance (ANOVA statistics was used in data analysis.Results revealed that the measured environmentalparameters (air quality, soil and noise pollutions did notdiffer significantly (P<0.05 from the 3 industrial locations,but significant differences between the various locationsand control were obtained.

  15. An eighth-scale speech source for subjective assessments in acoustic models (United States)

    Orlowski, R. J.


    The design of a source is described which is suitable for making speech recordings in eighth-scale acoustic models of auditoria. An attempt was made to match the directionality of the source with the directionality of the human voice using data reported in the literature. A narrow aperture was required for the design which was provided by mounting an inverted conical horn over the diaphragm of a high frequency loudspeaker. Resonance problems were encountered with the use of a horn and a description is given of the electronic techniques adopted to minimize the effect of these resonances. Subjective and objective assessments on the completed speech source have proved satisfactory. It has been used in a modelling exercise concerned with the acoustic design of a theatre with a thrust-type stage.

  16. Fine Scale ANUClimate Data for Ecosystem Modeling and Assessment of Plant Functional Types (United States)

    Hutchinson, M. F.; Kesteven, J. L.; Xu, T.; Evans, B. J.; Togashi, H. F.; Stein, J. L.


    High resolution spatially extended values of climate variables play a central role in the assessment of climate and projected future climate in ecosystem modeling. The ground based meteorological network remains a key resource for deriving these spatially extended climate variables. We report on the production, and applications, of new anomaly based fine scale spatial interpolations of key climate variables at daily and monthly time scale, across the Australian continent. The methods incorporate several innovations that have significantly improved spatial predictive accuracy, as well as providing a platform for the incorporation of additional remotely sensed data. The interpolated climate data are supporting many continent-wide ecosystem modeling applications and are playing a key role in testing optimality hypotheses associated with plant functional types (PFTs). The accuracy, and robustness to data error, of anomaly-based interpolation has been enhanced by incorporating physical process aspects of the different climate variables and employing robust statistical methods implemented in the ANUSPLIN package. New regression procedures have also been developed to estimate "background" monthly climate normals from all stations with minimal records to substantially increase the density of supporting spatial networks. Monthly mean temperature interpolation has been enhanced by incorporating process based coastal effects that have reduced predictive error by around 10%. Overall errors in interpolated monthly temperature fields are around 25% less than errors reported by an earlier study. For monthly and daily precipitation, a new anomaly structure has been devised to take account of the skewness in precipitation data and the large proportion of zero values that present significant challenges to standard interpolation methods. The many applications include continent-wide Gross Primary Production modeling and assessing constraints on light and water use efficiency derived

  17. Assessing the potential of economic instruments for managing drought risk at river basin scale (United States)

    Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Lopez-Nicolas, A.; Macian-Sorribes, H.


    Economic instruments work as incentives to adapt individual decisions to collectively agreed goals. Different types of economic instruments have been applied to manage water resources, such as water-related taxes and charges (water pricing, environmental taxes, etc.), subsidies, markets or voluntary agreements. Hydroeconomic models (HEM) provide useful insight on optimal strategies for coping with droughts by simultaneously analysing engineering, hydrology and economics of water resources management. We use HEMs for evaluating the potential of economic instruments on managing drought risk at river basin scale, considering three criteria for assessing drought risk: reliability, resilience and vulnerability. HEMs allow to calculate water scarcity costs as the economic losses due to water deliveries below the target demands, which can be used as a vulnerability descriptor of drought risk. Two generic hydroeconomic DSS tools, SIMGAMS and OPTIGAMS ( both programmed in GAMS) have been developed to evaluate water scarcity cost at river basin scale based on simulation and optimization approaches. The simulation tool SIMGAMS allocates water according to the system priorities and operating rules, and evaluate the scarcity costs using economic demand functions. The optimization tool allocates water resources for maximizing net benefits (minimizing total water scarcity plus operating cost of water use). SIMGAS allows to simulate incentive water pricing policies based on water availability in the system (scarcity pricing), while OPTIGAMS is used to simulate the effect of ideal water markets by economic optimization. These tools have been applied to the Jucar river system (Spain), highly regulated and with high share of water use for crop irrigation (greater than 80%), where water scarcity, irregular hydrology and groundwater overdraft cause droughts to have significant economic, social and environmental consequences. An econometric model was first used to explain the variation

  18. Automated DNA-based plant identification for large-scale biodiversity assessment. (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Anna; Chesters, Douglas; Coronado, Indiana; De la Cadena, Gissela; Cardoso, Anabela; Reyes, Jazmina C; Maes, Jean-Michel; Rueda, Ricardo M; Gómez-Zurita, Jesús


    Rapid degradation of tropical forests urges to improve our efficiency in large-scale biodiversity assessment. DNA barcoding can assist greatly in this task, but commonly used phenetic approaches for DNA-based identifications rely on the existence of comprehensive reference databases, which are infeasible for hyperdiverse tropical ecosystems. Alternatively, phylogenetic methods are more robust to sparse taxon sampling but time-consuming, while multiple alignment of species-diagnostic, typically length-variable, markers can be problematic across divergent taxa. We advocate the combination of phylogenetic and phenetic methods for taxonomic assignment of DNA-barcode sequences against incomplete reference databases such as GenBank, and we developed a pipeline to implement this approach on large-scale plant diversity projects. The pipeline workflow includes several steps: database construction and curation, query sequence clustering, sequence retrieval, distance calculation, multiple alignment and phylogenetic inference. We describe the strategies used to establish these steps and the optimization of parameters to fit the selected psbA-trnH marker. We tested the pipeline using infertile plant samples and herbivore diet sequences from the highly threatened Nicaraguan seasonally dry forest and exploiting a valuable purpose-built resource: a partial local reference database of plant psbA-trnH. The selected methodology proved efficient and reliable for high-throughput taxonomic assignment, and our results corroborate the advantage of applying 'strict' tree-based criteria to avoid false positives. The pipeline tools are distributed as the scripts suite 'BAGpipe' (pipeline for Biodiversity Assessment using GenBank data), which can be readily adjusted to the purposes of other projects and applied to sequence-based identification for any marker or taxon.

  19. Development of an Attitude Scale to Assess K-12 Teachers' Attitudes toward Nanotechnology (United States)

    Lan, Yu-Ling


    To maximize the contributions of nanotechnology to this society, at least 60 countries have put efforts into this field. In Taiwan, a government-funded K-12 Nanotechnology Programme was established to train K-12 teachers with adequate nanotechnology literacy to foster the next generation of Taiwanese people with sufficient knowledge in nanotechnology. In the present study, the Nanotechnology Attitude Scale for K-12 teachers (NAS-T) was developed to assess K-12 teachers' attitudes toward nanotechnology. The NAS-T included 23 Likert-scale items that can be grouped into three components: importance of nanotechnology, affective tendencies in science teaching, and behavioural tendencies to teach nanotechnology. A sample of 233 K-12 teachers who have participated in the K-12 Nanotechnology Programme was included in the present study to investigate the psychometric properties of the NAS-T. The exploratory factor analysis of this teacher sample suggested that the NAS-T was a three-factor model that explained 64.11% of the total variances. This model was also confirmed by the confirmatory factor analysis to validate the factor structure of the NAS-T. The Cronbach's alpha values of three NAS-T subscales ranged from 0.89 to 0.95. Moderate to strong correlations among teachers' NAS-T domain scores, self-perception of own nanoscience knowledge, and their science-teaching efficacy demonstrated good convergent validity of the NAS-T. As a whole, psychometric properties of the NAS-T indicated that this instrument is an effective instrument for assessing K-12 teachers' attitudes toward nanotechnology. The NAS-T will serve as a valuable tool to evaluate teachers' attitude changes after participating in the K-12 Nanotechnology Programme.

  20. Assessing coral reefs on a Pacific-wide scale using the microbialization score.

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    Tracey McDole

    Full Text Available The majority of the world's coral reefs are in various stages of decline. While a suite of disturbances (overfishing, eutrophication, and global climate change have been identified, the mechanism(s of reef system decline remain elusive. Increased microbial and viral loading with higher percentages of opportunistic and specific microbial pathogens have been identified as potentially unifying features of coral reefs in decline. Due to their relative size and high per cell activity, a small change in microbial biomass may signal a large reallocation of available energy in an ecosystem; that is the microbialization of the coral reef. Our hypothesis was that human activities alter the energy budget of the reef system, specifically by altering the allocation of metabolic energy between microbes and macrobes. To determine if this is occurring on a regional scale, we calculated the basal metabolic rates for the fish and microbial communities at 99 sites on twenty-nine coral islands throughout the Pacific Ocean using previously established scaling relationships. From these metabolic rate predictions, we derived a new metric for assessing and comparing reef health called the microbialization score. The microbialization score represents the percentage of the combined fish and microbial predicted metabolic rate that is microbial. Our results demonstrate a strong positive correlation between reef microbialization scores and human impact. In contrast, microbialization scores did not significantly correlate with ocean net primary production, local chla concentrations, or the combined metabolic rate of the fish and microbial communities. These findings support the hypothesis that human activities are shifting energy to the microbes, at the expense of the macrobes. Regardless of oceanographic context, the microbialization score is a powerful metric for assessing the level of human impact a reef system is experiencing.

  1. The influence of impression management scales on the Personality Assessment Inventory in the epilepsy monitoring unit. (United States)

    Purdom, Catherine L; Kirlin, Kristin A; Hoerth, Matthew T; Noe, Katherine H; Drazkowski, Joseph F; Sirven, Joseph I; Locke, Dona E C


    The Somatic Complaints scale (SOM) and Conversion subscale (SOM-C) of the Personality Assessment Inventory perform best in classifying psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) from epileptic seizures (ES); however, the impact of positive impression management (PIM) and negative impression management (NIM) scales on SOM and SOM-C classification has not been examined. We studied 187 patients from an epilepsy monitoring unit with confirmed PNES or ES. On SOM, the best cut score was 72.5 T when PIM was elevated and 69.5 T when there was no bias. On SOM-C, when PIM was elevated, the best cut score was 67.5 T and 76.5 T when there was no bias. Negative impression management elevations (n=9) were too infrequent to analyze separately. Despite similarities in classification accuracy, there were differences in sensitivity and specificity with and without PIM, impacting positive and negative predictive values. The presence of PIM bias generally increases positive predictive power of SOM and SOM-C but decreases negative predictive power.

  2. The development of Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS). (United States)

    McDermott, Orii; Orrell, Martin; Ridder, Hanne Mette


    There is a need to develop an outcome measure specific to music therapy in dementia that reflects a holistic picture of the therapy process and outcome. This study aimed to develop a clinically relevant and scientifically robust music therapy outcome measure incorporating the values and views of people with dementia. Focus groups and interviews were conducted to obtain qualitative data on what music meant to people with dementia and the observed effects of music. Expert and peer consultations were conducted at each stage of the measure development to maximise its content validity. The new measure was field-tested by clinicians in a care home. Feedback from the clinicians and music therapy experts were incorporated during the review and refinement process of the measure. A review of the existing literature, the experiential results and the consensus process enabled the development of the new outcome measure "Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS)". Analysis of the qualitative data identified five key areas of the impact of music on people with dementia and they were transformed as the five Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) items: levels of Interest, Response, Initiation, Involvement and Enjoyment. MiDAS comprises the five VAS items and a supplementary checklist of notable positive and negative reactions from the individual. This study demonstrates that it is possible to design and develop an easy to apply and rigorous quantitative outcome measure which has a high level of clinical relevance for people with dementia, care home staff and music therapists.

  3. Mental Imagery Scale: a new measurement tool to assess structural features of mental representations (United States)

    D'Ercole, Martina; Castelli, Paolo; Giannini, Anna Maria; Sbrilli, Antonella


    Mental imagery is a quasi-perceptual experience which resembles perceptual experience, but occurring without (appropriate) external stimuli. It is a form of mental representation and is often considered centrally involved in visuo-spatial reasoning and inventive and creative thought. Although imagery ability is assumed to be functionally independent of verbal systems, it is still considered to interact with verbal representations, enabling objects to be named and names to evoke images. In literature, most measurement tools for evaluating imagery capacity are self-report instruments focusing on differences in individuals. In the present work, we applied a Mental Imagery Scale (MIS) to mental images derived from verbal descriptions in order to assess the structural features of such mental representations. This is a key theme for those disciplines which need to turn objects and representations into words and vice versa, such as art or architectural didactics. To this aim, an MIS questionnaire was administered to 262 participants. The questionnaire, originally consisting of a 33-item 5-step Likert scale, was reduced to 28 items covering six areas: (1) Image Formation Speed, (2) Permanence/Stability, (3) Dimensions, (4) Level of Detail/Grain, (5) Distance and (6) Depth of Field or Perspective. Factor analysis confirmed our six-factor hypothesis underlying the 28 items.

  4. Sizing the Jurassic theropod dinosaur Allosaurus: assessing growth strategy and evolution of ontogenetic scaling of limbs. (United States)

    Bybee, Paul J; Lee, Andrew H; Lamm, Ellen-Thérèse


    Allosaurus is one of the most common Mesozoic theropod dinosaurs. We present a histological analysis to assess its growth strategy and ontogenetic limb bone scaling. Based on an ontogenetic series of humeral, ulnar, femoral, and tibial sections of fibrolamellar bone, we estimate the ages of the largest individuals in the sample to be between 13-19 years. Growth curve reconstruction suggests that maximum growth occurred at 15 years, when body mass increased 148 kg/year. Based on larger bones of Allosaurus, we estimate an upper age limit of between 22-28 years of age, which is similar to preliminary data for other large theropods. Both Model I and Model II regression analyses suggest that relative to the length of the femur, the lengths of the humerus, ulna, and tibia increase in length more slowly than isometry predicts. That pattern of limb scaling in Allosaurus is similar to those in other large theropods such as the tyrannosaurids. Phylogenetic optimization suggests that large theropods independently evolved reduced humeral, ulnar, and tibial lengths by a phyletic reduction in longitudinal growth relative to the femur.

  5. Vulnerability assessments, identity and spatial scale challenges in disaster-risk reduction

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    Edward R. Carr


    Full Text Available Current approaches to vulnerability assessment for disaster-risk reduction (DRR commonly apply generalised, a priori determinants of vulnerability to particular hazards in particular places. Although they may allow for policy-level legibility at high levels of spatial scale, these approaches suffer from attribution problems that become more acute as the level of analysis is localised and the population under investigation experiences greater vulnerability. In this article, we locate the source of this problem in a spatial scale mismatch between the essentialist framings of identity behind these generalised determinants of vulnerability and the intersectional, situational character of identity in the places where DRR interventions are designed and implemented. Using the Livelihoods as Intimate Government (LIG approach to identify and understand different vulnerabilities to flooding in a community in southern Zambia, we empirically demonstrate how essentialist framings of identity produce this mismatch. Further, we illustrate a means of operationalising intersectional, situational framings of identity to achieve greater and more productive understandings of hazard vulnerability than available through the application of general determinants of vulnerability to specific places and cases.

  6. Quantitative assessment of thermodynamic constraints on the solution space of genome-scale metabolic models. (United States)

    Hamilton, Joshua J; Dwivedi, Vivek; Reed, Jennifer L


    Constraint-based methods provide powerful computational techniques to allow understanding and prediction of cellular behavior. These methods rely on physiochemical constraints to eliminate infeasible behaviors from the space of available behaviors. One such constraint is thermodynamic feasibility, the requirement that intracellular flux distributions obey the laws of thermodynamics. The past decade has seen several constraint-based methods that interpret this constraint in different ways, including those that are limited to small networks, rely on predefined reaction directions, and/or neglect the relationship between reaction free energies and metabolite concentrations. In this work, we utilize one such approach, thermodynamics-based metabolic flux analysis (TMFA), to make genome-scale, quantitative predictions about metabolite concentrations and reaction free energies in the absence of prior knowledge of reaction directions, while accounting for uncertainties in thermodynamic estimates. We applied TMFA to a genome-scale network reconstruction of Escherichia coli and examined the effect of thermodynamic constraints on the flux space. We also assessed the predictive performance of TMFA against gene essentiality and quantitative metabolomics data, under both aerobic and anaerobic, and optimal and suboptimal growth conditions. Based on these results, we propose that TMFA is a useful tool for validating phenotypes and generating hypotheses, and that additional types of data and constraints can improve predictions of metabolite concentrations.

  7. Balancing detail and scale in assessing transparency to improve the governance of agricultural commodity supply chains (United States)

    Godar, Javier; Suavet, Clément; Gardner, Toby A.; Dawkins, Elena; Meyfroidt, Patrick


    To date, assessments of the sustainability of agricultural commodity supply chains have largely relied on some combination of macro-scale footprint accounts, detailed life-cycle analyses and fine-scale traceability systems. Yet these approaches are limited in their ability to support the sustainability governance of agricultural supply chains, whether because they are intended for coarser-grained analyses, do not identify individual actors, or are too costly to be implemented in a consistent manner for an entire region of production. Here we illustrate some of the advantages of a complementary middle-ground approach that balances detail and scale of supply chain transparency information by combining consistent country-wide data on commodity production at the sub-national (e.g. municipal) level with per shipment customs data to describe trade flows of a given commodity covering all companies and production regions within that country. This approach can support supply chain governance in two key ways. First, enhanced spatial resolution of the production regions that connect to individual supply chains allows for a more accurate consideration of geographic variability in measures of risk and performance that are associated with different production practices. Second, identification of key actors that operate within a specific supply chain, including producers, traders, shippers and consumers can help discriminate coalitions of actors that have shared stake in a particular region, and that together are capable of delivering more cost-effective and coordinated interventions. We illustrate the potential of this approach with examples from Brazil, Indonesia and Colombia. We discuss how transparency information can deepen understanding of the environmental and social impacts of commodity production systems, how benefits are distributed among actors, and some of the trade-offs involved in efforts to improve supply chain sustainability. We then discuss the challenges and

  8. Uncertainty and Evaluation of Impacts Modeling at Regional Scales in Integrated Assessment: the Case of Buildings (United States)

    Clarke, L.; Zhou, Y.; Eom, J.; Kyle, P.; Daly, D.


    Integrated assessment (IA) models have traditionally focused on the evaluation of climate mitigation strategies. However, in recent years, efforts to consider both impacts and mitigation simultaneously have expanded dramatically. Because climate impacts are inherently regional in scale, the incorporation of impacts into IA modeling - which is inherently global in character - raises a range of challenges beyond the already substantial challenges associated with modeling impacts. In particular, it raises questions about how to best evaluate and diagnose the resulting representations of impacts, and how to characterize the uncertainty surrounding associated projections. This presentation will provide an overview of the challenges and uncertainties surrounding modeling climate impacts on building heating and cooling demands in an integrated assessment modeling framework - the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). The presentation will first discuss the issues associated with modeling building heating and cooling degree days in IA models. It will review research using spatially explicit climate and population information to inform a standard version of GCAM with fourteen geopolitical regions. It will discuss a new subregional version of GCAM in which building energy consumption is resolved at a fifty-state level. The presentation will also characterize efforts to link GCAM to more technologically resolved buildings models to gain insights about demands at higher temporal resolution. The second portion of the presentation will discuss the uncertainties associated with projections of building heating and cooling demands at various scales. A range of key uncertainties are important. This includes a range of uncertainties surrounding the nature of changes to global and regional climates, with particular emphasis on the uncertainty surrounding temperature projections. In addition, the linkage in this research between human and Earth systems means that the projections are

  9. Evaluation of treatment related fear using a newly developed fear scale for children: "Fear assessment picture scale" and its association with physiological response

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    Nishidha Tiwari


    Full Text Available Introduction: Dental treatment is usually a poignant phenomenon for children. Projective scales are preferred over psychometric scales to recognize it, and to obtain the self-report from children. Aims: The aims were to evaluate treatment related fear using a newly developed fear scale for children, fear assessment picture scale (FAPS, and anxiety with colored version of modified facial affective scale (MFAS - three faces along with physiologic responses (pulse rate and oxygen saturation obtained by pulse oximeter before and during pulpectomy procedure. Settings and Design: Total, 60 children of age 6-8 years who were visiting the dental hospital for the first time and needed pulpectomy treatment were selected. Children selected were of sound physical, physiological, and mental condition. Two projective scales were used; one to assess fear - FAPS and to assess anxiety - colored version of MFAS - three faces. These were co-related with the physiological responses (oxygen saturation and pulse rate of children obtained by pulse oximeter before and during the pulpectomy procedure. Statistical Analysis Used: Shapiro-Wilk test, McNemar′s test, Wilcoxon signed ranks test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney test were applied in the study. Results: The physiological responses showed association with FAPS and MFAS though not significant. However, oxygen saturation with MFAS showed a significant change between "no anxiety" and "some anxiety" as quantified by Kruskal-Wallis test value 6.287, P = 0.043 (<0.05 before pulpectomy procedure. Conclusions: The FAPS can prove to be a pragmatic tool in spotting the fear among young children. This test is easy and fast to apply on children and reduces the chair-side time.

  10. Functional disability in Alzheimer disease: a validation study of the Turkish version of the disability assessment for dementia scale. (United States)

    Tozlu, Mukaddes; Cankurtaran, Mustafa; Yavuz, Burcu Balam; Cankurtaran, Eylem Sahin; Kutluer, Ibrahim; Erkek, Burcu Manisalı; Halil, Meltem; Ulger, Zekeriya; Cosgun, Erdal; Ariogul, Servet


    This study aimed to determine the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of Disability Assessment for Dementia (DAD) scale in the Turkish elderly population with Alzheimer disease (AD). The DAD scale was administered to the primary caregivers of 157 patients (age 77.7 ± 6.8 years) with AD. The Turkish version of the DAD scale showed high internal consistency (Cronbach α = .942), excellent test-retest, and interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.996 and ICC = 0.994, respectively). The DAD scale was significantly correlated with activities of daily living (ADL; Modified Older Americans Research Survey ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL; Lawton and Brody IADL) scales (r = .89, P differences in the mean DAD scores in different GDS stages. Construct validity was estimated using total score correlation analyses between the standardized Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the DAD scale. Results revealed high and significant correlation between MMSE score and DAD scale (r = .812, P < .001). The results of multivariate analysis showed that DAD score was not correlated with gender, education, and age. The DAD total score was affected mostly by GDS, MMSE, and duration of the disease. Turkish version of the DAD scale was found to be a reliable and valid instrument to assess functional disability in Turkish elderly patients with AD. This scale assists caregivers and physicians to decide for proper interventions.

  11. The UPDRS-8: a brief clinical assessment scale for Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Hauser, Robert A; Lyons, Kelly E; Pahwa, Rajesh


    We evaluated a brief, 8-item version of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) using two existing patient databases. One database included 1,445 PD patients. Spearman correlation between UPDRS-8 motor scores and full UPDRS motor scores was .765 (p UPDRS-8 scores and full UPDRS total scores (parts I-III) was .798 (p UPDRS-8 scores and total 39-item PD questionnaire (PDQ-39) scores was .629 (p UPDRS-8 motor scores were similarly significantly sensitive to change as full UPDRS motor scores in assessing change from the medication OFF state to the medication ON state at baseline and from the medication OFF state at baseline to the medication OFF/stimulation ON state 1 year post-DBS. The UPDRS-8 focuses on items that are most relevant for clinical decision making. In this study, the UPDRS-8 exhibited good correlation with the full UPDRS and the PDQ-39. We therefore believe that it can provide a useful, rapid assessment of PD patients in clinical practice. Whether it might be useful in clinical trials depends on demonstrating that it is also sensitive to relatively small changes in clinical status.

  12. Numerical fatigue life assessment of cardiovascular stents: A two-scale plasticity-damage model (United States)

    Santos, H. A. F. A.; Auricchio, F.; Conti, M.


    Cardiovascular disease has become a major global health care problem in the last decades. To tackle this problem, the use of cardiovascular stents has been considered a promising and effective approach. Numerical simulations to evaluate the in vivo behavior of stents are becoming more and more important to assess potential failures. As the material failure of a stent device has been often associated with fatigue issues, numerical approaches for fatigue life assessment of stents have gained special interest in the engineering community. Numerical fatigue life predictions can be used to modify the design and prevent failure without making and testing numerous physical devices, thus preventing from undesired fatigue failures. We present a numerical fatigue life model for the analysis of cardiovascular balloon-expandable stainless steel stents that can hopefully provide useful information either to be used for product improvement or for clinicians to make life-saving decisions. This model incorporates a two-scale continuum damage mechanics model and the so-called Soderberg fatigue failure criterion. We provide numerical results for both Palmaz-Schatz and Cypher stent designs and demonstrate that a good agreement is found between the numerical and the available experimental results.

  13. Assessing Landscape Scale Wildfire Exposure for Highly Valued Resources in a Mediterranean Area (United States)

    Alcasena, Fermín J.; Salis, Michele; Ager, Alan A.; Arca, Bachisio; Molina, Domingo; Spano, Donatella


    We used a fire simulation modeling approach to assess landscape scale wildfire exposure for highly valued resources and assets (HVR) on a fire-prone area of 680 km2 located in central Sardinia, Italy. The study area was affected by several wildfires in the last half century: some large and intense fire events threatened wildland urban interfaces as well as other socioeconomic and cultural values. Historical wildfire and weather data were used to inform wildfire simulations, which were based on the minimum travel time algorithm as implemented in FlamMap. We simulated 90,000 fires that replicated recent large fire events in the area spreading under severe weather conditions to generate detailed maps of wildfire likelihood and intensity. Then, we linked fire modeling outputs to a geospatial risk assessment framework focusing on buffer areas around HVR. The results highlighted a large variation in burn probability and fire intensity in the vicinity of HVRs, and allowed us to identify the areas most exposed to wildfires and thus to a higher potential damage. Fire intensity in the HVR buffers was mainly related to fuel types, while wind direction, topographic features, and historically based ignition pattern were the key factors affecting fire likelihood. The methodology presented in this work can have numerous applications, in the study area and elsewhere, particularly to address and inform fire risk management, landscape planning and people safety on the vicinity of HVRs.

  14. Modeling Student Motivation and Students’ Ability Estimates From a Large-Scale Assessment of Mathematics

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    Carlos Zerpa


    Full Text Available When large-scale assessments (LSA do not hold personal stakes for students, students may not put forth their best effort. Low-effort examinee behaviors (e.g., guessing, omitting items result in an underestimate of examinee abilities, which is a concern when using results of LSA to inform educational policy and planning. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between examinee motivation as defined by expectancy-value theory, student effort, and examinee mathematics abilities. A principal components analysis was used to examine the data from Grade 9 students (n = 43,562 who responded to a self-report questionnaire on their attitudes and practices related to mathematics. The results suggested a two-component model where the components were interpreted as task-values in mathematics and student effort. Next, a hierarchical linear model was implemented to examine the relationship between examinee component scores and their estimated ability on a LSA. The results of this study provide evidence that motivation, as defined by the expectancy-value theory and student effort, partially explains student ability estimates and may have implications in the information that get transferred to testing organizations, school boards, and teachers while assessing students’ Grade 9 mathematics learning.

  15. Factor Structure Evaluation of the French Version of the Digital Natives Assessment Scale. (United States)

    Wagner, Vincent; Acier, Didier


    "Digital natives" concept defines young adults particularly familiar with emerging technologies such as computers, smartphones, or Internet. This notion is still controversial and so far, the primary identifying criterion was to consider their date of birth. However, literature highlighted the need to describe specific characteristics. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the factor structure of a French version of the Digital Natives Assessment Scale (DNAS). The sample of this study includes 590 participants from a 6-week massive open online course and from Web sites, electronic forums, and social networks. The DNAS was translated in French and then back-translated to English. A principal component analysis with orthogonal rotation followed by a confirmatory factorial analysis showed that a 15-item four-correlated component model provided the best fit for the data of our sample. Factor structure of this French-translated version of the DNAS was rather similar than those found in earlier studies. This study provides evidence of the DNAS robustness through cross-cultural and cross-generational validation. The French version of the DNAS appears to be appropriate as a quick and effective questionnaire to assess digital natives. More studies are needed to better define further features of this particular group.

  16. A Large-Scale Assessment of Nucleic Acids Binding Site Prediction Programs.

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    Zhichao Miao


    Full Text Available Computational prediction of nucleic acid binding sites in proteins are necessary to disentangle functional mechanisms in most biological processes and to explore the binding mechanisms. Several strategies have been proposed, but the state-of-the-art approaches display a great diversity in i the definition of nucleic acid binding sites; ii the training and test datasets; iii the algorithmic methods for the prediction strategies; iv the performance measures and v the distribution and availability of the prediction programs. Here we report a large-scale assessment of 19 web servers and 3 stand-alone programs on 41 datasets including more than 5000 proteins derived from 3D structures of protein-nucleic acid complexes. Well-defined binary assessment criteria (specificity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy… are applied. We found that i the tools have been greatly improved over the years; ii some of the approaches suffer from theoretical defects and there is still room for sorting out the essential mechanisms of binding; iii RNA binding and DNA binding appear to follow similar driving forces and iv dataset bias may exist in some methods.

  17. Monitoring and assessment of soil erosion at micro-scale and macro-scale in forests affected by fire damage in northern Iran. (United States)

    Akbarzadeh, Ali; Ghorbani-Dashtaki, Shoja; Naderi-Khorasgani, Mehdi; Kerry, Ruth; Taghizadeh-Mehrjardi, Ruhollah


    Understanding the occurrence of erosion processes at large scales is very difficult without studying them at small scales. In this study, soil erosion parameters were investigated at micro-scale and macro-scale in forests in northern Iran. Surface erosion and some vegetation attributes were measured at the watershed scale in 30 parcels of land which were separated into 15 fire-affected (burned) forests and 15 original (unburned) forests adjacent to the burned sites. The soil erodibility factor and splash erosion were also determined at the micro-plot scale within each burned and unburned site. Furthermore, soil sampling and infiltration studies were carried out at 80 other sites, as well as the 30 burned and unburned sites, (a total of 110 points) to create a map of the soil erodibility factor at the regional scale. Maps of topography, rainfall, and cover-management were also determined for the study area. The maps of erosion risk and erosion risk potential were finally prepared for the study area using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) procedure. Results indicated that destruction of the protective cover of forested areas by fire had significant effects on splash erosion and the soil erodibility factor at the micro-plot scale and also on surface erosion, erosion risk, and erosion risk potential at the watershed scale. Moreover, the results showed that correlation coefficients between different variables at the micro-plot and watershed scales were positive and significant. Finally, assessment and monitoring of the erosion maps at the regional scale showed that the central and western parts of the study area were more susceptible to erosion compared with the western regions due to more intense crop-management, greater soil erodibility, and more rainfall. The relationships between erosion parameters and the most important vegetation attributes were also used to provide models with equations that were specific to the study region. The results of this

  18. The functional intraoral Glasgow scale in floor of mouth carcinoma: longitudinal assessment of 62 consecutive patients. (United States)

    Ellabban, Mohamed A; Shoaib, Taimur; Devine, John; McMahon, Jeremy; Morley, Stephen; Adly, Osama A; Farrag, Sherif H; Moati, Taha A; Soutar, David


    The functional integrity of the floor of the mouth (FOM) is essential in maintaining tongue mobility, deglutition, and control and disposal of saliva. The present study focused on reporting oral function using functional intraoral Glasgow scale (FIGS) in patients who had surgical ablation and reconstruction of FOM carcinoma with or without chemo-radiotherapy. The study included patients who had surgical treatment of floor of mouth cancer in two regional head and neck units in Glasgow, UK between January 2006 and August 2007. Patients were assessed using FIGS before surgery, 2 months, 6 months and 1 year after surgery. It is a five-point scale self-questionnaire to allow patients to self-assess speech, chewing and swallowing. The maximum total score is 15 points. The influence of socio-demographic parameters, tumour characteristics and surgical parameters was addressed in the study. A total of 62 consecutive patients were included in the study; 41 (66.1 %) were males and 21 (33.9 %) were females. The patients' mean age at the time of diagnosis was 60.6 years. Fifty (80.6 %) patients had unilateral origin of FOM tumours and 10 (19.4 %) had bilateral origin. Peroral approach was the most common approach used in 35 (56.4 %) patients. The mean preoperative FIGS score was 14. Two months after surgery, it droped to 9.4 then started to increase gradually thereafter and recorded 10.1 at 6 months and 11 at 1 year. Unilateral FOM resection recorded better score than bilateral and lateral FOM tumours than anterior at 1 year postoperatively. Furthermore, direct closure showed better functional outcome than loco-regional and free flaps. The FIGS is a simple and comprehensive way of assessing a patient's functional impairment following surgery in the FOM. Tumour site and size, surgical access, surgical resection and method of reconstruction showed significant influence on oral function following surgical resection. A well-designed rehabilitation programme is required to improve

  19. A procedure for assessing future trends of subdaily precipitation values on point scale (United States)

    Rianna, Guido; Villani, Veronica; Mercogliano, Paola; Vezzoli, Renata


    In many areas of Italy, urban flooding or floods in small mountain basins, induced by heavy precipitations on subdaily scale, represent remarkable hazards able to cause huge damages and casualties often increased by very high population density. A proper assessment about how frequency and magnitude of such events could change under the effect of Climate Changes (CC) is crucial for the development of future territorial planning (such as early warning systems). The current constraints of climate modeling, also using high resolution RCM, prevent an adequate representation of subdaily precipitation patterns (mainly concerning extreme values) while available observed datasets are often unsuitable for the application of the bias-correction (BC) techniques requiring long time series. In this work, a new procedure is proposed: at point scale, precipitation outputs on 24 and 48 hours are provided by high resolution (about 8km) climate simulation performed through the RCM COSMO_CLM driven by GCM CMCC_CM and bias-corrected by quantile mapping approach. These ones are adopted for a monthly stochastic disaggregation approach combining Random Parameter Bartlett-Lewis (RPBL) gamma model with appropriate rainfall disaggregation technique. The last one implements empirical correction procedures, called adjusting procedures, to modify the model rainfall output, so that it is consistent with the observed rainfall values on daily time scale. In order to take into account the great difficulties related to minimization of objective function required by retrieving the 7 RPBL parameters, for each dataset the computations are repeated twenty times. Moreover, adopting statistical properties on 24 and 48 hours to retrieve RPBL parameters allows, according Bo et al. (1994), to infer statistical properties until hourly scale maintaining the information content about the possible changes in precipitation patterns due to CC. The entire simulation chain is tested on Baiso weather station, in

  20. Local scale multiple quantitative risk assessment and uncertainty evaluation in a densely urbanised area (Brescia, Italy

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    S. Lari


    Full Text Available The study of the interactions between natural and anthropogenic risks is necessary for quantitative risk assessment in areas affected by active natural processes, high population density and strong economic activities.

    We present a multiple quantitative risk assessment on a 420 km2 high risk area (Brescia and surroundings, Lombardy, Northern Italy, for flood, seismic and industrial accident scenarios. Expected economic annual losses are quantified for each scenario and annual exceedance probability-loss curves are calculated. Uncertainty on the input variables is propagated by means of three different methodologies: Monte-Carlo-Simulation, First Order Second Moment, and point estimate.

    Expected losses calculated by means of the three approaches show similar values for the whole study area, about 64 000 000 € for earthquakes, about 10 000 000 € for floods, and about 3000 € for industrial accidents. Locally, expected losses assume quite different values if calculated with the three different approaches, with differences up to 19%.

    The uncertainties on the expected losses and their propagation, performed with the three methods, are compared and discussed in the paper. In some cases, uncertainty reaches significant values (up to almost 50% of the expected loss. This underlines the necessity of including uncertainty in quantitative risk assessment, especially when it is used as a support for territorial planning and decision making. The method is developed thinking at a possible application at a regional-national scale, on the basis of data available in Italy over the national territory.

  1. A rapid murine coma and behavior scale for quantitative assessment of murine cerebral malaria.

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    Ryan W Carroll

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cerebral malaria (CM is a neurological syndrome that includes coma and seizures following malaria parasite infection. The pathophysiology is not fully understood and cannot be accounted for by infection alone: patients still succumb to CM, even if the underlying parasite infection has resolved. To that effect, there is no known adjuvant therapy for CM. Current murine CM (MCM models do not allow for rapid clinical identification of affected animals following infection. An animal model that more closely mimics the clinical features of human CM would be helpful in elucidating potential mechanisms of disease pathogenesis and evaluating new adjuvant therapies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A quantitative, rapid murine coma and behavior scale (RMCBS comprised of 10 parameters was developed to assess MCM manifested in C57BL/6 mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA. Using this method a single mouse can be completely assessed within 3 minutes. The RMCBS enables the operator to follow the evolution of the clinical syndrome, validated here by correlations with intracerebral hemorrhages. It provides a tool by which subjects can be identified as symptomatic prior to the initiation of trial treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Since the RMCBS enables an operator to rapidly follow the course of disease, label a subject as affected or not, and correlate the level of illness with neuropathologic injury, it can ultimately be used to guide the initiation of treatment after the onset of cerebral disease (thus emulating the situation in the field. The RMCBS is a tool by which an adjuvant therapy can be objectively assessed.

  2. Assessing reference evapotranspiration at regional scale based on remote sensing, weather forecast and GIS tools (United States)

    Ramírez-Cuesta, J. M.; Cruz-Blanco, M.; Santos, C.; Lorite, I. J.


    Reference evapotranspiration (ETo) is a key component in efficient water management, especially in arid and semi-arid environments. However, accurate ETo assessment at the regional scale is complicated by the limited number of weather stations and the strict requirements in terms of their location and surrounding physical conditions for the collection of valid weather data. In an attempt to overcome this limitation, new approaches based on the use of remote sensing techniques and weather forecast tools have been proposed. Use of the Land Surface Analysis Satellite Application Facility (LSA SAF) tool and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have allowed the design and development of innovative approaches for ETo assessment, which are especially useful for areas lacking available weather data from weather stations. Thus, by identifying the best-performing interpolation approaches (such as the Thin Plate Splines, TPS) and by developing new approaches (such as the use of data from the most similar weather station, TS, or spatially distributed correction factors, CITS), errors as low as 1.1% were achieved for ETo assessment. Spatial and temporal analyses reveal that the generated errors were smaller during spring and summer as well as in homogenous topographic areas. The proposed approaches not only enabled accurate calculations of seasonal and daily ETo values, but also contributed to the development of a useful methodology for evaluating the optimum number of weather stations to be integrated into a weather station network and the appropriateness of their locations. In addition to ETo, other variables included in weather forecast datasets (such as temperature or rainfall) could be evaluated using the same innovative methodology proposed in this study.

  3. Disability assessment scale for dementia – long version (DADL-BR

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    Mariana Boaro Fernandez Canon


    Full Text Available Introduction: There are no functional assessment tools for elderly with dementia available in the literature that will assess all occupations. Objective: To develop a Long Version of Disability Assessment for Dementia Scale (DADL-Br, covering all occupations provided by the American Association of Occupational Therapy (AOTA and the activities that compose them and evaluate its content validity. Method: With the permission of the original version main author (DAD, Isabelle Gélinas PhD, the new items of the Long Version (DADL-Br were developed based on the classification proposed by AOTA for occupations, considering the gaps in the original instrument. We reviewed the Cultural and Conceptual Equivalence by the Expert Committee and Multidisciplinary Committee. The suggestions of the Committees were accepted and the process followed for the pre-test and author analysis. Results: The first version of the instrument received 10 new fields and 64 new items, which after seven reviews of Cultural Equivalence (average concordance 89.2%, six reviews of Conceptual Equivalence (average concordance 81.2%, tree pre-tests and analysis of the original version main author, has resulted in the development of five versions, addition of twelve items and exclusion of seven items, and the final version consists of 20 fields and 109 items, being 10 new fields and 69 new items. Conclusion: This process conferred the content validity of DADL-Br, which includes all occupations proposed by AOTA and can be a useful tool to evaluate the profile of occupational performance of elderly with dementia.

  4. Flood risk assessment at the regional scale: Computational challenges and the monster of uncertainty (United States)

    Efstratiadis, Andreas; Papalexiou, Simon-Michael; Markonis, Yiannis; Koukouvinos, Antonis; Vasiliades, Lampros; Papaioannou, George; Loukas, Athanasios


    We present a methodological framework for flood risk assessment at the regional scale, developed within the implementation of the EU Directive 2007/60 in Greece. This comprises three phases: (a) statistical analysis of extreme rainfall data, resulting to spatially-distributed parameters of intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) relationships and their confidence intervals, (b) hydrological simulations, using event-based semi-distributed rainfall-runoff approaches, and (c) hydraulic simulations, employing the propagation of flood hydrographs across the river network and the mapping of inundated areas. The flood risk assessment procedure is employed over the River Basin District of Thessaly, Greece, which requires schematization and modelling of hundreds of sub-catchments, each one examined for several risk scenarios. This is a challenging task, involving multiple computational issues to handle, such as the organization, control and processing of huge amount of hydrometeorological and geographical data, the configuration of model inputs and outputs, and the co-operation of several software tools. In this context, we have developed supporting applications allowing massive data processing and effective model coupling, thus drastically reducing the need for manual interventions and, consequently, the time of the study. Within flood risk computations we also account for three major sources of uncertainty, in an attempt to provide upper and lower confidence bounds of flood maps, i.e. (a) statistical uncertainty of IDF curves, (b) structural uncertainty of hydrological models, due to varying anteceded soil moisture conditions, and (c) parameter uncertainty of hydraulic models, with emphasis to roughness coefficients. Our investigations indicate that the combined effect of the above uncertainties (which are certainly not the unique ones) result to extremely large bounds of potential inundation, thus rising many questions about the interpretation and usefulness of current flood

  5. Residual flood-risk: assessing the effectiveness of alternative large-scale mitigation strategies (United States)

    Carisi, Francesca; Domeneghetti, Alessio; Castellarin, Attilio


    The EU Flood Directive (2007/60/CE) requires institutions and public bodies, in order to formulate robust flood-risk management strategies for large European rivers, to address several fundamental tasks. For instance, they have to address the problem of flood-risk mitigation from a global perspective (i.e., entire middle-lower river reaches) by identifying critical reaches, inundation areas and corresponding overflow volumes. To this aim, we focus on the identification of large-scale flood risk mitigation strategies for the middle-lower reach of the Po river, the longest Italian river and the largest in terms of streamflow. We refer to the so-called residual flood-risk and in particular to its portion referring to the possibility to experience events associated with larger return periods than the reference one (e.g. ~200 years in our case). In particular, being a further levee heightening not technically viable nor economically conceivable for the case study, the study develops and tests the applicability of a quasi-2D hydraulic model for the identification of large-scale flood-risk mitigation strategies relative to a 500-year flood event. In particular, we consider and model in the study different geometrical configurations of the main embankment system for a ~400km reach stretching from Isola S.Antonio to the Po river delta in the Adriatic Sea: overtopping without levee breaching, overtopping and natural levee breaching, overtopping and forced levee breaching. The simulations enable the assessment of the overflowed volumes and water depths on flooded areas. Expected damages are estimated using simplified graphical tools, which we termed "Vulnerability Hypsometric Curves" (HVCs) and report the extent of the area for a given land use category that is located below a certain elevation. The analysis aims at finding the optimal configuration that minimizes the expected damages in the areas prone to flood. The outcomes of our study indicate that coupling a large-scale

  6. Scales, scales and more scales. (United States)

    Weitzenhoffer, Andre M


    This article examines the nature, uses, and limitations of the large variety of existing, so-called, hypnosis scales; that is, instruments that have been proposed for the assessment of hypnotic behavior. Although the major aim of most of the scales ostensively seems to be to assess several aspects of hypnotic states, they are found generally to say little about these and much more about responses to suggestions. The greatest application of these scales is to be found in research, but they also have a limited place in clinical work.

  7. The scaling law of climate change and its relevance to assessing (palaeo)biological responses (United States)

    Kiessling, Wolfgang; Eichenseer, Kilian


    It is often argued that current rates of climate change are unprecedented in the geological past. At the same time, the magnitudes of change were often much greater in deep time than they are in history. The most severe global warming in the Phanerozoic, with dramatic consequences for life, probably occurred across the Permian-Triassic (P-T) boundary when an increase of tropical water temperatures of 15° C has been observed to occur over a timespan 0.8 myr (Sun et al. 2012), whereas global ocean warming over the last 50 years was 0.35° C (Burrows et al. 2011). When transforming these data into rates of change the P-T rate was roughly 370 times smaller than the current rate. We argue that the smaller rates of change inferred from geological proxy records are due to a scaling effect, that is, rates of climate change generally decrease with timespan of observation. We compiled from the published literature data on measured or inferred temperature changes and the timespans over which these changes were assessed. Our compilation currently comprises 120 values and covers timespans from 20 to 107 years. A log-log plot of timespan versus rate of temperature change depicts a highly significant correlation (r2 = 0.95) of a power-law relationship with an exponent of -0.87. Warming trends show a slightly lower exponent (-0.84) than cooling trends (-0.89) but the explained variance is better for the scaling of warming trends. Importantly, the scaled warming trend across the P-T boundary is higher than the current rates of warming. Similar scaling effects are well explored for sediment accumulation rates (Sadler 1981) and evolutionary rates (Gingerich 1993). These have been interpreted as being due to breaks in sedimentation and periods of stasis or transient reversals, respectively. In case of climate change, transient reversals in general trends are the most likely explanation for the scaling relationship. Even relatively rapid intervals of warming, such as the Pleistocene

  8. Adaptation of a pattern-scaling approach for assessment of local (village/valley) scale water resources and related vulnerabilities in the Upper Indus Basin (United States)

    Forsythe, Nathan; Kilsby, Chris G.; Fowler, Hayley J.; Archer, David R.


    The water resources of the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) are of the utmost importance to the economic wellbeing of Pakistan. The irrigated agriculture made possible by Indus river runoff underpins the food security for Pakistan's nearly 200 million people. Contributions from hydropower account for more than one fifth of peak installed electrical generating capacity in a country where widespread, prolonged load-shedding handicaps business activity and industrial development. Pakistan's further socio-economic development thus depends largely on optimisation of its precious water resources. Confident, accurate seasonal predictions of water resource availability coupled with sound understanding of interannual variability are urgent insights needed by development planners and infrastructure managers at all levels. This study focuses on the challenge of providing meaningful quantitative information at the village/valley scale in the upper reaches of the UIB. Proceeding by progressive reductions in scale, the typology of the observed UIB hydrological regimes -- glacial, nival and pluvial -- are examined with special emphasis on interannual variability for individual seasons. Variations in discharge (runoff) are compared to observations of climate parameters (temperature, precipitation) and available spatial data (elevation, snow cover and snow-water-equivalent). The first scale presented is composed of the large-scale, long-record gauged UIB tributary basins. The Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) has maintained these stations for several decades in order to monitor seasonal flows and accumulate data for design of further infrastructure. Data from basins defined by five gauging stations on the Indus, Hunza, Gilgit and Astore rivers are examined. The second scale presented is a set of smaller gauged headwater catchments with short records. These gauges were installed by WAPDA and its partners amongst the international development agencies to assess potential

  9. Kinect One-based biomechanical assessment of upper-limb performance compared to clinical scales in post-stroke patients. (United States)

    Scano, Alessandro; Caimmi, Marco; Chiavenna, Andrea; Malosio, Matteo; Tosatti, Lorenzo Molinari


    This paper presents a Kinect One sensor-based protocol for the evaluation of the motor-performances of the upper limb of neurological patients during rehabilitative sessions. The assessment provides evaluations of kinematic, dynamic, motor and postural control variables. A pilot study was conducted on three post-stroke neurological patients, comparing Kinect-One biomechanical assessment with the outcomes of some of the most common clinical scales for the evaluation of the upper-limb functionality. Preliminary results indicate coherency between the clinical and instrumental evaluation. Moreover, the Kinect-One assessment seems to provide some complementary quantitative information, consistently integrating the clinical assessment.

  10. Assessing Attitude towards Religion: The Astley-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Theistic Faith (United States)

    Astley, Jeff; Francis, Leslie J.; Robbins, Mandy


    This study builds on the research tradition modelled by the Francis Scale of Attitude towards Christianity, the Katz-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Judaism, the Sahin-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Islam and the Santosh-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Hinduism to propose a generic instrument concerned with attitudes towards theistic faith.…

  11. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the School-Based Assessment Evaluation Scale Among Teachers

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    Nor Hasnida Che Md. Ghazali


    Full Text Available The school-based assessment (SBA system is a holistic assessment system that is conducted in schools by subject teachers in assessing the students cognitive (intellect, affective (emotional and spiritual and psychomotor (physical aspects. It is in line with the National Philosophy of Education and the Standards-based School Curriculum in Malaysia. In order to evaluate the implementation of SBA, a measurement scale was validated. Questionnaire was used as an instrument for data collection. 776 primary and secondary school teachers were selected as respondents using stratified random sampling. The data was analyzed with SPSS and AMOS version 18. The aim of this paper was to explore different factor structures of the SBA evaluation scale by using the second-order Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Results indicated that the SBA evaluation model was a valid and reliable scale. The input measurement model was validated with two factors (personnel qualifications and physical infrastructure, process measurement model was validated with six factors (‘attitude’, ‘understanding’, ‘skills’, ‘challenges’, ‘moderation’ and ‘monitoring’ and product measurement model was validated with two factors (‘students’ attitude’ and ‘students’ motivation’. This study provides support for using a valid instrument in evaluating the implementation of SBA in schools. Furthermore, the CFA procedures used supported the conceptual framework set out earlier. Thus, it presents clearly the importance of the evaluation process of any education system to follow all the dimensions outlined in the evaluation model proposed by Daniel Stufflebeam.       Sistem Penilaian Berbasis Sekolah (SBA adalah sistem penilaian holistik yang dilakukan di sekolah-sekolah oleh guru mata pelajaran dalam menilai kognitif (kecerdasan, afektif (emosional dan spiritual dan psikomotorik (fisik siswa. Hal ini sejalan dengan Filsafat Pendidikan Nasional dan Kurikulum

  12. A methodology for the assessment of flood hazards at the regional scale (United States)

    Gallina, Valentina; Torresan, Silvia; Critto, Andrea; Zabeo, Alex; Semenzin, Elena; Marcomini, Antonio


    In recent years, the frequency of water-related disasters has increased and recent flood events in Europe (e.g. 2002 in Central Europe, 2007 in UK, 2010 in Italy) caused physical-environmental and socio-economic damages. Specifically, floods are the most threatening water-related disaster that affects humans, their lives and properties. Within the KULTURisk project (FP7) a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology is proposed to evaluate the benefits of risk prevention in terms of reduced environmental risks due to floods. The method is based on the KULTURisk framework and allows the identification and prioritization of targets (i.e. people, buildings, infrastructures, agriculture, natural and semi-natural systems, cultural heritages) and areas at risk from floods in the considered region by comparing the baseline scenario (i.e. current state) with alternative scenarios (i.e. where different structural and/or non-structural measures are planned). The RRA methodology is flexible and can be adapted to different case studies (i.e. large rivers, alpine/mountain catchments, urban areas and coastal areas) and spatial scales (i.e. from the large river to the urban scale). The final aim of RRA is to help decision-makers in examining the possible environmental risks associated with uncertain future flood hazards and in identifying which prevention scenario could be the most suitable one. The RRA methodology employs Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA functions) in order to integrate stakeholder preferences and experts judgments into the analysis. Moreover, Geographic Information Systems (GISs) are used to manage, process, analyze, and map data to facilitate the analysis and the information sharing with different experts and stakeholders. In order to characterize flood risks, the proposed methodology integrates the output of hydrodynamic models with the analysis of site-specific bio-geophysical and socio-economic indicators (e.g. slope of the territory, land cover

  13. When Significant Others Suffer: German Validation of the Burden Assessment Scale (BAS) (United States)

    Hunger, Christina; Krause, Lena; Hilzinger, Rebecca; Ditzen, Beate; Schweitzer, Jochen


    There is a need of an economical, reliable, and valid instrument in the German-speaking countries to measure the burden of relatives who care for mentally ill persons. We translated the Burden Assessment Scale (BAS) and conducted a study investigating factor structure, psychometric quality and predictive validity. We used confirmative factor analyses (CFA, maximum-likelihood method) to examine the dimensionality of the German BAS in a sample of 215 relatives (72% women; M = 32 years, SD = 14, range: 18 to 77; 39% employed) of mentally ill persons (50% (ex-)partner or (best) friend; M = 32 years, SD = 13, range 8 to 64; main complaints were depression and/or anxiety). Cronbach’s α determined the internal consistency. We examined predictive validity using regression analyses including the BAS and validated scales of social systems functioning (Experience In Social Systems Questionnaire, EXIS.pers, and psychopathology (Brief Symptom Inventory, BSI). Variables that might have influenced the dependent variables (e.g. age, gender, education, employment and civil status) were controlled by their introduction in the first step, and the BAS in the second step of the regression analyses. A model with four correlated factors (Disrupted Activities, Personal Distress, Time Perspective, Guilt) showed the best fit. With respect to the number of items included, the internal consistency was very good. The modified German BAS predicted relatives’ social systems functioning and psychopathology. The economical design makes the 19-item BAS promising for practice-oriented research, and for studies under time constraints. Strength, limitations and future directions are discussed. PMID:27764109

  14. Large scale debris-flow hazard assessment: a geotechnical approach and GIS modelling

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    G. Delmonaco


    Full Text Available A deterministic distributed model has been developed for large-scale debris-flow hazard analysis in the basin of River Vezza (Tuscany Region – Italy. This area (51.6 km 2 was affected by over 250 landslides. These were classified as debris/earth flow mainly involving the metamorphic geological formations outcropping in the area, triggered by the pluviometric event of 19 June 1996. In the last decades landslide hazard and risk analysis have been favoured by the development of GIS techniques permitting the generalisation, synthesis and modelling of stability conditions on a large scale investigation (>1:10 000. In this work, the main results derived by the application of a geotechnical model coupled with a hydrological model for the assessment of debris flows hazard analysis, are reported. This analysis has been developed starting by the following steps: landslide inventory map derived by aerial photo interpretation, direct field survey, generation of a database and digital maps, elaboration of a DTM and derived themes (i.e. slope angle map, definition of a superficial soil thickness map, geotechnical soil characterisation through implementation of a backanalysis on test slopes, laboratory test analysis, inference of the influence of precipitation, for distinct return times, on ponding time and pore pressure generation, implementation of a slope stability model (infinite slope model and generalisation of the safety factor for estimated rainfall events with different return times. Such an approach has allowed the identification of potential source areas of debris flow triggering. This is used to detected precipitation events with estimated return time of 10, 50, 75 and 100 years. The model shows a dramatic decrease of safety conditions for the simulation when is related to a 75 years return time rainfall event. It corresponds to an estimated cumulated daily intensity of 280–330 mm. This value can be considered the hydrological triggering

  15. Assessing depression related severity and functional impairment: the Overall Depression Severity and Impairment Scale (ODSIS.

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    Masaya Ito

    Full Text Available The Overall Depression Severity and Impairment Scale (ODSIS is a brief, five-item measure for assessing the frequency and intensity of depressive symptoms, as well as functional impairments in pleasurable activities, work or school, and interpersonal relationships due to depression. Although this scale is expected to be useful in various psychiatric and mental health settings, the reliability, validity, and interpretability have not yet been fully examined. This study was designed to examine the reliability, factorial, convergent, and discriminant validity of a Japanese version of the ODSIS, as well as its ability to distinguish between individuals with and without a major depressive disorder diagnosis.From a pool of registrants at an internet survey company, 2830 non-clinical and clinical participants were selected randomly (619 with major depressive disorder, 619 with panic disorder, 576 with social anxiety disorder, 645 with obsessive-compulsive disorder, and 371 non-clinical panelists. Participants were asked to respond to the ODSIS and conventional measures of depression, functional impairment, anxiety, neuroticism, satisfaction with life, and emotion regulation.Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of three split subsamples indicated the unidimensional factor structure of ODSIS. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis showed invariance of factor loadings between non-clinical and clinical subsamples. The ODSIS also showed excellent internal consistency and test-retest intraclass correlation coefficients. Convergence and discriminance of the ODSIS with various measures were in line with our expectations. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses showed that the ODSIS was able to detect a major depressive syndrome accurately.This study supports the reliability and validity of ODSIS in a non-western population, which can be interpreted as demonstrating cross-cultural validity.

  16. Assessment of scale formation and corrosion of drinking water supplies in Ilam city (Iran

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    Zabihollah Yousefi


    Full Text Available Background: Scaling and corrosion are the two most important indexes in water quality evaluation. Pollutants are released in water due to corrosion of pipelines. The aim of this study is to assess the scale formation and corrosion of drinking water supplies in Ilam city (Iran. Methods: This research is a descriptive and cross-sectional study which is based on the 20 drinking water sources in Ilam city. Experiments were carried out in accordance with the Water and Wastewater Co. standard methods for water and wastewater experiment. The data were analyzed by using Microsoft Excel and GraphPad Prism 5. The results were compared with national and international standards. Results: The mean and standard deviation (SD values of Ryznar, Langelier, Aggressive, Puckorius and Larson-Skold indices in year 2009 were equal to 7.833 (±0.28, -0.102 (±0.35, 11.88 (±0.34, 7.481 (±0.22 and 0.801 (±0.44, respectively, and were 7.861 (±0.28, -0.175 (±0.34, 11.84 (±0.37, 7.298(±0.32 and 0.633 (±0.47, for year 2013 respectively. The average of Langelier, Ryznar, Aggression, and Puckorius indices indicate that potable water resources in Ilam city have the tendency to be corrosive. Statistical analysis and figures carried out by GraphPad Prism version 5.04. Conclusion: The results of different indices for water resources of Ilam city revealed that water supplies of Ilam city were corrosive. Water quality control and replacement of distribution pipes in development of water network should be carried out. Moreover, water pipelines should be preserved with several modes of corrosion inhibition.

  17. Integrating adaptive behaviour in large-scale flood risk assessments: an Agent-Based Modelling approach (United States)

    Haer, Toon; Aerts, Jeroen


    Between 1998 and 2009, Europe suffered over 213 major damaging floods, causing 1126 deaths, displacing around half a million people. In this period, floods caused at least 52 billion euro in insured economic losses making floods the most costly natural hazard faced in Europe. In many low-lying areas, the main strategy to cope with floods is to reduce the risk of the hazard through flood defence structures, like dikes and levees. However, it is suggested that part of the responsibility for flood protection needs to shift to households and businesses in areas at risk, and that governments and insurers can effectively stimulate the implementation of individual protective measures. However, adaptive behaviour towards flood risk reduction and the interaction between the government, insurers, and individuals has hardly been studied in large-scale flood risk assessments. In this study, an European Agent-Based Model is developed including agent representatives for the administrative stakeholders of European Member states, insurers and reinsurers markets, and individuals following complex behaviour models. The Agent-Based Modelling approach allows for an in-depth analysis of the interaction between heterogeneous autonomous agents and the resulting (non-)adaptive behaviour. Existing flood damage models are part of the European Agent-Based Model to allow for a dynamic response of both the agents and the environment to changing flood risk and protective efforts. By following an Agent-Based Modelling approach this study is a first contribution to overcome the limitations of traditional large-scale flood risk models in which the influence of individual adaptive behaviour towards flood risk reduction is often lacking.

  18. Assessment of Student Skills for Critiquing Published Primary Scientific Literature Using a Primary Trait Analysis Scale

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    Manuel F. Varela


    Full Text Available Instructor evaluation of progressive student skills in the analysis of primary literature is critical for the development of these skills in young scientists. Students in a senior or graduate-level one-semester course in Immunology at a Masters-level comprehensive university were assessed for abilities (primary traits to recognize and evaluate the following elements of a scientific paper: Hypothesis and Rationale, Significance, Methods, Results, Critical Thinking and Analysis, and Conclusions. We tested the hypotheses that average recognition scores vary among elements and that scores change with time differently by trait. Recognition scores (scaled 1 to 5, and differences in scores were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA, regression, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA (n = 10 papers over 103 days. By multiple comparisons testing, we found that recognition scores statistically fell into two groups: high scores (for Hypothesis and Rationale, Significance, Methods, and Conclusions and low scores (for Results and Critical Thinking and Analysis. Recognition scores only significantly changed with time (increased for Hypothesis and Rationale and Results. ANCOVA showed that changes in recognition scores for these elements were not significantly different in slope (F1,16 = 0.254, P = 0.621 but the Results trait was significantly lower in elevation (F1,17 = 12.456, P = 0.003. Thus, students improved with similar trajectories, but starting and ending with lower Results scores. We conclude that students have greatest difficulty evaluating Results and critically evaluating scientific validity. Our findings show extant student skills, and the significant increase in some traits shows learning. This study demonstrates that students start with variable recognition skills and that student skills may be learned at differential rates. Faculty can use these findings or the primary trait analysis scoring scale to focus on specific paper elements for which

  19. Basin scale assessment of gas hydrate dissociation in response to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reagan, M.; Moridis, G.; Elliott, S.; Maltrud, M.; Cameron-Smith, P.


    Paleooceanographic evidence has been used to postulate that methane from oceanic hydrates may have had a significant role in regulating climate. However, the behavior of contemporary oceanic methane hydrate deposits subjected to rapid temperature changes, like those now occurring in the arctic and those predicted under future climate change scenarios, has only recently been investigated. Field investigations have discovered substantial methane gas plumes exiting the seafloor along the Arctic Ocean margin, and the plumes appear at depths corresponding to the upper limit of a receding gas hydrate stability zone. It has been suggested that these plumes may be the first visible signs of the dissociation of shallow hydrate deposits due to ongoing climate change in the arctic. We simulate the release of methane from oceanic deposits, including the effects of fully-coupled heat transfer, fluid flow, hydrate dissociation, and other thermodynamic processes, for systems representative of segments of the Arctic Ocean margins. The modeling encompasses a range of shallow hydrate deposits from the landward limit of the hydrate stability zone down to water depths beyond the expected range of century-scale temperature changes. We impose temperature changes corresponding to predicted rates of climate change-related ocean warming and examine the possibility of hydrate dissociation and the release of methane. The assessment is performed at local-, regional-, and basin-scales. The simulation results are consistent with the hypothesis that dissociating shallow hydrates alone can result in significant methane fluxes at the seafloor. However, the methane release is likely to be confined to a narrow region of high dissociation susceptibility, defined by depth and temperature, and that any release will be continuous and controlled, rather than explosive. This modeling also establishes the first realistic bounds for methane release along the arctic continental shelf for potential hydrate

  20. Validation of the use of the ROSIER scale in prehospital assessment of stroke

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    He Mingfeng


    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the utility of the Recognition of Stroke in the Emergency Room (ROSIER scale as a stroke recognition tool among Chinese patients in the prehospital setting. Materials and Methods: Compared with the Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale (CPSS, emergency physicians prospectively used the ROSIER as a stroke recognition tool on suspected patients in the prehospital setting. And, the final discharge diagnosis of stroke or transient ischemic attack made by neurologists, after assessment and review of clinical symptomatology and brain imaging findings, was used as the reference standard for diagnosis in the study. Then, the ROSIER and the CPSS like sensitivity (Se, specificity (Sp, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV, related coefficient (r and Kappa value were calculated. Results: In this study, 540 of 582 suspected stroke patients met the study criteria. The CPSS showed a diagnostic Se of 88.77% (95% confidence intervals [CI] 86.11-91.43%, Sp of 68.79% (95% CI 64.88-72.70%, PPV of 87.40% (95% CI 85.97-88.83%, NPV of 71.52% (95% CI 67.71-75.33% and r of 0.503. Relatively, the ROSIER showed a diagnostic Se of 89.97% (95% CI 87.44-92.64%, Sp of 83.23% (95% CI 80.08-86.38%, PPV of 92.66% (95% CI 90.46-94.86%, NPV of 77.91% (95% CI 74.41-81.41% and r of 0.584. According to the final discharge diagnosis, both the ROSIER and the CPSS were associated with the final discharge diagnosis (P 0.05. Conclusions: The ROSIER is a sensitive and specific stroke recognition tool for health providers′ use among Chinese patients in the prehospital setting. However, it cannot be used to confidently rule out or identify stroke as a diagnosis. Comprehensive clinical assessment and further examination on potential stroke patients are still important and cannot be replaced. When it is difficult to objectively complete the ROSIER for patients, the CPSS could replace it in the prehospital setting.

  1. Health Risk Assessment for Inhalation Exposure to Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether at Petrol Stations in Southern China. (United States)

    Hu, Dalin; Yang, Jianping; Liu, Yungang; Zhang, Wenjuan; Peng, Xiaowu; Wei, Qinzhi; Yuan, Jianhui; Zhu, Zhiliang


    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a well known gasoline additive, is used in China nationwide to enhance the octane number of gasoline and reduce harmful exhaust emissions, yet little is known regarding the potential health risk associated with occupational exposure to MTBE in petrol stations. In this study, 97 petrol station attendants (PSAs) in southern China were recruited for an assessment of the health risk associated with inhalation exposure to MTBE. The personal exposure levels of MTBE were analyzed by Head Space Solid Phase Microextraction GC/MS, and the demographic characteristics of the PSAs were investigated. Cancer and non-cancer risks were calculated with the methods recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that the exposure levels of MTBE in operating workers were much higher than among support staff (p operating workers, and 0.026 to 0.049 per 10⁶ for support staff, which are below the typical target range for risk management of 1 × 10(-6) to 1 × 10(-4); The hazard quotients (HQs) for all subjects were exposure of PSAs in southern China is in a low range which does not seem to be a significant health risk.

  2. Health Risk Assessment for Inhalation Exposure to Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether at Petrol Stations in Southern China

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    Dalin Hu


    Full Text Available Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE, a well known gasoline additive, is used in China nationwide to enhance the octane number of gasoline and reduce harmful exhaust emissions, yet  little is known regarding the potential health risk associated with occupational exposure to MTBE in petrol stations. In this study, 97 petrol station attendants (PSAs in southern China were recruited for an assessment of the health risk associated with inhalation exposure to MTBE. The personal exposure levels of MTBE were analyzed by Head Space Solid Phase Microextraction GC/MS, and the demographic characteristics of the PSAs were investigated. Cancer and non-cancer risks were calculated with the methods recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that the exposure levels of MTBE in operating workers were much higher than among support staff (p < 0.01 and both were lower than 50 ppm (an occupational threshold limit value. The calculated cancer risks (CRs at the investigated petrol stations was 0.170 to 0.240 per 106 for operating workers, and 0.026 to 0.049 per 106 for support staff, which are below the typical target range for risk management of 1 × 10−6 to 1 × 10−4; The hazard quotients (HQs for all subjects were <1. In conclusion, our study indicates that the MTBE exposure of PSAs in southern China is in a low range which does not seem to be a significant health risk.

  3. Observational techniques for constraining hydraulic and hydrologic models for use in catchment scale flood impact assessment (United States)

    Owen, Gareth; Wilkinson, Mark; Nicholson, Alex; Quinn, Paul; O'Donnell, Greg


    There is an increase in the use of Natural Flood Management (NFM) schemes to tackle excessive runoff in rural catchments, but direct evidence of their functioning during extreme events is often lacking. With the availability of low cost sensors, a dense nested monitoring network can be established to provide near continuous optical and physical observations of hydrological processes. This paper will discuss findings for a number of catchments in the North of England where land use management and NFM have been implemented for flood risk reduction; and show how these observations have been used to inform both a hydraulic and a rainfall-runoff model. The value of observations in understanding how measures function is of fundamental importance and is becoming increasingly viable and affordable. Open source electronic platforms such as Arduino and Raspberry Pi are being used with cheap sensors to perform these tasks. For example, a level gauge has been developed for approximately €110 and cameras capable of capturing still or moving pictures are available for approximately €120; these are being used to better understand the behaviour of NFM features such as ponds and woody debris. There is potential for networks of these instruments to be configured and data collected through Wi-Fi or other wireless networks. The potential to expand informative networks of data that can constrain models is now possible. The functioning of small scale runoff attenuation features, such as offline ponds, has been demonstrated at the local scale. Specifically, through the measurement of both instream and in-pond water levels, it has been possible to calculate the impact of storing/attenuating flood flows on the adjacent river flow. This information has been encapsulated in a hydraulic model that allows the extrapolation of impacts to the larger catchment scale, contributing to understanding of the scalability of such features. Using a dense network of level gauges located along the main

  4. A farm-scale framework for assessing vineyard soil fertility and restoration practices (United States)

    Vaudour, Emmanuelle; Gilliot, Jean-Marc; Leclercq, Léa


    The design of sustainable vineyard management is needed at varied scales and particularly at farm-scale. More and more winegrowers wish to adopt environmental-friendly practices while better controlling harvest composition. This leads to question complex issues with regard to sustainability of winegrowing agroecosystem and the adoption of new soil and vineyard management practices that are likely to favour a long-term preservation of quality production together with soil ecosystem functions. This study aims at elaborating a multivariate approach framework for vineyard soil fertility assessment over a 6 ha-farm planted with rainfed black Grenache and Syrah varieties in the Southern Rhone Valley. In a previous study carried out at the regional scale, soil landscape and potential terroir units had been characterized. A new field survey comprising ~20 soil pits, physico-chemical analyses for all soil profile horizons, and a series of additional soil surface samples analyzed for several parameters including soil organic carbon, calcium carbonate, copper and the major mineral nutrients, is here carried out. Along with soil parameters and soil surface condition, vine biological parameters including vigour, presence of diseases, stock-unearthing are collected. Very high resolution multispectral satellite data and resistivity EMI data are acquired and processed in order to characterize spatial variations in both physiological responses, soil surface conditions, soil depth and/or the presence of coarse elements. Multi-temporal historical aerial photographs are used in order to complement farmer's surveys regarding past management practices. The farm is characterized by a diversity of soils including Red Mediterranean soils (chromic luvisols), colluvic calcisols, arenosols, fluvisols, and regosols, which develop from top to slope then bottom of a Neogene molassic and conglomeratic plateau. Soil management past practices are marked by the absence of chemical/organic manuring

  5. A probabilistic assessment of large scale wind power development for long-term energy resource planning (United States)

    Kennedy, Scott Warren

    A steady decline in the cost of wind turbines and increased experience in their successful operation have brought this technology to the forefront of viable alternatives for large-scale power generation. Methodologies for understanding the costs and benefits of large-scale wind power development, however, are currently limited. In this thesis, a new and widely applicable technique for estimating the social benefit of large-scale wind power production is presented. The social benefit is based upon wind power's energy and capacity services and the avoidance of environmental damages. The approach uses probabilistic modeling techniques to account for the stochastic interaction between wind power availability, electricity demand, and conventional generator dispatch. A method for including the spatial smoothing effect of geographically dispersed wind farms is also introduced. The model has been used to analyze potential offshore wind power development to the south of Long Island, NY. If natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) and integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) are the alternative generation sources, wind power exhibits a negative social benefit due to its high capacity cost and the relatively low emissions of these advanced fossil-fuel technologies. Environmental benefits increase significantly if charges for CO2 emissions are included. Results also reveal a diminishing social benefit as wind power penetration increases. The dependence of wind power benefits on natural gas and coal prices is also discussed. In power systems with a high penetration of wind generated electricity, the intermittent availability of wind power may influence hourly spot prices. A price responsive electricity demand model is introduced that shows a small increase in wind power value when consumers react to hourly spot prices. The effectiveness of this mechanism depends heavily on estimates of the own- and cross-price elasticities of aggregate electricity demand. This work makes a valuable

  6. Assessment of mercury exposure among small-scale gold miners using mercury stable isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Laura S., E-mail: [University of Michigan, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 1100 North University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Blum, Joel D. [University of Michigan, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 1100 North University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Basu, Niladri [McGill University, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, 21,111 Lakeshore Road, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec, Canada H9X3V9 (Canada); Rajaee, Mozhgon [University of Michigan, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Evers, David C.; Buck, David G. [Biodiversity Research Institute, 19 Flaggy Meadow Road, Gorham, ME 04038 (United States); Petrlik, Jindrich [Arnika Association, Chlumova 17, Prague 3 (Czech Republic); DiGangi, Joseph [IPEN, Box 7256, SE-402 35 Gothenburg (Sweden)


    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations in hair and urine are often used as biomarkers of exposure to fish-derived methylmercury (MeHg) and gaseous elemental Hg, respectively. We used Hg stable isotopes to assess the validity of these biomarkers among small-scale gold mining populations in Ghana and Indonesia. Urine from Ghanaian miners displayed similar Δ{sup 199}Hg values to Hg derived from ore deposits (mean urine Δ{sup 199}Hg=0.01‰, n=6). This suggests that urine total Hg concentrations accurately reflect exposure to inorganic Hg among this population. Hair samples from Ghanaian miners displayed low positive Δ{sup 199}Hg values (0.23–0.55‰, n=6) and low percentages of total Hg as MeHg (7.6–29%, n=7). These data suggest that the majority of the Hg in these miners' hair samples is exogenously adsorbed inorganic Hg and not fish-derived MeHg. Hair samples from Indonesian gold miners who eat fish daily displayed a wider range of positive Δ{sup 199}Hg values (0.21–1.32‰, n=5) and percentages of total Hg as MeHg (32–72%, n=4). This suggests that total Hg in the hair samples from Indonesian gold miners is likely a mixture of ingested fish MeHg and exogenously adsorbed inorganic Hg. Based on data from both populations, we suggest that total Hg concentrations in hair samples from small-scale gold miners likely overestimate exposure to MeHg from fish consumption. - Highlights: • Mercury isotopes were measured in hair and urine from small-scale gold miners. • Mercury isotopes indicate that Hg in urine comes from mining activity. • Mercury isotopes suggest Hg in hair is a mixture of fish MeHg and inorganic Hg. • A large percentage of Hg in miner’s hair is released during amalgam burning and adsorbed.

  7. Consequential environmental life cycle assessment of a farm-scale biogas plant. (United States)

    Van Stappen, Florence; Mathot, Michaël; Decruyenaere, Virginie; Loriers, Astrid; Delcour, Alice; Planchon, Viviane; Goffart, Jean-Pierre; Stilmant, Didier


    Producing biogas via anaerobic digestion is a promising technology for meeting European and regional goals on energy production from renewable sources. It offers interesting opportunities for the agricultural sector, allowing waste and by-products to be converted into bioenergy and bio-based materials. A consequential life cycle assessment (cLCA) was conducted to examine the consequences of the installation of a farm-scale biogas plant, taking account of assumptions about processes displaced by biogas plant co-products (power, heat and digestate) and the uses of the biogas plant feedstock prior to plant installation. Inventory data were collected on an existing farm-scale biogas plant. The plant inputs are maize cultivated for energy, solid cattle manure and various by-products from surrounding agro-food industries. Based on hypotheses about displaced electricity production (oil or gas) and the initial uses of the plant feedstock (animal feed, compost or incineration), six scenarios were analyzed and compared. Digested feedstock previously used in animal feed was replaced with other feed ingredients in equivalent feed diets, designed to take account of various nutritional parameters for bovine feeding. The displaced production of mineral fertilizers and field emissions due to the use of digestate as organic fertilizer was balanced against the avoided use of manure and compost. For all of the envisaged scenarios, the installation of the biogas plant led to reduced impacts on water depletion and aquatic ecotoxicity (thanks mainly to the displaced mineral fertilizer production). However, with the additional animal feed ingredients required to replace digested feedstock in the bovine diets, extra agricultural land was needed in all scenarios. Field emissions from the digestate used as organic fertilizer also had a significant impact on acidification and eutrophication. The choice of displaced marginal technologies has a huge influence on the results, as have the

  8. Correlação entre a Visual Gait Assessment Scale, Edinburgh Visual Gait Scale e Escala Observacional da Marcha em crianças com paralisia cerebral diparética espástica Correlation among the Visual Gait Assessment Scale, Edinburgh Visual Gait Scale and Observational Gait Scale in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy

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    Geruza P. Bella


    Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Desordens da marcha são comuns em crianças com paralisia cerebral (PC diparética espástica. Com o intuito de aprimorar a marcha dessas crianças e quantificar os desfechos de tal intervenção, torna-se necessário que se faça uma análise instrumentada pré e pós-intervenção. OBJETIVOS: Correlacionar a Edinburgh Visual Gait Scale (EVGS, a Visual Gait Assessment Scale (VGAS e a Escala Observacional de Marcha (EOM. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de análise da marcha por meio das escalas EVGS, VGAS e EOM, envolvendo oito crianças com PC diparética espástica, nível I ou II do Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS, avaliadas por três examinadores. O estudo foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Universidade Estadual de Campinas - UNICAMP. Os dados foram analisados pelo índice Kappa ponderado, considerando um nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: O estudo intra-avaliadores mostrou que a concordância entre os métodos na classificação dos sujeitos foi de moderada a excelente (k=0,41, 1,00, sendo a comparação entre a VGAS e a EVGS a de maior índice de concordância, enquanto a EOM obteve grande discordância em comparação com as outras escalas. A concordância interavaliadores se mostrou predominantemente alta. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados fornecem evidências de que a VGAS e a EVGS são mais adequados para avaliação da marcha de crianças com PC diparética quando comparadas à EOM.BACKGROUND: Gait disorders are very common in children with spastic diplegia cerebral palsy (CP. In order to improve the CP children's gait and to quantify the outcomes of this intervention it becomes essential to perform an instrumented analysis before and after the intervention. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the correlation among the Edinburgh Visual Gait Scale (EVGS, the Visual Gait Assessment Scale (VGAS and the Observational Gait Scale (OGS. METHODS: Cross sectional study aiming to analyze the gait of 8

  9. Forcing factors of cloud-to-ground lightning over Iberia: regional-scale assessments

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    J. A. Santos


    Full Text Available Cloud-to-ground lightning in a sector covering the Iberian Peninsula, the Balearic Islands and nearby seas (36–44° N, 10° W–5° E is analysed in the period from 2003 to 2009 (7 yr. Two Iberian lightning detection networks, composed of 18 sensors over Portugal and Spain, are combined for the first time in the present study. The selected characteristics are cloud-to-ground flashes (CGFs, first stroke peak current, polarity and multiplicity (number of strokes in a given flash. This study examines the temporal (on hourly, monthly and seasonal timescales and spatial variability of CGFs. The influence of five forcing factors on lightning (elevation, lifted index, convective available potential energy and daily minimum and maximum near-surface air temperatures over the Iberian sector is also assessed. For regional-scale assessments, six subsectors with different climatic conditions were analysed separately. Despite important regional differences, the strongest lightning activity occurs from late spring to early autumn, and mostly in the afternoon. Furthermore, CGFs are mainly located over high-elevation areas in late spring to summer, while they tend to occur over the sea in autumn. The results suggest that (1 orographically forced thunderstorms over mountainous areas, mostly from May to September, (2 tropospheric buoyancy forcing over western-central and northern regions in summer and over the Mediterranean regions in autumn, and (3 near-surface thermal contrasts from October to February largely control the location of lightning in Iberia. There is no evidence of different forcings by polarity. A clear correspondence between summertime precipitation patterns and CGFs is also found.

  10. Assessing the Sustainability of Different Small-Scale Livestock Production Systems in the Afar Region, Ethiopia

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    Ngufor L. Atanga


    Full Text Available Livestock production is a key income source in eastern Africa, and 80% of the total agricultural land is used for livestock herding. Hence, ecological and socio-economically sustainable rangeland management is crucial. Our study aimed at selecting operational economic, environmental and social sustainability indicators for three main pastoral (P, agro-pastoral (AP, and landless intensive (LI small scale livestock production systems for use in sustainability assessment in Ethiopia. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected through grey literature and semi-structured interviews, assessing livestock and feed resources, production technology, land tenure, financial and gender issues. Our results suggested that feed shortages (FS are directly related to grazing pressure (G and inversely related to grass recovery rates (R. According to our indicators, AP was the most sustainable while P and LI were only conditionally sustainable production systems. 93% of 82 interviewees claimed that private land ownership was the best land tenure incentive for efficient rangeland management. Farmers perceived Prosopis juliflora expansion, sporadic rainfall, and disease infestation as the most significant causes for decreasing livestock productivity. Landless intensive farmers had the highest equality in income distribution (Gini Index: GI = 0.4, followed by P and AP (each with a GI = 0.5. Neither educational background nor income seemed to determine grazing species conservation efforts. We claimed that sustainability indicators are valuable tools to highlight shortcomings and strengths of the three main livestock production systems and help with future livestock management in Ethiopia. Selecting suitable indicators, however, is crucial as data requirements and availability can vary across livestock systems.

  11. Assessment of Large Scale Land Cover Change Classifications and Drivers of Deforestation in Indonesia (United States)

    Wijaya, A.; Sugardiman Budiharto, R. A.; Tosiani, A.; Murdiyarso, D.; Verchot, L. V.


    Indonesia possesses the third largest tropical forests coverage following Brazilian Amazon and Congo Basin regions. This country, however, suffered from the highest deforestation rate surpassing deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon in 2012. National capacity for forest change assessment and monitoring has been well-established in Indonesia and the availability of national forest inventory data could largely assist the country to report their forest carbon stocks and change over more than two decades. This work focuses for refining forest cover change mapping and deforestation estimate at national scale applying over 10,000 scenes of Landsat scenes, acquired in 1990, 1996, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009, 2011 and 2012. Pre-processing of the data includes, geometric corrections and image mosaicking. The classification of mosaic Landsat data used multi-stage visual observation approaches, verified using ground observations and comparison with other published materials. There are 23 land cover classes identified from land cover data, presenting spatial information of forests, agriculture, plantations, non-vegetated lands and other land use categories. We estimated the magnitude of forest cover change and assessed drivers of forest cover change over time. Forest change trajectories analysis was also conducted to observe dynamics of forest cover across time. This study found that careful interpretations of satellite data can provide reliable information on forest cover and change. Deforestation trend in Indonesia was lower in 2000-2012 compared to 1990-2000 periods. We also found that over 50% of forests loss in 1990 remains unproductive in 2012. Major drivers of forest conversion in Indonesia range from shrubs/open land, subsistence agriculture, oil palm expansion, plantation forest and mining. The results were compared with other available datasets and we obtained that the MOF data yields reliable estimate of deforestation.

  12. Seismic hazard assessment based on the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes: the Greater Caucasus (United States)

    Nekrasova, A.; Kossobokov, V. G.


    Losses from natural disasters continue to increase mainly due to poor understanding by majority of scientific community, decision makers and public, the three components of Risk, i.e., Hazard, Exposure, and Vulnerability. Contemporary Science is responsible for not coping with challenging changes of Exposures and their Vulnerability inflicted by growing population, its concentration, etc., which result in a steady increase of Losses from Natural Hazards. Scientists owe to Society for lack of knowledge, education, and communication. In fact, Contemporary Science can do a better job in disclosing Natural Hazards, assessing Risks, and delivering such knowledge in advance catastrophic events. We continue applying the general concept of seismic risk analysis in a number of seismic regions worldwide by constructing regional seismic hazard maps based on the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes (USLE), i.e. log N(M,L) = A - B•(M-6) + C•log L, where N(M,L) is the expected annual number of earthquakes of a certain magnitude M within an seismically prone area of linear dimension L. The parameters A, B, and C of USLE are used to estimate, first, the expected maximum magnitude in a time interval at a seismically prone cell of a uniform grid that cover the region of interest, and then the corresponding expected ground shaking parameters including macro-seismic intensity. After a rigorous testing against the available seismic evidences in the past (e.g., the historically reported macro-seismic intensity), such a seismic hazard map is used to generate maps of specific earthquake risks (e.g., those based on the density of exposed population). The methodology of seismic hazard and risks assessment based on USLE is illustrated by application to the seismic region of Greater Caucasus.

  13. Large-scale assessment of Mediterranean marine protected areas effects on fish assemblages.

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    Paolo Guidetti

    Full Text Available Marine protected areas (MPAs were acknowledged globally as effective tools to mitigate the threats to oceans caused by fishing. Several studies assessed the effectiveness of individual MPAs in protecting fish assemblages, but regional assessments of multiple MPAs are scarce. Moreover, empirical evidence on the role of MPAs in contrasting the propagation of non-indigenous-species (NIS and thermophilic species (ThS is missing. We simultaneously investigated here the role of MPAs in reversing the effects of overfishing and in limiting the spread of NIS and ThS. The Mediterranean Sea was selected as study area as it is a region where 1 MPAs are numerous, 2 fishing has affected species and ecosystems, and 3 the arrival of NIS and the northward expansion of ThS took place. Fish surveys were done in well-enforced no-take MPAs (HP, partially-protected MPAs (IP and fished areas (F at 30 locations across the Mediterranean. Significantly higher fish biomass was found in HP compared to IP MPAs and F. Along a recovery trajectory from F to HP MPAs, IP were similar to F, showing that just well enforced MPAs triggers an effective recovery. Within HP MPAs, trophic structure of fish assemblages resembled a top-heavy biomass pyramid. Although the functional structure of fish assemblages was consistent among HP MPAs, species driving the recovery in HP MPAs differed among locations: this suggests that the recovery trajectories in HP MPAs are likely to be functionally similar (i.e., represented by predictable changes in trophic groups, especially fish predators, but the specific composition of the resulting assemblages may depend on local conditions. Our study did not show any effect of MPAs on NIS and ThS. These results may help provide more robust expectations, at proper regional scale, about the effects of new MPAs that may be established in the Mediterranean Sea and other ecoregions worldwide.

  14. Air pollution, health and social deprivation: A fine-scale risk assessment. (United States)

    Morelli, Xavier; Rieux, Camille; Cyrys, Josef; Forsberg, Bertil; Slama, Rémy


    Risk assessment studies often ignore within-city variations of air pollutants. Our objective was to quantify the risk associated with fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure in 2 urban areas using fine-scale air pollution modeling and to characterize how this risk varied according to social deprivation. In Grenoble and Lyon areas (0.4 and 1.2 million inhabitants, respectively) in 2012, PM2.5 exposure was estimated on a 10×10m grid by coupling a dispersion model to population density. Outcomes were mortality, lung cancer and term low birth weight incidences. Cases attributable to air pollution were estimated overall and stratifying areas according to the European Deprivation Index (EDI), taking 10µg/m(3) yearly average as reference (counterfactual) level. Estimations were repeated assuming spatial homogeneity of air pollutants within urban area. Median PM2.5 levels were 18.1 and 19.6μg/m(3) in Grenoble and Lyon urban areas, respectively, corresponding to 114 (5.1% of total, 95% confidence interval, CI, 3.2-7.0%) and 491 non-accidental deaths (6.0% of total, 95% CI 3.7-8.3%) attributable to long-term exposure to PM2.5, respectively. Attributable term low birth weight cases represented 23.6% of total cases (9.0-37.1%) in Grenoble and 27.6% of cases (10.7-42.6%) in Lyon. In Grenoble, 6.8% of incident lung cancer cases were attributable to air pollution (95% CI 3.1-10.1%). Risk was lower by 8 to 20% when estimating exposure through background stations. Risk was highest in neighborhoods with intermediate to higher social deprivation. Risk assessment studies relying on background stations to estimate air pollution levels may underestimate the attributable risk.

  15. Assessing Regional Scale Variability in Extreme Value Statistics Under Altered Climate Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunsell, Nathaniel [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States); Mechem, David [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States); Ma, Chunsheng [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States)


    Recent studies have suggested that low-frequency modes of climate variability can significantly influence regional climate. The climatology associated with extreme events has been shown to be particularly sensitive. This has profound implications for droughts, heat waves, and food production. We propose to examine regional climate simulations conducted over the continental United States by applying a recently developed technique which combines wavelet multi–resolution analysis with information theory metrics. This research is motivated by two fundamental questions concerning the spatial and temporal structure of extreme events. These questions are 1) what temporal scales of the extreme value distributions are most sensitive to alteration by low-frequency climate forcings and 2) what is the nature of the spatial structure of variation in these timescales? The primary objective is to assess to what extent information theory metrics can be useful in characterizing the nature of extreme weather phenomena. Specifically, we hypothesize that (1) changes in the nature of extreme events will impact the temporal probability density functions and that information theory metrics will be sensitive these changes and (2) via a wavelet multi–resolution analysis, we will be able to characterize the relative contribution of different timescales on the stochastic nature of extreme events. In order to address these hypotheses, we propose a unique combination of an established regional climate modeling approach and advanced statistical techniques to assess the effects of low-frequency modes on climate extremes over North America. The behavior of climate extremes in RCM simulations for the 20th century will be compared with statistics calculated from the United States Historical Climatology Network (USHCN) and simulations from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP). This effort will serve to establish the baseline behavior of climate extremes, the

  16. Validating a developmental scale for young children using the Rasch model: applicability of the teaching strategies GOLD assessment system. (United States)

    Kim, Do-Hong; Lambert, Richard G; Burts, Diane C


    This article reports the results of an application of the Rasch rating scale model to the Teaching Strategies GOLD assessment system in a norm sample of children aged birth to 71 months. The analyses focused on the examination of dimensionality, rating scale effectiveness, the hierarchy of item difficulties, and the relationship of developmental scale scores to child age. Results show that each subscale satisfies the Rasch model for unidimensionality. Ratings were found to be less reliable at the lowest and highest ends of the scale and less distinct at 'In-between' levels. Items appear to form theoretically expected hierarchies, supporting evidence for construct validity for the measures. Moderately high correlations of developmental scale scores with child age suggest that teachers are able to make valid ratings of the developmental progress of children across the intended age range.

  17. Assessment of Borderline Personality Features in Population Samples: Is the Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderline Features Scale Measurement Invariant across Sex and Age? (United States)

    De Moor, Marleen H. M.; Distel, Marijn A.; Trull, Timothy J.; Boomsma, Dorret I.


    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is more often diagnosed in women than in men, and symptoms tend to decline with age. Using a large community sample, the authors investigated whether sex and age differences in four main features of BPD, measured with the "Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderline Features" scale (PAI-BOR; Morey,…

  18. Psychometric evaluation of a visual analog scale for the assessment of anxiety

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    Morlock Robert J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fast-acting medications for the management of anxiety are important to patients and society. Measuring early onset, however, requires a sensitive and clinically responsive tool. This study evaluates the psychometric properties of a patient-reported Global Anxiety - Visual Analog Scale (GA-VAS. Methods Data from a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of lorazepam and paroxetine in patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder were analyzed to assess the reliability, validity, responsiveness, and utility of the GA-VAS. The GA-VAS was completed at clinic visits and at home during the first week of treatment. Targeted psychometric analyses—test-retest reliabilities, validity correlations, responsiveness statistics, and minimum important differences—were conducted. Results The GA-VAS correlates well with other anxiety measures, at Week 4, r = 0.60 (p r = 0.74 (p p p p Conclusions The GA-VAS is capable of validly and effectively capturing a reduction in anxiety as quickly as 24 hours post-dose.

  19. Psychometric performance of an assessment scale for strain in nursing care: The M-NCAS

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    Kleinman Leah


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple instruments exist to measure dementia behaviors, but the nursing staff perspective on those behaviors and their level of burden has not been well measured. The goal of this study was to examine the psychometric performance of the Modified Nursing Care Assessment Scale (M-NCAS, a 28-item nurse rating of burden associated with care for institutionalized individuals with dementia. Nurses rate items in terms of extent to which the behavior or characteristic is present ("attitude" domain, and extent to which it is a burden ("strain" domain. Methods Data from 282 patients enrolled in a 12-week, double-blind, randomized clinical trial comparing risperidone treatment to placebo was used to evaluate M-NCAS item performance, internal consistency reliability, and construct validity. Empirical subscales were identified via exploratory factor analysis (EFA. Results Four poorly-performing items were deleted from further analyses. EFA identified 3 "attitude" subscales and 5 "strain" subscales. Cronbach's alphas were 0.65 and above. Correlation with the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory and the BEHAVE-AD, clinical ratings of dementia behaviors, were low to moderate. Conclusion The M-NCAS provides a valid and reliable means of obtaining care burden ratings from formal caregivers in long-term care, and provides a method for evaluating dementia interventions from the perspective of nursing staff.

  20. A social and ecological assessment of tropical land uses at multiple scales: the Sustainable Amazon Network. (United States)

    Gardner, Toby A; Ferreira, Joice; Barlow, Jos; Lees, Alexander C; Parry, Luke; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Berenguer, Erika; Abramovay, Ricardo; Aleixo, Alexandre; Andretti, Christian; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Araújo, Ivanei; de Ávila, Williams Souza; Bardgett, Richard D; Batistella, Mateus; Begotti, Rodrigo Anzolin; Beldini, Troy; de Blas, Driss Ezzine; Braga, Rodrigo Fagundes; Braga, Danielle de Lima; de Brito, Janaína Gomes; de Camargo, Plínio Barbosa; Campos dos Santos, Fabiane; de Oliveira, Vívian Campos; Cordeiro, Amanda Cardoso Nunes; Cardoso, Thiago Moreira; de Carvalho, Déborah Reis; Castelani, Sergio André; Chaul, Júlio Cézar Mário; Cerri, Carlos Eduardo; Costa, Francisco de Assis; da Costa, Carla Daniele Furtado; Coudel, Emilie; Coutinho, Alexandre Camargo; Cunha, Dênis; D'Antona, Álvaro; Dezincourt, Joelma; Dias-Silva, Karina; Durigan, Mariana; Esquerdo, Júlio César Dalla Mora; Feres, José; Ferraz, Silvio Frosini de Barros; Ferreira, Amanda Estefânia de Melo; Fiorini, Ana Carolina; da Silva, Lenise Vargas Flores; Frazão, Fábio Soares; Garrett, Rachel; Gomes, Alessandra dos Santos; Gonçalves, Karoline da Silva; Guerrero, José Benito; Hamada, Neusa; Hughes, Robert M; Igliori, Danilo Carmago; Jesus, Ederson da Conceição; Juen, Leandro; Junior, Miércio; de Oliveira Junior, José Max Barbosa; de Oliveira Junior, Raimundo Cosme; Souza Junior, Carlos; Kaufmann, Phil; Korasaki, Vanesca; Leal, Cecília Gontijo; Leitão, Rafael; Lima, Natália; Almeida, Maria de Fátima Lopes; Lourival, Reinaldo; Louzada, Júlio; Mac Nally, Ralph; Marchand, Sébastien; Maués, Márcia Motta; Moreira, Fátima M S; Morsello, Carla; Moura, Nárgila; Nessimian, Jorge; Nunes, Sâmia; Oliveira, Victor Hugo Fonseca; Pardini, Renata; Pereira, Heloisa Correia; Pompeu, Paulo Santos; Ribas, Carla Rodrigues; Rossetti, Felipe; Schmidt, Fernando Augusto; da Silva, Rodrigo; da Silva, Regina Célia Viana Martins; da Silva, Thiago Fonseca Morello Ramalho; Silveira, Juliana; Siqueira, João Victor; de Carvalho, Teotônio Soares; Solar, Ricardo R C; Tancredi, Nicola Savério Holanda; Thomson, James R; Torres, Patrícia Carignano; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Zagury; Veiga, Ruan Carlo Stulpen; Venturieri, Adriano; Viana, Cecília; Weinhold, Diana; Zanetti, Ronald; Zuanon, Jansen


    Science has a critical role to play in guiding more sustainable development trajectories. Here, we present the Sustainable Amazon Network (Rede Amazônia Sustentável, RAS): a multidisciplinary research initiative involving more than 30 partner organizations working to assess both social and ecological dimensions of land-use sustainability in eastern Brazilian Amazonia. The research approach adopted by RAS offers three advantages for addressing land-use sustainability problems: (i) the collection of synchronized and co-located ecological and socioeconomic data across broad gradients of past and present human use; (ii) a nested sampling design to aid comparison of ecological and socioeconomic conditions associated with different land uses across local, landscape and regional scales; and (iii) a strong engagement with a wide variety of actors and non-research institutions. Here, we elaborate on these key features, and identify the ways in which RAS can help in highlighting those problems in most urgent need of attention, and in guiding improvements in land-use sustainability in Amazonia and elsewhere in the tropics. We also discuss some of the practical lessons, limitations and realities faced during the development of the RAS initiative so far.

  1. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale in the Assessment of Sleep Disturbance in Veterans with Tinnitus

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    Yuan F. Liu


    Full Text Available Purpose. Tinnitus and sleep disturbance are prevalent in veterans, and a better understanding of their relationship can help with tinnitus treatment. Materials and Methods. Retrospective chart review of 94 veterans seen in audiology clinic between 2010 and 2013 is presented. Results. The mean age was 62 years, and 93 of 94 veterans were males. The majority (96% had hearing loss. The positive predictive value of the ESS for sleep disorder was 97% and the negative predictive value was 100%. Veterans with a Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI score ≥38 had significantly higher Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS scores compared to those with THI score <38 (P=0.006. The former had a significantly higher incidence of PTSD, anxiety, and sleep disorder. A subgroup of patients had normal sleep despite rising THI scores. Bilateral tinnitus, vertigo, and anxiety were found to be predictors of sleep disturbance. Conclusions. The ESS can be used as a tool in the initial assessment of sleep disorders in veterans with tinnitus. Higher tinnitus handicap severity is significantly associated with greater sleep disturbance. Optimal management of tinnitus may require concomitant treatment of sleep disorder, PTSD, anxiety, and depression.

  2. Developing rapid detection of ecotoxicity on river-watershed scales: Integrating assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, E.L. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States); Waller, W.T. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States)


    Early validation of developing toxicity in river-watershed ecological systems is necessary if long-range environmental management plans are to be effective. In meeting this need, near, real-time watershed monitoring networks are being tested as time-lags found in processing complex ecological information become reduced. Rapid detection of ecotoxic response will improve by coupling established ecological assessment methods to reveal past changes with those giving near, real-time responses found in electronic, super highway-linked networks. Integrated ecosystem monitoring networks are being designed to resolve near, real-time biological response to developing toxicity in a river-watershed by: (1) temporal/spacial characterization of physical and biological attributes on sub-watershed scales through GIS, (2) networking automated biosensing devices at existing water quality and remote monitoring stations, providing a ``finger on the river pulse``, (3) timely updating landscape/watershed attributes from remote sensing imagery for GIS presentation, and (4) coordinating/focusing resources of participating agencies. Through GIS presentations a Compliment to existing monitoring programs can be realized by generating multidimensional, dynamic graphics for quantifying developing ecotoxicity of riverine systems.

  3. Lessons from a large-scale assessment: Results from conceptual inventories (United States)

    Thacker, Beth; Dulli, Hani; Pattillo, Dave; West, Keith


    We report conceptual inventory results of a large-scale assessment project at a large university. We studied the introduction of materials and instructional methods informed by physics education research (PER) (physics education research-informed materials) into a department where most instruction has previously been traditional and a significant number of faculty are hesitant, ambivalent, or even resistant to the introduction of such reforms. Data were collected in all of the sections of both the large algebra- and calculus-based introductory courses for a number of years employing commonly used conceptual inventories. Results from a small PER-informed, inquiry-based, laboratory-based class are also reported. Results suggest that when PER-informed materials are introduced in the labs and recitations, independent of the lecture style, there is an increase in students' conceptual inventory gains. There is also an increase in the results on conceptual inventories if PER-informed instruction is used in the lecture. The highest conceptual inventory gains were achieved by the combination of PER-informed lectures and laboratories in large class settings and by the hands-on, laboratory-based, inquiry-based course taught in a small class setting.

  4. Alzheimer's disease risk assessment using large-scale machine learning methods.

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    Ramon Casanova

    Full Text Available The goal of this work is to introduce new metrics to assess risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD which we call AD Pattern Similarity (AD-PS scores. These metrics are the conditional probabilities modeled by large-scale regularized logistic regression. The AD-PS scores derived from structural MRI and cognitive test data were tested across different situations using data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI study. The scores were computed across groups of participants stratified by cognitive status, age and functional status. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate associations with the distribution of conversion times from mild cognitive impairment to AD. The performances of classifiers developed using data from different types of brain tissue were systematically characterized across cognitive status groups. We also explored the performance of anatomical and cognitive-anatomical composite scores generated by combining the outputs of classifiers developed using different types of data. In addition, we provide the AD-PS scores performance relative to other metrics used in the field including the Spatial Pattern of Abnormalities for Recognition of Early AD (SPARE-AD index and total hippocampal volume for the variables examined.

  5. Development of type transfer functions for regional-scale nonpoint source groundwater vulnerability assessments (United States)

    Stewart, Iris T.; Loague, Keith


    Groundwater vulnerability assessments of nonpoint source agrochemical contamination at regional scales are either qualitative in nature or require prohibitively costly computational efforts. By contrast, the type transfer function (TTF) modeling approach for vadose zone pesticide leaching presented here estimates solute concentrations at a depth of interest, only uses available soil survey, climatic, and irrigation information, and requires minimal computational cost for application. TTFs are soil texture based travel time probability density functions that describe a characteristic leaching behavior for soil profiles with similar soil hydraulic properties. Seven sets of TTFs, representing different levels of upscaling, were developed for six loam soil textural classes with the aid of simulated breakthrough curves from synthetic data sets. For each TTF set, TTFs were determined from a group or subgroup of breakthrough curves for each soil texture by identifying the effective parameters of the function that described the average leaching behavior of the group. The grouping of the breakthrough curves was based on the TTF index, a measure of the magnitude of the peak concentration, the peak arrival time, and the concentration spread. Comparison to process-based simulations show that the TTFs perform well with respect to mass balance, concentration magnitude, and the timing of concentration peaks. Sets of TTFs based on individual soil textures perform better for all the evaluation criteria than sets that span all textures. As prediction accuracy and computational cost increase with the number of TTFs in a set, the selection of a TTF set is determined by a given application.

  6. A social and ecological assessment of tropical land uses at multiple scales: the Sustainable Amazon Network (United States)

    Gardner, Toby A.; Ferreira, Joice; Barlow, Jos; Lees, Alexander C.; Parry, Luke; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Berenguer, Erika; Abramovay, Ricardo; Aleixo, Alexandre; Andretti, Christian; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Araújo, Ivanei; de Ávila, Williams Souza; Bardgett, Richard D.; Batistella, Mateus; Begotti, Rodrigo Anzolin; Beldini, Troy; de Blas, Driss Ezzine; Braga, Rodrigo Fagundes; Braga, Danielle de Lima; de Brito, Janaína Gomes; de Camargo, Plínio Barbosa; Campos dos Santos, Fabiane; de Oliveira, Vívian Campos; Cordeiro, Amanda Cardoso Nunes; Cardoso, Thiago Moreira; de Carvalho, Déborah Reis; Castelani, Sergio André; Chaul, Júlio Cézar Mário; Cerri, Carlos Eduardo; Costa, Francisco de Assis; da Costa, Carla Daniele Furtado; Coudel, Emilie; Coutinho, Alexandre Camargo; Cunha, Dênis; D'Antona, Álvaro; Dezincourt, Joelma; Dias-Silva, Karina; Durigan, Mariana; Esquerdo, Júlio César Dalla Mora; Feres, José; Ferraz, Silvio Frosini de Barros; Ferreira, Amanda Estefânia de Melo; Fiorini, Ana Carolina; da Silva, Lenise Vargas Flores; Frazão, Fábio Soares; Garrett, Rachel; Gomes, Alessandra dos Santos; Gonçalves, Karoline da Silva; Guerrero, José Benito; Hamada, Neusa; Hughes, Robert M.; Igliori, Danilo Carmago; Jesus, Ederson da Conceição; Juen, Leandro; Junior, Miércio; Junior, José Max Barbosa de Oliveira; Junior, Raimundo Cosme de Oliveira; Junior, Carlos Souza; Kaufmann, Phil; Korasaki, Vanesca; Leal, Cecília Gontijo; Leitão, Rafael; Lima, Natália; Almeida, Maria de Fátima Lopes; Lourival, Reinaldo; Louzada, Júlio; Nally, Ralph Mac; Marchand, Sébastien; Maués, Márcia Motta; Moreira, Fátima M. S.; Morsello, Carla; Moura, Nárgila; Nessimian, Jorge; Nunes, Sâmia; Oliveira, Victor Hugo Fonseca; Pardini, Renata; Pereira, Heloisa Correia; Pompeu, Paulo Santos; Ribas, Carla Rodrigues; Rossetti, Felipe; Schmidt, Fernando Augusto; da Silva, Rodrigo; da Silva, Regina Célia Viana Martins; da Silva, Thiago Fonseca Morello Ramalho; Silveira, Juliana; Siqueira, João Victor; de Carvalho, Teotônio Soares; Solar, Ricardo R. C.; Tancredi, Nicola Savério Holanda; Thomson, James R.; Torres, Patrícia Carignano; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Zagury; Veiga, Ruan Carlo Stulpen; Venturieri, Adriano; Viana, Cecília; Weinhold, Diana; Zanetti, Ronald; Zuanon, Jansen


    Science has a critical role to play in guiding more sustainable development trajectories. Here, we present the Sustainable Amazon Network (Rede Amazônia Sustentável, RAS): a multidisciplinary research initiative involving more than 30 partner organizations working to assess both social and ecological dimensions of land-use sustainability in eastern Brazilian Amazonia. The research approach adopted by RAS offers three advantages for addressing land-use sustainability problems: (i) the collection of synchronized and co-located ecological and socioeconomic data across broad gradients of past and present human use; (ii) a nested sampling design to aid comparison of ecological and socioeconomic conditions associated with different land uses across local, landscape and regional scales; and (iii) a strong engagement with a wide variety of actors and non-research institutions. Here, we elaborate on these key features, and identify the ways in which RAS can help in highlighting those problems in most urgent need of attention, and in guiding improvements in land-use sustainability in Amazonia and elsewhere in the tropics. We also discuss some of the practical lessons, limitations and realities faced during the development of the RAS initiative so far. PMID:23610172


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirena Valkova


    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of our study is to examine cognitive performance after mild stroke via Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and Montreal cognitive assessment scale (MoCA and to compare the results.Material and methods: We examined 54 patients with mild stroke (aged 52 to 72 (mean 63.17, SD 5.96; 34 males and 20 females and 54 controls, adjusted by age, sex and education level. All subjects were tested via MMSE (Bulgarian version and MoCa (Bulgarian version. Data was collected in the single step model at the 90th day after stroke incident for patients and at the day of obtaining informed consent for controls. Results: Patients have poorer performance on both MMSE and MoCa than controls. MoCa has comparatively good discriminative validity and sensitivity.Conclusions: Although MMSE is one of the classical screening tools for cognitive impairment widely used in Bulgaria, other screening tools should not be ignored. On the basis of our results, MoCa is also a good screening instrument, especially for poststroke cognitive impairment.

  8. Monitoring of cotton dust and health risk assessment in small-scale weaving industry. (United States)

    Tahir, Muhammad Wajid; Mumtaz, Muhammad Waseem; Tauseef, Shanza; Sajjad, Muqadas; Nazeer, Awais; Farheen, Nazish; Iqbal, Muddsar


    The present study describes the estimation of particulate matter (cotton dust) with different sizes, i.e., PM(1.0), PM(2.5), PM(4.0), and PM(10.0 μm) in small-scale weaving industry (power looms) situated in district Hafizabad, Punjab, Pakistan, and the assessment of health problems of workers associated with these pollutants. A significant difference was found in PM(1.0), PM(2.5), PM(4.0), and PM(10.0) with reference to nine different sampling stations with p values 4.0), and PM(10.0), depict that PM(1.0) differs significantly from PM(2.5), PM(4.0), and PM(10.0), with p values 4.0), with a p value >0.05 in defined sampling stations on an average basis. Majority of the workers were facing several diseases due to interaction with particulate matter (cotton dust) during working hours. Flue, cough, eye, and skin infections were the most common diseases among workers caused by particulate matter (cotton dust).

  9. Fisher revised scale for assessment of prognosis in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage

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    Arthur Maynart Pereira Oliveira


    Full Text Available The Fisher revised scale (FRS presents an alternative for evaluating patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH. In this study, we compared the prognosis of patients with SAH and vasospasms (VSP. METHOD: This was a prospective study on patients with a diagnosis of aneurysmal SAH, 72 hours after the initial event. Sequential neurological examinations and Hunt and Hess (HaH score were performed on the 1st, 7th and 14th days. Transcranial Doppler was used to assess vasospasms. RESULTS: Out of the 24 patients studied, ten (41.66% presented a delayed neurological deficit, such as diminished consciousness, decreased HaH score or death. The single patient classified as FS-1 did not have any delayed neurological deficit, while such deficits evolved in one patient out of five with FS-2 (20%; two out of seven with FS-3 (28.57% and seven out of 11 with FS-4 (63.63%. CONCLUSION: Level three of the FS and FRS seemed to be compatible with regard to predicting the likelihood of progression to severe VSP.

  10. Large-scale assessment of olfactory preferences and learning in Drosophila melanogaster: behavioral and genetic components

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    Elisabetta Versace


    Full Text Available In the Evolve and Resequence method (E&R, experimental evolution and genomics are combined to investigate evolutionary dynamics and the genotype-phenotype link. As other genomic approaches, this methods requires many replicates with large population sizes, which imposes severe restrictions on the analysis of behavioral phenotypes. Aiming to use E&R for investigating the evolution of behavior in Drosophila, we have developed a simple and effective method to assess spontaneous olfactory preferences and learning in large samples of fruit flies using a T-maze. We tested this procedure on (a a large wild-caught population and (b 11 isofemale lines of Drosophila melanogaster. Compared to previous methods, this procedure reduces the environmental noise and allows for the analysis of large population samples. Consistent with previous results, we show that flies have a preference for orange vs. apple odor. With our procedure wild-derived flies exhibit olfactory learning in the absence of previous laboratory selection. Furthermore, we find genetic differences in the olfactory learning with relatively high heritability. We propose this large-scale method as an effective tool for E&R and genome-wide association studies on olfactory preferences and learning.

  11. Feasibility Assessment of Using Power Plant Waste Heat in Large Scale Horticulture Facility Energy Supply Systems

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    Min Gyung Yu


    Full Text Available Recently, the Korean government has been carrying out projects to construct several large scale horticulture facilities. However, it is difficult for an energy supply to operate stably and economically with only a conventional fossil fuel boiler system. For this reason, several unused energy sources have become attractive and it was found that power plant waste heat has the greatest potential for application in this scenario. In this study, we performed a feasibility assessment of power plant waste heat as an energy source for horticulture facilities. As a result, it was confirmed that there was a sufficient amount of energy potential for the use of waste heat to supply energy to the assumed area. In Dangjin, an horticultural area of 500 ha could be constructed by utilizing 20% of the energy reserves. In Hadong, a horticulture facility can be set up to be 260 ha with 7.4% of the energy reserves. In Youngdong, an assumed area of 65 ha could be built utilizing about 19% of the energy reserves. Furthermore, the payback period was calculated in order to evaluate the economic feasibility compared with a conventional system. The initial investment costs can be recovered by the approximately 83% reduction in the annual operating costs.

  12. Validation of the Arabic Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale (A-RUDAS) in elderly with mild and moderate dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaaya, M; Phung, T.K.T.; El Asmar, K;


    Dementia Assessment Scale (RUDAS) was especially designed to minimize the effects of cultural learning and education. The aim of this study was to validate the RUDAS in the Arabic language (A-RUDAS), evaluate its ability to screen for mild and moderate dementia, and assess the effect of education, sex, age......-IV diagnosis. CONCLUSION: The A-RUDAS is proposed for dementia screening in clinical practice and in research in Arabic-speaking populations with an optimal cutoff of ≤22....

  13. Multivariate assessment of lipophilicity scales-computational and reversed phase thin-layer chromatographic indices. (United States)

    Andrić, Filip; Bajusz, Dávid; Rácz, Anita; Šegan, Sandra; Héberger, Károly


    overlap with in silico assessments, mostly with methods involving octadecyl-modified silica stationary phases. The ones that employ cyano-modified silica perform generally worse. The introduction of alternative coloring schemes for the covariance matrices and SRD/GPCM heatmaps enables the discovery of intrinsic relationships among lipophilicity scales and the selection of best/worst measures. Closest to the recommended logKOW values are ClogP and the first principal component scores obtained on octadecyl-silica stationary phase in combination with methanol-water mobile phase, while the usage of slopes derived from Soczewinski-Matyisik equation should be avoided.

  14. Large Scale Assessment of Radio Frequency Interference Signatures in L-band SAR Data (United States)

    Meyer, F. J.; Nicoll, J.


    Imagery of L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems such as the PALSAR sensor on board the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) has proven to be a valuable tool for observing environmental changes around the globe. Besides offering 24/7 operability, the L-band frequency provides improved interferometric coherence, and L-band polarimetric data has shown great potential for vegetation monitoring, sea ice classification, and the observation of glaciers and ice sheets. To maximize the benefit of missions such as ALOS PALSAR for environmental monitoring, data consistency and calibration are vital. Unfortunately, radio frequency interference (RFI) signatures from ground-based radar systems regularly impair L-band SAR data quality and consistency. With this study we present a large-scale analysis of typical RFI signatures that are regularly observed in L-band SAR data over the Americas. Through a study of the vast archive of L-band SAR data in the US Government Research Consortium (USGRC) data pool at the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) we were able to address the following research goals: 1. Assessment of RFI Signatures in L-band SAR data and their Effects on SAR Data Quality: An analysis of time-frequency properties of RFI signatures in L-band SAR data of the USGRC data pool is presented. It is shown that RFI-filtering algorithms implemented in the operational ALOS PALSAR processor are not sufficient to remove all RFI-related artifacts. In examples, the deleterious effects of RFI on SAR image quality, polarimetric signature, SAR phase, and interferometric coherence are presented. 2. Large-Scale Assessment of Severity, Spatial Distribution, and Temporal Variation of RFI Signatures in L-band SAR data: L-band SAR data in the USGRC data pool were screened for RFI using a custom algorithm. Per SAR frame, the algorithm creates geocoded frame bounding boxes that are color-coded according to RFI intensity and converted to KML files for analysis in Google Earth. From

  15. Quantitative Assessment of Desertification Using Landsat Data on a Regional Scale – A Case Study in the Ordos Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Pan


    Full Text Available Desertification is a serious threat to the ecological environment and social economy in our world and there is a pressing need to develop a reasonable and reproducible method to assess it at different scales. In this paper, the Ordos Plateau in China was selected as the research region and a quantitative method for desertification assessment was developed by using Landsat MSS and TM/ETM+ data on a regional scale. In this method, NDVI, MSDI and land surface albedo were selected as assessment indicators of desertification to represent land surface conditions from vegetation biomass, landscape pattern and micrometeorology. Based on considering the effects of vegetation type and time of images acquired on assessment indictors, assessing rule sets were built and a decision tree approach was used to assess desertification of Ordos Plateau in 1980, 1990 and 2000. The average overall accuracy of three periods was higher than 90%. The results showed that although some local places of Ordos Plateau experienced an expanding trend of desertification, the trend of desertification of Ordos Plateau was an overall decrease in from 1980 to 2000. By analyzing the causes of desertification processes, it was found that climate change could benefit for the reversion of desertification from 1980 to 1990 at a regional scale and human activities might explain the expansion of desertification in this period; however human conservation activities were the main driving factor that induced the reversion of desertification from 1990 to 2000.

  16. Assessing the Scale and Potential of Chinese Investment Overseas: An Econometric Approach%Assessing the Scale and Potential of Chinese Investment Overseas: An Econometric Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiro Armstrong


    The recent rise in Chinese outward direct investment (ODI) has significant global implicatzons and impacts on host country policy. The present paper attempts to provide a theoretical basis and to define a robust econometric approach to assess the performa

  17. An empirical assessment of tree branching networks and implications for plant allometric scaling models. (United States)

    Bentley, Lisa Patrick; Stegen, James C; Savage, Van M; Smith, Duncan D; von Allmen, Erica I; Sperry, John S; Reich, Peter B; Enquist, Brian J


    Several theories predict whole-tree function on the basis of allometric scaling relationships assumed to emerge from traits of branching networks. To test this key assumption, and more generally, to explore patterns of external architecture within and across trees, we measure branch traits (radii/lengths) and calculate scaling exponents from five functionally divergent species. Consistent with leading theories, including metabolic scaling theory, branching is area preserving and statistically self-similar within trees. However, differences among scaling exponents calculated at node- and whole-tree levels challenge the assumption of an optimised, symmetrically branching tree. Furthermore, scaling exponents estimated for branch length change across branching orders, and exponents for scaling metabolic rate with plant size (or number of terminal tips) significantly differ from theoretical predictions. These findings, along with variability in the scaling of branch radii being less than for branch lengths, suggest extending current scaling theories to include asymmetrical branching and differential selective pressures in plant architectures.

  18. The Assessment of Protective Behavioral Strategies: Comparing the Absolute Frequency and Contingent Frequency Response Scales


    Kite, Benjamin A.; Pearson, Matthew R.; Henson, James M.


    The purpose of the present studies was to examine the effects of response scale on the observed relationships between protective behavioral strategies (PBS) measures and alcohol-related outcomes. We reasoned that an ‘absolute frequency’ scale (stem: “how many times…”; response scale: 0 times to 11+ times) conflates the frequency of using PBS with the frequency of consuming alcohol; thus, we hypothesized that the use of an absolute frequency response scale would result in positive relationship...

  19. Assessment of the confiability and factorial structure of three scales measuring chronic procrastination



    This study explores the confiability and factorial structure of three scales measuring chronic procrastination: Scale of General Procrastination (EPG. Lay. 1986). Adult Procrastinatio Inventory (lPA. McCown & Johnson as cited in Ferrari. Johnson & McCown. 1995) and the Scale of Procrastination in Decision-Making (PTF. Mann. 1982). The sample included 514 adults between 20 and 65 years of age from Lima. The three scales showed high levels of intemal consistency and factorial analysis showed th...

  20. The assessment of dyspnea during the vigorous intensity exercise by three Dyspnea Rating Scales in inactive medical personnel. (United States)

    Intarakamhang, Patrawut; Wangjongmeechaikul, Piyathida


    It is well recognized that exercise is good for health especially as it's known to prevent metabolic syndromes such as diabetes, hypertension and heart disease. To reap the benefits from exercise the most appropriate level of intensity must be determined, the level of intensity ranging from low, low to moderate to hard (vigorous). This study is aimed to 1. To investigate and evaluate 3 subjective rating scales. The Borg scale, the Combined Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) + FACES Dyspnea Rating Scale (FACES) and the Likert scale, during hard (vigorous) exercise. 2. To compare the effectiveness of the Borg scale and Combined Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) + FACES Dyspnea Rating Scale during the hard (vigorous) intensity exercise. This study uses a descriptive methodology. The sample group was 73 medical personnel that were leading an inactive life style, volunteers from Phramongkutklao Hospital. Participants were randomly divided into 3 groups. Group 1, those to report using the Borg Scale, group 2 using NRS + FACES, and group 3 to subjectively assess the intensity of the exercise using the Likert scale during a treadmill Exercise Stress Test (EST) using the Bruce protocol. The upper limit of the intensity in the study was equal to 85% of the maximal heart rate of all participants. The subjective reporting of the experienced level of dyspnea was undertaken immediately after the completion of exercise. The average age of participants was 23.37 years old. The 26 participants reporting using the Borg scale had mean Borg scale score of 13.46+1.77, a mode score of 15. The 24 participants reporting intensity levels through NRS +FACES had a mean NRS + FACES score of 6.83+1.09 and mode on the NRS + FACES scale equal to 7. The Likert scale group evaluated 23 participants with a mean Likert scale score of 2.74. That is those choosing Levels 2 and 3 were 6 (26.9%) and 17 participants (73.95%), respectively. Comparing the two groups with the Borg scale at equal to or greater than 15

  1. Developing the University of the Philippines Loneliness Assessment Scale: A Cross-Cultural Measurement (United States)

    Tharayil, Davis Porinchu


    As the existing scales to measure loneliness are almost all Western and there is no single scale developed cross-culturally for this purpose, this study is designed to develop a reliable and valid scale to measure the experience of loneliness of individuals from individualistic or collectivistic cultures. There are three samples for this study…

  2. Examining the Bifactor IRT Model for Vertical Scaling in K-12 Assessment (United States)

    Koepfler, James R.


    Over the past decade, educational policy trends have shifted to a focus on examining students' growth from kindergarten through twelfth grade (K-12). One way states can track students' growth is with a vertical scale. Presently, every state that uses a vertical scale bases the scale on a unidimensional IRT model. These models make a…

  3. Inter-rater reliability of three most commonly used pressure ulcer risk assessment scales in clinical practice. (United States)

    Wang, Li-Hua; Chen, Hong-Lin; Yan, Hong-Yan; Gao, Jian-Hua; Wang, Fang; Ming, Yue; Lu, Li; Ding, Jing-Jing


    The objective of this study was to evaluate inter-rater reliability of Braden Scale, Norton Scale and Waterlow Scale for pressure ulcer risk assessment in clinical practice. The design of the study was cross-sectional. A total of 23 patients at pressure ulcer risk were included in the study, and 6 best registered nurses conducted three subsequent risk assessments for all included patients. They assessed alone and independently from each other. An intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to determine the inter-rater reliability. For the Braden Scale, the ICC values ranged between 0·603 (95% CI: 0·435-0·770) for the item 'moisture' and a maximum of 0·964 (95% CI: 0·936-0·982) for the item 'activity'; for the Norton Scale, the ICC values ranged between 0·595 (95% CI: 0·426-0·764) for the item 'physical condition' and a maximum of 0·975 (95% CI: 0·955-0·988) for the item 'activity'; and for the Waterlow Scale, the ICC values ranged between 0·592 (95% CI: 0·422-0·762) for the item 'skin type' and a maximum of 0·990 (95% CI: 0·982-0·995) for the item 'activity'. The ICC values of total score for three scales of were 0·955 (95% CI: 0·922-0·978), 0·967 (95% CI: 0·943-0·984), and 0·915 (95% CI: 0·855-0·958) for Braden, Norton, and Waterlow scales, respectively. Although the inter-rater reliability of Braden Scale, Norton Scale and Waterlow Scale total scores were all substantial, the reliability of some items was not so good. The items of 'moisture', 'physical condition' and 'skin type' should be paid more attention. However, some studies are needed to find out high reliable quantitative items to replace these ambiguous items in new designed scales.

  4. Making Governance "Good": The Production of Scale in the Environmental Impact Assessment and Governance of the Salween River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Lamb


    Full Text Available Environmental impact assessments (EIAs are generally considered an important component of formal decision-making processes about development, serving to ensure that a project′s environmental impacts are considered in decisions about whether and how it will proceed. Scale is an important part of the narrative built into the assessment. Building on a rich literature at the intersection of human geography and political ecology, I focus on the way that scale is remade through the environmental impact assessment process for the Hatgyi hydroelectric dam proposed on the Salween River. Proposed near the stretch of the river that makes up the Thai-Burma border, the scales of governance for this cross-border project challenge assumed definitions of ′local′ impacts for ′national′ decision-making. By illustrating how scale-making is accomplished through producing and mobilising ecological knowledge, I illustrate how the scale of the local and the nation are at stake in these projects.

  5. Development and Large-Scale Validation of an Instrument to Assess Arabic-Speaking Students' Attitudes toward Science (United States)

    Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad; Summers, Ryan; Said, Ziad; Wang, Shuai; Culbertson, Michael


    This study is part of a large-scale project focused on "Qatari students' Interest in, and Attitudes toward, Science" (QIAS). QIAS aimed to gauge Qatari student attitudes toward science in grades 3-12, examine factors that impact these attitudes, and assess the relationship between student attitudes and prevailing modes of science…

  6. Large-Scale Investigation of the Role of Trait Activation Theory for Understanding Assessment Center Convergent and Discriminant Validity (United States)

    Lievens, Filip; Chasteen, Christopher S.; Day, Eric Anthony; Christiansen, Neil D.


    This study used trait activation theory as a theoretical framework to conduct a large-scale test of the interactionist explanation of the convergent and discriminant validity findings obtained in assessment centers. Trait activation theory specifies the conditions in which cross-situationally consistent and inconsistent candidate performances are…

  7. Factors affecting assessment of severity of aggressive incidents: using the Staff Observation Aggression Scale - Revised (SOAS-R) in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noda, T.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Sugiyama, N.; Tsujiwaki, K.; Putkonen, H.; Sailas, E.; Kontio, R.; Ito, H.; Joffe, G.


    Accessible summary Consumer gender and age, and nurse gender influenced the perception of overall severity of aggressive incidents, in addition to the aggression data provided by the Staff Observation Aggression Scale Revised (SOAS-R) scores. The factors influencing assessments of aggression inciden

  8. Sharing the Data along with the Responsibility: Examining an Analytic Scale-Based Model for Assessing School Climate. (United States)

    Shindler, John; Taylor, Clint; Cadenas, Herminia; Jones, Albert

    This study was a pilot effort to examine the efficacy of an analytic trait scale school climate assessment instrument and democratic change system in two urban high schools. Pilot study results indicate that the instrument shows promising soundness in that it exhibited high levels of validity and reliability. In addition, the analytic trait format…

  9. Classification Accuracy of Oral Reading Fluency and Maze in Predicting Performance on Large-Scale Reading Assessments (United States)

    Decker, Dawn M.; Hixson, Michael D.; Shaw, Amber; Johnson, Gloria


    The purpose of this study was to examine whether using a multiple-measure framework yielded better classification accuracy than oral reading fluency (ORF) or maze alone in predicting pass/fail rates for middle-school students on a large-scale reading assessment. Participants were 178 students in Grades 7 and 8 from a Midwestern school district.…

  10. Development and Validation of the Computer Technology Literacy Self-Assessment Scale for Taiwanese Elementary School Students (United States)

    Chang, Chiung-Sui


    The purpose of this study was to describe the development and validation of an instrument to identify various dimensions of the computer technology literacy self-assessment scale (CTLS) for elementary school students. The instrument included five CTLS dimensions (subscales): the technology operation skills, the computer usages concepts, the…

  11. Measuring Attitude toward Theistic Faith: Assessing the Astley-Francis Scale among Christian, Muslim and Secular Youth in England (United States)

    Francis, Leslie J.; Brockett, Adrian; Village, Andrew


    Alongside a family of instruments designed to measure the attitudinal dimension of religion within specific faith contexts (Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism), the Astley-Francis Scale of Attitude toward Theistic Faith was designed to assess the attitudinal dimension of religion within a multifaith context. Drawing on a sample of 4338…

  12. Application of the Rasch Rating Scale Model to the Assessment of Quality of Life of Persons with Intellectual Disability (United States)

    Gomez, Laura E.; Arias, Benito; Verdugo, Miguel Angel; Navas, Patricia


    Background: Most instruments that assess quality of life have been validated by means of the classical test theory (CTT). However, CTT limitations have resulted in the development of alternative models, such as the Rasch rating scale model (RSM). The main goal of this paper is testing and improving the psychometric properties of the INTEGRAL…

  13. The Counseling Training Environment Scale (CTES): Development of a Self-Report Measure to Assess Counseling Training Environment (United States)

    Lau, Jared Miki Jun Kong


    Based on Bronfenbrenner's (1979, 1992) ecological framework, the Counseling Training Environment Scale (CTES) was developed as a self-report measure that assesses the learning and training environment of counseling and related mental health training programs as perceived by current students. A two-phase mixed-methods design was used to create…

  14. Fishy Fishes: The Typicality of Object Stimuli Used to Assess Children's Language in the Reynell Development Language Scales--III (United States)

    Syrnyk, Corinne; Meints, Kerstin


    Background: Numerous studies show clear evidence that children display typicality effects during early word learning. However, little is known of the typicality of stimuli used by standardized language tests to assess children's language development. Aims: To examine the typicality of stimuli used by the Reynell Developmental Language Scales--III…

  15. Assessment of formal thought disorder : The relation between the Kiddie Formal Thought Disorder Rating Scale and clinical judgment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, Esther I.; Verheij, Fop; Wiegman, Tamar; Ferdinand, Robert F.


    The presence of formal thought disorder (FTD) in childhood is sometimes viewed as a possible precursor of psychotic symptoms or adult schizophrenia. It is possible to assess FTD in childhood in a valid and reliable manner, by using the Kiddie Formal Thought Disorder Rating Scale (K-FTDS). However, t

  16. Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS: A Tool for Assessment of Depression in Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana A. Kakrani


    Full Text Available Background: India is in the process of rapid demographic progression of increased life expectancy and aging with geriatric population of 7.2 percent which is estimated to rise to 20 percent in 2050. With increasing geriatric population elderly with dementia and associated depressive illness are expected to rise in number to almost an epidemic. Among the morbidity encountered in elderly, depressive disorders are common. Aim & Objectives: The present study was conducted with the objective to assess the extent and degree of depression in elderly, and study some correlates associated with depression in them. Material & Methods: The study was carried out at geriatric clinic of Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College, Pune under the guidance of department of community medicine. Methodology:The randomly selected elderly above the age of 60 years attending the clinic and willing to participate in study were administered the questionnaire of Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS, scores were given, based on which the subjects were categorized as mild, moderate and severe. Those with score >5 were considered as suggestive of depression and some factors studied were analysed to find out their association with depression. Results: It was revealed that the proportion of elderly having depression was 52.4% with 84.6% of depressed in age group of 76-80 years. Moderate to severe type was more commonly seen in illiterate; however some degree of depression was present in all elderly irrespective of literacy status. Moderate to severe type was seen more commonly in elderly living in nuclear families (23.8%, and living alone (33.3%. Thus more than half of elderly studied were having depression, and it was observed that as the age advanced the degree of depression significantly increased. Some of the factors studied like low education status, poor economic status, nuclear family status, single status, loneliness, were associated with depression. The GDS Scale can be considered as

  17. Integrative assessment of hydrological, ecological, and economic systems for water resources management at river basin scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianglian LI; Xiusheng YANG; Qiong GAO; Yu LI; Suocheng DONG


    This study presents a basin-scale integrative hydrological, ecological, and economic (HEE) modeling system, aimed at evaluating the impact of resources management, especially agricultural water resources management, on the sustainability of regional water resources. The hydrological model in the modeling system was adapted from SWAT, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool, to simulate the water balance in terms of soil moisture, evapotranspiration, and streamflow. An ecologi-cal model was integrated into the hydrological model to compute the ecosystem production of biomass production and yield for different land use types. The economic model estimated the monetary values of crop production and water productivity over irrigated areas. The modeling system was primarily integrated and run on a Windows platform and was able to produce simulation results at daily time steps with a spatial resolution of hydrological response unit (HRU). The modeling system was then calibrated over the period from 1983 to 1991 for the upper and middle parts of the Yellow River basin, China.Calibration results showed that the efficiencies of the modeling system in simulating monthly streamflow over 5hydrological stations were from 0.54 to 0.68 with an average of 0.64, indicating an acceptable calibration.Preliminary simulation results from 1986 to 1995 revealed that water use in the study region has largely reduced the streamflow in many parts of the area except for that in the riverhead. Spatial distribution of biomass production, and crop yield showed a strong impact of irrigation on agricultural production. Water productivity over irrigated cropland ranged from 1 to 1640 USD/( 1), indicat-ing a wide variation of the production conditions within the study region and a great potential in promoting water use efficiency in low water productivity areas. Generally,simulation results from this study indicated that the modeling system was capable of tracking the temporal and spatial

  18. Determination of inter-rater reliability in pediatric burn scar assessment using a modified version of the Vancouver Scar Scale. (United States)

    Forbes-Duchart, Lisa; Marshall, Sheryle; Strock, Anne; Cooper, Juliette E


    The Vancouver Scar Scale is too subjective for our needs and is not culturally sensitive to our Aboriginal clients. The VSS was modified by developing a color scale to aid with vascularity rating. This study was designed to measure the inter-rater reliability of the modified Vancouver Scar Scale (MVSS). Three raters assessed 14 pediatric patients, resulting in a total of 32 scars. Data were analyzed using a Spearman Rank Order Correlation, intraclass correlation coefficient, and the kappa statistic. All subtests were shown to have significant (P < .05) correlations except for the pigmentation subtest. Because the pigmentation subtest has poor reliability, its inclusion in scar assessment should be questioned. Results indicate that only total scores of the MVSS should be used when determining burn scar outcomes because individual subtest scores appear to have little reliability. Further modifications to the MVSS followed by additional research with greater numbers of subjects are warranted.

  19. Development of analytical methodologies to assess recalcitrant pesticide bioremediation in biobeds at laboratory scale. (United States)

    Rivero, Anisleidy; Niell, Silvina; Cerdeiras, M Pía; Heinzen, Horacio; Cesio, María Verónica


    To assess recalcitrant pesticide bioremediation it is necessary to gradually increase the complexity of the biological system used in order to design an effective biobed assembly. Each step towards this effective biobed design needs a suitable, validated analytical methodology that allows a correct evaluation of the dissipation and bioconvertion. Low recovery yielding methods could give a false idea of a successful biodegradation process. To address this situation, different methods were developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of endosulfan, its main three metabolites, and chlorpyrifos in increasingly complex matrices where the bioconvertor basidiomycete Abortiporus biennis could grow. The matrices were culture media, bran, and finally a laboratory biomix composed of bran, peat and soil. The methodology for the analysis of the first evaluated matrix has already been reported. The methodologies developed for the other two systems are presented in this work. The targeted analytes were extracted from fungi growing over bran in semisolid media YNB (Yeast Nitrogen Based) with acetonitrile using shaker assisted extraction, The salting-out step was performed with MgSO4 and NaCl, and the extracts analyzed by GC-ECD. The best methodology was fully validated for all the evaluated analytes at 1 and 25mgkg(-1) yielding recoveries between 72% and 109% and RSDs methodology proved that A. biennis is able to dissipate 94% of endosulfan and 87% of chlorpyrifos after 90 days. Having assessed that A. biennis growing over bran can metabolize the studied pesticides, the next step faced was the development and validation of an analytical procedure to evaluate the analytes in a laboratory scale biobed composed of 50% of bran, 25% of peat and 25% of soil together with fungal micelium. From the different procedures assayed, only ultrasound assisted extraction with ethyl acetate allowed recoveries between 80% and 110% with RSDs <18%. Linearity, recovery, precision, matrix

  20. Assessment of advanced small-scale combined heat and power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitzer, J. [Joanneum Research (Austria)


    To increase the share of renewable energy sources, bioenergy has to be used for electricity generation, preferably in combined heat and power (CHP) production systems, besides its traditional use in space heating. The need for small-scale, i.e. below 5 MW{sub el}, CHP production arises from the fact that a considerable portion of the available solid biofuels may not be transported over long distances for economic reasons and that in many cases the heat demand is below 10 MW{sub el} in district heating schemes in communities with less than 10 000 inhabitants. The available technical options have to be assessed with respect to performance, reliability and economy. Such an assessment has been performed in a study where the following options have been compared: Gasification - combustion engine or gas turbine; Combustion - steam turbine/engine; Combustion - hot air turbine; Combustion - Stirling engine. While conventional steam cycle systems are available and reliable they are generally not economical in the power range under consideration. Among the other systems, which are not yet commercially available, the Stirling engine system seems to be attractive in the power range below 500 kW{sub el} and the hot air system could close the gap to the steam cycle systems, i.e. cover the power range between 0.5 and 5.0 MW{sub el}. Gasification schemes seem less suitable: The power generation part (combustion engine and gas turbine) is well established for natural gas, with the combustion engine in the lower (<5 MW{sub el}) and the gas turbine in the higher (>5MW{sub el}) power range. However, the gas quality needed for the operation of a combustion engine requires expensive pre-treatment of the gas from wood gasification so that this scheme is less attractive for the power range under consideration. These conclusions lead to R and D efforts in Austria in two directions: Hot air turbine: A utility demonstration plant is under construction with a power of 1 600 kW{sub el

  1. Development of the Horse Grimace Scale (HGS as a pain assessment tool in horses undergoing routine castration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Dalla Costa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The assessment of pain is critical for the welfare of horses, in particular when pain is induced by common management procedures such as castration. Existing pain assessment methods have several limitations, which reduce the applicability in everyday life. Assessment of facial expression changes, as a novel means of pain scoring, may offer numerous advantages and overcome some of these limitations. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a standardised pain scale based on facial expressions in horses (Horse Grimace Scale [HGS]. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Forty stallions were assigned to one of two treatments and all animals underwent routine surgical castration under general anaesthesia. Group A (n = 19 received a single injection of Flunixin immediately before anaesthesia. Group B (n = 21 received Flunixin immediately before anaesthesia and then again, as an oral administration, six hours after the surgery. In addition, six horses were used as anaesthesia controls (C. These animals underwent non-invasive, indolent procedures, received the same treatment as group A, but did not undergo surgical procedures that could be accompanied with surgical pain. Changes in behaviour, composite pain scale (CPS scores and horse grimace scale (HGS scores were assessed before and 8-hours post-procedure. Only horses undergoing castration (Groups A and B showed significantly greater HGS and CPS scores at 8-hours post compared to pre operatively. Further, maintenance behaviours such as explorative behaviour and alertness were also reduced. No difference was observed between the two analgesic treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: The Horse Grimace Scale potentially offers an effective and reliable method of assessing pain following routine castration in horses. However, auxiliary studies are required to evaluate different painful conditions and analgesic schedules.

  2. Assessment of energy-saving strategies and operational costs in full-scale membrane bioreactors. (United States)

    Gabarrón, S; Ferrero, G; Dalmau, M; Comas, J; Rodriguez-Roda, I


    The energy-saving strategies and operational costs of stand-alone, hybrid, and dual stream full-scale membrane bioreactors (MBRs) with capacities ranging from 1100 to 35,000 m(3) day(-1) have been assessed for seven municipal facilities located in Northeast Spain. Although hydraulic load was found to be the main determinant factor for the energy consumption rates, several optimisation strategies have shown to be effective in terms of energy reduction as well as fouling phenomenon minimization or preservation. Specifically, modifications of the biological process (installation of control systems for biological aeration) and of the filtration process (reduction of the flux or mixed liquor suspended solids concentration and installation of control systems for membrane air scouring) were applied in two stand-alone MBRs. After implementing these strategies, the yearly specific energy demand (SED) in flat-sheet (FS) and hollow-fibre (HF) stand-alone MBRs was reduced from 1.12 to 0.71 and from 1.54 to 1.12 kW h(-1) m(-3), respectively, regardless of their similar yearly averaged hydraulic loads. The strategies applied in the hybrid MBR, namely, buffering the influent flow and optimisation of both biological aeration and membrane air-scouring, reduced the SED values by 14%. These results illustrate that it is possible to apply energy-saving strategies to significantly reduce MBR operational costs, highlighting the need to optimise MBR facilities to reconsider them as an energy-competitive option.

  3. Assessing Cost-effectiveness of Green Infrastructures in response to Large Storm Events at Household Scale (United States)

    Chui, T. F. M.; Liu, X.; Zhan, W.


    Green infrastructures (GI) are becoming more important for urban stormwater control worldwide. However, relatively few studies focus on researching the specific designs of GI at household scale. This study assesses the hydrological performance and cost-effectiveness of different GI designs, namely green roofs, bioretention systems and porous pavements. It aims to generate generic insights by comparing the optimal designs of each GI in 2-year and 50-year storms of Hong Kong, China and Seattle, US. EPA SWMM is first used to simulate the hydrologic performance, in particular, the peak runoff reduction of thousands of GI designs. Then, life cycle costs of the designs are computed and their effectiveness, in terms of peak runoff reduction percentage per thousand dollars, is compared. The peak runoff reduction increases almost linearly with costs for green roofs. However, for bioretention systems and porous pavements, peak runoff reduction only increases significantly with costs in the mid values. For achieving the same peak runoff reduction percentage, the optimal soil depth of green roofs increases with the design storm, while surface area does not change significantly. On the other hand, for bioretention systems and porous pavements, the optimal surface area increases with the design storm, while thickness does not change significantly. In general, the cost effectiveness of porous pavements is highest, followed by bioretention systems and then green roofs. The cost effectiveness is higher for a smaller storm, and is thus higher for 2-year storm than 50-year storm, and is also higher for Seattle when compared to Hong Kong. This study allows us to better understand the hydrological performance and cost-effectiveness of different GI designs. It facilitates the implementation of optimal choice and design of each specific GI for stormwater mitigation.

  4. Assessing Weather-Yield Relationships in Rice at Local Scale Using Data Mining Approaches (United States)

    Delerce, Sylvain; Dorado, Hugo; Grillon, Alexandre; Rebolledo, Maria Camila; Prager, Steven D.; Patiño, Victor Hugo; Garcés Varón, Gabriel; Jiménez, Daniel


    Seasonal and inter-annual climate variability have become important issues for farmers, and climate change has been shown to increase them. Simultaneously farmers and agricultural organizations are increasingly collecting observational data about in situ crop performance. Agriculture thus needs new tools to cope with changing environmental conditions and to take advantage of these data. Data mining techniques make it possible to extract embedded knowledge associated with farmer experiences from these large observational datasets in order to identify best practices for adapting to climate variability. We introduce new approaches through a case study on irrigated and rainfed rice in Colombia. Preexisting observational datasets of commercial harvest records were combined with in situ daily weather series. Using Conditional Inference Forest and clustering techniques, we assessed the relationships between climatic factors and crop yield variability at the local scale for specific cultivars and growth stages. The analysis showed clear relationships in the various location-cultivar combinations, with climatic factors explaining 6 to 46% of spatiotemporal variability in yield, and with crop responses to weather being non-linear and cultivar-specific. Climatic factors affected cultivars differently during each stage of development. For instance, one cultivar was affected by high nighttime temperatures in the reproductive stage but responded positively to accumulated solar radiation during the ripening stage. Another was affected by high nighttime temperatures during both the vegetative and reproductive stages. Clustering of the weather patterns corresponding to individual cropping events revealed different groups of weather patterns for irrigated and rainfed systems with contrasting yield levels. Best-suited cultivars were identified for some weather patterns, making weather-site-specific recommendations possible. This study illustrates the potential of data mining for

  5. Large-scale control site selection for population monitoring: an example assessing Sage-grouse trends (United States)

    Fedy, Bradley C.; O'Donnell, Michael; Bowen, Zachary H.


    Human impacts on wildlife populations are widespread and prolific and understanding wildlife responses to human impacts is a fundamental component of wildlife management. The first step to understanding wildlife responses is the documentation of changes in wildlife population parameters, such as population size. Meaningful assessment of population changes in potentially impacted sites requires the establishment of monitoring at similar, nonimpacted, control sites. However, it is often difficult to identify appropriate control sites in wildlife populations. We demonstrated use of Geographic Information System (GIS) data across large spatial scales to select biologically relevant control sites for population monitoring. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hearafter, sage-grouse) are negatively affected by energy development, and monitoring of sage-grouse population within energy development areas is necessary to detect population-level responses. Weused population data (1995–2012) from an energy development area in Wyoming, USA, the Atlantic Rim Project Area (ARPA), and GIS data to identify control sites that were not impacted by energy development for population monitoring. Control sites were surrounded by similar habitat and were within similar climate areas to the ARPA. We developed nonlinear trend models for both the ARPA and control sites and compared long-term trends from the 2 areas. We found little difference between the ARPA and control sites trends over time. This research demonstrated an approach for control site selection across large landscapes and can be used as a template for similar impact-monitoring studies. It is important to note that identification of changes in population parameters between control and treatment sites is only the first step in understanding the mechanisms that underlie those changes. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Nanometer scale assessment of mechanical strain induced in silicon by a periodic line array. (United States)

    Escoubas, S; Gaudeau, G; Ezzaidi, Y; Thomas, O; Morin, P


    Measuring stress and strain, induced by nanostructures, at the nanometer scale is still a challenge. In this work, we investigate the strain induced by sub-micrometric periodic line arrays deposited on single crystal (001) Si substrate. We study the influence of the lines width and the spacing between the lines for two sets of samples: a silicon nitride lines array and a poly-silicon line array capped with a Si3N4 stressor layer. The periodic strain field in mono-crystalline silicon is investigated by High Resolution X-ray Diffraction which is very sensitive to local strain (goniometer with a laboratory source. The line arrays induce a periodic strain field in silicon, which gives rise to distinct satellites in reciprocal space. The intensity envelope of these satellites is related to the strain field in one cell. In order to assess this strain field in silicon, mechanical modeling is necessary. Elastic calculations are performed with a Finite Element Modeling (FEM) code in order to extract the displacement field that is used for structure factor calculations within kinematical approximation. The calculated reciprocal space map is compared to the experimental results in order to validate the strain field. We show that for capped poly arrays, the diffracted intensity envelope is influenced by the spacing between the lines. This area is filled with silicon nitride which induces a noticeable change in displacement and strain field. While for bare stressor arrays the nitride line width is responsible of change in displacement field and thus on the RSM intensity envelope.

  7. Receiver-Operating-Characteristic Analysis Reveals Superiority of Scale-Dependent Wavelet and Spectral Measures for Assessing Cardiac Dysfunction

    CERN Document Server

    Thurner, S; Lowen, S B; Teich, M C; Thurner, Stefan; Feurstein, Markus C.; Lowen, Steven B.; Teich, Malvin C.


    Receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to assess the suitability of various heart rate variability (HRV) measures for correctly classifying electrocardiogram records of varying lengths as normal or revealing the presence of heart failure. Scale-dependent HRV measures were found to be substantially superior to scale-independent measures (scaling exponents) for discriminating the two classes of data over a broad range of record lengths. The wavelet-coefficient standard deviation at a scale near 32 heartbeat intervals, and its spectral counterpart near 1/32 cycles per interval, provide reliable results using record lengths just minutes long. A jittered integrate-and-fire model built around a fractal Gaussian-noise kernel provides a realistic, though not perfect, simulation of heartbeat sequences.

  8. Social Avoidance and Distress Scale (SAD and Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (FNE – reliability and the preliminary assessment of validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobański, Jerzy A.


    Full Text Available Aim. Assessment of reliability, cross-validity and usefulness in everyday clinical practice of two related tools: Social Avoidance and Distress Scale (SAD and Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (FNE.Material and method. Analysis of tests results of 453 females and 172 males diagnosed in the years 2008-2010 in the Outpatient Clinic for Neurotic and Behavioral Disorders of the Cracow University Hospital, including, inter alia, results of the questionnaires SAD and FNE. The scales have been, with the consent of their authors (R. Friend and the copyright holder (APA, translated into Polish and back-translated. Subjects also completed the symptom checklist KO ‘0 ‘(n = 512, and neurotic personality questionnaire KON-2006 (n = 505, as well as the NEO-PI-R personality inventory (n = 46. The reliability and cross-validity coefficients of Polish versions were assessed in the patient population and their results were compared with those of the group of 75 medical students.Results. The translation was verified by retranslation. The reliability coefficients of Polish version of the SAD and FNE scales turned out to be high - Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.94 for both scales, Guttman’s split-half reliability coefficient 0.93. Correlations with symptom checklist KO ‘0 ‘and neurotic personality questionnaire KON-2006, as well as with the NEO-PI-R personality inventory were significant and indicate a good cross-validity of the analyzed tools. The average results in the patient population for both scales were significantly higher than the results in the preliminary control group of medical students.Conclusions. Polish versions of SAD and FNE questionnaires, like their other translations from English, proved to be reliable and have a high cross-validity with other original Polish tools used in the diagnosis of neurotic disorders, which allows to recommend them to be used in further studies, also in comparing healthy persons with those suffering from

  9. Rating scales for cervical dystonia: a critical evaluation of tools for outcome assessment of botulinum toxin therapy. (United States)

    Jost, Wolfgang H; Hefter, Harald; Stenner, Andrea; Reichel, Gerhard


    Botulinum neurotoxin is the therapy of choice for all forms of cervical dystonia (CD), but treatment regimens still vary considerably. The interpretation of treatment outcome is mainly based on the clinical experience and on the scientific value of the rating scales applied. The aim of this review is to describe the historical development of rating scales for the assessment of CD and to provide an appraisal of their advantages and drawbacks. The Tsui score and the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS) have been widely employed in numerous clinical studies as specific instruments for CD. The obvious advantage of the Tsui score is its simplicity so that it can be easily implemented in clinical routine. The TWSTRS allows a more sophisticated assessment of functional features of CD, but only the Tsui score includes a rating for tremor. Other benefits of the TWSTRS are the disability and pain subscales, but despite its value in clinical trials, it might be too complex for routine clinical practice. None of the rating scales used at present has been rigorously tested for responsiveness to detect significant changes in clinical status after therapeutic interventions. Moreover, clinical data support a new classification of CD leading to a differentiation between head and neck subtypes. As the current rating scales are not able to cover all these aspects of the disorder, further research is needed to develop a valid and reliable instrument which considers the most current classification of CD.

  10. The Taylor Hyperpigmentation Scale: a new visual assessment tool for the evaluation of skin color and pigmentation. (United States)

    Taylor, Susan C; Arsonnaud, Stéphanie; Czernielewski, Janusz


    The Taylor Hyperpigmentation Scale is a new visual scale developed to provide an inexpensive and convenient method to assess skin color and monitor the improvement of hyperpigmentation following therapy. The tool consists of 15 uniquely colored plastic cards spanning the full range of skin hues and is applicable to individuals with Fitzpatrick skin types I to VI. Each card contains 10 bands of increasingly darker gradations of skin hue that represent progressive levels of hyperpigmentation. This article describes the ongoing development of the Taylor Hyperpigmentation Scale and reports the results of a recent validation study of the use of this newly developed chart in individuals with skin of color. In the study, skin color and an area of hyperpigmentation in 30 subjects of white, African American, Asian, or Hispanic ancestry (approximately 5 from each of the 6 skin types) were evaluated by 10 investigators. The results of the study revealed significant variation among intraindividual and interindividual ratings by investigators of skin hue (P < .0001) and hyperpigmentation (P = .0008); however, most investigators rated the scale as useful and easy to use, and 60% stated they would use it in clinical practice to document the response of hyperpigmentation to therapeutic agents. A heuristic evaluation of the results of this study provided insight into essential considerations for the continued effort to develop a useful and simple scale for assessing skin color and pigmentation.

  11. Psychometric Assessment of a Physician-Patient Communication Behaviors Scale: The Perspective of Adult HIV Patients in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juddy Wachira


    Full Text Available Introduction. There have been no scales specifically developed to assess physician-patient communication behaviors (PPCB in the sub-Saharan population. Aim. We revised an existing PPCB scale and tested its psychometric properties for HIV patients in Kenya. Methods. 17 items (five-point scale measuring PPCB were initially adopted from the Matched Pair Instrument (MPI. Between July and August 2011, we surveyed a convenient sample of 400 HIV adult patients, attending three Academic Model Providing Healthcare program (AMPATH clinics in Eldoret, Kenya. Of these 400, eight also participated in cognitive interviews, and 200 were invited to return after one week for follow-up interviews; 134 (67% returned and were interviewed. Construct and content validity were established using an exploratory factor analysis, bivariate analyses, internal consistency, test-retest reliability and cognitive interviews. Results. Construct and content validity supported a one-dimensional measure of 13 PPCB items. Items assessed physicians’ effort to promote a favorable atmosphere for interaction with HIV patients. Biases associated with encoding and comprehension of specific terms, such as “discussion, involvement or concerns,” were noted. Internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = .81 and one-week retest reliability scores (.82 supported the reliability of the 13-item scale. Discussion. The revised PPCB scale showed acceptable validity and reliability in Kenya.

  12. Assessing Gifted Students' Beliefs about Intelligence with a Psychometrically Defensible Scale (United States)

    Park, Sunhee; Callahan, Carolyn M.; Ryoo, Ji Hoon


    The psychometric qualities of the six- and eight-item implicit theories of intelligence scales that Dweck suggested were compared using a confirmatory factor analysis with data from 239 gifted students (100 students in Grades 5-7, 139 students in Grades 8-11). The results indicate that the six-item scale fits the data better than the eight-item…

  13. Spatial scaling concepts as applied to the assessment and restoration of drylands (United States)

    Scaling concepts are important because they induce people to think about processes and relationships that might otherwise be overlooked. For land management-related activities, the challenge is to incorporate scaling concepts into routine observation, evaluation, and planning. Drawing on experiences...

  14. Meteorological impact assessment of possible large scale irrigation in Southwest Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, ter H.W.; Hutjes, R.W.A.; Ohba, R.; Ueda, H.; Bisselink, B.; Bauer, T.


    On continental to regional scales feedbacks between landuse and landcover change and climate have been widely documented over the past 10¿15 years. In the present study we explore the possibility that also vegetation changes over much smaller areas may affect local precipitation regimes. Large scale

  15. The Development of a Scale To Assess the Emotional and Behavioral Strengths of Children. (United States)

    Epstein, Michael H.; Sharma, Jennifer; McKelvey, Janet; Frankenberry, Erin

    This paper describes the development of the Behavioral and Emotional Strengths Scale (BESS), developed as part of a program which focuses on strengths of children usually seen as having severe emotional and/or behavioral disorders. The BESS is a 68-item scale that identifies children's behavioral strengths on five dimensions: (1) self-control; (2)…

  16. Assessing the Efficiency of Small-Scale and Bottom Trawler Vessels in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Pinello


    Full Text Available This study explores the technical and scale efficiency of two types of Greek fishing vessels, small-scale vessels and bottom trawlers, using a bias-corrected input-oriented Data Envelopment Analysis model. Moreover, the associations between efficiency scores and vessel’s and skipper’s characteristics are also explored. The results indicate that small-scale vessels achieve a very low average technical efficiency score (0.42 but a much higher scale efficiency score (0.81. Conversely, bottom trawlers achieve lower scale but higher technical efficiency scores (0.68 and 0.73, respectively. One important finding of this study is that the technical efficiency of small-scale vessels, in contrast to trawlers, is positively associated with the experience of the skipper. In a looser context, it can be said that small-scale fisheries mainly rely on skill, whereas bottom trawlers rely more on technology. This study concludes that there is space for improvement in efficiency, mainly for small-scale vessels, which could allow the achievement of the same level of output by using reduced inputs.

  17. Examining Economies of Scale in School Consolidation: Assessment of Indiana School Districts (United States)

    Zimmer, Timothy; DeBoer, Larry; Hirth, Marilyn


    This article examines the potential for reducing costs through school district consolidation by employing economies of scale. Utilizing Indiana school district data primarily from 2004 through 2006, we find evidence for scale economies with optimal enrollment being 1,942 students, with a per pupil estimated cost at $9,414. The 95% confidence…

  18. Assessing Dutch ambitions : Towards large scale ICT uptake in public sectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, L.; Lieshout, M.J. van


    The Dutch government has introduced a new policy instrument to promote and disseminate societal relevant ICT-applications that have proven to be successful on a small scale. It has invited social actors to disseminate their successful innovations on a larger scale. To this end, an innovation program

  19. Examination of the metric characteristics of a Switzerland Competence Assessment Scale as an indicator of school readiness of preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joško Sindik


    Full Text Available Competence is “ability at work”, ability that is recognized in a certain activity, while the formation of a competent individual begins as early as preschool. The main objective of this research was to determine the psychometric properties of the Competence Assessment Scale, based on practical experience in the Swiss canton of Glarus, and to describe readiness of children to attend school. The sample of children that involved four kindergartens in Zagreb, Split and Ivanić Grad was examined, with a mean age of 6.26±0.42 years, of which there was 112 girls and 146 boys. Behavioral characteristics of children using the Competence Assessment Scale have been evaluated by 60 children educators from 30 school groups of all kindergartens. There was a positive, although low to medium-high correlation between the estimated level of children's competencies. All items of all SPK subscales were satisfactorily saturated corresponding to principal components. However, SPK shows somewhat lower discriminability. Preliminary testing showed that SPK, applied to a sample of preschool children in Croatia provides a valid and reliable results, and as such can help in assessment of each child for school. Scale is more sensitive at lower levels of competencies, which allows for identification of children with less developed competencies, but not in assessing the most competent children.

  20. A new ten-item questionnaire for assessing sensitive skin: the Sensitive Scale-10. (United States)

    Misery, Laurent; Jean-Decoster, Catherine; Mery, Sophie; Georgescu, Victor; Sibaud, Vincent


    Sensitive skin is common but until now there has been no scale for measuring its severity. The Sensitive Scale is a new scale with a 14-item and a 10-item version that was tested in 11 countries in different languages on 2,966 participants. The aim of this study was to validate the pertinence of using the Sensitive Scale to measure the severity of sensitive skin. The internal consistency was high. Correlations with the dry skin type, higher age, female gender, fair phototypes and Dermatology Life Quality Index were found. Using the 10-item version appeared to be preferable because it was quicker and easier to complete, with the same internal consistency and the 4 items that were excluded were very rarely observed in patients. The mean initial scores were around 44/140 and 37/100. The use of a cream for sensitive skin showed the pertinence of the scale before and after treatment.

  1. Assessment of the confiability and factorial structure of three scales measuring chronic procrastination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Argumedo Bustinza


    Full Text Available This study explores the confiability and factorial structure of three scales measuring chronic procrastination: Scale of General Procrastination (EPG. Lay. 1986. Adult Procrastinatio Inventory (lPA. McCown & Johnson as cited in Ferrari. Johnson & McCown. 1995 and the Scale of Procrastination in Decision-Making (PTF. Mann. 1982. The sample included 514 adults between 20 and 65 years of age from Lima. The three scales showed high levels of intemal consistency and factorial analysis showed three factors for EPG and IPA and one factor for PTD A second degree factorial analysis suggested the presence of only one factor based on the grouping of items of the EPG and IPA scales The study did not find theoretically relevant dlfferences in chronic procrastination according to gender, age or education level. However,with respect to socioeconomic status. there were higher levels of chronic procrastmation in the poorest sector

  2. Shannon entropy method of small-scale self-focusing assessment in high-power laser systems. (United States)

    Liu, Rende; Hu, Dongxia; Deng, Xuewei; Zhao, Junpu; Wang, Wenyi; Dai, Wanjun; Zhou, Wei; Huang, Xiaoxia; Li, Min; Yang, Sheng


    Through analysis of near-field beam profiles, we propose a method using Shannon entropy to assess the development of small-scale self-focusing during laser propagation and amplification in high-power laser systems. In this method, the entropy curve that corresponds to increasing B integral displays an evident turning point at which small-scale self-focusing starts to rapidly develop. In contrast to classical methods using contrast, modulation, or power spectral density, the proposed method provides the B integral criterion more clearly and objectively. This approach is an optimization method that can be utilized in the design and operation of high-power laser systems.

  3. Assessing the effect of scale on the ability of landscape structure metrics to discriminate landscape types in Mediterranean forest districts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Feced, C.; Saura, S.; Elena-Rosello, R.


    Scale is a key concept in landscape ecology. Although several studies have analyzed the effect of scale on landscape structure metrics, there is still a need to focus on the ability of these metrics to discriminate between landscape types at different scales, particularly in Mediterranean forest landscapes. In this paper we assess the scaling behavior and correlation patterns of eight commonly-used landscape metrics in two Spanish forest districts (Pinares in Burgos and Soria, and Alto Tajo in Guadalajara) in order to detect at which grain sizes the landscape type differences are emphasized. This occurred in both districts at fine spatial resolutions (25 m) for the metrics related to shape complexity and the amount of boundaries, while a coarser spatial resolution (500 m) was required for the landscape diversity and mixture metrics, suggesting that the differences in the spatial and compositional diversity of these landscape types are not so large locally (alpha diversity) but amplified at broader scales (gamma diversity). The maximum variability for the fragmentation-related metrics did not appear at the same scale in both districts, because forest fragmentation in the Pinares district is mainly driven by harvesting treatments that operate at considerably different scales from those related to the less intensively managed district of Alto Tajo. Our methodology and results allow identifying and separately assessing those complex land cover mosaics that result from a similar set of biological and social forces and constraints. This should be valuable for an improved forest landscape planning and monitoring with a quantitative ecological basis in the Mediterranean and other temperate areas. (Author) 43 refs.

  4. 'Oorja' in India: Assessing a large-scale commercial distribution of advanced biomass stoves to households. (United States)

    Thurber, Mark C; Phadke, Himani; Nagavarapu, Sriniketh; Shrimali, Gireesh; Zerriffi, Hisham


    Replacing traditional stoves with advanced alternatives that burn more cleanly has the potential to ameliorate major health problems associated with indoor air pollution in developing countries. With a few exceptions, large government and charitable programs to distribute advanced stoves have not had the desired impact. Commercially-based distributions that seek cost recovery and even profits might plausibly do better, both because they encourage distributors to supply and promote products that people want and because they are based around properly-incentivized supply chains that could more be scalable, sustainable, and replicable. The sale in India of over 400,000 "Oorja" stoves to households from 2006 onwards represents the largest commercially-based distribution of a gasification-type advanced biomass stove. BP's Emerging Consumer Markets (ECM) division and then successor company First Energy sold this stove and the pelletized biomass fuel on which it operates. We assess the success of this effort and the role its commercial aspect played in outcomes using a survey of 998 households in areas of Maharashtra and Karnataka where the stove was sold as well as detailed interviews with BP and First Energy staff. Statistical models based on this data indicate that Oorja purchase rates were significantly influenced by the intensity of Oorja marketing in a region as well as by pre-existing stove mix among households. The highest rate of adoption came from LPG-using households for which Oorja's pelletized biomass fuel reduced costs. Smoke- and health-related messages from Oorja marketing did not significantly influence the purchase decision, although they did appear to affect household perceptions about smoke. By the time of our survey, only 9% of households that purchased Oorja were still using the stove, the result in large part of difficulties First Energy encountered in developing a viable supply chain around low-cost procurement of "agricultural waste" to make

  5. Debris-flow susceptibility and hazard assessment at a regional scale from GIS analysis (United States)

    Bertrand, M.; Liébault, F.; Piégay, H.


    Small torrents of the Southern French Alps are prone to extreme events. Depending on the rainfall conditions, the sediment supply from hillslopes, and the gravitational energy, these events can occur under different forms, from floods to debris-flows. Debris-flows are recognized as the most dangerous phenomena and may have dramatic consequences for exposed people and infrastructures. As a first step of hazard assessment, we evaluated the debris-flow susceptibility, i.e. the likelihood that an event occurs in an area under particular physical conditions, not including the temporal dimension. The susceptibility is determined by (i) the morphometric controls of small upland catchments for debris-flows triggering and propagation, and by (ii) sediment supply conditions, i.e. erosion patterns feeding the channels. The morphometric controls are evaluated with indicators calculated from basic topographic variables. The sediment supply is evaluated by considering the cumulated surface of erosion area connected to the hydrographic network. We developed a statistical model to predict the geomorphic responses of the catchments (fluvial vs. debris-flow) and we apply this model within a GIS for regional-scale prediction. The model is based on two morphometric indicators, i.e. fan / channel slope and the Melton ruggedness index, and is based on a wide set of data including the Southern French Alps. We developed a GIS procedure to extract the indicators automatically using a 25m DEM and the hydrographic network as raw data. This model and its application have been validated with historical data. Sediment sources feeding debris-flow prone torrents are identified by first automatically mapping the erosion patches from the infrared orthophotos analysis then identifying the ones connected to the stream network. A classification method has been developed (segmentation into homogeneous objects classified with a neural network algorithm) and validated with expert interpretation on the

  6. Collaborative-Large scale Engineering Assessment Networks for Environmental Research: The Overview (United States)

    Moo-Young, H.


    A networked infrastructure for engineering solutions and policy alternatives is necessary to assess, manage, and protect complex, anthropogenic ally stressed environmental resources effectively. Reductionist and discrete disciplinary methodologies are no longer adequate to evaluate and model complex environmental systems and anthropogenic stresses. While the reductonist approach provides important information regarding individual mechanisms, it cannot provide complete information about how multiple processes are related. Therefore, it is not possible to make accurate predictions about system responses to engineering interventions and the effectiveness of policy options. For example, experts cannot agree on best management strategies for contaminated sediments in riverine and estuarine systems. This is due, in part to the fact that existing models do not accurately capture integrated system dynamics. In addition, infrastructure is not available for investigators to exchange and archive data, to collaborate on new investigative methods, and to synthesize these results to develop engineering solutions and policy alternatives. Our vision for the future is to create a network comprising field facilities and a collaboration of engineers, scientists, policy makers, and community groups. This will allow integration across disciplines, across different temporal and spatial scales, surface and subsurface geographies, and air sheds and watersheds. Benefits include fast response to changes in system health, real-time decision making, and continuous data collection that can be used to anticipate future problems, and to develop sound engineering solutions and management decisions. CLEANER encompasses four general aspects: 1) A Network of environmental field facilities instrumented for the acquisition and analysis of environmental data; 2) A Virtual Repository of Data and information technology for engineering modeling, analysis and visualization of data, i.e. an environmental

  7. A multivariate study of the effects of high-risk factors on performance on the Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale. (United States)

    Lester, B M; Emory, E K; Hoffman, S L


    The Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale was administered to 52 newborn infants. A factor analysis revealed 2 main factors, 1 along an attention-orientation dimension, the other relating to temperament arousal. A stepwise multiple linear regression analysis showed that the attention-orientation factor was related to birth weight, age of the mother, and sex and race of the baby. The only variable related to the temperament-arousal factor was 5-min Apgar scor. The study, although exploratory, demonstrates the use of multivariate techniques in the assessment of influences on newborn behavior.

  8. Assessment of Alzheimer's disease symptom recognition in Korean Americans and psychometric analysis of Alzheimer's Disease Symptom Recognition Scale (ADSRS). (United States)

    Lee, Sang E; Casado, Banghwa Lee


    This study examined recognition of Alzheimer's disease symptoms among Korean Americans (KAs) and assessed psychometric properties of the Alzheimer's Disease Symptom Recognition Scale (ADSRS). A cross-sectional survey collected data from 209 KAs, using a self-administered questionnaire. Results show that KAs recognized symptoms related to memory and cognitive functioning well, but had very limited recognition of neuropsychiatric symptoms. Psychometric analysis of ADSRS identified 4 factors in their symptom recognition. Findings suggest a need to raise awareness of Alzheimer's symptoms over the course of the disease. Assessment using ADSRS can be incorporated in communication in the practice context and public outreach.

  9. Rating scale for the assessment of competence in ultrasound-guided peripheral vascular access - a Delphi Consensus Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primdahl, Stine C; Todsen, Tobias; Clemmesen, Louise;


    INTRODUCTION: Peripheral vascular access is vital for treatment and diagnostics of hospitalized patients. Ultrasound-guided vascular access (UGVA) is superior to the landmark technique. To ensure competence-based education, an assessment tool of UGVA competence is needed. We aimed to develop...... a global rating scale (RS) for assessment of UGVA competence based on opinions on the content from ultrasound experts in a modified Delphi consensus study. METHODS: We included experts from anesthesiology, emergency medicine and radiology across university hospitals in Denmark. Nine elements were drafted...

  10. Scale Issues in the Assessment of Pesticide Leaching Vulnerability for Loamy Structured Soils in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Keur, Peter; Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Hollis, John;

    for vulnerability due to change in climate and agricultural land management. In the European scale approach soil types in Denmark are classified using a decision tree structure that accounts for both soil texture as well as the lower boundary condition available from soil survey data at the European scale....... At the national scale, soil types are classified directly from a detailed soil property map. The near-saturated hydraulic conductivity (Kh) defined at a soil water potential of -1 kPa has been utilized as a threshold parameter to determine when preferential flow is likely to occur. Kh is associated to each soil...... type as derived by the European scale method and also derived from a neural network type PTF at the national high spatial resolution. Simulations of pesticide leaching by the one-dimensional numerical water flow and reactive solute transport model MACRO are performed for low and high values of near...

  11. Scaling functional status within the interRAI suite of assessment instruments


    Morris, John N.; Berg, Katherine; Fries, Brant E.; Steel, Knight; Howard, Elizabeth P


    Background As one ages, physical, cognitive, and clinical problems accumulate and the pattern of loss follows a distinct progression. The first areas requiring outside support are the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living and over time there is a need for support in performing the Activities of Daily Living. Two new functional hierarchies are presented, an IADL hierarchical capacity scale and a combination scale integrating both IADL and ADL hierarchies. Methods A secondary analyses of data...

  12. Functional assessment of spatial neglect: a review of the Catherine Bergego scale and an introduction of the Kessler foundation neglect assessment process. (United States)

    Chen, Peii; Hreha, Kimberly; Fortis, Paola; Goedert, Kelly M; Barrett, Anna M


    Spatial neglect is a debilitating poststroke neurocognitive disorder associated with prolonged hospitalization and poor rehabilitation outcomes. The literature suggests a high prevalence of this disorder, but clinicians have difficulty reliably identifying affected survivors. This discrepancy may result from suboptimal use of validated neglect assessment procedures. In this article, we suggest use of a validated assessment tool that is sensitive to identification of neglect and its functional consequences - the Catherine Bergego Scale (CBS). We provide detailed item-by-item instructions for observation and scoring - the Kessler Foundation Neglect Assessment Process (KF-NAP). Rehabilitation researchers may be able to use the CBS via the KF-NAP to measure ecological outcomes and specific, separable perceptual-attentional and motor-exploratory spatial behaviors.

  13. The Personality Assessment Inventory as a Proxy for the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised: Testing the Incremental Validity and Cross-Sample Robustness of the Antisocial Features Scale (United States)

    Douglas, Kevin S.; Guy, Laura S.; Edens, John F.; Boer, Douglas P.; Hamilton, Jennine


    The Personality Assessment Inventory's (PAI's) ability to predict psychopathic personality features, as assessed by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), was examined. To investigate whether the PAI Antisocial Features (ANT) Scale and subscales possessed incremental validity beyond other theoretically relevant PAI scales, optimized regression…

  14. Validation of the FASH (Functional Assessment Scale for Acute Hamstring Injuries) questionnaire for German-speaking football players


    Lohrer,Heinz; Nauck, Tanja; Korakakis, Vasileios; Malliaropoulos, Nikos


    Background The FASH (Functional Assessment Scale for Acute Hamstring Injuries) questionnaire has been recently developed as a disease-specific self-administered questionnaire for use in Greek, English, and German languages. Its psychometric qualities (validity and reliability) were tested only in Greek-speaking patients mainly representing track and field athletes. As hamstring injuries represent the most common football injury, we tested the validity and reliability of the FASH-G (G = German...

  15. An animal-to-human scaling law for blast-induced traumatic brain injury risk assessment. (United States)

    Jean, Aurélie; Nyein, Michelle K; Zheng, James Q; Moore, David F; Joannopoulos, John D; Radovitzky, Raúl


    Despite recent efforts to understand blast effects on the human brain, there are still no widely accepted injury criteria for humans. Recent animal studies have resulted in important advances in the understanding of brain injury due to intense dynamic loads. However, the applicability of animal brain injury results to humans remains uncertain. Here, we use advanced computational models to derive a scaling law relating blast wave intensity to the mechanical response of brain tissue across species. Detailed simulations of blast effects on the brain are conducted for different mammals using image-based biofidelic models. The intensity of the stress waves computed for different external blast conditions is compared across species. It is found that mass scaling, which successfully estimates blast tolerance of the thorax, fails to capture the brain mechanical response to blast across mammals. Instead, we show that an appropriate scaling variable must account for the mass of protective tissues relative to the brain, as well as their acoustic impedance. Peak stresses transmitted to the brain tissue by the blast are then shown to be a power function of the scaling parameter for a range of blast conditions relevant to TBI. In particular, it is found that human brain vulnerability to blast is higher than for any other mammalian species, which is in distinct contrast to previously proposed scaling laws based on body or brain mass. An application of the scaling law to recent experiments on rabbits furnishes the first physics-based injury estimate for blast-induced TBI in humans.

  16. Quantitative, nondestructive assessment of beech scale (Hemiptera: Cryptococcidae) density using digital image analysis of wax masses. (United States)

    Teale, Stephen A; Letkowski, Steven; Matusick, George; Stehman, Stephen V; Castello, John D


    Beech scale, Cryptococcus fagisuga Lindinger, is a non-native invasive insect associated with beech bark disease. A quantitative method of measuring viable scale density at the levels of the individual tree and localized bark patches was developed. Bark patches (10 cm(2)) were removed at 0, 1, and 2 m above the ground and at the four cardinal directions from 13 trees in northern New York and 12 trees in northern Michigan. Digital photographs of each patch were made, and the wax mass area was measured from two random 1-cm(2) subsamples on each bark patch using image analysis software. Viable scale insects were counted after removing the wax under a dissecting microscope. Separate regression analyses at the whole tree level for the New York and Michigan sites each showed a strong positive relationship of wax mass area with the number of underlying viable scale insects. The relationships for the New York and Michigan data were not significantly different from each other, and when pooling data from the two sites, there was still a significant positive relationship between wax mass area and the number of scale insects. The relationships between viable scale insects and wax mass area were different at the 0-, 1-, and 2-m sampling heights but do not seem to affect the relationship. This method does not disrupt the insect or its interactions with the host tree.

  17. Improved Necker Cube Drawing-Based Assessment Battery for Constructional Apraxia: The Mie Constructional Apraxia Scale (MCAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Satoh


    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Constructional apraxia (CA is usually diagnosed by having patients draw figures; however, the reported assessments only evaluate the drawn figure. We designed a new assessment battery for CA (the Mie Constructional Apraxia Scale, MCAS which includes both the shape and drawing process, and investigated its utility against other assessment methods. Methods: We designed the MCAS, and evaluated inter- and intrarater reliability. We also investigated the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values in dementia patients, and compared MCAS assessment with other reported batteries in the same subjects. Results: Moderate interrater reliability was shown for speech therapists with limited experience. Moderate to substantial intrarater reliability was shown several weeks after initial assessment. When cutoff scores and times were set at 2/3 points and 39/40 s, sensitivity and specificity were 77.1 and 70.4%, respectively, with positive and negative predictive values of 80.0 and 66.7%, respectively. Dementia patients had significantly worse scores and times for Necker cube drawing than an elderly control group on the MCAS, and on other assessments. Conclusions: We conclude that the MCAS, which includes both the assessment of the drawn Necker cube shape and the drawing process, is useful for detecting even mild CA.

  18. Establishing a Scale for Assessing the Social Validity of Skill Building Interventions for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. (United States)

    Berger, Natalie I; Manston, Lauren; Ingersoll, Brooke


    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Scale of Treatment Perceptions (STP), a measure of treatment acceptability targeting skill-building interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This scale utilizes a strength-based approach to intervention assessment, and was established by modifying the Behavior Intervention Rating Scale (Elliott and Von Brock Treuting in J School Psychol 29(1):43-51, 1991. doi: 10.1016/0022-4405(91)90014-I ) and the Treatment Evaluation Inventory (Kazdin in J Appl Behav Anal 13(2):259-273, 1980. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1980.13-259 ) to be appropriate for assessing multiple dimensions of acceptability across skill-building ASD treatments. Overall, the STP demonstrated good psychometric properties: the scale had appropriate internal consistency, demonstrated a stable three-factor structure that was invariant across samples, and discriminated among different skill-building treatments for ASD. This has important implications for dissemination, as perceived acceptability of a treatment relates to treatment utilization and adherence.

  19. A Conceptual Framework for the Assessment of Cumulative Exposure to Air Pollution at a Fine Spatial Scale. (United States)

    Wahida, Kihal-Talantikite; Padilla, Cindy M; Denis, Zmirou-Navier; Olivier, Blanchard; Géraldine, Le Nir; Philippe, Quenel; Séverine, Deguen


    Many epidemiological studies examining long-term health effects of exposure to air pollutants have characterized exposure by the outdoor air concentrations at sites that may be distant to subjects' residences at different points in time. The temporal and spatial mobility of subjects and the spatial scale of exposure assessment could thus lead to misclassification in the cumulative exposure estimation. This paper attempts to fill the gap regarding cumulative exposure assessment to air pollution at a fine spatial scale in epidemiological studies investigating long-term health effects. We propose a conceptual framework showing how major difficulties in cumulative long-term exposure assessment could be surmounted. We then illustrate this conceptual model on the case of exposure to NO₂ following two steps: (i) retrospective reconstitution of NO₂ concentrations at a fine spatial scale; and (ii) a novel approach to assigning the time-relevant exposure estimates at the census block level, using all available data on residential mobility throughout a 10- to 20-year period prior to that for which the health events are to be detected. Our conceptual framework is both flexible and convenient for the needs of different epidemiological study designs.

  20. Assessing educational priorities in genetics for general practitioners and specialists in five countries: factor structure of the Genetic-Educational Priorities (Gen-EP) scale.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calefato, J.M.; Nippert, I.; Harris, H.J.; Kristoffersson, U.; Schmidtke, J.; Kate, L.P. ten; Anionwu, E.; Benjamin, C.; Challen, K.; Plass, A.M.; Harris, R.; Julian-Reynier, C.


    Purpose: A scale assessing primary care physicians' priorities for genetic education (The Gen-EP scale) was developed and tested in five European countries. The objective of this study was to determine its factor structure, to test scaling assumptions and to determine internal consistency. Methods:

  1. How to assess common somatic symptoms in large-scale studies : A systematic review of questionnaires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlema, Wilma L.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Loewe, Bernd; Rief, Winfried; White, Peter D.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.


    Objective: Many questionnaires for assessment of common somatic symptoms or functional somatic symptoms are available and their use differs greatly among studies. The prevalence and incidence of symptoms are partially determined by the methods used to assess them. As a result, comparison across stud

  2. Equating a Large-Scale Writing Assessment Using Pairwise Comparisons of Performances (United States)

    Humphry, Stephen M.; McGrane, Joshua A.


    This paper presents a method for equating writing assessments using pairwise comparisons which does not depend upon conventional common-person or common-item equating designs. Pairwise comparisons have been successfully applied in the assessment of open-ended tasks in English and other areas such as visual art and philosophy. In this paper,…

  3. A Preliminary Watershed Scale Soil Quality Assessment in North Central Iowa USA (United States)

    Soil quality assessment has been recognized as an important step toward understanding the long-term effects of tillage, cropping system, landscape position, and conservation practices within agricultural watersheds. Our objective is to provide an initial assessment of various soil quality indicators...

  4. Assessing the value of storage services in large-scale multireservoir systems (United States)

    Tilmant, A.; Arjoon, D.; Guilherme, G. F.


    Following three decades of rather low investment in dams, many regions throughout the world are now seeking to further develop new storage capacity in order to meet exploding demands for water and to hedge against the risk posed by climate change. Storage capacity is indee perceived as a key element of climate change adaptation strategies, while at the same time contributing to socioeconomic development through irrigation, energy generation, fish production, and municipal and industrial water supply. The benefits provided by dams must be balanced with the associated environmental and social costs, which can take various forms such as the degradation of ecosystems due to altered flow regimes, the relocation of people from the impoundment area, etc. The benefits of storage essentially come from the ability to move water in time, making it available during the low flow season when it becomes more valuable. As river basins develop and new dams are constructed, it may be important for planning and operational purposes to assess the individual contribution of each reservoir to the benefits of storage. We present a methodology to determine the economic value of storage in multireservoir systems based on the marginal net benefit functions of storage. In economics, the marginal net benefit function for water represents the user's willingness to pay for various quantities of water, i.e. the demand for water. Here, we will concentrate on the marginal net benefit of storing raw water in a particular reservoir for later use by different users/sectors. Based on this function, one can determine the economic value associated with changes in storage from the reservoir operating policies and the marginal value of water stored in the reservoirs. This information can nowadays be obtained from multireservoir optimization models. A cascade of reservoirs in the upper reaches of the Euphrates river basin (Turkey/Syria) is used to illustrate the methodology. To water resources planners in

  5. Clinical assessments of the erbium:YAG laser for soft tissue surgery and scaling. (United States)

    Watanabe, H; Ishikawa, I; Suzuki, M; Hasegawa, K


    We evaluated the clinical usefulness of an erbium:YAG laser for soft tissue surgery, and scaling. Thirty-one patients with soft tissue lesions (13 males and 18 females from 24 to 71 years old), and 60 patients with calculus deposits (21 males and 39 females from 19 to 72 years old) were treated with the laser. The clinical parameters evaluated were pain, redness, swelling of the gingiva, and the subjective patient comfort parameters including uneasiness with the sound and vibration associated with laser treatment. Additionally, hemorrhage and wound healing during and after the surgery, the roughness of the root surface after scaling, and the effectiveness of scaling using the laser were examined. Laser surgery caused less hemorrhage and resulted in better wound healing when compared with conventional methods. It was easy to remove calculi from the root surface with the laser in 95% of the cases. Although the scaled site showed some irregularity, it was not clinically significant in 98% of the cases. Only a few patients complained about the unpleasant sound and vibration. There were no complications or side effects during this clinical trial. Thus, this study suggests that an Er:YAG laser is useful for soft tissue surgery and scaling.

  6. Nitrate reduction in geologically heterogeneous catchments — A framework for assessing the scale of predictive capability of hydrological models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Refsgaard, Jens Christian, E-mail: [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) (Denmark); Auken, Esben [Department of Earth Sciences, Aarhus University (Denmark); Bamberg, Charlotte A. [City of Aarhus (Denmark); Christensen, Britt S.B. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) (Denmark); Clausen, Thomas [DHI, Hørsholm (Denmark); Dalgaard, Esben [Department of Earth Sciences, Aarhus University (Denmark); Effersø, Flemming [SkyTEM Aps, Beder (Denmark); Ernstsen, Vibeke [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) (Denmark); Gertz, Flemming [Knowledge Center for Agriculture, Skejby (Denmark); Hansen, Anne Lausten [Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); He, Xin [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) (Denmark); Jacobsen, Brian H. [Department of Food and Resource Economics, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Jensen, Karsten Høgh [Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Jørgensen, Flemming; Jørgensen, Lisbeth Flindt [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) (Denmark); Koch, Julian [Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Nilsson, Bertel [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) (Denmark); Petersen, Christian [City of Odder (Denmark); De Schepper, Guillaume [Université Laval, Québec (Canada); Schamper, Cyril [Department of Earth Sciences, Aarhus University (Denmark); and others


    In order to fulfil the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive nitrate load from agricultural areas to surface water in Denmark needs to be reduced by about 40%. The regulations imposed until now have been uniform, i.e. the same restrictions for all areas independent of the subsurface conditions. Studies have shown that on a national basis about 2/3 of the nitrate leaching from the root zone is reduced naturally, through denitrification, in the subsurface before reaching the streams. Therefore, it is more cost-effective to identify robust areas, where nitrate leaching through the root zone is reduced in the saturated zone before reaching the streams, and vulnerable areas, where no subsurface reduction takes place, and then only impose regulations/restrictions on the vulnerable areas. Distributed hydrological models can make predictions at grid scale, i.e. at much smaller scale than the entire catchment. However, as distributed models often do not include local scale hydrogeological heterogeneities, they are typically not able to make accurate predictions at scales smaller than they are calibrated. We present a framework for assessing nitrate reduction in the subsurface and for assessing at which spatial scales modelling tools have predictive capabilities. A new instrument has been developed for airborne geophysical measurements, Mini-SkyTEM, dedicated to identifying geological structures and heterogeneities with horizontal and lateral resolutions of 30–50 m and 2 m, respectively, in the upper 30 m. The geological heterogeneity and uncertainty are further analysed by use of the geostatistical software TProGS by generating stochastic geological realisations that are soft conditioned against the geophysical data. Finally, the flow paths within the catchment are simulated by use of the MIKE SHE hydrological modelling system for each of the geological models generated by TProGS and the prediction uncertainty is characterised by the variance between the

  7. Assessment of Lifespan Functioning Attainment (ALFA) scale: A quantitative interview for self-reported current and functional decline in schizophrenia. (United States)

    Joseph, Jamie; Kremen, William S; Glatt, Stephen J; Franz, Carol E; Chandler, Sharon D; Liu, Xiaohua; Johnson, Barbara K; Tsuang, Ming T; Twamley, Elizabeth W


    Schizophrenia has been characterized as a disorder with poor outcomes across various functional domains, especially social and occupational functioning. Although these outcomes have been investigated based on patients' current functioning, few studies have considered the assessment of functional outcomes across the lifespan in schizophrenia. We developed a novel and brief scale of adulthood lifespan functioning, the Assessment of Lifespan Functioning Attainment (ALFA). We assessed current functioning and percentage of pre- and post-psychosis onset engagement for five functional domains including paid employment, living independently, romantic partnerships, close friendships, and recreational engagement with others. Pre-to post-psychosis functional decline was observed for all domains, with paid employment having the greatest decline (d = 2.68) and living independently having the least decline (d = .59). Our exploratory factor analysis suggests that a single factor accounted for the most variance in Pre-Psychosis Functioning in ALFA domains. Two factors explain the majority of variance in Post-Psychosis Functioning and Pre-to-Post Psychosis Decline: a sociability factor (close friendships and recreational engagement with others) and an independence factor (paid employment, living independently, romantic relationships). To our knowledge, this is the first study to report on a self-reported quantitative assessment of adult lifespan functioning in schizophrenia. The ALFA scale may be a useful tool for future research on functional outcomes in schizophrenia.

  8. Fine-scale ecological and economic assessment of climate change on olive in the Mediterranean Basin reveals winners and losers. (United States)

    Ponti, Luigi; Gutierrez, Andrew Paul; Ruti, Paolo Michele; Dell'Aquila, Alessandro


    The Mediterranean Basin is a climate and biodiversity hot spot, and climate change threatens agro-ecosystems such as olive, an ancient drought-tolerant crop of considerable ecological and socioeconomic importance. Climate change will impact the interactions of olive and the obligate olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae), and alter the economics of olive culture across the Basin. We estimate the effects of climate change on the dynamics and interaction of olive and the fly using physiologically based demographic models in a geographic information system context as driven by daily climate change scenario weather. A regional climate model that includes fine-scale representation of the effects of topography and the influence of the Mediterranean Sea on regional climate was used to scale the global climate data. The system model for olive/olive fly was used as the production function in our economic analysis, replacing the commonly used production-damage control function. Climate warming will affect olive yield and fly infestation levels across the Basin, resulting in economic winners and losers at the local and regional scales. At the local scale, profitability of small olive farms in many marginal areas of Europe and elsewhere in the Basin will decrease, leading to increased abandonment. These marginal farms are critical to conserving soil, maintaining biodiversity, and reducing fire risk in these areas. Our fine-scale bioeconomic approach provides a realistic prototype for assessing climate change impacts in other Mediterranean agro-ecosystems facing extant and new invasive pests.

  9. First-order estimate of the Canary Islands plate-scale stress field: Implications for volcanic hazard assessment (United States)

    Geyer, A.; Martí, J.; Villaseñor, A.


    In volcanic areas, the existing stress field is a key parameter controlling magma generation, location and geometry of the magmatic plumbing systems and the distribution of the resulting volcanism at surface. Therefore, knowing the stress configuration in the lithosphere at any scale (i.e. local, regional and plate-scale) is fundamental to understand the distribution of volcanism and, subsequently, to interpret volcanic unrest and potential tectonic controls of future eruptions. The objective of the present work is to provide a first-order estimate of the plate-scale tectonic stresses acting on the Canary Islands, one of the largest active intraplate volcanic regions of the World. In order to obtain the orientation of the minimum and maximum horizontal compressive stresses, we perform a series of 2D finite element models of plate scale kinematics assuming plane stress approximation. Results obtained are used to develop a regional model, which takes into account recognized archipelago-scale structural discontinuities. Maximum horizontal compressive stress directions obtained are compared with available stress, geological and geodynamic data. The methodology used may be easily applied to other active volcanic regions, where a first order approach of their plate/regional stresses can be essential information to be used as input data for volcanic hazard assessment models.

  10. Construction of a scale for assessing at work psychosocial risk factors in professors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Unda


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to create a valid and reliable instrument to measure psychosocial risk factorsat work in Mexican professors. A 66-item scale with 5 response choices was built. In order to validate thescale, it was administered to 500 public professors at Mexico city, aged between 21 an 76, 331 males and168 females, belonging to nine higher education schools. Statistical analyses were made to know the itemdiscriminant power, reliability, and factor structure. The scale rendered five factors: perceived inequity,difficult students, perceived insecurity, academic overload, and lack of resources at the workplace. Thescales had a Cronbach´s alpha between .75 and 92. As a conclusion, the scale fulfills the requirements ofreliability and validity in a population of professors.

  11. Thermodynamic modeling of small scale biomass gasifiers: Development and assessment of the ''Multi-Box'' approach. (United States)

    Vakalis, Stergios; Patuzzi, Francesco; Baratieri, Marco


    Modeling can be a powerful tool for designing and optimizing gasification systems. Modeling applications for small scale/fixed bed biomass gasifiers have been interesting due to their increased commercial practices. Fixed bed gasifiers are characterized by a wide range of operational conditions and are multi-zoned processes. The reactants are distributed in different phases and the products from each zone influence the following process steps and thus the composition of the final products. The present study aims to improve the conventional 'Black-Box' thermodynamic modeling by means of developing multiple intermediate 'boxes' that calculate two phase (solid-vapor) equilibriums in small scale gasifiers. Therefore the model is named ''Multi-Box''. Experimental data from a small scale gasifier have been used for the validation of the model. The returned results are significantly closer with the actual case study measurements in comparison to single-stage thermodynamic modeling.

  12. Screening for personality disorder with the Standardised Assessment of Personality: Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS: further evidence of concurrent validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moran Paul


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assessment of personality disorders (PD is costly and time-consuming. There is a need for a brief screen for personality disorders that can be used in routine clinical settings and epidemiological surveys. Aims: To test the validity of the Standardised Assessment of Personality: Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS as a screen for PD in a clinical sample of substance abusers. Methods Convergent validity of the SAPAS with both categorical and dimensional representations of personality disorders was estimated. Results In this sample, the SAPAS correlated well with dimensional representations of cluster A and C personality disorders, even after controlling for ADHD symptoms, anxiety/depression symptoms and recent substance use. The SAPAS was also significantly associated with total number of PD criteria, although correlation with categorical measures of PD was weak. Conclusions The SAPAS is an valid brief screen for PD as assessed dimensionally.

  13. Spatial rule-based assessment of habitat potential to predict impact of land use changes on biodiversity at municipal scale. (United States)

    Scolozzi, Rocco; Geneletti, Davide


    In human dominated landscapes, ecosystems are under increasing pressures caused by urbanization and infrastructure development. In Alpine valleys remnant natural areas are increasingly affected by habitat fragmentation and loss. In these contexts, there is a growing risk of local extinction for wildlife populations; hence assessing the consequences on biodiversity of proposed land use changes is extremely important. The article presents a methodology to assess the impacts of land use changes on target species at a local scale. The approach relies on the application of ecological profiles of target species for habitat potential (HP) assessment, using high resolution GIS-data within a multiple level framework. The HP, in this framework, is based on a species-specific assessment of the suitability of a site, as well of surrounding areas. This assessment is performed through spatial rules, structured as sets of queries on landscape objects. We show that by considering spatial dependencies in habitat assessment it is possible to perform better quantification of impacts of local-level land use changes on habitats.

  14. Assessing Climate Change Impacts on Large-Scale Soil Moisture, its Temporal Variability and Associated Drought-Flood Risks (United States)

    Destouni, G.; Verrot, L.


    Soil moisture is a dynamic variable of great importance for water cycling and climate, as well as for ecosystems and societal sectors such as agriculture. Model representation of soil moisture and its temporal variability is, for instance, central for assessing the impacts of hydro-climatic change on drought and flood risks. However, our ability to assess such impacts and guide appropriate mitigation and adaptation measures is challenged by the need to link data and modeling across a range of spatiotemporal scales of relevance for the variability and change of soil moisture in long-term time series. This paper synthesizes recent advances for meeting this challenge by a relatively simple, analytical, data-driven approach to modeling the variability and change of large-scale soil moisture under long-term hydro-climatic change. Model application to two major Swedish drainage basins, and model-data comparison for ten study catchments across the United States shows the model ability to reproduce variability dynamics in long-term data series of the key soil-moisture variables: unsaturated water content and groundwater table position. The Swedish application shows that human-driven hydro-climatic shifts may imply increased risk for hydrological drought (runoff-related) and agricultural drought (soil moisture-related), even though meteorological drought risk (precipitation-related) is unchanged or lowered. The direct model-data comparison for ten U.S. catchments further shows good model representation of seasonal and longer-term fluctuation timings and frequencies for water content and groundwater level, along with physically reasonable model tendency to underestimate the local fluctuation magnitudes. Overall, the tested modeling approach can fulfill its main aim of screening long-term time series of large-scale hydro-climatic data (historic or projected for the future by climate modeling) for relatively simple, unexaggerated assessment of variability and change in key

  15. Development of the General Parenting Observational Scale to assess parenting during family meals


    Rhee, Kyung E.; Dickstein, Susan; Jelalian, Elissa; Boutelle, Kerri; Seifer, Ronald; Wing, Rena


    Background There is growing interest in the relationship between general parenting and childhood obesity. However, assessing general parenting via surveys can be difficult due to issues with self-report and differences in the underlying constructs being measured. As a result, different aspects of parenting have been associated with obesity risk. We developed a more objective tool to assess general parenting by using observational methods during a mealtime interaction. Methods The General Pare...

  16. Nitrate reduction in geologically heterogeneous catchments--a framework for assessing the scale of predictive capability of hydrological models. (United States)

    Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Auken, Esben; Bamberg, Charlotte A; Christensen, Britt S B; Clausen, Thomas; Dalgaard, Esben; Effersø, Flemming; Ernstsen, Vibeke; Gertz, Flemming; Hansen, Anne Lausten; He, Xin; Jacobsen, Brian H; Jensen, Karsten Høgh; Jørgensen, Flemming; Jørgensen, Lisbeth Flindt; Koch, Julian; Nilsson, Bertel; Petersen, Christian; De Schepper, Guillaume; Schamper, Cyril; Sørensen, Kurt I; Therrien, Rene; Thirup, Christian; Viezzoli, Andrea


    In order to fulfil the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive nitrate load from agricultural areas to surface water in Denmark needs to be reduced by about 40%. The regulations imposed until now have been uniform, i.e. the same restrictions for all areas independent of the subsurface conditions. Studies have shown that on a national basis about 2/3 of the nitrate leaching from the root zone is reduced naturally, through denitrification, in the subsurface before reaching the streams. Therefore, it is more cost-effective to identify robust areas, where nitrate leaching through the root zone is reduced in the saturated zone before reaching the streams, and vulnerable areas, where no subsurface reduction takes place, and then only impose regulations/restrictions on the vulnerable areas. Distributed hydrological models can make predictions at grid scale, i.e. at much smaller scale than the entire catchment. However, as distributed models often do not include local scale hydrogeological heterogeneities, they are typically not able to make accurate predictions at scales smaller than they are calibrated. We present a framework for assessing nitrate reduction in the subsurface and for assessing at which spatial scales modelling tools have predictive capabilities. A new instrument has been developed for airborne geophysical measurements, Mini-SkyTEM, dedicated to identifying geological structures and heterogeneities with horizontal and lateral resolutions of 30-50 m and 2m, respectively, in the upper 30 m. The geological heterogeneity and uncertainty are further analysed by use of the geostatistical software TProGS by generating stochastic geological realisations that are soft conditioned against the geophysical data. Finally, the flow paths within the catchment are simulated by use of the MIKE SHE hydrological modelling system for each of the geological models generated by TProGS and the prediction uncertainty is characterised by the variance between the

  17. Epworth Sleepiness Scale- a novel tool to assess somnolence syndrome in patients receiving radiotherapy to the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritika Rajkumar Harjani


    Full Text Available Purpose: Radiation to brain causes early, early-delayed, and delayed side effects. There is paucity of literature regarding early-delayed effects like somnolence syndrome. Existing studies use general symptom assessment and visual analog scales. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS is a time tested tool to assess daytime sleepiness in various conditions. In this study, the ESS has been used to determine the occurrence of somnolence in patients receiving cranial radiotherapy for primary and metastatic brain tumors. Thus the ESS has been used in a novel setting in our study. The ESS is a simple to administer questionnaire and may be useful in grading the severity of somnolence. To our knowledge, this is the second study to determine post radiation somnolence using ESS. Methods: This prospective study was conducted in 23 patients with primary and metastatic brain tumor. Patient demographics and tumor type and grade was noted. Those with Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS less than 70 and with pre-existing sleep disorders were excluded. Radiotherapy regimen included palliative whole brain radiation for brain metastases and conformal adjuvant radiotherapy for primary brain tumors as per standard guidelines. All subjects included were administered ESS at baseline and weekly thereafter during and for 6 weeks after radiation. Results: All 23 patients (median age 50 years completed the planned questionnaires until 6 weeks post radiation. Twenty (87% patients had primary brain tumors whereas three (13% patients had metastatic lesions in brain. Of the 23 patients, 14 patients (60.86% had abnormal or increased daytime sleepiness; of which 3 had ESS scores greater than 16. Conclusion: Somnolence was noted in 60.86% of the patients, which is in accordance with existing literature. Epworth sleepiness scale is an effective tool to detect and quantify somnolence, However, it does not consider other symptoms of somnolence syndrome and hence should be combined with visual

  18. Development of an Instrument to Measure Teaching Style in Japan: The Teaching Style Assessment Scale (United States)

    Yoshida, Fumiko; Conti, Gary J.; Yamauchi, Toyoaki; Iwasaki, Takaaki


    Teaching style has been a popular concept for many years. Teaching style refers to the distinct qualities displayed by a teacher that are persistent from situation to situation regardless of the content. The Principles of Adult Learning Scale (PALS) has been used extensively in the West for measuring teaching style in relationship to the adult…

  19. Assessing Perceived Emotional Intelligence in Adolescents: New Validity Evidence of Trait Meta-Mood Scale-24 (United States)

    Pedrosa, Ignacio; Suárez-Álvarez, Javier; Lozano, Luis M.; Muñiz, José; García-Cueto, Eduardo


    Adolescence is a critical period of life during which significant psychosocial adjustment occurs and in which emotional intelligence plays an essential role. This article provides validity evidence for the Trait Meta-Mood Scale-24 (TMMS-24) scores based on an item response theory (IRT) approach. A sample of 2,693 Spanish adolescents (M = 16.52…

  20. Assessment of Romantic Perfectionism: Psychometric Properties of the Romantic Relationship Perfectionism Scale (United States)

    Matte, Melody; Lafontaine, Marie-France


    The objective of the present study was to provide validity evidence for the scores from the Romantic Relationship Perfectionism Scale. Results indicate a two-factor structure, adequate reliability, and overall good convergent, concurrent, discriminant, and incremental validity evidence. The strengths and limitations of this measure are discussed.…

  1. Acoustic assessment of small-scale military-style nozzles with chevrons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuo, C.-W.; Veltin, J.; McLaughlin, D.K.


    With the emergence of more powerful fighter aircraft, supersonic jet noise reduction devices are being intensively researched. Small-scale measurements are a crucial step in evaluating the potential of noise reduction concepts at an early stage in the design process. With this in mind, the present s

  2. SIDS Family Adjustment Scale: A Method of Assessing Family Adjustment to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. (United States)

    May, Harold J.; Breme, Frederick J.


    Discusses Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and the family's resultant grief process. Explores SIDS as a family crisis, and by identifying the psychological factors or tasks pertinent to family adjustment, proposes a SIDS Family Adjustment Scale which assists in recognizing adaptive and maladaptive grief responses. (Author)

  3. Assessing climate change impacts on river flows and environmental flow requirements at catchment scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gül, G.O.; Rosbjerg, Dan; Gül, A.


    mostly at the local scale. though potential changes in the hydrological cycle and eco-hydrological processes are more difficult to model and analyse at this level. The difficulty is even greater for studies on lowland river systems, which require the modelling of hydrological processes in greater detail...

  4. Assessing Preschool Children's Pretend Play: Preliminary Validation of the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool Version (United States)

    Kaugars, Astrida Seja; Russ, Sandra W.


    Research Findings: A description of the development and preliminary validation of the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool version (APS-P) is presented by demonstrating associations among preschool children's play, creativity, and daily behavior using multiple methodologies. Thirty-three preschool-age children completed a standardized 5-minute play task…

  5. The exploratory behavior scale: assessing young visitors hands-on behavior in science museums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.J.P. van Schijndel; R.K. Franse; M.E.J. Raijmakers


    In this paper, we introduce the Exploratory Behavior Scale (EBS), a quantitative measure of young children's interactivity. More specifically, the EBS is developed from the psychological literature on exploration and play and measures the extent to which preschoolers explore their physical environme

  6. Validation of the Peer Social Maturity Scale for Assessing Children's Social Skills (United States)

    Fink, Elian; de Rosnay, Marc; Peterson, Candida; Slaughter, Virginia


    We evaluated the utility of a brief, seven-item, teacher-rated Peer Social Maturity Scale (PSMAT). In Study 1, teachers of 138 Australian children (ranging from 5 to 8?years and 5?months old) in kindergarten and Grades 1 and 2 rated their pupils' social maturity using the PSMAT and their classroom social skills via the Social Skills Rating System…

  7. Principal Self-Efficacy and Work Engagement: Assessing a Norwegian Principal Self-Efficacy Scale (United States)

    Federici, Roger A.; Skaalvik, Einar M.


    One purpose of the present study was to develop and test the factor structure of a multidimensional and hierarchical Norwegian Principal Self-Efficacy Scale (NPSES). Another purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between principal self-efficacy and work engagement. Principal self-efficacy was measured by the 22-item NPSES. Work…

  8. A scale to assess activities of daily living in persons affected by leprosy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Brakel, WH; Anderson, AM; Worpel, FC; Saiju, R; Bk, HB; Sherpa, S; Sunwar, SK; Gurung, J; De Boer, M; Scholten, E


    The aim of this study was to develop a scale for identifying disability among people in the rural areas of developing countries. The studies were carried out in the Green Pastures Hospital and the leprosy field programme of the Western Region of Nepal. With the help of staff experienced in working w

  9. Toward an Improved Scale for Assessing Symptom Severity in Children With Acute Otitis Media. (United States)

    Shaikh, Nader; Hoberman, Alejandro; Rockette, Howard E; Kurs-Lasky, Marcia; Paradise, Jack L


    The objective of the present study was to determine whether changes in the previously developed 7-item Acute Otitis Media Severity of Symptoms scale could improve its responsiveness and its longitudinal construct validity. The items "diminished activity" and "diminished appetite" had low or borderline levels of responsiveness and longitudinal construct validity. Dropping these items seems to be potentially advantageous.

  10. Large-scale establishment of Ammophila arenaria and quantitative assessment by remote-sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Putten, W.H.; Kloosterman, E.H.


    New methods for the establishment of Ammophila arenaria (marram grass), i.e. sowing seeds and disk-harrowing rhizomes, were compared with the traditional method (planting bundles of culms). A large-scale experiment was undertaken on 120 ha of fortified foredune ridge and approximately 40 percent of

  11. Assessment of the methods for determining net radiation at different time-scales of meteorological variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni An


    Full Text Available When modeling the soil/atmosphere interaction, it is of paramount importance to determine the net radiation flux. There are two common calculation methods for this purpose. Method 1 relies on use of air temperature, while Method 2 relies on use of both air and soil temperatures. Nowadays, there has been no consensus on the application of these two methods. In this study, the half-hourly data of solar radiation recorded at an experimental embankment are used to calculate the net radiation and long-wave radiation at different time-scales (half-hourly, hourly, and daily using the two methods. The results show that, compared with Method 2 which has been widely adopted in agronomical, geotechnical and geo-environmental applications, Method 1 is more feasible for its simplicity and accuracy at shorter time-scale. Moreover, in case of longer time-scale, daily for instance, less variations of net radiation and long-wave radiation are obtained, suggesting that no detailed soil temperature variations can be obtained. In other words, shorter time-scales are preferred in determining net radiation flux.

  12. Fatigue life assessment of cardiovascular balloon-expandable stents: a two-scale plasticity-damage model approach. (United States)

    Argente dos Santos, H A F; Auricchio, F; Conti, M


    Cardiovascular disease has become a major global health care problem in the present decade. To tackle this problem, the use of cardiovascular stents has been considered a promising and effective approach. Numerical simulations to evaluate the in vivo behavior of stents are becoming more and more important to assess potential failures. As the material failure of a stent device has been often associated with fatigue issues, as a result of the high number of cyclic loads these devices are subjected to in vivo, numerical approaches for fatigue life assessment of stents has gained special interest in the engineering community. Numerical fatigue predictions can be used to modify the design and prevent failure, without making and testing numerous physical devices, thus preventing from undesired fatigue failures. This work presents a fatigue life numerical method for the analysis of cardiovascular balloon-expandable stainless steel stents. The method is based on a two-scale continuum damage mechanics model in which both plasticity and damage mechanisms are assumed to take place at a scale smaller than the scale of the representative volume element. The fatigue failure criterion is based on the Soderberg relation. The method is applied to the fatigue life assessment of both PalmazShatz and Cypher stent designs. Validation of the method is performed through comparison of the obtained numerical results with some experimental results available for the PalmazShatz stent design. The present study gives also possible directions for future research developments in the framework of the numerical fatigue life assessment of real balloon-expandable stents.

  13. A multi-scale GIS and hydrodynamic modelling approach to fish passage assessment: Clarence and Shoalhaven Rivers, NSW Australia (United States)

    Bonetti, Rita M.; Reinfelds, Ivars V.; Butler, Gavin L.; Walsh, Chris T.; Broderick, Tony J.; Chisholm, Laurie A.


    Natural barriers such as waterfalls, cascades, rapids and riffles limit the dispersal and in-stream range of migratory fish, yet little is known of the interplay between these gradient dependent landforms, their hydraulic characteristics and flow rates that facilitate fish passage. The resurgence of dam construction in numerous river basins world-wide provides impetus to the development of robust techniques for assessment of the effects of downstream flow regime changes on natural fish passage barriers and associated consequences as to the length of rivers available to migratory species. This paper outlines a multi-scale technique for quantifying the relative magnitude of natural fish passage barriers in river systems and flow rates that facilitate passage by fish. First, a GIS-based approach is used to quantify channel gradients for the length of river or reach under investigation from a high resolution DEM, setting the magnitude of identified passage barriers in a longer context (tens to hundreds of km). Second, LiDAR, topographic and bathymetric survey-based hydrodynamic modelling is used to assess flow rates that can be regarded as facilitating passage across specific barriers identified by the river to reach scale gradient analysis. Examples of multi-scale approaches to fish passage assessment for flood-flow and low-flow passage issues are provided from the Clarence and Shoalhaven Rivers, NSW, Australia. In these river systems, passive acoustic telemetry data on actual movements and migrations by Australian bass (Macquaria novemaculeata) provide a means of validating modelled assessments of flow rates associated with successful fish passage across natural barriers. Analysis of actual fish movements across passage barriers in these river systems indicates that two dimensional hydraulic modelling can usefully quantify flow rates associated with the facilitation of fish passage across natural barriers by a majority of individual fishes for use in management

  14. Rapid regional-scale assessments of socio-economic vulnerability to climate change (United States)

    Smith, Erin F.; Lieske, Scott N.; Keys, Noni; Smith, Timothy F.


    Assessing socio-economic vulnerability to climate change impacts to support regional decision-making is conceptually and practically challenging. We report on research that tested a rapid assessment approach of socio-economic vulnerability in Australia’s natural resource management regions. The approach focuses on regionally important economic sectors, identified using existing datasets, which are likely to be sensitive to climate change impacts. Disaggregated spatial representations of factors known to be associated with vulnerability function as multiple lines of evidence for highlighting intra-regional hotspots of high potential vulnerability. Our results show that a small number of factors based upon contextually relevant empirical evidence offers a low-cost, rapid assessment process, which is readily transferable across regions and provides end-users with guidance for interpreting the results within the context of regional conditions.

  15. Trial Application of the Facility Safeguardability Assessment Process to the NuScale SMR Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, Garill A.; Hockert, John; Gitau, Ernest TN; Zentner, Michael D.


    FSA is a screening process intended to focus a facility designer’s attention on the aspects of their facility or process design that would most benefit from application of SBD principles and practices. The process is meant to identify the most relevant guidance within the SBD tools for enhancing the safeguardability of the design. In fiscal year (FY) 2012, NNSA sponsored PNNL to evaluate the practical application of FSA by applying it to the NuScale small modular nuclear power plant. This report documents the application of the FSA process, presenting conclusions regarding its efficiency and robustness. It describes the NuScale safeguards design concept and presents functional "infrastructure" guidelines that were developed using the FSA process.

  16. The neurobehavioural rating scale: assessment of the behavioural sequelae of head injury by the clinician. (United States)

    Levin, H S; High, W M; Goethe, K E; Sisson, R A; Overall, J E; Rhoades, H M; Eisenberg, H M; Kalisky, Z; Gary, H E


    To investigate the inter-rater reliability and validity of the Neurobehavioural Rating Scale at various stages of recovery after hospitalisation for closed head injury, we studied 101 head trauma patients who had no antecedent neuropsychiatric disorder. The results demonstrated satisfactory inter-rater reliability and showed that the Neurobehavioural Rating Scale reflects both the severity and chronicity of closed head injury. A principal components analysis revealed four factors which were differentially related to severity of head injury and the presence of a frontal lobe mass lesion. Although our findings provide support for utilising clinical ratings of behaviour to investigate sequelae of head injury, extension of this technique to other settings is necessary to evaluate the distinctiveness of the neurobehavioural profile of closed head injury as compared with other aetiologies of brain damage. PMID:3572433

  17. Trial Application of the Facility Safeguardability Assessment Process to the NuScale SMR Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, Garill A.; Gitau, Ernest TN; Hockert, John; Zentner, Michael D.


    FSA is a screening process intended to focus a facility designer’s attention on the aspects of their facility or process design that would most benefit from application of SBD principles and practices. The process is meant to identify the most relevant guidance within the SBD tools for enhancing the safeguardability of the design. In fiscal year (FY) 2012, NNSA sponsored PNNL to evaluate the practical application of FSA by applying it to the NuScale small modular nuclear power plant. This report documents the application of the FSA process, presenting conclusions regarding its efficiency and robustness. It describes the NuScale safeguards design concept and presents functional "infrastructure" guidelines that were developed using the FSA process.

  18. Initial Market Assessment for Small-Scale Biomass-Based CHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, E.; Mann, M.


    The purpose of this report is to reexamine the energy generation market opportunities for biomass CHP applications smaller than 20 MW. This paper provides an overview of the benefits of and challenges for biomass CHP in terms of policy, including a discussion of the drivers behind, and constraints on, the biomass CHP market. The report provides a summary discussion of the available biomass supply types and technologies that could be used to feed the market. Two primary markets are outlined--rural/agricultural and urban--for small-scale biomass CHP, and illustrate the primary intersections of supply and demand for those markets. The paper concludes by summarizing the potential markets and suggests next steps for identifying and utilizing small-scale biomass.

  19. Downscaling Surface Water Inundation from Coarse Data to Fine-Scale Resolution: Methodology and Accuracy Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiping Wu


    Full Text Available The availability of water surface inundation with high spatial resolution is of fundamental importance in several applications such as hydrology, meteorology and ecology. Medium spatial resolution sensors, like MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, exhibit a significant potential to study inundation dynamics over large areas because of their high temporal resolution. However, the low spatial resolution provided by MODIS is not appropriate to accurately delineate inundation over small scale. Successful downscaling of water inundation from coarse to fine resolution would be crucial for improving our understanding of complex inundation characteristics over the regional scale. Therefore, in this study, we propose an innovative downscaling method based on the normalized difference water index (NDWI statistical regression algorithm towards generating small-scale resolution inundation maps from MODIS data. The method was then applied to the Poyang Lake of China. To evaluate the performance of the proposed downscaling method, qualitative and quantitative comparisons were conducted between the inundation extent of MODIS (250 m, Landsat (30 m and downscaled MODIS (30 m. The results indicated that the downscaled MODIS (30 m inundation showed significant improvement over the original MODIS observations when compared with simultaneous Landsat (30 m inundation. The edges of the lakes become smoother than the results from original MODIS image and some undetected water bodies were delineated with clearer shapes in the downscaled MODIS (30 m inundation map. With respect to high-resolution Landsat TM/ETM+ derived inundation, the downscaling procedure has significantly increased the R2 and reduced RMSE and MAE both for the inundation area and for the value of landscape metrics. The main conclusion of this study is that the downscaling algorithm is promising and quite feasible for the inundation mapping over small-scale lakes.

  20. Low-carbon building assessment and multi-scale input-output analysis (United States)

    Chen, G. Q.; Chen, H.; Chen, Z. M.; Zhang, Bo; Shao, L.; Guo, S.; Zhou, S. Y.; Jiang, M. M.


    Presented as a low-carbon building evaluation framework in this paper are detailed carbon emission account procedures for the life cycle of buildings in terms of nine stages as building construction, fitment, outdoor facility construction, transportation, operation, waste treatment, property management, demolition, and disposal for buildings, supported by integrated carbon intensity databases based on multi-scale input-output analysis, essential for low-carbon planning, procurement and supply chain design, and logistics management.

  1. Rainfall Interpolation and Uncertainty Assessment at different Temporal and Spatial Scales (United States)

    Bárdossy, A.; Pegram, G.


    Spatial interpolation of rainfall over different time and spatial scales is necessary in many applications of hydrometeorology including (i) catchment modelling, (ii) blending/conditioning of radar-rainfall images and (iii) correction of remote sensing estimates of rainfall (for example using TRMM) which are known to be biased, to name three. The specific problems encountered in rainfall interpolation include: • the large number of calculations which need to be performed automatically • the quantification of the influence of topography, usually the most influential of exogenous variables • how to use observed zero (dry) values in interpolation, because their proportion increases with shorter time scales • the need to estimate a reasonable uncertainty of the modelled point/pixel distributions • the difficulty of estimating uncertainty of accumulations over a range of spatial scales The approaches used and described in the presentation employ the variables rainfall and altitude. The methods of interpolation, restricted to 10 controls neighbouring the target, include (i) Ordinary Kriging of the rainfall without altitude, (ii) External Drift Kriging with altitude as an exogenous variable, and less conventionally, (iii) truncated Gaussian copulas and v-copulas, both omitting and including the altitude of the control stations as well as that of the target. It is found that truncated Gaussian copulas, with the target's and all control the stations' altitudes included as exogenous variables, produce the lowest Mean Square error in cross-validation and, as a bonus, model with the least bias. In contrast, the uncertainty of interpolation is better described by the v-copulas, but the Gaussian copulas have the computational advantage (by three orders of magnitude) which justifies their use in practice. It turns out that the uncertainty estimates of the OK and EDK interpolants are not competitive at any time scale, from daily to annual.

  2. Statistical Bias Correction scheme for climate change impact assessment at a basin scale (United States)

    Nyunt, C. T.


    Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for understanding how the global climate may change in the future. GCM precipitation is characterized by underestimation of heavy precipitation, frequency errors by low intensity with long drizzle rain days and fail to catch the inter-seasonal change compared to the ground data. This study focus on the basin scale climate change impact study and we proposed the method for the multi model (GCMs) selection method together with the statistical bias correction method which cover the major deficiencies of GCM biases for climate change impact study at the basin level. The proposed method had been tested its applicability in the various river basin under different climate such as semiarid region in Tunisia, tropical monsoonal climate in Philippines and temperate humid region in Japan. It performed well enough for the climate change impact study in the basin scale and it can catch the point scale and basin scale climatology precipitation very well during the historical simulation. We found the GCM simulation during baiu season dissipate the baiu activity more earlier than the actual one when compared to the in-situ station data in Japan. For that case, the proposed bias correction performed in each season to reduce the bias of GCM for the impact study. The proposed bias correction method is still tested in different river basin in the world to check it applicability and now under developing as the web interface as the handy and efficient tool for the end users from the different parts of the world.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio R. Zamunér

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anaerobic threshold (AT with a graphic visual method for estimating the intensity of ventilatory and metabolic exertion and to determine the ratings of perceived exertion (RPE on the Borg CR-10 scale during a continuous ramp type exercise test (CT-R. Forty healthy, physically active and sedentary young women (age 23.1 ± 3.52 years were divided into two groups according to their fitness level: active group (AG and sedentary group (SG and were submitted to a CT-R on a cycloergometer with 20 to 25 W/min increments. Shortly before the end of each one-minute period, the subjects were asked to rate dyspnea (RPE-D and leg fatigue (RPE-L on the Borg CR-10 scale. After the AT was determined with the graphic visual method, the score that the volunteers gave on the Borg CR10 scale was verified. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney and Spearman correlation tests with the significance level set at 5%. The mean ratings of RPE-L and RPE-D at the AT level were not significantly different between groups (p > 0.05. Significant correlations were found between VO2, heart rate (HR, power output and RPE for both groups. The muscular and respiratory RPE, according to the Borg CR-10 scale, were correlated with the AT, suggesting that scores close to 5, which correspond to a "strong" perception, may be used as parameters for quantifying aerobic exercise intensity for active and sedentary individuals. The similar perception of exercise intensity, which corresponded to the AT of different individuals, makes it possible to prescribe exercise at an intensity equivalent to the AT by means of the RPE.

  4. Spatial Scaling Assessment of Surface Soil Moisture Estimations Using Remotely Sensed Data for Precision Agriculture (United States)

    Hassan Esfahani, L.; Torres-Rua, A. F.; Jensen, A.; McKee, M.


    Airborne and Landsat remote sensing are promising technologies for measuring the response of agricultural crops to variations in several agricultural inputs and environmental conditions. Of particular significance to precision agriculture is surface soil moisture, a key component of the soil water balance, which addresses water and energy exchanges at the surface/atmosphere interface and affects vegetation health. Its estimation using the spectral reflectance of agricultural fields could be of value to agricultural management decisions. While top soil moisture can be estimated using radiometric information from aircraft or satellites and data mining techniques, comparison of results from two different aerial platforms might be complicated because of the differences in spatial scales (high resolution of approximately 0.15m versus coarser resolutions of 30m). This paper presents a combined modeling and scale-based approach to evaluate the impact of spatial scaling in the estimation of surface soil moisture content derived from remote sensing data. Data from Landsat 7 ETM+, Landsat 8 OLI and AggieAirTM aerial imagery are utilized. AggieAirTM is an airborne remote sensing platform developed by Utah State University that includes an autonomous Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) which captures radiometric information at visual, near-infrared, and thermal wavebands at spatial resolutions of 0.15 m or smaller for the optical cameras and about 0.6 m or smaller for the thermal infrared camera. Top soil moisture maps for AggieAir and Landsat are developed and statistically compared at different scales to determine the impact in terms of quantitative predictive capability and feasibility of applicability of results in improving in field management.

  5. On-line transient stability assessment of large-scale power systems by using ball vector machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, M., E-mail: [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gharehpetian, G.B., E-mail: [Electrical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    In this paper ball vector machine (BVM) has been used for on-line transient stability assessment of large-scale power systems. To classify the system transient security status, a BVM has been trained for all contingencies. The proposed BVM based security assessment algorithm has very small training time and space in comparison with artificial neural networks (ANN), support vector machines (SVM) and other machine learning based algorithms. In addition, the proposed algorithm has less support vectors (SV) and therefore is faster than existing algorithms for on-line applications. One of the main points, to apply a machine learning method is feature selection. In this paper, a new Decision Tree (DT) based feature selection technique has been presented. The proposed BVM based algorithm has been applied to New England 39-bus power system. The simulation results show the effectiveness and the stability of the proposed method for on-line transient stability assessment procedure of large-scale power system. The proposed feature selection algorithm has been compared with different feature selection algorithms. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed feature algorithm.

  6. Let's put this in perspective: using dynamic simulation modelling to assess the impacts of farm-scale land management change on catchment-scale water quality (United States)

    Rivers, Mark; Clarendon, Simon; Coles, Neil


    over entire catchments, for example, only reduced P losses by approximately 20%. Most importantly, changes to land use mosaics within the catchments provided great insight into the relative roles within the catchment P system of the various land uses. While dairying uses large amounts of P, the effects that dairy farm management can have at the catchment scale when these farms represent only a small proportion of the landscape are limited. The most important conclusions from the research are that: • While State and regional environmental management and regulatory agencies continue to set optimistic goals for water quality protection, this research shows that these targets are not achievable within current landscape paradigms even after broadscale BMP implementation, and that either these targets must be re-considered or that significant land use change (rather than simply improved management within current systems) must occur to meet the targets. • Catchment-scale effects of P losses at the farm scale are a complex function of P-use efficiency, landscape position and landscape footprint. Simply targetting those landuses perceived to have high nutrient loss rates does not adequately address the problem. • Catchment P management must be considered in a more inclusive and holistic way, and these assessments should be used to inform future planning policies and development plans if environmental goals as well as community expectations about the productive use of agricultural land are to be met.

  7. A New Method of Assessing the Extent of Topographic Equilibrium at Different Spatial Scales (United States)

    Walcott, R.


    The Earth's surface represents the current resultant state of the interaction between forces working to lower topography and those working to resist this, or to raise topography. A diversity of processes generate these forces and in some cases coupled feedbacks allow a dynamic equilibrium to emerge at certain spatial and temporal scales. Dynamic equilibrium is typically expressed by distinctive geometries (e.g., regular catchment shapes, first order geometry of an orogen, constant thickness of a soil horizon over space). However, the presence of stochastic surface and tectonic processes also means that regular geometries are rarely observed at all scales. Determining the scale and temporal range over which topography can be considered to be in equilibrium can be difficult and expensive, requiring a large range of spatially distributed data, and/or data that spans significant time periods. Here we present a new morphometric method that focuses on the product of erosive competition between catchments, that is the geometry of drainage divide intersections. We use this method to show that stable areas, with minimal tectonic disturbance and homogeneous rock types have distinctive drainage divide geometry (e.g. Eastern USA) which differs from the geometry of drainage divide intersections in other environments (e.g. tectonically active regions such as the South Island of New Zealand). With a few caveats, this method could be used to predict areas prone to drainage divide migration and river network reconfiguration.

  8. [A new scale for the assessment of the quality of hospitality services]. (United States)

    Varela Mallou, Jesús; Prat Santaolària, Remei; Voces López, Carmen; Rial Boubeta, Antonio


    In the last 20 years the services sector has experienced a highly significant growth, being currently one of the most important economic sectors in our country. Inside the touristic sector, a strong competence has being experienced among the lodging and restoration establishments. In a scenario characterized by competitiveness, the bet for quality represents a difficult competitive advantage to surpass (García-Buedes, 2001). The objective of this study is to carry out an approach to the evaluation of the perceived quality of the restaurants. As a result of bibliographic revision, and also a first approach of a qualitative nature, we started from a scale of 31 items that included 5 dimensions: access, personal, service, product and installations. The results obtained applying the questionnaire to more than 2400 clients of 180 establishments of Santiago de Compostela and region, by means of structured interviews, confirmed that not all these dimensions had the same importance as predictors of customer satisfaction. Specifically, the product emerges as the most important dimension. Likewise, the elimination of the dimension service and a more exhaustive selection of the items, based on psychometric criteria, has permitted to define a brief scale, consisting of only 15 items, which makes it very attractive as a management tool. The final scale proposed to evaluate the perceived quality in the restaurant sector includes four fundamental and non-independent dimensions. These are, ordered by importance: product, personal, installations and access.

  9. [Validity and reliability of a scale to assess self-efficacy for physical activity in elderly]. (United States)

    Borges, Rossana Arruda; Rech, Cassiano Ricardo; Meurer, Simone Teresinha; Benedetti, Tânia Rosane Bertoldo


    This study aimed to analyze the confirmatory factor validity and reliability of a self-efficacy scale for physical activity in a sample of 118 elderly (78% women) from 60 to 90 years of age. Mplus 6.1 was used to evaluate the confirmatory factor analysis. Reliability was tested by internal consistency and temporal stability. The original scale consisted of five items with dichotomous answers (yes/no), independently for walking and moderate and vigorous physical activity. The analysis excluded the item related to confidence in performing physical activities when on vacation. Two constructs were identified, called "self-efficacy for walking" and "self-efficacy for moderate and vigorous physical activity", with a factor load ≥ 0.50. Internal consistency was adequate both for walking (> 0.70) and moderate and vigorous physical activity (> 0.80), and temporal stability was adequate for all the items. In conclusion, the self-efficacy scale for physical activity showed adequate validity, reliability, and internal consistency for evaluating this construct in elderly Brazilians.

  10. Assessments of Drought Impacts on Vegetation in China with the Optimal Time Scales of the Climatic Drought Index. (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Zhou, Tao; Zhao, Xiang; Huang, Kaicheng; Gao, Shan; Wu, Hao; Luo, Hui


    Drought is expected to increase in frequency and severity due to global warming, and its impacts on vegetation are typically extensively evaluated with climatic drought indices, such as multi-scalar Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). We analyzed the covariation between the SPEIs of various time scales and the anomalies of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), from which the vegetation type-related optimal time scales were retrieved. The results indicated that the optimal time scales of needle-leaved forest, broadleaf forest and shrubland were between 10 and 12 months, which were considerably longer than the grassland, meadow and cultivated vegetation ones (2 to 4 months). When the optimal vegetation type-related time scales were used, the SPEI could better reflect the vegetation's responses to water conditions, with the correlation coefficients between SPEIs and NDVI anomalies increased by 5.88% to 28.4%. We investigated the spatio-temporal characteristics of drought and quantified the different responses of vegetation growth to drought during the growing season (April-October). The results revealed that the frequency of drought has increased in the 21st century with the drying trend occurring in most of China. These results are useful for ecological assessments and adapting management steps to mitigate the impact of drought on vegetation. They are helpful to employ water resources more efficiently and reduce potential damage to human health caused by water shortages.

  11. Development of a Watershed-Scale Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment Model with the Asymptotic Curve Number Regression Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jichul Ryu


    Full Text Available In this study, 52 asymptotic Curve Number (CN regression equations were developed for combinations of representative land covers and hydrologic soil groups. In addition, to overcome the limitations of the original Long-term Hydrologic Impact Assessment (L-THIA model when it is applied to larger watersheds, a watershed-scale L-THIA Asymptotic CN (ACN regression equation model (watershed-scale L-THIA ACN model was developed by integrating the asymptotic CN regressions and various modules for direct runoff/baseflow/channel routing. The watershed-scale L-THIA ACN model was applied to four watersheds in South Korea to evaluate the accuracy of its streamflow prediction. The coefficient of determination (R2 and Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE values for observed versus simulated streamflows over intervals of eight days were greater than 0.6 for all four of the watersheds. The watershed-scale L-THIA ACN model, including the asymptotic CN regression equation method, can simulate long-term streamflow sufficiently well with the ten parameters that have been added for the characterization of streamflow.

  12. Assessments of Drought Impacts on Vegetation in China with the Optimal Time Scales of the Climatic Drought Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Li


    Full Text Available Drought is expected to increase in frequency and severity due to global warming, and its impacts on vegetation are typically extensively evaluated with climatic drought indices, such as multi-scalar Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI. We analyzed the covariation between the SPEIs of various time scales and the anomalies of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, from which the vegetation type-related optimal time scales were retrieved. The results indicated that the optimal time