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Sample records for assessment scale psas

  1. A methodology for assessment seismic risk in PSAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jae, Moo Sung

    2001-01-01

    This paper suggested a new framework for assessing seismic risk in PSAs. The framework used the concepts of requirement and achievement in the reliability physics. The quantified correlation which is a function of the requirement variable (hazard curve) and the achievement variable (fragility curve) results in a quantity, the unconditional frequency of exceeding a damage lelvel. This framework can be applied to any other external safety assessment, such as Fire and Flood Risk in PSAs

  2. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Premarital Sexual Behavior Assessment Scale for Young Women (PSAS-YW): an exploratory mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Azam; Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Moghadam-Banaem, Lida; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Hamdieh, Mostafa; Montazeri, Ali

    2014-06-13

    Premarital sexual behaviors are important issue for women's health. The present study was designed to develop and examine the psychometric properties of a scale in order to identify young women who are at greater risk of premarital sexual behavior. This was an exploratory mixed method investigation. Indeed, the study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, qualitative methods (focus group discussion and individual interview) were applied to generate items and develop the questionnaire. In the second phase, psychometric properties (validity and reliability) of the questionnaire were assessed. In the first phase an item pool containing 53 statements related to premarital sexual behavior was generated. In the second phase item reduction was applied and the final version of the questionnaire containing 26 items was developed. The psychometric properties of this final version were assessed and the results showed that the instrument has a good structure, and reliability. The results from exploratory factory analysis indicated a 5-factor solution for the instrument that jointly accounted for the 57.4% of variance observed. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the instrument was found to be 0.87. This study provided a valid and reliable scale to identify premarital sexual behavior in young women. Assessment of premarital sexual behavior might help to improve women's sexual abstinence.

  3. An assessment of the risk significance of human errors in selected PSAs and operating events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palla, R.L. Jr.; El-Bassioni, A.

    1991-01-01

    Sensitivity studies based on Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs) for a pressurized water reactor and a boiling water reactor are described. In each case human errors modeled in the PSAs were categorized according to such factors as error type, location, timing, and plant personnel involved. Sensitivity studies were then conducted by varying the error rates in each category and evaluating the corresponding change in total core damage frequency and accident sequence frequency. Insights obtained are discussed and reasons for differences in risk sensitivity between plants are explored. A separate investigation into the role of human error in risk-important operating events is also described. This investigation involved the analysis of data from the USNRC Accident Sequence Precursor program to determine the effect of operator-initiated events on accident precursor trends, and to determine whether improved training can be correlated to current trends. The findings of this study are also presented. 5 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab

  4. From PSAs to dependability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desmas, T.; Lagrange, V.

    1996-01-01

    Dependability is all the concepts (Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, and Safety) which are used to characterize the capabilities of a product to operate, to be repaired, and to not cause damage to objects or persons. PSAs (Probabilistic Safety Assessments) are a particular means of assessing the level of safety of hazardous installations. The purpose of this communication is to show that although it is still an emerging concept within EDF projects, the introduction of methods for taking account of dependability in design can be very useful at improving the safety of plants by, for example, establishing the link between operating feedback on one hand, and maintenance and operating policy on the other. Finally, we will extend our thinking on the insertion of dependability (and PSA) into design work to consideration of human factors in these projects. All too often kept apart, the technical and human aspects of design projects do have common characteristics: participation in safety and ease of operational of power plants, need for sufficiently early insertion in order to obtain pertinent result, etc. 8 figs

  5. From PSAs to dependability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desmas, T; Lagrange, V

    1997-12-31

    Dependability is all the concepts (Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, and Safety) which are used to characterize the capabilities of a product to operate, to be repaired, and to not cause damage to objects or persons. PSAs (Probabilistic Safety Assessments) are a particular means of assessing the level of safety of hazardous installations. The purpose of this communication is to show that although it is still an emerging concept within EDF projects, the introduction of methods for taking account of dependability in design can be very useful at improving the safety of plants by, for example, establishing the link between operating feedback on one hand, and maintenance and operating policy on the other. Finally, we will extend our thinking on the insertion of dependability (and PSA) into design work to consideration of human factors in these projects. All too often kept apart, the technical and human aspects of design projects do have common characteristics: participation in safety and ease of operational of power plants, need for sufficiently early insertion in order to obtain pertinent result, etc. 8 figs.

  6. Manual on reliability data collection for research reactor PSAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The IAEA has been actively promoting performance of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) studies for research reactors. From 1986 to 1988 the IAEA undertook a Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) on PSA for research reactors which helped promote use of PSA and foster a broad exchange of information. Although the basic methodological approach in performing a research reactor PSA is understood, some unresolved issues, data availability being among them, still exist. To address the issue on the international level, the IAEA initiated a new CRP on ``Data Acquisition for Research Reactors PSA Studies``. The aim of the CRP is to develop a data collection system and generate research reactor specific reliability data for use in PSAs. The achieve this aim a set of precise definitions should be adopted. A set of definitions developed specifically for research reactors and covering classification of equipment and failure terms, reliability parameters, failure modes and other terms necessary for data collection and processing is presented in this document which is based on discussions during the first meeting of the CRP held in Vienna in October 1989 and during the second meeting held in Beijing, China, in October 1990. Refs and figs.

  7. Manual on reliability data collection for research reactor PSAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The IAEA has been actively promoting performance of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) studies for research reactors. From 1986 to 1988 the IAEA undertook a Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) on PSA for research reactors which helped promote use of PSA and foster a broad exchange of information. Although the basic methodological approach in performing a research reactor PSA is understood, some unresolved issues, data availability being among them, still exist. To address the issue on the international level, the IAEA initiated a new CRP on ''Data Acquisition for Research Reactors PSA Studies''. The aim of the CRP is to develop a data collection system and generate research reactor specific reliability data for use in PSAs. The achieve this aim a set of precise definitions should be adopted. A set of definitions developed specifically for research reactors and covering classification of equipment and failure terms, reliability parameters, failure modes and other terms necessary for data collection and processing is presented in this document which is based on discussions during the first meeting of the CRP held in Vienna in October 1989 and during the second meeting held in Beijing, China, in October 1990. Refs and figs

  8. Reliability and Validity of the Turkish Version of Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale in Patients with Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Kabuk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluation reliability and validity of the Turkish version of Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS in patients with burns. Methods: This is a methodologically study. Data were collected using POSAS, survey form and plexiglas. Patient Scar Assessment Scale (PSAS was completed by patients (n=53 and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (OSAS was completed by two observers separately. The test-retest was measured applying the scales in 25 patients after two weeks. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test. Content validity was determined using Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin, Barlett’s test and structure validity was performed by explanatory factor analysis (EFA and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA; reliability was evaluated using internal consistency, Cronbach’s alpha and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. Results: Factor weights were in appropriate range according to EFA, 6 items single factor structure of the original scale was valid and had high consistency index according to CFA, ICC between the 7th item and the total points was proportional, inner consistency was highly reliable (PSAS a=0.992, OSAS a=0.993, consistency between the observers was high (a=0.952, r=0.909. It was determined OSAS scores increased as the burn degree increased (p<0.05. Conclusion: POSAS was determined to be a valid and reliable scale in patients with burns in the Turkish society.

  9. Parallelization of the Physical-Space Statistical Analysis System (PSAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, J. W.; Guo, J.; Lyster, P. M.

    1999-01-01

    Atmospheric data assimilation is a method of combining observations with model forecasts to produce a more accurate description of the atmosphere than the observations or forecast alone can provide. Data assimilation plays an increasingly important role in the study of climate and atmospheric chemistry. The NASA Data Assimilation Office (DAO) has developed the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS) to create assimilated datasets. The core computational components of the GEOS DAS include the GEOS General Circulation Model (GCM) and the Physical-space Statistical Analysis System (PSAS). The need for timely validation of scientific enhancements to the data assimilation system poses computational demands that are best met by distributed parallel software. PSAS is implemented in Fortran 90 using object-based design principles. The analysis portions of the code solve two equations. The first of these is the "innovation" equation, which is solved on the unstructured observation grid using a preconditioned conjugate gradient (CG) method. The "analysis" equation is a transformation from the observation grid back to a structured grid, and is solved by a direct matrix-vector multiplication. Use of a factored-operator formulation reduces the computational complexity of both the CG solver and the matrix-vector multiplication, rendering the matrix-vector multiplications as a successive product of operators on a vector. Sparsity is introduced to these operators by partitioning the observations using an icosahedral decomposition scheme. PSAS builds a large (approx. 128MB) run-time database of parameters used in the calculation of these operators. Implementing a message passing parallel computing paradigm into an existing yet developing computational system as complex as PSAS is nontrivial. One of the technical challenges is balancing the requirements for computational reproducibility with the need for high performance. The problem of computational

  10. Children's Perceptions of TV Commercials and Products: The Effects of PSAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Peter Gilbert

    1982-01-01

    Investigated whether public service announcements (PSAs) on the nature of television advertising affect (1) children's awareness of advertising intent; (2) their belief in its truthfulness; and (3) their perception of advertised products. Data indicate that PSAs can influence children's perceptions of advertising's credibility and can affect their…

  11. Lessons learned from international flood PSAS in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myungro; Lee, Beomsu; Kang, Sunkoo

    1998-01-01

    Risk due to internal flooding has been one of the major concerns for the design and operation of nuclear power plants. To reduce the risk from internal flooding, two design approaches for flood protection systems, active and passive, can be considered. The approaches to flood protection design are different for each plant design, and they are highly dependent on the plant type. The flood PSA revealed that the potential plant risk due to a flooding event is highly dependent on the flood design. The major design characteristics are 1) the location of systems that utilize sea water and their impact to other safety related systems, and 2) the existence of emergency overflow paths and an emergency sump which can transfer and accommodate flood water to prevent a significant flooding event. To identify and compare the effectiveness and potential vulnerability of various Korean nuclear power plants' flood designs, the flood PSAs have been performed for three plant designs, such as existing Korean PWR plants, CANDU type PHWR plants, and Korean Standard Nuclear Plants. Based on the evaluation, several design changes were recommended. (author)

  12. What's so appealing? An examination of emotional appeals and viewer engagement in safe-sex PSAs and condom advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Elise M

    2018-01-01

    Whereas advertisements strive to increase revenue, PSAs work to educate and inform. Even though both share the similar goal of persuasion, advertising tends to lead to more effective sales, unlike PSAs, which can have little effect on audience behaviors. Using a systematic, quantitative content analysis, this study examines emotional appeals and viewer engagement in safe-sex PSAs and condom advertisements in online videos (N = 132). PSAs with humor appeals received more viewer attention in terms of views, comments, and ratings than humorous advertisements. Recommendations for designing public health campaigns are discussed in terms of specific appeals for garnering audience attention.

  13. Suicide Prevention Public Service Announcements (PSAs): Examples from Around the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ftanou, Maria; Cox, Georgina; Nicholas, Angela; Spittal, Matthew J; Machlin, Anna; Robinson, Jo; Pirkis, Jane

    2017-04-01

    Media campaigns have received increased attention as an intervention for combating suicide. Suicide prevention campaigns involving public service announcements (PSAs) have not been well described and have been subject to minimal evaluation. This study aimed to identify suicide prevention PSAs from around the world and analyze and describe their content. We searched the Internet for short, English-language PSAs that had been screened as part of suicide prevention campaigns and identified 35. Most commonly, these PSAs focused on the general population and/or people who might be at risk of suicide, and had a particular emphasis on young people. Almost 60% promoted open discussion about suicide, around 50% indicated that the life of a suicidal person was important, about 40% acknowledged the suffering associated with suicidal thoughts and feelings, about 25% stressed that suicide is preventable, and about 20% focused on the devastating impact of suicide for those left behind. Most PSAs promoted some sort of support for people at risk of suicide, usually a helpline or website. Although these messages appeared appropriate and practical there is a lack of research on the impact that they may have on people with varying degrees of suicide risk. Further work is needed to ensure that they are consistent with theories of behavior change, and that they are having their desired impacts.

  14. Visual Attention to Antismoking PSAs: Smoking Cues versus Other Attention-Grabbing Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders-Jackson, Ashley N.; Cappella, Joseph N.; Linebarger, Deborah L.; Piotrowski, Jessica Taylor; O'Keeffe, Moira; Strasser, Andrew A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how addicted smokers attend visually to smoking-related public service announcements (PSAs) in adults smokers. Smokers' onscreen visual fixation is an indicator of cognitive resources allocated to visual attention. Characteristic of individuals with addictive tendencies, smokers are expected to be appetitively activated by…

  15. Audience Recall of AIDS PSAs among U.S. and International College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Sook; Davie, William R.

    1997-01-01

    Shows that audience recall of AIDS public service announcements (PSAs) is related to message appeal types, cultural identity, and gender. Finds that strong emotional appeals are better remembered than rational ones; U.S. viewers recalled more than international participants; and college women recalled more than college men in general, and…

  16. Priming effect of antismoking PSAs on smoking behaviour: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer L; Pierce, Melissa; Bargh, John A

    2014-07-01

    Social marketing is commonly proposed to counteract advertising and other messages that promote unhealthy products. However, public service campaigns can also 'boomerang' or ironically increase the unhealthy behaviours they are designed to discourage. The present study examined whether antismoking public service announcements (PSAs) could increase smoking behaviour immediately following exposure. In an experimental study, 56 smokers were randomly assigned to watch a short television segment with a commercial break that included either (1) a Philip Morris 'QuitAssist' PSA; (2) a Legacy 'truth' antismoking PSA; or (3) a control PSA. Smoking behaviour was assessed during a short break immediately following television viewing. Participants who saw the Philip Morris antismoking PSA were significantly more likely to smoke during a break (42%) compared with participants in the control condition (11%), and participants in the 'truth' condition were marginally more likely to smoke (33%). These differences could not be explained by factors such as mood or level of addiction, and effects occurred outside of participants' conscious awareness. These findings provide preliminary evidence that antismoking campaigns could ironically increase immediate smoking behaviours among smokers. The long-term benefits of proven public health campaigns, including 'truth,' are likely to outweigh any short-term boomerang effects. However, industry-sponsored messages in which companies have an economic incentive to increase consumption behaviours should be treated with scepticism and evaluated independently. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Lessons learnt form PSAS for new and advanced reactors in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, V.; Tokmachev, G.

    2012-01-01

    'best estimate' approach recommended by regulatory guides. Fourthly, the PSA development for advanced NPPs has raised some issues originated from unknown new components, processes and technologies incorporated into the design of an advanced plant. This is a challenge to PSA developers. The paper addresses some issues resolved while carrying out PSAs for advanced NPPs. They include the reliability estimation for new components, long-term mission time modeling, assessment of defense against common cause failures, software reliability treatment, etc. Finally, some PSA results for new advanced VVER plants under construction and the first lessons learnt from the Fukushima accident are discussed. (authors)

  18. Scaling up: Assessing social impacts at the macro-scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirmer, Jacki

    2011-01-01

    Social impacts occur at various scales, from the micro-scale of the individual to the macro-scale of the community. Identifying the macro-scale social changes that results from an impacting event is a common goal of social impact assessment (SIA), but is challenging as multiple factors simultaneously influence social trends at any given time, and there are usually only a small number of cases available for examination. While some methods have been proposed for establishing the contribution of an impacting event to macro-scale social change, they remain relatively untested. This paper critically reviews methods recommended to assess macro-scale social impacts, and proposes and demonstrates a new approach. The 'scaling up' method involves developing a chain of logic linking change at the individual/site scale to the community scale. It enables a more problematised assessment of the likely contribution of an impacting event to macro-scale social change than previous approaches. The use of this approach in a recent study of change in dairy farming in south east Australia is described.

  19. Evaluation of a constipation risk assessment scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zernike, W; Henderson, A

    1999-06-01

    This project was undertaken in order to evaluate the utility of a constipation risk assessment scale and the accompanying bowel management protocol. The risk assessment scale was primarily introduced to teach and guide staff in managing constipation when caring for patients. The intention of the project was to reduce the incidence of constipation in patients during their admission to hospital.

  20. Synthesis of the initial survey related to PSAs End-Users needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guigueno, Yves; Duflot, Nicolas; Durin, Thomas; Pihl, Joel; Benzoni, Stephane; Brac, Pascal; Gallois, Marie; Vasseur, Dominique; Loeffler, Horst; Nitoi, Mirela; Volkanovski, Andrija; Sevbo, Oleksandr; Ivanov, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The ASAMPSA-E project aims at identifying good practices for the development of extended PSAs that include low-probability internal and external hazards which can lead to extreme consequences, and at discussing the application of extended PSAs for NPP safety enhancement decision making in the European context. A first questionnaire related to End-Users needs (ASAMPSA-E/WP10/D10.112013-4) has been disseminated at international level to PSA End-Users in November 2013 in order to identify the needs for guidance for the performance and application of extended PSA. This document presents the analysis of the responses to the survey. A draft version has been used to present the responses to the survey and discuss End-Users' needs during an international workshop organized on 26, 27 and 28 May 2014 in Uppsala (Sweden). The final version of this document has been prepared by incorporating the comments received from the project partners and the outcomes of the discussions at the Uppsala workshop. (authors)

  1. Validated assessment scales for the lower face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narins, Rhoda S; Carruthers, Jean; Flynn, Timothy C; Geister, Thorin L; Görtelmeyer, Roman; Hardas, Bhushan; Himmrich, Silvia; Jones, Derek; Kerscher, Martina; de Maio, Maurício; Mohrmann, Cornelia; Pooth, Rainer; Rzany, Berthold; Sattler, Gerhard; Buchner, Larry; Benter, Ursula; Breitscheidel, Lusine; Carruthers, Alastair

    2012-02-01

    Aging in the lower face leads to lines, wrinkles, depression of the corners of the mouth, and changes in lip volume and lip shape, with increased sagging of the skin of the jawline. Refined, easy-to-use, validated, objective standards assessing the severity of these changes are required in clinical research and practice. To establish the reliability of eight lower face scales assessing nasolabial folds, marionette lines, upper and lower lip fullness, lip wrinkles (at rest and dynamic), the oral commissure and jawline, aesthetic areas, and the lower face unit. Four 5-point rating scales were developed to objectively assess upper and lower lip wrinkles, oral commissures, and the jawline. Twelve experts rated identical lower face photographs of 50 subjects in two separate rating cycles using eight 5-point scales. Inter- and intrarater reliability of responses was assessed. Interrater reliability was substantial or almost perfect for all lower face scales, aesthetic areas, and the lower face unit. Intrarater reliability was high for all scales, areas and the lower face unit. Our rating scales are reliable tools for valid and reproducible assessment of the aging process in lower face areas. © 2012 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Clinical Music Study Quality Assessment Scale (MUSIQUAS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaschke, A.C.; Eggermont, L.H.P.; Scherder, E.J.A.; Shippton, M.; Hiomonides, I.

    2013-01-01

    AIMS Quality assessment of studies is essential for the understanding and application of these in systematic reviews and meta analyses, the two “gold standards” of medical sciences. Publications in scientific journals have extensively used assessment scales to address poor methodological quality,

  3. Examining the Usefulness of Student-Produced PSAs to Learn Advocacy in a Human Behavior and the Social Environment Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yee Han; Quinn, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Advocacy is a complex set of applications that applies knowledge of human behavior in the social environment to promote the rights of others. The purpose of this study was to explore the usefulness of student-created public service announcements (PSAs) to help BSW students learn cause-based advocacy. Our results suggest that assigning a PSA…

  4. Alcohol-control public service announcements (PSAs) and drunk-driving fatal accidents in the United States, 1996-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Avery, Rosemary; Miller, Emily N

    2017-06-01

    Widespread concern regarding the detrimental effects of excessive alcohol consumption (especially by minors) and associated social problems (particularly drunk driving) continues to exist among policymakers, law enforcement officers, and the general public. Alcohol consumption is a leading contributor to death from injuries, which itself is one of the main causes of death for people under 21years of age in the United States. This study examines the relationship between the volume and timing of alcohol-control public service announcements (PSAs) and rates of drunk-driving fatal accidents in the U.S. We estimate ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models to predict rates of drunk-driving fatal accidents by state and month as a function of the volume of alcohol-control PSAs aired during the previous 8months. Models include controls for state anti-drunk-driving laws and regulations, state demographic characteristics, state taxes on alcohol, calendar year, and seasonality. Results indicate that higher volumes of anti-drunk driving PSAs airing in the preceding 2 to 3months are associated, albeit modest in magnitude, with reduced rates of drunk-driving fatal accidents. The regression coefficients are largest for adults (relative to underage drunk drivers) and when the PSAs air during prime time (relative to daytime or nighttime). We conclude that PSAs could play an important contributing role in reducing drunk-driving fatal accidents, although levels of exposure and potential effects likely remain modest due to reliance on donated air time. Well-funded anti-drunk driving campaigns could achieve higher levels of exposure and have a larger impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mokken scaling of the Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale (MIDAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David R; Watson, Roger

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the hierarchical and cumulative nature of the 35 items of the Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale (MIDAS), a disease-specific health-related quality of life measure. Data from 668 participants who completed the MIDAS were analysed using the Mokken Scaling Procedure, which is a computer program that searches polychotomous data for hierarchical and cumulative scales on the basis of a range of diagnostic criteria. Fourteen MIDAS items were retained in a Mokken scale and these items included physical activity, insecurity, emotional reaction and dependency items but excluded items related to diet, medication or side-effects. Item difficulty, in item response theory terms, ran from physical activity items (low difficulty) to insecurity, suggesting that the most severe quality of life effect of myocardial infarction is loneliness and isolation. Items from the MIDAS form a strong and reliable Mokken scale, which provides new insight into the relationship between items in the MIDAS and the measurement of quality of life after myocardial infarction. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Cumulative effects assessment: Does scale matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therivel, Riki; Ross, Bill

    2007-01-01

    Cumulative effects assessment (CEA) is (or should be) an integral part of environmental assessment at both the project and the more strategic level. CEA helps to link the different scales of environmental assessment in that it focuses on how a given receptor is affected by the totality of plans, projects and activities, rather than on the effects of a particular plan or project. This article reviews how CEAs consider, and could consider, scale issues: spatial extent, level of detail, and temporal issues. It is based on an analysis of Canadian project-level CEAs and UK strategic-level CEAs. Based on a review of literature and, especially, case studies with which the authors are familiar, it concludes that scale issues are poorly considered at both levels, with particular problems being unclear or non-existing cumulative effects scoping methodologies; poor consideration of past or likely future human activities beyond the plan or project in question; attempts to apportion 'blame' for cumulative effects; and, at the plan level, limited management of cumulative effects caused particularly by the absence of consent regimes. Scale issues are important in most of these problems. However both strategic-level and project-level CEA have much potential for managing cumulative effects through better siting and phasing of development, demand reduction and other behavioural changes, and particularly through setting development consent rules for projects. The lack of strategic resource-based thresholds constrains the robust management of strategic-level cumulative effects

  7. Symptom rating scale for assessing hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, I; Trzepacz, P T; Roberts, M; Levey, G S

    1988-02-01

    A hyperthyroid symptom scale (HSS) was designed and administered to ten subjects with untreated Graves' disease. All subjects had clinical and chemical evidence of hyperthyroidism and reproducible HSS scores of 20 or more points. During sequential treatments with propranolol hydrochloride (phase 2) followed by propylthiouracil (phase 3) there was a significant decline in the HSS scores at each phase. Accompanying the decrease in HSS scores was a decrease in heart rate, but there was no change in thyroid function test results at phase 2 and a decrease in heart rate, thyroid function test results, and goiter size at phase 3. This new scale includes ten categories of symptoms, it is sensitive to changes in both the adrenergic and metabolic components of hyperthyroidism, and it is useful in the clinical assessment and management of patients with thyrotoxicosis.

  8. The Chinese version of the Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale (MIDAS: Mokken scaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Roger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hierarchical scales are very useful in clinical practice due to their ability to discriminate precisely between individuals, and the original English version of the Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale has been shown to contain a hierarchy of items. The purpose of this study was to analyse a Mandarin Chinese translation of the Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale for a hierarchy of items according to the criteria of Mokken scaling. Data from 180 Chinese participants who completed the Chinese translation of the Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale were analysed using the Mokken Scaling Procedure and the 'R' statistical programme using the diagnostics available in these programmes. Correlation between Mandarin Chinese items and a Chinese translation of the Short Form (36 Health Survey was also analysed. Findings Fifteen items from the Mandarin Chinese Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale were retained in a strong and reliable Mokken scale; invariant item ordering was not evident and the Mokken scaled items of the Chinese Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale correlated with the Short Form (36 Health Survey. Conclusions Items from the Mandarin Chinese Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale form a Mokken scale and this offers further insight into how the items of the Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale relate to the measurement of health-related quality of life people with a myocardial infarction.

  9. Linking Large-Scale Reading Assessments: Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanushek, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    E. A. Hanushek points out in this commentary that applied researchers in education have only recently begun to appreciate the value of international assessments, even though there are now 50 years of experience with these. Until recently, these assessments have been stand-alone surveys that have not been linked, and analysis has largely focused on…

  10. Clinical and psychometric validation of the psychotic depression assessment scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren D; Pedersen, Christina H; Uggerby, Peter

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have indicated that the 11-item Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS), consisting of the 6-item melancholia subscale (HAM-D6) of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and 5 psychosis items from the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), is a valid measure for the ...

  11. Subjective assessment of impairment in scale-space-coded images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, de H.; Majoor, G.M.M.

    1988-01-01

    Direct category scaling and a scaling procedure in accordance with Functional Measurement Theory (Anderson, 1982) have been used to assess impairment in scale-space-coded illlages, displayed on a black-and-white TV monitor. The image of a complex scene was passed through a Gaussian filter of limited

  12. Assessing carbon flow at the local scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEvoy, D.; Gibbs, D.C.; Longhurst, J.W.S. [University of Hull, Hull (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geography

    1997-12-31

    Greater Manchester, an urban conurbation in the UK, was the birth place of the industrial revolution. Recent restructing and the potential for increases in economic growth place a requirement on the city to consider its future energy strategies if it is to keep its CO{sub 2} emissions to responsible levels. Reducing the carbon intensity of economies is an essential element of combating the threat of global warming, and although the problem is global in nature, effective remedial action has to be instigated at a variety of spatial scales. Inventories that are based at the city level allow the intensity and distribution of local carbon flows to be calculated and therefore have considerable potential in many planning and decision making processes. The CO{sub 2} inventory constructed for this paper is the first stage of prioritising carbon reduction strategies for Greater Manchester, providing an indication of carbon flows specific to the region. The inventory has been developed from the knowledge and experience of other city-scale energy studies which have taken place to date, and although the methodology has been developed for application to the Greater Manchester region the approach can be replicated for other urban areas. Sources of emission included: coal-fired power plants; gas; other solid fuel consumption; and petroleum use by automobiles; and others. The quantity of CO{sub 2} emitted by each was analysed, with a view to increasing efficiency. 27 refs., 1 fig., 17 tabs.

  13. An empirical assessment of the SERVQUAL scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahla Zargar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, many people have used point of sales for purchasing goods and services. Point of sales tends to provide a reliable method for making purchases in stores. Implementation of point of sales may reduce depreciation cost of automated telling machines and helps banks increase their productivities. Therefore, for bank managers, it is important to provide high quality services. This paper presents an empirical investigation to measure quality service using SERVQUAL scale. The study first extracts six factors including Trust, Responsiveness, Reliability, Empathy, Tangibles and getting insight for future development through the implementation of structural equation modeling. Next, it has implemented structural equation modeling and realizes that all components had positive impacts on customer satisfaction.

  14. Regional scale ecological risk assessment: using the relative risk model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Landis, Wayne G

    2005-01-01

    ...) in the performance of regional-scale ecological risk assessments. The initial chapters present the methodology and the critical nature of the interaction between risk assessors and decision makers...

  15. Trait Sources of Spirituality Scale: Assessing Trait Spirituality More Inclusively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Charles J.; Davis, Don E.; McElroy, Stacey E.; Brubaker, Kacy; Choe, Elise; Karaga, Sara; Dooley, Matt; O'Bryant, Brittany L.; Van Tongeren, Daryl R.; Hook, Joshua

    2018-01-01

    We develop the Trait Sources of Spirituality Scale (TSSS), which assesses experiences of closeness to the sacred, within and outside a religious tradition. After using factor analysis to finalize the scale, we examine evidence of construct validity, including latent profile analysis that reveals 5 patterns of how spirituality is experienced.

  16. Insights gained from PSAs of French 900MWe and 1300MWe units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brisbois, J.; Lanore, J.-M.; Villemeur, A.; Berger, J.-P.; Guio, J.-M. de

    1991-01-01

    The two probabilistic safety assessments of 900MWe and 1300MWe Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) recently completed in France constitute an important knowledge resource for the assessment of PWR safety. One innovative feature of this research programme, which yielded many valuable lessons, comes from the fact that plant shutdown state and long term post-accident conditions were fully taken into account. (author)

  17. Development and external validation of a new PTA assessment scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobs Bram

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-traumatic amnesia (PTA is a key symptom of traumatic brain injury (TBI. Accurate assessment of PTA is imperative in guiding clinical decision making. Our aim was to develop and externally validate a short, examiner independent and practical PTA scale, by selecting the most discriminative items from existing scales and using a three-word memory test. Methods Mild, moderate and severe TBI patients and control subjects were assessed in two separate cohorts, one for derivation and one for validation, using a questionnaire comprised of items from existing PTA scales. We tested which individual items best discriminated between TBI patients and controls, represented by sensitivity and specificity. We then created our PTA scale based on these results. This new scale was externally evaluated for its discriminative value using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC analysis and compared to existing PTA scales. Results The derivation cohort included 126 TBI patients and 31 control subjects; the validation cohort consisted of 132 patients and 30 controls. A set of seven items was eventually selected to comprise the new PTA scale: age, name of hospital, time, day of week, month, mode of transport and recall of three words. This scale demonstrated adequate discriminative values compared to existing PTA scales on three consecutive administrations in the validation cohort. Conclusion We introduce a valid, practical and examiner independent PTA scale, which is suitable for mild TBI patients at the emergency department and yet still valuable for the follow-up of more severely injured TBI patients.

  18. Ecosystem assessment methods for cumulative effects at the regional scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunsaker, C.T.

    1989-01-01

    Environmental issues such as nonpoint-source pollution, acid rain, reduced biodiversity, land use change, and climate change have widespread ecological impacts and require an integrated assessment approach. Since 1978, the implementing regulations for the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) have required assessment of potential cumulative environmental impacts. Current environmental issues have encouraged ecologists to improve their understanding of ecosystem process and function at several spatial scales. However, management activities usually occur at the local scale, and there is little consideration of the potential impacts to the environmental quality of a region. This paper proposes that regional ecological risk assessment provides a useful approach for assisting scientists in accomplishing the task of assessing cumulative impacts. Critical issues such as spatial heterogeneity, boundary definition, and data aggregation are discussed. Examples from an assessment of acidic deposition effects on fish in Adirondack lakes illustrate the importance of integrated data bases, associated modeling efforts, and boundary definition at the regional scale

  19. Assessment of Commonly Used Pediatric Stool Scales: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Saps, M.; Nichols-Vinueza, D.; Dhroove, G.; Adams, P.; Chogle, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSFS) and a modified child-friendly version (M-BSFS) are frequently used in clinical practice and research. These scales have not been validated in children. 3-D stool scale models may be better adapted to the child's development. Aims: To assess the usefulness of the BSFS, M-BSFS, and a newly developed 3-D stool scale in children. Methods: Fifty children were asked to rank the picture cards of the BSFS and 3-D models from hardest to softest and...

  20. Do pressure ulcer risk assessment scales improve clinical practice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kottner

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Jan Kottner1, Katrin Balzer21Department of Nursing Science, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany; 2Nursing Research Group, Institute for Social Medicine, Universitätsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Lübeck, GermanyAbstract: Standardized assessment instruments are deemed important for estimating pressure ulcer risk. Today, more than 40 so-called pressure ulcer risk assessment scales are available but still there is an ongoing debate about their usefulness. From a measurement point of view pressure ulcer (PU risk assessment scales have serious limitations. Empirical evidence supporting the validity of PU risk assessment scale scores is weak and obtained scores contain varying amounts of measurement error. The concept of pressure ulcer risk is strongly related to the general health status and severity of illness. A clinical impact due do the application of these scales could also not be demonstrated. It is questionable whether completion of standardized pressure ulcer risk scales in clinical practice is really needed.Keywords: Braden pressure ulcer, prevention, risk assessment, nursing assessment, predictive value, clinical effectiveness, review

  1. [Development of the Heterosexual Love Assessment Scale for Alcoholics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawarai, Tazuko; Morita, Noriaki; Nakatani, Youji

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a scale for assessing the attributes of the heterosexual love of alcoholics. Using the characteristics and categories related to the heterosexual love of alcoholics found in previous research, we created a "Heterosexual Love Assessment Scale for Alcoholics" and conducted a survey among 110 alcoholics (80 men and 30 women). The following three factors were extracted from the results: "mutual respect", "superficial intimacy", and "fear of being disliked", A high level of reliability was obtained on the scales indicated below (alpha = 63-82), and concurrent validity was confirmed between these and the Adult Attachment Scale (ECR: Experiences in Close Relationships inventory). Further, correlations were found between "mutual respect" and the benefit of heterosexual love in recovery, and between the other two factors and the impediment of heterosexual love, and between the Denial & Awareness Scale (for alcoholic). As this scale can be used to assess the type of heterosexual love of alcoholics, we predict that it will be useful in examining the effects of heterosexual love on recovery and as a tool for offering advice.

  2. Assessing the Psychometric Properties of Two Food Addiction Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemeshow, Adina; Gearhardt, Ashley; Genkinger, Jeanine; Corbin, William R.

    2016-01-01

    Background While food addiction is well accepted in popular culture and mainstream media, its scientific validity as an addictive behavior is still under investigation. This study evaluated the reliability and validity of the Yale Food Addiction Scale and Modified Yale Food Addiction Scale using data from two community-based convenience samples. Methods We assessed the internal and test-retest reliability of the Yale Food Addiction Scale and Modified Yale Food Addiction Scale, and estimated the sensitivity and negative predictive value of the Modified Yale Food Addiction Scale using the Yale Food Addiction Scale as the benchmark. We calculated Cronbach’s alphas and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for internal reliability and Cohen’s Kappa coefficients and 95% CIs for test-retest reliability. Results Internal consistency (n=232) was marginal to good, ranging from α=0.63 to 0.84. The test-retest reliability (n=45) for food addiction diagnosis was substantial, with Kappa=0.73 (95% CI, 0.48–0.88) (Yale Food Addiction Scale) and 0.79 (95% CI, 0.66–1.00) (Modified Yale Food Addiction Scale). Sensitivity and negative predictive value for classifying food addiction status were excellent: compared to the Yale Food Addiction Scale, the Modified Yale Food Addiction Scale’s sensitivity was 92.3% (95% CI, 64%–99.8%), and the negative predictive value was 99.5% (95% CI, 97.5%–100%). Conclusions Our analyses suggest that the Modified Yale Food Addiction Scale may be an appropriate substitute for the Yale Food Addiction Scale when a brief measure is needed, and support the continued use of both scales to investigate food addiction. PMID:27623221

  3. Basin-Scale Opportunity Assessment Initiative Background Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saulsbury, Bo [ORNL; Geerlofs, Simon H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Cada, Glenn F [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL

    2010-10-01

    As called for in the March 24, 2010, Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for Hydropower, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), environmental stakeholders, and the hydropower industry are collaborating to identify opportunities to simultaneously increase electricity generation and improve environmental services in river basins of the United States. New analytical tools provide an improved ability to understand, model, and visualize environmental and hydropower systems. Efficiencies and opportunities that might not be apparent in site-by-site analyses can be revealed through assessments at the river-basin scale. Information from basin-scale assessments could lead to better coordination of existing hydropower projects, or to inform siting decisions (e.g., balancing the removal of some dams with the construction of others), in order to meet renewable energy production and environmental goals. Basin-scale opportunity assessments would inform energy and environmental planning and address the cumulative effects of hydropower development and operations on river basin environmental quality in a way that quantifies energy-environment tradeoffs. Opportunity assessments would create information products, develop scenarios, and identify specific actions that agencies, developers, and stakeholders can take to locate new sustainable hydropower projects, increase the efficiency and environmental performance of existing projects, and restore and protect environmental quality in our nation's river basins. Government agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGO) have done significant work to understand and assess opportunities for both hydropower and environmental protection at the basin scale. Some initiatives have been successful, others less so, and there is a need to better understand the legacy of work on which this current project can build. This background literature review is intended

  4. From Lesseps 1300 to the application of computerized PSAs to operational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancelin, C.; Dubreuil Chambardel, A.

    1991-06-01

    The LESSEPS project was conducted in the framework of the Probabilistic Safety Assessment of the PALUEL power plant (PSA 1300), from 1986 to 1989. It has led to the creation of LESSEPS 1300, a fully computerized knowledge base on the PALUEL power plant, including methods, reliability models and programs. From the experience gained, we can draw two main conclusions: -this computerized and detailed knowledge base on a nuclear plant is a powerful tool to perform sensitivity studies, when functional assumptions or reliability data are changed. -to be used correctly, either by people who didn't participate in its creation or for purposes for which it was not initially developed such an important knowledge base should have two essential characteristics: a great user-friendliness of the tools, and a great transparency, as regards the assumptions. Therefore, part of the 'post-PSA 1300 study program' is devoted to: (1) the development of a workstation for reliability engineers, (2) an important methodological work to determine the validity range of the different methods used. (3) a validation program of these tools and of the methodological approach in the framework of practical studies

  5. Development of a Scale To Assess Emotional Disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Michael H.; Cullinan, Douglas; Ryser, Gail; Pearson, Nils

    2002-01-01

    This study reports on the standardization of the Scale for Assessing Emotional Disturbance. Data collected on 2,266 typical students (ages 5- 18) and 1,371 students with emotional disturbances led to the identification of six behavioral problem factors that correspond to the federal definition of emotional disturbance and were highly internally…

  6. A generic scale for assessment of attitudes towards social robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damholdt, Malene Flensborg; Olesen, Martin Hammershøj; Nørskov, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The research field into social robotics is expanding and with it the need for consistent methods for assessing attitudinal stance towards social robots. In this paper we describe the development and planned validation of the Attitudes towards social robots scale (ASOR-5): a generic questionnaire ...

  7. Development and external validation of a new PTA assessment scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, B.; van Ekert, J.; Vernooy, L.P.; Dieperink, P.; Andriessen, T.M.J.C.; Hendriks, M.P.; van Vugt, A.B.; Emons, M.A.; Borm, G.F.; Vos, P.E.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) is a key symptom of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Accurate assessment of PTA is imperative in guiding clinical decision making. Our aim was to develop and externally validate a short, examiner independent and practical PTA scale, by selecting the most

  8. ASSESSMENT OF TORNADOS WITH THE ENHANCED FUJITA SCALE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. NUCUŢĂ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of tornadoes with the Enhanced Fujita Scale in Romania. An analysis of the damage caused by a tornado, in order to determine the maximum wind speed that was reached, is important both in terms of documenting the phenomenon and to make improvements to the evaluation method which is used, especially if this method is not specific for the analyzed territory. An overview of the way the tornado from Silivaşu de Câmpie, on the 26th of May 2010, was termed EF2 is done to summarize the difficulties that arise in the assessment of tornadoes occurring in Romania with the Enhanced Fujita scale. The lack of correlation between damage indicators, different construction styles and building materials between those in the United States and those selected in this case study are the main issues addressed. Solutions for these issues are discussed as a starting point for the adjustment of Enhanced Fujita scale for Romania.

  9. Refining a self-assessment of informatics competency scale using Mokken scaling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sunmoo; Shaffer, Jonathan A; Bakken, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare environments are increasingly implementing health information technology (HIT) and those from various professions must be competent to use HIT in meaningful ways. In addition, HIT has been shown to enable interprofessional approaches to health care. The purpose of this article is to describe the refinement of the Self-Assessment of Nursing Informatics Competencies Scale (SANICS) using analytic techniques based upon item response theory (IRT) and discuss its relevance to interprofessional education and practice. In a sample of 604 nursing students, the 93-item version of SANICS was examined using non-parametric IRT. The iterative modeling procedure included 31 steps comprising: (1) assessing scalability, (2) assessing monotonicity, (3) assessing invariant item ordering, and (4) expert input. SANICS was reduced to an 18-item hierarchical scale with excellent reliability. Fundamental skills for team functioning and shared decision making among team members (e.g. "using monitoring systems appropriately," "describing general systems to support clinical care") had the highest level of difficulty, and "demonstrating basic technology skills" had the lowest difficulty level. Most items reflect informatics competencies relevant to all health professionals. Further, the approaches can be applied to construct a new hierarchical scale or refine an existing scale related to informatics attitudes or competencies for various health professions.

  10. Personality Assessment Inventory scale characteristics and factor structure in the assessment of alcohol dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinka, J A

    1995-02-01

    Individual scale characteristics and the inventory structure of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) were examined by conducting internal consistency and factor analyses of item and scale score data from a large group (N = 301) of alcohol-dependent patients. Alpha coefficients, mean inter-item correlations, and corrected item-total scale correlations for the sample paralleled values reported by Morey for a large clinical sample. Minor differences in the scale factor structure of the inventory from Morey's clinical sample were found. Overall, the findings support the use of the PAI in the assessment of personality and psychopathology of alcohol-dependent patients.

  11. [Diagnostic test scale SI5: Assessment of sacroiliac joint dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo González, Juan C; Quintero Oliveros, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Sacroiliac joint dysfunction is a known cause of low back pain. We think that a diagnostic score scale (SI5) may be performed to assess diagnostic utility of clinical signs of sacroiliac joint dysfunction. The primary aim of the present study was to conduct the pilot study of our new diagnostic score scale, the SI5, for sacroiliac joint syndrome. We reviewed the literature on clinical characteristics, diagnostic tests and imaging most commonly used in diagnosing sacroiliac joint dysfunction. Our group evaluated the diagnostic utility of these aspects and we used those considered most representative to develop the SI5 diagnostic scale. The SI5 scale was applied to 22 patients with low back pain; afterwards, the standard test for diagnosing this pathology (selective blockage of the SI joint) was also performed on these patients. The sensitivity and specificity for each sign were also assessed and the diagnostic scale called SI5 was then proposed, based on these data. The most sensitive clinical tests for diagnosing SI joint dysfunction were 2 patient-reported clinical characteristics, the Laguerre Test, sacroiliac rocking test and Yeomans test (greater than 80% sensitivity). The tests with greatest diagnostic specificity (>80%) were the Lewitt test, Piedallu test and Gillet test. The proposed SI5 test score scale showed sensitivity of 73% and specificity of 71%. Sacroiliac joint syndrome has been shown to produce low back pain frequently; however, the diagnostic value of examination tests for sacroiliac joint pain has been questioned by other authors. The pilot study on the SI5 diagnostic score scale showed good sensitivity and specificity. However, the process of statistical validation of the SI5 needs to be continued. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment scale of risk for surgical positioning injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Camila Mendonça de Moraes; Haas, Vanderlei José; Dantas, Rosana Aparecida Spadoti; Oliveira, Cheila Gonçalves de; Galvão, Cristina Maria

    2016-08-29

    to build and validate a scale to assess the risk of surgical positioning injuries in adult patients. methodological research, conducted in two phases: construction and face and content validation of the scale and field research, involving 115 patients. the Risk Assessment Scale for the Development of Injuries due to Surgical Positioning contains seven items, each of which presents five subitems. The scale score ranges between seven and 35 points in which, the higher the score, the higher the patient's risk. The Content Validity Index of the scale corresponded to 0.88. The application of Student's t-test for equality of means revealed the concurrent criterion validity between the scores on the Braden scale and the constructed scale. To assess the predictive criterion validity, the association was tested between the presence of pain deriving from surgical positioning and the development of pressure ulcer, using the score on the Risk Assessment Scale for the Development of Injuries due to Surgical Positioning (pposicionamiento quirúrgico en pacientes adultos. investigación metodológica, conducida en dos etapas: construcción y validación de faz y de contenido de la escala e investigación de campo, con la participación de 115 pacientes. la Escala de Evaluación de Riesgo para el Desarrollo de Lesiones Debidas al Posicionamiento Quirúrgico contiene siete ítems, siendo que cada uno presenta cinco subítems. La puntuación de esa escala varia de siete a 35 puntos en que, cuanto mayor la puntuación, mayor el riesgo del paciente. El Índice de Validez de Contenido de la escala fue 0,88. Mediante la aplicación de la prueba t de Student, para igualdad de medias, fue constatada validez de criterio concurrente entre los scores de la escala de Braden y de la escala construida. Para evaluar la validez de criterio predictiva, fue testada la asociación de la presencia de dolor debido al posicionamiento quirúrgico y el desarrollo de úlcera por presión con el score de

  13. Twelve tips for assessing surgical performance and use of technical assessment scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandbygaard, Jeanett; Scheele, Fedde; Sørensen, Jette Led

    2017-01-01

    Using validated assessment scales for technical competence can help structure and standardize assessment and feedback for both the trainee and the supervisor and thereby avoid bias and drive learning. Correct assessment of operative skills can establish learning curves and allow adequate monitoring....... However, the assessment of surgical performance is not an easy task, since it includes many proxy parameters, which are hard to measure. Although numerous technical assessment scales exist, both within laparoscopic and open surgery, the validity evidence is often sparse, and this can raise doubts about...... reliability and educational outcome. Furthermore, the implementation of technical assessment scales varies due to several obstacles and doubts about accurate use. In this 12-tips article, we aim to give the readers a critical and useful appraisal of some of the common questions and misunderstandings regarding...

  14. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Procrastination Assessment Scale for Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald D. Yockey

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The relative fit of one- and two-factor models of the Procrastination Assessment Scale for Students (PASS was investigated using confirmatory factor analysis on an ethnically diverse sample of 345 participants. The results indicated that although the two-factor model provided better fit to the data than the one-factor model, neither model provided optimal fit. However, a two-factor model which accounted for common item theme pairs used by Solomon and Rothblum in the creation of the scale provided good fit to the data. In addition, a significant difference by ethnicity was also found on the fear of failure subscale of the PASS, with Whites having significantly lower scores than Asian Americans or Latino/as. Implications of the results are discussed and recommendations made for future work with the scale.

  15. Development of an ecological momentary assessment scale for appetite

    OpenAIRE

    Kikuchi, Hiroe; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Inada, Shuji; Ando, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2015-01-01

    Background An understanding of eating behaviors is an important element of health education and treatment in clinical populations. To understand the biopsychosocial profile of eating behaviors in an ecologically valid way, ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is appropriate because its use is able to overcome the recall bias in patient-reported outcomes (PROs). As appetite is a key PRO associated with eating behaviors, this study was done to develop an EMA scale to evaluate the within-indivi...

  16. NASA: Assessments of Selected Large-Scale Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    REPORT DATE MAR 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Assessments Of Selected Large-Scale Projects...Volatile EvolutioN MEP Mars Exploration Program MIB Mishap Investigation Board MMRTG Multi Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator MMS Magnetospheric...probes designed to explore the Martian surface, to satellites equipped with advanced sensors to study the earth , to telescopes intended to explore the

  17. Evolutionary leap in large-scale flood risk assessment needed

    OpenAIRE

    Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Bates, Paul D.; de Bruijn, Karin; Castellarin, Attilio; Kreibich, Heidi; Priest, Sally J.; Schröter, Kai; Bagli, Stefano; Blöschl, Günter; Domeneghetti, Alessio; Gouldby, Ben; Klijn, Frans; Lammersen, Rita; Neal, Jeffrey C.; Ridder, Nina

    2018-01-01

    Current approaches for assessing large-scale flood risks contravene the fundamental principles of the flood risk system functioning because they largely ignore basic interactions and feedbacks between atmosphere, catchments, river-floodplain systems and socio-economic processes. As a consequence, risk analyses are uncertain and might be biased. However, reliable risk estimates are required for prioritizing national investments in flood risk mitigation or for appraisal and management of insura...

  18. Developing and validating a psychometric scale for image quality assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mraity, H.; England, A.; Hogg, P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Using AP pelvis as a catalyst, this paper explains how a psychometric scale for image quality assessment can be created using Bandura's theory for self-efficacy. Background: Establishing an accurate diagnosis is highly dependent upon the quality of the radiographic image. Image quality, as a construct (i.e. set of attributes that makes up the image quality), continues to play an essential role in the field of diagnostic radiography. The process of assessing image quality can be facilitated by using criteria, such as the European Commission (EC) guidelines for quality criteria as published in 1996. However, with the advent of new technology (Computed Radiography and Digital Radiography), some of the EC criteria may no longer be suitable for assessing the visual quality of a digital radiographic image. Moreover, a lack of validated visual image quality scales in the literature can also lead to significant variations in image quality evaluation. Creating and validating visual image quality scales, using a robust methodology, could reduce variability and improve the validity and reliability of perceptual image quality evaluations

  19. Combining the Suicide Intent Scale and the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale in suicide risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, J; Nordström, P; Runeson, B; Åsberg, M; Jokinen, J

    2015-09-23

    High suicide intent, childhood trauma, and violent behavior are risk factors for suicide in suicide attempters. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the combined assessment of suicide intent and interpersonal violence would provide a better prediction of suicide risk than an assessment of only suicide intent or interpersonal violence. This is a cohort study involving 81 suicide attempters included in the study between 1993 and 1998. Patients were assessed with both the Suicide Intent Scale (SIS) and the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS). Through the unique personal identification number in Sweden, patients were linked to the Cause of Death Register maintained by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. Suicides were ascertained from the death certificates. Seven of 14 patients who had died before April 2013 had committed suicide. The positive predictive value for the Suicide Intent Scale alone was 16.7 %, with a specificity of 52 % and an area under the curve of 0.74. A combined assessment with the KIVS gave higher specificity (63 %) and a positive predictive value of 18.8 % with an AUC of 0.83. Combined use of SIS and KIVS expressed interpersonal violence as an adult subscale gave a sensitivity of 83.3 %, a specificity of 80.3 %, and a positive predictive value of 26 % with an AUC of 0.85. The correlation between KIVS and SIS scores was not significant. Using both the the SIS and the KIVS combined may be better for predicting completed suicide than using them separately. The nonsignificant correlation between the scales indicates that they measure different components of suicide risk.

  20. The Spanish version of the fatique assessment scale : Reliability and validity assessment in postpartum women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cano-Climent, A.; Oliver-Roig, A.; Cabrero-Garcia, J.; de Vries, J.; Richart-Martinez, M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Fatigue is the most widely reported symptom by women during pregnancy, labour, the postpartum period, and early parenting. The objective was to translate the Fatigue Assessment Scale (FAS) into Spanish and assess its psychometric properties. Methods Instrumental Design. The FAS was

  1. Assessing organizational climate: psychometric properties of the CLIOR Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Suárez, Elsa; Muñiz, José; Campillo-Álvarez, Angela; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; García-Cueto, Eduardo

    2013-02-01

    Organizational climate is the set of perceptions shared by workers who occupy the same workplace. The main goal of this study is to develop a new organizational climate scale and to determine its psychometric properties. The sample consisted of 3,163 Health Service workers. A total of 88.7% of participants worked in hospitals, and 11.3% in primary care; 80% were women and 20% men, with a mean age of 51.9 years (SD= 6.28). The proposed scale consists of 50 Likert-type items, with an alpha coefficient of 0.97, and an essentially one-dimensional structure. The discrimination indexes of the items are greater than 0.40, and the items show no differential item functioning in relation to participants' sex. A short version of the scale was developed, made up of 15 items, with discrimination indexes higher than 0.40, an alpha coefficient of 0.94, and its structure was clearly one-dimensional. These results indicate that the new scale has adequate psychometric properties, allowing a reliable and valid assessment of organizational climate.

  2. Assessment of commonly used pediatric stool scales: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saps, M; Nichols-Vinueza, D; Dhroove, G; Adams, P; Chogle, A

    2013-01-01

    The Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSFS) and a modified child-friendly version (M-BSFS) are frequently used in clinical practice and research. These scales have not been validated in children. 3-D stool scale models may be better adapted to the child's development. To assess the usefulness of the BSFS, M-BSFS, and a newly developed 3-D stool scale in children. Fifty children were asked to rank the picture cards of the BSFS and 3-D models from hardest to softest and to match the pictures with descriptors for each stool type. Thirty percent of the children appropriately characterized the stools as hard, loose, or normal using the BSFS vs. 36.6% with the 3-D model (p=0.27). Appropriate correlation of stools as hard, loose, or normal consistency using the BSFS vs. the 3-D model by age group was: 6 to 11-year-olds, 27.5% vs. 33.3% (p=0.58) and 12 to 17-year-olds, 32.1% vs. 39.5% (p=0.41). Thirty-three percent correlated the BSFS pictures with the correct BSFS words, 46% appropriately correlated with the M-BSFS words, and 46% correlated the 3-D stool models with the correct wording. The BSFS and M-BSFS that are widely used as stool assessment instruments are not user-friendly for children. The 3-D model was not found to be better than the BSFS and the M-BSFS. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of an ecological momentary assessment scale for appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Hiroe; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Inada, Shuji; Ando, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2015-01-01

    An understanding of eating behaviors is an important element of health education and treatment in clinical populations. To understand the biopsychosocial profile of eating behaviors in an ecologically valid way, ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is appropriate because its use is able to overcome the recall bias in patient-reported outcomes (PROs). As appetite is a key PRO associated with eating behaviors, this study was done to develop an EMA scale to evaluate the within-individual variation of momentary appetite and uses this scale to discuss the relationships between appetite and various psychological factors. Twenty healthy participants (age 23.6 ± 4.2 years old) wore a watch-type computer for a week. Several times a day, including just before and after meals, they recorded their momentary psychological stress, mood states, and ten items related to appetite. In addition, they recorded everything they ate and drank into a personal digital assistant (PDA)-based food diary. Multilevel factor analysis was used to investigate the factor structure of the scale, and the reliability and validity of the scale were also explored. Multilevel factor analyses found two factors at the within-individual level (hunger/fullness and cravings) and one factor at the between-individual level. Medians for the individually calculated Cronbach's alphas were 0.89 for hunger/fullness, 0.71 for cravings, and 0.86 for total appetite (the sum of all items). Hunger/fullness, cravings, and total appetite all decreased significantly after meals compared with those before meals, and hunger/fullness, cravings, and total appetite before meals were positively associated with energy intake. There were significant negative associations between both hunger/fullness and total appetite and anxiety and depression as well as between cravings, and depression, anxiety and stress. The within-individual reliability of the EMA scale to assess momentary appetite was confirmed in most subjects and it

  4. A Social Development Assessment Scale for Mexican Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Aguiar Sierra

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This work described the design of an instrument able to measure social development for Mexican children and the process of the establishment of its psychometric properties. Theoretical aspects considered for its construction and the process of validating forms for parents and teachers are described in a three stage processes that resulted in a final version of the Social Development Scale that measures, disruptive behavior, social interaction, cooperation, acceptance and attachment as core dimensions associated with the concept of social competence. The importance of assessing social development and competence for education, children rearing and general well being are analyzed and discussed.

  5. Development of an assessment of functioning scale for prison environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Deborah; Wakai, Sara

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the development of a global assessment of functioning (GAF), modified from the DSM Axis V GAF for the prison environment. Focus groups, which were conducted with 36 correctional officers and clinicians in two prisons, provided descriptions of behavior in prison settings to re-align the GAF scale. Face validity was established. It was found that Habitation/Behavior, Social, and Symptoms emerged as important domains of functioning in prison. Gender differences were noted with regard to cleanliness, relationships and coping strategies. The cut-off score was identified at a score where offenders were unable to participate in a disciplinary process due to their mental illness. The structure of prison alters human functioning, requiring different assessment language and ratings to measure perceived behavioral norms and/or expectations. Front-line staff need the ability to observe and communicate behavioral changes quickly and accurately in a prison environment without undue burden upon their workload. This assessment was modified by front-line staff specifically for the prison environment to document quick and frequent assessments of observed changes over time in the offender population.

  6. Common Risk Target for severe accidents of nuclear power plants based on IAEA INES scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitázková, Jiřina; Cazzoli, Errico

    2013-01-01

    The IAEA has repeatedly recommended that the nuclear community should arrive at a common understanding and definition of safety goals for severe accidents in nuclear power plants. The recommendation has only found partial answers, despite the numerous working groups and forums devoted to this effort. The most widely accepted definition of goals is based on the concept of Large (Early) Release Frequencies (L(E)RF) and its derivatives, a surrogate concept derived from results of Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs) which was first introduced in the USA almost twenty years ago and much later accepted by the USNRC for risk informed decision making, but not for safety demonstrations. Other types of Safety Goals have been adopted by some nuclear authorities, but the main drawback of all current definitions is that they may apply only to LWRs. The lack of unifying safety/risk parameter throughout of PSAs worldwide is the basis of the present work, and an attempt is made to arrive at the definition of a Risk Target for severe accidents in NPPs, consistent with the IAEA definitions having a technical basis, which can be adopted without modifications for Generation IV power plants. The proposal of Common Risk Target in this work represents an attempt to define a Common Risk Target based on technical reasoning, reflecting IAEA definitions as well as harmonization requirements raised by the whole European Community in various OECD, ASAMPSA2 and SARNET (Guentay et al., 2006) conclusions and Council Directive of The European Union (Community Framework, 2009) as well as lastly performed stress tests of nuclear power plants throughout the Europe (Peer Review Report, 2012). The basic concept of CRT was first introduced and developed within the European project ASAMPSA2 by the authors of this article and was accepted by majority of world PSA experts participating in final evaluation and survey of the project (Guentay, 2011). In the proposed Risk Target concept an innovative

  7. Common Risk Target for severe accidents of nuclear power plants based on IAEA INES scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitázková, Jiřina, E-mail: jirina@snus.sk [Vitázková-Vitty, Sládkovičova 24, 900 28 Ivanka pri Dunaji (Slovakia); Cazzoli, Errico, E-mail: erik.cazzoli@gmx.net [Cazzoli Consulting, Wiesenweg 14, CH-5415 Nussbaumen (Switzerland)

    2013-09-15

    The IAEA has repeatedly recommended that the nuclear community should arrive at a common understanding and definition of safety goals for severe accidents in nuclear power plants. The recommendation has only found partial answers, despite the numerous working groups and forums devoted to this effort. The most widely accepted definition of goals is based on the concept of Large (Early) Release Frequencies (L(E)RF) and its derivatives, a surrogate concept derived from results of Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs) which was first introduced in the USA almost twenty years ago and much later accepted by the USNRC for risk informed decision making, but not for safety demonstrations. Other types of Safety Goals have been adopted by some nuclear authorities, but the main drawback of all current definitions is that they may apply only to LWRs. The lack of unifying safety/risk parameter throughout of PSAs worldwide is the basis of the present work, and an attempt is made to arrive at the definition of a Risk Target for severe accidents in NPPs, consistent with the IAEA definitions having a technical basis, which can be adopted without modifications for Generation IV power plants. The proposal of Common Risk Target in this work represents an attempt to define a Common Risk Target based on technical reasoning, reflecting IAEA definitions as well as harmonization requirements raised by the whole European Community in various OECD, ASAMPSA2 and SARNET (Guentay et al., 2006) conclusions and Council Directive of The European Union (Community Framework, 2009) as well as lastly performed stress tests of nuclear power plants throughout the Europe (Peer Review Report, 2012). The basic concept of CRT was first introduced and developed within the European project ASAMPSA2 by the authors of this article and was accepted by majority of world PSA experts participating in final evaluation and survey of the project (Guentay, 2011). In the proposed Risk Target concept an innovative

  8. Pain Assessment Scale for Patients With Disorders of Consciousness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Ingrid; Brix, Pia; Andersen, Sylvia

    2016-01-01

    and after repositioning in bed and before and after administration of analgesics. We used Cohen's kappa test for interrater reliability. Sensitivity to change was tested by Wilcoxon signed rank test. RESULTS: Cohen's kappa for the presence or absence of each item was above 0.8 for 13 items, between 0...... of four domains: physiological/autonomic, body language, verbal communication, and behavior. The domains consist of 27 items. Interrater reliability was tested through three experienced nurses who rated 26 patients with acquired brain injury. The patients were rated in two different situations: before.......6 and 0.8 for eight items, and less than 0.6 for only three items. The sensitivity test showed a significant change from before to after repositioning (p = .004). CONCLUSION: It appeared that many of the pain assessment scale items held potential for inclusion in a new, more comprehensively developed...

  9. A Watershed Scale Life Cycle Assessment Framework for Hydrologic Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakol-Davani, H.; Tavakol-Davani, PhD, H.; Burian, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    Sustainable hydrologic design has received attention from researchers with different backgrounds, including hydrologists and sustainability experts, recently. On one hand, hydrologists have been analyzing ways to achieve hydrologic goals through implementation of recent environmentally-friendly approaches, e.g. Green Infrastructure (GI) - without quantifying the life cycle environmental impacts of the infrastructure through the ISO Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method. On the other hand, sustainability experts have been applying the LCA to study the life cycle impacts of water infrastructure - without considering the important hydrologic aspects through hydrologic and hydraulic (H&H) analysis. In fact, defining proper system elements for a watershed scale urban water sustainability study requires both H&H and LCA specialties, which reveals the necessity of performing an integrated, interdisciplinary study. Therefore, the present study developed a watershed scale coupled H&H-LCA framework to bring the hydrology and sustainability expertise together to contribute moving the current wage definition of sustainable hydrologic design towards onto a globally standard concept. The proposed framework was employed to study GIs for an urban watershed in Toledo, OH. Lastly, uncertainties associated with the proposed method and parameters were analyzed through a robust Monte Carlo simulation using parallel processing. Results indicated the necessity of both hydrologic and LCA components in the design procedure in order to achieve sustainability.

  10. Fuel pin integrity assessment under large scale transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, B.K.

    2006-01-01

    The integrity of fuel rods under normal, abnormal and accident conditions is an important consideration during fuel design of advanced nuclear reactors. The fuel matrix and the sheath form the first barrier to prevent the release of radioactive materials into the primary coolant. An understanding of the fuel and clad behaviour under different reactor conditions, particularly under the beyond-design-basis accident scenario leading to large scale transients, is always desirable to assess the inherent safety margins in fuel pin design and to plan for the mitigation the consequences of accidents, if any. The severe accident conditions are typically characterized by the energy deposition rates far exceeding the heat removal capability of the reactor coolant system. This may lead to the clad failure due to fission gas pressure at high temperature, large- scale pellet-clad interaction and clad melting. The fuel rod performance is affected by many interdependent complex phenomena involving extremely complex material behaviour. The versatile experimental database available in this area has led to the development of powerful analytical tools to characterize fuel under extreme scenarios

  11. A scale for assessing Italian schools and classes inclusiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Cottini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents in detail the procedures for developing and validating a tool for assessing the inclusive process pertaining to school contexts called “Inclusive Process Assessment Scale”. The Scale, which is the outcome of the joined work of the authors, sets itself both as an assessing and self-assessing tool, useful for allowing on one hand specific types of evaluation and, on the other, promoting thoughts on inclusive education’s quality indicators, thus contributing to the planning and ongoing adjustment of the educational project of the school and the class. The tool, in its computer version as well, allows for the planning of researches that can collect evidences supporting the full inclusion organization of Italian schools.Una scala per valutare l’inclusività delle scuole e delle classi italianeIl contributo presenta in dettaglio le procedure di costruzione e validazione di uno strumento per valutare i processi inclusivi riferiti ai contesti scolastici, chiamato “Scala di Valutazione dei Processi Inclusivi”. Frutto del lavoro congiunto svolto dagli autori, la Scala si pone come uno strumento valutativo e autovalutativo utile a consentire da un lato, la realizzazione di specifiche forme di misurazione e, dall’altro, la promozione di processi di riflessione sugli indicatori di qualità dell’educazione inclusiva, per contribuire alla progettazione e alla regolazione in itinere del progetto educativo della scuola e della classe. Lo strumento, anche nella sua versione digitale, consente di pianificare ricerche, che possono raccogliere evidenze in grado di avvalorare l’organizzazione scolastica italiana di full inclusion.

  12. Psychometrics of the neonatal oral motor assessment scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarem, Cori; Kidokoro, Hiroyuki; Neil, Jeffrey; Wallendorf, Michael; Inder, Terrie; Pineda, Roberta

    2013-12-01

    To establish the psychometrics of the Neonatal Oral Motor Assessment Scale (NOMAS). In this prospective cohort study of 75 preterm infants (39 females, 36 males) born at or before 30 weeks gestation (mean gestational age 26.56 wks, SD 1.90, range 23-30 wks; mean birthweight 967.33 g, SD 288.54, range 480-2240), oral feeding was videotaped before discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The NOMAS was used to classify feeding as normal, disorganized, or dysfunctional. Neurobehavior was assessed at term equivalent, and infants underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Children returned for developmental testing at 2 years corrected age. Associations between NOMAS scores and (1) neurobehavior; (2) cerebral injury and metrics; and (3) developmental outcome were investigated using χ(2) -analyses, t-tests, and linear regression. For reliability, six certified NOMAS evaluators rated five randomly selected NOMAS recordings and re-scored them 2 weeks later in a second randomized order. Reliability was calculated with Cohen's kappa statistics. Dysfunctional NOMAS scores were associated with lower Dubowitz scores [t=-2.14; mean difference -2.32 (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.157 to -4.49); p=0.036], higher stress on the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (t=2.61; mean difference 0.073 [95% CI 0.017-0.129]; p=0.0110), and decreased transcerebellar diameter (t=-2.22; mean difference -2.04 [CI=-3.89 to -0.203]; p=0.03). No significant associations were found between NOMAS scores and 2-year outcome. Some concurrent validity was established with associations between NOMAS scores and measures of infant behavior and cerebral structure. The NOMAS did not show predictive validity in this study of preterm infants at high risk of developmental delay. Reliability was variable and suboptimal. © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  13. A novel visual facial anxiety scale for assessing preoperative anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhao Cao

    Full Text Available There is currently no widely accepted instrument for measuring preoperative anxiety. The objective of this study was to develop a simple visual facial anxiety scale (VFAS for assessing acute preoperative anxiety.The initial VFAS was comprised of 11 similarly styled stick-figure reflecting different types of facial expressions (Fig 1. After obtaining IRB approval, a total of 265 participant-healthcare providers (e.g., anesthesiologists, anesthesiology residents, and perioperative nurses were recruited to participate in this study. The participants were asked to: (1 rank the 11 faces from 0-10 (0 = no anxiety, while 10 = highest anxiety and then to (2 match one of the 11 facial expression with a numeric verbal rating scale (NVRS (0 = no anxiety and 10 = highest level of anxiety and a specific categorical level of anxiety, namely no anxiety, mild, mild-moderate, moderate, moderate-high or highest anxiety. Based on these data, the Spearman correlation and frequencies of the 11 faces in relation to the 11-point numerical anxiety scale and 6 categorical anxiety levels were calculated. The highest frequency of a face assigned to a level of the numerical anxiety scale resulted in a finalized order of faces corresponding to the 11-point numeric rating scale.The highest frequency for each of the NVRS anxiety scores were as follow: A0, A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A7, A6, A8, A9 and A10 (Fig 2. For the six categorical anxiety levels, a total of 260 (98.1% participants chose the face A0 as representing 'no' anxiety, 250 (94.3% participants chose the face A10 as representing 'highest' anxiety and 147 (55.5% participants chose the face A8 as representing 'moderate-high' anxiety. Spearman analysis showed a significant correlation between the faces A3 and A5 assigned to the mild-moderate anxiety category (r = 0.58, but A5 was ultimately chosen due to its higher frequency compared to the frequency of A3 (30.6% vs 24.9%(Fig 3. Similarly, the correlation of the faces A7

  14. Risk Assessment and Scaling for the SLS LH2 ET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiychuk, Halyna; Ponizovskaya-Devine, Ekaterina; Luchinsky, Dmitry; Khasin, Michael; Osipov, Viatcheslav V.; Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.

    2012-01-01

    In this report the main physics processes in LH2 tank during prepress and rocket flight are studied. The goal of this investigation is to analyze possible hazards and to make risk assessment in proposed LH2 tank designs for SLS with 5 engines (the situation with 4 engines is less critical). For analysis we use the multinode model (MNM) developed by us and presented in a separate report and also 3D ANSYS simulations. We carry out simulation and theoretical analysis the physics processes such as (i) accumulation of bubbles in LH2 during replenish stage and their collapsing in the liquid during the prepress; (ii) condensation-evaporation at the liquid-vapor interface and tank wall, (iv) heating the liquid near the interface and wall due to condensation and environment heat, (v) injection of hot He during prepress and of hot GH2 during flight, (vi) mixing and cooling of the injected gases due to heat transfer between the gases, liquid and the tank wall. We analyze the effects of these physical processes on the thermo- and fluid gas dynamics in the ullage and on the stratification of temperature in the liquid and assess the associated hazards. A special emphasize is put on the scaling predictions for the larger SLS LH2 tank.

  15. Assessment of competence for caesarean section with global rating scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, R.N.; Ali, S.K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish as reliable and valid the nine-point global rating scale for assessing residents' independent performance of Caesarean Section. Methods: The validation study was conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Aga Khan University Hospital, from April to December 2008, and comprised 15 residents during 40 Caesarean Sections over 9 months. Independently two evaluators rated each procedure and the difficulty of each case. Results: The observations per faculty ranged from 1-8 (mean 4.07+- 2.56). The Year 4 residents were observed the most i.e. 32 (40%), followed by Year 3, 30 (37.5%); Year 2; 14 (17.5%); and Year 1, 4 (5%). Mean time required for observation of the surgery was 43.81+-14.28 (range: 20-90) with a mode of 45 min. Mean aggregate rating on all items showed gradual progression with the year of residency. The assessment tool had an internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha) of 0.9097 with low inter-rater reliability. Conclusion: The evaluation tool was found to be reliable and valid for evaluating a resident's competence for performing Caesarean Section. Training of the assessors is required for a better inter-rater agreement. (author)

  16. Comprehensive large-scale assessment of intrinsic protein disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Ian; Giollo, Manuel; Di Domenico, Tomás; Ferrari, Carlo; Zimmermann, Olav; Tosatto, Silvio C E

    2015-01-15

    Intrinsically disordered regions are key for the function of numerous proteins. Due to the difficulties in experimental disorder characterization, many computational predictors have been developed with various disorder flavors. Their performance is generally measured on small sets mainly from experimentally solved structures, e.g. Protein Data Bank (PDB) chains. MobiDB has only recently started to collect disorder annotations from multiple experimental structures. MobiDB annotates disorder for UniProt sequences, allowing us to conduct the first large-scale assessment of fast disorder predictors on 25 833 different sequences with X-ray crystallographic structures. In addition to a comprehensive ranking of predictors, this analysis produced the following interesting observations. (i) The predictors cluster according to their disorder definition, with a consensus giving more confidence. (ii) Previous assessments appear over-reliant on data annotated at the PDB chain level and performance is lower on entire UniProt sequences. (iii) Long disordered regions are harder to predict. (iv) Depending on the structural and functional types of the proteins, differences in prediction performance of up to 10% are observed. The datasets are available from Web site at URL: http://mobidb.bio.unipd.it/lsd. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Scaling studies and conceptual experiment designs for NGNP CFD assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. M. McEligot; G. E. McCreery

    2004-11-01

    The objective of this report is to document scaling studies and conceptual designs for flow and heat transfer experiments intended to assess CFD codes and their turbulence models proposed for application to prismatic NGNP concepts. The general approach of the project is to develop new benchmark experiments for assessment in parallel with CFD and coupled CFD/systems code calculations for the same geometry. Two aspects of the complex flow in an NGNP are being addressed: (1) flow and thermal mixing in the lower plenum ("hot streaking" issue) and (2) turbulence and resulting temperature distributions in reactor cooling channels ("hot channel" issue). Current prismatic NGNP concepts are being examined to identify their proposed flow conditions and geometries over the range from normal operation to decay heat removal in a pressurized cooldown. Approximate analyses have been applied to determine key non-dimensional parameters and their magnitudes over this operating range. For normal operation, the flow in the coolant channels can be considered to be dominant turbulent forced convection with slight transverse property variation. In a pressurized cooldown (LOFA) simulation, the flow quickly becomes laminar with some possible buoyancy influences. The flow in the lower plenum can locally be considered to be a situation of multiple hot jets into a confined crossflow -- with obstructions. Flow is expected to be turbulent with momentumdominated turbulent jets entering; buoyancy influences are estimated to be negligible in normal full power operation. Experiments are needed for the combined features of the lower plenum flows. Missing from the typical jet experiments available are interactions with nearby circular posts and with vertical posts in the vicinity of vertical walls - with near stagnant surroundings at one extreme and significant crossflow at the other. Two types of heat transfer experiments are being considered. One addresses the "hot channel" problem, if necessary

  18. Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of the Relationship Assessment Scale among Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    غلامرضا دهشیری

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research administrated to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Persian version of Relationship Assessment scale. Therefore, 315 married individuals (199 women and 116 men from Tehran city were volunteered to respond to four scales: the Relationship Assessment, the Kansas Marital Satisfaction, the Oxford Happiness and the Life Satisfaction. Results from exploratory & confirmatory factor analysis showed that factor structure of Relationship Assessment scale was unidimensional. The internal consistency of the scale in the total sample was 0.88. Significant correlations between scores of the Relationship Assessment scale with the scores of the Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale, the Life Satisfaction Scale and the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire demonstrated good convergent validity of the scale. Also, the results showed that there was no significant gender difference between the mean scores of relationship satisfaction. In conclusion, the Relationship Assessment scale is a valid and reliable tool to measure marital satisfaction in Iran.

  19. Toward Instructional Leadership: Principals' Perceptions of Large-Scale Assessment in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prytula, Michelle; Noonan, Brian; Hellsten, Laurie

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a study of the perceptions that Saskatchewan school principals have regarding large-scale assessment reform and their perceptions of how assessment reform has affected their roles as principals. The findings revealed that large-scale assessments, especially provincial assessments, have affected the principal in Saskatchewan…

  20. Developing a comprehensive scale to assess college multicultural programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinckrodt, Brent; Miles, Joseph R; Bhaskar, Tripti; Chery, Nicole; Choi, Gahee; Sung, Mi-Ra

    2014-01-01

    A barrier to assessing effectiveness of multicultural programming is lack of a relatively brief instrument to measure the wide range of intended outcomes. A frequent goal of programming is to increase cultural empathy, but this is rarely the only intended outcome. We conducted focus groups of campus administrators, student affairs staff, and undergraduate instructors who identified a full range of racial/ethnic multicultural competencies that undergraduates should possess. An 84-item pool generated from these focus groups was combined with the 31-item Scale of Ethnocultural Empathy (SEE; Wang et al., 2003). These 115 items, together with instruments used to gauge concurrent validity, were administered to White undergraduate students in introductory psychology courses at the midpoint (n = 602) and end (n = 676) of fall semester. Exploratory factor analysis suggested 6 subscales for the Everyday Multicultural Competencies/Revised SEE (EMC/RSEE): (a) Cultural Openness and Desire to Learn; (b) Resentment and Cultural Dominance; (c) Anxiety and Lack of Multicultural Self-Efficacy; (d) Empathic Perspective-Taking; (e) Awareness of Contemporary Racism and Privilege; and (f) Empathic Feeling and Acting as an Ally. Item response theory principles guided final selection of subscale items. Analyses suggested good factor stability, reliability, and discriminant validity of the 48-item EMC/RSEE in these undergraduate samples. EMC/RSEE subscales were not strongly correlated with a measure of impression management and were significantly associated with measures of Openness to Diversity Challenge, and Universal-Diverse Orientation. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Assessing large-scale wildlife responses to human infrastructure development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Aurora; Jaeger, Jochen A G; Alonso, Juan Carlos

    2016-07-26

    Habitat loss and deterioration represent the main threats to wildlife species, and are closely linked to the expansion of roads and human settlements. Unfortunately, large-scale effects of these structures remain generally overlooked. Here, we analyzed the European transportation infrastructure network and found that 50% of the continent is within 1.5 km of transportation infrastructure. We present a method for assessing the impacts from infrastructure on wildlife, based on functional response curves describing density reductions in birds and mammals (e.g., road-effect zones), and apply it to Spain as a case study. The imprint of infrastructure extends over most of the country (55.5% in the case of birds and 97.9% for mammals), with moderate declines predicted for birds (22.6% of individuals) and severe declines predicted for mammals (46.6%). Despite certain limitations, we suggest the approach proposed is widely applicable to the evaluation of effects of planned infrastructure developments under multiple scenarios, and propose an internationally coordinated strategy to update and improve it in the future.

  2. Review of probabilistic safety assessments: insights and recommendations regarding further developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitzer, C.

    1996-01-01

    Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs) performed by utilities in the framework of Periodic Safety Reviews for German nuclear power plants are reviewed by TUeV Suedwest. Insights gained and recommendations concerning the necessity and focus of further developments and applications according to practical requests for the performance and assessment of PSAs within regulatory procedures are presented in this paper. Further on, recommendations are made in order to ensure the validity of the results of PSAs necessary in order to achieve the goals thereof. Beside some general points of view the emphasis of the paper is on methodological aspects with respect to evaluation methods and assessment of common cause failures as well as human reliability assessment

  3. Referred Students' Performance on the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Oliver W.; Paulin, Rachel V.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the convergent relations of the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition (WISC-IV). Data from counterbalanced administrations of each instrument to 48 elementary school students referred for psychoeducational testing were examined. Analysis of the 96…

  4. Construction and pilot assessment of the Lower Limb Function Assessment Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allart, Etienne; Paquereau, Julie; Rogeau, Caroline; Daveluy, Walter; Kozlowski, Odile; Rousseaux, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Stroke often leads to upright standing and walking impairments. Clinical assessments do not sufficiently address ecological aspects and the patient's subjective evaluation of function. To perform a pilot assessment of the psychometric properties of the Lower Limb-Function Assessment Scale (LL-FAS). The LL-FAS includes 30 items assessing the patient's perception (in a questionnaire) and the examiner's perception (in a practical test) of upright standing and walking impairments and their impact on activities of daily living. We analyzed the LL-FAS's reliability, construct validity, internal consistency, predictive validity and feasibility. Thirty-five stroke patients were included. The scale's mean ± SD completion time was 25 ± 6 min. Intra-observer reliability was good to excellent (intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC >0.82). Interobserver reliability was moderate (0.67 0.9) and predictive validity were excellent. The LL-FAS showed fair psychometric properties in this pilot study and may be of value for evaluating post-stroke lower limb impairment.

  5. Photogrammetric techniques for across-scale soil erosion assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Eltner, Anette

    2016-01-01

    Soil erosion is a complex geomorphological process with varying influences of different impacts at different spatio-temporal scales. To date, measurement of soil erosion is predominantly realisable at specific scales, thereby detecting separate processes, e.g. interrill erosion contrary to rill erosion. It is difficult to survey soil surface changes at larger areal coverage such as field scale with high spatial resolution. Either net changes at the system outlet or remaining traces after the ...

  6. The effect of scale in daily precipitation hazard assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Egozcue

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Daily precipitation is recorded as the total amount of water collected by a rain-gauge in 24 h. Events are modelled as a Poisson process and the 24 h precipitation by a Generalised Pareto Distribution (GPD of excesses. Hazard assessment is complete when estimates of the Poisson rate and the distribution parameters, together with a measure of their uncertainty, are obtained. The shape parameter of the GPD determines the support of the variable: Weibull domain of attraction (DA corresponds to finite support variables as should be for natural phenomena. However, Fréchet DA has been reported for daily precipitation, which implies an infinite support and a heavy-tailed distribution. Bayesian techniques are used to estimate the parameters. The approach is illustrated with precipitation data from the Eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula affected by severe convective precipitation. The estimated GPD is mainly in the Fréchet DA, something incompatible with the common sense assumption of that precipitation is a bounded phenomenon. The bounded character of precipitation is then taken as a priori hypothesis. Consistency of this hypothesis with the data is checked in two cases: using the raw-data (in mm and using log-transformed data. As expected, a Bayesian model checking clearly rejects the model in the raw-data case. However, log-transformed data seem to be consistent with the model. This fact may be due to the adequacy of the log-scale to represent positive measurements for which differences are better relative than absolute.

  7. Dependencies, human interactions and uncertainties in probabilistic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, S.

    1990-01-01

    In the context of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA), three areas were investigated in a 4-year Nordic programme: dependencies with special emphasis on common cause failures, human interactions and uncertainty aspects. The approach was centered around comparative analyses in form of Benchmark/Reference Studies and retrospective reviews. Weak points in available PSAs were identified and recommendations were made aiming at improving consistency of the PSAs. The sensitivity of PSA-results to basic assumptions was demonstrated and the sensitivity to data assignment and to choices of methods for analysis of selected topics was investigated. (author)

  8. Defining initiating events for purposes of probabilistic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This document is primarily directed towards technical staff involved in the performance or review of plant specific Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). It highlights different approaches and provides typical examples useful for defining the Initiating Events (IE). The document also includes the generic initiating event database, containing about 300 records taken from about 30 plant specific PSAs. In addition to its usefulness during the actual performance of a PSA, the generic IE database is of the utmost importance for peer reviews of PSAs, such as the IAEA's International Peer Review Service (IPERS) where reference to studies on similar NPPs is needed. 60 refs, figs and tabs

  9. Quantification of human reliability in probabilistic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, S.; Dankg, Vinh N.

    1996-01-01

    Human performance may substantially influence the reliability and safety of complex technical systems. For this reason, Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) constitutes an important part of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSAs) or Quantitative Risk Analyses (QRAs). The results of these studies as well as analyses of past accidents and incidents clearly demonstrate the importance of human interactions. The contribution of human errors to the core damage frequency (CDF), as estimated in the Swedish nuclear PSAs, are between 15 and 88%. A survey of the FRAs in the Swiss PSAs shows that also for the Swiss nuclear power plants the estimated HE contributions are substantial (49% of the CDF due to internal events in the case of Beznau and 70% in the case of Muehleberg; for the total CDF, including external events, 25% respectively 20%). Similar results can be extracted from the PSAs carried out for French, German, and US plants. In PSAs or QRAs, the adequate treatment of the human interactions with the system is a key to the understanding of accident sequences and their relative importance to overall risk. The main objectives of HRA are: first, to ensure that the key human interactions are systematically identified and incorporated into the safety analysis in a traceable manner, and second, to quantify the probabilities of their success and failure. Adopting a structured and systematic approach to the assessment of human performance makes it possible to provide greater confidence that the safety and availability of human-machine systems is not unduly jeopardized by human performance problems. Section 2 discusses the different types of human interactions analysed in PSAs. More generally, the section presents how HRA fits in the overall safety analysis, that is, how the human interactions to be quantified are identified. Section 3 addresses the methods for quantification. Section 4 concludes the paper by presenting some recommendations and pointing out the limitations of the

  10. Ten-year review of rating scales. III: scales assessing suicidality, cognitive style, and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Nancy C; Myers, Kathleen; Proud, Laura

    2002-10-01

    This is the third article in a series of 10-year reviews of rating scales. Here, the authors review scales that are useful in tapping the affective disturbances experienced with various psychiatric disorders, including suicidality, cognitive style, and self-esteem. The authors sampled articles incorporating these constructs over the past 25 years and selected scales with established uses or new development. Those presented here have adequate psychometric properties and high utility for efficiently elucidating youths' functioning, plus either wide literature citations or a special niche. These scales were developed bimodally. Many were developed in the 1980s when internalizing disorders were elucidated, but there has been a resurgence of interest in these constructs. Scales assessing suicidality have clear constructs, whereas scales of cognitive style demonstrate deficits in developmental relevance, and scales of self-esteem suffer from lax constructs. The constructs underlying these scales tap core symptoms of internalizing disorders, mediate the expression of affective disturbances associated with various disorders, and depict the impairments resulting from these disorders. Overall, the psychometrics of these scales are adequate. These scales provide a broader representation of youths' functioning than that conveyed with diagnostic scales alone.

  11. Development and Assessment of the Social Issues Advocacy Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Johanna E.; Marszalek, Jacob M.; Linnemeyer, Rachel M.; Bahner, Angela D.; Misialek, Leah Hanson

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the development and the initial psychometric evaluation of the Social Issues Advocacy Scale in two studies. In the first study, an exploratory factor analysis (n = 278) revealed a four-factor scale, accounting for 71.4% of the variance, measuring different aspects of social issue advocacy: Political and Social Advocacy,…

  12. Scaling of Thermal-Hydraulic Phenomena and System Code Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfert, K.

    2008-01-01

    In the last five decades large efforts have been undertaken to provide reliable thermal-hydraulic system codes for the analyses of transients and accidents in nuclear power plants. Many separate effects tests and integral system tests were carried out to establish a data base for code development and code validation. In this context the question has to be answered, to what extent the results of down-scaled test facilities represent the thermal-hydraulic behaviour expected in a full-scale nuclear reactor under accidental conditions. Scaling principles, developed by many scientists and engineers, present a scientific technical basis and give a valuable orientation for the design of test facilities. However, it is impossible for a down-scaled facility to reproduce all physical phenomena in the correct temporal sequence and in the kind and strength of their occurrence. The designer needs to optimize a down-scaled facility for the processes of primary interest. This leads compulsorily to scaling distortions of other processes with less importance. Taking into account these weak points, a goal oriented code validation strategy is required, based on the analyses of separate effects tests and integral system tests as well as transients occurred in full-scale nuclear reactors. The CSNI validation matrices are an excellent basis for the fulfilling of this task. Separate effects tests in full scale play here an important role.

  13. Medicine in words and numbers: a cross-sectional survey comparing probability assessment scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koele Pieter

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the complex domain of medical decision making, reasoning under uncertainty can benefit from supporting tools. Automated decision support tools often build upon mathematical models, such as Bayesian networks. These networks require probabilities which often have to be assessed by experts in the domain of application. Probability response scales can be used to support the assessment process. We compare assessments obtained with different types of response scale. Methods General practitioners (GPs gave assessments on and preferences for three different probability response scales: a numerical scale, a scale with only verbal labels, and a combined verbal-numerical scale we had designed ourselves. Standard analyses of variance were performed. Results No differences in assessments over the three response scales were found. Preferences for type of scale differed: the less experienced GPs preferred the verbal scale, the most experienced preferred the numerical scale, with the groups in between having a preference for the combined verbal-numerical scale. Conclusion We conclude that all three response scales are equally suitable for supporting probability assessment. The combined verbal-numerical scale is a good choice for aiding the process, since it offers numerical labels to those who prefer numbers and verbal labels to those who prefer words, and accommodates both more and less experienced professionals.

  14. Validity, reliability and support for implementation of independence-scaled procedural assessment in laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramp, Kelvin H; van Det, Marc J; Veeger, Nic J G M; Pierie, Jean-Pierre E N

    2016-06-01

    There is no widely used method to evaluate procedure-specific laparoscopic skills. The first aim of this study was to develop a procedure-based assessment method. The second aim was to compare its validity, reliability and feasibility with currently available global rating scales (GRSs). An independence-scaled procedural assessment was created by linking the procedural key steps of the laparoscopic cholecystectomy to an independence scale. Subtitled and blinded videos of a novice, an intermediate and an almost competent trainee, were evaluated with GRSs (OSATS and GOALS) and the independence-scaled procedural assessment by seven surgeons, three senior trainees and six scrub nurses. Participants received a short introduction to the GRSs and independence-scaled procedural assessment before assessment. The validity was estimated with the Friedman and Wilcoxon test and the reliability with the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). A questionnaire was used to evaluate user opinion. Independence-scaled procedural assessment and GRS scores improved significantly with surgical experience (OSATS p = 0.001, GOALS p < 0.001, independence-scaled procedural assessment p < 0.001). The ICCs of the OSATS, GOALS and independence-scaled procedural assessment were 0.78, 0.74 and 0.84, respectively, among surgeons. The ICCs increased when the ratings of scrub nurses were added to those of the surgeons. The independence-scaled procedural assessment was not considered more of an administrative burden than the GRSs (p = 0.692). A procedural assessment created by combining procedural key steps to an independence scale is a valid, reliable and acceptable assessment instrument in surgery. In contrast to the GRSs, the reliability of the independence-scaled procedural assessment exceeded the threshold of 0.8, indicating that it can also be used for summative assessment. It furthermore seems that scrub nurses can assess the operative competence of surgical trainees.

  15. [Concurrent validation of the suicidal risk assessment scale (R.S.D.) with the Beck's suicidal ideation scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducher, J-L; Daléry, J

    2004-01-01

    The prevention of suicide is a top priority in mental health. The determination of high risk suicidal groups is not sufficient. The expressing suicidal ideas is not a protective factor, but in contrary a risk factor to take into account, or even to search and to quantify: 80% of the subjects who attempt to commit suicide or commit suicide express such ideas months before. Several evaluation instruments try to help the practitioners or the research workers in this reasoning. The suicidal risk assessment scale RSD can be cited in particular. It is composed of eleven sections. The 0 level corresponds to the absence of particular ideas of death or suicide. Levels 1 and 2, the presence of ideas of death. Levels 3-4-5, the presence of suicidal ideas. The difference compared to the majority of the other scales consecrated to the same subject, the passif desire of death, occupies a place totally particular in the RSD (level 6). From the level 7, the risk of acting out seems to become more important. It stops being a simple idea of suicide, but becomes a real will of dying, firstly retained by something or someone (level 7), the fear of causing suffering to dear ones or a religious belief., then determined (level 8). Finally, the patient has elaborated a concrete plan (level 9) or he has already started the preparation of acting out (level 10). It is just necessary to evaluate and to note the highest level of the scale. The inclusion of the suicidal risk assessment scale RSD and of the Suicidal Ideation Scale by Beck in an international multicenters, phase IV, double-blind study, according to two parallel groups, with a fixed dose of fluoxétine or fluvoxamine for six weeks, allowed to search correlations which could exist between the two scales. The ana-lysis before the beginning of the treatment was done on 108 outpatients depressive, male and female, aged 18 or over. It finds a satisfactory concurrent validity between the suicidal risk assessment scale RSD and the

  16. Reliability and validity of a physical activity social support assessment scale in adolescents - ASAFA Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cazuza de Farias Júnior

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the reliability and validity of a scale used to measure social support for physical activity in adolescents - ASAFA Scale. Methods: This study included 2,755 adolescents (57.6% girls, 16.5 ± 1.2 years of age, from Joao Pessoa, Paraiba, Brazil. Initially, the scale was consisted of 12 items (6 for social support from parents and 6 from friends. The reliability of the scale was estimated by Cronbach's alpha coefficient (α, by the Composite Reliability (CR, and by the model with two factors and factorial invariance by Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA adequacy. Results: The CFA results confirmed that the social support scale contained two factors (factor 1: social support from parents; factor 2: social support from friends with five items each (one item was excluded from each scale, all with high factor loadings (> 0.65 and acceptable adjustment indexes (RMR = 0.050; RMSEA = 0.063; 90%CI: 0.060 - 0.067; AGFI = 0.903; GFI = 0.940; CFI = 0.934, NNFI = 0.932. The internal consistency was satisfactory (parents: α ≥ 0.77 and CR ≥ 0.83; friends: α ≥ 0.87 and CR ≥ 0.91. The scale's factorial invariance was confirmed (p > 0.05; Δχ2 and ΔCFI ≤ 0.01 across all subgroups analyzed (gender, age, economic class. The construct validity was evidenced by the significant association (p < 0.05 between the adolescents physical activity level and the social support score of parents (rho = 0.29 and friends (rho = 0.39. Conclusions: The scale showed reliability, factorial invariance and satisfactory validity, so it can be used in studies with adolescents.

  17. Item reduction and psychometric validation of the Oily Skin Self Assessment Scale (OSSAS) and the Oily Skin Impact Scale (OSIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuckle, Robert; Clark, Marci; Harness, Jane; Bonner, Nicola; Scott, Jane; Draelos, Zoe; Rizer, Ronald; Yeh, Yating; Copley-Merriman, Kati

    2009-01-01

    Developed using focus groups, the Oily Skin Self Assessment Scale (OSSAS) and Oily Skin Impact Scale (OSIS) are patient-reported outcome measures of oily facial skin. The aim of this study was to finalize the item-scale structure of the instruments and perform psychometric validation in adults with self-reported oily facial skin. The OSSAS and OSIS were administered to 202 adult subjects with oily facial skin in the United States. A subgroup of 152 subjects returned, 4 to 10 days later, for test–retest reliability evaluation. Of the 202 participants, 72.8% were female; 64.4% had self-reported nonsevere acne. Item reduction resulted in a 14-item OSSAS with Sensation (five items), Tactile (four items) and Visual (four items) domains, a single blotting item, and an overall oiliness item. The OSIS was reduced to two three-item domains assessing Annoyance and Self-Image. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the construct validity of the final item-scale structures. The OSSAS and OSIS scales had acceptable item convergent validity (item-scale correlations >0.40) and floor and ceiling effects (skin severity (P skin (P skin), as assessments of self-reported oily facial skin severity and its emotional impact, respectively.

  18. Using Longitudinal Scales Assessment for Instrumental Music Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Samuel H.

    2014-01-01

    In music education, current assessment trends emphasize student reflection, tracking progress over time, and formative as well as summative measures. This view of assessment requires instrumental music educators to modernize their approaches without interfering with methods that have proven to be successful. To this end, the Longitudinal Scales…

  19. Fatigue Assessment of Full-Scale Retrofitted Orthotropic Bridge Decks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teixeira De Freitas, S.; Kolstein, M.H.; Bijlaard, F.S.K.

    2017-01-01

    Full-scale fatigue tests were performed on two retrofitted orthotropic bridge decks (OBDs). The retrofitting systems consist of adding a second steel plate on the top of the existing deck. The aim is to reduce the stresses at the fatigue-sensitive details and therefore extend the fatigue life of

  20. Assessment of climate change impacts on rainfall using large scale ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Many of the applied techniques in water resources management can be directly or indirectly influenced by ... is based on large scale climate signals data around the world. In order ... predictand relationships are often very complex. .... constraints to solve the optimization problem. ..... social, and environmental sustainability.

  1. Personality in proportion : A bipolar proportional scale for personality assessments and its consequences for trait structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstee, W.K.B.; Ten Berge, J.M.F.

    2004-01-01

    Trait structures resulting from personality assessments on Likert scales are affected by the additive and multiplicative transformations implied in interval scaling and correlational analysis. The effect comes into view on selecting a plausible alternative scale. To this end, we propose a bipolar

  2. Nursing-care dependency : Development of an assessment scale for demented and mentally handicapped patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Ate; Buist, Girbe; Dassen, T

    1996-01-01

    This article describing the first phase in the development of an assessment scale of nursing-care dependency (NCD) for Dutch demented and mentally handicapped patients focuses on the background to the study and the content validation of the nursing-care dependency scale. The scale aims to

  3. EI Scale: an environmental impact assessment scale related to the construction materials used in the reinforced concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Gilson Morales; Antonio Edésio Jungles; Sheila Elisa Scheidemantel Klein; Juliana Guarda

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to create EI Scal, an environmental impact assessment scal, related to construction materials used in the reinforced concrete structure production. The main reason for that was based on the need to classify the environmental impact levels through indicators to assess the damage level process. The scale allowed converting information to estimate the environmental impact caused. Indicators were defined trough the requirements and classification criteria of impact aspects consid...

  4. Large-Scale Assessment, Rationality, and Scientific Management: The Case of No Child Left Behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Andrew T.; Frank, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the ways in which NCLB and the movement towards large-scale assessment systems are based on Weber's concept of formal rationality and tradition of scientific management. Building on these ideas, the authors use Ritzer's McDonaldization thesis to examine some of the core features of large-scale assessment and accountability…

  5. Numerical assessment of the ion turbulent thermal transport scaling laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottaviani, M.; Manfredi, G.

    2001-01-01

    Numerical simulations of ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven turbulence were carried out to investigate the parametric dependence of the ion thermal transport on the reduced gyroradius and on the local safety factor. Whereas the simulations show a clear proportionality of the conductivity to the gyroradius, the dependence on the safety factor cannot be represented as a simple power law like the one exhibited by the empirical scaling laws. (author)

  6. Assessing Impacts of National Scale Droughts on Cereal Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udmale, P. D.; Ichikawa, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Till date, several drought indices have been developed and used to monitor local to regional scale droughts on various temporal scales. However, there are no generalized criteria to define a threshold to declare a national level drought using drought indices. EM-DAT (a global database on natural and technological disasters) lists disasters (including drought) from 1900 until the present confirming one of the following criteria: 10 or more people dead; 100 or more people affected; the declaration of a state of emergency; or a call for international assistance. This data is gathered from various organizations like United Nations Institutes, Governments, etc. and do not cover all disasters or have political limitations that could affect the numbers. These criteria are neither objective nor quantitative, and accordingly may cause uncertainties when the data is used for further investigation on disaster impacts. Here we present a methodology to define drought at a national scale and its impacts on national level crop production (mainly cereals). We define drought based on the percentage of cropland area affected by drought in a country during its seasonal rainfall. For this purpose meteorological definition of drought in combination with country's cropland area is proposed to prepare a drought inventory for major cereal producing countries (1902-2012). This drought inventory together with FAO's Crop data is used to identify the impacts of drought on a national level cereal production (and yield) using Superposed Epoch Analysis for the period 1961-2012.

  7. EI Scale: an environmental impact assessment scale related to the construction materials used in the reinforced concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Morales

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to create EI Scal, an environmental impact assessment scal, related to construction materials used in the reinforced concrete structure production. The main reason for that was based on the need to classify the environmental impact levels through indicators to assess the damage level process. The scale allowed converting information to estimate the environmental impact caused. Indicators were defined trough the requirements and classification criteria of impact aspects considering the eco-design theory. Moreover, the scale allowed classifying the materials and processes environmental impact through four score categories which resulted in a single final impact score. It was concluded that the EI scale could be cheap, accessible, and relevant tool for environmental impact controlling and reduction, allowing the planning and material specification to minimize the construction negative effects caused in the environment.

  8. The relationship of the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Billy L; McChristian, Chrystal L; Smith, Teresa D; Meaux, Julie

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare scores on the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS) with scores on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) in a group of college students diagnosed with a Learning Disability, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), or a combination of the two. The RIAS Composite Index score was significantly higher than the WAIS-III Full Scale IQ, although scores on both tests were in the average range. Correlations between the two tests were significant on all measures. Male students were significantly higher than female students on both the RIAS Composite Index and on the WAIS-III Full Scale IQ. Although the ADHD group was higher on IQ than the Learning Disabled and combined disorder groups on all IQ measures, no significant differences were found.

  9. Vulnerability of Forests in India: A National Scale Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jagmohan; Upgupta, Sujata; Jayaraman, Mathangi; Chaturvedi, Rajiv Kumar; Bala, Govindswamy; Ravindranath, N H

    2017-09-01

    Forests are subjected to stress from climatic and non-climatic sources. In this study, we have reported the results of inherent, as well as climate change driven vulnerability assessments for Indian forests. To assess inherent vulnerability of forests under current climate, we have used four indicators, namely biological richness, disturbance index, canopy cover, and slope. The assessment is presented as spatial profile of inherent vulnerability in low, medium, high and very high vulnerability classes. Fourty percent forest grid points in India show high or very high inherent vulnerability. Plantation forests show higher inherent vulnerability than natural forests. We assess the climate change driven vulnerability by combining the results of inherent vulnerability assessment with the climate change impact projections simulated by the Integrated Biosphere Simulator dynamic global vegetation model. While 46% forest grid points show high, very high, or extremely high vulnerability under future climate in the short term (2030s) under both representative concentration pathways 4.5 and 8.5, such grid points are 49 and 54%, respectively, in the long term (2080s). Generally, forests in the higher rainfall zones show lower vulnerability as compared to drier forests under future climate. Minimizing anthropogenic disturbance and conserving biodiversity can potentially reduce forest vulnerability under climate change. For disturbed forests and plantations, adaptive management aimed at forest restoration is necessary to build long-term resilience.

  10. Comparison between full- and small-scale sensory assessments of air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Sabikova, J.; Lagercrantz, Love Per

    2002-01-01

    Thirty-nine untrained subjects made small- and full-scale evaluations of the acceptability of the quality of air at 22 deg.C and 40% RH, polluted by either carpet, felt floor covering, painted gypsum board, linoleum or chipboard. Small-scale evaluations were made on the air extracted from 200-L......-scale sensory ratings of acceptability of air polluted by carpet and by linoleum were systematically better than small-scale assessments, but not for the other three materials. Calculated sensory emission rates from carpet and linoleum were significantly lower in full scale than in small scale. When modelling...

  11. Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale - Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-Cog): Normative Data for the Portuguese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Joana; Freitas, Sandra; Duro, Diana; Tábuas-Pereira, Miguel; Guerreiro, Manuela; Almeida, Jorge; Santana, Isabel

    2018-02-28

    The Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale - Cognitive Subscale is a brief battery developed to assess cognitive functioning in Alzheimer's disease that encompasses the core characteristics of cognitive decline (e.g. memory, language, praxis, constructive ability and orientation). The early detection, as well as the monitoring of cognitive decline along disease progression, is extremely important in clinical care and interventional research. The main goals of the present study were to analyze the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale - Cognitive Subscale, and to establish normative values for the Portuguese population. The Portuguese version of Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale - Cognitive Subscale was administered to 223 cognitively healthy participants according to a standard assessment protocol consisting of the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and the Adults and Older Adults Functional Assessment Inventory. Normal performance on the assessment protocol was the inclusion criteria for the study. The Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale - Cognitive Subscale revealed good psychometric properties when used in the Portuguese population. Age was the main predictor of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale - Cognitive Subscale total score (R2 = 0.123), whereas the influence of education level was lower (R2 = 0.027). These two variables explained 14.4% of the variance on the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale - Cognitive Subscale scores and were used to stratify the normative values for the Portuguese population presented here. On the total sample, the average total score in the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale - Cognitive Subscale was 6 points. The normative data were determined according to age and educational level as these were the sociodemographic variables that significantly contributed to the prediction of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale - Cognitive Subscale

  12. Quality Control Charts in Large-Scale Assessment Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, William D.; Coverdale, Bradley J.; Luxenberg, Harlan; Jin, Ying

    2011-01-01

    There are relatively few examples of quantitative approaches to quality control in educational assessment and accountability contexts. Among the several techniques that are used in other fields, Shewart charts have been found in a few instances to be applicable in educational settings. This paper describes Shewart charts and gives examples of how…

  13. Adaptation and Assessment of a Public Speaking Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iberri-Shea, Gina

    2017-01-01

    Prominent spoken language assessments such as the Oral Proficiency Interview and the Test of Spoken English have been primarily concerned with speaking ability as it relates to conversation. This paper looks at an additional aspect of spoken language ability, namely public speaking. This study used an adapted form of a public speaking rating scale…

  14. Is stair negotiation measured appropriately in functional assessment scales?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel, M.B. van; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Mulley, G.P.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A decline in mobility may result in problems with the negotiation of stairs, which can potentially be hazardous. In practice, stair negotiation is an important aspect of daily living and therefore needs to be assessed carefully. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature review to

  15. Multi-scale landslide risk assessment in Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos Abella, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    Landslides cause a considerable amount of damage in the mountainous regions of Cuba, which cover about 25% of the territory. Until now, only a limited amount of research has been carried out in the field of landslide risk assessment in the country. This research presents a methodology and its

  16. Assessing severity of delirium by the Delirium Observation Screening Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffer, Alice C.; van Munster, Barbara C.; Schuurmans, Marieke J.; de Rooij, Sophia E.

    Objective: Delirium is the most common acute neuropsychiatric disorder in hospitalized elderly. Assessment of the severity of delirium is important for adjusting medication. The minimal dose of medication is preferable to prevent side effects. Only few nurse based severity measures are available.

  17. [Psychometric assessment of a brief Modern Racism Scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo-Arias, Adalberto; Herazo, Edwin; Oviedo, Heidi C

    2016-06-01

    Objective To find the internal consistency of the Modern Racism Scale (MRS) among medical students in Bucaramanga, Colombia. Methods A total of 352 medical students, mean age=20.0 years (SD=1.9) reported their attitudes towards Afro-Colombians; 59.4 % were women. Students completed the 10-item version of MRS. Cronbach alpha and McDonald omega were calculated. Exploratory factor analyses were done to propose a brief version of the MRS. Results The 10-item version showed a Cronbach alpha of 0.48 and a McDonald omega of 0.15. The short version, the Brief Modern Racism Scale (BMRS) (items 1, 4, 5, 7 and 8) presented a Cronbach alpha of 0.64 and McDonald omega of 0.65. The BMRS showed one salient factor responsible of 41.6 % of the total variance. Conclusions A Spanish-language short version of the MRS shows better psychometric performance than the original version. Further study is needed to corroborate these findings or make adjustments for Colombian cultural regions.

  18. RMS Pictorial Scale (RMS-PS: An innovative scale for the assessment of child′s dental anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R M Shetty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental anxiety assessment for young children is as important as performing their treatment. Appropriate knowledge of patient′s anxiety boosts confidence and will help us to review potential management options specific to every child. Aim: This study aimed to validate (RMS Pictorial Scale (RMS-PS and to compare it with Venham Picture Test (VPT and Facial image scale (FIS in measuring dental anxiety for young children during their first dental visit. Materials and Methods: A total of 102 healthy children aged between 4 and 14 years during their first dental visit were randomly selected for the study. Childs anxiety level was measured using three different scales namely (i RMS-PS (ii VPT, and (iii FIS. Statistical Analysis: Student t test was used to compare the scores obtained from all the three scales. Pearson correlation test was used to obtain correlation among the scales used in the study. Results: A strong correlation (0·76 was found between the VPT and RMS-PS, and a moderate correlation (0.5 was found between RMS-PS and FIS, indicating good validity for the RMS-PS. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that the RMS-PS can be a newer and easiest means for the assessment of dental anxiety for young children in a clinical context.

  19. Use of probabilistic safety assessment for nuclear installations with large inventory of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    Experts from several countries, including most of the countries with major nuclear fuel reprocessing programmes, presented their work and related experience in the area of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for non-reactor nuclear facilities. The report drafted during the meeting focuses on the following topics: review of experience from PSAs for different types of facilities; development of a structured framework for conducting PSAs for non-reactor nuclear facilities; recommendations regarding the enhancement of information exchange on related matters among Member States; recommendations on areas which need further development and support. 9 papers were presented. A separate abstract was prepared for each of them. Refs, figs and tabs

  20. Advantages for EDF of using and updating PSAs for the probabilistic analysis of accident scenarios in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feuillade, Gilles

    2000-01-01

    This paper shows the advantages for EDF of using and updating PSA models of PWR units for the probabilistic assessment of accident scenarios. These advantages may be classified in various categories: The construction of PSA models makes it possible to aggregate knowledge in a variety of fields: thermohydraulics, the behavior of equipment and systems, organization, plant operation, etc. The updating of PSA models makes it possible to monitor the state of progress of PWR unit safety levels and also allows a variety of applications to be used throughout the service life of the unit. The results obtained are directly applicable to the units as the 'reference PSA models' developed by EDF conform to the units in service. The use of PSA for the examination of incident or accident scenarios makes it possible to verify the adequacy of the resources both in terms of 'systems' and 'plant operation'. These two notions are to be taken in the broadest sense, as they cover the aspects of system design, reliability and availability of equipment, organization of plant operation, comprehensiveness of operating procedures, human redundancy, etc. The use of PSA models through the different applications (analyses of predominant sequences, analyses of main equipment failures, analyses main operator actions, analyses according to the power units, etc) is becoming an indispensable supplement to conventional deterministic analyses of the envisaged accident scenarios. Within the scope of accident prevention, it constitutes a tool to assist the decision-maker, especially when evaluating the pertinence of the General Operating Rules (operating procedures, operating technical specifications, periodic testing, etc). (S.Y.)

  1. Assessing Politicized Sexual Orientation Identity: Validating the Queer Consciousness Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Lauren E; Mincer, Elizabeth; Dunn, Sarah R

    2017-01-01

    Building on psychological theories of motivation for collective action, we introduce a new individual difference measure of queer consciousness, defined as a politicized collective identity around sexual orientation. The Queer Consciousness Scale (QCS) consists of 12 items measuring five aspects of a politicized queer identity: sense of common fate, power discontent, system blame, collective orientation, and cognitive centrality. In four samples of adult women and men of varied sexual orientations, the QCS showed good test-retest and Cronbach's reliability and excellent known-groups and predictive validity. Specifically, the QCS was positively correlated with identification as a member of the LGBTQ community, political liberalism, personal political salience, and LGBTQ activism and negatively correlated with right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation. QCS mediated relationships between several individual difference variables and gay rights activism and can be used with both LGBTQ people and allies.

  2. Matrix Sampling of Items in Large-Scale Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A. Childs

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Matrix sampling of items -' that is, division of a set of items into different versions of a test form..-' is used by several large-scale testing programs. Like other test designs, matrixed designs have..both advantages and disadvantages. For example, testing time per student is less than if each..student received all the items, but the comparability of student scores may decrease. Also,..curriculum coverage is maintained, but reporting of scores becomes more complex. In this paper,..matrixed designs are compared with more traditional designs in nine categories of costs:..development costs, materials costs, administration costs, educational costs, scoring costs,..reliability costs, comparability costs, validity costs, and reporting costs. In choosing among test..designs, a testing program should examine the costs in light of its mandate(s, the content of the..tests, and the financial resources available, among other considerations.

  3. Postoperative pain assessment using four behavioral scales in Pakistani children undergoing elective surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Shamim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several measurement tools have been used for assessment of postoperative pain in pediatric patients. Self-report methods have limitations in younger children and parent, nurse or physician assessment can be used as a surrogate measure. These tools should be tested in different cultures as pain can be influenced by sociocultural factors. The objective was to assess the inter-rater agreement on four different behavioral pain assessment scales in our local population. Materials and Methods: This prospective, descriptive, observational study was conducted in Pakistan. American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II children, 3-7 years of age, undergoing elective surgery were enrolled. Four pain assessment scales were used, Children′s Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale (CHEOPS, Toddler Preschool Postoperative Pain Scale (TPPPS, objective pain scale (OPS, and Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability (FLACC. After 15 and 60 min of arrival in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU, each child evaluated his/her postoperative pain by self-reporting and was also independently assessed by the PACU nurse, PACU anesthetist and the parent. The sensitivity and specificity of the responses of the four pain assessment scales were compared to the response of the child. Results: At 15 min, sensitivity and specificity were >60% for doctors and nurses on FLACC, OPS, and CHEOPS scales and for FLACC and CHEOPS scale for the parents. Parents showed poor agreement on OPS and TPPS. At 60 min, sensitivity was poor on the OPS scale by all three observers. Nurses showed a lower specificity on FLACC tool. Parents had poor specificity on CHEOPS and rate of false negatives was high with TPPS. Conclusions: We recommend the use of FLACC scale for assessment by parents, nurses, and doctors in Pakistani children aged between 3 and 7.

  4. The Neurologic Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (NANO) Scale as an Assessment Tool for Survival in Patients With Primary Glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ung, Timothy H; Ney, Douglas E; Damek, Denise; Rusthoven, Chad G; Youssef, A Samy; Lillehei, Kevin O; Ormond, D Ryan

    2018-03-30

    The Neurologic Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (NANO) scale is a standardized objective metric designed to measure neurological function in neuro-oncology. Current neuroradiological evaluation guidelines fail to use specific clinical criteria for progression. To determine if the NANO scale was a reliable assessment tool in glioblastoma (GBM) patients and whether it correlated to survival. Our group performed a retrospective review of all patients with newly diagnosed GBM from January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2012, at our institution. We applied the NANO scale, Karnofsky performance score (KPS), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) scale, Macdonald criteria, and the Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) criteria to patients at the time of diagnosis as well as at 3, 6, and 12 mo. Initial NANO score was correlated with overall survival at time of presentation. NANO progression was correlated with decreased survival in patients at 6 and 12 mo. A decrease in KPS was associated with survival at 3 and 6 mo, an increase in ECOG score was associated only at 3 mo, and radiological evaluation (RANO and Macdonald) was correlated at 3 and 6 mo. Only the NANO scale was associated with patient survival at 1 yr. NANO progression was the only metric that was linked to decreased overall survival when compared to RANO and Macdonald at 6 and 12 mo. The NANO scale is specific to neuro-oncology and can be used to assess patients with glioma. This retrospective analysis demonstrates the usefulness of the NANO scale in glioblastoma.

  5. North Carolina Family Assessment Scale: Measurement Properties for Youth Mental Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bethany R.; Lindsey, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to assess the reliability and validity of the North Carolina Family Assessment Scale (NCFAS) among families involved with youth mental health services. Methods: Using NCFAS data collected by child mental health intake workers with 158 families, factor analysis was conducted to assess factor structure, and…

  6. Evaluating the Risk of Child Abuse: The Child Abuse Risk Assessment Scale (CARAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ko Ling

    2012-01-01

    The present study developed the Child Abuse Risk Assessment Scale (CARAS), an actuarial instrument for the assessment of the risk of physical child abuse. Data of 2,363 Chinese parents (47.7% male) living in Hong Kong were used in the analyses. Participants were individually interviewed with a questionnaire assessing their perpetration of child…

  7. Quality Assessment of Physical and Organoleptic Instant Corn Rice on Scale-Up Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumalasari, R.; Ekafitri, R.; Indrianti, N.

    2017-12-01

    Development of instant corn rice product has been successfully conducted on a laboratory scale. Corn has high carbohydrate content but low in fiber. The addition of fiber in instant corn rice, intended to improve the functioning of the product, and replace fiber loss during the process. Scale up process of Instant corn rice required to increase the production capacity. Scale up was the process to get identic output on a larger scale based on predetermined production scale. This study aimed to assess the changes and differences in the quality of instant corn rice during scale up. Instant corn rice scale up was done on production capacity 3 kg, 4 kg and 5 kg. Results showed that scale up of instant corn rice producing products with rehydration ratio ranges between 514% - 570%, the absorption rate ranged between 414% - 470%, swelling rate ranging between 119% - 134%, bulk density ranged from 0.3661 to 0.4745 (g/ml) and porosity ranging between 30-37%. The physical quality of instant corn rice on scale up were stable from the ones at laboratory scale on swelling rate, rehydration ratio, and absorption rate but not stable on bulk density and porosity. Organoleptic qualities were stable at increased scale compared on a laboratory scale. Bulk density was higher than those at laboratory scale, and the porosity was lower than those at laboratory scale.

  8. Assessing motivation orientations in schizophrenia: Scale development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Shanna; Lavaysse, Lindsey M; Gard, David E

    2015-01-30

    Motivation deficits are common in several disorders including schizophrenia, and are an important factor in both functioning and treatment adherence. Self-Determination Theory (SDT), a leading macro-theory of motivation, has contributed a number of insights into how motivation is impaired in schizophrenia. Nonetheless, self-report measures of motivation appropriate for people with severe mental illness (including those that emphasize SDT) are generally lacking in the literature. To fill this gap, we adapted and abbreviated the well-validated General Causality Orientation Scale for use with people with schizophrenia and with other severe mental disorders (GCOS-clinical populations; GCOS-CP). In Study 1, we tested the similarity of our measure to the existing GCOS (using a college sample) and then validated this new measure in a schizophrenia and healthy control sample (Study 2). Results from Study 1 (N=360) indicated that the GCOS-CP was psychometrically similar to the original GCOS and provided good convergent and discriminant validity. In Study 2, the GCOS-CP was given to individuals with (N=44) and without schizophrenia (N=42). In line with both laboratory-based and observer-based research, people with schizophrenia showed lower motivational autonomy and higher impersonal/amotivated orientations. Additional applications of the GCOS-CP are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Scaling earthquake ground motions for performance-based assessment of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.-N.; Whittaker, A.S.; Luco, N.; Hamburger, R.O.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of alternate ground-motion scaling procedures on the distribution of displacement responses in simplified structural systems is investigated. Recommendations are provided for selecting and scaling ground motions for performance-based assessment of buildings. Four scaling methods are studied, namely, (1)geometric-mean scaling of pairs of ground motions, (2)spectrum matching of ground motions, (3)first-mode-period scaling to a target spectral acceleration, and (4)scaling of ground motions per the distribution of spectral demands. Data were developed by nonlinear response-history analysis of a large family of nonlinear single degree-of-freedom (SDOF) oscillators that could represent fixed-base and base-isolated structures. The advantages and disadvantages of each scaling method are discussed. The relationship between spectral shape and a ground-motion randomness parameter, is presented. A scaling procedure that explicitly considers spectral shape is proposed. ?? 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  10. Development and testing of a scale to assess physician attitudes about handheld computers with decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Midge N; Houston, Thomas K; Yu, Feliciano B; Menachemi, Nir; Maisiak, Richard S; Allison, Jeroan J; Berner, Eta S

    2006-01-01

    The authors developed and evaluated a rating scale, the Attitudes toward Handheld Decision Support Software Scale (H-DSS), to assess physician attitudes about handheld decision support systems. The authors conducted a prospective assessment of psychometric characteristics of the H-DSS including reliability, validity, and responsiveness. Participants were 82 Internal Medicine residents. A higher score on each of the 14 five-point Likert scale items reflected a more positive attitude about handheld DSS. The H-DSS score is the mean across the fourteen items. Attitudes toward the use of the handheld DSS were assessed prior to and six months after receiving the handheld device. Cronbach's Alpha was used to assess internal consistency reliability. Pearson correlations were used to estimate and detect significant associations between scale scores and other measures (validity). Paired sample t-tests were used to test for changes in the mean attitude scale score (responsiveness) and for differences between groups. Internal consistency reliability for the scale was alpha = 0.73. In testing validity, moderate correlations were noted between the attitude scale scores and self-reported Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) usage in the hospital (correlation coefficient = 0.55) and clinic (0.48), p DSS scale was reliable, valid, and responsive. The scale can be used to guide future handheld DSS development and implementation.

  11. Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Examples of disorders that ...

  12. Replication assessment of surface texture at sub-micrometre scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quagliotti, Danilo; Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2017-01-01

    [2]. A replication process requires reproducing a master geometry by conveying it to a substrate material. It is typically induced by means of different energy sources (usually heat and force) and a direct physical contact between the master and the substrate. Furthermore, concepts of advanced......, because of the replication nature of molding processes, the required specifications for the manufacture of micro molded components must be ensured by means of a metrological approach to surface replication and dimensional control of both master geometry and replicated substrate [3]-[4]. Therefore...... replication was assessed by the replication fidelity, i.e., comparing the produced parts with the tool used to replicate the geometry. Furthermore, the uncertainty of the replication fidelity was achieved by propagating the uncertainties evaluated for both masters and replicas. Finally, despite the specimens...

  13. Ozone time scale decomposition and trend assessment from surface observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boleti, Eirini; Hueglin, Christoph; Takahama, Satoshi

    2017-04-01

    Emissions of ozone precursors have been regulated in Europe since around 1990 with control measures primarily targeting to industries and traffic. In order to understand how these measures have affected air quality, it is now important to investigate concentrations of tropospheric ozone in different types of environments, based on their NOx burden, and in different geographic regions. In this study, we analyze high quality data sets for Switzerland (NABEL network) and whole Europe (AirBase) for the last 25 years to calculate long-term trends of ozone concentrations. A sophisticated time scale decomposition method, called the Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) (Huang,1998;Wu,2009), is used for decomposition of the different time scales of the variation of ozone, namely the long-term trend, seasonal and short-term variability. This allows subtraction of the seasonal pattern of ozone from the observations and estimation of long-term changes of ozone concentrations with lower uncertainty ranges compared to typical methodologies used. We observe that, despite the implementation of regulations, for most of the measurement sites ozone daily mean values have been increasing until around mid-2000s. Afterwards, we observe a decline or a leveling off in the concentrations; certainly a late effect of limitations in ozone precursor emissions. On the other hand, the peak ozone concentrations have been decreasing for almost all regions. The evolution in the trend exhibits some differences between the different types of measurement. In addition, ozone is known to be strongly affected by meteorology. In the applied approach, some of the meteorological effects are already captured by the seasonal signal and already removed in the de-seasonalized ozone time series. For adjustment of the influence of meteorology on the higher frequency ozone variation, a statistical approach based on Generalized Additive Models (GAM) (Hastie,1990;Wood,2006), which corrects for meteorological

  14. Can the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale assess perfeccionismo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Alexandra M; DiBartolo, Patricia Marten; Rendón, María Jose

    2017-07-01

    Although culture-based measurement bias threatens the validity of intergroup comparison research, measurement invariance is often assumed rather than demonstrated by researchers who draw conclusions about cross-cultural similarities or differences. The current article investigates the cross-cultural invariance of a popular measure of perfectionism, the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (F-MPS; Frost, Marten, Lahart, & Rosenblate, 1990) for a Hispanic/Latina sample. Perfectionism, which encompasses high goal setting and sensitivity to critical evaluation, is a transdiagnostic risk factor for internalizing psychopathology that especially warrants focus among groups burdened by mental health disparities. Multiple samples were used in a series of analyses to construct a baseline first-order measurement model and test for cross-group equivalence. For model development, confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were used with 320 female participants (M age = 19.61 years) who identified primarily (n = 301) as European/European American. Measurement invariance testing was conducted with multigroup CFAs using another sample of female adults (n = 574; Mage = 21.21 years), identifying either as European/European American (n = 217) or Hispanic/Latina/Latin American (n = 357). Evidence was found for invariance across the revised F-MPS factor structure, pattern of factor loadings, and factor variances/covariances. Results indicate that predictive relationships may be compared across these groups, but caution is suggested when interpreting raw mean score differences due to intercept nonequivalence. Further, second-order model testing demonstrated support for the bidimensional model of perfectionism cross-culturally. Future research on perfectionism within the Latino/a population is encouraged using this equivalent item set. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. The effect of Web-based Braden Scale training on the reliability and precision of Braden Scale pressure ulcer risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnan, Morris A; Maklebust, Joann

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of Web-based Braden Scale training on the reliability and precision of pressure ulcer risk assessments made by registered nurses (RN) working in acute care settings. Pretest-posttest, 2-group, quasi-experimental design. Five hundred Braden Scale risk assessments were made on 102 acute care patients deemed to be at various levels of risk for pressure ulceration. Assessments were made by RNs working in acute care hospitals at 3 different medical centers where the Braden Scale was in regular daily use (2 medical centers) or new to the setting (1 medical center). The Braden Scale for Predicting Pressure Sore Risk was used to guide pressure ulcer risk assessments. A Web-based version of the Detroit Medical Center Braden Scale Computerized Training Module was used to teach nurses correct use of the Braden Scale and selection of risk-based pressure ulcer prevention interventions. In the aggregate, RN generated reliable Braden Scale pressure ulcer risk assessments 65% of the time after training. The effect of Web-based Braden Scale training on reliability and precision of assessments varied according to familiarity with the scale. With training, new users of the scale made reliable assessments 84% of the time and significantly improved precision of their assessments. The reliability and precision of Braden Scale risk assessments made by its regular users was unaffected by training. Technology-assisted Braden Scale training improved both reliability and precision of risk assessments made by new users of the scale, but had virtually no effect on the reliability or precision of risk assessments made by regular users of the instrument. Further research is needed to determine best approaches for improving reliability and precision of Braden Scale assessments made by its regular users.

  16. Developing an Assessment Method of Active Aging: University of Jyvaskyla Active Aging Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantanen, Taina; Portegijs, Erja; Kokko, Katja; Rantakokko, Merja; Törmäkangas, Timo; Saajanaho, Milla

    2018-01-01

    To develop an assessment method of active aging for research on older people. A multiphase process that included drafting by an expert panel, a pilot study for item analysis and scale validity, a feedback study with focus groups and questionnaire respondents, and a test-retest study. Altogether 235 people aged 60 to 94 years provided responses and/or feedback. We developed a 17-item University of Jyvaskyla Active Aging Scale with four aspects in each item (goals, ability, opportunity, and activity; range 0-272). The psychometric and item properties are good and the scale assesses a unidimensional latent construct of active aging. Our scale assesses older people's striving for well-being through activities pertaining to their goals, abilities, and opportunities. The University of Jyvaskyla Active Aging Scale provides a quantifiable measure of active aging that may be used in postal questionnaires or interviews in research and practice.

  17. Psychometric Analysis of the Work/Life Balance Self-Assessment Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, Suzanne C; Cantrell, Mary Ann; Sharts-Hopko, Nancy C; Heverly, Mary Ann; Jenkinson, Amanda; Nthenge, Serah

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Work/Life Balance Self-Assessment scale among nurse faculty involved in doctoral education. A national random sample of 554 respondents completed the Work/Life Balance Self-Assessment scale, which addresses 3 factors: work interference with personal life (WIPL), personal life interference with work (PLIW), and work/personal life enhancement (WPLE). A principal components analysis with varimax rotation revealed 3 internally consistent aspects of work-life balance, explaining 40.5% of the variance. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients for reliability of the scale were .88 for the total scale and for the subscales, .93 (WIPL), .85 (PLIW), and .69 (WPLE). The Work/Life Balance Self-Assessment scale appears to be a reliable and valid instrument to examine work-life balance among nurse faculty.

  18. Scale changes in air quality modelling and assessment of associated uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsakissok, Irene

    2009-01-01

    After an introduction of issues related to a scale change in the field of air quality (existing scales for emissions, transport, turbulence and loss processes, hierarchy of data and models, methods of scale change), the author first presents Gaussian models which have been implemented within the Polyphemus modelling platform. These models are assessed by comparison with experimental observations and with other commonly used Gaussian models. The second part reports the coupling of the puff-based Gaussian model with the Eulerian Polair3D model for the sub-mesh processing of point sources. This coupling is assessed at the continental scale for a passive tracer, and at the regional scale for photochemistry. Different statistical methods are assessed

  19. Process assessment of small scale low temperature methanol synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendriyana [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Jenderal Achmad Yani Univerity (Indonesia); Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Industrial Technology, InstitutTeknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Susanto, Herri, E-mail: herri@che.itb.ac.id; Subagjo [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Industrial Technology, InstitutTeknologi Bandung (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource and has the potential to make a significant impact on domestic fuel supplies. Biomass can be converted to fuel like methanol via several step process. The process can be split into following main steps: biomass preparation, gasification, gas cooling and cleaning, gas shift and methanol synthesis. Untill now these configuration still has a problem like high production cost, catalyst deactivation, economy of scale and a huge energy requirements. These problems become the leading inhibition for biomass conversion to methanol, which should be resolved to move towards the economical. To address these issues, we developed various process and new configurations for methanol synthesis via methyl formate. This configuration combining two reactors: the one reactor for the carbonylation of methanol and CO to form methyl formate, and the second for the hydrogenolysis of methyl formate and H{sub 2} to form two molecule of methanol. Four plant process configurations were compared with the biomass basis is 300 ton/day. The first configuration (A) is equipped with a steam reforming process for converting methane to CO and H{sub 2} for increasing H{sub 2}/CO ratio. CO{sub 2} removal is necessary to avoid poisoning the catalyst. COSORB process used for the purpose of increasing the partial pressure of CO in the feed gas. The steam reforming process in B configuration is not used with the aim of reducing the number of process equipment, so expect lower investment costs. For C configuration, the steam reforming process and COSORB are not used with the aim of reducing the number of process equipment, so expect lower investment costs. D configuration is almost similar to the configuration A. This configuration difference is in the synthesis of methanol which was held in a single reactor. Carbonylation and hydrogenolysis reactions carried out in the same reactor one. These processes were analyzed in term of technical process, material and energy

  20. Process assessment of small scale low temperature methanol synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendriyana; Susanto, Herri; Subagjo

    2015-01-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource and has the potential to make a significant impact on domestic fuel supplies. Biomass can be converted to fuel like methanol via several step process. The process can be split into following main steps: biomass preparation, gasification, gas cooling and cleaning, gas shift and methanol synthesis. Untill now these configuration still has a problem like high production cost, catalyst deactivation, economy of scale and a huge energy requirements. These problems become the leading inhibition for biomass conversion to methanol, which should be resolved to move towards the economical. To address these issues, we developed various process and new configurations for methanol synthesis via methyl formate. This configuration combining two reactors: the one reactor for the carbonylation of methanol and CO to form methyl formate, and the second for the hydrogenolysis of methyl formate and H 2 to form two molecule of methanol. Four plant process configurations were compared with the biomass basis is 300 ton/day. The first configuration (A) is equipped with a steam reforming process for converting methane to CO and H 2 for increasing H 2 /CO ratio. CO 2 removal is necessary to avoid poisoning the catalyst. COSORB process used for the purpose of increasing the partial pressure of CO in the feed gas. The steam reforming process in B configuration is not used with the aim of reducing the number of process equipment, so expect lower investment costs. For C configuration, the steam reforming process and COSORB are not used with the aim of reducing the number of process equipment, so expect lower investment costs. D configuration is almost similar to the configuration A. This configuration difference is in the synthesis of methanol which was held in a single reactor. Carbonylation and hydrogenolysis reactions carried out in the same reactor one. These processes were analyzed in term of technical process, material and energy balance and economic

  1. Tools and Techniques for Basin-Scale Climate Change Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagona, E.; Rajagopalan, B.; Oakley, W.; Wilson, N.; Weinstein, P.; Verdin, A.; Jerla, C.; Prairie, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Department of Interior's WaterSMART Program seeks to secure and stretch water supplies to benefit future generations and identify adaptive measures to address climate change. Under WaterSMART, Basin Studies are comprehensive water studies to explore options for meeting projected imbalances in water supply and demand in specific basins. Such studies could be most beneficial with application of recent scientific advances in climate projections, stochastic simulation, operational modeling and robust decision-making, as well as computational techniques to organize and analyze many alternatives. A new integrated set of tools and techniques to facilitate these studies includes the following components: Future supply scenarios are produced by the Hydrology Simulator, which uses non-parametric K-nearest neighbor resampling techniques to generate ensembles of hydrologic traces based on historical data, optionally conditioned on long paleo reconstructed data using various Markov Chain techniuqes. Resampling can also be conditioned on climate change projections from e.g., downscaled GCM projections to capture increased variability; spatial and temporal disaggregation is also provided. The simulations produced are ensembles of hydrologic inputs to the RiverWare operations/infrastucture decision modeling software. Alternative demand scenarios can be produced with the Demand Input Tool (DIT), an Excel-based tool that allows modifying future demands by groups such as states; sectors, e.g., agriculture, municipal, energy; and hydrologic basins. The demands can be scaled at future dates or changes ramped over specified time periods. Resulting data is imported directly into the decision model. Different model files can represent infrastructure alternatives and different Policy Sets represent alternative operating policies, including options for noticing when conditions point to unacceptable vulnerabilities, which trigger dynamically executing changes in operations or other

  2. A multi-scale metrics approach to forest fragmentation for Strategic Environmental Impact Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eunyoung, E-mail: eykim@kei.re.kr [Korea Environment Institute, 215 Jinheungno, Eunpyeong-gu, Seoul 122-706 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Wonkyong, E-mail: wksong79@gmail.com [Suwon Research Institute, 145 Gwanggyo-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dongkun, E-mail: dklee7@snu.ac.kr [Department of Landscape Architecture and Rural System Engineering, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanakro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    Forests are becoming severely fragmented as a result of land development. South Korea has responded to changing community concerns about environmental issues. The nation has developed and is extending a broad range of tools for use in environmental management. Although legally mandated environmental compliance requirements in South Korea have been implemented to predict and evaluate the impacts of land-development projects, these legal instruments are often insufficient to assess the subsequent impact of development on the surrounding forests. It is especially difficult to examine impacts on multiple (e.g., regional and local) scales in detail. Forest configuration and size, including forest fragmentation by land development, are considered on a regional scale. Moreover, forest structure and composition, including biodiversity, are considered on a local scale in the Environmental Impact Assessment process. Recently, the government amended the Environmental Impact Assessment Act, including the SEA, EIA, and small-scale EIA, to require an integrated approach. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish an impact assessment system that minimizes the impacts of land development using an approach that is integrated across multiple scales. This study focused on forest fragmentation due to residential development and road construction sites in selected Congestion Restraint Zones (CRZs) in the Greater Seoul Area of South Korea. Based on a review of multiple-scale impacts, this paper integrates models that assess the impacts of land development on forest ecosystems. The applicability of the integrated model for assessing impacts on forest ecosystems through the SEIA process is considered. On a regional scale, it is possible to evaluate the location and size of a land-development project by considering aspects of forest fragmentation, such as the stability of the forest structure and the degree of fragmentation. On a local scale, land-development projects should

  3. Chemical concentrations, exposures, health risks by census tract from National Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Chemical concentrations, exposures, health risks by census tract for the United States from National Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA). This dataset is associated...

  4. Acidification of Earth: An assessment across mechanisms and scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Karen; Herman, Janet S.

    2012-01-01

    In this review article, anthropogenic activities that cause acidification of Earth’s air, waters, and soils are examined. Although there are many mechanisms of acidification, the focus is on the major ones, including emissions from combustion of fossil fuels and smelting of ores, mining of coal and metal ores, and application of nitrogen fertilizer to soils, by elucidating the underlying biogeochemical reactions as well as assessing the magnitude of the effects. These widespread activities have resulted in (1) increased CO2concentration in the atmosphere that acidifies the oceans; (2) acidic atmospheric deposition that acidifies soils and bodies of freshwater; (3) acid mine drainage that acidifies bodies of freshwater and groundwaters; and (4) nitrification that acidifies soils. Although natural geochemical reactions of mineral weathering and ion exchange work to buffer acidification, the slow reaction rates or the limited abundance of reactant phases are overwhelmed by the onslaught of anthropogenic acid loading. Relatively recent modifications of resource extraction and usage in some regions of the world have begun to ameliorate local acidification, but expanding use of resources in other regions is causing environmental acidification in previously unnoticed places. World maps of coal consumption, Cu mining and smelting, and N fertilizer application are presented to demonstrate the complex spatial heterogeneity of resource consumption as well as the overlap in acidifying potential derived from distinctly different phenomena. Projected population increase by country over the next four decades indicates areas with the highest potential for acidification, so enabling anticipation and planning to offset or mitigate the deleterious environmental effects associated with these global shifts in the consumption of energy, mineral, and food resources.

  5. Assessing Competition with the Panzar-Rosse Model: The Role of Scale, Costs, and Equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, J.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06912261X; Shaffer, S.; Spierdijk, L.

    2009-01-01

    The Panzar-Rosse test has been widely applied to assess competitive conduct, often in specifcations controlling for firm scale or using a price equation. We show that neither a price equation nor a scaled revenue function yields a valid measure for competitive conduct. Moreover, even an unscaled

  6. Assessment of renewable energy resources potential for large scale and standalone applications in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucho, Gudina Terefe; Weesie, Peter D.M.; Nonhebel, Sanderine

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to determine the contribution of renewable energy to large scale and standalone application in Ethiopia. The assessment starts by determining the present energy system and the available potentials. Subsequently, the contribution of the available potentials for large scale and

  7. Capturing subregional variability in regional-scale climate change vulnerability assessments of natural resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polly C. Buotte; David L. Peterson; Kevin S. McKelvey; Jeffrey A. Hicke

    2016-01-01

    Natural resource vulnerability to climate change can depend on the climatology and ecological conditions at a particular site. Here we present a conceptual framework for incorporating spatial variability in natural resource vulnerability to climate change in a regional-scale assessment. The framework was implemented in the first regional-scale vulnerability...

  8. Brief Assessment of Motor Function: Content Validity and Reliability of the Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintas, Holly Lea; Parks, Rebecca; Don, Sarah; Gerber, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Content validity and reliability of the Brief Assessment of Motor Function (BAMF) Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale (UEGMS) were evaluated in this prospective, descriptive study. The UEGMS is one of five BAMF ordinal scales designed for quick documentation of gross, fine, and oral motor skill levels. Designed to be independent of age and…

  9. Assessment of respondent acceptability of preference measures: discriminatory power of graphic positioning scale versus traditional scaling measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franic, Duska M; Pathak, Dev S

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare discriminatory power of two different measures-graphic positioning scale (GPS) versus traditional scale (TS)-in assessing respondent acceptability of three preference measures: visual analog scale (VAS), standard gamble (SG), and willingness to pay (WTP). Two face-to-face interviews were conducted at least 1 week apart in a convenience sample of women aged 22 to 50 years with no history of breast cancer or cancer requiring chemotherapy. Study participation required completion of two surveys: one evaluating health preferences for an acute condition (chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting) and one evaluating a chronic condition (breast cancer). Data were collected from March 2000 to June 2000 at Ohio State University. Respondents were randomized to either GPS or TS surveys. Data analysis was a two-step process. First, a four-way multivariate repeated-measures analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted to assess respondent acceptability of three-preference metrics-VAS, SG, and WTP-in health-care decision making. Each of the four dependent variables, difficulty, clarity, reasonableness, and comfort in use in decision making, was measured on 9-point Likert scale. Second, a mixed design univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed for each dependent variable to optimize MANOVA analysis. Univariate ANOVAs, 2 x (2 x 3), were composed of three independent variables: assessment (GPS/TS), condition (acute and chronic), and preferences (VAS, SG, WTP). Of 126 respondents, 119 were usable and complete. MANOVA results showed (P <.05) for two main effects, condition (F4,114 = 6.375) and preferences (F8,110 = 9.290), and two significant interactions, condition x assessment (F4,114 = 3.421) and condition x preferences (F8,110 = 2.087). GPS has higher discriminatory power than TS in assessing respondent attitudes toward health preference measures. Results showed that respondents had more difficulty and less comfort when making

  10. A psychometric assessment of the LPME scale for the South African skills development context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maelekanyo Christopher Tshilongamulenzhe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A thorough examination of psychometric properties of measurement scales is necessary to ensure that these scales comply with the existing scientific conventions. This article assesses the psychometric properties of the Learning Programme Management and Evaluation (LPME scale. A quantitative, non-experimental cross-sectional survey design was used. Data were collected from a sample of 652 respondents comprising skills development practitioners and learners/apprentices. Data were analyzed using Winsteps, SPSS and AMOS computer software. The findings show that the LPME scale meets the psychometric expectations and complies with the established scientific conventions in terms of validity, reliability, fit and unidimensionality.

  11. To explore the community rehabilitation assessment scales for patients with stroke sequelae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Tian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To choose the scales that can comprehensively assess the function of patients with stroke sequelae for the grassroots medical staff. Methods: The commonly used scales were selected. The patients with stroke sequelae were assessed by the MOS item short from health survey(SF-36, Modified Barthel Index(MBI, Brain Injury Community Rehabilitation Outcome Scales(BICRO-39,WHO Disability Assessment Scale II(WHO-DAS II and Anxiety and Depression Self-rating Scales(SAS and SDS. The assessment datum was conducted by Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: The data of MBI have significant correlation among the datum of WHO-DASII, SF-36 and BICRO 39 scales(P<0.05. The datum of MBI doesn’t have correlation among the datum of the SAS and SDS (P>0.05. Conclusions: Community doctors can choose MBI which can effectively assess the activities of daily living for the community patients with stroke sequelae. MBI also can reflect the functional levels of community patients with stroke sequelae.

  12. A visual analogue scale and a Likert scale are simple and responsive tools for assessing dysphagia in eosinophilic oesophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, C C; Wolf, W A; Cotton, C C; Dellon, E S

    2017-06-01

    While symptom scores have been developed to evaluate dysphagia in eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE), their complexity may limit clinical use. To evaluate a visual analogue scale (VAS) and a 10-point Likert scale (LS) for assessment of dysphagia severity before and after EoE treatment. We conducted a prospective cohort study enrolling consecutive adults undergoing out-patient endoscopy. Incident cases of EoE were diagnosed per consensus guidelines. At diagnosis and after 8 weeks of treatment, symptoms were measured using the VAS, LS and the Mayo Dysphagia Questionnaire (MDQ). The percentage change in scores before and after treatment were compared overall, in treatment responders (dysphagia severity in EoE in clinical practice. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. A Visual Analogue Scale and a Likert Scale are Simple and Responsive Tools for Assessing Dysphagia in Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Craig C.; Wolf, W. Asher; Cotton, Cary C.; Dellon, Evan S.

    2017-01-01

    Background While symptom scores have been developed to evaluate dysphagia in eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE), their complexity may limit clinical use. Aim We aimed to evaluate a visual analogue scale (VAS) and a 10 point Likert scale (LS) for assessment of dysphagia severity before and after EoE treatment. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study enrolling consecutive adults undergoing outpatient endoscopy. Incident cases of EoE were diagnosed per consensus guidelines. At diagnosis and after 8 weeks of treatment, symptoms were measured using the VAS, LS, and the Mayo Dysphagia Questionnaire (MDQ). The percentage change in scores before and after treatment were compared overall, in treatment responders (dysphagia severity in EoE in clinical practice. PMID:28370355

  14. An Assessment of Five (PANSS, SAPS, SANS, NSA-16, CGI-SCH) commonly used Symptoms Rating Scales in Schizophrenia and Comparison to Newer Scales (CAINS, BNSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Suneeta; Malik, Mansoor; Florival, Christina; Manalai, Partam; Sonje, Snezana

    2017-01-01

    Scales measuring positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia remain the primary mo Scales measuring positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia remain the primary mode of assessing and diagnosing schizophrenia by clinicians and researchers. The scales are mainly used to monitor the severity of positive and negative symptoms and track treatment response in schizophrenics. Although these scales are widely used, quality as well as general utility of each scale varies. The quality is determined by the validity and reliability of the scales. The utility of the scale is determined by the time of administration and the settings for which the scales can be administered in research or clinical settings. There are relatively fewer articles on the utility of newer scales like CAINS (Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms) and the BNSS (Brief Negative Symptom Scale) that compare them to the older scales PANSS (Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale), SAPS (Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms) SANS (the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms), NSA-16 (Negative Symptom Assessment-16) and CGI-SCH (Clinical Global Impression Schizophrenia. The older scales were developed more than 30 years ago. Since then, our understanding of negative symptoms has evolved and currently there are newer rating scales evaluating the validity of negative symptoms. The older scales do not incorporate the latest research on negative symptoms. CAINS and BNSS are attractive for both their reliability and their concise accessible format, however, a scale that is simpler, accessible, user-friendly, that incorporates a multidimensional model of schizophrenia, addresses the psychosocial and cognitive component has yet to be developed.

  15. Establishing the Validity of the Personality Assessment Inventory Drug and Alcohol Scales in a Corrections Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patry, Marc W.; Magaletta, Philip R.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Weinman, Beth A.

    2011-01-01

    Although not originally designed for implementation in correctional settings, researchers and clinicians have begun to use the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) to assess offenders. A relatively small number of studies have made attempts to validate the alcohol and drug abuse scales of the PAI, and only a very few studies have validated those…

  16. Evidence Based Clinical Assessment of Child and Adolescent Social Phobia: A Critical Review of Rating Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulbure, Bogdan T.; Szentagotai, Aurora; Dobrean, Anca; David, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Investigating the empirical support of various assessment instruments, the evidence based assessment approach expands the scientific basis of psychotherapy. Starting from Hunsley and Mash's evaluative framework, we critically reviewed the rating scales designed to measure social anxiety or phobia in youth. Thirteen of the most researched social…

  17. Including Performance Assessments in Accountability Systems: A Review of Scale-Up Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Rosann

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this literature and field review is to understand previous efforts at scaling up performance assessments for use across districts and states. Performance assessments benefit students and teachers by providing more opportunities for students to demonstrate their knowledge and complex skills, by providing teachers with better…

  18. Nurses assessing pain with the Nociception Coma Scale: interrater reliability and validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, Peter; Eskes, Anne Maria; Lindeboom, Robert; van den Munckhof, Pepijn; Vermeulen, Hester

    2014-01-01

    The Nociception Coma Scale (NCS) is a pain observation tool, developed for patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) due to acquired brain injury (ABI). The aim of this study was to assess the interrater reliability of the NCS and NCS-R among nurses for the assessment of pain in ABI patients

  19. A Multitrait-Multimethod Examination of the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales in a College Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaujean, A. Alexander; Firmin, Michael W.; Michonski, Jared D.; Berry, Theodore; Johnson, Courtney

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed trait validity of the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales' (RIAS) Verbal Index (VIX) and Nonverbal Index (NIX) scores in a group of college students. Using both observation of patterns and latent variable modeling of a multitrait-multimethod correlation/covariance matrix, the results indicate that the RIAS VIX scores…

  20. [An assessment scale for the prevention of pressure sores in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvet, Corinne; Poirier, Marie-Renée; Sourisseau, Petronela Rachieru; Béduneau, Denis; Soulard, Anthony; Delacroix, Delphine

    2015-04-01

    Pressure sores in children are rare. However, when they do occur they can have significant consequences. Professionals in paediatric units realised the importance of assessing the risk of pressure sores and developed a pressure sore assessment scale specific to children. This project, carried out through a hospital-training school partnership, emphasises the importance of clinical reasoning in nursing practices.

  1. Secondary Analysis of Large-Scale Assessment Data: An Alternative to Variable-Centred Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Kui Foon; Kennedy, Kerry John

    2014-01-01

    International large-scale assessments are now part of the educational landscape in many countries and often feed into major policy decisions. Yet, such assessments also provide data sets for secondary analysis that can address key issues of concern to educators and policymakers alike. Traditionally, such secondary analyses have been based on a…

  2. Factor Analytic Study of Lecturer's Teaching Assessment Scale in Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegede, Olu Philip; Faleye, Bamidele Abiodun; Adeyemo, Emily Oluseyi

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a validation report of the Lecturer's Teaching Assessment Scale (LTAS) developed for the assessment of lecturer's teaching effectiveness in Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. It also examined the factor structure of the LTAS, its construct validity, and internal consistency reliability coefficients. The study adopted…

  3. Investigating the reliability and validity of the waterlow risk assessment scale: a literature review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Breda

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this review was to examine health literature on the reliability and validity of the Waterlow pressure sore assessment scale. A systematic review of published studies relating to the topic was conducted and literature was examined for its relevancy to the topic under investigation. Findings suggest that despite the availability of over 40 assessment tools, the Waterlow assessment scale is the most frequently used by health care staff. Research suggests that the Waterlow Scale is an unreliable method of assessing individuals at risk of pressure sore development with all studies indicating a poor interrater reliability status. Its validity has also been criticized because of its high-sensitivity but low-specificity levels.

  4. Investigating the reliability and validity of the waterlow risk assessment scale: a literature review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Breda

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this review was to examine health literature on the reliability and validity of the Waterlow pressure sore assessment scale. A systematic review of published studies relating to the topic was conducted and literature was examined for its relevancy to the topic under investigation. Findings suggest that despite the availability of over 40 assessment tools, the Waterlow assessment scale is the most frequently used by health care staff. Research suggests that the Waterlow Scale is an unreliable method of assessing individuals at risk of pressure sore development with all studies indicating a poor interrater reliability status. Its validity has also been criticized because of its high-sensitivity but low-specificity levels.

  5. Treating kleptomania: Cross-cultural adaptation of the kleptomania symptom assessment scale and assessment of an outpatient program

    OpenAIRE

    Christianini, AR; Conti, MA; Hearst, N; Cordás, TA; De Abreu, CN; Tavares, H

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Background Kleptomania is characterized by repetitive stealing and has severe consequences for patients. Stigma, a lack of standardized therapy and a limited number of assessment tools hinder advances in treatment. This study provides preliminary data on the Portuguese-language version of the Kleptomania Symptom Assessment Scale (P-K-SAS) and preliminary data on an outpatient program. Methods Experts in the field analyzed an initial P-K-SAS version, p...

  6. Assessing depression outcome in patients with moderate dementia: sensitivity of the HoNOS65+ scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, Alessandra; Rudhard-Thomazic, Valérie; Herrmann, François R; Delaloye, Christophe; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; Weber, Kerstin

    2009-08-15

    To date, there is no widely accepted clinical scale to monitor the evolution of depressive symptoms in demented patients. We assessed the sensitivity to treatment of a validated French version of the Health of the Nation Outcome Scale (HoNOS) 65+ compared to five routinely used scales. Thirty elderly inpatients with ICD-10 diagnosis of dementia and depression were evaluated at admission and discharge using paired t-test. Using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) "depressive mood" item as gold standard, a receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis assessed the validity of HoNOS65+F "depressive symptoms" item score changes. Unlike Geriatric Depression Scale, Mini Mental State Examination and Activities of Daily Living scores, BPRS scores decreased and Global Assessment Functioning Scale score increased significantly from admission to discharge. Amongst HoNOS65+F items, "behavioural disturbance", "depressive symptoms", "activities of daily life" and "drug management" items showed highly significant changes between the first and last day of hospitalization. The ROC analysis revealed that changes in the HoNOS65+F "depressive symptoms" item correctly classified 93% of the cases with good sensitivity (0.95) and specificity (0.88) values. These data suggest that the HoNOS65+F "depressive symptoms" item may provide a valid assessment of the evolution of depressive symptoms in demented patients.

  7. The Validity and Reliability of the Turkish Version of the Neonatal Skin Risk Assessment Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Çiğdem; Altay, Naime

    2017-03-01

    The study created a Turkish translation of the Neonatal Skin Risk Assessment Scale (NSRAS) that was developed by Huffines and Longsdon in 1997. Study authors used a cross-sectional survey design in order to determine the validity and reliability of the Turkish translation. The study was conducted at the neonatal intensive care unit of a university hospital in Ankara between March 15 and June 30, 2014. The research sample included 130 neonatal assessments from 17 patients. Data were collected by questionnaire regarding the characteristics of the participating neonates, 7 nurse observers, and the NSRAS and its subarticles. After translation and back-translation were performed to assess language validity of the scale, necessary corrections were made in line with expert suggestions, and content validity was ensured. Internal consistency of the scale was assessed by its homogeneity, Cronbach's α, and subarticle-general scale grade correlation. Cronbach's α for the scale overall was .88, and Cronbach's α values for the subarticles were between .83 and .90. Results showed a positive relationship among all the subarticles and the overall NSRAS scale grade (P Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin analysis was applied for sample sufficiency, and Bartlett test analysis was applied in order to assess the factor analysis of the sample. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin coefficient was 0.73, and the χ value found according to the Bartlett test was statistically significant at an advanced level (P < .05). In the 6 subarticles of the scale and in the general scale total grade, a high, positive, and significant relationship among the grades given by the researcher and the nurse observers was found (P < .05). The Turkish NSRAS is reliable and valid.

  8. Functional Assessment of School Attendance Problems : An Adapted Version of the School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyne, D. A.; Vreeke, L. J.; Maric, M.; Boelens, H.; Van Widenfelt, B. M.

    2017-01-01

    The School Refusal Assessment Scale (SRAS) was developed to identify four factors that might maintain a youth’s school attendance problem (SAP), and thus be targeted for treatment. There is still limited support for the four-factor model inherent to the SRAS and its revision (SRAS-R). Recent studies

  9. Evaluation of the Validity and Reliability of the Waterlow Pressure Ulcer Risk Assessment Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalambous, Charalambos; Koulori, Agoritsa; Vasilopoulos, Aristidis; Roupa, Zoe

    2018-04-01

    Prevention is the ideal strategy to tackle the problem of pressure ulcers. Pressure ulcer risk assessment scales are one of the most pivotal measures applied to tackle the problem, much criticisms has been developed regarding the validity and reliability of these scales. To investigate the validity and reliability of the Waterlow pressure ulcer risk assessment scale. The methodology used is a narrative literature review, the bibliography was reviewed through Cinahl, Pubmed, EBSCO, Medline and Google scholar, 26 scientific articles where identified. The articles where chosen due to their direct correlation with the objective under study and their scientific relevance. The construct and face validity of the Waterlow appears adequate, but with regards to content validity changes in the category age and gender can be beneficial. The concurrent validity cannot be assessed. The predictive validity of the Waterlow is characterized by high specificity and low sensitivity. The inter-rater reliability has been demonstrated to be inadequate, this may be due to lack of clear definitions within the categories and differentiating level of knowledge between the users. Due to the limitations presented regarding the validity and reliability of the Waterlow pressure ulcer risk assessment scale, the scale should be used in conjunction with clinical assessment to provide optimum results.

  10. The effect of assessment scale and metric selection on the greenhouse gas benefits of woody biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galik, Christopher S.; Abt, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent attention has focused on the net greenhouse gas (GHG) implications of using woody biomass to produce energy. In particular, a great deal of controversy has erupted over the appropriate manner and scale at which to evaluate these GHG effects. Here, we conduct a comparative assessment of six different assessment scales and four different metric calculation techniques against the backdrop of a common biomass demand scenario. We evaluate the net GHG balance of woody biomass co-firing in existing coal-fired facilities in the state of Virginia, finding that assessment scale and metric calculation technique do in fact strongly influence the net GHG balance yielded by this common scenario. Those assessment scales that do not include possible market effects attributable to increased biomass demand, including changes in forest area, forest management intensity, and traditional industry production, generally produce less-favorable GHG balances than those that do. Given the potential difficulty small operators may have generating or accessing information on the extent of these market effects, however, it is likely that stakeholders and policy makers will need to balance accuracy and comprehensiveness with reporting and administrative simplicity. -- Highlights: ► Greenhouse gas (GHG) effects of co-firing forest biomass with coal are assessed. ► GHG effect of replacing coal with forest biomass linked to scale, analytic approach. ► Not accounting for indirect market effects yields poorer relative GHG balances. ► Accounting systems must balance comprehensiveness with administrative simplicity.

  11. Evaluation of the Validity and Reliability of the Waterlow Pressure Ulcer Risk Assessment Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalambous, Charalambos; Koulori, Agoritsa; Vasilopoulos, Aristidis; Roupa, Zoe

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Prevention is the ideal strategy to tackle the problem of pressure ulcers. Pressure ulcer risk assessment scales are one of the most pivotal measures applied to tackle the problem, much criticisms has been developed regarding the validity and reliability of these scales. Objective To investigate the validity and reliability of the Waterlow pressure ulcer risk assessment scale. Method The methodology used is a narrative literature review, the bibliography was reviewed through Cinahl, Pubmed, EBSCO, Medline and Google scholar, 26 scientific articles where identified. The articles where chosen due to their direct correlation with the objective under study and their scientific relevance. Results The construct and face validity of the Waterlow appears adequate, but with regards to content validity changes in the category age and gender can be beneficial. The concurrent validity cannot be assessed. The predictive validity of the Waterlow is characterized by high specificity and low sensitivity. The inter-rater reliability has been demonstrated to be inadequate, this may be due to lack of clear definitions within the categories and differentiating level of knowledge between the users. Conclusion Due to the limitations presented regarding the validity and reliability of the Waterlow pressure ulcer risk assessment scale, the scale should be used in conjunction with clinical assessment to provide optimum results. PMID:29736104

  12. Assessing social isolation in motor neurone disease: a Rasch analysis of the MND Social Withdrawal Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Chris J; Thornton, Everard W; Ealing, John; Shaw, Pamela J; Talbot, Kevin; Tennant, Alan; Young, Carolyn A

    2013-11-15

    Social withdrawal is described as the condition in which an individual experiences a desire to make social contact, but is unable to satisfy that desire. It is an important issue for patients with motor neurone disease who are likely to experience severe physical impairment. This study aims to reassess the psychometric and scaling properties of the MND Social Withdrawal Scale (MND-SWS) domains and examine the feasibility of a summary scale, by applying scale data to the Rasch model. The MND Social Withdrawal Scale was administered to 298 patients with a diagnosis of MND, alongside the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The factor structure of the MND Social Withdrawal Scale was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis. Model fit, category threshold analysis, differential item functioning (DIF), dimensionality and local dependency were evaluated. Factor analysis confirmed the suitability of the four-factor solution suggested by the original authors. Mokken scale analysis suggested the removal of item five. Rasch analysis removed a further three items; from the Community (one item) and Emotional (two items) withdrawal subscales. Following item reduction, each scale exhibited excellent fit to the Rasch model. A 14-item Summary scale was shown to fit the Rasch model after subtesting the items into three subtests corresponding to the Community, Family and Emotional subscales, indicating that items from these three subscales could be summed together to create a total measure for social withdrawal. Removal of four items from the Social Withdrawal Scale led to a four factor solution with a 14-item hierarchical Summary scale that were all unidimensional, free for DIF and well fitted to the Rasch model. The scale is reliable and allows clinicians and researchers to measure social withdrawal in MND along a unidimensional construct. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Urban land use, air toxics and public health: Assessing hazardous exposures at the neighborhood scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corburn, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Land use data are increasingly understood as important indicators of potential environmental health risk in urban areas where micro-scale or neighborhood level hazard exposure data are not routinely collected. This paper aims to offer a method for estimating the distribution of air toxics in urban neighborhoods using land use information because actual air monitoring data rarely exist at this scale. Using Geographic Information System spatial modeling tools, we estimate air toxics concentrations across neighborhoods in New York City and statistically compare our model with the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Air Toxic Assessment and air monitoring data across three NYC neighborhoods. We conclude that land use data can act as a good proxy for estimating neighborhood scale air toxics, particularly in the absence of monitoring data. In addition, the paper suggests that land use data can expand the reach of environmental impact assessments that routinely exclude analyses of potential exposures to urban air toxics at the neighborhood scale

  14. Assessment of scale formation and corrosion of drinking water supplies in Ilam city (Iran)

    OpenAIRE

    Zabihollah Yousefi; Farzad Kazemi; Reza Ali Mohammadpour

    2016-01-01

    Background: Scaling and corrosion are the two most important indexes in water quality evaluation. Pollutants are released in water due to corrosion of pipelines. The aim of this study is to assess the scale formation and corrosion of drinking water supplies in Ilam city (Iran). Methods: This research is a descriptive and cross-sectional study which is based on the 20 drinking water sources in Ilam city. Experiments were carried out in accordance with the Water and Wastewater Co. ...

  15. Development of scales to assess children's perceptions of friend and parental influences on physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brockman Rowan

    2009-10-01

    . Conclusion Three scales that assess how parents, friends and group normative values may be associated with children's physical activity have been shown to be reliable and internally consistent. Examination of the extent to which these new scales improve our understanding of children's physical activity in datasets with a range of participant and family characteristics is needed.

  16. Probabilistic safety assessment in nuclear power plant management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, N.J.

    1989-06-01

    Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) techniques have been widely used over the past few years to assist in understanding how engineered systems respond to abnormal conditions, particularly during a severe accident. The use of PSAs in the design and operation of such systems thus contributes to the safety of nuclear power plants. Probabilistic safety assessments can be maintained to provide a continuous up-to-date assessment (Living PSA), supporting the management of plant operations and modifications

  17. How the Internet Will Help Large-Scale Assessment Reinvent Itself

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Elliot Bennett

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale assessment in the United States is undergoing enormous pressure to change. That pressure stems from many causes. Depending upon the type of test, the issues precipitating change include an outmoded cognitive-scientific basis for test design; a mismatch with curriculum; the differential performance of population groups; a lack of information to help individuals improve; and inefficiency. These issues provide a strong motivation to reconceptualize both the substance and the business of large-scale assessment. At the same time, advances in technology, measurement, and cognitive science are providing the means to make that reconceptualization a reality. The thesis of this paper is that the largest facilitating factor will be technological, in particular the Internet. In the same way that it is already helping to revolutionize commerce, education, and even social interaction, the Internet will help revolutionize the business and substance of large-scale assessment.

  18. Relationship status: Scales for assessing the vitality of late adolescents' relationships with their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klos, D S; Paddock, J R

    1978-12-01

    Three criteria for assessing relationship status were proposed: self-disclosure despite the risk of parental disapproval; openness to critical feedback from parents; constructive confrontation when angry with parents. These concepts were operationalized as narratives of nine interpersonal dilemmas, to which late adolescents responded by indicating "What would you do if you were in this situation?" Reliable example-anchored scales were constructed from the responses of one sample of college students and then cross-validated with two other samples. Social class had a significant but small effect on the relationship status scores; but age and sex of adolescent and sex of parent did not. The patterns of correlations of the Relationship Status Scales among themselves and with the Parent-Child Relations Questionnaire, the College Self-Expression Scale, the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale, and Hogan's Empathy Scale were interpreted as evidence of construct validity.

  19. A research agenda for data and scale issues in Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joao, Elsa

    2007-01-01

    The way in which Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) succeeds in its key aim - to integrate the environment into strategic decision-making - is affected by the choice of both data and scale. The data and scale used within SEA fundamentally shape the process. However, in the past, these issues were often not discussed in an explicit or in-depth way. This article proposes a research agenda, and recommendations for future practice, on data and scale issues in SEA. Future research on data issues, spatial and temporal scales (both in terms of detail and extent), tiering, data quality and links to decision-making are recommended. The article concludes that questions of data and scale in SEA are not just technical, they are essential to identifying and understanding the issues that SEA should be addressing, and therefore are a core element of SEA

  20. Scaling up success to improve health: Towards a rapid assessment guide for decision makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Paltzer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Evidence-based health interventions exist and are effectively implemented throughout resource-limited settings. The literature regarding scale-up strategies and frameworks is growing. The purpose of this paper is to identify and systematically document the variation in scale-up strategies to develop a rapid assessment tool for decision-makers looking to identify the most appropriate strategy for their organizational and environmental contexts. Methods A list of scale-up strategies and frameworks were identified through an in-depth literature review and conversations with scale-up and quality improvement leaders. The literature search included a broad range of terms that might be used interchangeably with scale-up of best practices. Terms included: implementation research, knowledge translation, translational research, quality improvement research, health systems improvement, scale-up, best practices, improvement collaborative, and community based research. Based on this research, 18 strategies and frameworks were identified, and nine met our inclusion criteria for scale-up of health-related strategies. We interviewed the key contact for four of the nine strategies to obtain additional information regarding the strategy’s scale-up components, targets, underlying theories, evaluation efforts, facilitating factors, and barriers. A comparative analysis of common elements and strategy characteristics was completed by two of the authors on the nine selected strategies. Key strategy characteristics and common factors that facilitate or hinder the strategy’s success in scaling up health-related interventions were identified. Results Common features of scale-up strategies include: 1 the development of context-specific evidence; 2 collaborative partnerships; 3 iterative processes; and 4 shared decision-making. Facilitating factors include strong leadership, community engagement, communication, government collaboration, and a focus on

  1. Systematic Review of Pain assessment scales in newborns under maxillofacial surgery Admitted to the surgical ward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapour Yaripoor

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Having standard tools for measuring pain in infants is essential. The aim of this study is to review the scale of pain in newborns under maxillofacial surgery Admitted to the surgical ward. Integrative review study of articles published from 2000 to 2015, carried out in the following databases: Scopus, PubMed, CINAHL, LILACS, Cochrane, medscape and google scholar. The sample consisted of 17 articles. MeSH headings searched included pain measurement, pain scale, newborn pain, infant pain scale, maxillofacial surgery and pain perception. 16 neonatal pain assessment tools were found. Of the 232 original articles, 17 review articles in the field of pain assessment tools in infant under maxillofacial surgery who had inclusion criteria were selected. The most studied was the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP, The CRIES and the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS. Infant pain assessment is not universally standardized. Practitioners may assess pain; however, they may not consistently use the same criteria to do so. The use of Neonatal Facial Coding System, the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale and the Premature Infant Pain Profile Can accurately show the amount of pain in newborns.

  2. Development and testing of a scale for assessing the quality of home nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Chii-Jun; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Chang, Hsing-Yi

    2016-03-01

    To develop a home nursing quality scale and to evaluate its psychometric properties. This was a 3-year study. In the first year, 19 focus group interviews with caregivers of people using home nursing services were carried out in northern, central and southern Taiwan. Content analysis was carried out and a pool of questionnaire items compiled. In the second year (2007), study was carried out on a stratified random sample selected from home nursing organizations covered by the national health insurance scheme in southern Taiwan. The study population was the co-resident primary caregivers of home care nursing service users. Item analysis and exploratory factor analysis were carried out on data from 365 self-administered questionnaires collected from 13 selected home care organizations. In the third year (2008), a random sample of participants was selected from 206 hospital-based home care nursing organizations throughout Taiwan, resulting in completion of 294 questionnaires from 27 organizations. Confirmatory factor analysis was then carried out on the scale, and the validity and reliability of the scale assessed. The present study developed a reliable and valid home nursing quality scale from the perspective of users of home nursing services. The scale comprised three factors: dependability, communication skills and service usefulness. This scale is of practical value for the promotion of long-term community care aging in local policies. The scale is ready to be used to assess the quality of services provided by home care nursing organizations. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  3. Analysis of environmental impact assessment for large-scale X-ray medical equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Jin; Pei Chengkai

    2011-01-01

    Based on an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) project, this paper elaborates the basic analysis essentials of EIA for the sales project of large-scale X-ray medical equipment, and provides the analysis procedure of environmental impact and dose estimation method under normal and accident conditions. The key points of EIA for the sales project of large-scale X-ray medical equipment include the determination of pollution factor and management limit value according to the project's actual situation, the utilization of various methods of assessment and prediction such as analogy, actual measurement and calculation to analyze, monitor, calculate and predict the pollution during normal and accident condition. (authors)

  4. Laboratory Scale Coal And Biomass To Drop-In Fuels (CBDF) Production And Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lux, Kenneth [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Imam, Tahmina [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Chevanan, Nehru [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Namazian, Mehdi [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Wang, Xiaoxing [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Song, Chunshan [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2016-06-29

    This Final Technical Report describes the work and accomplishments of the project entitled, “Laboratory Scale Coal and Biomass to Drop-In Fuels (CBDF) Production and Assessment.” The main objective of the project was to fabricate and test a lab-scale liquid-fuel production system using coal containing different percentages of biomass such as corn stover and switchgrass at a rate of 2 liters per day. The system utilizes the patented Altex fuel-production technology, which incorporates advanced catalysts developed by Pennsylvania State University. The system was designed, fabricated, tested, and assessed for economic and environmental feasibility relative to competing technologies.

  5. Development and properties of a brief scale to assess intimate partner relationship in the postnatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynter, Karen; Tran, Thach Duc; Rowe, Heather; Fisher, Jane

    2017-06-01

    Poor quality intimate partner relationship is associated with postnatal depression and anxiety among women. Existing scales assessing the quality of this relationship are long and measure stable aspects of the relationship rather than specific behaviours which may respond to targeted interventions. The aim was to develop and investigate the properties of a brief, life stage-specific scale to assess potentially modifiable partner behaviours in the postpartum period. Participants were primiparous women from diverse geographical and socio-economic backgrounds in Victoria, Australia. Seven study-specific items were developed to assess potentially modifiable aspects of the intimate partner relationship at 6 months postpartum. Women's mental health was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the Patient Health Questionnaire depression and generalised anxiety modules. Factor analysis was conducted on the 7 items, and associations calculated between factor scores. Factor scores were compared for women with and without mental health problems. Mean inter-item correlations were computed to assess internal consistency. Factor analysis on data from 355 women revealed two factors with good internal consistency: Caring Partner Behaviours and Emotionally Abusive Partner Behaviours. Having mental health problems was associated with lower Caring Partner Behaviours and higher Emotionally Abusive Partner Behaviours scores. Interaction between partners was not observed; thus external criterion validity was not assessed. This brief scale is a promising means of assessing potentially modifiable aspects of the intimate partner relationship in the postnatal period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Affordable, automatic quantitative fall risk assessment based on clinical balance scales and Kinect data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colagiorgio, P; Romano, F; Sardi, F; Moraschini, M; Sozzi, A; Bejor, M; Ricevuti, G; Buizza, A; Ramat, S

    2014-01-01

    The problem of a correct fall risk assessment is becoming more and more critical with the ageing of the population. In spite of the available approaches allowing a quantitative analysis of the human movement control system's performance, the clinical assessment and diagnostic approach to fall risk assessment still relies mostly on non-quantitative exams, such as clinical scales. This work documents our current effort to develop a novel method to assess balance control abilities through a system implementing an automatic evaluation of exercises drawn from balance assessment scales. Our aim is to overcome the classical limits characterizing these scales i.e. limited granularity and inter-/intra-examiner reliability, to obtain objective scores and more detailed information allowing to predict fall risk. We used Microsoft Kinect to record subjects' movements while performing challenging exercises drawn from clinical balance scales. We then computed a set of parameters quantifying the execution of the exercises and fed them to a supervised classifier to perform a classification based on the clinical score. We obtained a good accuracy (~82%) and especially a high sensitivity (~83%).

  7. Test-retest reliability of Brazilian version of Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale for assessing symptoms in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Josiane Roberta de; Luvisaro, Bianca Maria Oliveira; Rodrigues, Claudia Fernandes; Muzi, Camila Drumond; Guimarães, Raphael Mendonça

    2017-01-01

    To assess the test-retest reliability of the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale translated and culturally adapted into Brazilian Portuguese. The scale was applied in an interview format for 190 patients with various cancers type hospitalized in clinical and surgical sectors of the Instituto Nacional de Câncer José de Alencar Gomes da Silva and reapplied in 58 patients. Data from the test-retest were double typed into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and analyzed by the weighted Kappa. The reliability of the scale was satisfactory in test-retest. The weighted Kappa values obtained for each scale item had to be adequate, the largest item was 0.96 and the lowest was 0.69. The Kappa subscale was also evaluated and values were 0.84 for high frequency physic symptoms, 0.81 for low frequency physical symptoms, 0.81 for psychological symptoms, and 0.78 for Global Distress Index. High level of reliability estimated suggests that the process of measurement of Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale aspects was adequate. Avaliar a confiabilidade teste-reteste da versão traduzida e adaptada culturalmente para o português do Brasil do Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale. A escala foi aplicada em forma de entrevista em 190 pacientes com diversos tipos de câncer internados nos setores clínicos e cirúrgicos do Instituto Nacional de Câncer José de Alencar Gomes da Silva e reaplicada em 58 pacientes. Os dados dos testes-retestes foram inseridos num banco de dados por dupla digitação independente em Excel e analisados pelo Kappa ponderado. A confiabilidade da escala mostrou-se satisfatória nos testes-retestes. Os valores do Kappa ponderado obtidos para cada item da escala apresentaram-se adequados, sendo o maior item de 0,96 e o menor de 0,69. Também se avaliou o Kappa das subescalas, sendo de 0,84 para sintomas físicos de alta frequência, de 0,81 para sintomas físicos de baixa frequência, de 0,81 também para sintomas psicológicos, e de 0,78 para Índice Geral de Sofrimento

  8. Delirium assessed by Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale in advanced cancer patients admitted to an acute palliative/supportive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadante, Sebastiano; Adile, Claudio; Ferrera, Patrizia; Cortegiani, Andrea; Casuccio, Alessandra

    2017-07-01

    Delirium is often unrecognized in cancer patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of delirium assessed by the Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (MDAS) and possible associated factors on admission to an acute palliative/supportive care unit (APSCU). The secondary outcome was to assess changes in MDAS and symptom burden at time of discharge. A consecutive sample of advanced cancer patients who were admitted to an APSCU was prospectively assessed for a period of 10 months. Patient demographics, including age, gender, primary diagnosis, Karnofsky status, stage of disease, and educational level were collected. The Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS) and the MDAS were measured at hospital admission and discharge. A total of 314 patients were surveyed. Of 292 patients with MDAS available at T0, 74 (25.3%) and 24 (8.2%) had a MDAS of 7-12 and ≥13, respectively. At discharge, there was a significant decrease in the number of patients with a MDAS ≥7/30. Higher values of MDAS were associated with age (p = .028), a lower Karnofsky status (p symptoms (p = .026), hospital stay (p = .038) and death (p Delirium is highly prevalent in patients admitted to APSCU, characterized by a low mortality due to early referral. Comprehensive assessment and treatment may allow a decrease in the level of cognitive disorders and symptom burden.

  9. [Upper limb functional assessment scale for children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and Spinal muscular atrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Raúl G; Lucero, Nayadet; Solares, Carmen; Espinoza, Victoria; Moscoso, Odalie; Olguín, Polín; Muñoz, Karin T; Rosas, Ricardo

    2016-08-16

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) causes significant disability and progressive functional impairment. Readily available instruments that assess functionality, especially in advanced stages of the disease, are required to monitor the progress of the disease and the impact of therapeutic interventions. To describe the development of a scale to evaluate upper limb function (UL) in patients with DMD and SMA, and describe its validation process, which includes self-training for evaluators. The development of the scale included a review of published scales, an exploratory application of a pilot scale in healthy children and those with DMD, self-training of evaluators in applying the scale using a handbook and video tutorial, and assessment of a group of children with DMD and SMA using the final scale. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach and Kendall concordance and with intra and inter-rater test-retest, and validity with concordance and factorial analysis. A high level of reliability was observed, with high internal consistency (Cronbach α=0.97), and inter-rater (Kendall W=0.96) and intra-rater concordance (r=0.97 to 0.99). The validity was demonstrated by the absence of significant differences between results by different evaluators with an expert evaluator (F=0.023, P>.5), and by the factor analysis that showed that four factors account for 85.44% of total variance. This scale is a reliable and valid tool for assessing UL functionality in children with DMD and SMA. It is also easily implementable due to the possibility of self-training and the use of simple and inexpensive materials. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Mercury use in small scale gold mining in Ghana: an assessment of its impact on miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagya, Robert Yakubu

    2002-12-01

    Small scale gold mining is responsible for about 5% of Ghana’s annual gold production. It is estimated that between 80,000 and 100,000 people are engaged in small scale gold mining either on part-time or permanent basis. Amalgamation is the preferred method used by small scale gold miners for extracting free gold from its ores. The rate at which mercury, an important input in this method, is discharged into the atmosphere and water bodies is alarming. This research describes the various mining and processing methods in small scale gold mining and the extent of mercury use and releases to the environment. It discusses mercury and its human and environmental effects. It defines the various forms of mercury, routes of exposure, toxic effects. The levels of exposure to mercury by all groups of small scale gold miners are determined, and the impacts on the miners and the environment are assessed. It concludes that: • Mercury is mainly released into the environment as a result of small scale gold mining through spillage of elemental mercury and evaporation of mercury from the amalgam and sponge gold when they are heated on open fire. • Mercury in environmental samples from small scale gold mining areas is well above standard limit values. • Mercury released into the environment through small scale gold mining impacts negatively on the miners themselves and the general environment. Finally, it recommends the need for the adoption of mercury emission reduction strategies for dealing with the mercury problem. (au)

  11. Vitiligo impact scale: An instrument to assess the psychosocial burden of vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurang S Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Vitiligo is a disease that significantly impairs quality of life. Previous studies have shown that vitiligo has an impact that may not correlate with the size and extent of depigmentation, indicating a need for an independent measure of the psychosocial burden. Aims : To develop a rating scale to assess the psychosocial impact of vitiligo. Methods : The study was undertaken in three broad phases: item generation, pre- and pilot testing, and test administration. Items were generated largely from a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews of patients. Face and content validity were assessed through pre- and pilot testing in 80 patients and the final version was administered to 100 patients who also received the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI and the Skindex-16. Each patient also underwent a physician global assessment (PGA of the impact of vitiligo. Test-retest reliability was assessed in 20 patients. Results: Of 72 items initially generated for the scale, 27 were retained in the final version. Subjects were able to comprehend the items and took about 5-7 min to complete the instrument. The scale was internally consistent (Cronbach′s α = 0.85. Scores on the scale correlated moderately well with the DLQI and the Skindex (Spearman rank correlation: 0.51 and 0.65, respectively. The scale was able to discriminate between patients having mild and those having moderate and severe impact as assessed by PGA. The test-retest reliability coefficient (Spearman rank correlation was 0.80. Conclusion: The Vitiligo Impact Scale appears to be a valid measure of the psychosocial impact of vitiligo and this instrument may be useful both in the clinic and in clinical trials.

  12. A novel, simple scale for assessing the symptom severity of atrial fibrillation at the bedside: the CCS-SAF scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorian, Paul; Cvitkovic, Suzan S; Kerr, Charles R; Crystal, Eugene; Gillis, Anne M; Guerra, Peter G; Mitchell, L Brent; Roy, Denis; Skanes, Allan C; Wyse, D George

    2006-04-01

    The severity of symptoms caused by atrial fibrillation (AF) is extremely variable. Quantifying the effect of AF on patient well-being is important but there is no simple, commonly accepted measure of the effect of AF on quality of life (QoL). Current QoL measures are cumbersome and impractical for clinical use. To create a simple, concise and readily usable AF severity score to facilitate treatment decisions and physician communication. The Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) Severity of Atrial Fibrillation (SAF) Scale is analogous to the CCS Angina Functional Class. The CCS-SAF score is determined using three steps: documentation of possible AF-related symptoms (palpitations, dyspnea, dizziness/syncope, chest pain, weakness/fatigue); determination of symptom-rhythm correlation; and assessment of the effect of these symptoms on patient daily function and QoL. CCS-SAF scores range from 0 (asymptomatic) to 4 (severe impact of symptoms on QoL and activities of daily living). Patients are also categorized by type of AF (paroxysmal versus persistent/permanent). The CCS-SAF Scale will be validated using accepted measures of patient-perceived severity of symptoms and impairment of QoL and will require 'field testing' to ensure its applicability and reproducibility in the clinical setting. This type of symptom severity scale, like the New York Heart Association Functional Class for heart failure symptoms and the CCS Functional Class for angina symptoms, trades precision and comprehensiveness for simplicity and ease of use at the bedside. A common language to quantify AF severity may help to improve patient care.

  13. Fall risk assessment: retrospective analysis of Morse Fall Scale scores in Portuguese hospitalized adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardo, Pedro Miguel Garcez; Simões, Cláudia Sofia Oliveira; Alvarelhão, José Joaquim Marques; Simões, João Filipe Fernandes Lindo; Melo, Elsa Maria de Oliveira Pinheiro de

    2016-08-01

    The Morse Fall Scale is used in several care settings for fall risk assessment and supports the implementation of preventive nursing interventions. Our work aims to analyze the Morse Fall Scale scores of Portuguese hospitalized adult patients in association with their characteristics, diagnoses and length of stay. Retrospective cohort analysis of Morse Fall Scale scores of 8356 patients hospitalized during 2012. Data were associated to age, gender, type of admission, specialty units, length of stay, patient discharge, and ICD-9 diagnosis. Elderly patients, female, with emergency service admission, at medical units and/or with longer length of stays were more frequently included in the risk group for falls. ICD-9 diagnosis may also be an important risk factor. More than a half of hospitalized patients had "medium" to "high" risk of falling during the length of stay, which determines the implementation and maintenance of protocoled preventive nursing interventions throughout hospitalization. There are several fall risk factors not assessed by Morse Fall Scale. There were no statistical differences in Morse Fall Scale score between the first and the last assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Psychometric assessment of the Spiritual Climate Scale Arabic version for nurses in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Jonas Preposi; Albaqawi, Hamdan Mohammad; Alharbi, Sami Melbes; Alicante, Jerico G; Vitorino, Luciano M; Abunab, Hamzeh Y

    2017-12-07

    To assess the psychometric properties of the Spiritual Climate Scale Arabic version for Saudi nurses. Evidence showed that a high level of spiritual climate in the workplace is associated with increased productivity and performance, enhanced emotional intelligence, organisational commitment and job satisfaction among nurses. A convenient sample of 165 Saudi nurses was surveyed in this descriptive, cross-sectional study. Cronbach's α and intraclass correlation coefficient of the 2 week test-retest scores were computed to establish reliability. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to support the validity of the Spiritual Climate Scale Arabic version. The Spiritual Climate Scale Arabic version manifested excellent content validity. Exploratory factor analysis supported a single factor with an explained variance of 73.2%. The Cronbach's α values of the scale ranged from .79 to .88, while the intraclass correlation coefficient value was .90. The perceived spiritual climate was associated with the respondents' hospital, gender, age and years of experience. Findings of this study support the sound psychometric properties of the Spiritual Climate Scale Arabic version. The Spiritual Climate Scale Arabic version can be used by nurse managers to assess the nurses' perception of the spiritual climate in any clinical area. This process can lead to spiritually centred interventions, thereby ensuring a clinical climate that accepts and respects different spiritual beliefs and practices. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. A partnership development process assessment scale for public health nurses in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigematsu, Yukako; Hatano, Yoko; Kimura, Hitoe

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and test a Partnership Development Process Assessment (PDPA) scale for content and construct validity and internal consistency reliability. This is needed to document and evaluate community health partnership development processes between public health nurses and community-based organizations in Japan. The study was conducted in three phases. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted to generate items for a new scale. Thirty items were generated and reviewed by an expert panel for content validity and item refinement. A national postal survey of public health nurses was conducted to determine the scale's internal structure, evaluate its reliability, and explore its construct and criterion validity. Validity and reliability testing of the PDPA scale using a content validity index and analysis of correlations with an existing scale were performed. Twenty-six items were selected and grouped into four factors: activities to share roles to manage community health issues, platform activities to support partnerships, activities to evaluate partnership practices, and activities to share information regarding community health issues. After factor analysis, 23 items were retained. The PDPA scale is a valid and reliable instrument for public health nurses to assess partnership development activities. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. An Integrated Assessment of Location-Dependent Scaling for Microalgae Biofuel Production Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Andre M.; Abodeely, Jared; Skaggs, Richard; Moeglein, William AM; Newby, Deborah T.; Venteris, Erik R.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2014-06-19

    Successful development of a large-scale microalgae-based biofuels industry requires comprehensive analysis and understanding of the feedstock supply chain—from facility siting/design through processing/upgrading of the feedstock to a fuel product. The evolution from pilot-scale production facilities to energy-scale operations presents many multi-disciplinary challenges, including a sustainable supply of water and nutrients, operational and infrastructure logistics, and economic competitiveness with petroleum-based fuels. These challenges are addressed in part by applying the Integrated Assessment Framework (IAF)—an integrated multi-scale modeling, analysis, and data management suite—to address key issues in developing and operating an open-pond facility by analyzing how variability and uncertainty in space and time affect algal feedstock production rates, and determining the site-specific “optimum” facility scale to minimize capital and operational expenses. This approach explicitly and systematically assesses the interdependence of biofuel production potential, associated resource requirements, and production system design trade-offs. The IAF was applied to a set of sites previously identified as having the potential to cumulatively produce 5 billion-gallons/year in the southeastern U.S. and results indicate costs can be reduced by selecting the most effective processing technology pathway and scaling downstream processing capabilities to fit site-specific growing conditions, available resources, and algal strains.

  17. Scale-Dependent Assessment of Relative Disease Resistance to Plant Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Skelsey

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenotyping trials may not take into account sufficient spatial context to infer quantitative disease resistance of recommended varieties in commercial production settings. Recent ecological theory—the dispersal scaling hypothesis—provides evidence that host heterogeneity and scale of host heterogeneity interact in a predictable and straightforward manner to produce a unimodal (“humpbacked” distribution of epidemic outcomes. This suggests that the intrinsic artificiality (scale and design of experimental set-ups may lead to spurious conclusions regarding the resistance of selected elite cultivars, due to the failure of experimental efforts to accurately represent disease pressure in real agricultural situations. In this model-based study we investigate the interaction of host heterogeneity and scale as a confounding factor in the inference from ex-situ assessment of quantitative disease resistance to commercial production settings. We use standard modelling approaches in plant disease epidemiology and a number of different agronomic scenarios. Model results revealed that the interaction of heterogeneity and scale is a determinant of relative varietal performance under epidemic conditions. This is a previously unreported phenomenon that could provide a new basis for informing the design of future phenotyping platforms, and optimising the scale at which quantitative disease resistance is assessed.

  18. Validation of the Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale for Multicultural Screening in Danish Memory Clinics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Rune; Andersen, Birgitte Bo; Gottrup, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims: The Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale (RUDAS) is a brief cognitive screening test that was developed to detect dementia in multicultural populations. The RUDAS has not previously been validated in multicultural populations outside of Australia. The aim of this study...

  19. A Scale for the Assessment of Attitudes and Knowledge Regarding Sexuality in the Aged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Charles B.

    This paper presents the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale (ASKAS), an instrument designed to assess the particular aspects of sexual knowledge and attitudes as they relate to the aged. Development of ASKAS items from a survey of existant physiological research on sexuality in older adults and a review of social-psychological writing on…

  20. The Development of a Scale on Assessing Peer Mentoring at the College Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocadere, Selay Arkün

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of my study was to develop and validate a scale to assess peer mentoring practices that aim to enhance learning. In the development process, 4 focus group interviews were conducted with 10 mentors and 12 mentees who participated in 8 weeks of peer mentoring. In addition to the literature, the findings from interviews were used to…

  1. Explore the Usefulness of Person-Fit Analysis on Large-Scale Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ying; Mousavi, Amin

    2015-01-01

    The current study applied the person-fit statistic, l[subscript z], to data from a Canadian provincial achievement test to explore the usefulness of conducting person-fit analysis on large-scale assessments. Item parameter estimates were compared before and after the misfitting student responses, as identified by l[subscript z], were removed. The…

  2. Response shift in severity assessment of hand eczema with visual analogue scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Annette; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hand eczema is a common and fluctuating disease. Visual analogue scales (VASs) are used to assess disease severity, both currently and when at its worst. However, such patient-reported outcomes may be at risk of being flawed owing to recall bias or response shifts. OBJECTIVE: To explore...

  3. Balancing Tensions in Educational Policy Reforms: Large-Scale Implementation of Assessment for Learning in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfenbeck, Therese N.; Flórez Petour, María Teresa; Tolo, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates how different stakeholders in Norway experienced a government-initiated, large-scale policy implementation programme on "Assessment for Learning" ("AfL"). Data were collected through 58 interviews with stakeholders in charge of the policy; Ministers of Education and members of the Directorate of…

  4. Examiner Errors on the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales Committed by Graduate Student Examiners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loe, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Protocols from 108 administrations of the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales were evaluated to determine the frequency of examiner errors and their impact on the accuracy of three test composite scores, the Composite Ability Index (CIX), Verbal Ability Index (VIX), and Nonverbal Ability Index (NIX). Students committed at least one…

  5. [A scale for the assessment of the risk of pressure sores in paediatric intensive care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Virginie

    2014-01-01

    Pressure sores are a frequent complication in paediatric intensive care. A multi-disciplinary nursing team has drawn up an assessment scale for the risk of pressure sores and has put in place guidelines for caring for children in intensive care. Prevention actions are thereby adapted to each young patient.

  6. Assessing heterogeneity in soil nitrogen cycling: a plot-scale approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Baas; Jacqueline E. Mohan; David Markewitz; Jennifer D. Knoepp

    2014-01-01

    The high level of spatial and temporal heterogeneity in soil N cycling processes hinders our ability to develop an ecosystem-wide understanding of this cycle. This study examined how incorporating an intensive assessment of spatial variability for soil moisture, C, nutrients, and soil texture can better explain ecosystem N cycling at the plot scale. Five sites...

  7. Psychometric properties of the Fatigue Assessment Scale (FAS) in women with breast problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, J.; van der Steeg, A.F.; Roukema, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    To examine the usefulness of the Fatigue Assessment Scale (FAS) in women with benign breast problems (BBP) and women with early stage breast cancer (BC). Women with a palpable lump in the breast or an abnormality on a screening mammography (N = 560) completed the FAS (four time points) and measures

  8. The internal consistency and validity of the Self-assessment Parkinson's Disease Disability Scale.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans, M.A.J.E.; Dekker, J.; Woude, L.H.V. van der

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the consistency and validity of the Self-assessment Parkinson's Disease Disability Scale in patients with Parkinson's disease living at home. DESIGN: Patients with Parkinson's disease responded to a set of questionnaires. In addition, an observation of the performance of daily

  9. Internal consistency and validity of the self-assessment Parkinson's Disease disability scale. Abstract.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.; Biemans, M.A.J.E.; Woude, L.H.V. van der

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the consistency and validity of the Self-assessment Parkinson's Disease Disability Scale in patients with Parkinson's disease living at home. DESIGN: Patients with Parkinson's disease responded to a set of questionnaires. In addition, an observation of the performance of daily

  10. How to Measure and Explain Achievement Change in Large-Scale Assessments: A Rejoinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickendorff, Marian; Heiser, Willem J.; van Putten, Cornelis M.; Verhelst, Norman D.

    2009-01-01

    In this rejoinder, we discuss substantive and methodological validity issues of large-scale assessments of trends in student achievement, commenting on the discussion paper by Van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Robitzsch, Treffers, and Koller (2009). We focus on methodological challenges in deciding what to measure, how to measure it, and how to foster…

  11. An assessment of basin-scale glaciological and hydrological sensitivities in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shea, Joseph M.; Immerzeel, Walter W.

    2016-01-01

    Glacier responses to future climate change will affect hydrology at sub-basin scales. The main goal of this study is to assess glaciological and hydrological sensitivities of sub-basins throughout the Hindu Kush-Himalaya region. We use a simple geometrical analysis based on a full glacier inventory

  12. A Scale to Assess Science Activity Videos (SASAV): The Study of Validity and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Yilmaz; Bakirci, Hasan

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop an assessment scale for science activity videos that can be used to determine qualified science activity videos that can fulfill the objectives of activity based science education, help teachers to evaluate any science activity videos and decide whether to include into science learning process. The subjects…

  13. Translation and adaptation of the Disability Assessment for Dementia scale in the Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, Alicia; López-Roig, Sofia; Pampliega Pérez, Ana; Peral Gómez, Paula; Pastor, María Ángeles; Hurtado-Pomares, Miriam

    2017-09-20

    Functional assessment is especially relevant in patients with cognitive impairment (CI). The Disability Assessment for Dementia (DAD) scale assesses functional ability and its use is becoming increasingly popular. This study aims to perform the translation and cultural adaptation of the DAD scale in order to create a Spanish version: DAD-E. A double translation/back-translation process was developed, as well as a pilot study with 14 caregivers of patients with CI, and 3 review meetings to achieve general agreement. The DAD-E includes the 40 original items. Four response options and 8 scores were added in order to detect functional disability induced by CI independently of other possible causes. More detailed instructions for administration and scoring of the scale have been provided in order to improve the reliability of the content. The DAD-E was shown to be a cultural and linguistic adaptation equivalent of the original scale, which allows it to be applied to the Spanish population. It may be a useful instrument in clinical practice since it provides a more accurate assessment of functional disability due to cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Estimating the Effectiveness of Special Education Using Large-Scale Assessment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Katherine Anne

    2009-01-01

    The inclusion of students with disabilities in large scale assessment and accountability programs has provided new opportunities to examine the impact of special education services on student achievement. Hanushek, Kain, and Rivkin (1998, 2002) evaluated the effectiveness of special education programs by examining students' gains on a large-scale…

  15. A conceptual analysis of standard setting in large-scale assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.

    1994-01-01

    Elements of arbitrariness in the standard setting process are explored, and an alternative to the use of cut scores is presented. The first part of the paper analyzes the use of cut scores in large-scale assessments, discussing three different functions: (1) cut scores define the qualifications used

  16. The blepharospasm disability scale: an instrument for the assessment of functional health in blepharospasm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, R.; de Haan, R.; Aramideh, M.; Speelman, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    Assessment of the functional status in patients with blepharospasm is of major importance for clinical practice and outcome studies. The Blepharospasm Disability Scale (BDS) is specifically directed to measure the disability in these patients. The metric properties of this instrument were evaluated.

  17. Taxometric Analysis of the Antisocial Features Scale of the Personality Assessment Inventory in Federal Prison Inmates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Magaletta, Philip R.; Geyer, Matthew D.; Duncan, Scott A.

    2007-01-01

    The Antisocial Features (ANT) scale of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) was subjected to taxometric analysis in a group of 2,135 federal prison inmates. Scores on the three ANT subscales--Antisocial Behaviors (ANT-A), Egocentricity (ANT-E), and Stimulus Seeking (ANT-S)--served as indicators in this study and were evaluated using the…

  18. Psychometric properties of the Doloplus-2 observational pain assessment scale and comparison to self-assessment in hospitalized elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautex, Sophie; Herrmann, François R; Michon, Agnès; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; Gold, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    Self-report is the "gold standard" for pain assessment, however, observational pain scales, such as Doloplus-2 must be used for patients who cannot communicate. In this follow-up study, we report the psychometric properties of the observational Doloplus-2 scale using the visual analog scale (VAS) pain score as a gold standard and evaluate its performance. Prospective clinical study of 180 hospitalized older patients who demonstrated good comprehension and reliable use of the VAS: 131 participants with dementia and 49 without. All participants assessed their chronic pain using the VAS. Doloplus-2 was independently completed by the nursing team. Mean age of patients (133 women, 47 men) was 83.7+/-6.5. Median mini-mental state examination of patients with diagnosis of dementia was 18.0+/-7.7. Nearly half of the patients (49%) reported that they experienced pain in response to a direct question. The administration of Doloplus-2 was possible in all 180 patients. Doloplus-2 correlated moderately with self-assessment (Spearman coefficient: 0.46). In a multiple regression model, Doloplus-2 predicted 41% of the variability in pain intensity measured by VAS. The somatic dimension alone explained 36% of the variance, the psychosocial bloc 5% with no better contribution of the psychomotor bloc. To shorten Doloplus-2, we constructed a version with only the 5 items that were significantly associated with the VAS score in the multiple regression models. The observational Doloplus-2 scale correlates moderately with self-assessment pain score and has adequate internal consistency. Our data also suggest that Doloplus-2 could be substantially shortened as the brief version performed similarly to the complete Doloplus-2.

  19. Comparing the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale with the Mini-BESTest and Berg Balance Scale to assess postural control in patients with Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenstedt, Christian; Brombacher, Stephanie; Hartwigsen, Gesa; Weisser, Burkhard; Möller, Bettina; Deuschl, Günther

    2015-02-01

    To validate the Fullerton Advanced Balance (FAB) Scale for patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease (PD); and to compare the FAB Scale with the Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test (Mini-BESTest) and Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Observational study to assess concurrent validity, test-retest, and interrater reliability of the FAB Scale in patients with PD and to compare the distribution of the scale with the Mini-BESTest and BBS. University hospital in an urban community. Patients with idiopathic PD (N=85; Hoehn and Yahr stages 1-4). Not applicable. FAB Scale, Mini-BESTest, BBS, timed Up and Go test, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, and visual analog scale. Interrater (3 raters) and test-retest (3±1 d) reliability were high for all scales (ICCs≥.95). The FAB Scale was highly correlated with the Mini-BESTest (Spearman ρ=.87) and timed Up and Go test item of the Mini-BESTest (Spearman ρ=.83). In contrast with the BBS, the FAB Scale and Mini-BESTest have only minimal ceiling effects. The FAB Scale demonstrated the most symmetric distribution when compared with the Mini-BESTest and BBS (skewness: FAB scale: -.54; Mini-BESTest: -1.07; BBS: -2.14). The FAB Scale is a valid and reliable tool to assess postural control in patients with PD. No ceiling effect was noted for the FAB Scale. Although the items of the FAB Scale are more detailed when compared with the Mini-BESTest, interrater and test-retest reliability were excellent. The scale is a promising tool to detect small changes of the postural control system in individuals with PD. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Utility of a Validated Rating Scale for Self-Assessment in Microsurgical Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Aaron L; Temple-Oberle, Claire

    The purpose of this study is to determine the utility of self-assessment in microsurgical training using a previously validated rating scale. A prospective study of surgical residents taking a hands-on 5-day microsurgical training course. Learners completed multiple self-assessments of their technical skills using the University of Western Ontario Microsurgical Acquisition/Assessment instrument. Simultaneously, preceptors assessed the learners using the same scale. Self-assessment and preceptor scores were compared using the Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC). There was a significant agreement noted between the 32 preceptor assessments and 36 self-assessments that were completed. Correlation between scores for the knot-tying (PCC = 0.62) and anastomosis modules (PCC = 0.77) was good and excellent, respectively. Preceptor scores and self-scores improved over the duration of the course: for preceptors, knot-tying scores increased from 58% on day 1 to 78% on day 5 (p = 0.02) and anastomosis scores improved from 56% to 82% (p = 0.004); for self-scores, knot-tying scores increased from 44% to 81% (p = 0.001) and anastomosis scores from 49% to 84% (p = 0.001). Learners with greater experience (higher postgraduate year level) tended to have higher self as well as preceptor ratings, albeit not statistically significant. Self-assessment using the University of Western Ontario Microsurgical Acquisition/Assessment instrument has good to excellent agreement with preceptor-assessment scores suggesting good interrater reliability. Self-assessment using such tools may, therefore, be used along with preceptor supervision and assessment to potentially improve self-directed learning during these courses. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessing attitude toward same-sex marriage: scale development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannutti, Pamela J; Lachlan, Kenneth A

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the results of three studies conducted to develop, refine, and validate a scale which assessed heterosexual adults' attitudes toward same-sex marriage, the Attitude Toward Same-Sex Marriage Scale (ASSMS). The need for such a scale is evidenced in the increasing importance of same-sex marriage in the political arena of the United States and other nations, as well as the growing body of empirical research examining same-sex marriage and related issues (e.g., Lannutti, 2005; Solomon, Rothblum, & Balsam, 2004). The results demonstrate strong reliability, convergent validity, and predictive validity for the ASSMS and suggest that the ASSMS may be adapted to measure attitudes toward civil unions and other forms of relational recognition for same-sex couples. Gender comparisons using the validated scale showed that in college and non-college samples, women had a significantly more positive attitude toward same-sex marriage than did men.

  2. Brief pain inventory scale: An emerging assessment modality for orofacial pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchika Khanna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain is an emotional experience almost experienced by almost every one of us. Since the pain can neither be seen nor measured, it poses a challenge to the patient as well as the clinician in understanding its complicated nature and the best way of managing it. There is no simple method of pain evaluation due to its subjective nature. However, comprehensive approaches for its evaluation exists, of which most common pain scale used are visual analog scale, Mc-Gills questionnaire, brief pain inventory (BPI to name a few. We have tried to highlight the various advantages of the BPI scale over the other pain scales and to emphasize an improved instrument, which can be used as a promising modality for the assessment of orofacial pain.

  3. Hypothesis testing on the fractal structure of behavioral sequences: the Bayesian assessment of scaling methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscoso del Prado Martín, Fermín

    2013-12-01

    I introduce the Bayesian assessment of scaling (BAS), a simple but powerful Bayesian hypothesis contrast methodology that can be used to test hypotheses on the scaling regime exhibited by a sequence of behavioral data. Rather than comparing parametric models, as typically done in previous approaches, the BAS offers a direct, nonparametric way to test whether a time series exhibits fractal scaling. The BAS provides a simpler and faster test than do previous methods, and the code for making the required computations is provided. The method also enables testing of finely specified hypotheses on the scaling indices, something that was not possible with the previously available methods. I then present 4 simulation studies showing that the BAS methodology outperforms the other methods used in the psychological literature. I conclude with a discussion of methodological issues on fractal analyses in experimental psychology. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Development and validation of a psychometric scale for assessing PA chest image quality: A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mraity, H.; England, A.; Akhtar, I.; Aslam, A.; De Lange, R.; Momoniat, H.; Nicoulaz, S.; Ribeiro, A.; Mazhir, S.; Hogg, P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and validate a psychometric scale for assessing image quality perception for chest X-ray images. Methods: Bandura's theory was used to guide scale development. A review of the literature was undertaken to identify items/factors which could be used to evaluate image quality using a perceptual approach. A draft scale was then created (22 items) and presented to a focus group (student and qualified radiographers). Within the focus group the draft scale was discussed and modified. A series of seven postero-anterior chest images were generated using a phantom with a range of image qualities. Image quality perception was confirmed for the seven images using signal-to-noise ratio (SNR 17.2–36.5). Participants (student and qualified radiographers and radiology trainees) were then invited to independently score each of the seven images using the draft image quality perception scale. Cronbach alpha was used to test interval reliability. Results: Fifty three participants used the scale to grade image quality perception on each of the seven images. Aggregated mean scale score increased with increasing SNR from 42.1 to 87.7 (r = 0.98, P < 0.001). For each of the 22 individual scale items there was clear differentiation of low, mid and high quality images. A Cronbach alpha coefficient of >0.7 was obtained across each of the seven images. Conclusion: This study represents the first development of a chest image quality perception scale based on Bandura's theory. There was excellent correlation between the image quality perception scores derived using the scale and the SNR. Further research will involve a more detailed item and factor analysis

  5. Ranking of small scale proposals for water system repair using the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakib-Manesh, T.E.; Hirvonen, K.O.; Jalava, K.J.; Ålander, T.; Kuitunen, M.T., E-mail: markku.kuitunen@jyu.fi

    2014-11-15

    Environmental impacts of small scale projects are often assessed poorly, or not assessed at all. This paper examines the usability of the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) as a tool to prioritize project proposals for small scale water restoration projects in relation to proposals' potential to improve the environment. The RIAM scoring system was used to assess and rank the proposals based on their environmental impacts, the costs of the projects to repair the harmful impacts, and the size of human population living around the sites. A four-member assessment group (The expert panel) gave the RIAM-scores to the proposals. The assumed impacts of the studied projects at the Eastern Finland water systems were divided into the ecological and social impacts. The more detailed assessment categories of the ecological impacts in this study were impacts on landscape, natural state, and limnology. The social impact categories were impacts to recreational use of the area, fishing, industry, population, and economy. These impacts were scored according to their geographical and social significance, their magnitude of change, their character, permanence, reversibility, and cumulativeness. The RIAM method proved to be an appropriate and recommendable method for the small-scale assessment and prioritizing of project proposals. If the assessments are well documented, the RIAM can be a method for easy assessing and comparison of the various kinds of projects. In the studied project proposals there were no big surprises in the results: the best ranks were received by the projects, which were assumed to return watersheds toward their original state.

  6. Ranking of small scale proposals for water system repair using the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakib-Manesh, T.E.; Hirvonen, K.O.; Jalava, K.J.; Ålander, T.; Kuitunen, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental impacts of small scale projects are often assessed poorly, or not assessed at all. This paper examines the usability of the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) as a tool to prioritize project proposals for small scale water restoration projects in relation to proposals' potential to improve the environment. The RIAM scoring system was used to assess and rank the proposals based on their environmental impacts, the costs of the projects to repair the harmful impacts, and the size of human population living around the sites. A four-member assessment group (The expert panel) gave the RIAM-scores to the proposals. The assumed impacts of the studied projects at the Eastern Finland water systems were divided into the ecological and social impacts. The more detailed assessment categories of the ecological impacts in this study were impacts on landscape, natural state, and limnology. The social impact categories were impacts to recreational use of the area, fishing, industry, population, and economy. These impacts were scored according to their geographical and social significance, their magnitude of change, their character, permanence, reversibility, and cumulativeness. The RIAM method proved to be an appropriate and recommendable method for the small-scale assessment and prioritizing of project proposals. If the assessments are well documented, the RIAM can be a method for easy assessing and comparison of the various kinds of projects. In the studied project proposals there were no big surprises in the results: the best ranks were received by the projects, which were assumed to return watersheds toward their original state

  7. Is small beautiful? A multicriteria assessment of small-scale energy technology applications in local governments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, Jonathan; Hubacek, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    In its 2003 White Paper the UK government set ambitious renewable energy targets. Local governments and households have an increasing role in the overall energy system as consumers, suppliers of smaller-scale applications and citizens discussing energy projects. In this paper, we consider if small-scale or large-scale approaches to renewable energy provision can achieve energy targets in the most socially, economically and environmentally (SEE) effective way. We take a local case study of renewable energy provision in the Metropolitan Borough of Kirklees in Yorkshire, UK, and apply a multi-criteria decision analysis methodology to compare the small-scale schemes implemented in Kirklees with large-scale alternatives. The results indicate that small-scale schemes are the most SEE effective, despite large-scale schemes being more financially viable. The selection of the criteria on which the alternatives are assessed and the assigned weights for each criterion are of crucial importance. It is thus very important to include the relevant stakeholders to elicit this information

  8. Psychometric Properties of the Theory of Mind Assessment Scale in a Sample of Adolescents and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Francesca M; Gabbatore, Ilaria; Tirassa, Maurizio; Testa, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed at the evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Theory of Mind Assessment Scale (Th.o.m.a.s.). Th.o.m.a.s. is a semi-structured interview meant to evaluate a person's Theory of Mind (ToM). It is composed of several questions organized in four scales, each focusing on one of the areas of knowledge in which such faculty may manifest itself: Scale A (I-Me) investigates first-order first-person ToM; Scale B (Other-Self) investigates third-person ToM from an allocentric perspective; Scale C (I-Other) again investigates third-person ToM, but from an egocentric perspective; and Scale D (Other-Me) investigates second-order ToM. The psychometric proprieties of Th.o.m.a.s. were evaluated in a sample of 156 healthy persons: 80 preadolescent and adolescent (aged 11-17 years, 42 females) and 76 adults (aged from 20 to 67 years, 35 females). Th.o.m.a.s. scores show good inter-rater agreement and internal consistency; the scores increase with age. Evidence of criterion validity was found as Scale B scores were correlated with those of an independent instrument for the evaluation of ToM, the Strange Stories task. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed good fit of the four-factors theoretical model to the data, although the four factors were highly correlated. For each of the four scales, Rasch analyses showed that, with few exceptions, items fitted the Partial credit model and their functioning was invariant for gender and age. The results of this study, along with those of previous researches with clinical samples, show that Th.o.m.a.s. is a promising instrument to assess ToM in different populations.

  9. The Learning Loss Scale as an Assessment Tool: An Empirical Examination of Convergent Validity with Performative Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, John; Denker, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Higher education has placed an increasingly greater value on assessment. The Learning Loss Scale may be an appropriate tool to assess learning across disciplines. In this paper, we review the culture of assessment, conceptualizations of cognitive learning, the Learning Loss Scale, and a theoretical explanation, and then we test this measure to…

  10. Scale for Assessment of Giftedness - teacher's version: evidence of validity content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana de Cassia Nakano

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of high abilities is of great importance in psychology, despite scarce studies in literature. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify, through content validity, the appropriateness of the items of the High Assessment Scale Skills - Teacher Version. The judges were six post-graduate students in the psychological assessment area who rated the 41 items of the instrument in six factors (academic intellectual ability, specific academic skills, leadership, creativity, artistic talent. The results demonstrated the suitability of the items, most of them with concordance rates above 80% (n = 29 and between 60 and 80% (n = 8. Only four items showed agreement at or below 50%, suggesting the need for reformulation. The analysis of the Kappa coefficients showed indices between 0.69 and 0.81. In general, the results indicated the suitability of the scale to the contents of the pretended model.

  11. Validity of self-assessment of hallux valgus using the Manchester scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wee Elin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hallux valgus (HV is a common condition involving the progressive subluxation of the first metatarsophalangeal joint due to lateral deviation of the hallux and medial deviation of the first metatarsal. The objective of this study was to evaluate the re-test reliability and validity of self-assessment of HV using a simple clinical screening tool involving four standardised photographs (the Manchester scale, in order to determine whether this tool could be used for postal surveys of the condition. Methods HV was assessed with the Manchester scale in 138 people aged 65 to 93 years of age (102 women and 36 men as part of a larger randomised controlled trial. At the six month follow-up assessment, HV was reassessed to determine re-test reliability, and participants were asked to self-assess their degree of HV independent of the examiners. Associations between (i baseline and follow-up assessments of the examiners and (ii participant and examiner assessments were performed using weighted kappa statistics. Analyses were then repeated after HV was dichotomised as present or absent using unweighted kappa, and sensitivity and specificity of self-assessment of HV was determined. Results Re-test reliability of the examiners was substantial to almost perfect (weighted kappa = 0.78 to 0.90, and there was a substantial level of agreement between observations of the participants and the examiners (weighted kappa = 0.71 to 0.80. Overall, there was a slight tendency for participants to rate their HV as less severe than the examiners. When the Manchester scale scores were dichotomised, agreement was substantial to almost perfect for both re-test comparisons (kappa = 0.80 to 0.89 and substantial for comparisons between participants and examiners (kappa = 0.64 to 0.76. The sensitivity and specificity of self-assessment of HV using the dichotomous scale were 85 and 88%, respectively. Conclusions The Manchester scale demonstrates high re

  12. Universal happiness? Cross-cultural measurement invariance of scales assessing positive mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieda, Angela; Hirschfeld, Gerrit; Schönfeld, Pia; Brailovskaia, Julia; Zhang, Xiao Chi; Margraf, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    Research into positive aspects of the psyche is growing as psychologists learn more about the protective role of positive processes in the development and course of mental disorders, and about their substantial role in promoting mental health. With increasing globalization, there is strong interest in studies examining positive constructs across cultures. To obtain valid cross-cultural comparisons, measurement invariance for the scales assessing positive constructs has to be established. The current study aims to assess the cross-cultural measurement invariance of questionnaires for 6 positive constructs: Social Support (Fydrich, Sommer, Tydecks, & Brähler, 2009), Happiness (Subjective Happiness Scale; Lyubomirsky & Lepper, 1999), Life Satisfaction (Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985), Positive Mental Health Scale (Lukat, Margraf, Lutz, van der Veld, & Becker, 2016), Optimism (revised Life Orientation Test [LOT-R]; Scheier, Carver, & Bridges, 1994) and Resilience (Schumacher, Leppert, Gunzelmann, Strauss, & Brähler, 2004). Participants included German (n = 4,453), Russian (n = 3,806), and Chinese (n = 12,524) university students. Confirmatory factor analyses and measurement invariance testing demonstrated at least partial strong measurement invariance for all scales except the LOT-R and Subjective Happiness Scale. The latent mean comparisons of the constructs indicated differences between national groups. Potential methodological and cultural explanations for the intergroup differences are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. The Cultural Socialization Scale: Assessing Family and Peer Socialization toward Heritage and Mainstream Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yijie; Benner, Aprile D.; Kim, Su Yeong

    2015-01-01

    In a culturally diverse society, youth learn about multiple cultures from a variety of sources, yet the existing assessment of cultural socialization has been limited to parents' efforts to teach youth about their heritage culture. The current study adapted and extended an existing cultural socialization measure (Umaña-Taylor & Fine, 2004) to assess four types of socialization practices encountered specifically during adolescence: cultural socialization by families and peers toward both one's heritage culture and the mainstream culture. In a pilot study, we developed the cultural socialization scale based on retrospective reports from 208 young adults, maximizing young adults' ability to reason and reflect their adolescent experiences with various socialization practices. In the primary study, we examined the psychometric properties of the scale using reports from 252 adolescents. Cultural socialization occurred from both socialization agents toward both cultures. Our cultural socialization scale demonstrated stable factor structures and high reliabilities. We observed strong factorial invariance across the four subscales (six items). MIMIC models also demonstrated invariance for each subscale across adolescents' demographic characteristics (i.e., gender, race/ethnicity, nativity, SES, language of assessment). The implications of the cultural socialization scale are discussed. PMID:25961139

  14. The breastfeeding self-efficacy scale: psychometric assessment of the short form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Cindy-Lee

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to reduce the number of items on the original Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale (BSES) and psychometrically assess the revised BSES-Short Form (BSES-SF). As part of a longitudinal study, participants completed mailed questionnaires at 1, 4, and 8 weeks postpartum. Health region in British Columbia. A population-based sample of 491 breastfeeding mothers. BSES, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Perceived Stress Scale. Internal consistency statistics with the original BSES suggested item redundancy. As such, 18 items were deleted, using explicit reduction criteria. Based on the encouraging reliability analysis of the new 14-item BSES-SF, construct validity was assessed using principal components factor analysis, comparison of contrasted groups, and correlations with measures of similar constructs. Support for predictive validity was demonstrated through significant mean differences between breastfeeding and bottle feeding mothers at 4 (p self-efficacy and considered ready for clinical use to (a) identify breastfeeding mothers at high risk, (b) assess breastfeeding behaviors and cognitions to individualize confidence-building strategies, and (c) evaluate the effectiveness of various interventions and guide program development.

  15. The Irvine, Beatties, and Bresnahan (IBB) Forelimb Recovery Scale: An Assessment of Reliability and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Karen-Amanda; Ferguson, Adam R.; Mitchell, Kathleen D.; Beattie, Stephanie B.; Lin, Amity; Stuck, Ellen D.; Huie, J. Russell; Nielson, Jessica L.; Talbott, Jason F.; Inoue, Tomoo; Beattie, Michael S.; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C.

    2014-01-01

    The IBB scale is a recently developed forelimb scale for the assessment of fine control of the forelimb and digits after cervical spinal cord injury [SCI; (1)]. The present paper describes the assessment of inter-rater reliability and face, concurrent and construct validity of this scale following SCI. It demonstrates that the IBB is a reliable and valid scale that is sensitive to severity of SCI and to recovery over time. In addition, the IBB correlates with other outcome measures and is highly predictive of biological measures of tissue pathology. Multivariate analysis using principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrates that the IBB is highly predictive of the syndromic outcome after SCI (2), and is among the best predictors of bio-behavioral function, based on strong construct validity. Altogether, the data suggest that the IBB, especially in concert with other measures, is a reliable and valid tool for assessing neurological deficits in fine motor control of the distal forelimb, and represents a powerful addition to multivariate outcome batteries aimed at documenting recovery of function after cervical SCI in rats. PMID:25071704

  16. Internal consistency & validity of Indian Disability Evaluation and Assessment Scale (IDEAS in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Grover

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The Indian Disability Evaluation and Assessment Scale (IDEAS has been recommended for assessment and certification of disability by the Government of India (GOI. However, the psychometric properties of IDEAS as adopted by GOI remain understudied. Our aim, thus, was to study the internal consistency and validity of IDEAS in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: A total of 103 consenting patients with residual schizophrenia were assessed for disability, quality of life (QOL and psychopathology using the IDEAS, WHO QOL-100 and Positive and Negative symptom scale (PANSS respectively. Internal consistency was calculated using Cronbach′s alpha. For construct validity, relations between IDEAS, and psychopathology and QOL were studied. Results: The inter-item correlations for IDEAS were significant with a Cronbach′s alpha of 0.721. All item scores other than score on communication and understanding; total and global IDEAS scores correlated significantly with the positive, negative and general sub-scales, and total PANSS scores. Communication and understanding was significantly related to negative sub-scale score only. Total and global disability scores correlated negatively with all the domains of WHOQOL-100 (ρ<0.01. The individual IDEAS item scores correlated negatively with various WHOQOL-100 domains (ρ0< 0.01. Interpretation & conclusions: This study findings showed that the GOI-modified IDEAS had good internal consistency and construct validity as tested in patients with residual schizophrenia. Similar studies need to be done with other groups of patients.

  17. Short scales to assess cannabis-related problems: a review of psychometric properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klempova Danica

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims The purpose of this paper is to summarize the psychometric properties of four short screening scales to assess problematic forms of cannabis use: Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS, Cannabis Use Disorders Identification Test (CUDIT, Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST and Problematic Use of Marijuana (PUM. Methods A systematic computer-based literature search was conducted within the databases of PubMed, PsychINFO and Addiction Abstracts. A total of 12 publications reporting measures of reliability or validity were identified: 8 concerning SDS, 2 concerning CUDIT and one concerning CAST and PUM. Studies spanned adult and adolescent samples from general and specific user populations in a number of countries worldwide. Results All screening scales tended to have moderate to high internal consistency (Cronbach's α ranging from .72 to .92. Test-retest reliability and item total correlation have been reported for SDS with acceptable results. Results of validation studies varied depending on study population and standards used for validity assessment, but generally sensitivity, specificity and predictive power are satisfactory. Standard diagnostic cut-off points that can be generalized to different populations do not exist for any scale. Conclusion Short screening scales to assess dependence and other problems related to the use of cannabis seem to be a time and cost saving opportunity to estimate overall prevalences of cannabis-related negative consequences and to identify at-risk persons prior to using more extensive diagnostic instruments. Nevertheless, further research is needed to assess the performance of the tests in different populations and in comparison to broader criteria of cannabis-related problems other than dependence.

  18. A preliminary psychometric evaluation of Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDermott, Orii; Orgeta, Vasiliki; Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2014-01-01

    despite the small sample size. Future research with a larger sample size could provide a more in-depth psychometric evaluation, including further exploration of the underlying factors. MiDAS provides a measure of engagement with musical experience and offers insight into who is likely to benefit on other......Background: Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS), an observational outcome measure for music therapy with people with moderate to severe dementia, was developed from qualitative data of focus groups and interviews. Expert and peer consultations were conducted at each stage of the scale...

  19. Marburg biosafety and biosecurity scale (MBBS): a framework for risk assessment and risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickmann, Petra; Apfel, Franklin; Biedenkopf, Nadine; Eickmann, Markus; Becker, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Current risk assessment and risk communication of biosafety and biosecurity concerns lack a convenient metric and conceptual framework. The absence of such a systematic tool makes communication more difficult and can lead to ambiguous public perception of and response to laboratory biosafety incidents and biosecurity threats. A new 7-category scoring scale is proposed for incidents and situations in laboratories related to the handling of human and animal pathogens. The scale aims to help clarify risk categories, facilitate coordination and communication, and improve public understanding of risk related to biosafety and biosecurity.

  20. A Guttman scale for assessing condom use skills among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, Dana F; Brigham, Thomas A

    2003-03-01

    HIV risk-reduction interventions frequently teach correct condom use skills, yet few researchers actually measure those skills. Without measuring condom use skills, it is not possible to evaluate the effectiveness of condom use interventions, or determine what variables may be related to those skills. The Measure of Observed Condom Use Skills (MOCUS) was developed using standard Guttman scaling procedures, and administered to 106 female and 71 male undergraduates. The MOCUS was administered by the primary investigator to each participant individually. Guttman scale analyses demonstrated the MOCUS has acceptable reproducibility. These findings support future use of the MOCUS to assess condom use skills.

  1. The cultural validation of two scales to assess social stigma in leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ruth M H; Dadun; Van Brakel, Wim H; Zweekhorst, Marjolein B M; Damayanti, Rita; Bunders, Joske F G; Irwanto

    2014-01-01

    Stigma plays in an important role in the lives of persons affected by neglected tropical diseases, and assessment of stigma is important to document this. The aim of this study is to test the cross-cultural validity of the Community Stigma Scale (EMIC-CSS) and the Social Distance Scale (SDS) in the field of leprosy in Cirebon District, Indonesia. Cultural equivalence was tested by assessing the conceptual, item, semantic, operational and measurement equivalence of these instruments. A qualitative exploratory study was conducted to increase our understanding of the concept of stigma in Cirebon District. A process of translation, discussions, trainings and a pilot study followed. A sample of 259 community members was selected through convenience sampling and 67 repeated measures were obtained to assess the psychometric measurement properties. The aspects and items in the SDS and EMIC-CSS seem equally relevant and important in the target culture. The response scales were adapted to ensure that meaning is transferred accurately and no changes to the scale format (e.g. lay out, statements or questions) of both scales were made. A positive correlation was found between the EMIC-CSS and the SDS total scores (r=0.41). Cronbach's alphas of 0.83 and 0.87 were found for the EMIC-CSS and SDS. The exploratory factor analysis indicated for both scales an adequate fit as unidimensional scale. A standard error of measurement of 2.38 was found in the EMIC-CSS and of 1.78 in the SDS. The test-retest reliability coefficient was respectively, 0.84 and 0.75. No floor or ceiling effects were found. According to current international standards, our findings indicate that the EMIC-CSS and the SDS have adequate cultural validity to assess social stigma in leprosy in the Bahasa Indonesia-speaking population of Cirebon District. We believe the scales can be further improved, for instance, by adding, changing and rephrasing certain items. Finally, we provide suggestions for use with other

  2. The Cultural Validation of Two Scales to Assess Social Stigma in Leprosy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ruth M. H.; Dadun; Van Brakel, Wim H.; Zweekhorst, Marjolein B. M.; Damayanti, Rita; Bunders, Joske F. G.; Irwanto

    2014-01-01

    Background Stigma plays in an important role in the lives of persons affected by neglected tropical diseases, and assessment of stigma is important to document this. The aim of this study is to test the cross-cultural validity of the Community Stigma Scale (EMIC-CSS) and the Social Distance Scale (SDS) in the field of leprosy in Cirebon District, Indonesia. Methodology/principle findings Cultural equivalence was tested by assessing the conceptual, item, semantic, operational and measurement equivalence of these instruments. A qualitative exploratory study was conducted to increase our understanding of the concept of stigma in Cirebon District. A process of translation, discussions, trainings and a pilot study followed. A sample of 259 community members was selected through convenience sampling and 67 repeated measures were obtained to assess the psychometric measurement properties. The aspects and items in the SDS and EMIC-CSS seem equally relevant and important in the target culture. The response scales were adapted to ensure that meaning is transferred accurately and no changes to the scale format (e.g. lay out, statements or questions) of both scales were made. A positive correlation was found between the EMIC-CSS and the SDS total scores (r = 0.41). Cronbach's alphas of 0.83 and 0.87 were found for the EMIC-CSS and SDS. The exploratory factor analysis indicated for both scales an adequate fit as unidimensional scale. A standard error of measurement of 2.38 was found in the EMIC-CSS and of 1.78 in the SDS. The test-retest reliability coefficient was respectively, 0.84 and 0.75. No floor or ceiling effects were found. Conclusions/significance According to current international standards, our findings indicate that the EMIC-CSS and the SDS have adequate cultural validity to assess social stigma in leprosy in the Bahasa Indonesia-speaking population of Cirebon District. We believe the scales can be further improved, for instance, by adding, changing and

  3. Outcome assessment in epilepsy: available rating scales for adults and methodological issues pertaining to the development of scales for childhood epilepsy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.F.M. Arts (Willem Frans); J.A. Carpay (Hans)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractDuring the past decade, several scales have been developed to improve the assessment of outcome in epilepsy. These scales were developed for adults and their reliability, validity and usefulness have been established. However, there is also a need for alternative measures of outcome in

  4. A Comparison of Low IQ Scores from the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umphress, Thomas B.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty people with suspected intellectual disability took the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS; C. R. Reynolds & R. W. Kamphaus, 1998) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--3rd Edition (WAIS-III; D. Wechsler, 1997) to see if the 2 IQ tests produced comparable results. A t test showed that the RIAS Composite Intelligence Index…

  5. Life-Space Assessment scale to assess mobility: validation in Latin American older women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, Carmen-Lucia; Alvarado, Beatriz E; Gomez, Fernando; Guerra, Ricardo; Guralnik, Jack; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria

    2013-10-01

    The Life-Space Assessment (LSA) instrument of the University of Alabama and Birmingham study is a useful and innovative measure of mobility in older populations. The purpose of this article was to assess the reliability, construct and convergent validity of the LSA in Latin American older populations. In a cross-sectional study, a total of 150 women and 150 men, aged 65-74 years, were recruited from seniors' community centers in Manizales, Colombia and Natal, Brazil. The LSA questionnaire summarizes where people travel (5 levels from room to places outside of town), how often and any assistance needed. Four LSA variables were obtained according to the maximum life space achieved and the level of independence. As correlates of LSA, education, perception of income sufficiency, depression, cognitive function, and functional measures (objective and subjectively measured) were explored. The possible modifying effect of the city on correlates of LSA was examined. Reliability for the composite LSA score was substantial (ICC = 0.70; 95 % CI 0.49-0.83) in Manizales. Average levels of LSA scores were higher in those with better functional performance and those who reported less mobility difficulties. Low levels of education, insufficient income, depressive symptoms, and low scores of cognitive function were all significantly related to lower LSA scores. Women in both cities were more likely to be restricted to their neighborhood and had lower LSA scores. This study provides evidence for the validity of LSA in two Latin American populations. Our results suggest that LSA is a good measure of mobility that reflects the interplay of physical functioning with gender and the social and physical environment.

  6. Development of a Social Skills Assessment Screening Scale for Psychiatric Rehabilitation Settings: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhola, Poornima; Basavarajappa, Chethan; Guruprasad, Deepti; Hegde, Gayatri; Khanam, Fatema; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Chaturvedi, Santosh K

    2016-01-01

    Deficits in social skills may present in a range of psychiatric disorders, particularly in the more serious and persistent conditions, and have an influence on functioning across various domains. This pilot study aimed at developing a brief measure, for structured evaluation and screening for social skills deficits, which can be easily integrated into routine clinical practice. The sample consisted of 380 inpatients and their accompanying caregivers, referred to Psychiatric Rehabilitation Services at a tertiary care government psychiatric hospital. The evaluation included an Inpatient intake Proforma and the 20-item Social Skills Assessment Screening Scale (SSASS). Disability was assessed using the Indian Disability Evaluation and Assessment Scale (IDEAS) for a subset of 94 inpatients. The analysis included means and standard deviations, frequency and percentages, Cronbach's alpha to assess internal consistency, t -tests to assess differences in social skills deficits between select subgroups, and correlation between SSASS and IDEAS scores. The results indicated the profile of social skills deficits assessed among the inpatients with varied psychiatric diagnoses. The "psychosis" group exhibited significantly higher deficits than the "mood disorder" group. Results indicated high internal consistency of the SSASS and adequate criterion validity demonstrated by correlations with select IDEAS domains. Modifications were made to the SSASS following the pilot study. The SSASS has potential value as a measure for screening and individualised intervention plans for social skills training in mental health and rehabilitation settings. The implications for future work on the psychometric properties and clinical applications are discussed.

  7. Values of a Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale to Evaluate the Facial Skin Graft Scar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Jin Kyung; Kim, Jeong Hee; Kim, Eun Jung; Park, Kun

    2016-10-01

    The patient and observer scar assessment scale (POSAS) recently emerged as a promising method, reflecting both observer's and patient's opinions in evaluating scar. This tool was shown to be consistent and reliable in burn scar assessment, but it has not been tested in the setting of skin graft scar in skin cancer patients. To evaluate facial skin graft scar applied to POSAS and to compare with objective scar assessment tools. Twenty three patients, who diagnosed with facial cutaneous malignancy and transplanted skin after Mohs micrographic surgery, were recruited. Observer assessment was performed by three independent rates using the observer component of the POSAS and Vancouver scar scale (VSS). Patient self-assessment was performed using the patient component of the POSAS. To quantify scar color and scar thickness more objectively, spectrophotometer and ultrasonography was applied. Inter-observer reliability was substantial with both VSS and the observer component of the POSAS (average measure intraclass coefficient correlation, 0.76 and 0.80, respectively). The observer component consistently showed significant correlations with patients' ratings for the parameters of the POSAS (all p -valuesskin graft scar assessment in skin cancer patients, the POSAS showed acceptable inter-observer reliability. This tool was more comprehensive and had higher correlation with patient's opinion.

  8. Systems scale assessment of the sustainability implications of emerging green initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwary, Abhishek; Namdeo, Anil; Fuentes, Jose; Dore, Anthony; Hu, Xiao-Ming; Bell, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a systems framework for assessment of environmental impacts from ‘green initiatives’, through a case study of meso-scale, anthropogenic–biogenic interactions. The following cross-sectoral green initiatives, combining the emerging trends in the North East region of the United Kingdom, have been considered – increasing the vegetation cover; decarbonising road transport; decentralising energy production through biomass plants. Two future scenarios are assessed – Baseline 2 020 (projected emissions from realisation of policy instruments); Aggressive 2 020 (additional emissions from realisation of green initiatives). Resulting trends from the Aggressive 2 020 scenario suggest an increase in emissions of pollutant precursors, including biogenic volatile organic compounds and nitrogen dioxide over the base case by up to 20% and 5% respectively. This has implications for enhanced daytime ozone and secondary aerosols formation by up to 15% and over 5% respectively. Associated land cover changes show marginal decrease of ambient temperature but modest reductions in ammonia and ambient particulates. -- Highlights: • A systems scale assessment framework for emerging green initiatives is proposed. • Interactions between urban greenspace, greener vehicles and bioenergy system examined. • Altering future emissions profile enhances synthesis of photochemical precursors. • Incorporating whole-system evaluation deemed vital for well-rounded sustainability. -- Systems scale implication for air pollution was assessed across three sectors of emerging green initiatives-energy, transport and ecosystem

  9. Validation of a global scale to assess the quality of interprofessional teamwork in mental health settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomizawa, Ryoko; Yamano, Mayumi; Osako, Mitue; Hirabayashi, Naotugu; Oshima, Nobuo; Sigeta, Masahiro; Reeves, Scott

    2017-12-01

    Few scales currently exist to assess the quality of interprofessional teamwork through team members' perceptions of working together in mental health settings. The purpose of this study was to revise and validate an interprofessional scale to assess the quality of teamwork in inpatient psychiatric units and to use it multi-nationally. A literature review was undertaken to identify evaluative teamwork tools and develop an additional 12 items to ensure a broad global focus. Focus group discussions considered adaptation to different care systems using subjective judgements from 11 participants in a pre-test of items. Data quality, construct validity, reproducibility, and internal consistency were investigated in the survey using an international comparative design. Exploratory factor analysis yielded five factors with 21 items: 'patient/community centred care', 'collaborative communication', 'interprofessional conflict', 'role clarification', and 'environment'. High overall internal consistency, reproducibility, adequate face validity, and reasonable construct validity were shown in the USA and Japan. The revised Collaborative Practice Assessment Tool (CPAT) is a valid measure to assess the quality of interprofessional teamwork in psychiatry and identifies the best strategies to improve team performance. Furthermore, the revised scale will generate more rigorous evidence for collaborative practice in psychiatry internationally.

  10. The Development of the Cleft Aesthetic Rating Scale: A New Rating Scale for the Assessment of Nasolabial Appearance in Complete Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosmuller, David G M; Mennes, Lisette M; Prahl, Charlotte; Kramer, Gem J C; Disse, Melissa A; van Couwelaar, Gijs M; Niessen, Frank B; Griot, J P W Don

    2017-09-01

      The development of the Cleft Aesthetic Rating Scale, a simple and reliable photographic reference scale for the assessment of nasolabial appearance in complete unilateral cleft lip and palate patients.   A blind retrospective analysis of photographs of cleft lip and palate patients was performed with this new rating scale.   VU Medical Center Amsterdam and the Academic Center for Dentistry of Amsterdam.   Complete unilateral cleft lip and palate patients at the age of 6 years.   Photographs that showed the highest interobserver agreement in earlier assessments were selected for the photographic reference scale. Rules were attached to the rating scale to provide a guideline for the assessment and improve interobserver reliability. Cropped photographs revealing only the nasolabial area were assessed by six observers using this new Cleft Aesthetic Rating Scale in two different sessions.   Photographs of 62 children (6 years of age, 44 boys and 18 girls) were assessed. The interobserver reliability for the nose and lip together was 0.62, obtained with the intraclass correlation coefficient. To measure the internal consistency, a Cronbach alpha of .91 was calculated. The estimated reliability for three observers was .84, obtained with the Spearman Brown formula.   A new, easy to use, and reliable scoring system with a photographic reference scale is presented in this study.

  11. Accuracy assessment of planimetric large-scale map data for decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doskocz Adam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents decision-making risk estimation based on planimetric large-scale map data, which are data sets or databases which are useful for creating planimetric maps on scales of 1:5,000 or larger. The studies were conducted on four data sets of large-scale map data. Errors of map data were used for a risk assessment of decision-making about the localization of objects, e.g. for land-use planning in realization of investments. An analysis was performed for a large statistical sample set of shift vectors of control points, which were identified with the position errors of these points (errors of map data.

  12. Assessing biodiversity on the farm scale as basis for ecosystem service payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Haaren, Christina; Kempa, Daniela; Vogel, Katrin; Rüter, Stefan

    2012-12-30

    Ecosystem services payments must be based on a standardised transparent assessment of the goods and services provided. This is especially relevant in the context of EU agri-environmental programs, but also for organic-food companies that foster environmental services on their contractor farms. Addressing the farm scale is important because land users/owners are major recipients of payments and they could be more involved in data generation and conservation management. A standardised system for measuring on-farm biodiversity does not yet exist that concentrates on performance indicators and includes farmers in generating information. A method is required that produces ordinal or metric scaled assessment results as well as management measures. Another requirement is the ease of application, which includes the ease of gathering input data and understandability. In order to respond to this need, we developed a method which is designed for automated application in an open source farm assessment system named MANUELA. The method produces an ordinal scale assessment of biodiversity that includes biotopes, species, biotope connectivity and the influence of land use. In addition, specific measures for biotope types are proposed. The open source geographical information system OpenJump is used for the implementation of MANUELA. The results of the trial applications and robustness tests show that the assessment can be implemented, for the most part, using existing information as well as data available from farmers or advisors. The results are more sensitive for showing on-farm achievements and changes than existing biotope-type classifications. Such a differentiated classification is needed as a basis for ecosystem service payments and for designing effective measures. The robustness of the results with respect to biotope connectivity is comparable to that of complex models, but it should be further improved. Interviews with the test farmers substantiate that the assessment

  13. Injury severity assessment for car occupants in frontal impacts, using disability scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norin, H; Krafft, M; Korner, J; Nygren, A; Tingvall, C

    1997-01-01

    Injury classification and assessment is one of the most important fields of injury prevention. At present, injury assessment focuses primarily on the risk of fatalities, in spite of the fact that most people who are injured survive the trauma. The net result of a fatality-based approach is that safety and vehicle engineers must make decisions with an incomplete, and sometimes misleading, picture of the traffic safety problem. By applying disability scaling reflecting long-term consequences to injury data, the most significant disabling injuries can be identified. The priorities change with the level of disability used in the scaling. In this study, the risk of permanent medical disability due to different injuries was derived and linked to abbreviated injury scale (AIS) values for 24,087 different injured body regions. This material is based on insurance data. To study how the importance of different bodily injuries changes with different severity assessments in a realistic real-world injury distribution, Swedish insurance industry disability scaling was applied to 3066 cases of belted Volvo drivers involved in frontal collisions. Crash severity was included in the study by using equivalent barrier speed (EBS). When lower levels of disability are included, injuries to the neck and the extremities become the most important, while brain and skull injuries become the most prominent at higher levels of disability. The results presented in this article should be regarded as a contribution to the development of a suitable disability scaling method. The results can also be utilized to further injury research and vehicle design aimed at reducing injuries which have the most important long-term disability consequences.

  14. Assessment of global stellarator confinement: Status of the international stellarator confinement scaling data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinklage, A.; Beidler, C.D.; Dose, V.; Geiger, J.; Kus, A.; Preuss, R.; Ascasibar, E.; Tribaldos, V.; Harris, J.H.; Murakami, S.; Sano, F.; Okamura, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Watanabe, K.Y.; Yamada, H.; Yokoyama, M.; Stroth, U.; Talmadge, J.

    2005-01-01

    Different stellarator/heliotron devices along with their respective flexibility cover a large magnetic configuration space. Since the ultimate goal of stellarator research aims at an alternative fusion reactor concept, the exploration of the most promising configurations requires a comparative assessment of the plasma performance and how different aspects of a 3D configuration influence it. Therefore, the International Stellarator Confinement Database (ISCDB) has been re- initiated in 2004 and the ISS95 database has been extended to roughly 3000 discharges from eight different devices. Further data-sets are continuously added. A revision of a data set restricted to comparable scenarios lead to the ISS04 scaling law which confirmed ISS95 but also revealed clearly the necessity to incorporate configuration descriptive parameters. In other words, an extension beyond the set of regression parameters used for ISS95/ISS04 appears to be necessary and candidates, such as the elongation are investigated. Since grouping of data is a key-issue for deriving ISS04, basic assumptions are revised, e.g. the dependence on the heating scheme. Moreover, an assessment of statistical approaches is investigated with respect to their impact on the scaling. A crucial issue is the weighting of data groups which is discussed in terms of error-in-variable techniques and Bayesian model comparison. The latter is employed for testing scaling ansatzes depending on scaling invariance principles hence allowing the assessment of applicability of theory-based scaling laws on stellarator confinement. 1. ISCDB resources are jointly hosted by NIFS and IPP, see http://iscdb.nifs.ac.jp and http://www.ipp.mpg.de/ISS. (author)

  15. Assessment of fatigue using the Identity- Consequence Fatigue Scale in patients with lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Correia Nogueira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the properties of the Identity-Consequence Fatigue Scale (ICFS in patients with lung cancer (LC, assessing the intensity of fatigue and associated factors. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving LC patients, treated at a teaching hospital in Brazil, who completed the ICFS. Patients with chronic heart disease (CHD and healthy controls, matched for age and gender, also completed the scale. Initially, a Brazilian Portuguese-language version of the ICFS was administered to 50 LC patients by two independent interviewers; to test for reproducibility, it was readministered to those same patients. At baseline, the LC patients were submitted to spirometry and the six-minute walk test, as well as completing the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36, and Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS. Inflammatory status was assessed by blood C-reactive protein (CRP levels. To validate the ICFS, we assessed the correlations of its scores with those variables. Results: The sample comprised 50 patients in each group (LC, CHD, and control. In the LC group, the intraclass correlation coefficients for intra-rater and inter-rater reliability regarding ICFS summary variables ranged from 0.94 to 0.76 and from 0.94 to 0.79, respectively. The ICFS presented excellent internal consistency, and Bland-Altman plots showed good test-retest reliability. The ICFS correlated significantly with FSS, HADS, and SF-36 scores, as well as with CRP levels. Mean ICFS scores in the LC group differed significantly from those in the CHD and control groups. Conclusions: The ICFS is a valid, reliable instrument for evaluating LC patients, in whom depression, quality of life, and CRP levels seem to be significantly associated with fatigue.

  16. Accumulation of Content Validation Evidence for the Critical Thinking Self-Assessment Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Girija Gopinathan; Hellsten, Laurie-Ann M; Stamler, Lynnette Leeseberg

    2017-04-01

    Critical thinking skills (CTS) are essential for nurses; assessing students' acquisition of these skills is a mandate of nursing curricula. This study aimed to develop a self-assessment instrument of critical thinking skills (Critical Thinking Self-Assessment Scale [CTSAS]) for students' self-monitoring. An initial pool of 196 items across 6 core cognitive skills and 16 subskills were generated using the American Philosophical Association definition of CTS. Experts' content review of the items and their ratings provided evidence of content relevance using the item-level content validity index (I-CVI) and Aiken's content validity coefficient (VIk). 115 items were retained (range of I-CVI values = .70 to .94 and range of VIk values = .69-.95; significant at pself-assessment purposes.

  17. Watermill and Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Plant Landscapes Assessed According to Ecological Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilita Lazdāne

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Research of watermill and small-scale hydroelectric power plant (HPP landscapes in Latvia according to ecological aspects is a part of a more complex research. The aim of this research is to examine the existing situation of watermill and small-scale HPP landscapes in Latvia by applying the ecological assessment criteria, and then try to formulate a definition of common tendencies of the landscape character. This paper provides a landscape inventory matrix for research in the field stu­dies of landscape identification at the local planning level. The duration of the research was from 2010 to 2012. The research includes 42 territories starting with the three most densely developed areas in Latvia: in Latgale, Kurzeme and Vidzeme uplands distribution ranges. The research results reflect tendencies of the landscape features assessed according to the previously developed criteria of ecological aspects.

  18. The development and validation of an interprofessional scale to assess teamwork in mental health settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomizawa, Ryoko; Yamano, Mayumi; Osako, Mitue; Misawa, Takeshi; Hirabayashi, Naotugu; Oshima, Nobuo; Sigeta, Masahiro; Reeves, Scott

    2014-09-01

    Currently, no evaluative scale exists to assess the quality of interprofessional teamwork in mental health settings across the globe. As a result, little is known about the detailed process of team development within this setting. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a global interprofessional scale that assesses teamwork in mental health settings using an international comparative study based in Japan and the United States. This report provides a description of this study and reports progress made to date. Specifically, it outlines work on literature reviews to identify evaluative teamwork tools as well as identify relevant teamwork models and theories. It also outlines plans for empirical work that will be undertaken in both Japan and the United States.

  19. Assessment of anhedonia in psychological trauma: development of the Hedonic Deficit and Interference Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Frewen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Symptoms of anhedonia, or deficits in the ability to experience positive affect, are increasingly recognized as an outcome of traumatic stress. Herein we demonstrate a phenomenon of “negative affective interference”, specifically, negative affective responses to positive events, in association with childhood trauma history. Young adults (n=99 completed a Hedonic Deficit & Interference Scale (HDIS, a self-report measure developed for this study, as well as a modified version of the Fawcette-Clarke Pleasure Capacity Scale that assessed not only positive but also negative affective responses to positive events. The two assessment approaches demonstrated convergent validity and predicted concurrent individual differences in trait positive and negative affect, and extraversion and neuroticism. Histories of childhood emotional and sexual abuse were differentially associated with negative affective responses to positive events. Future research and clinical directions are discussed.For the abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Reading Tools online.

  20. Identity degradation and mental disorder: an empirical assessment of the Conduct Impairment Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schley, W R; Wagenfeld, M O

    1979-02-01

    Proponents of the medical models have held that mental disorder is best measured in terms of some inventory of symptoms indicative of an underlying disease. Alternatively, critics have argued that mental disorder is the result of a degraded ascribed role, a discrepancy between the person and his environment, or the degradation of identity. The issue goes beyond academic debate, with important implications for case-finding and program development in community mental health. Theodore Sarbin has developed a 58-item "Conduct Impairment Scale" to operationalize the concept of "Identity Degradation" and proposed it as a substitute for the medical model. Three dimensions are posited: status, value, and involvement. An appropriate level of reliability and clustering of scale items are reported by Sarbin. In order to subject the scale to a more rigorous test, it was administered to a random sample of 208 respondents in four neighborhoods in Grand Rapids, Michigan, as part of a larger epidemiological study. In an effort to assess the validity of the scale, factor analytic methods were employed. A principal components model with varimax rotation was performed. It was found that items purporting to tap the three theoretical dimensions explicated by Sarbin did not load in the expected pattern. Additionally, the first three extracted factors accounted for only a small proportion of the total variance. Efforts to assess the reliability of the scale were more fruitful. A corrected split-half of .82 and coefficient alpha of .86 were obtained. It was concluded that the validity of the scale was not adequately demonstrated, and its use as an alternative to the medical model open to serious reservation.

  1. A practical scale for Multi-Faceted Organizational Health Climate Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweber, Zandra M; Henning, Robert A; Magley, Vicki J

    2016-04-01

    The current study sought to develop a practical scale to measure 3 facets of workplace health climate from the employee perspective as an important component of a healthy organization. The goal was to create a short, usable yet comprehensive scale that organizations and occupational health professionals could use to determine if workplace health interventions were needed. The proposed Multi-faceted Organizational Health Climate Assessment (MOHCA) scale assesses facets that correspond to 3 organizational levels: (a) workgroup, (b) supervisor, and (c) organization. Ten items were developed and tested on 2 distinct samples, 1 cross-organization and 1 within-organization. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses yielded a 9-item, hierarchical 3-factor structure. Tests confirmed MOHCA has convergent validity with related constructs, such as perceived organizational support and supervisor support, as well as discriminant validity with safety climate. Lastly, criterion-related validity was found between MOHCA and health-related outcomes. The multi-faceted nature of MOHCA provides a scale that has face validity and can be easily translated into practice, offering a means for diagnosing the shortcomings of an organization or workgroup's health climate to better plan health and well-being interventions. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. A Rating Scale for the Functional Assessment of Patients with Familial Dysautonomia (Riley Day Syndrome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Felicia B.; Rolnitzky, Linda; von Simson, Gabrielle Gold; Berlin, Dena; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop a reliable rating scale to assess functional capacity in children with familial dysautonomia, evaluate changes over time and determine whether severity within a particular functional category at a young age affected survival. Study design Ten functional categories were retrospectively assessed in 123 patients with familial dysautonomia at age 7 years ± 6 months. Each of the ten Functional Severity Scale (FuSS) categories (motor development, cognitive ability, psychological status, expressive speech, balance, oral coordination, frequency of dysautonomic crisis, respiratory, cardiovascular and nutritional status) was scored from 1 (worst or severely affected) to 5 (best or no impairment). Changes over time were analyzed further in 22 of the 123 patients who were also available at ages 17 and 27 years. Results Severely impaired cardiovascular function and high frequency of dysautonomic crisis negatively affected survival (p<0.005 and p<0.001, respectively). In the 22 individuals followed up to age 27 years, psychological status significantly worsened (p=0.01), and expressive speech improved (p=0.045). From age 17 to 27 years, balance worsened markedly (p =0.048). Conclusion The FuSS scale is a reliable tool to measure functional capacity in patients with familial dysautonomia. The scale may prove useful in providing prognosis and as a complementary endpoint in clinical trials. PMID:22727867

  3. Treating kleptomania: cross-cultural adaptation of the Kleptomania Symptom Assessment Scale and assessment of an outpatient program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianini, Aparecida Rangon; Conti, Maria Aparecida; Hearst, Norman; Cordás, Táki Athanássios; de Abreu, Cristiano Nabuco; Tavares, Hermano

    2015-01-01

    Kleptomania is characterized by repetitive stealing and has severe consequences for patients. Stigma, a lack of standardized therapy and a limited number of assessment tools hinder advances in treatment. This study provides preliminary data on the Portuguese-language version of the Kleptomania Symptom Assessment Scale (P-K-SAS) and preliminary data on an outpatient program. Experts in the field analyzed an initial P-K-SAS version, produced through translation/back-translation, in order to arrive at a final version. Eight patients currently on cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and 10 patients under maintenance CBT were initially assessed, then re-assessed 6months later. The mean P-K-SAS score was higher among patients initiating CBT than among those under maintenance CBT (21.1±8.0 vs. 11.3±7.5; Mann-Whitney U=15.0, P=.024). The final version of the P-K-SAS presented excellent reliability (Cronbach's alpha=0.980; inter-item correlation, 0.638-0.907). The P-K-SAS presented solid psychometrics and seems ready for use in assessing the effectiveness of treatments for kleptomania. The findings suggest that kleptomania patients need follow-up treatment that goes beyond the traditional 12-session structure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [assessment Of Self-esteem In Pregnant Women Using Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale].

    OpenAIRE

    Maçola, Ligia; do Vale, Ianê Nogueira; Carmona, Elenice Valentim

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this descriptive, cross-sectional study was to evaluate the self-esteem of 127 pregnant women seen in a prenatal care program conducted in a public school hospital. Data collection was performed using the Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale; unsatisfactory self-esteem was related to socio-demographic and health variables of the pregnant woman, and to the presence or absence of support systems. Descriptive and univariate statistical analysis were used to assess possible associations...

  5. Assessment of present and future large-scale semiconductor detector systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spieler, H.G.; Haller, E.E.

    1984-11-01

    The performance of large-scale semiconductor detector systems is assessed with respect to their theoretical potential and to the practical limitations imposed by processing techniques, readout electronics and radiation damage. In addition to devices which detect reaction products directly, the analysis includes photodetectors for scintillator arrays. Beyond present technology we also examine currently evolving structures and techniques which show potential for producing practical devices in the foreseeable future

  6. Career-success scale – a new instrument to assess young physicians' academic career steps

    OpenAIRE

    Buddeberg-Fischer, B; Stamm, M; Buddeberg, C; Klaghofer, R

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Within the framework of a prospective cohort study of Swiss medical school graduates, a Career-Success Scale (CSS) was constructed in a sample of young physicians choosing different career paths in medicine. Furthermore the influence of personality factors, the participants' personal situation, and career related factors on their career success was investigated. Methods 406 residents were assessed in terms of career aspired to, and their career progress. The Career-Success...

  7. The translation and psychometric assessment of the persian version of the sheehan disability scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Amin-Esmaeili

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS assesses disability in four domains of home management, work responsibilities, close relationships and social life. The main objective of this study was to develop the Persian version of the SDS.Two steps of field work followed the Persian translation and cultural adaptation of the tool: First, the internal consistency and convergent validity was examined in 104 clinical cases recruited from inpatient and outpatient psychiatric services, using 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF. Then 88 individuals were randomly selected from the adult general population to assess internal consistency, inter-rater reliability and known group validity.In the clinical settings, Cronbach's α coefficient was 0.88 and item-total correlation ranged from 0.71 to 0.78 in various domains. The correlation between SDS and SF-36 (P< 0.001 was significant in all the areas of the performance; and neither of the correlations was statistically significant when SDS and GAF were compared. In the general population study, the SDS met a good internal consistency (α = 0.81 and known group validity, and the inter-rater reliability was perfect for "school/work responsibility ."The Persian translation of the SDS is a simple and short scale, and it seems to be a valid scale for the measurement of disability in clinical settings and in the Iranian general population.

  8. Development and Validation of a Scale to Assess Students' Attitude towards Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazas, Beatriz; Rosario Fernández Manzanal, Mª; Zarza, Francisco Javier; Adolfo María, Gustavo

    2013-07-01

    This work presents the development of a scale of attitudes of secondary-school and university students towards animal welfare. A questionnaire was drawn up following a Likert-type scale attitude assessment model. Four components or factors, which globally measure animal welfare, are proposed to define the object of the attitude. The components are animal abuse for pleasure or due to ignorance (C1), leisure with animals (C2), farm animals (C3) and animal abandonment (C4). The final version of the questionnaire contains 29 items that are evenly distributed among the four components indicated, guaranteeing that each component is one-dimensional. A sample of 329 students was used to validate the scale. These students were aged between 11 and 25, and were from secondary schools in Aragon and the University in Zaragoza (Aragon's main and largest city, located in NE Spain). The scale shows good internal reliability, with a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.74. The questionnaire was later given to 1,007 students of similar levels and ages to the sample used in the validation, the results of which are presented in this study. The most relevant results show significant differences in gender and level of education in some of the components of the scale, observing that women and university students rate animal welfare more highly.

  9. Psychometric properties of the assessment of quality of working life scale in the urban transport sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Alberto Figueroa-Chaves

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Quality of Working Life (QWL is the degree of satisfaction, physical, mental and social well-being experienced by people in their working environment; it contains the objective and subjective dimensions. For this study, the subjective dimension of the QWL was addressed, which is formed by occupational health, labor welfare and perception of the work. Objective: To determine the psychometric properties of the assessment of quality of life scale at work in the transport sector. Materials and methods: A quantitative descriptive-instrumental study of the scale was made, which consists of 108 items and was applied to 468 drivers of the strategic system of public transport in the city of San Juan de Pasto. The evidence of Kaiser Meyer Olkin and roundness of Bartlett, the factorial analysis and Cronbach Alpha were calculated. Results: The scale presented appropriate features of validity and reliability. It evaluates two factors: labor welfare and healthy life styles, and the respective scales to be applied are presented. Conclusions: The factorial analysis allows us to affirm that the Scale of Quality of Working Life in the transport sector can be applied in subsequent studies.

  10. A regional-scale assessment of local renewable energy resources in Cumbria, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gormally, A.M.; Whyatt, J.D.; Timmis, R.J.; Pooley, C.G.

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing focus on the role small-scale decentralised renewable energy developments could play in helping the UK meet its target of over 15% renewable energy by the year 2020 and alter energy behaviours through active community engagement. Upland areas are considered key areas where such community-based developments could occur due to their natural resources and range of community scales. This study uses GIS-based techniques to develop a methodology that assesses the regional-scale potential for community-based renewable electricity across Cumbria and whether a combination of these developments at the community-scale could make a significant contribution to local electricity consumption. This methodology looks at a range of technologies including hydro-power, wind-power, solar PV and bioenergy. The results suggest there is ample resource available for small communities by combining a mix of localised renewable electricity developments, which is highlighted through energy scenarios for a selected community. Further work will investigate whether this potential can be realised in reality by looking at resource resilience and community-level acceptability. - Highlights: ► A mix of wind, solar, bioenergy and hydro-power options are presented for Cumbria, UK. ► High resolution spatial analysis is conducted focussing on localised developments. ► Locations with sufficient renewable electricity potential were identified. ► Renewable options are explored further through a town case study. ► Scenarios consider different scales, mixes and contributions to local energy demand.

  11. Incremental Validity of the MMPI-2 PSY-5 Scales in Assessing Self-Reported Personality Disorder Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wygant, Dustin B.; Sellbom, Martin; Graham, John R.; Schenk, Paul W.

    2006-01-01

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) Personality Psychopathology-Five (PSY-5) scales were developed to measure abnormal personality symptomatology. The present study examines the incremental validity of the PSY-5 scales beyond the clinical and content scales in assessing criteria associated with personality disorders. The…

  12. DNA barcoding at riverscape scales: Assessing biodiversity among fishes of the genus Cottus (Teleostei) in northern Rocky Mountain streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael K. Young; Kevin S. McKelvey; Kristine L. Pilgrim; Michael K. Schwartz

    2013-01-01

    There is growing interest in broad-scale biodiversity assessments that can serve as benchmarks for identifying ecological change. Genetic tools have been used for such assessments for decades, but spatial sampling considerations have largely been ignored. Here, we demonstrate how intensive sampling efforts across a large geographical scale can influence identification...

  13. Measurement Invariance of the Digital Natives Assessment Scale across Gender in a Sample of Turkish University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursavas, Ömer Faruk; Kabakçi Yurdakul, Isil; Türk, Mesut; Mcilroy, David

    2016-01-01

    With reference to the digital natives' debate, there is a gap on digital natives' characteristics. To fill this gap, the Digital Natives Assessment Scale was developed to measure students' assessment of the degree to which they perceived themselves to possess the attributes of digital natives. The scale was developed within the Turkish language…

  14. Detecting Parental Deception Using a Behavior Rating Scale during Assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norfolk, Philip A.; Floyd, Randy G.

    2016-01-01

    It is often assumed that parents completing behavior rating scales during the assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can deliberately manipulate the outcomes of the assessment. To detect these actions, items designed to detect over-reporting or under-reporting of results are sometimes embedded in such rating scales. This…

  15. Linking Supply Chain Network Complexity to Interdependence and Risk-Assessment: Scale Development and Empirical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samyadip Chakraborty

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Concepts like supply chain network complexity, interdependence and risk assessment have been prominently discussed directly and indirectly in management literature over past decades and plenty of frameworks and conceptual prescriptive research works have been published contributing towards building the body of knowledge. However previous studies often lacked quantification of the findings. Consequently, the need for suitable scales becomes prominent for measuring those constructs to empirically support the conceptualized relationships. This paper expands the understanding of supply chain network complexity (SCNC and also highlights its implications on interdependence (ID between the actors and risk assessment (RAS in transaction relationships. In doing so, SCNC and RAS are operationalized to understand how SCNC affects interdependence and risk assessment between the actors in the supply chain network. The contribution of this study lies in developing and validating multi-item scales for these constructs and empirically establishing the hypothesized relationships in the Indian context based on firm data collected using survey–based questionnaire. The methodology followed included structural equation modeling. The study findings indicate that SCNC had significant relationship with interdependence, which in turn significantly affected risk assessment. This study carries both academic and managerial implications and provides an empirically supported framework linking network complexity with the two key variables (ID and RAS, playing crucial roles in managerial decision making. This study contributes to the body of knowledge and aims at guiding managers in better understanding transaction relationships.

  16. The reasons for betel-quid chewing scale: assessment of factor structure, reliability, and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Melissa A; Pokhrel, Pallav; Murphy, Kelle L; Kawamoto, Crissy T; Suguitan, Gil S; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2014-06-03

    Despite the fact that betel-quid is one of the most commonly used psychoactive substances worldwide and a major risk-factor for head-and-neck cancer incidence and mortality globally, currently no standardized instrument is available to assess the reasons why individuals chew betel-quid. A measure to assess reasons for chewing betel-quid could help researchers and clinicians develop prevention and treatment strategies. In the current study, we sought to develop and evaluate a self-report instrument for assessing the reasons for chewing betel quid which contributes toward the goal of developing effective interventions to reduce betel quid chewing in vulnerable populations. The current study assessed the factor structure, reliability and convergent validity of the Reasons for Betel-quid Chewing Scale (RBCS), a newly developed 10 item measure adapted from several existing "reasons for smoking" scales. The measure was administered to 351 adult betel-quid chewers in Guam. Confirmatory factor analysis of this measure revealed a three factor structure: reinforcement, social/cultural, and stimulation. Further tests revealed strong support for the internal consistency and convergent validity of this three factor measure. The goal of designing an intervention to reduce betel-quid chewing necessitates an understanding of why chewers chew; the current study makes considerable contributions towards that objective.

  17. Assessing educational outcomes in middle childhood: validation of the Teacher Academic Attainment Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samantha; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

    2012-06-01

    Assessing educational outcomes in high-risk populations is crucial for defining long-term outcomes. As standardized tests are costly and time-consuming, we assessed the use of the Teacher Academic Attainment Scale (TAAS) as an outcome measure. Three hundred and forty three children in mainstream schools aged 10 to 11 years (144 males, 199 females; 190 extremely preterm and 153 term; mean age 10 y 9 mo, SD 5.5 mo, range 9 y 8 mo-12 y 3 mo) were assessed using the reading and mathematics scales of the criterion standard Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, 2nd (UK) edition (WIAT-II). Class teachers completed the TAAS, a seven-item questionnaire for assessing academic attainment. The TAAS was also completed at 6 years of age for 266 children. Cronbach's alpha 0.95 indicated excellent internal consistency, and the correlation between TAAS scores at 6 and 11 years indicated good test-retest reliability (r=0.77, pscale studies. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2012 Mac Keith Press.

  18. Brief scales to assess physical activity and sedentary equipment in the home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durant Nefertiti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sedentary behaviors such as TV viewing are associated with childhood obesity, while physical activity promotes healthy weight. The role of the home environment in shaping these behaviors among youth is poorly understood. The study purpose was to examine the reliability of brief parental proxy-report and adolescent self-report measures of electronic equipment and physical activity equipment in the home and to assess the construct validity of these scales by examining their relationship to physical activity, sedentary behavior, and weight status of children and adolescents. Methods Participants were adolescents (n = 189; mean age = 14.6, parents of adolescents (n = 171; mean age = 45.0, and parents of younger children (n = 116; parents mean age = 39.6; children's mean age = 8.3 who completed two surveys approximately one month apart. Measures included a 21-item electronic equipment scale (to assess sedentary behavior facilitators in the home, in the child or adolescent's bedroom, and portable electronics and a 14-item home physical activity equipment scale. Home environment factors were examined as correlates of children's and adolescents' physical activity, sedentary behavior, and weight status after adjusting for child age, sex, race/ethnicity, household income, and number of children in the home. Results Most scales had acceptable test-retest reliability (intraclass correlations were .54 - .92. Parent and adolescent reports were correlated. Electronic equipment in adolescents' bedrooms was positively related to sedentary behavior. Activity equipment in the home was inversely associated with television time in adolescents and children, and positively correlated with adolescents' physical activity. Children's BMI z-score was positively associated with having a television in their bedroom. Conclusions The measures of home electronic equipment and activity equipment were similarly reliable when reported by parents and by

  19. Brief Self-Report Scales Assessing Life History Dimensions of Mating and Parenting Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Kruger

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Life history theory (LHT is a powerful evolutionary framework for understanding physiological, psychological, and behavioral variation both between and within species. Researchers and theorists are increasingly integrating LHT into evolutionary psychology, as it provides a strong foundation for research across many topical areas. Human life history variation has been represented in psychological and behavioral research in several ways, including indicators of conditions in the developmental environment, indicators of conditions in the current environment, and indicators of maturation and life milestones (e.g., menarche, initial sexual activity, first pregnancy, and in self-report survey scale measures. Survey scale measures have included constructs such as time perspective and future discounting, although the most widely used index is a constellation of indicators assessing the K-factor, thought to index general life history speed (from fast to slow. The current project examined the utility of two brief self-report survey measures assessing the life history dimensions of mating effort and parenting effort with a large undergraduate sample in the United States. Consistent with the theory, items reflected two inversely related dimensions. In regressions including the K-factor, the Mating Effort Scale proved to be a powerful predictor of other constructs and indicators related to life history variation. The Parenting Effort Scale had less predictive power overall, although it explained unique variance across several constructs and was the only unique predictor of the number of long-term (serious and committed relationships. These scales may be valuable additions to self-report survey research projects examining life history variation.

  20. A multi-scale health impact assessment of air pollution over the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhvar, Victoria N; Pascal, Mathilde; Markakis, Konstantinos; Colette, Augustin; Hauglustaine, Didier; Valari, Myrto; Klimont, Zbigniew; Medina, Sylvia; Kinney, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    Ozone and PM₂.₅ are current risk factors for premature death all over the globe. In coming decades, substantial improvements in public health may be achieved by reducing air pollution. To better understand the potential of emissions policies, studies are needed that assess possible future health impacts under alternative assumptions about future emissions and climate across multiple spatial scales. We used consistent climate-air-quality-health modeling framework across three geographical scales (World, Europe and Ile-de-France) to assess future (2030-2050) health impacts of ozone and PM₂.₅ under two emissions scenarios (Current Legislation Emissions, CLE, and Maximum Feasible Reductions, MFR). Consistently across the scales, we found more reductions in deaths under MFR scenario compared to CLE. 1.5 [95% CI: 0.4, 2.4] million CV deaths could be delayed each year in 2030 compared to 2010 under MFR scenario, 84% of which would occur in Asia, especially in China. In Europe, the benefits under MFR scenario (219000 CV deaths) are noticeably larger than those under CLE (109,000 CV deaths). In Ile-de-France, under MFR more than 2830 annual CV deaths associated with PM₂.₅ changes could be delayed in 2050 compared to 2010. In Paris, ozone-related respiratory mortality should increase under both scenarios. Multi-scale HIAs can illustrate the difference in direct consequences of costly mitigation policies and provide results that may help decision-makers choose between different policy alternatives at different scales. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessing the performance of multi-purpose channel management measures at increasing scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Mark; Addy, Steve

    2016-04-01

    In addition to hydroclimatic drivers, sediment deposition from high energy river systems can reduce channel conveyance capacity and lead to significant increases in flood risk. There is an increasing recognition that we need to work with the interplay of natural hydrological and morphological processes in order to attenuate flood flows and manage sediment (both coarse and fine). This typically includes both catchment (e.g. woodland planting, wetlands) and river (e.g. wood placement, floodplain reconnection) restoration approaches. The aim of this work was to assess at which scales channel management measures (notably wood placement and flood embankment removal) are most appropriate for flood and sediment management in high energy upland river systems. We present research findings from two densely instrumented research sites in Scotland which regularly experience flood events and have associated coarse sediment problems. We assessed the performance of a range of novel trial measures for three different scales: wooded flow restrictors and gully tree planting at the small scale (transport to optimise performance. At the large scale, well designed flood embankment lowering can improve connectivity to the floodplain during low to medium return period events. However, ancillary works to stabilise the bank failed thus emphasising the importance of letting natural processes readjust channel morphology and hydrological connections to the floodplain. Although these trial measures demonstrated limited effects, this may be in part owing to restrictions in the range of hydroclimatological conditions during the study period and further work is needed to assess the performance under more extreme conditions. This work will contribute to refining guidance for managing channel coarse sediment problems in the future which in turn could help mitigate flooding using natural approaches.

  2. Methodology for a GIS-based damage assessment for researchers following large scale disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Patrick Shane

    research field. Along with visually mapping the data, geometric calculations can be conducted on the data to give the viewer more information about the damage. In Chapter 4, a tornado damage contour for Moore, Oklahoma following the May 20, 2013 tornado is shown. This damage contour was created in GIS based on the Enhanced Fujita (EF) damage scale, and gives the viewer an easily understood picture of the extent and distribution of the tornado. This thesis aims to describe a foundational groundwork for activities that are performed in the GIS-based damage assessment procedure and provide uses for the damage assessment as well as research being conducted on how to use the data collected from these assessments. This will allow researchers to conduct a highly adaptable, rapid GIS-based damage assessment of their own.

  3. Validity and reliability of self-assessed physical fitness using visual analogue scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøyer, Jesper; Essendrop, Morten; Jensen, Lone Donbaek

    2007-01-01

    To test the validity and reliability of self-assessed physical fitness samples included healthcare assistants working at a hospital (women=170, men=17), persons working with physically and mentally handicapped patients (women=530, men= 123), and two separate groups of healthcare students (a) women...... except for flexibility among men. The reliability was moderate to good (ICC = .62 - .80). Self-assessed aerobic fitness, muscle strength, and flexibility showed moderate construct validity and moderate to good reliability using visual analogues.......=91 and men=5 and (b) women=159 and men=10. Five components of physical fitness were self-assessed by Visual Analogue Scales with illustrations and verbal anchors for the extremes: aerobic fitness, muscle strength, endurance, flexibility, and balance. Convergent and divergent validity were evaluated...

  4. Clinical utility of Standardised Assessment of Personality - Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS) among patients with first episode depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Jens Drachmann; Bock, Camilla; Vinberg, Maj

    2010-01-01

    for comorbid personality disorder among patients suffering from depression would be of clinical use. METHOD: The present study aimed to assess the utility of the Standardised Assessment of Personality - Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS) as a screen for personality disorder in a population of patients recently......BACKGROUND: Personality disorder frequently co-occurs with depression and seems to be associated with a poorer outcome of treatment and increased risk for recurrences. However, the diagnosing of personality disorder can be lengthy and requires some training. Therefore, a brief screening interview...... diagnosed with first episode depression. A total number of 394 patients with an ICD-10 diagnosis of a single depressive episode were sampled consecutively via the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register during a 2years inclusion period and assessed by the screening interview and, subsequently...

  5. Selection of spatial scale for assessing impacts of groundwater-based water supply on freshwater resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybel, Anne-Marie; Godskesen, Berit; Rygaard, Martin

    2015-01-01

    used in this study: the Withdrawal-To-Availability ratio (WTA) and the Water Stress Index (WSI). Results were calculated for three groundwater based Danish urban water supplies (Esbjerg, Aarhus, and Copenhagen). The assessment was carried out at three spatial levels: (1) the groundwater body level, (2......) the river basin level, and (3) the regional level. The assessments showed that Copenhagen's water supply had the highest impact on the freshwater resource per cubic meter of water abstracted, with a WSI of 1.75 at Level 1. The WSI values were 1.64 for Aarhus's and 0.81 for Esbjerg's water supply. Spatial......Indicators of the impact on freshwater resources are becoming increasingly important in the evaluation of urban water systems. To reveal the importance of spatial resolution, we investigated how the choice of catchment scale influenced the freshwater impact assessment. Two different indicators were...

  6. UPC Scaling-up methodology for Deterministic Safety Assessment and Support to Plant Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Quiroga, V.; Reventós, F.; Batet, Il.

    2015-07-01

    Best Estimate codes along with necessary nodalizations are widely used tools in nuclear engineering for both Deterministic Safety Assessment (DSA) and Support to Plant Operation and Control. In this framework, the application of quality assurance procedures in both codes and nodalizations becomes an essential step prior any significant study. Along these lines the present paper introduces the UPC SCUP, a systematic methodology based on the extrapolation of the Integral Test Facilities (ITF) post-test simulations by means of scaling analyses. In that sense, SCUP fulfills a gap in current nodalization qualification procedures, the related with the validation of NPP nodalizations for Design Basis Accidents conditions. Three are the pillars that support SCUP: judicial selection of the experimental transients, full confidence in the quality of the ITF simulations, and simplicity in justifying discrepancies that appear between ITF and NPP counterpart transients. The techniques that are presented include the socalled Kv scaled calculations as well as the use of two new approaches, ”Hybrid nodalizations” and ”Scaled-up nodalizations”. These last two methods have revealed themselves to be very helpful in producing the required qualification and in promoting further improvements in nodalization. The study of both LSTF and PKL counterpart tests have allowed to qualify the methodology by the comparison with experimental data. Post-test simulations at different sizes allowed to define which phenomena could be well reproduced by system codes and which not, in this way also establishing the basis for the extrapolation to an NPP scaled calculation. Furthermore, the application of the UPC SCUP methodology demonstrated that selected phenomena can be scaled-up and explained between counterpart simulations by carefully considering the differences in scale and design. (Author)

  7. [The psychometric properties of the Turkish version of Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale (MIDAS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Emel; Eser, Erhan; Şekuri, Cevad; Kültürsay, Hakan

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the psychometric properties of the Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale (MIDAS). This is a methodological cultural adaptation study. The MIDAS consists of 35-items covering seven domains: physical activity, insecurity, emotional reaction, dependency, diet, concerns over medication, and side effects which are rated on a five-point Likert scale from 1: never to 5:always. The highest score of MIDAS is 100.Quality of life (QOL) decreases as the score of scale increases. Overall 185 myocardial infarction (MI) patients were enrolled in this study. Cronbach alpha was used for the reliability analysis. The criterion validity, structural validity, and sensitivity analysis approach was used for validity analysis. New York Heart Association (NYHA) and the Canadian Cardiovascular Society Functional Classifications (CCSFC) for testing the criterion validity; SF-36 for construct validity testing of the Turkish version of the MIDAS were used. The range of Cronbach alpha values is 0.79-0.90 for seven domains of the scale. No problematic items were observed for the entire scale. Medication related domains of the MIDAS showed considerable floor effects (35.7%-22.7%). Confirmatory Factor analysis indicators [Comparative Fit Index (CFI) =0.95 and Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) =0.075] supported the construct validity of MIDAS. Convergent validity of the MIDAS was confirmed with correlation of SF-36 scale where appropriate. Criterion validity results was also satisfactory by comparing different stages of the NYHA and the CCSFC (pMIDAS is a reliable and valid instrument.

  8. Risk assessment of flood disaster and forewarning model at different spatial-temporal scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Jin, Juliang; Xu, Jinchao; Guo, Qizhong; Hang, Qingfeng; Chen, Yaqian

    2018-05-01

    Aiming at reducing losses from flood disaster, risk assessment of flood disaster and forewarning model is studied. The model is built upon risk indices in flood disaster system, proceeding from the whole structure and its parts at different spatial-temporal scales. In this study, on the one hand, it mainly establishes the long-term forewarning model for the surface area with three levels of prediction, evaluation, and forewarning. The method of structure-adaptive back-propagation neural network on peak identification is used to simulate indices in prediction sub-model. Set pair analysis is employed to calculate the connection degrees of a single index, comprehensive index, and systematic risk through the multivariate connection number, and the comprehensive assessment is made by assessment matrixes in evaluation sub-model. The comparison judging method is adopted to divide warning degree of flood disaster on risk assessment comprehensive index with forewarning standards in forewarning sub-model and then the long-term local conditions for proposing planning schemes. On the other hand, it mainly sets up the real-time forewarning model for the spot, which introduces the real-time correction technique of Kalman filter based on hydrological model with forewarning index, and then the real-time local conditions for presenting an emergency plan. This study takes Tunxi area, Huangshan City of China, as an example. After risk assessment and forewarning model establishment and application for flood disaster at different spatial-temporal scales between the actual and simulated data from 1989 to 2008, forewarning results show that the development trend for flood disaster risk remains a decline on the whole from 2009 to 2013, despite the rise in 2011. At the macroscopic level, project and non-project measures are advanced, while at the microcosmic level, the time, place, and method are listed. It suggests that the proposed model is feasible with theory and application, thus

  9. Assessment of test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the Wisconsin Gait Scale in hemiparetic post-stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzik Agnieszka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A proper assessment of gait pattern is a significant aspect in planning the process of teaching gait in hemiparetic post-stroke patients. The Wisconsin Gait Scale (WGS is an observational tool for assessing post-stroke patients’ gait. The aim of the study was to assess test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the WGS and examine correlations between gait assessment made with the WGS and gait speed, Brunnström scale, Ashworth’s scale and the Barthel Index.

  10. The suicide assessment scale: psychometric properties of a Norwegian language version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koldsland, Bjørn Odd; Mehlum, Lars; Mellesdal, Liv Solrunn; Walby, Fredrik A; Diep, Lien M

    2012-08-07

    Rating scales are valuable tools in suicide research and can also be useful supplements to the clinical interview in suicide risk assessments. This study describes the psychometric properties of a Norwegian language version of the Suicide Assessment Scale Self-report version (SUAS-S). Participants were fifty-two patients (mean age = 39.3 years, SD = 10.7) with major depression (53.8%), bipolar disorder (25.0%) and/or a personality disorder (63.5%) referred to a psychiatric outpatient clinic. The SUAS-S, the screening section of the Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation (BSS-5), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck's Hopelessness Scale (BHS), the Symptom Check-List-90 R (SCL-90R) and the Clinical Global Impression for Severity of Suicidality (CGI-SS) were administered. One week later, the patients completed the SUAS-S a second time. Cronbach's alpha for SUAS-S was 0.88 and the test-retest reliability was 0.95 (95% CI: 0.93- 0.97). SUAS-S was positively correlated with the BSS-5 (r = 0.66; 95% CI: 0.47-0.85) for the study sample as a whole and for the suicidal (r = 0.52) and non-suicidal groups (r = 0.50) respectively. There was no difference between the SUAS-S and the BSS-5 in the ability to identify suicidality. This ability was more pronounced when the suicide risk was high. There was a substantial intercorrelation between the score on the SUAS-S and the BDI (0.81) and the BHS (0.76). The sensitivity and specificity of the SUAS-S was explored and an appropriate clinical cut-off value was assessed. The study revealed good internal consistency, test-retest reliability and concurrent validity for the Suicide Assessment Scale Self-report version. The discriminatory ability for suicidality was comparable to that of the BSS-5.

  11. The suicide assessment scale: Psychometric properties of a Norwegian language version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koldsland Bjørn

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rating scales are valuable tools in suicide research and can also be useful supplements to the clinical interview in suicide risk assessments. This study describes the psychometric properties of a Norwegian language version of the Suicide Assessment Scale Self-report version (SUAS-S. Methods Participants were fifty-two patients (mean age = 39.3 years, SD = 10.7 with major depression (53.8%, bipolar disorder (25.0% and/or a personality disorder (63.5% referred to a psychiatric outpatient clinic. The SUAS-S, the screening section of the Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation (BSS-5, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Beck’s Hopelessness Scale (BHS, the Symptom Check-List-90 R (SCL-90R and the Clinical Global Impression for Severity of Suicidality (CGI-SS were administered. One week later, the patients completed the SUAS-S a second time. Results Cronbach’s alpha for SUAS-S was 0.88 and the test–retest reliability was 0.95 (95% CI: 0.93– 0.97. SUAS-S was positively correlated with the BSS-5 (r = 0.66; 95% CI: 0.47–0.85 for the study sample as a whole and for the suicidal (r = 0.52 and non-suicidal groups (r = 0.50 respectively. There was no difference between the SUAS-S and the BSS-5 in the ability to identify suicidality. This ability was more pronounced when the suicide risk was high. There was a substantial intercorrelation between the score on the SUAS-S and the BDI (0.81 and the BHS (0.76. The sensitivity and specificity of the SUAS-S was explored and an appropriate clinical cut-off value was assessed. Conclusions The study revealed good internal consistency, test–retest reliability and concurrent validity for the Suicide Assessment Scale Self-report version. The discriminatory ability for suicidality was comparable to that of the BSS-5.

  12. Foraging Behaviour in Magellanic Woodpeckers Is Consistent with a Multi-Scale Assessment of Tree Quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo M Vergara

    Full Text Available Theoretical models predict that animals should make foraging decisions after assessing the quality of available habitat, but most models fail to consider the spatio-temporal scales at which animals perceive habitat availability. We tested three foraging strategies that explain how Magellanic woodpeckers (Campephilus magellanicus assess the relative quality of trees: 1 Woodpeckers with local knowledge select trees based on the available trees in the immediate vicinity. 2 Woodpeckers lacking local knowledge select trees based on their availability at previously visited locations. 3 Woodpeckers using information from long-term memory select trees based on knowledge about trees available within the entire landscape. We observed foraging woodpeckers and used a Brownian Bridge Movement Model to identify trees available to woodpeckers along foraging routes. Woodpeckers selected trees with a later decay stage than available trees. Selection models indicated that preferences of Magellanic woodpeckers were based on clusters of trees near the most recently visited trees, thus suggesting that woodpeckers use visual cues from neighboring trees. In a second analysis, Cox's proportional hazards models showed that woodpeckers used information consolidated across broader spatial scales to adjust tree residence times. Specifically, woodpeckers spent more time at trees with larger diameters and in a more advanced stage of decay than trees available along their routes. These results suggest that Magellanic woodpeckers make foraging decisions based on the relative quality of trees that they perceive and memorize information at different spatio-temporal scales.

  13. Battery energy storage systems: Assessment for small-scale renewable energy integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Nirmal-Kumar C.; Garimella, Niraj [Power Systems Group, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Auckland, 38 Princes Street, Science Centre, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2010-11-15

    Concerns arising due to the variability and intermittency of renewable energy sources while integrating with the power grid can be mitigated to an extent by incorporating a storage element within the renewable energy harnessing system. Thus, battery energy storage systems (BESS) are likely to have a significant impact in the small-scale integration of renewable energy sources into commercial building and residential dwelling. These storage technologies not only enable improvements in consumption levels from renewable energy sources but also provide a range of technical and monetary benefits. This paper provides a modelling framework to be able to quantify the associated benefits of renewable resource integration followed by an overview of various small-scale energy storage technologies. A simple, practical and comprehensive assessment of battery energy storage technologies for small-scale renewable applications based on their technical merit and economic feasibility is presented. Software such as Simulink and HOMER provides the platforms for technical and economic assessments of the battery technologies respectively. (author)

  14. Visual assessment of posterior atrophy development of a MRI rating scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koedam, Esther L.G.E.; Scheltens, Philip; Pijnenburg, Yolande A.L. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Neurology and Alzheimer Centre, PO Box 7057, MB, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lehmann, Manja; Fox, Nick [UCL Institute of Neurology, Dementia Research Centre, London (United Kingdom); Flier, Wiesje M. van der [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Neurology and Alzheimer Centre, PO Box 7057, MB, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Department Epidemiology and Biostatistics, PO Box 7057, MB, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Barkhof, Frederik; Wattjes, Mike P. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, PO Box 7057, MB, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-12-15

    To develop a visual rating scale for posterior atrophy (PA) assessment and to analyse whether this scale aids in the discrimination between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias. Magnetic resonance imaging of 118 memory clinic patients were analysed for PA (range 0-3), medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) (range 0-4) and global cortical atrophy (range 0-3) by different raters. Weighted-kappas were calculated for inter- and intra-rater agreement. Relationships between PA and MTA with the MMSE and age were estimated with linear-regression analysis. Intra-rater agreement ranged between 0.93 and 0.95 and inter-rater agreement between 0.65 and 0.84. Mean PA scores were higher in AD compared to controls (1.6 {+-} 0.9 and 0.6 {+-} 0.7, p < 0.01), and other dementias (0.8 {+-} 0.8, p < 0.01). PA was not associated with age compared to MTA (B = 1.1 (0.8) versus B = 3.1 (0.7), p < 0.01). PA and MTA were independently negatively associated with the MMSE (B = -1.6 (0.5), p < 0.01 versus B = -1.4 (0.5), p < 0.01). This robust and reproducible scale for PA assessment conveys independent information in a clinical setting and may be useful in the discrimination of AD from other dementias. (orig.)

  15. An Integrated Assessment Approach to Address Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niladri Basu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM is growing in many regions of the world including Ghana. The problems in these communities are complex and multi-faceted. To help increase understanding of such problems, and to enable consensus-building and effective translation of scientific findings to stakeholders, help inform policies, and ultimately improve decision making, we utilized an Integrated Assessment approach to study artisanal and small-scale gold mining activities in Ghana. Though Integrated Assessments have been used in the fields of environmental science and sustainable development, their use in addressing specific matter in public health, and in particular, environmental and occupational health is quite limited despite their many benefits. The aim of the current paper was to describe specific activities undertaken and how they were organized, and the outputs and outcomes of our activity. In brief, three disciplinary workgroups (Natural Sciences, Human Health, Social Sciences and Economics were formed, with 26 researchers from a range of Ghanaian institutions plus international experts. The workgroups conducted activities in order to address the following question: What are the causes, consequences and correctives of small-scale gold mining in Ghana? More specifically: What alternatives are available in resource-limited settings in Ghana that allow for gold-mining to occur in a manner that maintains ecological health and human health without hindering near- and long-term economic prosperity? Several response options were identified and evaluated, and are currently being disseminated to various stakeholders within Ghana and internationally.

  16. Assessment of N and P status at the landscape scale using environmental models and measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonneveld, M.P.W.; Vos, J.A. de; Kros, J.; Knotters, M.; Frumau, A.; Bleeker, A.; Vries, W. de

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the compliance of a Dutch landscape, dominated by dairy farming, with environmental quality standards using a combination of model calculations and measurements. The total ammonia emission of 2.4 kton NH 3 yr −1 does not exceed the environmental quality standard (2.6 kton NH 3 yr −1 ). Nevertheless, the total N deposition (on average 24.4 kg N ha −1 yr −1 ) is such that critical N loads are exceeded at 53% of the nature areas. The deposited N mainly results from non-agricultural sources and agricultural sources outside the area (72%). The calculated average NO 3 − concentration in the upper groundwater does not exceed the 50 mg l −1 threshold. Calculated annual average N-total and P-total concentrations in discharge water are relatively high but these cannot be directly compared with thresholds for surface water. The results suggest that compliance monitoring at the landscape scale needs to include source indicators and cannot be based on state indicators alone. - Highlights: ► There is scope for environmental monitoring programs at the landscape scale. ► Landscape assessment of state indicators for N and P require models and measurements. ► Monitoring at the landscape scale needs to consider farm management indicators. - The compliance of an agricultural landscape with quality standards is investigated using a combination of model calculations and measurements.

  17. The birth beliefs scale - a new measure to assess basic beliefs about birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, Heidi; Benyamini, Yael

    2017-03-01

    Basic beliefs about birth as a natural and safe or a medical and risky process are central in the decisions on where and how to birth. Despite their importance, they have not been studied separately from other childbirth-related constructs. Our aim was to develop a measure to assess these beliefs. Pregnant Israeli women (N = 850, gestational week ≥14) were recruited in women's health centers, in online natural birth forums, and through home midwives. Participants filled in questionnaires including sociodemographic and obstetric background, the Birth Beliefs Scale (BBS), dispositional desire for control (DC) and planned mode of delivery. Factor analyses revealed that the BBS is composed of two factors: beliefs about birth as a natural process and beliefs about birth as a medical process. Both subscales showed good internal and test-retest reliability. They had good construct validity, predicted birth choices, and were weakly correlated with DC. Women's medical obstetric history was associated with the BBS, further supporting the validity of the scale. Beliefs about birth may be the building blocks that make up perceptions of birth and drive women's preferences. The new scale provides an easy way to distinctly assess them so they can be used to further understand planned birth behaviors. Additional studies are needed to comprehend how these beliefs form in different cultural contexts and how they evolve over time.

  18. Impact of modelling scale on probabilistic flood risk assessment: the Malawi case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudari Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the early months of 2015, destructive floods hit Malawi, causing deaths and economic losses. Flood risk assessment outcomes can be used to increase scientific-supported awareness of risk. The recent increase in availability of high resolution data such as TanDEM-X at 12m resolution makes possible the use of detailed physical based flood hazard models in risk assessment. Nonetheless the scale of hazard modelling still remains an issue, which requires a compromise between level of detail and computational efforts. This work presents two different approaches on hazard modelling. Both methods rely on 32-years of numeric weather re-analysis and rainfall-runoff transformation through a fully distributed WFLOW-type hydrological model. The first method, applied at national scale, uses fast post-processing routines, which estimate flood water depth at a resolution of about 1×1km. The second method applies a full 2D hydraulic model to propagate water discharge into the flood plains and best suites for small areas where assets are concentrated. At the 12m resolution, three hot spots with a model area of approximately 10×10 km are analysed. Flood hazard maps obtained with both approaches are combined with flood impact models at the same resolution to generate indicators for flood risk. A quantitative comparison of the two approaches is presented in order to show the effects of modelling scale on both hazard and impact losses.

  19. Visual assessment of posterior atrophy development of a MRI rating scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koedam, Esther L.G.E.; Scheltens, Philip; Pijnenburg, Yolande A.L.; Lehmann, Manja; Fox, Nick; Flier, Wiesje M. van der; Barkhof, Frederik; Wattjes, Mike P.

    2011-01-01

    To develop a visual rating scale for posterior atrophy (PA) assessment and to analyse whether this scale aids in the discrimination between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias. Magnetic resonance imaging of 118 memory clinic patients were analysed for PA (range 0-3), medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) (range 0-4) and global cortical atrophy (range 0-3) by different raters. Weighted-kappas were calculated for inter- and intra-rater agreement. Relationships between PA and MTA with the MMSE and age were estimated with linear-regression analysis. Intra-rater agreement ranged between 0.93 and 0.95 and inter-rater agreement between 0.65 and 0.84. Mean PA scores were higher in AD compared to controls (1.6 ± 0.9 and 0.6 ± 0.7, p < 0.01), and other dementias (0.8 ± 0.8, p < 0.01). PA was not associated with age compared to MTA (B = 1.1 (0.8) versus B = 3.1 (0.7), p < 0.01). PA and MTA were independently negatively associated with the MMSE (B = -1.6 (0.5), p < 0.01 versus B = -1.4 (0.5), p < 0.01). This robust and reproducible scale for PA assessment conveys independent information in a clinical setting and may be useful in the discrimination of AD from other dementias. (orig.)

  20. A Turkish version of myocardial infarction dimensional assessment scale (TR-MIDAS): reliability-validity assesment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Hilal; Ozcan, Şeyda

    2011-06-01

    Many new measuring devices have been developed so that broader psychometric measurements in the coronary artery disease, disease-specific health status measurements, and identification of the broader quality of life can be performed in the recent years. The study was intended to determine whether, and to what extent, MIDAS is a valid and reliable measurement to the patients suffering from myocardial infarction for the first time in Turkey. The research was conducted with the patients hospitalized and treated with myocardial infarction in the cardiology departments of 2 hospitals in Istanbul, Turkey, between 2007 and 2008. Psychometric evaluations of TR-MIDAS were used for validity studies; language validity, content validity, construct validity were examined. For reliability studies; the tool's internal consistency reliability, Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient, and test-retest reliability were completed. The instrument's content validity index was determined to be "0.95". Principal component analysis revealed six factors with an eigenvalue >1.5. Cronbach's alpha was found to be 0.89 for total scale which was an acceptable value. The total's test-retest reliability was 0.51 (p<0.01). Data obtained at the end of the study supports that Turkish Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale is a valid and reliable instrument as a disease-specific scale to assess the patients' quality of life suffering from myocardial infarction in Turkey. Copyright © 2010 European Society of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. An Integrated Assessment Approach to Address Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Niladri; Renne, Elisha P; Long, Rachel N

    2015-09-17

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is growing in many regions of the world including Ghana. The problems in these communities are complex and multi-faceted. To help increase understanding of such problems, and to enable consensus-building and effective translation of scientific findings to stakeholders, help inform policies, and ultimately improve decision making, we utilized an Integrated Assessment approach to study artisanal and small-scale gold mining activities in Ghana. Though Integrated Assessments have been used in the fields of environmental science and sustainable development, their use in addressing specific matter in public health, and in particular, environmental and occupational health is quite limited despite their many benefits. The aim of the current paper was to describe specific activities undertaken and how they were organized, and the outputs and outcomes of our activity. In brief, three disciplinary workgroups (Natural Sciences, Human Health, Social Sciences and Economics) were formed, with 26 researchers from a range of Ghanaian institutions plus international experts. The workgroups conducted activities in order to address the following question: What are the causes, consequences and correctives of small-scale gold mining in Ghana? More specifically: What alternatives are available in resource-limited settings in Ghana that allow for gold-mining to occur in a manner that maintains ecological health and human health without hindering near- and long-term economic prosperity? Several response options were identified and evaluated, and are currently being disseminated to various stakeholders within Ghana and internationally.

  2. The use of test scores from large-scale assessment surveys: psychometric and statistical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Braun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economists are making increasing use of measures of student achievement obtained through large-scale survey assessments such as NAEP, TIMSS, and PISA. The construction of these measures, employing plausible value (PV methodology, is quite different from that of the more familiar test scores associated with assessments such as the SAT or ACT. These differences have important implications both for utilization and interpretation. Although much has been written about PVs, it appears that there are still misconceptions about whether and how to employ them in secondary analyses. Methods We address a range of technical issues, including those raised in a recent article that was written to inform economists using these databases. First, an extensive review of the relevant literature was conducted, with particular attention to key publications that describe the derivation and psychometric characteristics of such achievement measures. Second, a simulation study was carried out to compare the statistical properties of estimates based on the use of PVs with those based on other, commonly used methods. Results It is shown, through both theoretical analysis and simulation, that under fairly general conditions appropriate use of PV yields approximately unbiased estimates of model parameters in regression analyses of large scale survey data. The superiority of the PV methodology is particularly evident when measures of student achievement are employed as explanatory variables. Conclusions The PV methodology used to report student test performance in large scale surveys remains the state-of-the-art for secondary analyses of these databases.

  3. Assessment of Small-scale Buffalo Milk Dairy Production-A Premise for a Durable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian MIHAIU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo husbandry is an important source of income for a number of small-scale producers in Romania that is why an assessment of its products quality is much needed for improvement and evaluation of their vulnerability to international competition. In order to ascertain possible developments in the buffalo dairy sector and to broadly identify areas of intervention that favor small-scale dairy producers, the study examined the potential to improve buffalo milk production by evaluating its authenticity and hygienic quality. The methods used involved the molecular testing (PCR-technique for identifying cow, sheep or goat DNA in the dairy products samples collected from the small-scale producers market. The hygienic quality of these samples was determined through classical microbiology methods, highly developed techniques (Trek System and PCR for bacterial species confirmation. The results showed that a high percent (65%, from the products found were adulterated with other species milk, mostly cow milk. The most commonly falsified buffalo dairy products were the cheese and the traditional product telemea. The prevalence of the bacterial species identified belonged to Listeria innocua and Listeria welshmeri. The conclusion of this study is the need of a durable development system in this particular dairy chain to improve and assure the authenticity and quality of the small-scale producers products and their reliability for the consumers.

  4. Resilience Scale-25 Spanish version: validation and assessment in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Las Hayas, Carlota; Calvete, Esther; Gómez del Barrio, Andrés; Beato, Luís; Muñoz, Pedro; Padierna, Jesús Ángel

    2014-08-01

    To validate into Spanish the Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale - 25 (RS-25), assess and compare the scores on the scale among women from the general population, eating disorder (ED) patients and recovered ED patients. This is a cross-sectional study. ED participants were invited to participate by their respective therapists. The sample from the general population was gathered via an open online survey. Participants (N general population=279; N ED patients=124; and N recovered ED patients=45) completed the RS-25, the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale-BREF and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Mean age of participants ranged from 28.87 to 30.42years old. Statistical analysis included a multi-group confirmatory factor analysis and ANOVA. The two-factor model of the RS-25 produced excellent fit indexes. Measurement invariance across samples was generally supported. The ANOVA found statistically significant differences in the RS-25 mean scores between the ED patients (Mean=103.13, SD=31.32) and the recovered ED participants (Mean=138.42, SD=22.26) and between the ED patients and the general population participants (Mean=136.63, SD=19.56). The Spanish version of the RS-25 is a psychometrically sound measurement tool in samples of ED patients. Resilience is lower in people diagnosed with ED than in recovered individuals and the general population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The validity of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 Narcissistic Personality Disorder scale for assessing pathological grandiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J; Donnellan, M Brent; Ackerman, Robert A; Thomas, Katherine M; Morey, Leslie C; Skodol, Andrew E

    2013-01-01

    Although controversy surrounds the definition and measurement of narcissism, the claim that pathological grandiosity is central to the construct generates little disagreement. Yet representations of pathological grandiosity vary across measures of narcissism, leading to conceptual confusion in the literature. The validity of a DSM-based measure of pathological narcissism, the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 Narcissistic Personality Disorder scale (PDQ-4 NPD), was evaluated in 1 clinical and 3 nonclinical samples (total N=2,391) for its ability to measure pathological grandiosity. Findings were generally supportive: average scores were higher in the clinical than nonclinical samples and the PDQ-4 NPD scale correlated most strongly with (a) other measures of NPD; (b) other DSM Cluster B personality disorders; (c) traits involving antagonism, hostility, and assertiveness; and (d) interpersonal distress and disaffiliative dominance. However, the low internal consistency of the PDQ-4 NPD scale and unexpected associations with Cluster A and obsessive-compulsive features point to potential psychometric weaknesses with this instrument. These findings are useful for evaluating the PDQ-4 NPD scale and for informing ongoing debates regarding how to define and assess pathological narcissism.

  6. A preliminary psychometric evaluation of Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Orii; Orgeta, Vasiliki; Ridder, Hanne Mette; Orrell, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS), an observational outcome measure for music therapy with people with moderate to severe dementia, was developed from qualitative data of focus groups and interviews. Expert and peer consultations were conducted at each stage of the scale development to maximize its content validity. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of MiDAS. Care home residents with dementia attended weekly group music therapy for up to ten sessions. Music therapists and care home staff were requested to complete weekly MiDAS ratings. The Quality of Life Scale (QoL-AD) was completed at three time-points. A total of 629 (staff = 306, therapist = 323) MiDAS forms were completed. The statistical analysis revealed that MiDAS has high therapist inter-rater reliability, low staff inter-rater reliability, adequate staff test-retest reliability, adequate concurrent validity, and good construct validity. High factor loadings between the five MiDAS Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) items, levels of Interest, Response, Initiation, Involvement, and Enjoyment, were found. This study indicates that MiDAS has good psychometric properties despite the small sample size. Future research with a larger sample size could provide a more in-depth psychometric evaluation, including further exploration of the underlying factors. MiDAS provides a measure of engagement with musical experience and offers insight into who is likely to benefit on other outcomes such as quality of life or reduction in psychiatric symptoms.

  7. Assessment of Small-scale Buffalo Milk Dairy Production-A Premise for a Durable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian MIHAIU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo husbandry is an important source of income for a number of small-scale producers in Romania that is why an assessment of its� product�s quality is much needed for improvement and evaluation of their vulnerability to international competition. In order to ascertain possible developments in the buffalo dairy sector and to broadly identify areas of intervention that favor small-scale dairy producers, the study examined the potential to improve buffalo milk production by evaluating its authenticity and hygienic quality. The methods used involved the molecular testing (PCR-technique for identifying cow, sheep or goat DNA in the dairy products� samples collected from the small-scale producers market. The hygienic quality of these samples was determined through classical microbiology methods, highly developed techniques (Trek System and PCR for bacterial species confirmation. The results showed that a high percent (65%, from the products found were adulterated with other species milk, mostly cow milk. The most commonly falsified buffalo dairy products were the cheese and the traditional product �telemea�. The prevalence of the bacterial species identified belonged to Listeria innocua and Listeria welshmeri. The conclusion of this study is the need of a durable development system in this particular dairy chain to improve and assure the authenticity and quality of the small-scale producers� products and their reliability for the consumers.

  8. Coastal erosion risk assessment using natural and human factors in different scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrakis, George; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Climate change, including sea-level rise and increasing storms, raise the threats of coastal erosion. Mitigating and adapting to coastal erosion risks in areas of human interest, like urban areas, culture heritage sites, and areas of economic interest, present a major challenge for society. In this context, decision making needs to be based in reliable risk assessment that includes environmental, social and economic factors. By integrating coastal hazard and risk assessments maps into coastal management plans, risks in areas of interest can be reduced. To address this, the vulnerability of the coast to sea level rise and associated erosion, in terms of expected land loss and socioeconomic importance need to be identified. A holistic risk assessment based in environmental, socioeconomic and economics approach can provide managers information how to mitigate the impact of coastal erosion and plan protection measures. Such an approach needs to consider social, economic and environmental factors, which interactions can be better assessed when distributed and analysed along the geographical space. In this work, estimations of climate change impact to coastline are based on a combination of environmental and economic data analysed in a GIS database. The risk assessment is implemented through the estimation of the vulnerability and exposure variables of the coast in two scales. The larger scale estimates the vulnerability in a regional level, with the use environmental factors with the use of CVI. The exposure variable is estimated by the use of socioeconomic factors. Subsequently, a smaller scale focuses on highly vulnerable beaches with high social and economic value. The vulnerability assessment of the natural processes to the environmental characteristics of the beach is estimated with the use of the Beach Vulnerability Index. As exposure variable, the value of beach width that is capitalized in revenues is implemented through a hedonic pricing model. In this

  9. Assessment of the spatial scaling behaviour of floods in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formetta, Giuseppe; Stewart, Elizabeth; Bell, Victoria

    2017-04-01

    Floods are among the most dangerous natural hazards, causing loss of life and significant damage to private and public property. Regional flood-frequency analysis (FFA) methods are essential tools to assess the flood hazard and plan interventions for its mitigation. FFA methods are often based on the well-known index flood method that assumes the invariance of the coefficient of variation of floods with drainage area. This assumption is equivalent to the simple scaling or self-similarity assumption for peak floods, i.e. their spatial structure remains similar in a particular, relatively simple, way to itself over a range of scales. Spatial scaling of floods has been evaluated at national scale for different countries such as Canada, USA, and Australia. According our knowledge. Such a study has not been conducted for the United Kingdom even though the standard FFA method there is based on the index flood assumption. In this work we present an integrated approach to assess of the spatial scaling behaviour of floods in the United Kingdom using three different methods: product moments (PM), probability weighted moments (PWM), and quantile analysis (QA). We analyse both instantaneous and daily annual observed maximum floods and performed our analysis both across the entire country and in its sub-climatic regions as defined in the Flood Studies Report (NERC, 1975). To evaluate the relationship between the k-th moments or quantiles and the drainage area we used both regression with area alone and multiple regression considering other explanatory variables to account for the geomorphology, amount of rainfall, and soil type of the catchments. The latter multiple regression approach was only recently demonstrated being more robust than the traditional regression with area alone that can lead to biased estimates of scaling exponents and misinterpretation of spatial scaling behaviour. We tested our framework on almost 600 rural catchments in UK considered as entire region and

  10. Scaling criteria and an assessment of Semiscale Mod-3 scaling for small-break loss-of-coolant transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, T.K.; Anderson, J.L.; Shimeck, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    Various methods of scaling fluid thermal-hydraulic test facilities and their relative merits and disadvantages are examined in light of nuclear reactor safety considerations. Particular emphasis is placed on examination of the scaling of the Semiscale Mod-3 system and determination of thermal-hydraulic phenomena thought to be important during a small break loss-of-coolant accident in a pressurized water nuclear reactor. The influence of geometric and dynamic scaling concerns in the Mod-3 system on small break behavior are addressed from an engineering viewpoint and corrective measures contemplated or required to make results from Semiscale tests more meaningful relative to expected PWR response are discussed

  11. Subjective assessment of acute mountain sickness: investigating the relationship between the Lake Louise Self-Report, a visual analogue scale and psychological well-being scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frühauf, Anika; Burtscher, Martin; Pocecco, Elena; Faulhaber, Martin; Kopp, Martin

    2016-01-01

    There is an ongoing discussion how to assess acute mountain sickness (AMS) in real life conditions. Next to more-item scales with a cut off like the Lake Louise Self-Report (LLS), some authors suggested to use visual analog scales (VAS) to assess AMS. This study tried to contribute to this question using VAS items used for the Subjective Ratings of Drug Effects, including an additional single item for AMS. Furthermore, we investigated if instruments developed to assess psychological well-being might predict AMS assessed via LLS or VAS. 32 (19 Female) adult persons with known AMS susceptibility filled in questionnaires (Feeling Scale, Felt Arousal Scale, Activation Deactivation Check List, LLS, VAS) at a height of 3650 m above sea level. Correlation and regression analysis suggest a moderate to high relationship between the LLS score and the VAS items, including one VAS item asking for the severity of AMS, as well as psychological well-being. In conclusion, using VAS items to assess AMS can be a more precise alternative to questionnaires like LLS, for people knowledgeable with AMS. Furthermore, researchers should be aware that psychological well-being might be an important parameter influencing the assessment of AMS.

  12. Next-generation negative symptom assessment for clinical trials: validation of the Brief Negative Symptom Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Gregory P; Keller, William R; Buchanan, Robert W; Gold, James M; Fischer, Bernard A; McMahon, Robert P; Catalano, Lauren T; Culbreth, Adam J; Carpenter, William T; Kirkpatrick, Brian

    2012-12-01

    The current study examined the psychometric properties of the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS), a next-generation rating instrument developed in response to the NIMH sponsored consensus development conference on negative symptoms. Participants included 100 individuals with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who completed a clinical interview designed to assess negative, positive, disorganized, and general psychiatric symptoms, as well as functional outcome. A battery of anhedonia questionnaires and neuropsychological tests were also administered. Results indicated that the BNSS has excellent internal consistency and temporal stability, as well as good convergent and discriminant validity in its relationships with other symptom rating scales, functional outcome, self-reported anhedonia, and neuropsychological test scores. Given its brevity (13-items, 15-minute interview) and good psychometric characteristics, the BNSS can be considered a promising new instrument for use in clinical trials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Market Assessment of Biomass Gasification and Combustion Technology for Small- and Medium-Scale Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, D.; Haase, S.

    2009-07-01

    This report provides a market assessment of gasification and direct combustion technologies that use wood and agricultural resources to generate heat, power, or combined heat and power (CHP) for small- to medium-scale applications. It contains a brief overview of wood and agricultural resources in the U.S.; a description and discussion of gasification and combustion conversion technologies that utilize solid biomass to generate heat, power, and CHP; an assessment of the commercial status of gasification and combustion technologies; a summary of gasification and combustion system economics; a discussion of the market potential for small- to medium-scale gasification and combustion systems; and an inventory of direct combustion system suppliers and gasification technology companies. The report indicates that while direct combustion and close-coupled gasification boiler systems used to generate heat, power, or CHP are commercially available from a number of manufacturers, two-stage gasification systems are largely in development, with a number of technologies currently in demonstration. The report also cites the need for a searchable, comprehensive database of operating combustion and gasification systems that generate heat, power, or CHP built in the U.S., as well as a national assessment of the market potential for the systems.

  14. Assessing flood risk at the global scale: model setup, results, and sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, Philip J; Jongman, Brenden; Weiland, Frederiek Sperna; Winsemius, Hessel C; Bouwman, Arno; Ligtvoet, Willem; Van Beek, Rens; Bierkens, Marc F P

    2013-01-01

    Globally, economic losses from flooding exceeded $19 billion in 2012, and are rising rapidly. Hence, there is an increasing need for global-scale flood risk assessments, also within the context of integrated global assessments. We have developed and validated a model cascade for producing global flood risk maps, based on numerous flood return-periods. Validation results indicate that the model simulates interannual fluctuations in flood impacts well. The cascade involves: hydrological and hydraulic modelling; extreme value statistics; inundation modelling; flood impact modelling; and estimating annual expected impacts. The initial results estimate global impacts for several indicators, for example annual expected exposed population (169 million); and annual expected exposed GDP ($1383 billion). These results are relatively insensitive to the extreme value distribution employed to estimate low frequency flood volumes. However, they are extremely sensitive to the assumed flood protection standard; developing a database of such standards should be a research priority. Also, results are sensitive to the use of two different climate forcing datasets. The impact model can easily accommodate new, user-defined, impact indicators. We envisage several applications, for example: identifying risk hotspots; calculating macro-scale risk for the insurance industry and large companies; and assessing potential benefits (and costs) of adaptation measures. (letter)

  15. Using the Chinese version of Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale to describe postoperative delirium after hip surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyong eShi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (MDAS assesses severity of delirium. However, whether the MDAS can be used in a Chinese population is unknown. Moreover, the optimal postoperative MDAS cutoff point for describing postoperative delirium in Chinese remains largely to be determined. We therefore performed a pilot study to validate MDAS in the Chinese language and to determine the optimal postoperative MDAS cutoff point for delirium. Methods: Eighty-two patients (80 ± 6 years, 18% male who had hip surgery under general anesthesia were enrolled. The Confusion Assessment Method (CAM and Mini-mental state examination (MMSE were administered in the patients before surgery. The CAM and MDAS were performed in the patients on the first, second, and fourth postoperative day. The reliability and validity of the MDAS were determined. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to determine the optimal Chinese version MDAS cutoff point for the identification of delirium. Results: The Chinese version of the MDAS had satisfactory internal consistency (α = 0.910. ROC analysis obtained an average optimal MDAS cutoff point of 7.5 in describing the CAM-defined postoperative delirium with an area under the ROC of 0.990 (95% CI 0.977-1.000, P < 0.001. Conclusions: The Chinese version of MDAS had good reliability and validity. The patients whose postoperative Chinese version of MDAS cutoff point was 7.5 would likely have postoperative delirium. These results have established a system for a future larger scale study.

  16. Do large-scale assessments measure students' ability to integrate scientific knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee-Sun

    2010-03-01

    Large-scale assessments are used as means to diagnose the current status of student achievement in science and compare students across schools, states, and countries. For efficiency, multiple-choice items and dichotomously-scored open-ended items are pervasively used in large-scale assessments such as Trends in International Math and Science Study (TIMSS). This study investigated how well these items measure secondary school students' ability to integrate scientific knowledge. This study collected responses of 8400 students to 116 multiple-choice and 84 open-ended items and applied an Item Response Theory analysis based on the Rasch Partial Credit Model. Results indicate that most multiple-choice items and dichotomously-scored open-ended items can be used to determine whether students have normative ideas about science topics, but cannot measure whether students integrate multiple pieces of relevant science ideas. Only when the scoring rubric is redesigned to capture subtle nuances of student open-ended responses, open-ended items become a valid and reliable tool to assess students' knowledge integration ability.

  17. Validity and reliability assessment of the Brazilian version of the game addiction scale (GAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Igor Lins; Cardoso, Adriana; Sougey, Everton Botelho

    2016-05-01

    The uncontrolled use of video games can be addictive. The Game Addiction Scale (GAS) is an instrument that was developed to assess this type of addiction. The GAS consists of 21 items that are divided into the following seven factors: salience, tolerance, mood modification, relapse, withdrawal, conflict and problems. This study assessed the convergent validity and reliability of the GAS according to measures of internal consistency and test-retest stability. Three hundred and eighty four students completed the GAS, the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Video Game Addiction Test (VAT). A subgroup of the participants (n=76) completed the GAS again after 30days to determine test-retest stability. The GAS demonstrated excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.92), was highly correlated with the VAT (r=0.883) and was moderately correlated with the BDI (r=0.358), the LSAS (r=0.326) and the IAT (r=0.454). In the Brazilian Portuguese population, the GAS shows good internal consistency. These data indicate that the GAS can be used to assess video game addiction due to its demonstrated psychometric validity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Enabling Wide-Scale Computer Science Education through Improved Automated Assessment Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boe, Bryce A.

    There is a proliferating demand for newly trained computer scientists as the number of computer science related jobs continues to increase. University programs will only be able to train enough new computer scientists to meet this demand when two things happen: when there are more primary and secondary school students interested in computer science, and when university departments have the resources to handle the resulting increase in enrollment. To meet these goals, significant effort is being made to both incorporate computational thinking into existing primary school education, and to support larger university computer science class sizes. We contribute to this effort through the creation and use of improved automated assessment tools. To enable wide-scale computer science education we do two things. First, we create a framework called Hairball to support the static analysis of Scratch programs targeted for fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students. Scratch is a popular building-block language utilized to pique interest in and teach the basics of computer science. We observe that Hairball allows for rapid curriculum alterations and thus contributes to wide-scale deployment of computer science curriculum. Second, we create a real-time feedback and assessment system utilized in university computer science classes to provide better feedback to students while reducing assessment time. Insights from our analysis of student submission data show that modifications to the system configuration support the way students learn and progress through course material, making it possible for instructors to tailor assignments to optimize learning in growing computer science classes.

  19. The Affective Slider: A Digital Self-Assessment Scale for the Measurement of Human Emotions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Betella

    Full Text Available Self-assessment methods are broadly employed in emotion research for the collection of subjective affective ratings. The Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM, a pictorial scale developed in the eighties for the measurement of pleasure, arousal, and dominance, is still among the most popular self-reporting tools, despite having been conceived upon design principles which are today obsolete. By leveraging on state-of-the-art user interfaces and metacommunicative pictorial representations, we developed the Affective Slider (AS, a digital self-reporting tool composed of two slider controls for the quick assessment of pleasure and arousal. To empirically validate the AS, we conducted a systematic comparison between AS and SAM in a task involving the emotional assessment of a series of images taken from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS, a database composed of pictures representing a wide range of semantic categories often used as a benchmark in psychological studies. Our results show that the AS is equivalent to SAM in the self-assessment of pleasure and arousal, with two added advantages: the AS does not require written instructions and it can be easily reproduced in latest-generation digital devices, including smartphones and tablets. Moreover, we compared new and normative IAPS ratings and found a general drop in reported arousal of pictorial stimuli. Not only do our results demonstrate that legacy scales for the self-report of affect can be replaced with new measurement tools developed in accordance to modern design principles, but also that standardized sets of stimuli which are widely adopted in research on human emotion are not as effective as they were in the past due to a general desensitization towards highly arousing content.

  20. Selection of spatial scale for assessing impacts of groundwater-based water supply on freshwater resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybel, A-M; Godskesen, B; Rygaard, M

    2015-09-01

    Indicators of the impact on freshwater resources are becoming increasingly important in the evaluation of urban water systems. To reveal the importance of spatial resolution, we investigated how the choice of catchment scale influenced the freshwater impact assessment. Two different indicators were used in this study: the Withdrawal-To-Availability ratio (WTA) and the Water Stress Index (WSI). Results were calculated for three groundwater based Danish urban water supplies (Esbjerg, Aarhus, and Copenhagen). The assessment was carried out at three spatial levels: (1) the groundwater body level, (2) the river basin level, and (3) the regional level. The assessments showed that Copenhagen's water supply had the highest impact on the freshwater resource per cubic meter of water abstracted, with a WSI of 1.75 at Level 1. The WSI values were 1.64 for Aarhus's and 0.81 for Esbjerg's water supply. Spatial resolution was identified as a major factor determining the outcome of the impact assessment. For the three case studies, WTA and WSI were 27%-583% higher at Level 1 than impacts calculated for the regional scale. The results highlight that freshwater impact assessments based on regional data, rather than sub-river basin data, may dramatically underestimate the actual impact on the water resource. Furthermore, this study discusses the strengths and shortcomings of the applied indicator approaches. A sensitivity analysis demonstrates that although WSI has the highest environmental relevance, it also has the highest uncertainty, as it requires estimations of non-measurable environmental water requirements. Hence, the development of a methodology to obtain more site-specific and relevant estimations of environmental water requirements should be prioritized. Finally, the demarcation of the groundwater resource in aquifers remains a challenge for establishing a consistent method for benchmarking freshwater impacts caused by groundwater abstraction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  1. The Affective Slider: A Digital Self-Assessment Scale for the Measurement of Human Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betella, Alberto; Verschure, Paul F M J

    2016-01-01

    Self-assessment methods are broadly employed in emotion research for the collection of subjective affective ratings. The Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM), a pictorial scale developed in the eighties for the measurement of pleasure, arousal, and dominance, is still among the most popular self-reporting tools, despite having been conceived upon design principles which are today obsolete. By leveraging on state-of-the-art user interfaces and metacommunicative pictorial representations, we developed the Affective Slider (AS), a digital self-reporting tool composed of two slider controls for the quick assessment of pleasure and arousal. To empirically validate the AS, we conducted a systematic comparison between AS and SAM in a task involving the emotional assessment of a series of images taken from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), a database composed of pictures representing a wide range of semantic categories often used as a benchmark in psychological studies. Our results show that the AS is equivalent to SAM in the self-assessment of pleasure and arousal, with two added advantages: the AS does not require written instructions and it can be easily reproduced in latest-generation digital devices, including smartphones and tablets. Moreover, we compared new and normative IAPS ratings and found a general drop in reported arousal of pictorial stimuli. Not only do our results demonstrate that legacy scales for the self-report of affect can be replaced with new measurement tools developed in accordance to modern design principles, but also that standardized sets of stimuli which are widely adopted in research on human emotion are not as effective as they were in the past due to a general desensitization towards highly arousing content.

  2. Assessing a Top-Down Modeling Approach for Seasonal Scale Snow Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, C. H.; Lute, A.

    2017-12-01

    Mechanistic snow models are commonly applied to assess changes to snowpacks in a warming climate. Such assessments involve a number of assumptions about details of weather at daily to sub-seasonal time scales. Models of season-scale behavior can provide contrast for evaluating behavior at time scales more in concordance with climate warming projections. Such top-down models, however, involve a degree of empiricism, with attendant caveats about the potential of a changing climate to affect calibrated relationships. We estimated the sensitivity of snowpacks from 497 Snowpack Telemetry (SNOTEL) stations in the western U.S. based on differences in climate between stations (spatial analog). We examined the sensitivity of April 1 snow water equivalent (SWE) and mean snow residence time (SRT) to variations in Nov-Mar precipitation and average Nov-Mar temperature using multivariate local-fit regressions. We tested the modeling approach using a leave-one-out cross-validation as well as targeted two-fold non-random cross-validations contrasting, for example, warm vs. cold years, dry vs. wet years, and north vs. south stations. Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) values for the validations were strong for April 1 SWE, ranging from 0.71 to 0.90, and still reasonable, but weaker, for SRT, in the range of 0.64 to 0.81. From these ranges, we exclude validations where the training data do not represent the range of target data. A likely reason for differences in validation between the two metrics is that the SWE model reflects the influence of conservation of mass while using temperature as an indicator of the season-scale energy balance; in contrast, SRT depends more strongly on the energy balance aspects of the problem. Model forms with lower numbers of parameters generally validated better than more complex model forms, with the caveat that pseudoreplication could encourage selection of more complex models when validation contrasts were weak. Overall, the split sample validations

  3. A comparison of low IQ scores from the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umphress, Thomas B

    2008-06-01

    Twenty people with suspected intellectual disability took the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS; C. R. Reynolds & R. W. Kamphaus, 1998) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-3rd Edition (WAIS-III; D. Wechsler, 1997) to see if the 2 IQ tests produced comparable results. A t test showed that the RIAS Composite Intelligence Index scores were significantly higher than WAIS-III Full Scale IQ scores at the alpha level of .01. There was a significant difference between the RIAS Nonverbal Intelligence and WAIS-III Performance Scale, but there was no significant difference between the RIAS Verbal Intelligence Index and the WAIS-III Verbal Scale IQ. The results raise questions concerning test selection for diagnosing intellectual disability and the use of the correlation statistic for comparing intelligence tests.

  4. Evaluation of treatment related fear using a newly developed fear scale for children: "Fear assessment picture scale" and its association with physiological response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Nishidha; Tiwari, Shilpi; Thakur, Ruchi; Agrawal, Nikita; Shashikiran, N D; Singla, Shilpy

    2015-01-01

    Dental treatment is usually a poignant phenomenon for children. Projective scales are preferred over psychometric scales to recognize it, and to obtain the self-report from children. The aims were to evaluate treatment related fear using a newly developed fear scale for children, fear assessment picture scale (FAPS), and anxiety with colored version of modified facial affective scale (MFAS) - three faces along with physiologic responses (pulse rate and oxygen saturation) obtained by pulse oximeter before and during pulpectomy procedure. Total, 60 children of age 6-8 years who were visiting the dental hospital for the first time and needed pulpectomy treatment were selected. Children selected were of sound physical, physiological, and mental condition. Two projective scales were used; one to assess fear - FAPS and to assess anxiety - colored version of MFAS - three faces. These were co-related with the physiological responses (oxygen saturation and pulse rate) of children obtained by pulse oximeter before and during the pulpectomy procedure. Shapiro-Wilk test, McNemar's test, Wilcoxon signed ranks test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney test were applied in the study. The physiological responses showed association with FAPS and MFAS though not significant. However, oxygen saturation with MFAS showed a significant change between "no anxiety" and "some anxiety" as quantified by Kruskal-Wallis test value 6.287, P = 0.043 (test is easy and fast to apply on children and reduces the chair-side time.

  5. Development of new geomagnetic storm ground response scaling factors for utilization in hazard assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkinen, A. A.; Bernabeu, E.; Weigel, R. S.; Kelbert, A.; Rigler, E. J.; Bedrosian, P.; Love, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    Development of realistic storm scenarios that can be played through the exposed systems is one of the key requirements for carrying out quantitative space weather hazards assessments. In the geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) and power grids context, these scenarios have to quantify the spatiotemporal evolution of the geoelectric field that drives the potentially hazardous currents in the system. In response to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) order 779, a team of scientists and engineers that worked under the auspices of North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC), has developed extreme geomagnetic storm and geoelectric field benchmark(s) that use various scaling factors that account for geomagnetic latitude and ground structure of the locations of interest. These benchmarks, together with the information generated in the National Space Weather Action Plan, are the foundation for the hazards assessments that the industry will be carrying out in response to the FERC order and under the auspices of the National Science and Technology Council. While the scaling factors developed in the past work were based on the best available information, there is now significant new information available for parts of the U.S. pertaining to the ground response to external geomagnetic field excitation. The significant new information includes the results magnetotelluric surveys that have been conducted over the past few years across the contiguous US and results from previous surveys that have been made available in a combined online database. In this paper, we distill this new information in the framework of the NERC benchmark and in terms of updated ground response scaling factors thereby allowing straightforward utilization in the hazard assessments. We also outline the path forward for improving the overall extreme event benchmark scenario(s) including generalization of the storm waveforms and geoelectric field spatial patterns.

  6. Holistic impact assessment and cost savings of rainwater harvesting at the watershed scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh R. Ghimire

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the impacts of domestic and agricultural rainwater harvesting (RWH systems in three watersheds within the Albemarle-Pamlico river basin (southeastern U.S. using life cycle assessment (LCA and life cycle cost assessment. Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA categories included energy demand, fossil fuel, metals, ozone depletion, global warming, acidification, smog, blue and green water use, ecotoxicity, eutrophication, and human health effects. Building upon previous LCAs of near-optimal domestic and agricultural RWH systems in the region, we scaled functional unit LCIA scores for adoption rates of 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% and compared these to conventional municipal water and well water systems. In addition to investigating watershed-scale impacts of RWH adoption, which few studies have addressed, potential life cycle cost savings due to reduced cumulative energy demand were scaled in each watershed for a more comprehensive analysis. The importance of managing the holistic water balance, including blue water (surface/ground water, green water (rainwater use, and annual precipitation and their relationship to RWH are also addressed. RWH contributes to water resource sustainability by offsetting surface and ground water consumption and by reducing environmental and human health impacts compared to conventional sources. A watershed-wide RWH adoption rate of 25% has a number of ecological and human health benefits including blue water use reduction ranging from 2–39 Mm3, cumulative energy savings of 12–210 TJ, and reduced global warming potential of 600–10,100 Mg CO2 eq. Potential maximum lifetime energy cost savings were estimated at $5M and $24M corresponding to domestic RWH in Greens Mill and agricultural RWH in Back Creek watersheds.

  7. Site-specific to local-scale shallow landslides triggering zones assessment using TRIGRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoni, M.; Meisina, C.; Valentino, R.; Bittelli, M.; Chersich, S.

    2015-05-01

    Rainfall-induced shallow landslides are common phenomena in many parts of the world, affecting cultivation and infrastructure and sometimes causing human losses. Assessing the triggering zones of shallow landslides is fundamental for land planning at different scales. This work defines a reliable methodology to extend a slope stability analysis from the site-specific to local scale by using a well-established physically based model (TRIGRS-unsaturated). The model is initially applied to a sample slope and then to the surrounding 13.4 km2 area in Oltrepo Pavese (northern Italy). To obtain more reliable input data for the model, long-term hydro-meteorological monitoring has been carried out at the sample slope, which has been assumed to be representative of the study area. Field measurements identified the triggering mechanism of shallow failures and were used to verify the reliability of the model to obtain pore water pressure trends consistent with those measured during the monitoring activity. In this way, more reliable trends have been modelled for past landslide events, such as the April 2009 event that was assumed as a benchmark. The assessment of shallow landslide triggering zones obtained using TRIGRS-unsaturated for the benchmark event appears good for both the monitored slope and the whole study area, with better results when a pedological instead of geological zoning is considered at the regional scale. The sensitivity analyses of the influence of the soil input data show that the mean values of the soil properties give the best results in terms of the ratio between the true positive and false positive rates. The scheme followed in this work allows us to obtain better results in the assessment of shallow landslide triggering areas in terms of the reduction in the overestimation of unstable zones with respect to other distributed models applied in the past.

  8. Large-scale Assessment Yields Evidence of Minimal Use of Reasoning Skills in Traditionally Taught Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Beth

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale assessment data from Texas Tech University yielded evidence that most students taught traditionally in large lecture classes with online homework and predominantly multiple choice question exams, when asked to answer free-response (FR) questions, did not support their answers with logical arguments grounded in physics concepts. In addition to a lack of conceptual understanding, incorrect and partially correct answers lacked evidence of the ability to apply even lower level reasoning skills in order to solve a problem. Correct answers, however, did show evidence of at least lower level thinking skills as coded using a rubric based on Bloom's taxonomy. With the introduction of evidence-based instruction into the labs and recitations of the large courses and in a small, completely laboratory-based, hands-on course, the percentage of correct answers with correct explanations increased. The FR format, unlike other assessment formats, allowed assessment of both conceptual understanding and the application of thinking skills, clearly pointing out weaknesses not revealed by other assessment instruments, and providing data on skills beyond conceptual understanding for course and program assessment. Supported by National Institutes of Health (NIH) Challenge grant #1RC1GM090897-01.

  9. Psychometric properties of a single-item scale to assess sleep quality among individuals with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadosky Alesia B

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleep disturbances are a common and bothersome symptom of fibromyalgia (FM. This study reports psychometric properties of a single-item scale to assess sleep quality among individuals with FM. Methods Analyses were based on data from two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of pregabalin (studies 1056 and 1077. In a daily diary, patients reported the quality of their sleep on a numeric rating scale ranging from 0 ("best possible sleep" to 10 ("worst possible sleep". Test re-test reliability of the Sleep Quality Scale was evaluated by computing intraclass correlation coefficients. Pearson correlation coefficients were computed between baseline Sleep Quality scores and baseline pain diary and Medical Outcomes Study (MOS Sleep scores. Responsiveness to treatment was evaluated by standardized effect sizes computed as the difference between least squares mean changes in Sleep Quality scores in the pregabalin and placebo groups divided by the standard deviation of Sleep Quality scores across all patients at baseline. Results Studies 1056 and 1077 included 748 and 745 patients, respectively. Most patients were female (study 1056: 94.4%; study 1077: 94.5% and white (study 1056: 90.2%; study 1077: 91.0%. Mean ages were 48.8 years (study 1056 and 50.1 years (study 1077. Test re-test reliability coefficients of the Sleep Quality Scale were 0.91 and 0.90 in the 1056 and 1077 studies, respectively. Pearson correlation coefficients between baseline Sleep Quality scores and baseline pain diary scores were 0.64 (p Conclusion These results provide evidence of the reproducibility, convergent validity, and responsiveness to treatment of the Sleep Quality Scale and provide a foundation for its further use and evaluation in FM patients.

  10. Traditional Masculinity and Femininity: Validation of a New Scale Assessing Gender Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachel, Sven; Steffens, Melanie C.; Niedlich, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Gender stereotype theory suggests that men are generally perceived as more masculine than women, whereas women are generally perceived as more feminine than men. Several scales have been developed to measure fundamental aspects of gender stereotypes (e.g., agency and communion, competence and warmth, or instrumentality and expressivity). Although omitted in later version, Bem's original Sex Role Inventory included the items “masculine” and “feminine” in addition to more specific gender-stereotypical attributes. We argue that it is useful to be able to measure these two core concepts in a reliable, valid, and parsimonious way. We introduce a new and brief scale, the Traditional Masculinity-Femininity (TMF) scale, designed to assess central facets of self-ascribed masculinity-femininity. Studies 1–2 used known-groups approaches (participants differing in gender and sexual orientation) to validate the scale and provide evidence of its convergent validity. As expected the TMF reliably measured a one-dimensional masculinity-femininity construct. Moreover, the TMF correlated moderately with other gender-related measures. Demonstrating incremental validity, the TMF predicted gender and sexual orientation in a superior way than established adjective-based measures. Furthermore, the TMF was connected to criterion characteristics, such as judgments as straight by laypersons for the whole sample, voice pitch characteristics for the female subsample, and contact to gay men for the male subsample, and outperformed other gender-related scales. Taken together, as long as gender differences continue to exist, we suggest that the TMF provides a valuable methodological addition for research into gender stereotypes. PMID:27458394

  11. Traditional Masculinity and Femininity: Validation of a New Scale Assessing Gender Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachel, Sven; Steffens, Melanie C; Niedlich, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Gender stereotype theory suggests that men are generally perceived as more masculine than women, whereas women are generally perceived as more feminine than men. Several scales have been developed to measure fundamental aspects of gender stereotypes (e.g., agency and communion, competence and warmth, or instrumentality and expressivity). Although omitted in later version, Bem's original Sex Role Inventory included the items "masculine" and "feminine" in addition to more specific gender-stereotypical attributes. We argue that it is useful to be able to measure these two core concepts in a reliable, valid, and parsimonious way. We introduce a new and brief scale, the Traditional Masculinity-Femininity (TMF) scale, designed to assess central facets of self-ascribed masculinity-femininity. Studies 1-2 used known-groups approaches (participants differing in gender and sexual orientation) to validate the scale and provide evidence of its convergent validity. As expected the TMF reliably measured a one-dimensional masculinity-femininity construct. Moreover, the TMF correlated moderately with other gender-related measures. Demonstrating incremental validity, the TMF predicted gender and sexual orientation in a superior way than established adjective-based measures. Furthermore, the TMF was connected to criterion characteristics, such as judgments as straight by laypersons for the whole sample, voice pitch characteristics for the female subsample, and contact to gay men for the male subsample, and outperformed other gender-related scales. Taken together, as long as gender differences continue to exist, we suggest that the TMF provides a valuable methodological addition for research into gender stereotypes.

  12. Career-Success Scale – A new instrument to assess young physicians' academic career steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddeberg-Fischer, Barbara; Stamm, Martina; Buddeberg, Claus; Klaghofer, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Background Within the framework of a prospective cohort study of Swiss medical school graduates, a Career-Success Scale (CSS) was constructed in a sample of young physicians choosing different career paths in medicine. Furthermore the influence of personality factors, the participants' personal situation, and career related factors on their career success was investigated. Methods 406 residents were assessed in terms of career aspired to, and their career progress. The Career-Success Scale, consisting of 7 items, was developed and validated, addressing objective criteria of academic career advancement. The influence of gender and career aspiration was investigated by a two-factorial analysis of variance, the relationships between personality factors, personal situation, career related factors and the Career-Success Scale by a multivariate linear regression analysis. Results The unidimensional Career-Success Scale has an internal consistency of 0.76. It is significantly correlated at the bivariate level with gender, instrumentality, and all career related factors, particularly with academic career and received mentoring. In multiple regression, only gender, academic career, surgery as chosen specialty, and received mentoring are significant predictors. The highest values were observed in participants aspiring to an academic career, followed by those pursuing a hospital career and those wanting to run a private practice. Independent of the career aspired to, female residents have lower scores than their male colleagues. Conclusion The Career-Success Scale proved to be a short, reliable and valid instrument to measure career achievements. As mentoring is an independent predictor of career success, mentoring programs could be an important instrument to specifically enhance careers of female physicians in academia. PMID:18518972

  13. Career-success scale - a new instrument to assess young physicians' academic career steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddeberg-Fischer, Barbara; Stamm, Martina; Buddeberg, Claus; Klaghofer, Richard

    2008-06-02

    Within the framework of a prospective cohort study of Swiss medical school graduates, a Career-Success Scale (CSS) was constructed in a sample of young physicians choosing different career paths in medicine. Furthermore the influence of personality factors, the participants' personal situation, and career related factors on their career success was investigated. 406 residents were assessed in terms of career aspired to, and their career progress. The Career-Success Scale, consisting of 7 items, was developed and validated, addressing objective criteria of academic career advancement. The influence of gender and career aspiration was investigated by a two-factorial analysis of variance, the relationships between personality factors, personal situation, career related factors and the Career-Success Scale by a multivariate linear regression analysis. The unidimensional Career-Success Scale has an internal consistency of 0.76. It is significantly correlated at the bivariate level with gender, instrumentality, and all career related factors, particularly with academic career and received mentoring. In multiple regression, only gender, academic career, surgery as chosen specialty, and received mentoring are significant predictors. The highest values were observed in participants aspiring to an academic career, followed by those pursuing a hospital career and those wanting to run a private practice. Independent of the career aspired to, female residents have lower scores than their male colleagues. The Career-Success Scale proved to be a short, reliable and valid instrument to measure career achievements. As mentoring is an independent predictor of career success, mentoring programs could be an important instrument to specifically enhance careers of female physicians in academia.

  14. Career-Success Scale – A new instrument to assess young physicians' academic career steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buddeberg Claus

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within the framework of a prospective cohort study of Swiss medical school graduates, a Career-Success Scale (CSS was constructed in a sample of young physicians choosing different career paths in medicine. Furthermore the influence of personality factors, the participants' personal situation, and career related factors on their career success was investigated. Methods 406 residents were assessed in terms of career aspired to, and their career progress. The Career-Success Scale, consisting of 7 items, was developed and validated, addressing objective criteria of academic career advancement. The influence of gender and career aspiration was investigated by a two-factorial analysis of variance, the relationships between personality factors, personal situation, career related factors and the Career-Success Scale by a multivariate linear regression analysis. Results The unidimensional Career-Success Scale has an internal consistency of 0.76. It is significantly correlated at the bivariate level with gender, instrumentality, and all career related factors, particularly with academic career and received mentoring. In multiple regression, only gender, academic career, surgery as chosen specialty, and received mentoring are significant predictors. The highest values were observed in participants aspiring to an academic career, followed by those pursuing a hospital career and those wanting to run a private practice. Independent of the career aspired to, female residents have lower scores than their male colleagues. Conclusion The Career-Success Scale proved to be a short, reliable and valid instrument to measure career achievements. As mentoring is an independent predictor of career success, mentoring programs could be an important instrument to specifically enhance careers of female physicians in academia.

  15. An Instrument to Assess Self-Statements During Public Speaking: Scale Development and Preliminary Psychometric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; DiBartolo, Patricia Marten

    2006-01-01

    Public speaking is the most commonly reported fearful social situation. Although a number of contemporary theories emphasize the importance of cognitive processes in social anxiety, there is no instrument available to assess fearful thoughts experienced during public speaking. The Self-Statements During Public Speaking (SSPS) scale is a 10-item questionnaire consisting of two 5-item subscales, the “Positive Self-Statements” (SSPS-P) and the “Negative Self-Statements” subscale (SSPS-N). Four studies report on the development and the preliminary psychometric properties of this instrument. PMID:16763666

  16. Assessing Communication Skills of Medical Students in Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCE)--A Systematic Review of Rating Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cömert, Musa; Zill, Jördis Maria; Christalle, Eva; Dirmaier, Jörg; Härter, Martin; Scholl, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Teaching and assessment of communication skills have become essential in medical education. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) has been found as an appropriate means to assess communication skills within medical education. Studies have demonstrated the importance of a valid assessment of medical students' communication skills. Yet, the validity of the performance scores depends fundamentally on the quality of the rating scales used in an OSCE. Thus, this systematic review aimed at providing an overview of existing rating scales, describing their underlying definition of communication skills, determining the methodological quality of psychometric studies and the quality of psychometric properties of the identified rating scales. We conducted a systematic review to identify psychometrically tested rating scales, which have been applied in OSCE settings to assess communication skills of medical students. Our search strategy comprised three databases (EMBASE, PsycINFO, and PubMed), reference tracking and consultation of experts. We included studies that reported psychometric properties of communication skills assessment rating scales used in OSCEs by examiners only. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the COnsensus based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. The quality of psychometric properties was evaluated using the quality criteria of Terwee and colleagues. Data of twelve studies reporting on eight rating scales on communication skills assessment in OSCEs were included. Five of eight rating scales were explicitly developed based on a specific definition of communication skills. The methodological quality of studies was mainly poor. The psychometric quality of the eight rating scales was mainly intermediate. Our results reveal that future psychometric evaluation studies focusing on improving the methodological quality are needed in order to yield psychometrically

  17. Assessing Communication Skills of Medical Students in Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCE) - A Systematic Review of Rating Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cömert, Musa; Zill, Jördis Maria; Christalle, Eva; Dirmaier, Jörg; Härter, Martin; Scholl, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Background Teaching and assessment of communication skills have become essential in medical education. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) has been found as an appropriate means to assess communication skills within medical education. Studies have demonstrated the importance of a valid assessment of medical students’ communication skills. Yet, the validity of the performance scores depends fundamentally on the quality of the rating scales used in an OSCE. Thus, this systematic review aimed at providing an overview of existing rating scales, describing their underlying definition of communication skills, determining the methodological quality of psychometric studies and the quality of psychometric properties of the identified rating scales. Methods We conducted a systematic review to identify psychometrically tested rating scales, which have been applied in OSCE settings to assess communication skills of medical students. Our search strategy comprised three databases (EMBASE, PsycINFO, and PubMed), reference tracking and consultation of experts. We included studies that reported psychometric properties of communication skills assessment rating scales used in OSCEs by examiners only. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the COnsensus based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. The quality of psychometric properties was evaluated using the quality criteria of Terwee and colleagues. Results Data of twelve studies reporting on eight rating scales on communication skills assessment in OSCEs were included. Five of eight rating scales were explicitly developed based on a specific definition of communication skills. The methodological quality of studies was mainly poor. The psychometric quality of the eight rating scales was mainly intermediate. Discussion Our results reveal that future psychometric evaluation studies focusing on improving the methodological quality are needed

  18. Bias-correction and Spatial Disaggregation for Climate Change Impact Assessments at a basin scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyunt, Cho; Koike, Toshio; Yamamoto, Akio; Nemoto, Toshihoro; Kitsuregawa, Masaru

    2013-04-01

    Basin-scale climate change impact studies mainly rely on general circulation models (GCMs) comprising the related emission scenarios. Realistic and reliable data from GCM is crucial for national scale or basin scale impact and vulnerability assessments to build safety society under climate change. However, GCM fail to simulate regional climate features due to the imprecise parameterization schemes in atmospheric physics and coarse resolution scale. This study describes how to exclude some unsatisfactory GCMs with respect to focused basin, how to minimize the biases of GCM precipitation through statistical bias correction and how to cover spatial disaggregation scheme, a kind of downscaling, within in a basin. GCMs rejection is based on the regional climate features of seasonal evolution as a bench mark and mainly depends on spatial correlation and root mean square error of precipitation and atmospheric variables over the target region. Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and Japanese 25-uear Reanalysis Project (JRA-25) are specified as references in figuring spatial pattern and error of GCM. Statistical bias-correction scheme comprises improvements of three main flaws of GCM precipitation such as low intensity drizzled rain days with no dry day, underestimation of heavy rainfall and inter-annual variability of local climate. Biases of heavy rainfall are conducted by generalized Pareto distribution (GPD) fitting over a peak over threshold series. Frequency of rain day error is fixed by rank order statistics and seasonal variation problem is solved by using a gamma distribution fitting in each month against insi-tu stations vs. corresponding GCM grids. By implementing the proposed bias-correction technique to all insi-tu stations and their respective GCM grid, an easy and effective downscaling process for impact studies at the basin scale is accomplished. The proposed method have been examined its applicability to some of the basins in various climate

  19. Life cycle assessment of biogas production in small-scale household digesters in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, T.K.V.; Vu, D.Q.; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2015-01-01

    to transport, and the loss of biogas as a result of cracks and the intentional release of excess biogas. In this study, life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was used to assess the environmental impacts associated with biogas digesters in Vietnam. Handling 1,000 kg of liquid manure and 100 kg of solid manure......Small-scale household digesters have been promoted across Asia as a sustainable way of handling manure. The major advantages are that they produce biogas and reduce odor. However their disadvantages include the low recycling of nutrients, because digestate is dilute and therefore difficult...... in a system with a biogas digester reduced the impact potential from 4.4 kg carbon dioxide (CO 2) equivalents to 3.2 kg CO2 equivalents compared with traditional manure management. However, this advantage could easily be compromised if digester construction is considered in the LCA or in situations where...

  20. A Person-Centered Approach to Financial Capacity Assessment: Preliminary Development of a New Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Peter A; Stoltman, Jonathan; Ficker, Lisa J; Iris, Madelyn; Mast, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Financial exploitation and financial capacity issues often overlap when a gerontologist assesses whether an older adult's financial decision is an autonomous, capable choice. Our goal is to describe a new conceptual model for assessing financial decisions using principles of person-centered approaches and to introduce a new instrument, the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS). We created a conceptual model, convened meetings of experts from various disciplines to critique the model and provide input on content and structure, and select final items. We then videotaped administration of the LFDRS to five older adults and had 10 experts provide independent ratings. The LFDRS demonstrated good to excellent inter-rater agreement. The LFDRS is a new tool that allows gerontologists to systematically gather information about a specific financial decision and the decisional abilities in question.

  1. Does Wechsler Intelligence Scale administration and scoring proficiency improve during assessment training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Tyson L; Zachar, Peter; Ray, Glen E; Lobello, Steven G; Underhill, Andrea T

    2007-04-01

    Studies have found that Wechsler scale administration and scoring proficiency is not easily attained during graduate training. These findings may be related to methodological issues. Using a single-group repeated measures design, this study documents statistically significant, though modest, error reduction on the WAIS-III and WISC-III during a graduate course in assessment. The study design does not permit the isolation of training factors related to error reduction, or assessment of whether error reduction is a function of mere practice. However, the results do indicate that previous study findings of no or inconsistent improvement in scoring proficiency may have been the result of methodological factors. Implications for teaching individual intelligence testing and further research are discussed.

  2. A pilot application of regional scale risk assessment to the forestry management of the upper Grand Ronde watershed, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzanne M. Anderson; Wayne G. Landis

    2012-01-01

    An issue in forestry management has been the integration of a variety of different information into a threat analysis or risk assessment. In this instance, regional scale risk assessment was applied to the Upper Grande Ronde watershed in eastern Oregon to examine the potential of risk assessment for use in the management of broad landscapes. The site was a focus of...

  3. Assessing the Importance of Treatment Goals in Patients with Psoriasis: Analytic Hierarchy Process vs. Likert Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutknecht, Mandy; Danner, Marion; Schaarschmidt, Marthe-Lisa; Gross, Christian; Augustin, Matthias

    2018-02-15

    To define treatment benefit, the Patient Benefit Index contains a weighting of patient-relevant treatment goals using the Patient Needs Questionnaire, which includes a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 0 ("not important at all") to 4 ("very important"). These treatment goals have been assigned to five health dimensions. The importance of each dimension can be derived by averaging the importance ratings on the Likert scales of associated treatment goals. As the use of a Likert scale does not allow for a relative assessment of importance, the objective of this study was to estimate relative importance weights for health dimensions and associated treatment goals in patients with psoriasis by using the analytic hierarchy process and to compare these weights with the weights resulting from the Patient Needs Questionnaire. Furthermore, patients' judgments on the difficulty of the methods were investigated. Dimensions of the Patient Benefit Index and their treatment goals were mapped into a hierarchy of criteria and sub-criteria to develop the analytic hierarchy process questionnaire. Adult patients with psoriasis starting a new anti-psoriatic therapy in the outpatient clinic of the Institute for Health Services Research in Dermatology and Nursing at the University Medical Center Hamburg (Germany) were recruited and completed both methods (analytic hierarchy process, Patient Needs Questionnaire). Ratings of treatment goals on the Likert scales (Patient Needs Questionnaire) were summarized within each dimension to assess the importance of the respective health dimension/criterion. Following the analytic hierarchy process approach, consistency in judgments was assessed using a standardized measurement (consistency ratio). At the analytic hierarchy process level of criteria, 78 of 140 patients achieved the accepted consistency. Using the analytic hierarchy process, the dimension "improvement of physical functioning" was most important, followed by "improvement of social

  4. Validation of the Turkish version of the Breast Reduction Assessed Severity Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kececi, Yavuz; Sir, Emin; Zengel, Baha

    2013-01-01

    Measuring patient-reported outcomes has become increasingly important in cosmetic and reconstructive breast surgery. There is no validated questionnaire in Turkish to evaluate quality-of-life issues for patients with mammary hypertrophy. The authors describe the reliability and validity of a translated Breast Reduction Assessed Severity Scale (BRASS) in evaluating Turkish patients. The BRASS, developed by Sigurdson et al, was translated into Turkish adhering strictly to the guidelines of questionnaire translations. Statistical analysis was carried out with Cronbach's α to test the internal consistency and intraclass correlation coefficient for test-retest reliability. Exploratory factor analysis was carried out using principal component analysis with oblimin rotation to test its construct validity. Correlations between subscales identified in the factor analysis and corresponding domains in the Short Form-36 and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were analyzed. The total instrument was found to have an α coefficient of 0.92 and subscale α coefficients ranging from 0.76 to 0.87. Intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.93 for the total scale and ranged from 0.81 to 0.91 for the subscales. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in a 5-factor structure: physical implications, body pain, physical appearance, poor self-concept, and negative social interactions. With this study, the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the BRASS were revealed. This translated version can be used to evaluate the effect of mammary hypertrophy on quality of life in Turkish patients.

  5. MODIFIED PATH METHODOLOGY FOR OBTAINING INTERVAL-SCALED POSTURAL ASSESSMENTS OF FARMWORKERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Emma B; Dropkin, Jonathan; Russell, Rebecca; Jenkins, Paul

    2018-01-29

    Agricultural workers perform tasks that frequently require awkward and extreme postures that are associated with musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). The PATH (Posture, Activity, Tools, Handling) system currently provides a sound methodology for quantifying workers' exposure to these awkward postures on an ordinal scale of measurement, which places restrictions on the choice of analytic methods. This study reports a modification of the PATH methodology that instead captures these postures as degrees of flexion, an interval-scaled measurement. Rather than making live observations in the field, as in PATH, the postural assessments were performed on photographs using ImageJ photo analysis software. Capturing the postures in photographs permitted more careful measurement of the degrees of flexion. The current PATH methodology requires that the observer in the field be trained in the use of PATH, whereas the single photographer used in this modification requires only sufficient training to maintain the proper camera angle. Ultimately, these interval-scale measurements could be combined with other quantitative measures, such as those produced by electromyograms (EMGs), to provide more sophisticated estimates of future risk for MSDs. Further, these data can provide a baseline from which the effects of interventions designed to reduce hazardous postures can be calculated with greater precision. Copyright© by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers.

  6. [Assessment of usefulness of visual analogue scale (VAS) for measuring adolescent attitude toward unhealthy behaviors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supranowicz, Piotr

    2003-01-01

    In the last two decades the visual analogue scale has been more frequently used for measuring the psychosocial determinants of health, its disorders and unhealthy behaviours. In 1999 in Health Promotion Department of the National Institute of Hygiene multidimensional investigations on self-assessment of health and life style of adolescents were undertaken and evaluation of visual analogue scale usefulness for health promotion research was one of the aims of these investigations. The data were obtained from randomly selected sample of 682 schoolchildren aged 14-15 years attending to public and private schools of Warsaw. The questionnaire contained the questions about frequency of alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, drug using and manifestation of aggression. Simultaneously, respondents were asked, how much these behaviours are usefully for coping with everyday events. The answers of usefulness of unhealthy behaviours were measured on tenth centimetre line from "not at all" to "completely". The study shows that adolescents who presented unhealthy behaviours more often are more likely to give higher value to these behaviours in coping with their problems. Moreover, adolescents' attitude toward unhealthy behaviours varies according to gender, kind of alcohol, frequency of being drunk, proposals to buy the drugs, carrying the weapon and frequency of injures from violence. The analyses confirm the usefulness of visual analogue scale for study on psychosocial and life style determinants of health.

  7. Narrative review of scales assessing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Evangelina Herrán Paz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a common neurobehavioral disorder in school-age population and is a major driver of mental health consultation. Diagnosis is hindered by the difficulty of objectively assessing subjective aspects such as inattention or impulsivity. Purpose. To briefly describe the most widely used rating scales as tools for the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, subtypes and comorbidities, based on a review of information available in MEDLINE, Medic America, Academic Search Complete and Mendeley databases. Analysis. This disorder is poorly understood in the family and school environment, which hampers detection and timely treatment. Rating scales have advantages and disadvantages, but they are undoubtedly important for an initial approach to the clinical manifestations of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Conclusion. There is a need for better diagnostic tools or scales that take into account the stage of neurodevelopment, other developmental stages, gender differences, sociocultural aspects and diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition.

  8. The relationship between pneumonia and Glasgow coma scale assessment on acute stroke patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritarwan, K.; Batubara, C. A.; Dhanu, R.

    2018-03-01

    Pneumonia is one of the most frequent medical complications of a stroke. Despite the well-documented association of a stroke associated infections with increased mortality and worse long-term outcome, on the other hand, the limited data available on independent predictors of pneumonia in acute stroke patients in an emergency unit. To determine the independentrelationship between pneumonia and Glasgow Coma Scale assessment on acute stroke patients. The cohort retrospective study observed 55 acute stroke patients who stayed in intensive care unit Adam Malik General Hospital from January until August 2017. Pneumonia was more frequent in patients with Ischemic stroke (OR 5.40; 95% CI: 1.28 – 6.40, p=0.003), higher National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) (p=0.014) and lower Glasgow Coma Scale (p=0.0001). Analysis multivariate logistic regression identified NIHSS as an independent of predictors of pneumonia (95% CI : 1.047 – 1.326, p=0.001). Pneumonia was associated with severity and type of stroke and length of hospital stay. The severity of the deficits evaluated by the NIHSS was shown to be the only independent risk factor for pneumonia in acute stroke patients.

  9. Spanish adaptation of The Penn State College of Medicine Scale to assess professionalism in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Eliseo; Sanabria, Álvaro

    2014-01-01

    Professionalism is a subject of interest in medical schools around the world. The use of a questionnaire could be useful to assess professionalism in Colombia. To adapt The Penn State University College of Medicine Professionalism Questionnaire as a culturally valid instrument in the Spanish language. We followed recommendations from the IQOLA project and used forward and back translation with four independent translations, as well as a pilot evaluation and an evaluation of psychometric features with 250 students. We evaluated item-scale correlations and internal consistency with Chronbach's alpha test and conducted a principal components factor analysis. Global Cronbach's alpha was 0.86, the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy was 0.83, and Bartlett's test of sphericity had a p >0.00001. We found six factors that explained 93% of the total variance and four new factors emerged in the factor analysis, while eight items had high uniqueness. The Penn State University College of Medicine Scale measures professionalism attitudes in medical students with good reliability. However, the structure of the scale demonstrated differences when used in the Latin American medical student population.

  10. Development of a scale to assess cancer stigma in the non-patient population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, Laura A V; Wardle, Jane

    2014-04-23

    Illness-related stigma has attracted considerable research interest, but few studies have specifically examined stigmatisation of cancer in the non-patient population. The present study developed and validated a Cancer Stigma Scale (CASS) for use in the general population. An item pool was developed on the basis of previous research into illness-related stigma in the general population and patients with cancer. Two studies were carried out. The first study used Exploratory factor analysis to explore the structure of items in a sample of 462 postgraduate students recruited through a London university. The second study used Confirmatory factor analysis to confirm the structure among 238 adults recruited through an online market research panel. Internal reliability, test-retest reliability and construct validity were also assessed. Exploratory factor analysis suggested six subscales, representing: Awkwardness, Severity, Avoidance, Policy Opposition, Personal Responsibility and Financial Discrimination. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed this structure with a 25-item scale. All subscales showed adequate to good internal and test-retest reliability in both samples. Construct validity was also good, with mean scores for each subscale varying in the expected directions by age, gender, experience of cancer, awareness of lifestyle risk factors for cancer, and social desirability. Means for the subscales were consistent across the two samples. These findings highlight the complexity of cancer stigma and provide the Cancer Stigma Scale (CASS) which can be used to compare populations, types of cancer and evaluate the effects of interventions designed to reduce cancer stigma in non-patient populations.

  11. Development and Validation of a Scale Assessing Mental Health Clinicians' Experiences of Associative Stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanos, Philip T; Vayshenker, Beth; DeLuca, Joseph S; O'Connor, Lauren K

    2017-10-01

    Mental health professionals who work with people with serious mental illnesses are believed to experience associative stigma. Evidence suggests that associative stigma could play an important role in the erosion of empathy among professionals; however, no validated measure of the construct currently exists. This study examined the convergent and discriminant validity and factor structure of a new scale assessing the associative stigma experiences of clinicians working with people with serious mental illnesses. A total of 473 clinicians were recruited from professional associations in the United States and participated in an online study. Participants completed the Clinician Associative Stigma Scale (CASS) and measures of burnout, quality of care, expectations about recovery, and self-efficacy. Associative stigma experiences were commonly endorsed; eight items on the 18-item scale were endorsed as being experienced "sometimes" or "often" by over 50% of the sample. The new measure demonstrated a logical four-factor structure: "negative stereotypes about professional effectiveness," "discomfort with disclosure," "negative stereotypes about people with mental illness," and "stereotypes about professionals' mental health." The measure had good internal consistency. It was significantly related to measures of burnout and quality of care, but it was not related to measures of self-efficacy or expectations about recovery. Findings suggest that the CASS is internally consistent and shows evidence of convergent validity and that associative stigma is commonly experienced by mental health professionals who work with people with serious mental illnesses.

  12. Development of the Korean version of Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-K).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, J C; Lee, D Y; Kim, K W; Lee, J H; Jhoo, J H; Lee, K U; Ha, J; Woo, J I

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this study was the development of the Korean Version of Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-K). ADAS-K was administrated to 84 AD patients as well as 105 non-demented control subjects. Three aspects of reliability were tested. To evaluate the validity of ADAS-K, discriminant validity and concurrent validity were tested. To evaluate the sensitivity of ADAS-K to disease severity, all subjects, AD patients and control subjects, were grouped by CDR scale and their mean scores on ADAS-K were compared. ADAS-K demonstrated high levels of reliability. Mean ADAS-K scores for AD patients were significantly different from the control group (p ADAS-K exhibited significant correlations with other tests and scales (range 0.45-0.85, p ADAS-K displayed high diagnostic efficacy and the optimal cut-off point was selected between 18/19. ADAS-K was able to discriminate the degree of AD severity according to CDR classification. Our results suggested that ADAS-K-cog was sensitive to very mild AD. We demonstrated that ADAS-K is a reliable and valid instrument not only for AD diagnosis but also for evaluation of its severity. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Development of a new body image assessment scale in urban Cameroon: an anthropological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Emmanuel; Pasquet, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Develop and validate body image scales (BIS) presenting real human bodies adapted to the macroscopic phenotype of urban Cameroonian populations. Quantitative and qualitative analysis. Yaoundé, capital city of Cameroon. Four samples with balanced sex-ratio: the first (n=16) aged 18 to 65 years (qualitative study), the second (n=30) aged 25 to 40 years (photo database), the third (n=47) and fourth (n=181), > or =18 years (validation study). Construct validity, test retest reliability, concurrent and convergent validity of BIS. Body image scales present six Cameroonians of each sex arranged according to main body mass index (BMI) categories: underweight ( or =40 kg/m2). Test-retest reliability correlations for current body size (CBS), desired body size and current desirable discrepancy (body self-satisfaction index) on BIS were never below .90. Plus, for the concurrent validity, we observed a significant correlation (r=0.67, Pbody size perceptions, is acceptable. Body image scales are adapted to the phenotypic characteristics of urban Cameroonian populations. They are reliable and valid to assess body size perceptions and culturally adapted to the Cameroonian context.

  14. Large-scale model-based assessment of deer-vehicle collision risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Hothorn

    Full Text Available Ungulates, in particular the Central European roe deer Capreolus capreolus and the North American white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus, are economically and ecologically important. The two species are risk factors for deer-vehicle collisions and as browsers of palatable trees have implications for forest regeneration. However, no large-scale management systems for ungulates have been implemented, mainly because of the high efforts and costs associated with attempts to estimate population sizes of free-living ungulates living in a complex landscape. Attempts to directly estimate population sizes of deer are problematic owing to poor data quality and lack of spatial representation on larger scales. We used data on >74,000 deer-vehicle collisions observed in 2006 and 2009 in Bavaria, Germany, to model the local risk of deer-vehicle collisions and to investigate the relationship between deer-vehicle collisions and both environmental conditions and browsing intensities. An innovative modelling approach for the number of deer-vehicle collisions, which allows nonlinear environment-deer relationships and assessment of spatial heterogeneity, was the basis for estimating the local risk of collisions for specific road types on the scale of Bavarian municipalities. Based on this risk model, we propose a new "deer-vehicle collision index" for deer management. We show that the risk of deer-vehicle collisions is positively correlated to browsing intensity and to harvest numbers. Overall, our results demonstrate that the number of deer-vehicle collisions can be predicted with high precision on the scale of municipalities. In the densely populated and intensively used landscapes of Central Europe and North America, a model-based risk assessment for deer-vehicle collisions provides a cost-efficient instrument for deer management on the landscape scale. The measures derived from our model provide valuable information for planning road protection and defining

  15. Differences Across Levels in the Language of Agency and Ability in Rating Scales for Large-Scale Second Language Writing Assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson Salena Sampson

    2017-01-01

    While large-scale language and writing assessments benefit from a wealth of literature on the reliability and validity of specific tests and rating procedures, there is comparatively less literature that explores the specific language of second language writing rubrics. This paper provides an analysis of the language of performance descriptors for the public versions of the TOEFL and IELTS writing assessment rubrics, with a focus on linguistic agency encoded by agentive verbs and language of ...

  16. Quantitative assessment of changes in landslide risk using a regional scale run-out model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussin, Haydar; Chen, Lixia; Ciurean, Roxana; van Westen, Cees; Reichenbach, Paola; Sterlacchini, Simone

    2015-04-01

    The risk of landslide hazard continuously changes in time and space and is rarely a static or constant phenomena in an affected area. However one of the main challenges of quantitatively assessing changes in landslide risk is the availability of multi-temporal data for the different components of risk. Furthermore, a truly "quantitative" landslide risk analysis requires the modeling of the landslide intensity (e.g. flow depth, velocities or impact pressures) affecting the elements at risk. Such a quantitative approach is often lacking in medium to regional scale studies in the scientific literature or is left out altogether. In this research we modelled the temporal and spatial changes of debris flow risk in a narrow alpine valley in the North Eastern Italian Alps. The debris flow inventory from 1996 to 2011 and multi-temporal digital elevation models (DEMs) were used to assess the susceptibility of debris flow triggering areas and to simulate debris flow run-out using the Flow-R regional scale model. In order to determine debris flow intensities, we used a linear relationship that was found between back calibrated physically based Flo-2D simulations (local scale models of five debris flows from 2003) and the probability values of the Flow-R software. This gave us the possibility to assign flow depth to a total of 10 separate classes on a regional scale. Debris flow vulnerability curves from the literature and one curve specifically for our case study area were used to determine the damage for different material and building types associated with the elements at risk. The building values were obtained from the Italian Revenue Agency (Agenzia delle Entrate) and were classified per cadastral zone according to the Real Estate Observatory data (Osservatorio del Mercato Immobiliare, Agenzia Entrate - OMI). The minimum and maximum market value for each building was obtained by multiplying the corresponding land-use value (€/msq) with building area and number of floors

  17. Multi-scale, multi-model assessment of projected land allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, C. R.; Huang, M.; Chen, M.; Calvin, K. V.; Le Page, Y.; Kraucunas, I.

    2017-12-01

    Effects of land use and land cover change (LULCC) on climate are generally classified into two scale-dependent processes: biophysical and biogeochemical. An extensive amount of research has been conducted related to the impact of each process under alternative climate change futures. However, these studies are generally focused on the impacts of a single process and fail to bridge the gap between sector-driven scale dependencies and any associated dynamics. Studies have been conducted to better understand the relationship of these processes but their respective scale has not adequately captured overall interdependencies between land surface changes and changes in other human-earth systems (e.g., energy, water, economic, etc.). There has also been considerable uncertainty surrounding land use land cover downscaling approaches due to scale dependencies. Demeter, a land use land cover downscaling and change detection model, was created to address this science gap. Demeter is an open-source model written in Python that downscales zonal land allocation projections to the gridded resolution of a user-selected spatial base layer (e.g., MODIS, NLCD, EIA CCI, etc.). Demeter was designed to be fully extensible to allow for module inheritance and replacement for custom research needs, such as flexible IO design to facilitate the coupling of Earth system models (e.g., the Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) and the Community Earth System Model (CESM)) to integrated assessment models (e.g., the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM)). In this study, we first assessed the sensitivity of downscaled LULCC scenarios at multiple resolutions from Demeter to its parameters by comparing them to historical LULC change data. "Optimal" values of key parameters for each region were identified and used to downscale GCAM-based future scenarios consistent with those in the Land Use Model Intercomparison Project (LUMIP). Demeter-downscaled land use scenarios were then compared to the

  18. An integrated model for assessing both crop productivity and agricultural water resources at a large scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, M.; Sakurai, G.; Iizumi, T.; Yokozawa, M.

    2012-12-01

    Agricultural production utilizes regional resources (e.g. river water and ground water) as well as local resources (e.g. temperature, rainfall, solar energy). Future climate changes and increasing demand due to population increases and economic developments would intensively affect the availability of water resources for agricultural production. While many studies assessed the impacts of climate change on agriculture, there are few studies that dynamically account for changes in water resources and crop production. This study proposes an integrated model for assessing both crop productivity and agricultural water resources at a large scale. Also, the irrigation management to subseasonal variability in weather and crop response varies for each region and each crop. To deal with such variations, we used the Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique to quantify regional-specific parameters associated with crop growth and irrigation water estimations. We coupled a large-scale crop model (Sakurai et al. 2012), with a global water resources model, H08 (Hanasaki et al. 2008). The integrated model was consisting of five sub-models for the following processes: land surface, crop growth, river routing, reservoir operation, and anthropogenic water withdrawal. The land surface sub-model was based on a watershed hydrology model, SWAT (Neitsch et al. 2009). Surface and subsurface runoffs simulated by the land surface sub-model were input to the river routing sub-model of the H08 model. A part of regional water resources available for agriculture, simulated by the H08 model, was input as irrigation water to the land surface sub-model. The timing and amount of irrigation water was simulated at a daily step. The integrated model reproduced the observed streamflow in an individual watershed. Additionally, the model accurately reproduced the trends and interannual variations of crop yields. To demonstrate the usefulness of the integrated model, we compared two types of impact assessment of

  19. [Pain assessment of tracheal suctioning on brain injury patients by pain behavioral indicator scale (ESCID)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, C; Murillo-Pérez, M A; Morales-Sánchez, C; Torrente-Vela, S; Orejana-Martín, M; García-Iglesias, M; Cuenca-Solanas, M; Alted-López, E

    2014-01-01

    To assess pain response on patients with moderate to severe head injury before a common nursing procedure: tracheal suctioning. An observational longitudinal pilot study with consecutive sampling performed from September to December of 2012. Pain was assessed by a pain behavioral indicator scale 5 minutes before, meanwhile and 15 minutes after tracheal suctioning the days 1, 3 and 6 of their intensive care unit (ICU) stay, as well as a non-painful procedure: rubbing with gauze the forearm of the patient. Pseudo-analgesia and hemodynamic variables were also recorded. Descriptive analysis of the variables, inferential statistics with t-student and Anova with SPSS 17.0; statistical tests were considered significant if the critical level observed was less than 5% (P.05) were shown. Data for the painless procedure were significantly different on day 6 (P<.05) CONCLUSION: During tracheal suctioning in patients with head injury in the first 6 days in the ICU, objective mild-moderate pain according to ESCID scale has been detected. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  20. Coverage of the migrant population in large-scale assessment surveys. Experiences from PIAAC in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora B. Maehler

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background European countries, and especially Germany, are currently very much affected by human migration flows, with the result that the task of integration has become a challenge. Only very little empirical evidence on topics such as labor market participation and processes of social integration of migrant subpopulations is available to date from large-scale population surveys. The present paper provides an overview of the representation of the migrant population in the German Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC sample and evaluates reasons for the under-coverage of this population. Methods We examine outcome rates and reasons for nonresponse among the migrant population based on sampling frame data, and we also examine para data from the interviewers’ contact protocols to evaluate time patterns for the successful contacting of migrants. Results and Conclusions This is the first time that results of this kind have been presented for a large-scale assessment in educational research. These results are also discussed in the context of future PIAAC cycles. Overall, they confirm the expectations in the literature that factors such as language problems result in lower contact and response rates among migrants.

  1. Database support for adaptation to climate change: An assessment of web-based portals across scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Hans; Hilden, Mikael; Russel, Duncan; Dessai, Suraje

    2016-10-01

    The widely recognized increase in greenhouse gas emissions is necessitating adaptation to a changing climate, and policies are being developed and implemented worldwide, across sectors, and between government scales globally. The aim of this article is to reflect on one of the major challenges: facilitating and sharing information on the next adaptation practices. Web portals (i.e., web sites) for disseminating information are important tools in meeting this challenge, and therefore, we assessed the characteristics of select major portals across multiple scales. We found that there is a rather limited number of case studies available in the portals-between 900 and 1000 in total-with 95 that include cost information and 195 that include the participation of stakeholders globally. Portals are rarely cited by researchers, suggesting a suboptimal connection between the practical, policy-related, and scientific development of adaptation. The government portals often lack links on search results between US and European Union (EU) web sites, for example. With significant investments and policy development emerging in both the United States and the European Union, there is great potential to share information via portals. Moreover, there is the possibility of better connecting the practical adaptation experience from bottom-up projects to the science of adaptation. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:627-631. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  2. Assessment of plant species diversity based on hyperspectral indices at a fine scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yu; Fan, Min; Song, Jingyi; Cui, Tiantian; Li, Rui

    2018-03-19

    Fast and nondestructive approaches of measuring plant species diversity have been a subject of excessive scientific curiosity and disquiet to environmentalists and field ecologists worldwide. In this study, we measured the hyperspectral reflectances and plant species diversity indices at a fine scale (0.8 meter) in central Hunshandak Sandland of Inner Mongolia, China. The first-order derivative value (FD) at each waveband and 37 hyperspectral indices were used to assess plant species diversity. Results demonstrated that the stepwise linear regression of FD can accurately estimate the Simpson (R 2  = 0.83), Pielou (R 2  = 0.87) and Shannon-Wiener index (R 2  = 0.88). Stepwise linear regression of FD (R 2  = 0.81, R 2  = 0.82) and spectral vegetation indices (R 2  = 0.51, R 2  = 0.58) significantly predicted the Margalef and Gleason index. It was proposed that the Simpson, Pielou and Shannon-Wiener indices, which are widely used as plant species diversity indicators, can be precisely estimated through hyperspectral indices at a fine scale. This research promotes the development of methods for assessment of plant diversity using hyperspectral data.

  3. Optimizing Prediction Using Bayesian Model Averaging: Examples Using Large-Scale Educational Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, David; Lee, Chansoon

    2018-01-01

    This article provides a review of Bayesian model averaging as a means of optimizing the predictive performance of common statistical models applied to large-scale educational assessments. The Bayesian framework recognizes that in addition to parameter uncertainty, there is uncertainty in the choice of models themselves. A Bayesian approach to addressing the problem of model uncertainty is the method of Bayesian model averaging. Bayesian model averaging searches the space of possible models for a set of submodels that satisfy certain scientific principles and then averages the coefficients across these submodels weighted by each model's posterior model probability (PMP). Using the weighted coefficients for prediction has been shown to yield optimal predictive performance according to certain scoring rules. We demonstrate the utility of Bayesian model averaging for prediction in education research with three examples: Bayesian regression analysis, Bayesian logistic regression, and a recently developed approach for Bayesian structural equation modeling. In each case, the model-averaged estimates are shown to yield better prediction of the outcome of interest than any submodel based on predictive coverage and the log-score rule. Implications for the design of large-scale assessments when the goal is optimal prediction in a policy context are discussed.

  4. Modelling future impacts of air pollution using the multi-scale UK Integrated Assessment Model (UKIAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, Tim; Dore, Anthony J; ApSimon, Helen; Hall, Jane; Kryza, Maciej

    2013-11-01

    Integrated assessment modelling has evolved to support policy development in relation to air pollutants and greenhouse gases by providing integrated simulation tools able to produce quick and realistic representations of emission scenarios and their environmental impacts without the need to re-run complex atmospheric dispersion models. The UK Integrated Assessment Model (UKIAM) has been developed to investigate strategies for reducing UK emissions by bringing together information on projected UK emissions of SO2, NOx, NH3, PM10 and PM2.5, atmospheric dispersion, criteria for protection of ecosystems, urban air quality and human health, and data on potential abatement measures to reduce emissions, which may subsequently be linked to associated analyses of costs and benefits. We describe the multi-scale model structure ranging from continental to roadside, UK emission sources, atmospheric dispersion of emissions, implementation of abatement measures, integration with European-scale modelling, and environmental impacts. The model generates outputs from a national perspective which are used to evaluate alternative strategies in relation to emissions, deposition patterns, air quality metrics and ecosystem critical load exceedance. We present a selection of scenarios in relation to the 2020 Business-As-Usual projections and identify potential further reductions beyond those currently being planned. © 2013.

  5. A Novel Actinic Keratosis Field Assessment Scale for Grading Actinic Keratosis Disease Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dréno, Brigitte; Cerio, Rino; Dirschka, Thomas; Nart, Ignasi Figueras; Lear, John T; Peris, Ketty; de Casas, Andrés Ruiz; Kaleci, Shaniko; Pellacani, Giovanni

    2017-10-02

    Actinic keratosis (AK) lesions are surrounded by field cancerization (areas of subclinical, non-visible sun damage). Existing AK grading tools rely on AK counts, which are not reproducible. An Actinic Keratosis Field Assessment Scale (AK-FAS) for grading the severity of AK/field was developed. Standardized photographs of patients representing the full range of AK severity were collected. Six investigators independently rated each photograph according to 3 criteria: AK area (total skin area affected by AK lesions), hyperkeratosis and sun damage. Inter-rater reproducibility was good for all 3 criteria. Validation of the AK-FAS showed good reproducibility for AK area and hyperkeratosis, even for dermatologists untrained on use of the scale. In conclusion, the AK-FAS is objective, easy to use and implement, and reproducible. It incorporates assessment of the entire field affected by AK instead of relying on lesion counts. Use of the AK-FAS may standardize AK diagnosis, making it relevant to routine clinical practice.

  6. Cross-cultural psychometric assessment of the VAGUS insight into psychosis scale - Spanish version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de León, Patricia Ponce; Gerretsen, Philip; Shah, Parita; Saracco-Alvarez, Ricardo; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel; Fresán, Ana

    2018-01-01

    Impaired insight into illness, a core feature of schizophrenia with negative clinical implications, is a multidimensional phenomenon existing on a continuum. However, the degree to which illness perception in distinct cultures influences the appraisal of insight into illness in schizophrenia remains unclear. As such, we aimed to determine if the psychometric properties of the VAGUS insight into psychosis scale (www.vagusonline.com), which was originally assessed in English speaking Canadians, were similar in a sample of Latino Mexican Spanish speaking patients with schizophrenia. To accomplish this, the VAGUS - Self-Report (SR) version was translated from English to Spanish and psychometrically evaluated in 95 participants. The Spanish version of the VAGUS-SR was internally consistent (ᾳ = 0.713), and demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity with the subscales of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Factor analysis identified two components of insight, congruent with two of the components of the English version of the VAGUS-SR. In conclusion, the VAGUS-SR is a brief, novel, and valid measure of insight into illness in schizophrenia, which demonstrated similar psychometric properties in two culturally and linguistically distinct samples with schizophrenia. Future studies should assess whether the VAGUS demonstrates similar psychometric properties in non-Western cultures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Wind energy potential in Chile: Assessment of a small scale wind farm for residential clients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becerra, Miguel; Morán, José; Jerez, Alejandro; Cepeda, Francisco; Valenzuela, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An assessment of a small scale wind farm was carried out. • Two Chilean locations were selected, which are geographically dissimilar. • The software tool selected for the project’s evaluation was HOMER. • All the project’s financial evaluations were negative. • Government policy tools and their applications were discussed. - Abstract: This work presents a techno-financial evaluation of two Chilean locations with promising wind potential: Laguna Verde placed in the central region of the country, and Porvenir in the southern region. A small scale wind farm was studied, considering a nominal electrical production capacity of 90 kW. This facility is comprised of three wind turbine models, all available in the national market. Currently, the tariff method used in Chile is the net billing scheme, where the energy bought and sold to the grid has different prices. The study is based on 300 hypothetical residential households. The software tool used to perform the assessment was the Hybrid Optimization of Multiple Energy Resources (HOMER). For all the scenarios the results showed a Net Present Cost (NPC), instead of a financial profit from the proposed projects. A sensitivity analysis was also carried out. From the group of variables studied, the NPC exhibited itself as more sensitive to the price of buying energy from the grid and to the annual average wind speed. Finally, a few government policies and their applications are discussed.

  8. Assessment of good manufacturing practice for small scale food industry in Malang region, East Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwantiningrum, I.; Widyhastuty, W.; Christian, J.; Sari, N.

    2018-03-01

    Enhancing food safety in developing countries, such as Indonesia, poses more challenges, especially those of the small- and medium-scale. Various food safety systems are available and readily implemented in the food industry. However, to ensure the effectiveness of such systems, pre-requisite programs should be applied prior to the implementation of food safety system. One of the most acknowledged pre-requisite program is Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP). The aim of this study is to assess the GMP compliance of some small-scale food companies in East Java. Three types of traditional food product were selected, include tempe chips, palm sugar, and instant herbal drink. A survey involving three companies for each type of traditional food was conducted. Data was obtained through observation and assessment based on tabulated criteria in GMP criteria. In essential, the result revealed the compliment level of the food companies being surveyed. There was different level of compliment between each type of the food industry, where the palm sugar industry had the lowest level of compliment compared to the other two. This difference is due to the food safety awareness, social and cultural influences, and also knowledge on food safety and hygiene practice.

  9. Psychometric properties and assessment of the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale among the general Arabic population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahib MN

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mohanad Naji Sahib Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Rafidain University College, Baghdad, Iraq Background: Any educational program should be implemented with a good understanding of the population’s beliefs. Therefore, the aims of this study were to validate the Arabic version of the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS-A and assess the osteoprotective attitude among the Iraqi population. Methods: A cross-sectional design, with a random cluster sampling method from the community, was used. The forward–backward–forward translation method was used to translate the questionnaire from English to Arabic. In addition, the Arabic version of Osteoporosis Knowledge Tool (OKT-A and the Arabic version of Osteoporosis Self-Efficacy Scale (OSES-A were used to assess the osteoprotective behaviors. Results: The results showed good face validity and reliability. The construct validity analysis showed seven factors that explain 72.82% of the variance. In addition, the results revealed a low health belief score (149.95±35.936 with only 36.67% of the study population found to have a high OHBS-A level. The results showed significant differences among employment status, marital status, and osteoporosis (OP awareness groups in relation to total OHBS-A scores. In addition, there were significant associations between age groups and OP awareness with health belief levels. Moreover, both exercise and calcium intake subscales of the Osteoporosis Knowledge Tool (OKT positively correlated with all OHBS-A subscales. Exercise and calcium intake subscales of Osteoporosis Self-Efficacy Scale (OSES positively correlated with the perceived susceptibility and perceived barriers toward exercise and calcium intake. The binary logistic regression analysis showed that OKT levels, OSES levels, and age were predictors of OHBS-A levels. Conclusion: Besides cultural obstacles, an educational program for both genders and all age groups is important and should be tailored according to

  10. Assessing insomnia in adolescents: comparison of Insomnia Severity Index, Athens Insomnia Scale and Sleep Quality Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ka-Fai; Kan, Katherine Ka-Ki; Yeung, Wing-Fai

    2011-05-01

    To compare the psychometric properties of the Chinese versions of Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) and Sleep Quality Index (SQI) for assessment and screening of insomnia in adolescents. This is a school-based survey of 1516 adolescents aged 12-19 years. Sleep-wake habit questionnaire, ISI, AIS, SQI, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) were administered. Insomnia Interview Schedule was used to assess the severity of insomnia symptoms and DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of insomnia. The Cronbach's alpha of ISI, AIS and SQI were 0.83, 0.81 and 0.65, respectively, and the 2-week test-retest reliability were 0.79, 0.80 and 0.72. All three scales had a 2-factor structure, and their scores were significantly correlated with sleep-wake variables, ESS and GHQ-12 scores, smoking and drinking habits, and academic performance. The areas under curve of ISI, AIS and SQI for detecting clinical insomnia were 0.85, 0.80 and 0.85, respectively. The optimal cut-offs for ISI, AIS and SQI were a total score of nine (sensitivity/specificity: 0.87/0.75), seven (sensitivity/specificity: 0.78/0.74) and five (sensitivity/specificity: 0.83/0.79), respectively. The Chinese versions of ISI, AIS and SQI are reliable and valid instruments. The ISI and AIS appear to have better psychometric properties than the SQI. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A watershed-scale goals approach to assessing and funding wastewater infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahm, Brian G; Vedachalam, Sridhar; Shen, Jerry; Woodbury, Peter B; Riha, Susan J

    2013-11-15

    Capital needs during the next twenty years for public wastewater treatment, piping, combined sewer overflow correction, and storm-water management are estimated to be approximately $300 billion for the USA. Financing these needs is a significant challenge, as Federal funding for the Clean Water Act has been reduced by 70% during the last twenty years. There is an urgent need for new approaches to assist states and other decision makers to prioritize wastewater maintenance and improvements. We present a methodology for performing an integrated quantitative watershed-scale goals assessment for sustaining wastewater infrastructure. We applied this methodology to ten watersheds of the Hudson-Mohawk basin in New York State, USA that together are home to more than 2.7 million people, cover 3.5 million hectares, and contain more than 36,000 km of streams. We assembled data on 183 POTWs treating approximately 1.5 million m(3) of wastewater per day. For each watershed, we analyzed eight metrics: Growth Capacity, Capacity Density, Soil Suitability, Violations, Tributary Length Impacted, Tributary Capital Cost, Volume Capital Cost, and Population Capital Cost. These metrics were integrated into three goals for watershed-scale management: Tributary Protection, Urban Development, and Urban-Rural Integration. Our results demonstrate that the methodology can be implemented using widely available data, although some verification of data is required. Furthermore, we demonstrate substantial differences in character, need, and the appropriateness of different management strategies among the ten watersheds. These results suggest that it is feasible to perform watershed-scale goals assessment to augment existing approaches to wastewater infrastructure analysis and planning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Quality of life outcome measures following partial glossectomy: Assessment using the UW-QOL scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The consequences of a diagnosis of head and neck cancer and the impact of treatment have a clear and direct influence on well-being and associated quality of life (QOL in these patients. Aims: To determine the QOL in head and neck cancer patients following a partial glossectomy operation. Design and Setting: Cross-sectional cohort study; Head and Neck Oncology Unit, tertiary referral center. Materials and Methods: 38 patients with partial glossectomy were assessed with the University of Washington head and neck quality of life (UW-QOL scale, version 4. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences 10.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago version III. Information from the scale was correlated using the Mann Whitney test. A P value less than/equal to 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The mean (sd composite score of the QOL in our series was 73.6 (16.1. The majority (71.8% quoted their QOL as good or very good. Swallowing (n = 16, 47.1%, speech (n = 15, 44.1% and saliva (n = 15, 44.1% were most commonly cited issues over the last 7 days. On the other hand, the groups with reconstruction, neck dissection, complications and radiotherapy demonstrated a significant reduction of quality of life scores (Mann Whitney test, P < 0.05. Conclusion: The composite score and overall QOL as assessed using the UW-QOL scale (version 4 were modestly high in our series of partial glossectomy patients. Swallowing, speech, and saliva are regarded as the most important issues. Stage of the disease, neck dissection, reconstruction, complications, radiotherapy and time since operation were seen to significantly affect domain scores.

  13. Validation and clinical significance of the childhood myositis assessment scale for assessment of muscle function in the juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huber, AM; Feldman, BM; Rennebohm, RM; Hicks, JE; Lindsley, CB; Perez, MD; Zemel, LS; Wallace, CA; Ballinger, SH; Passo, MH; Reed, AM; Summers, RM; Katona, IM; Miller, FW; Lachenbruch, PA; Rider, LG; White, P.H.

    Objective. To examine the measurement characteristics of the Childhood Myositis Assessment Scale (CMAS) in children with juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (juvenile IIM), and to obtain preliminary data on the clinical significance of CMAS scores. Methods. One hundred eight children with

  14. Psychometric assessment of the Brazilian version of the Male Body Dissatisfaction Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Berbert de Carvalho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The study of male body image has increased substantially, but there are few assessment tools available for this population. The Male Body Dissatisfaction Scale (MBDS has been widely used among students to research body image disturbances and eating disorders. However, the psychometric properties of this instrument have not been tested in the Brazilian context.Objectives To explore the psychometric properties (convergent validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability and factor structure of the Brazilian version of the MBDS.Methods Two-hundred sixty-four undergraduate students were evaluated. Pearson’s correlation was used to test the convergent validity of the MBDS and the Drive for Muscularity Scale, the Swansea Muscularity Attitudes Questionnaire, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Eating Attitudes Test-26, and the Commitment to Exercise Scale. Test-retest reliability was evaluated using t-tests for repeated measures and by calculating the coefficient of intraclass correlation. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted, and Cronbach’s α coefficients were determined. A significance level of 5% was adopted.Results The MBDS had an adequate factor structure, with two factors explaining 52.67% of the total variance. It showed excellent internal consistency (Cronbach’s α between 0.90 and 0.92, a high intraclass correlation coefficient (0.81, and convergent validity with the drive for muscularity, the psychological commitment to exercise, low self-esteem, and eating disorder risk behaviour measures.Discussion The MBDS appears to be a valid and reliable tool for evaluating Brazilian male body image dissatisfaction.

  15. Adaptation into Spanish of the Internalised Stigma of Mental Illness scale to assess personal stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengochea-Seco, Rosario; Arrieta-Rodríguez, Marta; Fernández-Modamio, Mar; Santacoloma-Cabero, Iciar; Gómez de Tojeiro-Roce, Juan; García-Polavieja, Bárbara; Santos-Zorrozúa, Borja; Gil-Sanz, David

    2016-03-09

    Patients with schizophrenia sometimes internalise social stigma associated to mental illness, and they develop personal stigma. Personal stigma includes self-stigma (internalisation of negative stereotypes), perceived stigma (perception of rejection), and experienced stigma (experiences of discrimination). Personal stigma is linked with a poorer treatment adherence, and worst social functioning. For this reason, it is important to have good measurements of personal stigma. One of the most frequently used measurements is the Internalised Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale. There is a Spanish version of the scale available, although its psychometric properties have not been studied. The main aim of this study is to analyse the psychometric properties of a new Spanish version of the ISMI scale. The new version was translated as Estigma Interiorizado de Enfermedad Mental (EIEM). Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were calculated in a sample of 69 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. The rate of patients showing personal stigma was also studied, as well as the relationship between personal stigma and sociodemographic and clinical variables. The adapted version obtained good values of internal consistency and test-retest reliability, for the total score of the scale (0.91 and 0.95 respectively), as well as for the five subscales of the EIEM, except for the Stigma Resistance subscale (Cronbach's alpha 0.42). EIEM is an appropriate measurement tool to assess personal stigma in a Spanish population with severe mental disorder, at least in those with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier España.

  16. Converting three general-cognitive function scales into Persian and assessment of their validity and reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Moin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE, Galveston Amnesia and orientation Test (GOAT and Disability Rating Scale (DRS are three popular outcome measure tools used principally in traumatic brain injury (TBI patients. We conducted this study to provide a Farsi version of these outcome scales for use in Iran. Methods: Following a comprehensive literature review, Farsi transcripts were prepared by "forward-backward" translation and reviewed by subject experts. After a pretest on a few patients, the final versions were obtained. 38 patients with closed head injury were interviewed simultaneously by two interviewers. Main statistics used to assess validity and reliability included "Factor analysis" for construct validity, Cronbach′s alpha for internal consistency, and Pearson Correlation and Kappa Coefficient for inter-rater agreement. Results: Factor analysis for Farsi-GOAT (FGOAT revealed 5 independent factors with a total distribution variance of 80.2%. For Farsi-DRS (FDRS, 3 independent factors were found with a 92.3% variance. The Cronbach′s alpha (95% confidence interval was 0.84 (0.763- 0.919 and 0.91 (0.901-0.919 for FGOAT and FDRS, respectively. Pearson Correlation between total scores of two raters was 0.98 and 0.97 for FGOAT and FDRS, in order. Kappa coefficient (95% CI between outcome rankings of raters was 0.73 (0.618-0.852 and 0.68 (0.594-0.770 for FGOAT and FDRS, respectively. As for Farsi-GOSE scale, Kappa value was 0.4 (0.285-0.507 for 8-level outcome ranking and improved to 0.7 (0.585-0.817 for 5-level scale. We found a good correlation between FDRS and FGOSE predicted prognoses (Spearman′s rho= 0.74, 95% CI: 0.676-0.802. Conclusions: FDRS and FGOAT had appropriate validity and reliability. The 8-level outcome FGOSE scale disclosed a low inter-rater agreement, but a suitable observer agreement was achieved when the 5-level outcome was applied.

  17. Assessment of disturbance at three spatial scales in two large tropical reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia de Morais

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Large reservoirs are an increasingly common feature across tropical landscapes because of their importance for water supply, flood control and hydropower, but their ecological conditions are infrequently evaluated. Our objective was to assess the range of disturbances for two large tropical reservoirs and their influences on benthic macroinvertebrates. We tested three hypotheses: i a wide variation in the level of environmental disturbance can be observed among sites in the reservoirs; ii the two reservoirs would exhibit a different degree of disturbance level; and iii the magnitude of disturbance would influence the structure and composition of benthic assemblages. For each reservoir, we assessed land use (macroscale, physical habitat structure (mesoscale, and water quality (microscale. We sampled 40 sites in the littoral zones of both Três Marias and São Simão Reservoirs (Minas Gerais, Brazil. At the macroscale, we measured cover percentages of land use categories in buffer areas at each site, where each buffer was a circular arc of 250 m. At the mesoscale, we assessed the presence of human disturbances in the riparian and drawdown zones at the local (site scale. At the microscale, we assessed water quality at each macroinvertebrate sampling station using the Micro Disturbance Index (MDI. To evaluate anthropogenic disturbance of each site, we calculated an integrated disturbance index (IDI from a buffer disturbance index (BDI and a local disturbance index (LDI. For each site, we calculated richness and abundance of benthic macroinvertebrates, Chironomidae genera richness, abundance and percent Chironomidae individuals, abundance and percent EPT individuals, richness and percent EPT taxa, abundance and percent resistant individuals, and abundance and percent non-native individuals. We also evaluated the influence of disturbance on benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages at the entire-reservoir scale. The BDI, LDI and IDI had significantly

  18. [Histologic assessment of tissue healing of hyaline cartilage by use of semiquantitative evaluation scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukasović, Andreja; Ivković, Alan; Jezek, Davor; Cerovecki, Ivan; Vnuk, Drazen; Kreszinger, Mario; Hudetz, Damir; Pećina, Marko

    2011-01-01

    Articular cartilage is an avascular and aneural tissue lacking lymph drainage, hence its inability of spontaneous repair following injury. Thus, it offers an interesting model for scientific research. A number of methods have been suggested to enhance cartilage repair, but none has yet produced significant success. The possible application of the aforementioned methods has brought about the necessity to evaluate their results. The objective of this study was to analyze results of a study of the effects of the use of TGF-beta gene transduced bone marrow clot on articular cartilage defects using ICRS visual histological assessment scale. The research was conducted on 28 skeletally mature sheep that were randomly assigned to four groups and surgically inflicted femoral chondral defects. The articular surfaces were then treated with TGF-beta1 gene transduced bone marrow clot (TGF group), GFP transduced bone marrow clot (GFP group), untransduced bone marrow clot (BM group) or left untreated (NC group). The analysis was performed by visual examination of cartilage samples and results were obtained using ICRS visual histological assessment scale. The results were subsequently subjected to statistical assessment using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Kruskal-Wallis test yielded statistically significant difference with respect to cell distribution. Mann-Whitney test showed statistically significant difference between TGF and NC groups (P = 0.002), as well as between BM and NC groups (P = 0.002 with Bonferroni correction). Twenty-six of the twenty-eight samples were subjected to histologic and subsequent statistical analysis; two were discarded due to faulty histology technique. Our results indicated a level of certainty as to the positive effect of TGF-beta1 gene transduced bone marrow clot in restoration of articular cartilage defects. However, additional research is necessary in the field. One of the significant drawbacks on histologic assessment of cartilage

  19. A novel iris transillumination grading scale allowing flexible assessment with quantitative image analysis and visual matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Brancusi, Flavia; Valivullah, Zaheer M; Anderson, Michael G; Cunningham, Denise; Hedberg-Buenz, Adam; Power, Bradley; Simeonov, Dimitre; Gahl, William A; Zein, Wadih M; Adams, David R; Brooks, Brian

    2018-01-01

    To develop a sensitive scale of iris transillumination suitable for clinical and research use, with the capability of either quantitative analysis or visual matching of images. Iris transillumination photographic images were used from 70 study subjects with ocular or oculocutaneous albinism. Subjects represented a broad range of ocular pigmentation. A subset of images was subjected to image analysis and ranking by both expert and nonexpert reviewers. Quantitative ordering of images was compared with ordering by visual inspection. Images were binned to establish an 8-point scale. Ranking consistency was evaluated using the Kendall rank correlation coefficient (Kendall's tau). Visual ranking results were assessed using Kendall's coefficient of concordance (Kendall's W) analysis. There was a high degree of correlation among the image analysis, expert-based and non-expert-based image rankings. Pairwise comparisons of the quantitative ranking with each reviewer generated an average Kendall's tau of 0.83 ± 0.04 (SD). Inter-rater correlation was also high with Kendall's W of 0.96, 0.95, and 0.95 for nonexpert, expert, and all reviewers, respectively. The current standard for assessing iris transillumination is expert assessment of clinical exam findings. We adapted an image-analysis technique to generate quantitative transillumination values. Quantitative ranking was shown to be highly similar to a ranking produced by both expert and nonexpert reviewers. This finding suggests that the image characteristics used to quantify iris transillumination do not require expert interpretation. Inter-rater rankings were also highly similar, suggesting that varied methods of transillumination ranking are robust in terms of producing reproducible results.

  20. Development of a spatial stochastic multimedia exposure model to assess population exposure at a regional scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caudeville, Julien; Bonnard, Roseline; Boudet, Céline; Denys, Sébastien; Govaert, Gérard; Cicolella, André

    2012-01-01

    Analyzing the relationship between the environment and health has become a major focus of public health efforts in France, as evidenced by the national action plans for health and the environment. These plans have identified the following two priorities: -identify and manage geographic areas where hotspot exposures are a potential risk to human health; and -reduce exposure inequalities. The aim of this study is to develop a spatial stochastic multimedia exposure model for detecting vulnerable populations and analyzing exposure determinants at a fine resolution and regional scale. A multimedia exposure model was developed by INERIS to assess the transfer of substances from the environment to humans through inhalation and ingestion pathways. The RESPIR project adds a spatial dimension by linking GIS (Geographic Information System) to the model. Tools are developed using modeling, spatial analysis and geostatistic methods to build and discretize interesting variables and indicators from different supports and resolutions on a 1-km 2 regular grid. We applied this model to the risk assessment of exposure to metals (cadmium, lead and nickel) using data from a region in France (Nord-Pas-de-Calais). The considered exposure pathways include the atmospheric contaminant inhalation and ingestion of soil, vegetation, meat, egg, milk, fish and drinking water. Exposure scenarios are defined for different reference groups (age, dietary properties, and the fraction of food produced locally). The two largest risks correspond to an ancient industrial site (Metaleurop) and the Lille agglomeration. In these areas, cadmium, vegetation ingestion and soil contamination are the principal determinants of the computed risk. -- Highlights: ► We present a multimedia exposure model for mapping environmental disparities. ► We perform a risk assessment on a region of France at a fine scale for three metals. ► We examine exposure determinants and detect vulnerable population. ► The largest

  1. An assessment of the effectiveness of a large, national-scale invasive alien plant control strategy in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wilgen, BW

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available extent of invasive species control operations, assessments of the effectiveness of biological control, and smaller-scale studies. The 19 most important invasive taxa, mainly trees, in terrestrial biomes were identified. The effectiveness of control...

  2. Groundwater recharge assessment at local and episodic scale in a soil mantled perched karst aquifer in southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allocca, V.; De Vita, P.; Manna, F.; Nimmo, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater recharge assessment of karst aquifers, at various spatial and temporal scales, is a major scientific topic of current importance, since these aquifers play an essential role for both socio-economic development and fluvial ecosystems.

  3. Group- and Individual-Level Responsiveness of the 3-Point Berg Balance Scale and 3-Point Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Jing; Lin, Gong-Hong; Lee, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Yi-Miau; Huang, Sheau-Ling; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2018-03-01

    To examine both group- and individual-level responsiveness of the 3-point Berg Balance Scale (BBS-3P) and 3-point Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients (PASS-3P) in patients with stroke, and to compare the responsiveness of both 3-point measures versus their original measures (Berg Balance Scale [BBS] and Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients [PASS]) and their short forms (short-form Berg Balance Scale [SFBBS] and short-form Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients [SFPASS]) and between the BBS-3P and PASS-3P. Data were retrieved from a previous study wherein 212 patients were assessed at 14 and 30 days after stroke with the BBS and PASS. Medical center. Patients (N=212) with first onset of stroke within 14 days before hospitalization. Not applicable. Group-level responsiveness was examined by the standardized response mean (SRM), and individual-level responsiveness was examined by the proportion of patients whose change scores exceeded the minimal detectable change of each measure. The responsiveness was compared using the bootstrap approach. The BBS-3P and PASS-3P had good group-level (SRM, .60 and SRM, .56, respectively) and individual-level (48.1% and 44.8% of the patients with significant improvement, respectively) responsiveness. Bootstrap analyses showed that the BBS-3P generally had superior responsiveness to the BBS and SFBBS, and the PASS-3P had similar responsiveness to the PASS and SFPASS. The BBS-3P and PASS-3P were equally responsive to both group and individual change. The responsiveness of the BBS-3P and PASS-3P was comparable or superior to those of the original and short-form measures. We recommend the BBS-3P and PASS-3P as responsive outcome measures of balance for individuals with stroke. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of the SS Scale, FIQR, and FIQ VASs for assessment of symptom severity in Egyptian fibromyalgia patients

    OpenAIRE

    Gihan M Omar; Shereen R Kamel; Rasha A Abdel-Magied; Nashwa M Abd-Allah

    2014-01-01

    Background Fibromyalgia (FM) is a complex syndrome associated with significant impairment in the quality of life and function. The ability to evaluate and measure the severity of FM is likely to provide several benefits. Objective This study aimed to assess symptom severity in Egyptian FM patients using the Symptom Severity Scale (SS Scale), Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR), and Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire Visual Analog Scales (FIQ VASs). Patients and method...

  5. Establishing a Scale for Assessing the Social Validity of Skill Building Interventions for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Natalie I.; Manston, Lauren; Ingersoll, Brooke

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Scale of Treatment Perceptions (STP), a measure of treatment acceptability targeting skill-building interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This scale utilizes a strength-based approach to intervention assessment, and was established by modifying the Behavior Intervention Rating…

  6. Assessment of the Effectiveness of Green Infrastructure Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) at the Small Watershed Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    There have been numerous studies of the water quantity and quality functions of stormwater BMPs at the site scale, but relatively few assessments at the watershed scale. This presentation will present an overview and initial results of projects to evaluate the effectiveness of g...

  7. Large-scale assessment of flood risk and the effects of mitigation measures along the Elbe River

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kok, Jean-Luc; Grossmann, M.

    2010-01-01

    The downstream effects of flood risk mitigation measures and the necessity to develop flood risk management strategies that are effective on a basin scale call for a flood risk assessment methodology that can be applied at the scale of a large river. We present an example of a rapid flood risk

  8. Two New Rating Scales for Assessment of ADHD Symptoms in Italian Preschool Children: A Comparison between Parent and Teacher Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Anna Maria; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Two new rating scales are presented for the assessment of ADHD symptoms in Italian preschool children, and the agreement between parents and teachers on the presence of an ADHD profile is examined. Method: The scales were administered to parents and teachers of 180 children with a mean age of 5 years and 9 months, attending final year…

  9. Scale problems in assessment of hydrogeological parameters of groundwater flow models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawalany, Marek; Sinicyn, Grzegorz

    2015-09-01

    An overview is presented of scale problems in groundwater flow, with emphasis on upscaling of hydraulic conductivity, being a brief summary of the conventional upscaling approach with some attention paid to recently emerged approaches. The focus is on essential aspects which may be an advantage in comparison to the occasionally extremely extensive summaries presented in the literature. In the present paper the concept of scale is introduced as an indispensable part of system analysis applied to hydrogeology. The concept is illustrated with a simple hydrogeological system for which definitions of four major ingredients of scale are presented: (i) spatial extent and geometry of hydrogeological system, (ii) spatial continuity and granularity of both natural and man-made objects within the system, (iii) duration of the system and (iv) continuity/granularity of natural and man-related variables of groundwater flow system. Scales used in hydrogeology are categorised into five classes: micro-scale - scale of pores, meso-scale - scale of laboratory sample, macro-scale - scale of typical blocks in numerical models of groundwater flow, local-scale - scale of an aquifer/aquitard and regional-scale - scale of series of aquifers and aquitards. Variables, parameters and groundwater flow equations for the three lowest scales, i.e., pore-scale, sample-scale and (numerical) block-scale, are discussed in detail, with the aim to justify physically deterministic procedures of upscaling from finer to coarser scales (stochastic issues of upscaling are not discussed here). Since the procedure of transition from sample-scale to block-scale is physically well based, it is a good candidate for upscaling block-scale models to local-scale models and likewise for upscaling local-scale models to regional-scale models. Also the latest results in downscaling from block-scale to sample scale are briefly referred to.

  10. Scale problems in assessment of hydrogeological parameters of groundwater flow models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawalany Marek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An overview is presented of scale problems in groundwater flow, with emphasis on upscaling of hydraulic conductivity, being a brief summary of the conventional upscaling approach with some attention paid to recently emerged approaches. The focus is on essential aspects which may be an advantage in comparison to the occasionally extremely extensive summaries presented in the literature. In the present paper the concept of scale is introduced as an indispensable part of system analysis applied to hydrogeology. The concept is illustrated with a simple hydrogeological system for which definitions of four major ingredients of scale are presented: (i spatial extent and geometry of hydrogeological system, (ii spatial continuity and granularity of both natural and man-made objects within the system, (iii duration of the system and (iv continuity/granularity of natural and man-related variables of groundwater flow system. Scales used in hydrogeology are categorised into five classes: micro-scalescale of pores, meso-scalescale of laboratory sample, macro-scalescale of typical blocks in numerical models of groundwater flow, local-scalescale of an aquifer/aquitard and regional-scalescale of series of aquifers and aquitards. Variables, parameters and groundwater flow equations for the three lowest scales, i.e., pore-scale, sample-scale and (numerical block-scale, are discussed in detail, with the aim to justify physically deterministic procedures of upscaling from finer to coarser scales (stochastic issues of upscaling are not discussed here. Since the procedure of transition from sample-scale to block-scale is physically well based, it is a good candidate for upscaling block-scale models to local-scale models and likewise for upscaling local-scale models to regional-scale models. Also the latest results in downscaling from block-scale to sample scale are briefly referred to.

  11. Performance assessment of cogeneration and trigeneration systems for small scale applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angrisani, Giovanni; Akisawa, Atsushi; Marrasso, Elisa; Roselli, Carlo; Sasso, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Indices and methods to assess the performance of polygeneration systems. • Index to evaluate the economic feasibility of trigeneration system is introduced. • Thermo-economic analysis is performed considering three commercial cogenerators. • Sensitivity analysis varying reference electric efficiency for European Countries. • Sensitivity analysis varying environmental and economic parameters. - Abstract: Cogeneration and trigeneration systems can contribute to the reduction of primary energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in residential and tertiary sectors, by reducing fossil fuels demand and grid losses with respect to conventional systems. To evaluate the performance of these systems, several indices and assessment methodologies can be used, due to the high complexity of such systems, which can consist of several energy conversion devices and can perform bidirectional interactions with external electric and thermal grids. In this paper, a review of the available indices and methodologies to assess the performances of polygeneration systems is provided. An index (TSS_t_r_i) aimed to assess the economic feasibility of a trigeneration system is also introduced and discussed. This activity started in the framework of the International Energy Agency Annex 54 project (“Integration of Micro-Generation and Related Energy Technologies in Buildings”), where research groups shared their expertise about methods applied in each Country to evaluate the performance of polygeneration systems. It was concluded that a thermo-economic analysis comparing the performance of a polygeneration system with those of a reference benchmark scenario, is a very suitable assessment method. Some of the reviewed methodologies are then applied to small scale commercial cogenerators. The sensitivity analysis is performed considering different reference average values of electric efficiency, unitary natural gas and electricity prices, and emission factors for

  12. A framework for the quantitative assessment of climate change impacts on water-related activities at the basin scale

    OpenAIRE

    Anghileri, D.; Pianosi, F.; Soncini-Sessa, R.

    2011-01-01

    While quantitative assessment of the climate change impact on hydrology at the basin scale is quite addressed in the literature, extension of quantitative analysis to impact on the ecological, economic and social sphere is still limited, although well recognized as a key issue to support water resource planning and promote public participation. In this paper we propose a framework for assessing climate change impact on water-related activities at the basin scale. The specific features of our ...

  13. Towards large scale stochastic rainfall models for flood risk assessment in trans-national basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serinaldi, F.; Kilsby, C. G.

    2012-04-01

    While extensive research has been devoted to rainfall-runoff modelling for risk assessment in small and medium size watersheds, less attention has been paid, so far, to large scale trans-national basins, where flood events have severe societal and economic impacts with magnitudes quantified in billions of Euros. As an example, in the April 2006 flood events along the Danube basin at least 10 people lost their lives and up to 30 000 people were displaced, with overall damages estimated at more than half a billion Euros. In this context, refined analytical methods are fundamental to improve the risk assessment and, then, the design of structural and non structural measures of protection, such as hydraulic works and insurance/reinsurance policies. Since flood events are mainly driven by exceptional rainfall events, suitable characterization and modelling of space-time properties of rainfall fields is a key issue to perform a reliable flood risk analysis based on alternative precipitation scenarios to be fed in a new generation of large scale rainfall-runoff models. Ultimately, this approach should be extended to a global flood risk model. However, as the need of rainfall models able to account for and simulate spatio-temporal properties of rainfall fields over large areas is rather new, the development of new rainfall simulation frameworks is a challenging task involving that faces with the problem of overcoming the drawbacks of the existing modelling schemes (devised for smaller spatial scales), but keeping the desirable properties. In this study, we critically summarize the most widely used approaches for rainfall simulation. Focusing on stochastic approaches, we stress the importance of introducing suitable climate forcings in these simulation schemes in order to account for the physical coherence of rainfall fields over wide areas. Based on preliminary considerations, we suggest a modelling framework relying on the Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale

  14. Application of plant metabonomics in quality assessment for large-scale production of traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Zhangchi; Lu, Cheng; Zhang, Yuxin; Zhao, Siyu; Liu, Baoqin; Xu, Xuegong; Liu, Yuanyan

    2013-07-01

    The curative effects of traditional Chinese medicines are principally based on the synergic effect of their multi-targeting, multi-ingredient preparations, in contrast to modern pharmacology and drug development that often focus on a single chemical entity. Therefore, the method employing a few markers or pharmacologically active constituents to assess the quality and authenticity of the complex preparations has a number of severe challenges. Metabonomics can provide an effective platform for complex sample analysis. It is also reported to be applied to the quality analysis of the traditional Chinese medicine. Metabonomics enables comprehensive assessment of complex traditional Chinese medicines or herbal remedies and sample classification of diverse biological statuses, origins, or qualities in samples, by means of chemometrics. Identification, processing, and pharmaceutical preparation are the main procedures in the large-scale production of Chinese medicinal preparations. Through complete scans, plants metabonomics addresses some of the shortfalls of single analyses and presents a considerable potential to become a sharp tool for traditional Chinese medicine quality assessment. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Guidance for Large-scale Implementation of Alternate Wetting and Drying: A Biophysical Suitability Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, B. O.; Wassmann, R.; Nelson, A.; Palao, L.; Wollenberg, E.; Ishitani, M.

    2014-12-01

    The alternate wetting and drying (AWD) technology for rice production does not only save 15-30% of irrigation water, it also reduces methane emissions by up to 70%. AWD is defined by periodic drying and re-flooding of a rice field. Due to its high mitigation potential and its simplicity to execute this practice AWD has gained a lot of attention in recent years. The Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC) has put AWD high on its agenda and funds a project to guide implementation of this technology in Vietnam, Bangladesh and Colombia. One crucial activity is a biophysical suitability assessment for AWD in the three countries. For this, we analyzed rainfall and soil data as well as potential evapotranspiration to assess if the water balance allows practicing AWD or if precipitation is too high for rice fields to fall dry. In my talk I will outline key factors for a successful large-scale implementation of AWD with a focus on the biophysical suitability assessment. The seasonal suitability maps that we generated highlight priority areas for AWD implementation and guide policy makers to informed decisions about meaningful investments in infrastructure and extension work.

  16. The Prevalence of Food Addiction as Assessed by the Yale Food Addiction Scale: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirrilly M. Pursey

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global issue and it has been suggested that an addiction to certain foods could be a factor contributing to overeating and subsequent obesity. Only one tool, the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS has been developed to specifically assess food addiction. This review aimed to determine the prevalence of food addiction diagnosis and symptom scores, as assessed by the YFAS. Published studies to July 2014 were included if they reported the YFAS diagnosis or symptom score and were published in the English language. Twenty-five studies were identified including a total of 196,211 predominantly female, overweight/obese participants (60%. Using meta-analysis, the weighted mean prevalence of YFAS food addiction diagnosis was 19.9%. Food addiction (FA diagnosis was found to be higher in adults aged >35 years, females, and overweight/obese participants. Additionally, YFAS diagnosis and symptom score was higher in clinical samples compared to non-clinical counterparts. YFAS outcomes were related to a range of other eating behavior measures and anthropometrics. Further research is required to explore YFAS outcomes across a broader spectrum of ages, other types of eating disorders and in conjunction with weight loss interventions to confirm the efficacy of the tool to assess for the presence of FA.

  17. Reliability and validity of the Farsi version of the standardized assessment of personality-abbreviated scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sepehri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A short screening tool for high-risk individuals with personality disorder (PD is useful both for clinicians and researchers. The aim of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Farsi version of the Standardized Assessment of Personality-Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS. Methods: The original English version of the SAPAS questionnaire was translated into Farsi, and then, translated back into English by two professionals. A survey was then conducted using the questionnaire on 150 clients of primary health care centers in Tabriz, Iran. A total of 235 medical students were also studied for the reliability assessment of the questionnaire. The SAPAS was compared to the short form of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI. The data analysis was performed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve technique, operating characteristic for diagnostic efficacy, Cronbach's alpha, and test-retest for reliability evaluation. Results: We found an area under the curve (AUC of 0.566 [95% confidence intervals (CI: 0.455-0.677]; sensitivity of 0.89 and specificity of 0.26 at the cut-off score of 2 and higher. The total Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.38 and Cohen's kappa ranged between 0.5 and 0.8. Conclusion: The current study showed that the Farsi version of the SAPAS was relatively less efficient, in term of validity and reliability, in the screening of PD in the population.

  18. Validation of balance-quality assessment using a modified bathroom scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, D J; Duchêne, J; Hogrel, J-Y

    2015-02-01

    The balance quality tester (BQT), based on a standard electronic bathroom scale has been developed in order to assess balance quality. The BQT includes automatic detection of the person to be tested by means of an infrared detector and bluetooth communication capability for remote assessment when linked to a long-distance communication device such as a mobile phone. The BQT was compared to a standard force plate for validity and agreement. The two most widely reported parameters in balance literature, the area of the centre of pressure (COP) displacement and the velocity of the COP displacement, were compared for 12 subjects, each of whom was tested on ten occasions on each of the 2 days. No significant differences were observed between the BQT and the force plate for either of the two parameters. In addition a high level of agreement was observed between both devices. The BQT is a valid device for remote assessment of balance quality, and could provide a useful tool for long-term monitoring of people with balance problems, particularly during home monitoring.

  19. Reliability of the Alzheimer's disease assessment scale (ADAS-Cog) in longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Anzalee; Yavorsky, Christian; DiClemente, Guillermo; Opler, Mark; Liechti, Stacy; Rothman, Brian; Jovic, Sofija

    2013-11-01

    Considering the scarcity of longitudinal assessments of reliability, there is need for a more precise understanding of cognitive decline in Alzheimer's Disease (AD). The primary goal was to assess longitudinal changes in inter-rater reliability, test retest reliability and internal consistency of scores of the ADAS-Cog. 2,618 AD subjects were enrolled in seven randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter-trials from 1986 to 2009. Reliability, internal-consistency and cross-sectional analysis of ADAS-Cog and MMSE across seven visits were examined. Intra-class correlation (ICC) for ADAS-Cog was moderate to high supporting their reliability. Absolute Agreement ICCs 0.392 (Visit-7) to 0.806 (Visit-2) showed a progressive decrease in correlations across time. Item analysis revealed a decrease in item correlations, with the lowest correlations for Visit 7 for Commands (ICC=0.148), Comprehension (ICC=0.092), Spoken Language (ICC=0.044). Suitable assessment of AD treatments is maintained through accurate measurement of clinically significant outcomes. Targeted rater education ADAS-Cog items over-time can improve ability to administer and score the scale.

  20. Climate change impacts on risks of groundwater pollution by herbicides: a regional scale assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Karin; Moeys, Julien; Lindström, Bodil; Kreuger, Jenny; Lewan, Elisabet; Jarvis, Nick

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater contributes nearly half of the Swedish drinking water supply, which therefore needs to be protected both under present and future climate conditions. Pesticides are sometimes found in Swedish groundwater in concentrations exceeding the EU-drinking water limit and thus constitute a threat. The aim of this study was to assess the present and future risks of groundwater pollution at the regional scale by currently approved herbicides. We identified representative combinations of major crop types and their specific herbicide usage (product, dose and application timing) based on long-term monitoring data from two agricultural catchments in the South-West of Sweden. All these combinations were simulated with the regional version of the pesticide fate model MACRO (called MACRO-SE) for the periods 1970-1999 and 2070-2099 for a major crop production region in South West Sweden. To represent the uncertainty in future climate data, we applied a five-member ensemble based on different climate model projections downscaled with the RCA3-model (Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute). In addition to the direct impacts of changes in the climate, the risks of herbicide leaching in the future will also be affected by likely changes in weed pressure and land use and management practices (e.g. changes in crop rotations and application timings). To assess the relative importance of such factors we performed a preliminary sensitivity analysis which provided us with a hierarchical structure for constructing future herbicide use scenarios for the regional scale model runs. The regional scale analysis gave average concentrations of herbicides leaching to groundwater for a large number of combinations of soils, crops and compounds. The results showed that future scenarios for herbicide use (more autumn-sown crops, more frequent multiple applications on one crop, and a shift from grassland to arable crops such as maize) imply significantly greater risks of herbicide

  1. [Clinical application and optimization of HEAD-US quantitative ultrasound assessment scale for hemophilic arthropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Guo, X J; Ding, X L; Lyu, B M; Xiao, J; Sun, Q L; Li, D S; Zhang, W F; Zhou, J C; Li, C P; Yang, R C

    2018-02-14

    Objective: To assess the feasibility of HEAD-US scale in the clinical application of hemophilic arthropathy (HA) and propose an optimized ultrasound scoring system. Methods: From July 2015 to August 2017, 1 035 joints ultrasonographic examinations were performed in 91 patients. Melchiorre, HEAD-US (Hemophilic Early Arthropathy Detection with UltraSound) and HEAD-US-C (HEAD-US in China) scale scores were used respectively to analyze the results. The correlations between three ultrasound scales and Hemophilia Joint Health Scores (HJHS) were evaluated. The sensitivity differences of the above Ultrasonic scoring systems in evaluation of HA were compared. Results: All the 91 patients were male, with median age of 16 (4-55) years old, including 86 cases of hemophilia A and 5 cases hemophilia B. The median ( P 25 , P 75 ) of Melchiorre, HEAD-US and HEAD-US-C scores of 1 035 joints were 2(0,6), 1(0,5) and 2(0,6), respectively, and the correlation coefficients compared with HJHS was 0.747, 0.762 and 0.765 respectively, with statistical significance ( P cases of asymptomatic joints, the positive rates of Melchiorre, HEAD-US-C and HEAD-US scale score were 25.0% (95% CI 20.6%-29.6%), 17.0% (95% CI 12.6%-21.1%) and 11.9% (95% CI 8.4%-15.7%) respectively, and the difference was statistically significant ( P joints of 40 patients. The difference in variation amplitude of HEAD-US-C scores and HEAD-US scores before and after joint bleeding was statistically significant ( P <0.001). Conclusion: Compared with Melchiorre, there were similar good correlations between HEAD-US, HEAD-US-C and HJHS. HEAD-US ultrasound scoring system is quick, convenient and simple to use. The optimized HEAD-US-C scale score is more sensitive than HEAD-US, especially for patients with HA who have subclinical state, which make up for insufficiency of sensitivity in HEAD-US scoring system.

  2. Assessment of small-scale integrated water vapour variability during HOPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, S.; Eikenberg, S.; Löhnert, U.; Dick, G.; Klocke, D.; Di Girolamo, P.; Crewell, S.

    2015-03-01

    The spatio-temporal variability of integrated water vapour (IWV) on small scales of less than 10 km and hours is assessed with data from the 2 months of the High Definition Clouds and Precipitation for advancing Climate Prediction (HD(CP)2) Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE). The statistical intercomparison of the unique set of observations during HOPE (microwave radiometer (MWR), Global Positioning System (GPS), sun photometer, radiosondes, Raman lidar, infrared and near-infrared Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the satellites Aqua and Terra) measuring close together reveals a good agreement in terms of random differences (standard deviation ≤1 kg m-2) and correlation coefficient (≥ 0.98). The exception is MODIS, which appears to suffer from insufficient cloud filtering. For a case study during HOPE featuring a typical boundary layer development, the IWV variability in time and space on scales of less than 10 km and less than 1 h is investigated in detail. For this purpose, the measurements are complemented by simulations with the novel ICOsahedral Nonhydrostatic modelling framework (ICON), which for this study has a horizontal resolution of 156 m. These runs show that differences in space of 3-4 km or time of 10-15 min induce IWV variabilities on the order of 0.4 kg m-2. This model finding is confirmed by observed time series from two MWRs approximately 3 km apart with a comparable temporal resolution of a few seconds. Standard deviations of IWV derived from MWR measurements reveal a high variability (> 1 kg m-2) even at very short time scales of a few minutes. These cannot be captured by the temporally lower-resolved instruments and by operational numerical weather prediction models such as COSMO-DE (an application of the Consortium for Small-scale Modelling covering Germany) of Deutscher Wetterdienst, which is included in the comparison. However, for time scales larger than 1 h, a sampling resolution of 15 min is

  3. Assessment of nurse's knowledge about Glasgow coma scale at a university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Wesley Cajaíba; Vancini-Campanharo, Cássia Regina; Lopes, Maria Carolina Barbosa Teixeira; Okuno, Meiry Fernanda Pinto; Batista, Ruth Ester Assayag

    2016-01-01

    To assess knowledge of nurses of emergency services and intensive care units about Glasgow Coma Scale. This cross-sectional analytical study included 127 nurses of critical units of an university hospital. We used structured interview with 12 questions to evaluate their knowledge about the scale. Association of Knowledge with professionals' sociodemographic variables were verified by the Fisher-test, χ2 and likelihood ratio. Most of participants were women mean aged 31.1 years, they had graduated more than 5 years previously, and had 1 to 3 years of work experience. In the assessment of best score possible for Glasgow scale (question 3) nurses who had graduate more than 5 years ago presented a lower percentage success rate (p=0.0476). However, in the question 7, which evaluated what interval of the scale indicated moderate severity of brain trauma injury, those with more years of experience had higher percentage of correct answers (p=0.0251). In addition, nurses from emergency service had more correct answers than nurses from intensive care unit (p=0.0143) in the same question. Nurses graduated for more than 5 years ago had a lower percentage of correct answers in question 7 (p=0.0161). Nurses with more work experience had a better score (p=0.0119) to identify how assessment of motor response should be started. Number of year since graduation, experience, and work at critical care units interfered in nurses' knowledge about the scale, which indicates the need of training. Avaliar o conhecimento de enfermeiros de unidades críticas, serviços de emergência e unidades de terapia intensiva em relação à escala de coma de Glasgow. Estudo transversal e analítico com 127 enfermeiros de unidades críticas de um hospital universitário. Utilizou-se entrevista estruturada com 12 questões que avaliaram conhecimento sobre a escala. Associação do conhecimento com variáveis sociodemográficas dos profissionais foi verificada pelo teste de Fisher, teste χ2 e razão de

  4. Development and validation of an instrument for rapidly assessing symptoms: the general symptom distress scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, Terry A; Segrin, Chris; Meek, Paula

    2011-03-01

    Symptom assessment has increasingly focused on the evaluation of total symptom distress or burden rather than assessing only individual symptoms. The challenge for clinicians and researchers alike is to assess symptoms, and to determine the symptom distress associated with the symptoms and the patient's ability for symptom management without a lengthy and burdensome assessment process. The objective of this article was to discuss the psychometric evaluation of a brief general symptom distress scale (GSDS) developed to assess specific symptoms and how they rank in relation to each other, the overall symptom distress associated with the symptom schema, and provide an assessment of how well or poorly that symptom schema is managed. Results from a pilot study about the initial development of the GSDS with 76 hospitalized patients are presented, followed by a more complete psychometric evaluation of the GSDS using three samples of cancer patients (n=190) and their social network members, called partners in these studies (n=94). Descriptive statistics were used to describe the GSDS symptoms, symptom distress, and symptom management. Point biserial correlations indexed the associations between dichotomous symptoms and continuous measures, and conditional probabilities were used to illustrate the substantial comorbidities of this sample. Internal consistency was examined using the KR-20 coefficient, and test-retest reliability was examined. Construct validity and predictive validity also were examined. The GSDS demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency and test-retest reliability, and good construct validity and predictive validity. The total score on the GSDS, symptom distress, and symptom management correlated significantly with related constructs of depression, positive and negative affect, and general health. The GSDS was able to demonstrate its ability to distinguish between those with or without chronic illness, and was able to significantly predict scores on

  5. Creating a brief rating scale for the assessment of learning disabilities using reliability and true score estimates of the scale's items based on the Rasch model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideridis, Georgios; Padeliadu, Susana

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present studies was to provide the means to create brief versions of instruments that can aid the diagnosis and classification of students with learning disabilities and comorbid disorders (e.g., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder). A sample of 1,108 students with and without a diagnosis of learning disabilities took part in study 1. Using information from modern theory methods (i.e., the Rasch model), a scale was created that included fewer than one third of the original battery items designed to assess reading skills. This best item synthesis was then evaluated for its predictive and criterion validity with a valid external reading battery (study 2). Using a sample of 232 students with and without learning disabilities, results indicated that the brief version of the scale was equally effective as the original scale in predicting reading achievement. Analysis of the content of the brief scale indicated that the best item synthesis involved items from cognition, motivation, strategy use, and advanced reading skills. It is suggested that multiple psychometric criteria be employed in evaluating the psychometric adequacy of scales used for the assessment and identification of learning disabilities and comorbid disorders.

  6. Monitoring and assessment of soil erosion at micro-scale and macro-scale in forests affected by fire damage in northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarzadeh, Ali; Ghorbani-Dashtaki, Shoja; Naderi-Khorasgani, Mehdi; Kerry, Ruth; Taghizadeh-Mehrjardi, Ruhollah

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the occurrence of erosion processes at large scales is very difficult without studying them at small scales. In this study, soil erosion parameters were investigated at micro-scale and macro-scale in forests in northern Iran. Surface erosion and some vegetation attributes were measured at the watershed scale in 30 parcels of land which were separated into 15 fire-affected (burned) forests and 15 original (unburned) forests adjacent to the burned sites. The soil erodibility factor and splash erosion were also determined at the micro-plot scale within each burned and unburned site. Furthermore, soil sampling and infiltration studies were carried out at 80 other sites, as well as the 30 burned and unburned sites, (a total of 110 points) to create a map of the soil erodibility factor at the regional scale. Maps of topography, rainfall, and cover-management were also determined for the study area. The maps of erosion risk and erosion risk potential were finally prepared for the study area using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) procedure. Results indicated that destruction of the protective cover of forested areas by fire had significant effects on splash erosion and the soil erodibility factor at the micro-plot scale and also on surface erosion, erosion risk, and erosion risk potential at the watershed scale. Moreover, the results showed that correlation coefficients between different variables at the micro-plot and watershed scales were positive and significant. Finally, assessment and monitoring of the erosion maps at the regional scale showed that the central and western parts of the study area were more susceptible to erosion compared with the western regions due to more intense crop-management, greater soil erodibility, and more rainfall. The relationships between erosion parameters and the most important vegetation attributes were also used to provide models with equations that were specific to the study region. The results of this

  7. Validation of the Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale for multicultural screening in Danish memory clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, T Rune; Andersen, Birgitte Bo; Gottrup, Hanne; Lützhøft, Jan H; Høgh, Peter; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2013-01-01

    The Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale (RUDAS) is a brief cognitive screening test that was developed to detect dementia in multicultural populations. The RUDAS has not previously been validated in multicultural populations outside of Australia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the RUDAS in a multicultural sample of patients referred to Danish memory clinics. Data were collected from 137 consecutive patients (34 with an immigrant background) in three Danish memory clinics. All patients were given the RUDAS as a supplement to the standard diagnostic workup. Diagnostic accuracy for the RUDAS [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.838] was similar to that of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE; AUC = 0.840). The cutoff score with the best balance of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy was multicultural patient populations. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Assessing Patients’ Cognitive Therapy Skills: Initial Evaluation of the Competencies of Cognitive Therapy Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Daniel R.; Hollars, Shannon N.; Adler, Abby D.; Goldstein, Lizabeth A.; Braun, Justin D.

    2014-01-01

    In Cognitive Therapy (CT), therapists work to help patients develop skills to cope with negative affect. Most current methods of assessing patients’ skills are cumbersome and impractical for clinical use. To address this issue, we developed and conducted an initial psychometric evaluation of self and therapist reported versions of a new measure of CT skills: the Competencies of Cognitive Therapy Scale (CCTS). We evaluated the CCTS at intake and post-treatment in a sample of 67 patients participating in CT. The CCTS correlated with a preexisting measure of CT skills (the Ways of Responding Questionnaire) and was also related to concurrent depressive symptoms. Across CT, self-reported improvements in CT competencies were associated with greater changes in depressive symptoms. These findings offer initial evidence for the validity of the CCTS. We discuss the CCTS in comparison with other measures of CT skills and suggest future research directions. PMID:25408560

  9. Integrating Expert Knowledge with Statistical Analysis for Landslide Susceptibility Assessment at Regional Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Chalkias

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an integration landslide susceptibility model by combining expert-based and bivariate statistical analysis (Landslide Susceptibility Index—LSI approaches is presented. Factors related with the occurrence of landslides—such as elevation, slope angle, slope aspect, lithology, land cover, Mean Annual Precipitation (MAP and Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA—were analyzed within a GIS environment. This integrated model produced a landslide susceptibility map which categorized the study area according to the probability level of landslide occurrence. The accuracy of the final map was evaluated by Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC analysis depending on an independent (validation dataset of landslide events. The prediction ability was found to be 76% revealing that the integration of statistical analysis with human expertise can provide an acceptable landslide susceptibility assessment at regional scale.

  10. Generic framework for meso-scale assessment of climate change hazards in coastal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelquist, Lars Rosendahl

    2013-01-01

    coastal environments worldwide through a specially designed coastal classification system containing 113 generic coastal types. The framework provides information on the degree to which key climate change hazards are inherent in a particular coastal environment, and covers the hazards of ecosystem......This paper presents a generic framework for assessing inherent climate change hazards in coastal environments through a combined coastal classification and hazard evaluation system. The framework is developed to be used at scales relevant for regional and national planning and aims to cover all...... and computing requirements, allowing for application in developing country settings. It is presented as a graphical tool—the Coastal Hazard Wheel—to ease its application for planning purposes....

  11. A conceptual framework for developing a critical thinking self-assessment scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Girija G; Stamler, Lynnette Leeseberg

    2013-03-01

    Nurses must be talented critical thinkers to cope with the challenges related to the ever-changing health care system, population trends, and extended role expectations. Several countries now recognize critical thinking skills (CTS) as an expected outcome of nursing education programs. Critical thinking has been defined in multiple ways by philosophers, critical thinking experts, and educators. Nursing experts conceptualize critical thinking as a process involving cognitive and affective domains of reasoning. Nurse educators are often challenged with teaching and measuring CTS because of their latent nature and the lack of a uniform definition of the concept. In this review of the critical thinking literature, we examine various definitions, identify a set of constructs that define critical thinking, and suggest a conceptual framework on which to base a self-assessment scale for measuring CTS. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Regional scale groundwater resource assessment in the Australian outback - Geophysics is the only way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, T. J.; Davis, A. C.; Gilfedder, M.; Annetts, D.

    2015-12-01

    Resource development, whether in agriculture, mining and/or energy, is set to have significant consequences for the groundwater resources of Australia in the short to medium term. These industry sectors are of significant economic value to the country and consequently their support remains a priority for State and Federal Governments alike. The scale of potential developments facilitated in large part by the Government Programs, like the West Australian (WA) Government's "Water for Food" program, and the South Australian's Government's PACE program, will result in an increase in infrastructure requirements, including access to water resources and Aboriginal lands to support these developments. However, the increased demand for water, particularly groundwater, is likely to be compromised by the limited information we have about these resources. This is particularly so for remote parts of the country which are targeted as primary development areas. There is a recognised need to expand this knowledge so that water availability is not a limiting factor to development. Governments of all persuasions have therefore adopted geophysical technologies, particularly airborne electromagnetics (AEM), as a basis for extending the hydrogeological knowledge of data poor areas. In WA, the State Government has employed regional-scale AEM surveys as a basis for defining groundwater resources to support mining, regional agricultural developments whilst aiming to safeguard regional population centres, and environmental assets. A similar approach is being employed in South Australia. These surveys are being used to underpin conceptual hydrogeological frameworks, define basin-scale hydrogeological models, delimit the extent of saltwater intrusion in coastal areas, and to determine the groundwater resource potential of remote alluvial systems aimed at supporting new, irrigation-based, agricultural developments in arid parts of the Australian outback. In the absence of conventional

  13. Balancing detail and scale in assessing transparency to improve the governance of agricultural commodity supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godar, Javier; Suavet, Clément; Gardner, Toby A.; Dawkins, Elena; Meyfroidt, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    To date, assessments of the sustainability of agricultural commodity supply chains have largely relied on some combination of macro-scale footprint accounts, detailed life-cycle analyses and fine-scale traceability systems. Yet these approaches are limited in their ability to support the sustainability governance of agricultural supply chains, whether because they are intended for coarser-grained analyses, do not identify individual actors, or are too costly to be implemented in a consistent manner for an entire region of production. Here we illustrate some of the advantages of a complementary middle-ground approach that balances detail and scale of supply chain transparency information by combining consistent country-wide data on commodity production at the sub-national (e.g. municipal) level with per shipment customs data to describe trade flows of a given commodity covering all companies and production regions within that country. This approach can support supply chain governance in two key ways. First, enhanced spatial resolution of the production regions that connect to individual supply chains allows for a more accurate consideration of geographic variability in measures of risk and performance that are associated with different production practices. Second, identification of key actors that operate within a specific supply chain, including producers, traders, shippers and consumers can help discriminate coalitions of actors that have shared stake in a particular region, and that together are capable of delivering more cost-effective and coordinated interventions. We illustrate the potential of this approach with examples from Brazil, Indonesia and Colombia. We discuss how transparency information can deepen understanding of the environmental and social impacts of commodity production systems, how benefits are distributed among actors, and some of the trade-offs involved in efforts to improve supply chain sustainability. We then discuss the challenges and

  14. Development of a scale to assess cancer stigma in the non-patient population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Illness-related stigma has attracted considerable research interest, but few studies have specifically examined stigmatisation of cancer in the non-patient population. The present study developed and validated a Cancer Stigma Scale (CASS) for use in the general population. Methods An item pool was developed on the basis of previous research into illness-related stigma in the general population and patients with cancer. Two studies were carried out. The first study used Exploratory factor analysis to explore the structure of items in a sample of 462 postgraduate students recruited through a London university. The second study used Confirmatory factor analysis to confirm the structure among 238 adults recruited through an online market research panel. Internal reliability, test-retest reliability and construct validity were also assessed. Results Exploratory factor analysis suggested six subscales, representing: Awkwardness, Severity, Avoidance, Policy Opposition, Personal Responsibility and Financial Discrimination. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed this structure with a 25-item scale. All subscales showed adequate to good internal and test-retest reliability in both samples. Construct validity was also good, with mean scores for each subscale varying in the expected directions by age, gender, experience of cancer, awareness of lifestyle risk factors for cancer, and social desirability. Means for the subscales were consistent across the two samples. Conclusions These findings highlight the complexity of cancer stigma and provide the Cancer Stigma Scale (CASS) which can be used to compare populations, types of cancer and evaluate the effects of interventions designed to reduce cancer stigma in non-patient populations. PMID:24758482

  15. Assessment of mercury exposure among small-scale gold miners using mercury stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherman, Laura S.; Blum, Joel D.; Basu, Niladri; Rajaee, Mozhgon; Evers, David C.; Buck, David G.; Petrlik, Jindrich; DiGangi, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations in hair and urine are often used as biomarkers of exposure to fish-derived methylmercury (MeHg) and gaseous elemental Hg, respectively. We used Hg stable isotopes to assess the validity of these biomarkers among small-scale gold mining populations in Ghana and Indonesia. Urine from Ghanaian miners displayed similar Δ 199 Hg values to Hg derived from ore deposits (mean urine Δ 199 Hg=0.01‰, n=6). This suggests that urine total Hg concentrations accurately reflect exposure to inorganic Hg among this population. Hair samples from Ghanaian miners displayed low positive Δ 199 Hg values (0.23–0.55‰, n=6) and low percentages of total Hg as MeHg (7.6–29%, n=7). These data suggest that the majority of the Hg in these miners' hair samples is exogenously adsorbed inorganic Hg and not fish-derived MeHg. Hair samples from Indonesian gold miners who eat fish daily displayed a wider range of positive Δ 199 Hg values (0.21–1.32‰, n=5) and percentages of total Hg as MeHg (32–72%, n=4). This suggests that total Hg in the hair samples from Indonesian gold miners is likely a mixture of ingested fish MeHg and exogenously adsorbed inorganic Hg. Based on data from both populations, we suggest that total Hg concentrations in hair samples from small-scale gold miners likely overestimate exposure to MeHg from fish consumption. - Highlights: • Mercury isotopes were measured in hair and urine from small-scale gold miners. • Mercury isotopes indicate that Hg in urine comes from mining activity. • Mercury isotopes suggest Hg in hair is a mixture of fish MeHg and inorganic Hg. • A large percentage of Hg in miner’s hair is released during amalgam burning and adsorbed

  16. Evaluation of treatment related fear using a newly developed fear scale for children: "Fear assessment picture scale" and its association with physiological response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishidha Tiwari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dental treatment is usually a poignant phenomenon for children. Projective scales are preferred over psychometric scales to recognize it, and to obtain the self-report from children. Aims: The aims were to evaluate treatment related fear using a newly developed fear scale for children, fear assessment picture scale (FAPS, and anxiety with colored version of modified facial affective scale (MFAS - three faces along with physiologic responses (pulse rate and oxygen saturation obtained by pulse oximeter before and during pulpectomy procedure. Settings and Design: Total, 60 children of age 6-8 years who were visiting the dental hospital for the first time and needed pulpectomy treatment were selected. Children selected were of sound physical, physiological, and mental condition. Two projective scales were used; one to assess fear - FAPS and to assess anxiety - colored version of MFAS - three faces. These were co-related with the physiological responses (oxygen saturation and pulse rate of children obtained by pulse oximeter before and during the pulpectomy procedure. Statistical Analysis Used: Shapiro-Wilk test, McNemar′s test, Wilcoxon signed ranks test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney test were applied in the study. Results: The physiological responses showed association with FAPS and MFAS though not significant. However, oxygen saturation with MFAS showed a significant change between "no anxiety" and "some anxiety" as quantified by Kruskal-Wallis test value 6.287, P = 0.043 (<0.05 before pulpectomy procedure. Conclusions: The FAPS can prove to be a pragmatic tool in spotting the fear among young children. This test is easy and fast to apply on children and reduces the chair-side time.

  17. The influence of impression management scales on the Personality Assessment Inventory in the epilepsy monitoring unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdom, Catherine L; Kirlin, Kristin A; Hoerth, Matthew T; Noe, Katherine H; Drazkowski, Joseph F; Sirven, Joseph I; Locke, Dona E C

    2012-12-01

    The Somatic Complaints scale (SOM) and Conversion subscale (SOM-C) of the Personality Assessment Inventory perform best in classifying psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) from epileptic seizures (ES); however, the impact of positive impression management (PIM) and negative impression management (NIM) scales on SOM and SOM-C classification has not been examined. We studied 187 patients from an epilepsy monitoring unit with confirmed PNES or ES. On SOM, the best cut score was 72.5 T when PIM was elevated and 69.5 T when there was no bias. On SOM-C, when PIM was elevated, the best cut score was 67.5 T and 76.5 T when there was no bias. Negative impression management elevations (n=9) were too infrequent to analyze separately. Despite similarities in classification accuracy, there were differences in sensitivity and specificity with and without PIM, impacting positive and negative predictive values. The presence of PIM bias generally increases positive predictive power of SOM and SOM-C but decreases negative predictive power. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Automated riverine landscape characterization: GIS-based tools for watershed-scale research, assessment, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Bradley S; D'Amico, Ellen; Kastens, Jude H; Thorp, James H; Flotemersch, Joseph E; Thoms, Martin C

    2013-09-01

    River systems consist of hydrogeomorphic patches (HPs) that emerge at multiple spatiotemporal scales. Functional process zones (FPZs) are HPs that exist at the river valley scale and are important strata for framing whole-watershed research questions and management plans. Hierarchical classification procedures aid in HP identification by grouping sections of river based on their hydrogeomorphic character; however, collecting data required for such procedures with field-based methods is often impractical. We developed a set of GIS-based tools that facilitate rapid, low cost riverine landscape characterization and FPZ classification. Our tools, termed RESonate, consist of a custom toolbox designed for ESRI ArcGIS®. RESonate automatically extracts 13 hydrogeomorphic variables from readily available geospatial datasets and datasets derived from modeling procedures. An advanced 2D flood model, FLDPLN, designed for MATLAB® is used to determine valley morphology by systematically flooding river networks. When used in conjunction with other modeling procedures, RESonate and FLDPLN can assess the character of large river networks quickly and at very low costs. Here we describe tool and model functions in addition to their benefits, limitations, and applications.

  19. Quantitative Assessment of Thermodynamic Constraints on the Solution Space of Genome-Scale Metabolic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Joshua J.; Dwivedi, Vivek; Reed, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Constraint-based methods provide powerful computational techniques to allow understanding and prediction of cellular behavior. These methods rely on physiochemical constraints to eliminate infeasible behaviors from the space of available behaviors. One such constraint is thermodynamic feasibility, the requirement that intracellular flux distributions obey the laws of thermodynamics. The past decade has seen several constraint-based methods that interpret this constraint in different ways, including those that are limited to small networks, rely on predefined reaction directions, and/or neglect the relationship between reaction free energies and metabolite concentrations. In this work, we utilize one such approach, thermodynamics-based metabolic flux analysis (TMFA), to make genome-scale, quantitative predictions about metabolite concentrations and reaction free energies in the absence of prior knowledge of reaction directions, while accounting for uncertainties in thermodynamic estimates. We applied TMFA to a genome-scale network reconstruction of Escherichia coli and examined the effect of thermodynamic constraints on the flux space. We also assessed the predictive performance of TMFA against gene essentiality and quantitative metabolomics data, under both aerobic and anaerobic, and optimal and suboptimal growth conditions. Based on these results, we propose that TMFA is a useful tool for validating phenotypes and generating hypotheses, and that additional types of data and constraints can improve predictions of metabolite concentrations. PMID:23870272

  20. Assessing social support among South Asians: the multidimensional scale of perceived social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonsing, Kareen; Zimet, Gregory D; Tse, Samson

    2012-06-01

    The psychometric properties of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) of the Urdu (MSPSS-U) and Nepali (MSPSS-N) versions were investigated among Pakistani (n=148) and Nepalese (n=153) respondents living in Hong Kong. The factor analysis of the MSPSS-N conducted in this study confirmed the three factors of the original MSPSS, namely, Family, Friend, and Significant Others, while only two factors were extracted from the MSPSS-U (i.e., the Family and Friends subscales). With regard to construct validity, both the MSPSS-U and MSPSS-N were inversely correlated with depression, anxiety and stress as assessed by the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21). The internal reliability and construct validity of the MSPSS-U and MSPSS-N were also established and provided support for the validity of both versions as tools for measuring perceived social support among South Asian migrants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of the technology required to develop photovoltaic power system for large scale national energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutwack, R.

    1974-01-01

    A technical assessment of a program to develop photovoltaic power system technology for large-scale national energy applications was made by analyzing and judging the alternative candidate photovoltaic systems and development tasks. A program plan was constructed based on achieving the 10 year objective of a program to establish the practicability of large-scale terrestrial power installations using photovoltaic conversion arrays costing less than $0.50/peak W. Guidelines for the tasks of a 5 year program were derived from a set of 5 year objectives deduced from the 10 year objective. This report indicates the need for an early emphasis on the development of the single-crystal Si photovoltaic system for commercial utilization; a production goal of 5 x 10 to the 8th power peak W/year of $0.50 cells was projected for the year 1985. The developments of other photovoltaic conversion systems were assigned to longer range development roles. The status of the technology developments and the applicability of solar arrays in particular power installations, ranging from houses to central power plants, was scheduled to be verified in a series of demonstration projects. The budget recommended for the first 5 year phase of the program is $268.5M.

  2. Mental Imagery Scale: a new measurement tool to assess structural features of mental representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ercole, Martina; Giannini, Anna Maria; Castelli, Paolo; Sbrilli, Antonella

    2010-01-01

    Mental imagery is a quasi-perceptual experience which resembles perceptual experience, but occurring without (appropriate) external stimuli. It is a form of mental representation and is often considered centrally involved in visuo-spatial reasoning and inventive and creative thought. Although imagery ability is assumed to be functionally independent of verbal systems, it is still considered to interact with verbal representations, enabling objects to be named and names to evoke images. In literature, most measurement tools for evaluating imagery capacity are self-report instruments focusing on differences in individuals. In the present work, we applied a Mental Imagery Scale (MIS) to mental images derived from verbal descriptions in order to assess the structural features of such mental representations. This is a key theme for those disciplines which need to turn objects and representations into words and vice versa, such as art or architectural didactics. To this aim, an MIS questionnaire was administered to 262 participants. The questionnaire, originally consisting of a 33-item 5-step Likert scale, was reduced to 28 items covering six areas: (1) Image Formation Speed, (2) Permanence/Stability, (3) Dimensions, (4) Level of Detail/Grain, (5) Distance and (6) Depth of Field or Perspective. Factor analysis confirmed our six-factor hypothesis underlying the 28 items

  3. The development of Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Orii; Orrell, Martin; Ridder, Hanne Mette

    2015-01-01

    There is a need to develop an outcome measure specific to music therapy in dementia that reflects a holistic picture of the therapy process and outcome. This study aimed to develop a clinically relevant and scientifically robust music therapy outcome measure incorporating the values and views of people with dementia. Focus groups and interviews were conducted to obtain qualitative data on what music meant to people with dementia and the observed effects of music. Expert and peer consultations were conducted at each stage of the measure development to maximise its content validity. The new measure was field-tested by clinicians in a care home. Feedback from the clinicians and music therapy experts were incorporated during the review and refinement process of the measure. A review of the existing literature, the experiential results and the consensus process enabled the development of the new outcome measure “Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS)”. Analysis of the qualitative data identified five key areas of the impact of music on people with dementia and they were transformed as the five Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) items: levels of Interest, Response, Initiation, Involvement and Enjoyment. MiDAS comprises the five VAS items and a supplementary checklist of notable positive and negative reactions from the individual. This study demonstrates that it is possible to design and develop an easy to apply and rigorous quantitative outcome measure which has a high level of clinical relevance for people with dementia, care home staff and music therapists. PMID:26246670

  4. Assessment of clean development mechanism potential of large-scale energy efficiency measures in heavy industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Daisuke; Krey, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses clean development mechanism (CDM) potential of large-scale energy efficiency measures in selected heavy industries (iron and steel, cement, aluminium, pulp and paper, and ammonia) taking India and Brazil as examples of CDM project host countries. We have chosen two criteria for identification of the CDM potential of each energy efficiency measure: (i) emission reductions volume (in CO 2 e) that can be expected from the measure and (ii) likelihood of the measure passing the additionality test of the CDM Executive Board (EB) when submitted as a proposed CDM project activity. The paper shows that the CDM potential of large-scale energy efficiency measures strongly depends on the project-specific and country-specific context. In particular, technologies for the iron and steel industry (coke dry quenching (CDQ), top pressure recovery turbine (TRT), and basic oxygen furnace (BOF) gas recovery), the aluminium industry (point feeder prebake (PFPB) smelter), and the pulp and paper industry (continuous digester technology) offer promising CDM potential

  5. The development of Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Orii; Orrell, Martin; Ridder, Hanne Mette

    2015-07-03

    There is a need to develop an outcome measure specific to music therapy in dementia that reflects a holistic picture of the therapy process and outcome. This study aimed to develop a clinically relevant and scientifically robust music therapy outcome measure incorporating the values and views of people with dementia. Focus groups and interviews were conducted to obtain qualitative data on what music meant to people with dementia and the observed effects of music. Expert and peer consultations were conducted at each stage of the measure development to maximise its content validity. The new measure was field-tested by clinicians in a care home. Feedback from the clinicians and music therapy experts were incorporated during the review and refinement process of the measure. A review of the existing literature, the experiential results and the consensus process enabled the development of the new outcome measure "Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS)". Analysis of the qualitative data identified five key areas of the impact of music on people with dementia and they were transformed as the five Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) items: levels of Interest, Response, Initiation, Involvement and Enjoyment. MiDAS comprises the five VAS items and a supplementary checklist of notable positive and negative reactions from the individual. This study demonstrates that it is possible to design and develop an easy to apply and rigorous quantitative outcome measure which has a high level of clinical relevance for people with dementia, care home staff and music therapists.

  6. Vulnerability assessments, identity and spatial scale challenges in disaster-risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward R. Carr

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Current approaches to vulnerability assessment for disaster-risk reduction (DRR commonly apply generalised, a priori determinants of vulnerability to particular hazards in particular places. Although they may allow for policy-level legibility at high levels of spatial scale, these approaches suffer from attribution problems that become more acute as the level of analysis is localised and the population under investigation experiences greater vulnerability. In this article, we locate the source of this problem in a spatial scale mismatch between the essentialist framings of identity behind these generalised determinants of vulnerability and the intersectional, situational character of identity in the places where DRR interventions are designed and implemented. Using the Livelihoods as Intimate Government (LIG approach to identify and understand different vulnerabilities to flooding in a community in southern Zambia, we empirically demonstrate how essentialist framings of identity produce this mismatch. Further, we illustrate a means of operationalising intersectional, situational framings of identity to achieve greater and more productive understandings of hazard vulnerability than available through the application of general determinants of vulnerability to specific places and cases.

  7. Quantitative assessment of thermodynamic constraints on the solution space of genome-scale metabolic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Joshua J; Dwivedi, Vivek; Reed, Jennifer L

    2013-07-16

    Constraint-based methods provide powerful computational techniques to allow understanding and prediction of cellular behavior. These methods rely on physiochemical constraints to eliminate infeasible behaviors from the space of available behaviors. One such constraint is thermodynamic feasibility, the requirement that intracellular flux distributions obey the laws of thermodynamics. The past decade has seen several constraint-based methods that interpret this constraint in different ways, including those that are limited to small networks, rely on predefined reaction directions, and/or neglect the relationship between reaction free energies and metabolite concentrations. In this work, we utilize one such approach, thermodynamics-based metabolic flux analysis (TMFA), to make genome-scale, quantitative predictions about metabolite concentrations and reaction free energies in the absence of prior knowledge of reaction directions, while accounting for uncertainties in thermodynamic estimates. We applied TMFA to a genome-scale network reconstruction of Escherichia coli and examined the effect of thermodynamic constraints on the flux space. We also assessed the predictive performance of TMFA against gene essentiality and quantitative metabolomics data, under both aerobic and anaerobic, and optimal and suboptimal growth conditions. Based on these results, we propose that TMFA is a useful tool for validating phenotypes and generating hypotheses, and that additional types of data and constraints can improve predictions of metabolite concentrations. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Using the Personality Assessment Inventory Antisocial and Borderline Features Scales to Predict Behavior Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penson, Brittany N; Ruchensky, Jared R; Morey, Leslie C; Edens, John F

    2016-11-01

    A substantial amount of research has examined the developmental trajectory of antisocial behavior and, in particular, the relationship between antisocial behavior and maladaptive personality traits. However, research typically has not controlled for previous behavior (e.g., past violence) when examining the utility of personality measures, such as self-report scales of antisocial and borderline traits, in predicting future behavior (e.g., subsequent violence). Examination of the potential interactive effects of measures of both antisocial and borderline traits also is relatively rare in longitudinal research predicting adverse outcomes. The current study utilizes a large sample of youthful offenders ( N = 1,354) from the Pathways to Desistance project to examine the separate effects of the Personality Assessment Inventory Antisocial Features (ANT) and Borderline Features (BOR) scales in predicting future offending behavior as well as trends in other negative outcomes (e.g., substance abuse, violence, employment difficulties) over a 1-year follow-up period. In addition, an ANT × BOR interaction term was created to explore the predictive effects of secondary psychopathy. ANT and BOR both explained unique variance in the prediction of various negative outcomes even after controlling for past indicators of those same behaviors during the preceding year.

  9. A long-term, continuous simulation approach for large-scale flood risk assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falter, Daniela; Schröter, Kai; Viet Dung, Nguyen; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Hundecha, Yeshewatesfa; Kreibich, Heidi; Apel, Heiko; Merz, Bruno

    2014-05-01

    The Regional Flood Model (RFM) is a process based model cascade developed for flood risk assessments of large-scale basins. RFM consists of four model parts: the rainfall-runoff model SWIM, a 1D channel routing model, a 2D hinterland inundation model and the flood loss estimation model for residential buildings FLEMOps+r. The model cascade was recently undertaken a proof-of-concept study at the Elbe catchment (Germany) to demonstrate that flood risk assessments, based on a continuous simulation approach, including rainfall-runoff, hydrodynamic and damage estimation models, are feasible for large catchments. The results of this study indicated that uncertainties are significant, especially for hydrodynamic simulations. This was basically a consequence of low data quality and disregarding dike breaches. Therefore, RFM was applied with a refined hydraulic model setup for the Elbe tributary Mulde. The study area Mulde catchment comprises about 6,000 km2 and 380 river-km. The inclusion of more reliable information on overbank cross-sections and dikes considerably improved the results. For the application of RFM for flood risk assessments, long-term climate input data is needed to drive the model chain. This model input was provided by a multi-site, multi-variate weather generator that produces sets of synthetic meteorological data reproducing the current climate statistics. The data set comprises 100 realizations of 100 years of meteorological data. With the proposed continuous simulation approach of RFM, we simulated a virtual period of 10,000 years covering the entire flood risk chain including hydrological, 1D/2D hydrodynamic and flood damage estimation models. This provided a record of around 2.000 inundation events affecting the study area with spatially detailed information on inundation depths and damage to residential buildings on a resolution of 100 m. This serves as basis for a spatially consistent, flood risk assessment for the Mulde catchment presented in

  10. Fine Scale ANUClimate Data for Ecosystem Modeling and Assessment of Plant Functional Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, M. F.; Kesteven, J. L.; Xu, T.; Evans, B. J.; Togashi, H. F.; Stein, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    High resolution spatially extended values of climate variables play a central role in the assessment of climate and projected future climate in ecosystem modeling. The ground based meteorological network remains a key resource for deriving these spatially extended climate variables. We report on the production, and applications, of new anomaly based fine scale spatial interpolations of key climate variables at daily and monthly time scale, across the Australian continent. The methods incorporate several innovations that have significantly improved spatial predictive accuracy, as well as providing a platform for the incorporation of additional remotely sensed data. The interpolated climate data are supporting many continent-wide ecosystem modeling applications and are playing a key role in testing optimality hypotheses associated with plant functional types (PFTs). The accuracy, and robustness to data error, of anomaly-based interpolation has been enhanced by incorporating physical process aspects of the different climate variables and employing robust statistical methods implemented in the ANUSPLIN package. New regression procedures have also been developed to estimate "background" monthly climate normals from all stations with minimal records to substantially increase the density of supporting spatial networks. Monthly mean temperature interpolation has been enhanced by incorporating process based coastal effects that have reduced predictive error by around 10%. Overall errors in interpolated monthly temperature fields are around 25% less than errors reported by an earlier study. For monthly and daily precipitation, a new anomaly structure has been devised to take account of the skewness in precipitation data and the large proportion of zero values that present significant challenges to standard interpolation methods. The many applications include continent-wide Gross Primary Production modeling and assessing constraints on light and water use efficiency derived

  11. Assessing coral reefs on a Pacific-wide scale using the microbialization score.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey McDole

    Full Text Available The majority of the world's coral reefs are in various stages of decline. While a suite of disturbances (overfishing, eutrophication, and global climate change have been identified, the mechanism(s of reef system decline remain elusive. Increased microbial and viral loading with higher percentages of opportunistic and specific microbial pathogens have been identified as potentially unifying features of coral reefs in decline. Due to their relative size and high per cell activity, a small change in microbial biomass may signal a large reallocation of available energy in an ecosystem; that is the microbialization of the coral reef. Our hypothesis was that human activities alter the energy budget of the reef system, specifically by altering the allocation of metabolic energy between microbes and macrobes. To determine if this is occurring on a regional scale, we calculated the basal metabolic rates for the fish and microbial communities at 99 sites on twenty-nine coral islands throughout the Pacific Ocean using previously established scaling relationships. From these metabolic rate predictions, we derived a new metric for assessing and comparing reef health called the microbialization score. The microbialization score represents the percentage of the combined fish and microbial predicted metabolic rate that is microbial. Our results demonstrate a strong positive correlation between reef microbialization scores and human impact. In contrast, microbialization scores did not significantly correlate with ocean net primary production, local chla concentrations, or the combined metabolic rate of the fish and microbial communities. These findings support the hypothesis that human activities are shifting energy to the microbes, at the expense of the macrobes. Regardless of oceanographic context, the microbialization score is a powerful metric for assessing the level of human impact a reef system is experiencing.

  12. Assessing coral reefs on a Pacific-wide scale using the microbialization score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDole, Tracey; Nulton, James; Barott, Katie L; Felts, Ben; Hand, Carol; Hatay, Mark; Lee, Hochul; Nadon, Marc O; Nosrat, Bahador; Salamon, Peter; Bailey, Barbara; Sandin, Stuart A; Vargas-Angel, Bernardo; Youle, Merry; Zgliczynski, Brian J; Brainard, Russell E; Rohwer, Forest

    2012-01-01

    The majority of the world's coral reefs are in various stages of decline. While a suite of disturbances (overfishing, eutrophication, and global climate change) have been identified, the mechanism(s) of reef system decline remain elusive. Increased microbial and viral loading with higher percentages of opportunistic and specific microbial pathogens have been identified as potentially unifying features of coral reefs in decline. Due to their relative size and high per cell activity, a small change in microbial biomass may signal a large reallocation of available energy in an ecosystem; that is the microbialization of the coral reef. Our hypothesis was that human activities alter the energy budget of the reef system, specifically by altering the allocation of metabolic energy between microbes and macrobes. To determine if this is occurring on a regional scale, we calculated the basal metabolic rates for the fish and microbial communities at 99 sites on twenty-nine coral islands throughout the Pacific Ocean using previously established scaling relationships. From these metabolic rate predictions, we derived a new metric for assessing and comparing reef health called the microbialization score. The microbialization score represents the percentage of the combined fish and microbial predicted metabolic rate that is microbial. Our results demonstrate a strong positive correlation between reef microbialization scores and human impact. In contrast, microbialization scores did not significantly correlate with ocean net primary production, local chla concentrations, or the combined metabolic rate of the fish and microbial communities. These findings support the hypothesis that human activities are shifting energy to the microbes, at the expense of the macrobes. Regardless of oceanographic context, the microbialization score is a powerful metric for assessing the level of human impact a reef system is experiencing.

  13. Assessing the potential of economic instruments for managing drought risk at river basin scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Lopez-Nicolas, A.; Macian-Sorribes, H.

    2015-12-01

    Economic instruments work as incentives to adapt individual decisions to collectively agreed goals. Different types of economic instruments have been applied to manage water resources, such as water-related taxes and charges (water pricing, environmental taxes, etc.), subsidies, markets or voluntary agreements. Hydroeconomic models (HEM) provide useful insight on optimal strategies for coping with droughts by simultaneously analysing engineering, hydrology and economics of water resources management. We use HEMs for evaluating the potential of economic instruments on managing drought risk at river basin scale, considering three criteria for assessing drought risk: reliability, resilience and vulnerability. HEMs allow to calculate water scarcity costs as the economic losses due to water deliveries below the target demands, which can be used as a vulnerability descriptor of drought risk. Two generic hydroeconomic DSS tools, SIMGAMS and OPTIGAMS ( both programmed in GAMS) have been developed to evaluate water scarcity cost at river basin scale based on simulation and optimization approaches. The simulation tool SIMGAMS allocates water according to the system priorities and operating rules, and evaluate the scarcity costs using economic demand functions. The optimization tool allocates water resources for maximizing net benefits (minimizing total water scarcity plus operating cost of water use). SIMGAS allows to simulate incentive water pricing policies based on water availability in the system (scarcity pricing), while OPTIGAMS is used to simulate the effect of ideal water markets by economic optimization. These tools have been applied to the Jucar river system (Spain), highly regulated and with high share of water use for crop irrigation (greater than 80%), where water scarcity, irregular hydrology and groundwater overdraft cause droughts to have significant economic, social and environmental consequences. An econometric model was first used to explain the variation

  14. Some relevant parameters for assessing fire hazards of combustible mine materials using laboratory scale experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litton, Charles D; Perera, Inoka E; Harteis, Samuel P; Teacoach, Kara A; DeRosa, Maria I; Thomas, Richard A; Smith, Alex C

    2018-04-15

    When combustible materials ignite and burn, the potential for fire growth and flame spread represents an obvious hazard, but during these processes of ignition and flaming, other life hazards present themselves and should be included to ensure an effective overall analysis of the relevant fire hazards. In particular, the gases and smoke produced both during the smoldering stages of fires leading to ignition and during the advanced flaming stages of a developing fire serve to contaminate the surrounding atmosphere, potentially producing elevated levels of toxicity and high levels of smoke obscuration that render the environment untenable. In underground mines, these hazards may be exacerbated by the existing forced ventilation that can carry the gases and smoke to locations far-removed from the fire location. Clearly, materials that require high temperatures (above 1400 K) and that exhibit low mass loss during thermal decomposition, or that require high heat fluxes or heat transfer rates to ignite represent less of a hazard than materials that decompose at low temperatures or ignite at low levels of heat flux. In order to define and quantify some possible parameters that can be used to assess these hazards, small-scale laboratory experiments were conducted in a number of configurations to measure: 1) the toxic gases and smoke produced both during non-flaming and flaming combustion; 2) mass loss rates as a function of temperature to determine ease of thermal decomposition; and 3) mass loss rates and times to ignition as a function of incident heat flux. This paper describes the experiments that were conducted, their results, and the development of a set of parameters that could possibly be used to assess the overall fire hazard of combustible materials using small scale laboratory experiments.

  15. Use of large-scale acoustic monitoring to assess anthropogenic pressures on Orthoptera communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penone, Caterina; Le Viol, Isabelle; Pellissier, Vincent; Julien, Jean-François; Bas, Yves; Kerbiriou, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Biodiversity monitoring at large spatial and temporal scales is greatly needed in the context of global changes. Although insects are a species-rich group and are important for ecosystem functioning, they have been largely neglected in conservation studies and policies, mainly due to technical and methodological constraints. Sound detection, a nondestructive method, is easily applied within a citizen-science framework and could be an interesting solution for insect monitoring. However, it has not yet been tested at a large scale. We assessed the value of a citizen-science program in which Orthoptera species (Tettigoniidae) were monitored acoustically along roads. We used Bayesian model-averaging analyses to test whether we could detect widely known patterns of anthropogenic effects on insects, such as the negative effects of urbanization or intensive agriculture on Orthoptera populations and communities. We also examined site-abundance correlations between years and estimated the biases in species detection to evaluate and improve the protocol. Urbanization and intensive agricultural landscapes negatively affected Orthoptera species richness, diversity, and abundance. This finding is consistent with results of previous studies of Orthoptera, vertebrates, carabids, and butterflies. The average mass of communities decreased as urbanization increased. The dispersal ability of communities increased as the percentage of agricultural land and, to a lesser extent, urban area increased. Despite changes in abundances over time, we found significant correlations between yearly abundances. We identified biases linked to the protocol (e.g., car speed or temperature) that can be accounted for ease in analyses. We argue that acoustic monitoring of Orthoptera along roads offers several advantages for assessing Orthoptera biodiversity at large spatial and temporal extents, particularly in a citizen science framework. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. Development of an Attitude Scale to Assess K-12 Teachers' Attitudes toward Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yu-Ling

    2012-05-01

    To maximize the contributions of nanotechnology to this society, at least 60 countries have put efforts into this field. In Taiwan, a government-funded K-12 Nanotechnology Programme was established to train K-12 teachers with adequate nanotechnology literacy to foster the next generation of Taiwanese people with sufficient knowledge in nanotechnology. In the present study, the Nanotechnology Attitude Scale for K-12 teachers (NAS-T) was developed to assess K-12 teachers' attitudes toward nanotechnology. The NAS-T included 23 Likert-scale items that can be grouped into three components: importance of nanotechnology, affective tendencies in science teaching, and behavioural tendencies to teach nanotechnology. A sample of 233 K-12 teachers who have participated in the K-12 Nanotechnology Programme was included in the present study to investigate the psychometric properties of the NAS-T. The exploratory factor analysis of this teacher sample suggested that the NAS-T was a three-factor model that explained 64.11% of the total variances. This model was also confirmed by the confirmatory factor analysis to validate the factor structure of the NAS-T. The Cronbach's alpha values of three NAS-T subscales ranged from 0.89 to 0.95. Moderate to strong correlations among teachers' NAS-T domain scores, self-perception of own nanoscience knowledge, and their science-teaching efficacy demonstrated good convergent validity of the NAS-T. As a whole, psychometric properties of the NAS-T indicated that this instrument is an effective instrument for assessing K-12 teachers' attitudes toward nanotechnology. The NAS-T will serve as a valuable tool to evaluate teachers' attitude changes after participating in the K-12 Nanotechnology Programme.

  17. The Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) and Global Assessment of Psychosocial Disability (GAPD) in clinical practice--substance and reliability as judged by intraclass correlations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrborg, J; Larsen, F W; Nielsen, S

    2000-01-01

    Studies on the inter-rater reliability on the Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) and the Global Assessment of Psychosocial Disability (GAPD) involving different subgroups of 145 outpatients from 4 to 16 years of age showed fair to substantial intraclass correlations of 0.59 to 0.90. Raters...

  18. Symptom assessment in early psychosis: The use of well-established rating scales in clinical high-risk and recent-onset populations

    OpenAIRE

    Fulford, Daniel; Pearson, Rahel; Stuart, Barbara K.; Fisher, Melissa; Mathalon, Daniel H.; Vinogradov, Sophia; Loewy, Rachel L.

    2014-01-01

    Symptom assessment in early psychosis research typically relies on scales validated in chronic schizophrenia samples. Our goal was to inform investigators who are selecting symptom scales for early psychosis research. We described measure characteristics, baseline scores, and scale inter-relationships in clinical high-risk (CHR) and recent-onset psychotic disorder (RO) samples using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Scale for the Assessment of Positive ...

  19. The Development of a Formative and a Reflective Scale for the Assessment of On-Line Store Usability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Christophersen

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In usability research, difference between formative and reflective measurement models for the assessment of latent variables has been ignored largely. As a consequence, many usability scales are misspecified. This might result in reduced scale validity because of the elimination of important usability facets within the procedure of scale development. The aim of the current study was to develop a questionnaire for the evaluation of On-line store usability (UFOS-V2 that includes both a formative and a reflective scale. 378 subjects participated in a laboratory experimental study. Each participant visited two out of 35 On-line stores. The usability and intention to buy was assessed for both stores. In addition, actual purchase behaviour was observed by combining the subjects' reward with the decision to buy. In a two-construct PLS structural equation model the formative usability scale was used as a predictor for the reflective usability measure. Results indicate that the formative usability scale UFOS-V2f forms a valid set of items for the user-based assessment of online store usability. The reflective usability scale shows high internal consistency. Positive relationships to intention and decision to buy confirm high scale validity.

  20. A Review of the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales, Second Edition, and Reynolds Intellectual Screening Test, Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicholas, Patrick J.; Floyd, Randy G.

    2017-01-01

    The Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales, Second Edition (RIAS-2; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2015) is an intelligence test for those aged 3 to 94 years. It contains eight subtests designed to assess general intelligence, verbal and nonverbal intelligence, memory, and processing speed. The two subtests targeting processing speed are new to the…

  1. Assessment of fatigue using the Identity-Consequence Fatigue Scale in patients with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Ingrid Correia; Araújo, Amanda Souza; Morano, Maria Tereza; Cavalcante, Antonio George; Bruin, Pedro Felipe de; Paddison, Johana Susan; Silva, Guilherme Pinheiro da; Pereira, Eanes Delgado

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the properties of the Identity-Consequence Fatigue Scale (ICFS) in patients with lung cancer (LC), assessing the intensity of fatigue and associated factors. This was a cross-sectional study involving LC patients, treated at a teaching hospital in Brazil, who completed the ICFS. Patients with chronic heart disease (CHD) and healthy controls, matched for age and gender, also completed the scale. Initially, a Brazilian Portuguese-language version of the ICFS was administered to 50 LC patients by two independent interviewers; to test for reproducibility, it was readministered to those same patients. At baseline, the LC patients were submitted to spirometry and the six-minute walk test, as well as completing the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), and Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). Inflammatory status was assessed by blood C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. To validate the ICFS, we assessed the correlations of its scores with those variables. The sample comprised 50 patients in each group (LC, CHD, and control). In the LC group, the intraclass correlation coefficients for intra-rater and inter-rater reliability regarding ICFS summary variables ranged from 0.94 to 0.76 and from 0.94 to 0.79, respectively. The ICFS presented excellent internal consistency, and Bland-Altman plots showed good test-retest reliability. The ICFS correlated significantly with FSS, HADS, and SF-36 scores, as well as with CRP levels. Mean ICFS scores in the LC group differed significantly from those in the CHD and control groups. The ICFS is a valid, reliable instrument for evaluating LC patients, in whom depression, quality of life, and CRP levels seem to be significantly associated with fatigue. Avaliar as propriedades da Escala de Identificação e Consequências da Fadiga (EICF) em pacientes com câncer de pulmão (CP), analisando a intensidade da fadiga e fatores associados

  2. Psychometric study of the Required Care Levels for People with Severe Mental Disorder Assessment Scale (ENAR-TMG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascorz, David; López, Victoria; Pinedo, Carmen; Trujols, Joan; Vegué, Joan; Pérez, Víctor

    2016-03-08

    People with severe mental disorder have significant difficulties in everyday life that involve the need for continued support. These needs are not easily measurable with the currently available tools. Therefore, a multidimensional scale that assesses the different levels of need for care is proposed, including a study of its psychometric properties. One-hundred and thirty-nine patients (58% men) with a severe mental disorder were assessed using the Required Care Levels for People with Severe Mental Disorder Assessment Scale (ENAR-TMG), the Camberwell Assessment of Need scale, and the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales. ENAR-TMG's psychometric features were examined by: a) evaluating 2 sources of validity evidence (evidence based on internal structure and evidence based on relations to other variables), and b) estimating the internal consistency, temporal stability, inter-rater reliability, and sensitivity to change of scores of the ENAR-TMG's subscales. Exploratory factor analyses revealed a one-factor structure for each of the theoretical dimensions of the scale, in which all but one showed a significant and positive correlation with the Camberwell Assessment of Need (range of r: 0.143-0.557) and Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (range of r: 0.241-0.474) scales. ENAR-TMG subscale scores showed acceptable internal consistency (range of ordinal α coefficients: 0.682-0.804), excellent test-retest (range of intraclass correlation coefficients: 0.889-0.999) and inter-rater reliabilities (range of intraclass correlation coefficients: 0.926-0.972), and satisfactory sensitivity to treatment-related changes (range of η 2 : 0.003-0.103). The satisfactory psychometric behaviour of the ENAR-TMG makes the scale a promising tool to assess global functioning in people with a severe mental disorder. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessing the role of urban developments on storm runoff response through multi-scale catchment experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Mark; Owen, Gareth; Geris, Josie; Soulsby, Chris; Quinn, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Many communities across the world face the increasing challenge of balancing water quantity and quality issues with accommodating new growth and urban development. Urbanisation is typically associated with detrimental changes in water quality, sediment delivery, and effects on water storage and flow pathways (e.g. increases in flooding). In particular for mixed rural and urban catchments where the spatio-temporal variability of hydrological responses is high, there remains a key research challenge in evaluating the timing and magnitude of storage and flow pathways at multiple scales. This is of crucial importance for appropriate catchment management, for example to aid the design of Green Infrastructure (GI) to mitigate the risk of flooding, among other multiple benefits. The aim of this work was to (i) explore spatio-temporal storm runoff generation characteristics in multi-scale catchment experiments that contain rural and urban land use zones, and (ii) assess the (preliminary) impact of Sustainable Drainage (SuDs) as GI on high flow and flood characteristics. Our key research catchment, the Ouseburn in Northern England (55km2), has rural headwaters (15%) and an urban zone (45%) concentrated in the lower catchment area. There is an intermediate and increasingly expanding peri-urban zone (currently 40%), which is defined here as areas where rural and urban features coexist, alongside GIs. Such a structure is typical for most catchments with urban developments. We monitored spatial precipitation and multiscale nested (five gauges) runoff response, in addition to the storage dynamics in GIs for a period of 6 years (2007-2013). For a range of events, we examined the multiscale nested runoff characteristics (lag time and magnitude) of the rural and urban flow components, assessed how these integrated with changing land use and increasing scale, and discussed the implications for flood management in the catchment. The analyses indicated three distinctly different

  4. Perceived visual informativeness (PVI): construct and scale development to assess visual information in printed materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andy J; Jensen, Jakob D; Davis, LaShara A; Carcioppolo, Nick

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of research on the visual images used in health communication messages and campaign materials. Even though many studies suggest further investigation of these visual messages and their features, few studies provide specific constructs or assessment tools for evaluating the characteristics of visual messages in health communication contexts. The authors conducted 2 studies to validate a measure of perceived visual informativeness (PVI), a message construct assessing visual messages presenting statistical or indexical information. In Study 1, a 7-item scale was created that demonstrated good internal reliability (α = .91), as well as convergent and divergent validity with related message constructs such as perceived message quality, perceived informativeness, and perceived attractiveness. PVI also converged with a preference for visual learning but was unrelated to a person's actual vision ability. In addition, PVI exhibited concurrent validity with a number of important constructs including perceived message effectiveness, decisional satisfaction, and three key public health theory behavior predictors: perceived benefits, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy. Study 2 provided more evidence that PVI is an internally reliable measure and demonstrates that PVI is a modifiable message feature that can be tested in future experimental work. PVI provides an initial step to assist in the evaluation and testing of visual messages in campaign and intervention materials promoting informed decision making and behavior change.

  5. Life Cycle Assessment of Biogas Production in Small-scale Household Digesters in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. V. Vu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale household digesters have been promoted across Asia as a sustainable way of handling manure. The major advantages are that they produce biogas and reduce odor. However their disadvantages include the low recycling of nutrients, because digestate is dilute and therefore difficult to transport, and the loss of biogas as a result of cracks and the intentional release of excess biogas. In this study, life cycle assessment (LCA methodology was used to assess the environmental impacts associated with biogas digesters in Vietnam. Handling 1,000 kg of liquid manure and 100 kg of solid manure in a system with a biogas digester reduced the impact potential from 4.4 kg carbon dioxide (CO2 equivalents to 3.2 kg CO2 equivalents compared with traditional manure management. However, this advantage could easily be compromised if digester construction is considered in the LCA or in situations where there is an excess of biogas which is intentionally released. A sensitivity analysis showed that biogas digesters could be a means of reducing global warming if methane emissions can be kept low. In terms of eutrophication, farms with biogas digesters had 3 to 4 times greater impacts. In order to make biogas digesters sustainable, methods for recycling digestates are urgently required.

  6. Assessing Landscape Scale Wildfire Exposure for Highly Valued Resources in a Mediterranean Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcasena, Fermín J.; Salis, Michele; Ager, Alan A.; Arca, Bachisio; Molina, Domingo; Spano, Donatella

    2015-05-01

    We used a fire simulation modeling approach to assess landscape scale wildfire exposure for highly valued resources and assets (HVR) on a fire-prone area of 680 km2 located in central Sardinia, Italy. The study area was affected by several wildfires in the last half century: some large and intense fire events threatened wildland urban interfaces as well as other socioeconomic and cultural values. Historical wildfire and weather data were used to inform wildfire simulations, which were based on the minimum travel time algorithm as implemented in FlamMap. We simulated 90,000 fires that replicated recent large fire events in the area spreading under severe weather conditions to generate detailed maps of wildfire likelihood and intensity. Then, we linked fire modeling outputs to a geospatial risk assessment framework focusing on buffer areas around HVR. The results highlighted a large variation in burn probability and fire intensity in the vicinity of HVRs, and allowed us to identify the areas most exposed to wildfires and thus to a higher potential damage. Fire intensity in the HVR buffers was mainly related to fuel types, while wind direction, topographic features, and historically based ignition pattern were the key factors affecting fire likelihood. The methodology presented in this work can have numerous applications, in the study area and elsewhere, particularly to address and inform fire risk management, landscape planning and people safety on the vicinity of HVRs.

  7. Assessing landscape scale wildfire exposure for highly valued resources in a Mediterranean area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcasena, Fermín J; Salis, Michele; Ager, Alan A; Arca, Bachisio; Molina, Domingo; Spano, Donatella

    2015-05-01

    We used a fire simulation modeling approach to assess landscape scale wildfire exposure for highly valued resources and assets (HVR) on a fire-prone area of 680 km(2) located in central Sardinia, Italy. The study area was affected by several wildfires in the last half century: some large and intense fire events threatened wildland urban interfaces as well as other socioeconomic and cultural values. Historical wildfire and weather data were used to inform wildfire simulations, which were based on the minimum travel time algorithm as implemented in FlamMap. We simulated 90,000 fires that replicated recent large fire events in the area spreading under severe weather conditions to generate detailed maps of wildfire likelihood and intensity. Then, we linked fire modeling outputs to a geospatial risk assessment framework focusing on buffer areas around HVR. The results highlighted a large variation in burn probability and fire intensity in the vicinity of HVRs, and allowed us to identify the areas most exposed to wildfires and thus to a higher potential damage. Fire intensity in the HVR buffers was mainly related to fuel types, while wind direction, topographic features, and historically based ignition pattern were the key factors affecting fire likelihood. The methodology presented in this work can have numerous applications, in the study area and elsewhere, particularly to address and inform fire risk management, landscape planning and people safety on the vicinity of HVRs.

  8. Examining the Psychometric Quality of Multiple-Choice Assessment Items using Mokken Scale Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Stefanie A

    The concept of invariant measurement is typically associated with Rasch measurement theory (Engelhard, 2013). Concerned with the appropriateness of the parametric transformation upon which the Rasch model is based, Mokken (1971) proposed a nonparametric procedure for evaluating the quality of social science measurement that is theoretically and empirically related to the Rasch model. Mokken's nonparametric procedure can be used to evaluate the quality of dichotomous and polytomous items in terms of the requirements for invariant measurement. Despite these potential benefits, the use of Mokken scaling to examine the properties of multiple-choice (MC) items in education has not yet been fully explored. A nonparametric approach to evaluating MC items is promising in that this approach facilitates the evaluation of assessments in terms of invariant measurement without imposing potentially inappropriate transformations. Using Rasch-based indices of measurement quality as a frame of reference, data from an eighth-grade physical science assessment are used to illustrate and explore Mokken-based techniques for evaluating the quality of MC items. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  9. Assessment of Change in Psychoanalysis: Another Way of Using the Change After Psychotherapy Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, António Pazo; Gonçalves, João; Sá, Vânia; Silva, Andrea; Sandell, Rolf

    2016-04-01

    A systematic method is presented whereby material from a full course of psychoanalytic treatment is analyzed to assess changes and identify patterns of change. Through an analysis of session notes, changes were assessed using the CHange After Psychotherapy scales (CHAP; Sandell 1987a), which evaluate changes in five rating variables (symptoms, adaptive capacity, insight, basic conflicts, and extratherapeutic factors). Change incidents were identified in nearly every session. Early in the analysis, relatively more change incidents related to insight were found than were found for the other types of change. By contrast, in the third year and part of the fourth year, relatively more change incidents related to basic conflicts and adaptive capacity were found. While changes related to symptoms occurred throughout the course of treatment, such changes were never more frequent than other types of change. A content analysis of the change incidents allowed a determination of when in the treatment the patient's main conflicts (identified clinically) were overcome. A crossing of quantitative data with clinical and qualitative data allowed a better understanding of the patterns of change. © 2016 by the American Psychoanalytic Association.

  10. Risk assessment method for the implementation of materials divided up to the nanometric scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gridelet, L; Delbecq, P; Hervé, L; Fayet, G; Fleury, D; Kowal, S; Boissolle, P

    2013-01-01

    A new approach of assessing the risks inherent in the implementation of powders, including nanomaterials has been developed. This tool is based on the method of the OHB (Occupational Hazard Band) widely spread in the chemical industry. The European classification and CLP scales of toxicity have not been modified; only the control of exposure has been worked at. The method applies essentially to the prevention of the exposures by airborne materials, whatever their particle size. The skin exposure is not treated there specifically for the time being. The method considers exposure based on seven parameters to take into account the characteristics of the materials used, their emission potential, the conditions of use, as well as classic parameters of the characterization of the exposure as the duration and the frequency. The method stresses on a pragmatic exploitation of the current knowledge and of the available data, bearing in mind that a lot of them are not easily accessible to plant operators. The product of the reflection is then positioned on a hazard x exposure matrix from which 3 levels of priority of action are defined, as in the classical OHB method applied to pure chemical risk. This approach fills in a gap in term of risk assessment and avoids jeopardizing all that had been set up for years, while introducing newelements of reflection accessible to all operators.

  11. Modeling Student Motivation and Students’ Ability Estimates From a Large-Scale Assessment of Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Zerpa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available When large-scale assessments (LSA do not hold personal stakes for students, students may not put forth their best effort. Low-effort examinee behaviors (e.g., guessing, omitting items result in an underestimate of examinee abilities, which is a concern when using results of LSA to inform educational policy and planning. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between examinee motivation as defined by expectancy-value theory, student effort, and examinee mathematics abilities. A principal components analysis was used to examine the data from Grade 9 students (n = 43,562 who responded to a self-report questionnaire on their attitudes and practices related to mathematics. The results suggested a two-component model where the components were interpreted as task-values in mathematics and student effort. Next, a hierarchical linear model was implemented to examine the relationship between examinee component scores and their estimated ability on a LSA. The results of this study provide evidence that motivation, as defined by the expectancy-value theory and student effort, partially explains student ability estimates and may have implications in the information that get transferred to testing organizations, school boards, and teachers while assessing students’ Grade 9 mathematics learning.

  12. Assessing Knowledge Sharing Among Academics: A Validation of the Knowledge Sharing Behavior Scale (KSBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramayah, T; Yeap, Jasmine A L; Ignatius, Joshua

    2014-04-01

    There is a belief that academics tend to hold on tightly to their knowledge and intellectual resources. However, not much effort has been put into the creation of a valid and reliable instrument to measure knowledge sharing behavior among the academics. To apply and validate the Knowledge Sharing Behavior Scale (KSBS) as a measure of knowledge sharing behavior within the academic community. Respondents (N = 447) were academics from arts and science streams in 10 local, public universities in Malaysia. Data were collected using the 28-item KSBS that assessed four dimensions of knowledge sharing behavior namely written contributions, organizational communications, personal interactions, and communities of practice. The exploratory factor analysis showed that the items loaded on the dimension constructs that they were supposed to represent, thus proving construct validity. A within-factor analysis revealed that each set of items representing their intended dimension loaded on only one construct, therefore establishing convergent validity. All four dimensions were not perfectly correlated with each other or organizational citizenship behavior, thereby proving discriminant validity. However, all four dimensions correlated with organizational commitment, thus confirming predictive validity. Furthermore, all four factors correlated with both tacit and explicit sharing, which confirmed their concurrent validity. All measures also possessed sufficient reliability (α > .70). The KSBS is a valid and reliable instrument that can be used to formally assess the types of knowledge artifacts residing among academics and the degree of knowledge sharing in relation to those artifacts. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. The Relationship Between the ATDP and ATHI Scales for Assessing Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodden, Robert; And Others

    Studied was the relationship between the Attitude Toward Disabled Persons (ATDP) scale and the Attitude Towards Handicapped Individuals (ATHI) scale. These scales were administered to 82 college students. Also determined was the coefficient of stability of the ATHI using a test-retest after 2 weeks with 54 Ss. The ATHI scale was thought to be more…

  14. Assessing Attitude towards Religion: The Astley-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Theistic Faith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astley, Jeff; Francis, Leslie J.; Robbins, Mandy

    2012-01-01

    This study builds on the research tradition modelled by the Francis Scale of Attitude towards Christianity, the Katz-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Judaism, the Sahin-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Islam and the Santosh-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Hinduism to propose a generic instrument concerned with attitudes towards theistic faith.…

  15. Development of a spatial stochastic multimedia exposure model to assess population exposure at a regional scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caudeville, Julien, E-mail: Julien.CAUDEVILLE@ineris.fr [INERIS (French National Institute for Industrial Environment and Risks), Parc Technologique Alata, BP 2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Joint research unit UMR 6599, Heudiasyc (Heuristic and Diagnoses of Complex Systems), University of Technology of Compiegne and CNRS, Rue du Dr Schweitzer, 60200 Compiegne (France); Bonnard, Roseline, E-mail: Roseline.BONNARD@ineris.fr [INERIS (French National Institute for Industrial Environment and Risks), Parc Technologique Alata, BP 2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Boudet, Celine, E-mail: Celine.BOUDET@ineris.fr [INERIS (French National Institute for Industrial Environment and Risks), Parc Technologique Alata, BP 2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Denys, Sebastien, E-mail: Sebastien.DENYS@ineris.fr [INERIS (French National Institute for Industrial Environment and Risks), Parc Technologique Alata, BP 2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Govaert, Gerard, E-mail: gerard.govaert@utc.fr [Joint research unit UMR 6599, Heudiasyc (Heuristic and Diagnoses of Complex Systems), University of Technology of Compiegne and CNRS, Rue du Dr Schweitzer, 60200 Compiegne (France); Cicolella, Andre, E-mail: Andre.CICOLELLA@ineris.fr [INERIS (French National Institute for Industrial Environment and Risks), Parc Technologique Alata, BP 2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France)

    2012-08-15

    Analyzing the relationship between the environment and health has become a major focus of public health efforts in France, as evidenced by the national action plans for health and the environment. These plans have identified the following two priorities: -identify and manage geographic areas where hotspot exposures are a potential risk to human health; and -reduce exposure inequalities. The aim of this study is to develop a spatial stochastic multimedia exposure model for detecting vulnerable populations and analyzing exposure determinants at a fine resolution and regional scale. A multimedia exposure model was developed by INERIS to assess the transfer of substances from the environment to humans through inhalation and ingestion pathways. The RESPIR project adds a spatial dimension by linking GIS (Geographic Information System) to the model. Tools are developed using modeling, spatial analysis and geostatistic methods to build and discretize interesting variables and indicators from different supports and resolutions on a 1-km{sup 2} regular grid. We applied this model to the risk assessment of exposure to metals (cadmium, lead and nickel) using data from a region in France (Nord-Pas-de-Calais). The considered exposure pathways include the atmospheric contaminant inhalation and ingestion of soil, vegetation, meat, egg, milk, fish and drinking water. Exposure scenarios are defined for different reference groups (age, dietary properties, and the fraction of food produced locally). The two largest risks correspond to an ancient industrial site (Metaleurop) and the Lille agglomeration. In these areas, cadmium, vegetation ingestion and soil contamination are the principal determinants of the computed risk. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present a multimedia exposure model for mapping environmental disparities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We perform a risk assessment on a region of France at a fine scale for three metals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We

  16. Assessment of the structure of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in musculoskeletal patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey Catherine M

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research suggests there is a high prevalence of anxiety and depression amongst patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain, which can influence the effectiveness of rehabilitation programs. It is therefore important for clinicians involved in musculoskeletal rehabilitation programs to consider screening patients for elevated levels of anxiety and depression and to provide appropriate counselling or treatment where necessary. The HADS has been used as a screening tool for assessment of anxiety and depression in a wide variety of clinical groups. Recent research however has questioned its suitability for use with some patient groups due to problems with dimensionality and the behaviour of individual items. The aim of this study is to assess the underlying structure and psychometric properties of the HADS among patients attending musculoskeletal rehabilitation. Methods Data was obtained from 296 patients attending an outpatient musculoskeletal pain clinic. The total sample was used to identify the proportion of patients with elevated levels of anxiety and depression. Half the sample (n = 142 was used for exploratory factor analysis (EFA, with the holdout sample (n = 154 used for confirmatory factor analysis (CFA to explore the underlying structure of the scale. Results A substantial proportion of patients were classified as probable cases on the HADS Anxiety subscale (38.2% and HADS Depression subscale (30.1%, with the sample recording higher mean HADS subscales scores than many other patient groups (breast cancer, end-stage renal disease, heart disease reported in the literature. EFA supported a two factor structure (representing anxiety and depression as proposed by the scale's authors, however item 7 (an anxiety item failed to load appropriately. Removing Item 7 resulted in a clear two factor solution in both EFA and CFA. Conclusion The high levels of anxiety and depression detected in this sample suggests that screening for

  17. Assessment of the structure of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in musculoskeletal patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallant, Julie F; Bailey, Catherine M

    2005-01-01

    Background Research suggests there is a high prevalence of anxiety and depression amongst patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain, which can influence the effectiveness of rehabilitation programs. It is therefore important for clinicians involved in musculoskeletal rehabilitation programs to consider screening patients for elevated levels of anxiety and depression and to provide appropriate counselling or treatment where necessary. The HADS has been used as a screening tool for assessment of anxiety and depression in a wide variety of clinical groups. Recent research however has questioned its suitability for use with some patient groups due to problems with dimensionality and the behaviour of individual items. The aim of this study is to assess the underlying structure and psychometric properties of the HADS among patients attending musculoskeletal rehabilitation. Methods Data was obtained from 296 patients attending an outpatient musculoskeletal pain clinic. The total sample was used to identify the proportion of patients with elevated levels of anxiety and depression. Half the sample (n = 142) was used for exploratory factor analysis (EFA), with the holdout sample (n = 154) used for confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to explore the underlying structure of the scale. Results A substantial proportion of patients were classified as probable cases on the HADS Anxiety subscale (38.2%) and HADS Depression subscale (30.1%), with the sample recording higher mean HADS subscales scores than many other patient groups (breast cancer, end-stage renal disease, heart disease) reported in the literature. EFA supported a two factor structure (representing anxiety and depression) as proposed by the scale's authors, however item 7 (an anxiety item) failed to load appropriately. Removing Item 7 resulted in a clear two factor solution in both EFA and CFA. Conclusion The high levels of anxiety and depression detected in this sample suggests that screening for psychological

  18. Suggestions for an improved HRA method for use in Probabilistic Safety Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parry, Gareth W.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses why an improved Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) approach for use in Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs) is needed, and proposes a set of requirements on the improved HRA method. The constraints imposed by the need to embed the approach into the PSA methodology are discussed. One approach to laying the foundation for an improved method, using models from the cognitive psychology and behavioral science disciplines, is outlined

  19. Adaptation of a pattern-scaling approach for assessment of local (village/valley) scale water resources and related vulnerabilities in the Upper Indus Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Nathan; Kilsby, Chris G.; Fowler, Hayley J.; Archer, David R.

    2010-05-01

    The water resources of the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) are of the utmost importance to the economic wellbeing of Pakistan. The irrigated agriculture made possible by Indus river runoff underpins the food security for Pakistan's nearly 200 million people. Contributions from hydropower account for more than one fifth of peak installed electrical generating capacity in a country where widespread, prolonged load-shedding handicaps business activity and industrial development. Pakistan's further socio-economic development thus depends largely on optimisation of its precious water resources. Confident, accurate seasonal predictions of water resource availability coupled with sound understanding of interannual variability are urgent insights needed by development planners and infrastructure managers at all levels. This study focuses on the challenge of providing meaningful quantitative information at the village/valley scale in the upper reaches of the UIB. Proceeding by progressive reductions in scale, the typology of the observed UIB hydrological regimes -- glacial, nival and pluvial -- are examined with special emphasis on interannual variability for individual seasons. Variations in discharge (runoff) are compared to observations of climate parameters (temperature, precipitation) and available spatial data (elevation, snow cover and snow-water-equivalent). The first scale presented is composed of the large-scale, long-record gauged UIB tributary basins. The Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) has maintained these stations for several decades in order to monitor seasonal flows and accumulate data for design of further infrastructure. Data from basins defined by five gauging stations on the Indus, Hunza, Gilgit and Astore rivers are examined. The second scale presented is a set of smaller gauged headwater catchments with short records. These gauges were installed by WAPDA and its partners amongst the international development agencies to assess potential

  20. Local scale multiple quantitative risk assessment and uncertainty evaluation in a densely urbanised area (Brescia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The study of the interactions between natural and anthropogenic risks is necessary for quantitative risk assessment in areas affected by active natural processes, high population density and strong economic activities.

    We present a multiple quantitative risk assessment on a 420 km2 high risk area (Brescia and surroundings, Lombardy, Northern Italy, for flood, seismic and industrial accident scenarios. Expected economic annual losses are quantified for each scenario and annual exceedance probability-loss curves are calculated. Uncertainty on the input variables is propagated by means of three different methodologies: Monte-Carlo-Simulation, First Order Second Moment, and point estimate.

    Expected losses calculated by means of the three approaches show similar values for the whole study area, about 64 000 000 € for earthquakes, about 10 000 000 € for floods, and about 3000 € for industrial accidents. Locally, expected losses assume quite different values if calculated with the three different approaches, with differences up to 19%.

    The uncertainties on the expected losses and their propagation, performed with the three methods, are compared and discussed in the paper. In some cases, uncertainty reaches significant values (up to almost 50% of the expected loss. This underlines the necessity of including uncertainty in quantitative risk assessment, especially when it is used as a support for territorial planning and decision making. The method is developed thinking at a possible application at a regional-national scale, on the basis of data available in Italy over the national territory.

  1. Disability assessment scale for dementia – long version (DADL-BR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Boaro Fernandez Canon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are no functional assessment tools for elderly with dementia available in the literature that will assess all occupations. Objective: To develop a Long Version of Disability Assessment for Dementia Scale (DADL-Br, covering all occupations provided by the American Association of Occupational Therapy (AOTA and the activities that compose them and evaluate its content validity. Method: With the permission of the original version main author (DAD, Isabelle Gélinas PhD, the new items of the Long Version (DADL-Br were developed based on the classification proposed by AOTA for occupations, considering the gaps in the original instrument. We reviewed the Cultural and Conceptual Equivalence by the Expert Committee and Multidisciplinary Committee. The suggestions of the Committees were accepted and the process followed for the pre-test and author analysis. Results: The first version of the instrument received 10 new fields and 64 new items, which after seven reviews of Cultural Equivalence (average concordance 89.2%, six reviews of Conceptual Equivalence (average concordance 81.2%, tree pre-tests and analysis of the original version main author, has resulted in the development of five versions, addition of twelve items and exclusion of seven items, and the final version consists of 20 fields and 109 items, being 10 new fields and 69 new items. Conclusion: This process conferred the content validity of DADL-Br, which includes all occupations proposed by AOTA and can be a useful tool to evaluate the profile of occupational performance of elderly with dementia.

  2. A rapid murine coma and behavior scale for quantitative assessment of murine cerebral malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan W Carroll

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cerebral malaria (CM is a neurological syndrome that includes coma and seizures following malaria parasite infection. The pathophysiology is not fully understood and cannot be accounted for by infection alone: patients still succumb to CM, even if the underlying parasite infection has resolved. To that effect, there is no known adjuvant therapy for CM. Current murine CM (MCM models do not allow for rapid clinical identification of affected animals following infection. An animal model that more closely mimics the clinical features of human CM would be helpful in elucidating potential mechanisms of disease pathogenesis and evaluating new adjuvant therapies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A quantitative, rapid murine coma and behavior scale (RMCBS comprised of 10 parameters was developed to assess MCM manifested in C57BL/6 mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA. Using this method a single mouse can be completely assessed within 3 minutes. The RMCBS enables the operator to follow the evolution of the clinical syndrome, validated here by correlations with intracerebral hemorrhages. It provides a tool by which subjects can be identified as symptomatic prior to the initiation of trial treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Since the RMCBS enables an operator to rapidly follow the course of disease, label a subject as affected or not, and correlate the level of illness with neuropathologic injury, it can ultimately be used to guide the initiation of treatment after the onset of cerebral disease (thus emulating the situation in the field. The RMCBS is a tool by which an adjuvant therapy can be objectively assessed.

  3. Google Street View as an alternative method to car surveys in large-scale vegetation assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deus, Ernesto; Silva, Joaquim S; Catry, Filipe X; Rocha, Miguel; Moreira, Francisco

    2015-10-01

    Car surveys (CS) are a common method for assessing the distribution of alien invasive plants. Google Street View (GSV), a free-access web technology where users may experience a virtual travel along roads, has been suggested as a cost-effective alternative to car surveys. We tested if we could replicate the results from a countrywide survey conducted by car in Portugal using GSV as a remote sensing tool, aiming at assessing the distribution of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. wildlings on roadsides adjacent to eucalypt stands. Georeferenced points gathered along CS were used to create road transects visible as lines overlapping the road in GSV environment, allowing surveying the same sampling areas using both methods. This paper presents the results of the comparison between the two methods. Both methods produced similar models of plant abundance, selecting the same explanatory variables, in the same hierarchical order of importance and depicting a similar influence on plant abundance. Even though the GSV model had a lower performance and the GSV survey detected fewer plants, additional variables collected exclusively with GSV improved model performance and provided a new insight into additional factors influencing plant abundance. The survey using GSV required ca. 9 % of the funds and 62 % of the time needed to accomplish the CS. We conclude that GSV may be a cost-effective alternative to CS. We discuss some advantages and limitations of GSV as a survey method. We forecast that GSV may become a widespread tool in road ecology, particularly in large-scale vegetation assessments.

  4. Phenology Data Products to Support Assessment and Forecasting of Phenology on Multiple Spatiotemporal Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerst, K.; Enquist, C.; Rosemartin, A.; Denny, E. G.; Marsh, L.; Moore, D. J.; Weltzin, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; www.usanpn.org) serves science and society by promoting a broad understanding of plant and animal phenology and the relationships among phenological patterns and environmental change. The National Phenology Database maintained by USA-NPN now has over 3.7 million records for plants and animals for the period 1954-2014, with the majority of these observations collected since 2008 as part of a broad, national contributory science strategy. These data have been used in a number of science, conservation and resource management applications, including national assessments of historical and potential future trends in phenology, regional assessments of spatio-temporal variation in organismal activity, and local monitoring for invasive species detection. Customizable data downloads are freely available, and data are accompanied by FGDC-compliant metadata, data-use and data-attribution policies, vetted and documented methodologies and protocols, and version control. While users are free to develop custom algorithms for data cleaning, winnowing and summarization prior to analysis, the National Coordinating Office of USA-NPN is developing a suite of standard data products to facilitate use and application by a diverse set of data users. This presentation provides a progress report on data product development, including: (1) Quality controlled raw phenophase status data; (2) Derived phenometrics (e.g. onset, duration) at multiple scales; (3) Data visualization tools; (4) Tools to support assessment of species interactions and overlap; (5) Species responsiveness to environmental drivers; (6) Spatially gridded phenoclimatological products; and (7) Algorithms for modeling and forecasting future phenological responses. The prioritization of these data products is a direct response to stakeholder needs related to informing management and policy decisions. We anticipate that these products will contribute to broad understanding of plant

  5. Development of the General Parenting Observational Scale to assess parenting during family meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Kyung E; Dickstein, Susan; Jelalian, Elissa; Boutelle, Kerri; Seifer, Ronald; Wing, Rena

    2015-04-10

    There is growing interest in the relationship between general parenting and childhood obesity. However, assessing general parenting via surveys can be difficult due to issues with self-report and differences in the underlying constructs being measured. As a result, different aspects of parenting have been associated with obesity risk. We developed a more objective tool to assess general parenting by using observational methods during a mealtime interaction. The General Parenting Observational Scale (GPOS) was based on prior work of Baumrind, Maccoby and Martin, Barber, and Slater and Power. Ten dimensions of parenting were included; 4 were classified in the emotional dimension of parenting (warmth and affection, support and sensitivity, negative affect, detachment), and 6 were classified in the behavioral dimension of parenting (firm discipline and structure, demands for maturity, psychological control, physical control, permissiveness, neglect). Overweight children age 8-12 years old and their parent (n = 44 dyads) entering a weight control program were videotaped eating a family meal. Parents were coded for their general parenting behaviors. The Mealtime Family Interaction Coding System (MICS) and several self-report measures of general parenting were also used to assess the parent-child interaction. Spearman's correlations were used to assess correlation between measures. The emotional dimensions of warmth/affection and support/sensitivity, and the behavioral dimension of firm discipline/structure were robustly captured during the family meals. Warmth/affection and support/sensitivity were significantly correlated with affect management, interpersonal involvement, and communication from the MICS. Firm discipline/structure was inversely correlated with affect management, behavior control, and task accomplishment. Parents who were older, with higher educational status, and lower BMIs were more likely to display warmth/affection and support/sensitivity. Several

  6. The Stanford Microsurgery and Resident Training (SMaRT) Scale: validation of an on-line global rating scale for technical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterwhite, Thomas; Son, Ji; Carey, Joseph; Echo, Anthony; Spurling, Terry; Paro, John; Gurtner, Geoffrey; Chang, James; Lee, Gordon K

    2014-05-01

    We previously reported results of our on-line microsurgery training program, showing that residents who had access to our website significantly improved their cognitive and technical skills. In this study, we report an objective means for expert evaluators to reliably rate trainees' technical skills under the microscope, with the use of our novel global rating scale. "Microsurgery Essentials" (http://smartmicrosurgery.com) is our on-line training curriculum. Residents were randomly divided into 2 groups: 1 group reviewed this online resource and the other did not. Pre- and post-tests consisted of videotaped microsurgical sessions in which the trainee performed "microsurgery" on 3 different models: latex glove, penrose drain, and the dorsal vessel of a chicken foot. The SMaRT (Stanford Microsurgery and Resident Training) scale, consisting of 9 categories graded on a 5-point Likert scale, was used to assess the trainees. Results were analyzed with ANOVA and Student t test, with P less than 0.05 indicating statistical significance. Seventeen residents participated in the study. The SMaRT scale adequately differentiated the performance of more experienced senior residents (PGY-4 to PGY-6, total average score=3.43) from less experienced junior residents (PGY-1 to PGY-3, total average score=2.10, P0.05). Additionally, junior residents who had access to our website showed a significant increase in their graded technical performance by 0.7 points when compared to residents who did not have access to the website who showed an improvement of only 0.2 points (P=0.01). Our SMaRT scale is valid and reliable in assessing the microsurgical skills of residents and other trainees. Current trainees are more likely to use self-directed on-line education because of its easy accessibility and interactive format. Our global rating scale can help ensure residents are achieving appropriate technical milestones.

  7. [Social Avoidance and Distress Scale (SAD) and Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (FNE)--reliability and the preliminary assessment of validity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobański, Jerzy A; Klasa, Katarzyna; Rutkowski, Krzysztof; Dembińska, Edyta; Müldner-Nieckowski, Łukasz; Cyranka, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of reliability, cross-validity and usefulness in everyday clinical practice of two related tools: Social Avoidance and Distress Scale (SAD) and Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (FNE). Analysis of tests results of 453 females and 172 males diagnosed in the years 2008-2010 in the Outpatient Clinic for Neurotic and Behavioral Disorders of the Cracow University Hospital, including, inter alia, results of the questionnaires SAD and FNE. The scales have been, with the consent of their authors (R. Friend) and the copyright holder (APA), translated into Polish and back-translated. Subjects also completed the symptom checklist KO '0'(n = 512), and neurotic personality questionnaire KON-2006 (n = 505), as well as the NEO-PI-R personality inventory (n = 46). The reliability and cross-validity coefficients of Polish versions were assessed in the patient population and their results were compared with those of the group of 75 medical students. The translation was verified by retranslation. The reliability coefficients of Polish version of the SAD and FNE scales turned out to be high--Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.94 for both scales, Guttman's split-half reliability coefficient 0.93. Correlations with symptom checklist KO '0 'and neurotic personality questionnaire KON-2006, as well as with the NEO -PI-R personality inventory were significant and indicate a good cross-validity of the analyzed tools. The average results in the patient population for both scales were significantly higher than the results in the preliminary control group of medical students. Polish versions of SAD and FNE questionnaires, like their other translations from English, proved to be reliable and have a high cross-validity with other original Polish tools used in the diagnosis of neurotic disorders, which allows to recommend them to be used in further studies, also in comparing healthy persons with those suffering from a variety of neurotic disorders.

  8. In systemic sclerosis, anxiety and depression assessed by hospital anxiety depression scale are independently associated with disability and psychological factors.

    OpenAIRE

    Del Rosso, A; Mikhaylova, S; Baccini, M; Lupi, I; Matucci Cerinic, M; Maddali Bongi, S

    2013-01-01

    Background. Anxious and depressive symptoms are frequent in Systemic Sclerosis (SSc). Our objective is to assess their prevalence and association with district and global disability and psychological variables. Methods. 119?SSc patients were assessed by Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS). Clinical depression and anxiety were defined for HADS score cutoff ?8. Patients were assessed for psychological symptoms (RSES, COPE-NIV), hand (HAMIS, CHFDS, fist closure, and hand opening) and face d...

  9. ASSESSMENT OF SATISFACTION IN PERITONEAL EQUILIBRATION TEST: A STUDY ON THE VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF THE PERITONEAL EQUILIBRATION SATISFACTION SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eylem TOPBAŞ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study has been designed to develop an assessment tool to be used in determining the patients’ satisfaction level with the peritoneal equilibration test (PET procedure. Materials and Methods: The development and validation of the peritoneal equilibration test Satisfaction Scale (PETSS was completed in two phases. Phase I focused on instrument construction and included item development and establishment of concurrent validity. Phase II included the factor analysis and psychometric assessment of the scale. In statistical evaluation of the data descriptive statistics and non-paratmetric tests were used. Results: The first version of the scale that has 3.62 Content Validity Index value was composed of 20 items. It was found that the latest version of the scale that has 14 items explained 46% of the variance. It was found that the Cronbach alfa value of this scale, which has 0.52-0.89 coefficient of item-total correlation was 0.96. Psychometric assessment of the scale revealed that except for type of the PET application, none of the demographic and clinical characteristics effect patients level of satisfaction during the PET application. Conclusion: This preliminary study showed that PETSS was a valid and reliable scale that can be used for determining satisfaction level of patients during PET application.

  10. Combination of statistical and physically based methods to assess shallow slide susceptibility at the basin scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sérgio C.; Zêzere, José L.; Lajas, Sara; Melo, Raquel

    2017-07-01

    Approaches used to assess shallow slide susceptibility at the basin scale are conceptually different depending on the use of statistical or physically based methods. The former are based on the assumption that the same causes are more likely to produce the same effects, whereas the latter are based on the comparison between forces which tend to promote movement along the slope and the counteracting forces that are resistant to motion. Within this general framework, this work tests two hypotheses: (i) although conceptually and methodologically distinct, the statistical and deterministic methods generate similar shallow slide susceptibility results regarding the model's predictive capacity and spatial agreement; and (ii) the combination of shallow slide susceptibility maps obtained with statistical and physically based methods, for the same study area, generate a more reliable susceptibility model for shallow slide occurrence. These hypotheses were tested at a small test site (13.9 km2) located north of Lisbon (Portugal), using a statistical method (the information value method, IV) and a physically based method (the infinite slope method, IS). The landslide susceptibility maps produced with the statistical and deterministic methods were combined into a new landslide susceptibility map. The latter was based on a set of integration rules defined by the cross tabulation of the susceptibility classes of both maps and analysis of the corresponding contingency tables. The results demonstrate a higher predictive capacity of the new shallow slide susceptibility map, which combines the independent results obtained with statistical and physically based models. Moreover, the combination of the two models allowed the identification of areas where the results of the information value and the infinite slope methods are contradictory. Thus, these areas were classified as uncertain and deserve additional investigation at a more detailed scale.

  11. When Significant Others Suffer: German Validation of the Burden Assessment Scale (BAS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Hunger

    Full Text Available There is a need of an economical, reliable, and valid instrument in the German-speaking countries to measure the burden of relatives who care for mentally ill persons. We translated the Burden Assessment Scale (BAS and conducted a study investigating factor structure, psychometric quality and predictive validity. We used confirmative factor analyses (CFA, maximum-likelihood method to examine the dimensionality of the German BAS in a sample of 215 relatives (72% women; M = 32 years, SD = 14, range: 18 to 77; 39% employed of mentally ill persons (50% (ex-partner or (best friend; M = 32 years, SD = 13, range 8 to 64; main complaints were depression and/or anxiety. Cronbach's α determined the internal consistency. We examined predictive validity using regression analyses including the BAS and validated scales of social systems functioning (Experience In Social Systems Questionnaire, EXIS.pers, EXIS.org and psychopathology (Brief Symptom Inventory, BSI. Variables that might have influenced the dependent variables (e.g. age, gender, education, employment and civil status were controlled by their introduction in the first step, and the BAS in the second step of the regression analyses. A model with four correlated factors (Disrupted Activities, Personal Distress, Time Perspective, Guilt showed the best fit. With respect to the number of items included, the internal consistency was very good. The modified German BAS predicted relatives' social systems functioning and psychopathology. The economical design makes the 19-item BAS promising for practice-oriented research, and for studies under time constraints. Strength, limitations and future directions are discussed.

  12. Integrating adaptive behaviour in large-scale flood risk assessments: an Agent-Based Modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haer, Toon; Aerts, Jeroen

    2015-04-01

    Between 1998 and 2009, Europe suffered over 213 major damaging floods, causing 1126 deaths, displacing around half a million people. In this period, floods caused at least 52 billion euro in insured economic losses making floods the most costly natural hazard faced in Europe. In many low-lying areas, the main strategy to cope with floods is to reduce the risk of the hazard through flood defence structures, like dikes and levees. However, it is suggested that part of the responsibility for flood protection needs to shift to households and businesses in areas at risk, and that governments and insurers can effectively stimulate the implementation of individual protective measures. However, adaptive behaviour towards flood risk reduction and the interaction between the government, insurers, and individuals has hardly been studied in large-scale flood risk assessments. In this study, an European Agent-Based Model is developed including agent representatives for the administrative stakeholders of European Member states, insurers and reinsurers markets, and individuals following complex behaviour models. The Agent-Based Modelling approach allows for an in-depth analysis of the interaction between heterogeneous autonomous agents and the resulting (non-)adaptive behaviour. Existing flood damage models are part of the European Agent-Based Model to allow for a dynamic response of both the agents and the environment to changing flood risk and protective efforts. By following an Agent-Based Modelling approach this study is a first contribution to overcome the limitations of traditional large-scale flood risk models in which the influence of individual adaptive behaviour towards flood risk reduction is often lacking.

  13. Assessing depression related severity and functional impairment: the Overall Depression Severity and Impairment Scale (ODSIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaya Ito

    Full Text Available The Overall Depression Severity and Impairment Scale (ODSIS is a brief, five-item measure for assessing the frequency and intensity of depressive symptoms, as well as functional impairments in pleasurable activities, work or school, and interpersonal relationships due to depression. Although this scale is expected to be useful in various psychiatric and mental health settings, the reliability, validity, and interpretability have not yet been fully examined. This study was designed to examine the reliability, factorial, convergent, and discriminant validity of a Japanese version of the ODSIS, as well as its ability to distinguish between individuals with and without a major depressive disorder diagnosis.From a pool of registrants at an internet survey company, 2830 non-clinical and clinical participants were selected randomly (619 with major depressive disorder, 619 with panic disorder, 576 with social anxiety disorder, 645 with obsessive-compulsive disorder, and 371 non-clinical panelists. Participants were asked to respond to the ODSIS and conventional measures of depression, functional impairment, anxiety, neuroticism, satisfaction with life, and emotion regulation.Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of three split subsamples indicated the unidimensional factor structure of ODSIS. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis showed invariance of factor loadings between non-clinical and clinical subsamples. The ODSIS also showed excellent internal consistency and test-retest intraclass correlation coefficients. Convergence and discriminance of the ODSIS with various measures were in line with our expectations. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses showed that the ODSIS was able to detect a major depressive syndrome accurately.This study supports the reliability and validity of ODSIS in a non-western population, which can be interpreted as demonstrating cross-cultural validity.

  14. Sources of uncertainty in hydrological climate impact assessment: a cross-scale study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattermann, F. F.; Vetter, T.; Breuer, L.; Su, Buda; Daggupati, P.; Donnelly, C.; Fekete, B.; Flörke, F.; Gosling, S. N.; Hoffmann, P.; Liersch, S.; Masaki, Y.; Motovilov, Y.; Müller, C.; Samaniego, L.; Stacke, T.; Wada, Y.; Yang, T.; Krysnaova, V.

    2018-01-01

    Climate change impacts on water availability and hydrological extremes are major concerns as regards the Sustainable Development Goals. Impacts on hydrology are normally investigated as part of a modelling chain, in which climate projections from multiple climate models are used as inputs to multiple impact models, under different greenhouse gas emissions scenarios, which result in different amounts of global temperature rise. While the goal is generally to investigate the relevance of changes in climate for the water cycle, water resources or hydrological extremes, it is often the case that variations in other components of the model chain obscure the effect of climate scenario variation. This is particularly important when assessing the impacts of relatively lower magnitudes of global warming, such as those associated with the aspirational goals of the Paris Agreement. In our study, we use ANOVA (analyses of variance) to allocate and quantify the main sources of uncertainty in the hydrological impact modelling chain. In turn we determine the statistical significance of different sources of uncertainty. We achieve this by using a set of five climate models and up to 13 hydrological models, for nine large scale river basins across the globe, under four emissions scenarios. The impact variable we consider in our analysis is daily river discharge. We analyze overall water availability and flow regime, including seasonality, high flows and low flows. Scaling effects are investigated by separately looking at discharge generated by global and regional hydrological models respectively. Finally, we compare our results with other recently published studies. We find that small differences in global temperature rise associated with some emissions scenarios have mostly significant impacts on river discharge—however, climate model related uncertainty is so large that it obscures the sensitivity of the hydrological system.

  15. Large scale debris-flow hazard assessment: a geotechnical approach and GIS modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Delmonaco

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A deterministic distributed model has been developed for large-scale debris-flow hazard analysis in the basin of River Vezza (Tuscany Region – Italy. This area (51.6 km 2 was affected by over 250 landslides. These were classified as debris/earth flow mainly involving the metamorphic geological formations outcropping in the area, triggered by the pluviometric event of 19 June 1996. In the last decades landslide hazard and risk analysis have been favoured by the development of GIS techniques permitting the generalisation, synthesis and modelling of stability conditions on a large scale investigation (>1:10 000. In this work, the main results derived by the application of a geotechnical model coupled with a hydrological model for the assessment of debris flows hazard analysis, are reported. This analysis has been developed starting by the following steps: landslide inventory map derived by aerial photo interpretation, direct field survey, generation of a database and digital maps, elaboration of a DTM and derived themes (i.e. slope angle map, definition of a superficial soil thickness map, geotechnical soil characterisation through implementation of a backanalysis on test slopes, laboratory test analysis, inference of the influence of precipitation, for distinct return times, on ponding time and pore pressure generation, implementation of a slope s