Sample records for assessment present state

  1. Intellectual Assessment of Children and Youth in the United States of America: Past, Present, and Future (United States)

    Kranzler, John H.; Benson, Nicholas; Floyd, Randy G.


    This article briefly reviews the history of intellectual assessment of children and youth in the United States of America, as well as current practices and future directions. Although administration of intelligence tests in the schools has been a longstanding practice in the United States, their use has also elicited sharp controversy over time.…

  2. Assessing the present state and potential of Medicaid controlled substance lock-in programs. (United States)

    Roberts, Andrew W; Skinner, Asheley Cockrell


    Nonmedical use of prescription medications--particularly controlled substances--has risen dramatically in recent decades, resulting in alarming increases in overdose-related health care utilization, costs, and mortality. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that 80% of abused and misused controlled substances originate as legal prescriptions. As such, policymakers and payers have the opportunity to combat nonmedical use by regulating controlled substance accessibility within legal prescribing and dispensing processes. One common policy strategy is found in Medicaid controlled substance lock-in programs. Lock-in programs identify Medicaid beneficiaries exhibiting high-risk controlled substance seeking behavior and "lock in" these patients to, typically, a single prescriber and pharmacy from which they may obtain Medicaid-covered controlled substance prescriptions. Lock-in restrictions are intended to improve care coordination between providers, reduce nonmedical use behaviors, and limit Medicaid costs stemming from nonmedical use and diversion. Peer-reviewed and gray literature have been examined to assess the current prevalence and design of Medicaid lock-in programs, as well as the current evidence base for informing appropriate program design and understanding program effectiveness. Forty-six state Medicaid agencies currently operate lock-in programs. Program design varies widely between states in terms of defining high-risk controlled substance use, the scope of actual lock-in restrictions, and length of program enrollment. Additionally, there is a remarkable dearth of peer-reviewed literature evaluating the design and effectiveness of Medicaid lock-in programs. Nearly all outcomes evidence stemmed from publicly accessible internal Medicaid program evaluations, which largely investigated cost savings to the state. Lock-in programs are highly prevalent and poised to play a meaningful role in curbing the prescription drug abuse epidemic. However

  3. Assessing oral presentation performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginkel, van Stan; Laurentzen, Ramona; Mulder, Martin; Mononen, Asko; Kyttä, Janika; Kortelainen, Mika J.


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to design a rubric instrument for assessing oral presentation performance in higher education and to test its validity with an expert group. Design/methodology/approach: This study, using mixed methods, focusses on: designing a rubric by identifying

  4. Noninvasive assessment of microsomal enzyme activity in occupational medicine: present state of knowledge and future perspectives. (United States)

    Døssing, M


    The activity of the hepatic microsomal enzyme system, which may be of great importance for metabolic activation and deactivation of hepatotoxic agents and carcinogens, is changed by exposure to commonly used industrial chemicals. The antipyrine test is the most widely used method for assessing microsomal enzyme activity in man. The clearance of antipyrine can be accurately calculated from one sample of saliva obtained about 24 h after an oral dose of the drug. By measuring antipyrine metabolism during exposure to industrial chemicals and at the end of 3-4 weeks free from exposure, the impact of industrial chemicals on antipyrine metabolism can be estimated, provided the chemicals are eliminated within 3-4 weeks. This test can be performed by skilled and unskilled workers using written instructions. This has broadened the application of the test. Other noninvasive indices of microsomal enzyme activity include the aminopyrine and caffeine breath tests and the urinary excretion of 6-beta-hydroxycortisol and D-glucaric acid. These tests probably reflect the activity of different but overlapping parts of the microsomal enzyme system and may be of value in research in occupational medicine. Previous studies indicate that chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides, phenoxyacids, chlorophenols, polychlorinated biphenyles, some organic solvents and high concentrations of inhalation anaesthetics may stimulate microsomal enzyme activity, while styrene, toluene and inhalation anaesthetics in concentrations at about the allowed safety limit values have no effect. Lead, chemicals used by spray painters, and carbon disulphide probably inhibit the activity. While the short-term consequences of these changes include altered metabolism of hormones, vitamins, drugs, and other microsomally metabolized compounds, the possible impact on health on a long-term scale is unknown. It is now possible to study this with the use of the available noninvasive simple indices of microsomal enzyme

  5. Active fault and other geological studies for seismic assessment: present state and problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakimi, Toshihiro [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Evaluation system of earthquakes from an active fault is, in Japan, based on the characteristic earthquake model of a wide sense that postulates essentially the same (nearly the maximum) magnitude and recurrence interval during the recent geological times. Earthquake magnitude M is estimated by empirical relations among M, surface rupture length L, and surface fault displacement D per event of the earthquake faults on land in Japan. Recurrence interval R of faulting/earthquake is calculated from D and the long-term slip rate S of a fault as R=D/S. Grouping or segmentation of complicatedly distributed faults is an important, but difficult problem in order to distinguish a seismogenic fault unit corresponding to an individual characteristic earthquake. If the time t of the latest event is obtained, the `cautiousness` of a fault can be judged from R-t or t/R. According to this idea, several faults whose t/R exceed 0.5 have been designated as the `precaution faults` having higher probability of earthquake occurrence than the others. A part of above evaluation has been introduced at first into the seismic-safety examination system of NPPs in 1978. According to the progress of research on active faults, the weight of interest in respect to the seismic hazard assessment shifted gradually from the historic data to the fault data. Most of recent seismic hazard maps have been prepared in consideration with active faults on land in Japan. Since the occurrence of the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake, social attention has been concentrated upon the seismic hazard due to active faults, because this event was generated from a well-known active fault zone that had been warned as a `precaution fault`. In this paper, a few recent topics on other geological and geotechnical researches aiming at improving the seismic safety of NPPs in Japan were also introduced. (J.P.N.)

  6. An optical assessment of the effects of glioma growth on resting state networks in mice (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Orukari, Inema E.; Bauer, Adam Q.; Baxter, Grant A.; Rubin, Joshua B.; Culver, Joseph P.


    Gliomas are known to cause significant changes in normal brain function that lead to cognitive deficits. Disruptions in resting state networks (RSNs) are thought to underlie these changes. However, investigating the effects of glioma growth on RSNs in humans is complicated by the heterogeneity in lesion size, type, and location across subjects. In this study, we evaluated the effects of tumor growth on RSNs over time in a controlled mouse model of glioma growth. Methods: Glioma cells (5x104-105 U87s) were stereotactically injected into the forepaw somatosensory cortex of adult nude mice (n=5). Disruptions in RSNs were evaluated weekly with functional connectivity optical intrinsic signal imaging (fcOIS). Tumor growth was monitored with MRI and weekly bioluminescence imaging (BLI). In order to characterize how tumor growth affected different RSNs over time, we calculated a number of functional connectivity (fc) metrics, including homotopic (bilateral) connectivity, spatial similarity, and node degree. Results: Deficits in fc initiate near the lesion, and over a period of several weeks, extend more globally. The reductions in spatial similarity were found to strongly correlate with the BLI signal indicating that increased tumor size is associated with increased RSN disruption. Conclusions: We have shown that fcOIS is capable of detecting alterations in mouse RSNs due to brain tumor growth. A better understanding of how RSN disruption contributes to the development of cognitive deficits in brain tumor patients may lead to better patient risk stratification and consequently improved cognitive outcomes.

  7. A method for assessing carbon stocks, carbon sequestration, and greenhouse-gas fluxes in ecosystems of the United States under present conditions and future scenarios (United States)

    Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Bernknopf, Richard; Clow, David; Dye, Dennis; Faulkner, Stephen; Forney, William; Gleason, Robert; Hawbaker, Todd; Liu, Jinxun; Liu, Shu-Guang; Prisley, Stephen; Reed, Bradley; Reeves, Matthew; Rollins, Matthew; Sleeter, Benjamin; Sohl, Terry; Stackpoole, Sarah; Stehman, Stephen; Striegl, Robert G.; Wein, Anne; Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Zhu, Zhi-Liang


    solicited to construct these scenarios.The methods for mapping the current LULC and ecosystem disturbances will require the extensive use of both remote-sensing data and field-survey data (for example, forest inventories) to capture and characterize landscape-changing events. For potential LULC changes and ecosystem disturbances, key drivers such as socioeconomic and climate changes will be used in addition to the biophysical data. The result of these analyses will be a series of maps for each future year for each scenario. These annual maps will form the basis for estimating carbon storage and GHG emissions. For terrestrial ecosystems, carbon storage, carbon-sequestration capacities, and GHG emissions under the present conditions and future scenarios will be assessed using the LULC-change and ecosystem-disturbance estimates in map format with a spatially explicit biogeochemical ensemble modeling system that incorporates properties of management activities (such as tillage or harvesting) and properties of individual ecosystems (such as energy exchange, vegetation characteristics, hydrological cycling, and soil attributes). For aquatic ecosystems, carbon burial in sediments and fluxes of GHG are functions of the present and future potential stream flow and sediment transport and will be assessed using empirical hydrological modeling methods. Validation and uncertainty analysis methods described in the methodology will follow established guidelines to assess the quality of the assessment results.The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Level II ecoregions map will be the practical instrument for developing and delivering assessment results. Consequently, the ecoregion (there are 22 modified ecoregions) will be the reporting unit of the assessment because the scenarios, assessment results, validation, and uncertainty analysis will be produced at that scale. The implementation of these methods will require collaborations among various Federal agencies, State agencies

  8. Intuitionistic Assessment Of Behavioural Present Value*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piasecki Krzysztof


    Full Text Available The article discussesd the impact of chosen behavioural factors on the imprecision of present value assessment. The formal model of behavioural present value is offered as a result of this discussion. The behavioural present value is described here as an intuitionistic fuzzy set. The significance of the replacement of a fuzzy set by an intuitionistic fuzzy set is proved.

  9. Public Review Draft: A Method for Assessing Carbon Stocks, Carbon Sequestration, and Greenhouse-Gas Fluxes in Ecosystems of the United States Under Present Conditions and Future Scenarios (United States)

    Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Bernknopf, Richard; Clow, David; Dye, Dennis; Faulkner, Stephen; Forney, William; Gleason, Robert; Hawbaker, Todd; Liu, Jinxun; Liu, Shu-Guang; Prisley, Stephen; Reed, Bradley; Reeves, Matthew; Rollins, Matthew; Sleeter, Benjamin; Sohl, Terry; Stackpoole, Sarah; Stehman, Stephen; Striegl, Robert G.; Wein, Anne; Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Zhu, Zhi-Liang


    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA), Section 712, authorizes the U.S. Department of the Interior to develop a methodology and conduct an assessment of the Nation's ecosystems focusing on carbon stocks, carbon sequestration, and emissions of three greenhouse gases (GHGs): carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. The major requirements include (1) an assessment of all ecosystems (terrestrial systems, such as forests, croplands, wetlands, shrub and grasslands; and aquatic ecosystems, such as rivers, lakes, and estuaries), (2) an estimation of annual potential capacities of ecosystems to increase carbon sequestration and reduce net GHG emissions in the context of mitigation strategies (including management and restoration activities), and (3) an evaluation of the effects of controlling processes, such as climate change, land use and land cover, and wildlfires. The purpose of this draft methodology for public review is to propose a technical plan to conduct the assessment. Within the methodology, the concepts of ecosystems, carbon pools, and GHG fluxes used for the assessment follow conventional definitions in use by major national and international assessment or inventory efforts. In order to estimate current ecosystem carbon stocks and GHG fluxes and to understand the potential capacity and effects of mitigation strategies, the method will use two time periods for the assessment: 2001 through 2010, which establishes a current ecosystem GHG baseline and will be used to validate the models; and 2011 through 2050, which will be used to assess future potential conditions based on a set of projected scenarios. The scenario framework is constructed using storylines of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report Emission Scenarios (SRES), along with initial reference land-use and land-cover (LULC) and land-management scenarios. An additional three LULC and land-management mitigation scenarios will be constructed for each

  10. The Present State of Homeric Studies. (United States)

    Willcock, M. M.


    A personal point of view concerning various aspects of Homerica characterizes this brief state-of-the-art report. Commentary is directed to: (1) first readers; (2) the Parry-Lord approach to the study of the "Iliad" and the "Odyssey" as representatives of a type of oral, formulaic, poetry; (3) analysts, unitarians, and…

  11. Russian State Leveling Network (present and future) (United States)

    Mazurova, Elena; Kopeikin, Sergei; Karpik, Aleksander


    In August 2016 the sixth session of the United Nations Committee of Experts of Global Geospatial Information Management (UN-GGIM) endorsed the roadmap for the development of a Global Geodetic Reference Frame (GGRF) and urged countries to join efforts for its creation. In response to the UN appeal in this article describes the current state of the high-precision Leveling Network in Russia and prospects of its development. In this paper, we consider projects related to the construction of new high-precision leveling lines by the classical methods, as well as issues of creating high-precision leveling network, associated with the development and implementation of a fundamentally new method of determining heights in geodesy - chronometric leveling based on the application of quantum metrology of time and the fundamental laws of general relativity. Keywords: leveling network, chronometric leveling, quantum metrology of time, the general theory of relativity.

  12. State Program Integrity Assessment (SPIA) (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The State Program Integrity Assessment (SPIA) is the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) first national data collection on state Medicaid program...

  13. Life cycle assessment : Past, present, and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guinée, Jeroen B.; Heijungs, Reinout; Huppes, Gjalt; Zamagni, Alessandra; Masoni, Paolo; Buonamici, Roberto; Ekvall, Tomas; Rydberg, Tomas


    Environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) has developed fast over the last three decades. Whereas LCA developed from merely energy analysis to a comprehensive environmental burden analysis in the 1970s, full-fledged life cycle impact assessment and life cycle costing models were introduced in the

  14. Film Music: The Material, Literature and Present State of Research. (United States)

    Marks, Martin


    A comprehensive look at the neglected art of film music. Examines the nature of the medium, the literature (how others have wrestled with film music's recalcitrant materials), and the present state of research into film music. Includes a bibliography. (PD)

  15. The State Regulation of Innovation Activity at the Present Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qoqiauri Lamara G.


    Full Text Available The article discusses the necessity of state regulation in the field of development of innovations and technologies at the present stage. The main directions of the state innovation policies in developed countries of the world are studied and analyzed. Special attention is paid to the objectives of the national strategy for development of science and innovations and to searching the ways for fulfilling this strategy. Apart from these specific problems, the work considers the issue of the state regulation and support of further introduction of innovations and increase of the so called “entrepreneurial” role of the state.

  16. Present state of beech bark disease in Germany (United States)

    Klaus J. Lang


    Beech bark disease can be found at present time in young and old stands (20-150 years old) of Fagus sylvatica. The present state of the disease may be described as "normal" and apart from some cases, it is no threat to the existence of the stands.

  17. The 'present state' examination and the structured clinical interview ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The language, cultural and reality factors found to be important in the Zulu translation of the 'present state' examination (PSE) and the structured clinical interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (SCID) are discussed and compared with a previous translation of the PSE in Xhosa.

  18. The Present State of Children's Literature in Indigenous African

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    society, thereby becoming deficient and limited in the Mother-tongue vocabulary. A child who communicates in his/her mother-tongue at home and who is exposed to indigenous literature early enough becomes rich in MT (Igbo) vocabulary and. The Present State of Children's Literature in Indigenous African Languages: the ...

  19. On the Present State of Information Society Studies. (United States)

    Duff, Alistair S.


    Assesses the present condition of the emerging specialism of information society studies. Topics include the information economy; information technology; the information explosion; the Japanese version of information society; information society as social democracy; sociology and information science; scholarly journals; and the need for…

  20. National-Scale Wind Resource Assessment for Power Generation (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E. I.


    This presentation describes the current standards for conducting a national-scale wind resource assessment for power generation, along with the risk/benefit considerations to be considered when beginning a wind resource assessment. The presentation describes changes in turbine technology and viable wind deployment due to more modern turbine technology and taller towers and shows how the Philippines national wind resource assessment evolved over time to reflect changes that arise from updated technologies and taller towers.

  1. Mathematics education in the United States: past to present. (United States)

    Woodward, John


    This article presents a historical review of mathematics education since the late 1950s in the United States. Three themes are used to organize the literature reviewed in the article: (a) broad sociopolitical forces, particularly highly publicized educational policy statements; (b) trends in mathematics research; and (c) theories of learning and instruction. At times, these themes coincide, as was the case in the 1990s. In other cases, such as the recent push for educational accountability, these themes conflict. Nonetheless, the themes go a long way to explain the serpentine nature of reform in the United States over the last 45 years. This article also attempts to account for developments in special education as well as general education research, something that does not appear in most historical presentations of mathematics education.

  2. Present state of the knowledge of aquatic mollusks in Peru


    Paredes, Carlos; Laboratorio de Invertebrados Acuáticos, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, UNMSM, Apdo. 11-0058, Lima 11, Perú; Huamán, Pedro; Laboratorio de Invertebrados Acuáticos, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, UNMSM, Apdo. 11-0058, Lima 11, Perú; Cardoso, Franz; Laboratorio de Invertebrados Acuáticos, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, UNMSM, Apdo. 11-0058, Lima 11, Perú; Vivar, Ronald; Laboratorio de Invertebrados Acuáticos, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, UNMSM, Apdo. 11-0058, Lima 11, Perú; Vera, Víctor; Laboratorio de Invertebrados Acuáticos, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, UNMSM, Apdo. 11-0058, Lima 11, Perú


    Se revisa los antecedentes y el estado actual del conocimiento, acerca de los moluscos acuáticos en el Perú. Los moluscos marinos y dulceacuícolas se tratan separadamente, y se da información sobre el número de familias, géneros y especies conocidas, su distribución geográfica y estado de su conservación y utilización por el hombre. Se incluye listas actualizadas de las especies. The present state of knowledge on the aquatic mollusks of Peru is reviewed herein. Marine and freshwater mollus...

  3. Environmental Hydrological Education in Ukraine: Present State and New Challenges (United States)

    Manukalo, Viacheslav


    In order to protect waters from damages, improve water-environmental quality and mitigate water-related disasters need the advanced science and technology, sufficient investment and appropriate management. All of these need an effective education and training in the hydrology as the part of water - related sciences. The education in the hydrology is the part of national water-related activity in Ukraine. The needs in the quality of hydrological education will increase as the introduction of new ideas and techniques into practice of water resources planners and managers become comparative. Environmentally oriented water resources development, inherent challenges of man-made and climate change impact on waters have to be tackled worldwide by well trained engineers and scientist relying on modern technology. Ukraine has more than 70 years of experience in the training of hydrologists. At the present hydrologists of B.Sc., M. Sc. and Ph D levels are trained at the Odesa State Environmental University (on the engineering basis) and at the Faculty of Geography of the Kyiv National University (on the geographical basis). The Geographical training of hydrologists at the Kyiv National University provides deeper understanding of natural processes in rivers, lakes and reservoirs, to view them in geographical complex with other physiogeographical phenomena. For this purpose students study geology, geomorphology, biology, meteorology, soil science, physical geography etc. The graduate hydrologists work in the organizations of the State Hydrometeorological Service, the State Committee for Water Management, the Academy of Sciences, others governmental and private organizations. The requirements for hydrologists of these organizations are different in context and scope. This leads to the conclusion that a level of training of hydrologists should have a wide-scope in education. This is achieved by the university-wide fundamental and general geographic training during first and

  4. Assessing competencies of trainee sport psychologists: An examination of the 'Structured Case Presentation' assessment method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hutter, R.I.; Pijpers, J.R.; Oudejans, R.R.D.


    Objectives: There is virtually no literature on how to assess competencies of applied sport psychologists. We assessed casework of applied sport psychology students and compared written case report assessment (WCRA) with structured case presentation assessment (SCPA) on reliability and acceptability

  5. Multiple rubric-based assessments of student case presentations. (United States)

    O'Brien, Catherine E; Franks, Amy M; Stowe, Cindy D


    To evaluate a rubric-based method of assessing pharmacy students' case presentations in the recitation component of a therapeutics course. A rubric was developed to assess knowledge, skills, and professional behavior. The rubric was used for instructor, student peer, and student self-assessment of case presentations. Rubric-based composite scores were compared to the previous dichotomous checklist-based scores. Rubric-based instructor scores were significantly lower and had a broader score distribution than those resulting from the checklist method. Spring 2007 rubric-based composite scores from instructors and peers were significantly lower than those from the pilot study results, but self-assessment composite scores were not significantly different. Successful development and implementation of a grading rubric facilitated evaluation of knowledge, skills, and professional behavior from the viewpoints of instructor, peer, and self in a didactic course.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zuk


    Full Text Available Since admission of Poland to the European Union Polish enterprises can make use of the state support in various forms including support in investments, investigations and developments, consulting, higher qualification, financing of exhibition participation, salary additional payments for invalid workers, repayment of loan portions. The purpose of the given publication is to make an analysis of accounting method for state support which is granted for an organization within the frameworks of the accounting policy depending on the obtained grants.Enterprises must select themselves a grant accounting form as in account books so while presenting financial reporting and these accounting and reporting forms must be reflected in the enterprise policy of accounting. The enterprise accounting policy indicates principles for creation of reserves and conditional obligations related with grants. Enterprises can use some simplifications and they can exclude creation of reserves and withhold conditional obligations concerning the grants if these measures are considered as insignificant.In accordance with the enterprise accounting policy account books must contain recordings on grant provision when a grant is transferred to the bank account or when an enterprise receives a written notice confirming final decision about payments from a financing institution. The accounting policy must determine principles of bank operation break-up on grant accounts and security system of data and files including accounting documents, accounts and other documents related to the obtained grant and the required archivation term

  7. Present State and Trends of the Geoinformation Industry in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Feng Zhang


    Full Text Available The geoinformation industry is a high-tech service industry based on modern surveying and mapping technologies, remote sensing technologies and satellite navigation and positioning technologies. In China, the geoinformation industry is an emerging strategic industry that has rapidly developed; it has played an increasingly important role in the economy and society. This essay briefly introduces the present state of the international geoinformation industry. The state of the geoinformation industry enterprises in China from 2011 to 2013 is introduced. Although this industry has greatly progressed in China, problems and limitations still exist. The structure of the industry is not sustainable. The innovation capacity of Chinese enterprises is weak. Various market demands, increasing social investments, rapid progress in surveying, mapping and geoinformation technology and attention from the government are the main driving factors in this industry. Developing trends in the industry are proposed. Overall, the government will remain the main user of geoinformation applications, and enterprises will continue to merge and reorganize. Mobile geoinformation applications have broad prospects, and new business models will continue to emerge.

  8. Imbalanced Learning for Functional State Assessment (United States)

    Li, Feng; McKenzie, Frederick; Li, Jiang; Zhang, Guangfan; Xu, Roger; Richey, Carl; Schnell, Tom


    This paper presents results of several imbalanced learning techniques applied to operator functional state assessment where the data is highly imbalanced, i.e., some function states (majority classes) have much more training samples than other states (minority classes). Conventional machine learning techniques usually tend to classify all data samples into majority classes and perform poorly for minority classes. In this study, we implemented five imbalanced learning techniques, including random undersampling, random over-sampling, synthetic minority over-sampling technique (SMOTE), borderline-SMOTE and adaptive synthetic sampling (ADASYN) to solve this problem. Experimental results on a benchmark driving lest dataset show thai accuracies for minority classes could be improved dramatically with a cost of slight performance degradations for majority classes,

  9. Word Spelling Assessment Using ICT: The Effect of Presentation Modality (United States)

    Sarris, Menelaos; Panagiotakopoulos, Chris


    Up-to-date spelling process was assessed using typical spelling-to-dictation tasks, where children's performance was evaluated mainly in terms of spelling error scores. In the present work a simple graphical computer interface is reported, aiming to investigate the effects of input modality (e.g. visual and verbal) in word spelling. The software…

  10. Rhodes Past and Present: A Critical and Personal Assessment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Rhodes Past and Present: A Critical and. Personal Assessment. Terence Beard. Emer i tus Pro fes sor. Deprtment of Po lit i cal Studies ..... which undermine not only academic freedom but the moral integrity of these insti tu tions, a devel opment first noted in Warwick University Limited. In a recent article (Mail and Guardian, ...

  11. How Effective Are Self- and Peer Assessment of Oral Presentation Skills Compared with Teachers' Assessments? (United States)

    De Grez, Luc; Valcke, Martin; Roozen, Irene


    Assessment of oral presentation skills is an underexplored area. The study described here focuses on the agreement between professional assessment and self- and peer assessment of oral presentation skills and explores student perceptions about peer assessment. The study has the merit of paying attention to the inter-rater reliability of the…

  12. Present state and perspectives of spa tourism development in Serbia

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    Jovičić Dobrica


    Full Text Available Apart from very contaminated spatial areas, there are places with attractive and non-polluted environment, that are suitable for tourism and recreation. Such places are spa resorts, characterized by numerous and various natural elements having significant health and recreative functions (thermo-mineral springs, rare gases, favorable climatic conditions, rich vegetation, etc., which attract attention of ample tourist demand. Serbia is welknown as a 'country of spa resorts', because of a great number of thermo-mineral springs, long tradition and their significance for tourism economy. Official statistical service keeps records of tourist flows only at 30 spa resorts (approximately, having participation at 95% of the total tourist trade in Serbia's spas. The topic of this paper is devoted to estimation of the present state and perspectives of spa tourism in Serbia. Special attention is focused on: analysis of resources for spa tourism, discussion of key factors for tourist valorization of Serbia's spas, investigation of structural features of spa tourism, comparison of Serbia's experiences in domain of spa tourism with contemporary trends in certain spa resorts in other European countries, and, finally, defining the most important tasks for spa tourism improvement.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Lucas-Molina


    Full Text Available In the last decade there has been a significant increase in the interest of the educational and scientific community on cyberbullying, a new form of peer abuse and intimidation. Despite the widespread proliferation of studies and assessment tools on the phenomenon, there are still major conceptual and methodological gaps. This paper offers a comprehensive and updated review of the results of research on the definition of the construct, its prevalence and its impact on the people involved. Finally, it focuses specifically on the assessment of the construct and provides a brief review of the general and psychometric characteristics of the instruments used in some of the most relevant national and international studies conducted on the subject. This work places special emphasis on the present and future challenges and concludes with a number of general recommendations intended to guide the correct selection and/or construction of assessment instruments in this field of study.

  14. OR State Profile. Oregon: Oregon State Assessment System (OSAS) (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2010


    This paper provides information about Oregon State Assessment System. Its purpose is to assess proficiency in the Essential Skills for the purpose of earning a regular or modified high school diploma. Oregon Assessment of Knowledge and Skills is also used for federal accountability purposes under No Child Left Behind. [For the main report,…

  15. The Wheel of Competency Assessment: Presenting Quality Criteria for Competency Assessment Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baartman, Liesbeth; Bastiaens, Theo; Kirschner, Paul A.; Van der Vleuten, Cees


    Baartman, L. K. J., Bastiaens, T. J., Kirschner, P. A., & Van der Vleuten, C. P. M. (2006). The wheel of competency assessment: Presenting quality criteria for Competency Assessment Programmes. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 32, 153-170.

  16. Assessing the Value of Graphical Presentations in Financial Reports

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    Arabella Volkov


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to replicate the research of Davis (1989 to test the decision usefulness of different information presentations as alternatives to financial information that would normally be represented as numbers. A laboratory experiment, based upon Davis’ (1989 study, was conducted using a within subject experimental design to test for information effects. The experiment consisted of two groups with fifteen subjects in each. Decision usefulness was measured from the perspective of a user’s efficiency and effectiveness (operationalised as accuracy and response time in answering questions of different levels of complexity. Evidence of the superior effectiveness and efficiency of one form of information presentation over another was found only at the lowest level of question complexity. The results of this study are not consistent across the range of findings expressed by Davis (1989 and So and Smith (2004. The model does however provide a robust tool for assessing the decision usefulness of different forms of information presentations. The restricted number of subjects and the use of surrogates may present as a limitation to generalisability. However, the nature of the financial information and the task were suitably matched to the expectations of the knowledge and experience of the student surrogates. The results suggest that tables, bar graphs and line graphs are appropriate information presentations to use in general purpose financial reports when decision performance is being measured in terms of a user’s efficiency and effectiveness.

  17. India-United States Security Cooperation: Past, Present, and Future (United States)


    Abdel Nasser , Ghana’s first president Kwame Nkrumah, and Indonesia’s first President, Sukarno. The purpose of the organization as stated in the...was largely the brainchild of India’s first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, Yugoslavia’s President, Josip Broz Tito, Egypt’s second President, Gamal

  18. Quantum state generation via integrated frequency combs (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Roztocki, Piotr; Kues, Michael; Reimer, Christian; Wetzel, Benjamin; Grazioso, Fabio; Little, Brent E.; Chu, Sai T.; Johnston, Tudor W.; Bromberg, Yaron; Caspani, Lucia; Moss, David J.; Morandotti, Roberto


    The on-chip generation of optical quantum states will enable accessible advances for quantum technologies. We demonstrate that integrated quantum frequency combs (based on high-Q microring resonators made from a CMOS-compatible, high refractive-index doped-glass platform) can enable the generation of pure heralded single photons, cross-polarized photon pairs, as well as bi- and multi-photon entangled qubit states over a broad frequency comb covering the S, C, L telecommunications band, with photon frequencies corresponding to standard telecommunication channels spaced by 200 GHz. Exploiting a self-locked, intra-cavity excitation configuration, a highly-stable source of multiplexed heralded single photons is demonstrated, operating continuously for several weeks with less than 5% fluctuations. The photon bandwidth of 110 MHz is compatible with quantum memories, and high photon purity was confirmed through single-photon auto-correlation measurements. In turn, by simultaneously exciting two orthogonal polarization mode resonances, we demonstrate the first realization of type-II spontaneous FWM (in analogy to type-II spontaneous parametric down-conversion), allowing the direct generation of orthogonally-polarized photon pairs on a chip. By using a double-pulse excitation, we demonstrate the generation of time-bin entangled photon pairs. We measure qubit entanglement with visibilities above 90%, enabling the implementation of quantum information processing protocols. Finally, the excitation field and the generated photons are intrinsically bandwidth-matched due to the resonant characteristics of the ring cavity, enabling the multiplication of Bell states and the generation of a four-photon time-bin entangled state. We confirm the generation of this four-photon entangled state through four-photon quantum interference.

  19. Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Vicente


    effectivities more than a number of fixed essential characteristics. Luiz Artur Ferrareto (UFRGS, undertaking a theoretical proposal for categorizing radio content in four different levels of planning (segment, form, programming and content itself tries to “compare and contrast the practices of Brazilian commercial broadcasting companies to those used on the radio in the United States, a reference market for our national entrepreneurs”. Madalena Oliveira (University of Minho focuses on the current stage of communication researches in Portugal reflecting on the challenges for studying a culture based on listening in times of looking. Marko Ala-Fossi, (University of Tampere beginning with the statement that “radio evolution greatly depends not only on the cultural context of a country but also on the whole social, political, economic development of societies” gives us a projection on radio development around the world for the next decades. Closing the dossier, Rafael Duarte Oliveira Venancio (UFU assuming radio as language by definition and not as a device understands it as a section and an operating model in such language as it intersects the world. Another six articles, not enrolled in the dossier, round the edition off. Fernando de Tacca debates the category of “photocine” recurring to three recent Spanish productions. Gustavo Souza investigates the possibility of identifying a point of view in documentary movies while establishing a debate that joins the materialities of image and sound with the subjectivity resulting from interpretation. Vinicius Bandeira develops on the special duplicity present in the movies between what is and what is not subsumed by the camera. Neide Jallageas proposes the study of visual communication design from the first modelings, attempting especially to the radical propositions from the early XXth century avant-garde movement. Gilson Schwartz debates on the impact from the distribution of videogames as hegemonic cultural practice in

  20. The present state and future directions of PDF methods (United States)

    Pope, S. B.


    The objectives of the workshop are presented in viewgraph format, as is this entire article. The objectives are to discuss the present status and the future direction of various levels of engineering turbulence modeling related to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) computations for propulsion; to assure that combustion is an essential part of propulsion; and to discuss Probability Density Function (PDF) methods for turbulent combustion. Essential to the integration of turbulent combustion models is the development of turbulent model, chemical kinetics, and numerical method. Some turbulent combustion models typically used in industry are the k-epsilon turbulent model, the equilibrium/mixing limited combustion, and the finite volume codes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А Г Киселев


    Full Text Available The article outlines social and economic consequences of collectivization to compare this state policy with the changes in agriculture in the 1990s, and to estimate chances of the Russian agriculture to overcome the current crisis. The article is based on archive data on collectivization and on the program developed by the Academy of High Ecotechnologies. The authors believe that at the time of collectivization, it was a way to optimize agriculture: largely due to collectivization, though with all its losses and ‘extremes’, the soviet agriculture was partially industrialized and provided the country with food in the hardest years of the Great Patriotic War and in the post-war period, thus ensuring the food security of the Soviet state. The ‘emergency’ model of the so-called ‘return to civilization’ that was adopted under the reforms of the 1990s aimed at turning the collective farmer into an individual farmer or a rural wageworker, but such a social ‘migration’ strategy imposed ‘from above’ deformed the rural social stratum and determined serious economic problems. Today the authors consider the neo-collective farms as a promising perspec-tive. They also support the program developed by the Academy of High Ecotechnologies for intensification of agricultural production on the basis of progressive domestic and foreign technologies, which will allow to increase the agricultural production in the next three to five years by several times. In particular, for more effective use of agricultural technologies and processing industries, the program suggests develop-ing the enlarged organizational-economic structures - ‘agropromkhozes’.

  2. Micropropagation of bulbous crops: technology and present state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, de G.J.M.


    Conventional propagation of bulbous crops must be supplemented with micropropagation to satisfy the requirements of present-day horticulture with respect to fast production of disease-free, superior starting material. Adequate micropropagation protocols for bulbous crops are therefore a sine qua

  3. Risk factors, pre-presentation management and clinical state of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Aug 23, 2017 ... 64.82%) first presented at Patent. Medicine Stores and 38 or 70.37% had some oral fluids. ... are largely mismanaged at patent medicine stores before presenta- tion at hospital. Provision of pota- .... age range affected and the gender distribution are both expected.4. Almost three quarters of the respondents.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai COSTEA


    Full Text Available The SMS (Short Message Service,which emerged at the beginning of the 90s as a result of the telephone services’ need for diversification, it is now used in the communication campaigns involving customized messaging, but also in general messaging campaigns sent both to the existing clients and to the potential ones. Thus, the SMS became widely used, turning into one of the most popular instruments of Mobile marketing and, soon becoming a separate concept named the SMS Marketing. Although there is the preconception that the mobile marketing and, namely, the SMS marketing is intended to be used primarily by the big corporations, which have the power and also the availability to invest substantial amounts of money in this sort of programs, the present paper intends precisely to debunk these preconceptions and, hence, to present the advantage of such marketing campaigns for the segment consisting of small and middle companies in Romania.

  5. Risk factors, pre-presentation management and clinical state of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most of the children (35 or 64.82%) first presented at Patent Medicine Stores and 38 or 70.37% had some oral fluids. While 9 (16.67%) had dysentery 31(57.41) had anti-microbials and 18 (33.33%) had anti-emetics. Twelve (33.33%) of the children had severe dehydration and 2(3.70%) had extrapyramidal crisis from use of ...

  6. Current State of the Voluntary Renewable Energy Market (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.


    This presentation highlights the status of the voluntary green power market in 2012. The voluntary green power market totaled more than 48 million MWh in 2012, with about 1.9 million customers participating. The supply continues to be dominated by wind, though solar is increasing its share of utility green pricing programs. Prices for voluntary renewable energy certificates (RECs) increased to above $1/MWh.

  7. The Surface and Atmosphere of Venus: Evolution and Present State (United States)

    Grinspoon, David

    Most models of atmospheric evolution start with the reasonable but unverified assumption that the original atmospheric inventories of Venus and Earth were similar. Although the two planets have similar overall abundances of nitrogen and carbon, the present day water inventory of Venus is lower than that of Earth by a factor of 105. The original water abundance of Venus is highly unconstrained. The high D/H ratio observed, 2.5 ×10- 2 or ≈ 150 times terrestrial (Donahue et al. 1997) has been cited as evidence of a large primordial water endowment (Donahue et al. 1982). Yet, given the likelihood of geologically recent water sources and the large uncertainty in the modern and past hydrogen and deuterium escape fluxes, the large D/H may not reflect the primordial water abundance but rather may result from the history of escape and resupply in the most recent ≈ 109 years of planetary evolution (Donahue et al. 1997, Grinspoon 1993, 1997). Thus, at present the best arguments for a sizable early Venusian water endowment remain dependent on models of planet formation and early volatile delivery. Most models of water delivery to early Earth involve impact processes that would have also supplied Venus with abundant water (Grinspoon 1987, Ip et al. 1998, Morbidelli et al. 2000). Stochastic processes could have created large inequities in original volatile inventory among neighboring planets (Morbidelli et al. 2000). However, given the great similarity in bulk densities and their close proximity in the Solar System the best assumption at present is that Venus and Earth started with similar water abundances.

  8. Assessment of teacher interruptions on learners during oral case presentations. (United States)

    Yang, Glen; Chin, Rachel


    Studies have only recently begun to investigate the effects of interruptions on physicians in the emergency department (ED). To determine the frequency and nature of interruptions by the training physician that occur when medical trainees do oral case presentations (OCPs) in the ED. This was an observational study. Learner OCPs to attending emergency physicians were observed in the ED of an urban Level 1 trauma center at a major teaching hospital. A single investigator followed attending physicians blinded to the study objective in a nonrandomized convenience sampling of all ED shifts, recording information regarding teacher interruptions during new patient presentations. Learners completed a brief questionnaire after each OCP. A total of 196 OCPs were observed. The mean (+/-SD) duration of OCPs was 3.30 (+/-1.85) minutes, and the mean (+/-SD) number of interruptions was 0.75 (+/-0.60) per minute and 2.49 (+/-1.95) per OCP. The number of interruptions (per OCP) and duration of OCP varied by learner level of training, with more experienced learners giving shorter presentations and being interrupted less often. Frequency (per minute) of interruptions did not vary by learner level. In 40.3% of OCPs, attending physicians interrupted to give an assessment and/or a plan before the learner had done so, but 8.3% of interrupted learners believed that teacher interruptions were "disruptive" to their OCP. Attending emergency physicians frequently interrupt learners during new patient OCPs, with the number of interruptions varying by learner level of training. Teacher interruptions appear to have minimal, if any, detrimental effect on the perceived effectiveness of OCPs as a learning experience.

  9. Myofibrillar myopathies: State of the art, present and future challenges. (United States)

    Béhin, A; Salort-Campana, E; Wahbi, K; Richard, P; Carlier, R-Y; Carlier, P; Laforêt, P; Stojkovic, T; Maisonobe, T; Verschueren, A; Franques, J; Attarian, S; Maues de Paula, A; Figarella-Branger, D; Bécane, H-M; Nelson, I; Duboc, D; Bonne, G; Vicart, P; Udd, B; Romero, N; Pouget, J; Eymard, B


    Myofibrillar myopathies (MFM) have been described in the mid-1990s as a group of diseases sharing common histological features, including an abnormal accumulation of intrasarcoplasmic proteins, the presence of vacuoles and a disorganization of the intermyofibrillar network beginning at the Z-disk. The boundaries of this concept are still uncertain, and whereas six genes (DES, CRYAB, LDB3/ZASP, MYOT, FLNC and BAG3) are now classically considered as responsible for MFM, other entities such as FHL1 myopathy or Hereditary Myopathy with Early Respiratory Failure linked to mutations of titin can now as well be included in this group. The diagnosis of MFM is not always easy; as histological lesions can be focal, and muscle biopsy may be disappointing; this has led to a growing importance of muscle imaging, and the selectivity of muscle involvement has now been described in several disorders. Due to the rarity of these myopathies, if some clinical patterns (such as distal myopathy associated with cardiomyopathy due to desmin mutations) are now well known, surprises remain possible and should lead to systematic testing of the known genes in case of a typical histological presentation. In this paper, we aim at reviewing the data acquired on the six main genes listed above as well as presenting the experience from two French reference centres, Paris and Marseilles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessing Lay Understanding of Common Presentations of Earthquake Hazard Information (United States)

    Thompson, K. J.; Krantz, D. H.


    The Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (WGCEP) includes, in its introduction to earthquake rupture forecast maps, the assertion that "In daily living, people are used to making decisions based on probabilities -- from the flip of a coin (50% probability of heads) to weather forecasts (such as a 30% chance of rain) to the annual chance of being killed by lightning (about 0.0003%)." [3] However, psychology research identifies a large gap between lay and expert perception of risk for various hazards [2], and cognitive psychologists have shown in numerous studies [1,4-6] that people neglect, distort, misjudge, or misuse probabilities, even when given strong guidelines about the meaning of numerical or verbally stated probabilities [7]. The gap between lay and expert use of probability needs to be recognized more clearly by scientific organizations such as WGCEP. This study undertakes to determine how the lay public interprets earthquake hazard information, as presented in graphical map form by the Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast (UCERF), compiled by the WGCEP and other bodies including the USGS and CGS. It also explores alternate ways of presenting hazard data, to determine which presentation format most effectively translates information from scientists to public. Participants both from California and from elsewhere in the United States are included, to determine whether familiarity -- either with the experience of an earthquake, or with the geography of the forecast area -- affects people's ability to interpret an earthquake hazards map. We hope that the comparisons between the interpretations by scientific experts and by different groups of laypeople will both enhance theoretical understanding of factors that affect information transmission and assist bodies such as the WGCEP in their laudable attempts to help people prepare themselves and their communities for possible natural hazards. [1] Kahneman, D & Tversky, A (1979). Prospect

  11. How Should DCE with Duration Choice Sets Be Presented for the Valuation of Health States? (United States)

    Mulhern, Brendan; Norman, Richard; Shah, Koonal; Bansback, Nick; Longworth, Louise; Viney, Rosalie


    Discrete Choice Experiments including duration (DCETTO) can be used to generate utility values for health states from measures such as EQ-5D-5L. However, methodological issues concerning the optimum way to present choice sets remain. The aim of the present study was to test a range of task presentation approaches designed to support the DCETTO completion process. Four separate presentation approaches were developed to examine different task features including dimension level highlighting, and health state severity and duration level presentation. Choice sets included 2 EQ-5D-5L states paired with 1 of 4 duration levels, and a third "immediate death" option. The same design, including 120 choice sets (developed using optimal methods), was employed across all approaches. The online survey was administered to a sample of the Australian population who completed 20 choice sets across 2 approaches. Conditional logit regression was used to assess model consistency, and scale parameter testing investigated poolability. Overall 1,565 respondents completed the survey. Three approaches, using different dimension level highlighting techniques, produced mainly monotonic coefficients that resulted in a larger disutility as the severity level increased (excepting usual activities levels 2/3). The fourth approach, using a level indicator to present the severity levels, has slightly more non-monotonicity and produced larger ordered differences for the more severe dimension levels. Scale parameter testing suggested that the data cannot be pooled. The results provide information regarding how to present DCE tasks for health state valuation. The findings improve our understanding of the impact of different presentation approaches on valuation, and how DCE questions could be presented to be amenable to completion. However, it is unclear if the task presentation impacts online respondent engagement.

  12. The Present Absence: Assessment in Social Studies Classrooms (United States)

    Torrez, Cheryl A.; Claunch-Lebsack, Elizabeth Ann


    In this article, first the authors describe the aims of and a definition of social studies education and classroom assessment. Second, the authors provide an overview of issues related to classroom assessment followed by trends in social studies classrooms and assessment. Then the authors address essential systems and best practices related to…

  13. Nutritional psychiatry: the present state of the evidence. (United States)

    Marx, Wolfgang; Moseley, Genevieve; Berk, Michael; Jacka, Felice


    Mental illness, including depression, anxiety and bipolar disorder, accounts for a significant proportion of global disability and poses a substantial social, economic and heath burden. Treatment is presently dominated by pharmacotherapy, such as antidepressants, and psychotherapy, such as cognitive behavioural therapy; however, such treatments avert less than half of the disease burden, suggesting that additional strategies are needed to prevent and treat mental disorders. There are now consistent mechanistic, observational and interventional data to suggest diet quality may be a modifiable risk factor for mental illness. This review provides an overview of the nutritional psychiatry field. It includes a discussion of the neurobiological mechanisms likely modulated by diet, the use of dietary and nutraceutical interventions in mental disorders, and recommendations for further research. Potential biological pathways related to mental disorders include inflammation, oxidative stress, the gut microbiome, epigenetic modifications and neuroplasticity. Consistent epidemiological evidence, particularly for depression, suggests an association between measures of diet quality and mental health, across multiple populations and age groups; these do not appear to be explained by other demographic, lifestyle factors or reverse causality. Our recently published intervention trial provides preliminary clinical evidence that dietary interventions in clinically diagnosed populations are feasible and can provide significant clinical benefit. Furthermore, nutraceuticals including n-3 fatty acids, folate, S-adenosylmethionine, N-acetyl cysteine and probiotics, among others, are promising avenues for future research. Continued research is now required to investigate the efficacy of intervention studies in large cohorts and within clinically relevant populations, particularly in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar and anxiety disorders.

  14. Assessment of UF6 Equation of State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, P; Chand, K; Warren, D; Vandersall, J


    A common assumption in the mathematical analysis of flows of compressible fluids is to treat the fluid as a perfect gas. This is an approximation, as no real fluid obeys the perfect gas relationships over all temperature and pressure conditions. An assessment of the validity of treating the UF{sub 6} gas flow field within a gas centrifuge with perfect gas relationships has been conducted. The definition of a perfect gas is commonly stated in two parts: (1) the gas obeys the thermal equation of state, p = {rho}RT (thermally perfect), and, (2) the gas specific heats are constant (calorically perfect). Analysis indicates the thermally perfect assumption is valid for all flow conditions within the gas centrifuge, including shock fields. The low operating gas pressure is the primary factor in the suitability of the thermally perfect equation of state for gas centrifuge computations. UF{sub 6} is not calorically perfect, as the specific heats vary as a function of temperature. This effect is insignificant within the bulk of the centrifuge gas field, as gas temperatures vary over a narrow range. The exception is in the vicinity of shock fields, where temperature, pressure, and density gradients are large, and the variation of specific heats with temperature should be included in the technically detailed analyses. Results from a normal shock analysis incorporating variable specific heats is included herein, presented in the conventional form of shock parameters as a function of inlet Mach Number. The error introduced by assuming constant specific heats is small for a nominal UF{sub 6} shock field, such that calorically perfect shock relationships can be used for scaling and initial analyses. The more rigorous imperfect gas analysis should be used for detailed analyses.

  15. Assessments of macroscopicity for quantum optical states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laghaout, Amine; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas Schou; Andersen, Ulrik Lund


    With the slow but constant progress in the coherent control of quantum systems, it is now possible to create large quantum superpositions. There has therefore been an increased interest in quantifying any claims of macroscopicity. We attempt here to motivate three criteria which we believe should...... enter in the assessment of macroscopic quantumness: The number of quantum fluctuation photons, the purity of the states, and the ease with which the branches making up the state can be distinguished. © 2014....

  16. Linking Past and Present: John Dewey and Assessment for Learning (United States)

    Kucey, Sharen; Parsons, Jim


    This collection of extracts is drawn from an article originally published in the "Journal of Teaching and Learning" (2012). It provides an important reminder to understand Assessment for Learning in depth, by relating some of its key features to aspects of John Dewey's educational and political philosophy of democratic participation.

  17. Word spelling assessment using ICT: The effect of presentation modality


    Menelaos Sarris; Chris Panagiotakopoulos


    Up-to-date spelling process was assessed using typical spelling-to-dictation tasks, wherechildren’s performance was evaluated mainly in terms of spelling error scores. In the presentwork a simple graphical computer interface is reported, aiming to investigate the effects ofinput modality (e.g. visual and verbal) in word spelling. The software was constructed withthe view to measuring both spelling error and production time scores. The main purpose wasto not only to examine spelling strategies...

  18. Assessing Video Presentations as Environmental Enrichment for Laboratory Birds (United States)

    Coulon, Marion; Henry, Laurence; Perret, Audrey; Cousillas, Hugo; Hausberger, Martine; George, Isabelle


    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of video presentations of natural landscapes on European starlings' (Sturnus vulgaris) stereotypic behaviours (SBs) and other abnormal repetitive behaviours (ARBs) and to evaluate the impact of past experience by comparing wild-caught and hand-reared starlings' reactions. Ten wild-caught and five hand-reared starlings were presented 1-hour videos of landscapes twice a day for five successive days, while a control group of eight wild-caught and four hand-reared starlings was presented a grey screen for the same amount of time. The analysis of the starlings' behaviour revealed that the video presentations of landscapes appeared to have a positive but limited and experience-dependent effect on starlings' SBs and other ARBs compared to the controls. Indeed, whereas video presentations seemed to modulate high rates of SBs and ARBs, they did not appear to be enriching enough to prevent the emergence or the development of SBs and ARBs in an impoverished environment. They even appeared to promote a particular type of SB (somersaulting) that is thought to be linked to escape motivation. The fact that this effect was observed in hand-reared starlings suggests that videos of landscapes could elicit motivation to escape even in birds that never experienced outdoor life. These results highlight the importance of investigating stereotypic behaviour both quantitatively and qualitatively in order to provide crucial clues on animal welfare. PMID:24827457

  19. Water scarcity assessments in the past, present, and future (United States)

    Liu, Junguo; Yang, Hong; Gosling, Simon N.; Kummu, Matti; Flörke, Martina; Pfister, Stephan; Hanasaki, Naota; Wada, Yoshihide; Zhang, Xinxin; Zheng, Chunmiao; Alcamo, Joseph; Oki, Taikan


    Water scarcity has become a major constraint to socio-economic development and a threat to livelihood in increasing parts of the world. Since the late 1980s, water scarcity research has attracted much political and public attention. We here review a variety of indicators that have been developed to capture different characteristics of water scarcity. Population, water availability, and water use are the key elements of these indicators. Most of the progress made in the last few decades has been on the quantification of water availability and use by applying spatially explicit models. However, challenges remain on appropriate incorporation of green water (soil moisture), water quality, environmental flow requirements, globalization, and virtual water trade in water scarcity assessment. Meanwhile, inter- and intra-annual variability of water availability and use also calls for assessing the temporal dimension of water scarcity. It requires concerted efforts of hydrologists, economists, social scientists, and environmental scientists to develop integrated approaches to capture the multi-faceted nature of water scarcity.

  20. Assessing the present and future probability of Hurricane Harvey's rainfall (United States)

    Emanuel, Kerry


    We estimate, for current and future climates, the annual probability of areally averaged hurricane rain of Hurricane Harvey's magnitude by downscaling large numbers of tropical cyclones from three climate reanalyses and six climate models. For the state of Texas, we estimate that the annual probability of 500 mm of area-integrated rainfall was about 1% in the period 1981–2000 and will increase to 18% over the period 2081–2100 under Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) AR5 representative concentration pathway 8.5. If the frequency of such event is increasingly linearly between these two periods, then in 2017 the annual probability would be 6%, a sixfold increase since the late 20th century.

  1. Overlay performance assessment of MAPPER's FLX-1200 (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Lattard, Ludovic; Servin, Isabelle; Pradelles, Jonathan; Blancquaert, Yoann; Rademaker, Guido; Pain, Laurent; de Boer, Guido; Brandt, Pieter; Dansberg, Michel; Jager, Remco J. A.; Peijster, Jerry J. M.; Slot, Erwin; Steenbrink, Stijn W. H. K.; Vergeer, Niels; Wieland, Marco


    Mapper Lithography has introduced its first product, the FLX-1200, which is installed at CEA-Leti in Grenoble (France). This is a mask less lithography system, based on massively parallel electron-beam writing with high-speed optical data transport for switching the electron beams. This FLX platform is initially targeted for 1 wph performance for 28 nm technology nodes, but can also be used for less demanding imaging. The electron source currently integrated is capable of scaling to 10 wph at the same resolution performance, which will be implemented by gradually upgrading the illumination optics. The system has an optical alignment system enabling mix-and-match with optical 193 nm immersion systems using standard NVSM marks. The tool at CEA-Leti is in-line with a Sokudo Duo clean track. Mapper Lithography and CEA-Leti are working in collaboration to develop turnkey solution for specific applications. At previous conferences we have presented imaging results including 28nm node resolution, cross wafer CDu of 2.5nm 3 and a throughput of half a wafer per hour, overhead times included. At this conference we will present results regarding the overlay performance of the FLX-1200. In figure 2 an initial result towards measuring the overlay performance of the FLX-1200 is shown. We have exposed a wafer twice without unloading the wafer in between exposures. In the first exposure half of a dense dot array is exposed. In the second exposure the remainder of the dense dot array is exposed. After development the wafer has been inspected using a CD-SEM at 480 locations distributed over an area of 100mm x 100mm. For each SEM image the shift of the pattern written in the first exposure relative to the pattern written in the second exposure is measured. Cross wafer this shift is 7 nm u+3s in X and 5 nm u+3s in Y. The next step is to evaluate the impact of unloading and loading of the wafer in between exposures. At the conference the latest results will be presented.

  2. 49 CFR 24.208 - Aliens not lawfully present in the United States. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aliens not lawfully present in the United States... Requirements § 24.208 Aliens not lawfully present in the United States. (a) Each person seeking relocation... of an individual, that he or she is either a citizen or national of the United States, or an alien...

  3. Assessing the present in perspective of the past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gensby, Ulrik


    the extent to which the CW meth- odology can inform researchers involved in organizational development and change to ad- dress some potential limitations that exist. The CW encouraged the expression of diverse perspectives, incorporating insight from different organizational levels, and identified various......Participatory approaches to jointly address development and change processes are increas- ingly applied in Nordic working life research. One approach, the Chronicle Workshop (CW), aims at facilitating collective history through collaborative exploration and joint analysis of organizational...... development and change processes to guide forthcoming change. This study presents the CW methodology as an interactive research process. The study examines how the CW can facilitate mutual understanding and explanation of sickness absence and return to work efforts in the healthcare workplace, and discuss...

  4. An integrated platform for assessing biologics (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Schein, Perry; O'Dell, Dakota; Erickson, David


    Protein therapeutics are a rapidly growing portion of the pharmaceuticals market and have many significant advantages over traditional small molecule drugs. As this market expands, however, critical regulatory and quality control issues remain, most notably the problem of protein aggregation. Individual target proteins often aggregate into larger masses which trigger an immune response in the body, which can reduce the efficacy of the drug for its intended purpose, or cause serious anaphylactic side-effects. Although detecting and minimizing aggregate formation is critical to ensure an effective product, aggregation dynamics are often highly complicated and there is little hope of reliable prediction and prevention from first principles. This problem is compounded for aggregates in the subvisible range of 100 nm to 10 micrometers where traditional techniques for detecting aggregates have significant limitations. Here, we present an integrated optofluidic platform for detecting nanoscale protein aggregates and characterizing interactions between these aggregates and a reference surface. By delivering light to a solution of proteins with an optical waveguide, scattered light from individual protein aggregates can be detected and analyzed to determine the force profile between each particle and the waveguide surface. Unlike existing methods which only determine size or charge, our label-free screening technique can directly measure the surface interaction forces between single aggregates and the glass substrate. This direct measurement capability may allow for better empirical predictions of the stability of protein aggregates during drug manufacturing and storage.

  5. State Standards and State Assessment Systems: A Guide to Alignment. Series on Standards and Assessments. (United States)

    La Marca, Paul M.; Redfield, Doris; Winter, Phoebe C.

    Alignment of content standards, performance standards, and assessments is crucial. This guide contains information to assist states and districts in aligning their assessment systems to their content and performance standards. It includes a review of current literature, both published and fugitive. The research is woven together with a few basic…

  6. Addressing challenges in single species assessments via a simple state-space assessment model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders

    parametric statistical catch at age models the state-space assessment model avoids the problem of fishing mortality being restricted to a parametric structure (e.g. multiplicative), and problems related to having a high number of model parameters compared to the number of observations. The main criticism......Single-species and age-structured fish stock assessments still remains the main tool for managing fish stocks. A simple state-space assessment model is presented as an alternative to (semi) deterministic procedures and the full parametric statistical catch at age models. It offers a solution...... of state-space assessment models is that they tend to be more conservative (react slower to changes) than the alternatives. A solution to this criticism is offered by introducing a mixture distribution for the transitions steps. The model presented is used for several commercially important stocks...

  7. Temporal Manipulation and Sharing of Presentation State in Browser-Embedded Multimedia Documents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C.A. Bulterman (Dick); A.J. Jansen (Jack); P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago)


    htmlabstractThis paper describes an approach to defining, manipulating and sharing state variables between a web browser and a multimedia presentation engine in functionally compound XML-based documents. This framework, which we call smilState: the SMIL XML State Architecture, is a fully

  8. Quantifying the Level of Cross-State Renewable Energy Transactions (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Beiter, P.; Flores, F.; Hurlbut, D.; Liu, C.


    This presentation and associated spreadsheet examine the level of cross-state renewable energy transactions. Most state renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies allow for out-of-state renewable energy or renewable energy certificates to count towards compliance. This analysis focuses on compliance for 2012 and provides stakeholders with an understanding of the extent to which RPSs are being met.

  9. Present State and Prospects of Bilingual Education in Xinjiang: An Ethnographic Perspective (United States)

    Anaytulla, Guljennet


    This article, based mainly on specific examples from the author's ethnographic fieldwork, outlines the state of bilingual education in Xinjiang and reviews its development. First, a broad outline is presented of the overall circumstances of bilingual education in China and Xinjiang. Next is an introduction to the present state of bilingual…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Boon


    Full Text Available The compositional and structural characteristics of wetland vegetation play a vital role in the services that a wetland supplies. Apart from being important habitats, wetland vegetation also provide services such as flood attenuation and nutrient retention. South Africa is known to be a water scarce country. The protection and continuous monitoring of wetland ecosystems is therefore important. Factors such as site transformation and disturbance may completely change the vegetation of a wetland and the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV imagery can play a valuable role in high-resolution monitoring and mapping. This study assessed if the use of UAV RGB imagery can enhance the determination of the present vegetation state of a wetland. The WET-Health level two (detailed on-site evaluation methodology was followed for the vegetation assessment, where wetland health is a measure of the deviation of a wetland’s structure and function from its natural reference condition. The mapping of the disturbances classes was then undertaken using ultra-high resolution orthophotos, point clouds and digital surface models (DSM. The WET-Health vegetation module completed with the aid of the UAV products still indicates that the vegetation of the wetland is largely modified (“D” PES Category and that the vegetation of the wetland will further deteriorate (change score. These results are the same as determined in the baseline study. However a higher impact (activities taking place within the wetland score were determined. The assessment of various WET-Health vegetation indicators were significantly enhanced using the UAV imagery and derived products. The UAV products provided an accurate vantage point over the wetland and surroundings, and assisted to easily refine the assessment of the disturbance classes and disturbance units.

  11. Influence of human papillomavirus on the clinical presentation of oropharyngeal carcinoma in the United States. (United States)

    Stenmark, Matthew H; Shumway, Dean; Guo, Cui; Vainshtein, Jeffrey; Mierzwa, Michelle; Jagsi, Reshma; Griggs, Jennifer J; Banerjee, Mousumi


    Much of what is known about the significance of human papillomavirus (HPV) in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is derived from single-institution retrospective studies, post hoc analyses of tissue specimens from clinical trials, and tissue bank studies with a small sample size. The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of HPV on the frequency and clinical presentation of oropharyngeal carcinoma in a large, national sample with information from patients who underwent HPV testing. Retrospective, cross-sectional study. We identified a comprehensive national sample of 8,359 patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma and known HPV status diagnosed between 2010 and 2011 within the National Cancer Database. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess correlates of patient and tumor characteristics on HPV status. Among patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma, the frequency of HPV-related squamous cell carcinoma in the United States was 65.4%. HPV-related oropharyngeal carcinoma was associated with younger age, male sex, and white race (P carcinoma in the United States and is associated with a distinct clinical profile, supporting efforts to re-evaluate the staging and treatment paradigm for HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:2270-2278, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. Vitamin B12 deficiency presenting as an acute confusional state: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    psychiatric manifestations. Results: We report a case of a 44 year old female patient referred to the haematology unit with vitamin B12 deficiency presenting as an acute confusional state or delirium. Total resolution of the psychiatric symptoms

  13. Forest tree improvement at Michigan State University: Past, present, and future (United States)

    Paul Bloese


    The Department of Forestry at Michigan State University has engaged in forest tree improvement for more than 50 years. This paper presents a brief historical perspective on past research, the status of current projects, and outlines plans for the future.

  14. Examination of cortisol and state anxiety at an academic setting with and without oral presentation. (United States)

    Merz, Christian Josef; Wolf, Oliver Tobias


    Holding oral presentations in a university course is perceived as stressful and can increase stress hormone concentrations and state anxiety. In such a naturalistic setting, further attention should be paid to the relationship between psychological and hormonal measures of acute stress, as well as women's intake of hormonal contraceptives as a potential moderating variable. In the present study, 76 healthy students gave saliva samples before and after their oral presentations in a university course as well as on a second, control day in the same course without giving an oral presentation. Anticipatory state anxiety was rated on both days. Cortisol concentrations as well as state anxiety were substantially higher on the presentation relative to the control day. During the oral presentation, an increase in cortisol concentrations was observed, whereas a decrease occurred on the control day. Nearly the same picture emerged for both variables when looking at men, women taking hormonal contraceptives and free-cycling women separately. A positive correlation was found between the change in anticipatory state anxiety in the presentation compared to the control day and cortisol concentrations before and after the oral presentation. Concluding, oral presentations constitute a potent stressor and do not seem to be substantially different between men, free-cycling women and women taking hormonal contraceptives. Future studies may want to explore changes associated with specific menstrual cycle phases and with specific hormonal contraceptives.

  15. Uncertainty Analysis for Peer Assessment: Oral Presentation Skills for Final Year Project (United States)

    Kim, Ho Sung


    Peer assessment plays an important role in engineering education for an active involvement in the assessment process, developing autonomy, enhancing reflection, and understanding of how to achieve the learning outcomes. Peer assessment uncertainty for oral presentation skills as part of the FYP assessment is studied. Validity and reliability for…

  16. Peer assessment of small-group presentations by medical students and its implications. (United States)

    Yoo, Sunmi; Lee, Kayoung; Lee, Sang Heon; Roh, Hyerin; Lee, Jong Tae; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Choi, Ikseon


    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among medical students' assessments on peers' group presentations, instructors' assessments of those presentations, and students' educational achievements in other assignments and tests. A total of 101 first-year students from a medical school participated in the study. The students' educational achievements in a 4-week long integrated curriculum were analyzed. Student's final grades were comprised of the following education criteria: two written tests (60%), 15 group reports (25%), one individual report (7%), and four group presentations (15%). We compared scores of the group presentation assessed by the peers and the two instructors. Furthermore, we compared peers' assessment scores with each component of the evaluation criteria. Pearson correlation analysis showed significant correlaton for the assessments between peers and instructors (r=0.775, pPeer assessment scores also correlated significantly with scores for the group assignments (r=0.777, ppeer-assessed group presentation scores and the two written test scores. Peer assessments may be a reliable and valid method for evaluating medical students' performances in an integrated curriculum, especially if the assessments are used to academic processes, such as presentations, with explicit evaluation and judgment criteria. Peer assessments on group presentations might assess different learning domains compared to written tests that primarily evaluate limited medical knowledge and clinical reasoning.

  17. Intellectual Assessment of Children and Youth in Mexico: Past, Present, and Future (United States)

    Sánchez-Escobedo, Pedro; Esquivel-Ancona, Fayne; Hollingworth, Liz


    The purpose of this article is to describe the history, current practices, and future directions in intellectual assessment of children and youth in Mexico. Differences and similarities with the United States are explored through the analysis of theoretical perspectives, practices, and policies. A summarized history of intellectual assessment is…

  18. NOAA's State Climate Summaries for the National Climate Assessment: A Sustained Assessment Product (United States)

    Kunkel, K.; Champion, S.; Frankson, R.; Easterling, D. R.; Griffin, J.; Runkle, J. D.; Stevens, L. E.; Stewart, B. C.; Sun, L.; Veasey, S.


    A set of State Climate Summaries have been produced for all 50 U.S. states as part of the National Climate Assessment Sustained Assessment and represent a NOAA contribution to this process. Each summary includes information on observed and projected climate change conditions and impacts associated with future greenhouse gas emissions pathways. The summaries focus on the physical climate and coastal issues as a part of NOAA's mission. Core climate data and simulations used to produce these summaries have been previously published, and have been analyzed to represent a targeted synthesis of historical and plausible future climate conditions. As these are intended to be supplemental to major climate assessment development, the scope of the content remains true to a "summary" style document. Each state's Climate Summary includes its climatology and projections of future temperatures and precipitation, which are presented in order to provide a context for the assessment of future impacts. The climatological component focuses on temperature, precipitation, and noteworthy weather events specific to each state and relevant to the climate change discussion. Future climate scenarios are also briefly discussed, using well-known and consistent sets of climate model simulations based on two possible futures of greenhouse gas emissions. These future scenarios present an internally consistent climate picture for every state and are intended to inform the potential impacts of climate change. These 50 State Climate Summaries were produced by NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) and the North Carolina State University Cooperative Institute for Climate and Satellites - NC (CICS-NC) with additional input provided by climate experts, including the NOAA Regional Climate Centers and State Climatologists. Each summary document also underwent a comprehensive and anonymous peer review. Each summary contains text, figures, and an interactive web presentation. A full

  19. Wind Turbine Manufacturers in the United States: Locations and Local Impacts (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, S.


    Suzanne Tegen's presentation about U.S. wind energy manufacturing (presented at WINDPOWER 2010 in Dallas) provides information about challenges to modeling renewables; wind energy's economic "ripple effect"; case studies about wind-related manufacturing in Colorado, Iowa, Ohio, and Indiana; manufacturing maps for the Great Lakes region, Arkansas, and the United States; sample job announcements; and U.S. Treasury Grant 1603 funding.

  20. Distribution, morphological variability, ecology and the present state of Nitella from Lake Ohrid and its surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trajanovska Sonja


    Full Text Available Our research into 52 profiles of the littoral zone of the Macedonian part of Lake Ohrid and numerous samples taken from its surroundings has resulted in a detailed picture of the composition of the Charophyta vegetation in the lake. The results of the research also include data regarding the species composition and present state of Nitella. The dominant species of Nitella is Nitella opaca, which is characterized by a specific distribution, morphological variability and ecology. The present state of Nitella is not steady, especially in the watershed of the lake, since in this area there are some permanent changes in the hydrology of the terrain. Therefore, there is a need to establish long-term and complex monitoring which will result in the prompt detection of risk factors and influences, thereby enabling a rapid reaction to a possible newly emerged negative state.

  1. Past, Present and Future: Immigration, High Fertility Fuel State's Population Growth. (United States)

    Clark, William A. V.


    Presents demographic information on California's increasing population and ethnic diversity. Describes age pyramids and fertility rates by ethnic group, indicating that Asians and Hispanics will comprise over two-thirds of the state's population by 2030. Discusses implications for education, teenage pregnancy, political representation, prenatal…

  2. The emancipatory character of action research, its history and the present state of the art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boog, B.


    Right from the start. action research was intended to be emancipatory research, and it still is. This article will underpin this by outlining its history and the present state of the art. Though a variety of action research approaches have developed along divergent theoretical pathways, it will be

  3. EFL College Students' Perceptions of the Difficulties in Oral Presentation as a Form of Assessment (United States)

    Al-Nouh, Nowreyah A.; Abdul-Kareem, Muneera M.; Taqi, Hanan A.


    Oral presentation skills are considered one of the most important proficiencies needed for higher education and future careers. Thus, the present study is interested in eliciting English as a Foreign Language (EFL) college students' perceptions of the difficulties they face in oral presentation as a form of assessment. Participants were 500 female…

  4. Feed-Forward: Students Gaining More from Assessment via Deeper Engagement in Video-Recorded Presentations (United States)

    Murphy, Karen; Barry, Shane


    Presentation feedback can be limited in its feed-forward value, as students do not have their actual presentation available for review whilst reflecting upon the feedback. This study reports on students' perceptions of the learning and feed-forward value of an oral presentation assessment. Students self-marked their performance immediately after…

  5. Clean Energy Manufacturing: U.S. Competitiveness and State Policy Strategies (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.


    The capital intensive nature of clean energy technologies suggests that manufacturing clean energy equipment has the potential to support state and local economic development efforts. However, manufacturing siting decisions tend to be complex and multi-variable decision processes that require in-depth knowledge of specific markets, the logistical requirements of a given technology, and insight into global clean tech trends. This presentation highlights the potential of manufacturing in supporting economic development opportunities while also providing examples of the financial considerations affecting manufacturing facility siting decisions for wind turbine blades and solar PV. The presentation also includes discussion of other more qualitative drivers of facility siting decisions as gleaned from NREL industry interviews and discusses strategies state and local policymakers may employee to bolster their chances of successfully attracting clean energy manufacturers to their localities.

  6. Language Presentation of Characters’ Sleeping State A.P. Chekhov’s "Drama on Hunting"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Kho


    Full Text Available The state of sleep is the natural physiological state of a person that is necessary to continue life, therefore this state can be described in a work of art when characterizing the characters, especially when the dream is broken, and also in the event of dreams. Dreams in the artistic text allow the reader to penetrate into the depths of the psychic sphere of the character. In the story by A.P. Chekhov «Drama on Hunting» dreams that contain certain events and represent certain substances are associated with those phenomena that occurred in the life of the main character Zinoviev. At the same time, they describe the unreal substances and events, which, as it becomes clear later, have a prophetic character. The state of sleep, its violation, the idea of what can dream, why this dreaming occur, the characterization of sleep given by another character has to do with the inner psychological state of different characters. Thus, the reader is presented with the sphere of the unconscious, it is possible to determine the significance of this sphere in the life of the characters of the story.

  7. Presentation to Ohio State University Dept. of Electrical Engineering ElectroScience Laboratory (United States)

    Fujikawa, Gene


    Presentation made during visit to The Ohio State University, ElectroScience Laboratory, on November 14, 2002. An overview of NASA and selected technology products from the Digital Communications Technology Branch (5650) for fiscal year 2003 are highlighted. The purpose of the meeting was to exchange technical information on current aeronautics and space communications research and technology being conducted at NASA Glenn Research Center and to promote faculty/student collaborations of mutual interest.

  8. Holographic interferometry and speckle metrology : a review of the present state


    Tiziani, Hans J.


    The review paper will describe the present state of holographic and speckle techniques as applied to industrial measurement. The basic principles of both techniques will be outlined with special attention given to their advantages and limitations. Current developments in the field will then be described including the testlng of rotating automobile tyres by holographic interferometry and a heterodyne technique to gain an insight into noise generation mechanism. Methods for real-time holographi...

  9. The Influence of Clinical Experience and Photographic Presentation on Age Assessment of Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Barbara Rubek; Linneberg, A.; Christensen, Kaare


    body. Intra- and inter-assessor agreements between photographic presentations were similar among both assessor groups. The accuracy in age assessment was significantly influenced by the photographic presentation but not by the clinical experience of the assessor. The difference in the mean perceived...... both facial and whole-body photographs. A regression towards the mean age was seen. Conclusion: The assessment of perceived age was influenced by the photographic presentation but not by the clinical experience of the assessor. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel....... as the presentation of participants. Objective: It is not known whether the clinical experience of the assessor or photographic presentation have an influence on the assessment of perceived age, which the present study aimed to investigate. Methods: In a cross-sectional study of 460 women aged 25-93 years, 10...

  10. Cognitive Assessment of Brazilian Children and Youth: Past and Present Perspectives and Challenges (United States)

    Wechsler, Solange Muglia; de Cassia Nakano, Tatiana


    The history of cognitive assessment in Brazil is described through evolutionary movements or waves, when tests were just imported and translated from other countries, criticized, and later evaluated in laboratories on test construction founded at private and state universities. The presence of high standards for test use place Brazil at the…

  11. Webinar Presentation: Epidemiologic Studies of the Effects of Toxic Exposures on Brain and Behavior: Neuropsychological Assessment (United States)

    This presentation, Epidemiologic Studies of the Effects of Toxic Exposures on Brain and Behavior: Neuropsychological Assessment, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Neurodevelopment.

  12. Assessing Curriculum Planning for Humanities Inquiry: The Challenges and Opportunities of Poster Presentation (United States)

    Wallace, Heather D.; Preston, Lou; Harvie, Kate M.


    Authentic assessment has been promoted in teacher education as a means of addressing the challenge that pre-service teachers often face in translating theory into practice. In this article, we outline one approach to authentic assessment that utilises a poster format to present a humanities inquiry sequence. Drawing on a practice-based research…

  13. Presentation and analysis of a general algorithm for risk-assessment on secondary poisoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn CAFM; Luttik R; van de Meent D; Slooff W; Canton JH


    The study in this report was carried out in the frame of the project "Evaluation system for new chemical substances". The aim of the study was to present a general algorithm for risk-assessment on secondary poisoning of birds and mammals. Risk-assessment on secondary poisoning can be an

  14. Ten Years of Using Presentations at a Student Conference as a Final Assessment (United States)

    Lund, Nick


    The final assessment for all psychology courses in the department of interdisciplinary studies, MMU Cheshire programmes, in the past 10 years has been a presentation of project work at an undergraduate conference. It is argued that this acts as an "authentic" assessment method which helps prepare students for future experiences. Alumni…

  15. Peer and Self-Assessment Applied to Oral Presentations from a Multidisciplinary Perspective (United States)

    Suñol, Joan Josep; Arbat, Gerard; Pujol, Joan; Feliu, Lidia; Fraguell, Rosa Maria; Planas-Lladó, Anna


    This article analyses the use of peer and self-assessment in oral presentations as complementary tools to assessment by the professor. The analysis is based on a study conducted at the University of Girona (Spain) in seven different degree subjects and fields of knowledge. We designed and implemented two instruments to measure students' peer and…

  16. Testing and evaluation: the present and future of the assessment of medical professionals. (United States)

    Haist, Steven A; Butler, Agata P; Paniagua, Miguel A


    The aim of this review is to highlight recent and potential future enhancements to the United States Licensing Examination (USMLE) program. The USMLE program is co-owned by the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) and the Federation of State Medical Boards. The USMLE includes four examinations: Step 1, Step 2 Clinical Knowledge, Step 2 Clinical Skills, and Step 3; every graduate of Liaison Committee on Medical Education-accredited allopathic medical schools and all international medical graduates must pass this examination series to practice medicine in the United States. From 2006 to 2009, the program underwent an indepth review resulting in five accepted recommendations. These recommendations have been the primary driver for many of the recent enhancements, such as an increased emphasis on foundational science and changes in the clinical skills examination, including more advanced communication skills assessment. These recommendations will continue to inform future changes such as access to references (e.g., a map of metabolic pathways) or decision-making tools for use during the examination. The NBME also provides assessment services globally to medical schools, students, residency programs, and residents. In 2015, >550,000 assessments were provided through the subject examination program, NBME self-assessment services, and customized assessment services. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Profile of State College and Career Readiness Assessments (CCR) Policy. New Mexico (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2011


    This individual profile provides information on New Mexico's college and career readiness assessment policy. Some of the categories presented include: (1) CCR assessment policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in CCR assessment policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) State financial support for students to take the CCR…

  18. Gender, Party, and Presentation of Family in the Social Media Profiles of 10 State Legislatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Cook


    Full Text Available Recent research has identified neither consistent gendered stereotypes about legislators among constituents, nor a link between legislators’ gender and their electoral success, nor consistent gender coalitions in legislative voting and co-sponsorship. However, it would be premature to declare that gender is irrelevant to legislative politics. This article considers state legislators’ choice to discuss or omit family in their social media profiles and interprets the choice as a gendered presentation of self. The social media platform Twitter is notable for its status as an especially public stage and for the narrow choice that limited profile space imposes. Different strains in gender theory lead to competing predictions: that women will avoid references to family to avoid making gender salient, that women will highlight references to family to avoid backlash for non-normativity, or that differing gender expectations in different political parties lead to different gender effects. Apart from gender, family references may be more or less available to legislators as a function of their own family status and life stage. Analysis of Twitter profiles of state legislators in 10 US states (N = 911 reveals that party and gender effects interact; controlling for family and life stage circumstances, non-Republican women are moderately more likely to mention family than non-Republican men, but Republican women are much less likely to mention family than Republican men. Gender matters in the social media presentation of legislators’ selves, but in a manner strongly conditioned by party expectations.

  19. Novel Suicide by Division of a Chronically Infected, Externalised Axillofemoral Graft Presenting Challenges in Prehospital Assessment of Mental Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis G. Stevens


    Full Text Available Assessing a patient's competence to give informed consent in pre-hospital care is difficult. In the presented case an elderly patient attempted suicide by division of a chronically infected and externalised prosthetic arterial graft. He was able to comprehend his situation and understand the consequences of declining treatment. Without prior knowledge of his medical care and psychological state, however, we did not believe we could fully assess the patient's ability to act in his own best interest. After sedation and resuscitation he was transferred to hospital. This case report discusses a unique method of suicide and the challenge of obtaining valid consent in prehospital care.

  20. How Do States Integrate Performance Assessment in Their Systems of Assessment? (United States)

    Stosich, Elizabeth Leisy; Snyder, Jon; Wilczak, Katie


    This paper reviews state strategies for incorporating performance assessment in policy and practice. Specifically, the paper reviews the use of performance assessment in 12 states in the Innovation Lab Network, a group committed to developing systems of assessment that provide meaningful measures of college and career readiness. This review…

  1. Presentation of a general algorithm for effect-assessment on secondary poisoning. II Terrestrial food chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn CAFM; Luttik R; Slooff W; Canton JH


    In an earlier report, a simple algorithm for effect-assessment on secondary poisoning of birds and mammals was presented. This algorithm (MAR = NOEC/BCF) was drawn up by analyzing an aquatic food chain. In the present study it was tested whether this algorithm can be used equally well for

  2. 20 years of lipid nanoparticles (SLN and NLC): present state of development and industrial applications. (United States)

    Müller, Rainer H; Shegokar, Ranjita; Keck, Cornelia M


    In 1990, the lipid nanoparticles were invented in the laboratories, the first patent filings took place in 1991. The lipid nanoparticles were developed as alternative to traditional carriers such as polymeric nanoparticles and liposomes. After 20 years of lipid nanoparticles, the present state of development is reviewed - academic progress but also the development state of pharmaceutical products for the benefit of patients. Meanwhile many research groups are active worldwide, their results are reviewed which cover many different administration routes: dermal and mucosal, oral, intravenous/parenteral, pulmonary but also ocular. The lipid nanoparticles are also used for peptide/protein delivery, in gene therapy and various miscellaneous applications (e.g. vaccines). The questions of large scale production ability, accepted regulatory status of excipients, and - important for the public perception - lack of nanotoxicity are discussed, important pre-requisites for the use of each nanocarrier in products. Identical to the liposomes, the lipid nanoparticles entered first the cosmetic market, product examples are presented. Presently the pharmaceutical product development focuses on products for unmet needs and on niche products with lower development costs (e.g. ocular delivery), which can be realized also by smaller companies. A pharmaceutical perspective for the future is given, but also outlined the opportunities for non-pharmaceutical use, e.g. in nutraceuticals.

  3. Holographic Interferometry And Speckle Metrology: A Review Of The Present State (United States)

    Tiziani, H. J.


    The review paper will describe the present state of holographic and speckle techniques as applied to industrial measurement. The basic principles of both techniques will be outlined with special attention given to their advantages and limitations. Current developments in the field will then be described including the testing of rotating automobile tyres by holographic interferometry and a heterodyne technique to gain an insight into noise generation mechanism. Methods for real-time holographic and speckle recording to facilitate the use of the techniques in an industrial situation will be discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Post-industrial landscapes in the Czech Republic – A GIS assisted search for present state. Using additional datasets on industrial areas in CORINE, brownfields, human-made landforms, undermined sites, open air mining sites, contaminated sites and industrial architectural heritage, 128 examples of postindustrial landscapes (PILs were identified on the Czech territory. All the adopted data sets were preprocessed for the GIS mapping procedure. These PILs were subdued to the genetic classification. One- to four-word-names were applied to describe individual PIL types. Their geographic distribution was analyzed in the Czech Republic and their location compared with selected natural landscape features.

  5. Running the United States-Mexican Border: 1909 through the Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary D. Keller


    Full Text Available A very large number of films have been and continue to be made about the border by both the United States and Mexican film industries. This is due primarily to the highly unusual nature of the United States-Mexico border itself, and because of various factors ranging from the Mexican Revolution of 1910, to the emergence of Westerns as the primary product of the United States film industry, and other economic, sociocultural, and technological reasons. This study is dedicated to an overview of the border films and strives to explain some of the major cultural, technological, historical, and economic factors that spurred them. It is broadly divided into three sections. The first establishes the conventions of the border in the popular mind, focusing attention on the role first of mass-produced dime novels, and subsequently of popular films. The second section reviews some of the most salient of those border conventions. The third shows how contemporary Chicano/Latino border films function to subvert and debunk those same conventions. Numerous films from American and Mexican studios and by independent Chicano producers made between 1909 through the present are cited and reviewed in historical context.

  6. The present state of the art in expression, production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies. (United States)

    Gaughan, Christopher L


    Monoclonal antibodies (MAb's) have become one the most powerful therapeutic and diagnostic tools in modern medicine. Some estimates target the worldwide market of MAb's on the order of $125 billion in the next four years. Recent advances in molecular biology, immunology, and development of robust production platforms will drive the development of more MAb's suitable to treat an ever increasing number of disease states. This circumstance combined with the fact that many of the original antibody therapies from the 1980 s and 1990 s will soon be coming off patent will attract a great deal of investment in the development of larger industrial facilities to increase monoclonal antibody to meet increasing demand. In this review, the present state of the science that underlies the development of new antibodies therapies in Chinese hamster ovary cells combined with a description of the present challenges facing the industry in terms of the limitations of output and compliance with current good manufacturing practices and FDA regulations. Also addressed are future challenges to overcome production bottlenecks, description of critical quality control attributes particular to antibodies, and detailed treatment of scale-up considerations.

  7. Present state and future view of the nuclear wastes processing and disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Masaru [Radioactive Waste Management Center, Tokyo (Japan)


    Nuclear wastes are generally called radioactive wastes, classified to low level, middle level, high level, and TRU wastes to be managed according to their features, and disposed, in principle, so as not to make effect on long-term ecological environment under their background values. As the low and middle level wastes were conducted oceanic disposal till early 1970s at center of European nations and USA, since issue of the London Treaty in 1975 (a treaty on the oceanic pollution protection due to disposal of wastes and so forth), the oceanic disposal was paused and became at present because almost nuclear advancing nations had become its conclusion nations. Thereafter disposal was limited to ground disposal, and shallow underground disposal with artificial barrier was only conducted in every nations. For high level and TRU wastes, development of disposal technique is in advancing step, and is not in actually conducted state yet. A disposal method investigated in common to each nation is planned to dispose at deep stratum from some hundreds to a thousand meter underground thought not to affect any effect on ecosphere, to promote a site feature study of the deep stratum therefore. In this paper, for the low level wastes conducted the landfill disposal in Japan at present, actual state and feature view of processing and disposal techniques were described. (G.K.)

  8. Generation of quantum entangled states in nonlinear plasmonic structures and metamaterials (Presentation Recording) (United States)

    Poddubny, Alexander N.; Sukhorukov, Andrey A.


    The practical development of quantum plasmonic circuits incorporating non-classical interference [1] and sources of entangled states calls for a versatile quantum theoretical framework which can fully describe the generation and detection of entangled photons and plasmons. However, majority of the presently used theoretical approaches are typically limited to the toy models assuming loss-less and nondispersive elements or including just a few resonant modes. Here, we present a rigorous Green function approach describing entangled photon-plasmon state generation through spontaneous wave mixing in realistic metal-dielectric nanostructures. Our approach is based on the local Huttner-Barnett quantization scheme [2], which enables problem formulation in terms of a Hermitian Hamiltonian where the losses and dispersion are fully encoded in the electromagnetic Green functions. Hence, the problem can be addressed by the standard quantum mechanical perturbation theory, overcoming mathematical difficulties associated with other quantization schemes. We derive explicit expressions with clear physical meaning for the spatially dependent two-photon detection probability, single-photon detection probability and single-photon density matrix. In the limiting case of low-loss nondispersive waveguides our approach reproduces the previous results [3,4]. Importantly, our technique is far more general and can quantitatively describe generation and detection of spatially-entangled photons in arbitrary metal-dielectric structures taking into account actual losses and dispersion. This is essential to perform the design and optimization of plasmonic structures for generation and control of quantum entangled states. [1] J.S. Fakonas, H. Lee, Y.A. Kelaita and H.A. Atwater, Nature Photonics 8, 317(2014) [2] W. Vogel and D.-G. Welsch, Quantum Optics, Wiley (2006). [3] D.A. Antonosyan, A.S. Solntsev and A.A. Sukhorukov, Phys. Rev. A 90 043845 (2014) [4] L.-G. Helt, J.E. Sipe and M.J. Steel, ar

  9. The Cognitive Behavioral Assessment (CBA Project: Presentation and Proposal for International Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezio Sanavio


    Full Text Available Aims: The main aim of this paper is to describe almost 30 years of work on psychological assessment using CBA, a research team, and to propose collaboration with Latin countries. Methods: The acronym CBA stands for Cognitive Behavioural Assessment and indicates both an overall approach to clinical assessment and a series of tests. Five general principles formed the basis on which the team developed their questionnaires: (1 assessment is not a passive collection of information, but an active process similar to problem-solving; (2 horizontal integration of questionnaires with other assessment methods; (3 vertical integration and hierarchical structure of assessment questionnaires; (4 idiographic perspective; (5 computer support. Results: The paper briefly presents the most important tests: CBA-2.0, a broad-spectrum Battery for patients who need counselling and/or psychotherapy; CBA-H (Hospital for both in-patients and out-patients suffering from physical illnesses; CBA-SPORT for professional athletes; CBA-Y (young people for adolescents and young adults; CBD-VE (treatment benefits to assess the effectiveness of psychological treatment. Conclusion: These questionnaires have produced over 100 research works, published in Italian journals or presented in conferences. In the near future, we expect important, radical changes and hope to create an international research milieu.

  10. Assessment of the sweetpotato market structure in Nasarawa state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to assess sweetpotato market structure in Nasarawa state and Federal capital territory. A multistage random sampling method was used in selecting markets and respondents. Forty wholesalers and eighty retailers were randomly selected from the eight markets of Nasarawa State and FCT.

  11. 2016 Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessment for the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, Walt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, Donna [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scott, George [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Draxl, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    This report, the 2016 Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessment for the United States, was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and updates a previous national resource assessment study, and refines and reaffirms that the available wind resource is sufficient for offshore wind to be a large-scale contributor to the nation's electric energy supply.

  12. Corpora and Language Assessment: The State of the Art (United States)

    Park, Kwanghyun


    This article outlines the current state of and recent developments in the use of corpora for language assessment and considers future directions with a special focus on computational methodology. Because corpora began to make inroads into language assessment in the 1990s, test developers have increasingly used them as a reference resource to…

  13. assessement of information resource of public libraries in rivers state

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Impact | Journal of Information and Knowledge Management

    The paper assessed information resources of public libraries in Rivers State. A survey research design was used for the ... services to support education, research, recreation, cultural, political and information needs of the public. It is a facility set up ..... Marketing library services, current practices,. Assessment of information ...

  14. Initial state report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pers, Karin (ed.) [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)


    A comprehensive description of the initial state of the engineered parts of the repository system is one of the main bases for the safety assessment. There is no obvious definition of the time of the initial state. For the engineered part of their repository system, the time of deposition is a natural starting point and the initial state in SR-Can is, therefore, defined as the state at the time of deposition for the engineered barrier system. The initial state of the engineered parts of the repository system is largely obtained from the design specifications of the repository, including allowed tolerances or allowance for deviations. Also the manufacturing, excavation and control methods have to be described in order to adequately discuss and handle hypothetical initial states outside the allowed limits in the design specifications. It should also be noted that many parts of the repository system are as yet not finally designed, there can be many changes in the future. The design and technical solutions presented here are representative of the current stage of development. The repository system is based on the KBS-3 method, in which copper canisters with a cast iron insert containing spent nuclear fuel are surrounded by bentonite clay and deposited at 400-700 m depth in saturated granitic rock. The facility design comprises rock caverns, tunnels, deposition positions etc. Deposition tunnels are linked by tunnels for transport and communication and shafts for ventilation. One ramp and five shafts connect the surface facility to the underground repository. The ramp is used for heavy and bulky transports and the shafts are for utility systems and for transport of excavated rock, backfill and staff. For the purposes of the safety assessment, the engineered parts of the repository system have been sub-divided into a number of components or sub-systems. These are: The fuel, (also including cavities in the canister since strong interactions between the two occur if the

  15. Impacts from Deployment Barriers on the United States Wind Power Industry: Overview & Preliminary Findings (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.; Hand, M.; Heimiller, D.


    Regardless of cost and performance some wind projects are unable to proceed to commissioning as a result of deployment barriers. Principal deployment barriers in the industry today include: wildlife, public acceptance, access to transmission, and radar. To date, methods for understanding these non-technical barriers have failed to accurately characterize the costs imposed by deployment barriers and the degree of impact to the industry. Analytical challenges include limited data and modeling capabilities. Changes in policy and regulation, among other factors, also add complexity to analysis of impacts from deployment barriers. This presentation details preliminary results from new NREL analysis focused on quantifying the impact of deployment barriers on the wind resource of the United States, the installed cost of wind projects, and the total electric power system cost of a 20% wind energy future. In terms of impacts to wind project costs and developable land, preliminary findings suggest that deployment barriers are secondary to market drivers such as demand. Nevertheless, impacts to wind project costs are on the order of $100/kW and a substantial share of the potentially developable windy land in the United States is indeed affected by deployment barriers.

  16. Characteristics and outcomes of injured patients presenting by private vehicle in a state trauma system. (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas J; Carr, Brendan G; Salhi, Rama; Holena, Daniel N; Wolff, Catherine; Band, Roger A


    Previous studies have demonstrated lower mortality among patients transported to single urban trauma centers by private vehicle (PV) compared with Emergency Medical Services (EMS). We sought to describe the characteristics and outcomes of injured patients transported by PV in a state trauma system compared to patients transported by EMS. We performed a retrospective cohort study of state trauma registry data for patients admitted to all Pennsylvania trauma centers over 5 years (1/2003 to 12/2007). Our primary exposure of interest was prehospital mode of transport and our primary outcome of interest was in-hospital mortality. Unadjusted analyses were performed as were adjusted analyses controlling for injury severity. Data are presented as percents, odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals. Of the 91132 patients analyzed, 9.6% were transported to the emergency department by PV and 90.4% by EMS. Overall Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 13.3 ± 11.0 (ISS for EMS 13.7 ± 11.3, PV 9.2 ± 7.1, P 15, ISS >25) subgroups. Nearly 10% of injured patients arrive at trauma centers by private vehicle. Transport of injured patients by EMS was associated with higher mortality than PV transport. This may reflect the effects of prehospital time, prehospital interventions, or other confounders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Groundwater governance in Asia: present state and barriers to implementation of good governance (United States)

    Tanaka, T.


    The present state of groundwater governance in Asia was reviewed. The main problem regarding groundwater resources in each Asian country is overexploitation, causing water level decline, land subsidence and salt water intrusion. For those groundwater hazards, many countries have established regulations such as laws and regulations as countermeasures. However, those laws and regulations are not the basic laws on groundwater resources, but only for countermeasures to prevent groundwater hazards. Common problems and barriers for implementing groundwater governance in Asian countries are that there is more than one institute with different and sometimes overlapping responsibilities in groundwater management. To overcome those conflicts among institutions and establishment of good governance, it is necessary to establish an agency in the government as one coordinate function reinforcing the direct coordination and facilitation of groundwater policy-making and management. As one such framework, the conceptual law called the Water Cycle Basic Law, which is under planning in Japan, is examined in this paper.


    Wig, N.N.; Menon, D.K.; Srinivasamurthy, R.


    SUMMARY The present State Examination (PSE) schedule is a widely used instrument to record mental status of adult neurotic and functional psychotic patients. It has 140 items based in a semi-structured interview. Each item is rated on ordinal scale. Ratings are based on clinical judgement for which comprehensive glossary is provided. PSE has been used in several international collaborative studies which show that this standardised instrument can be used reliably. The experiences gained in using the Hindi version of the PSE have been highlighted. It has been observed that although there are some limitations, the PSE as a research instrument can be used reliably in the Indian setting. There is a need to gain experience in using the PSE in other Indian languages. PMID:21965931

  19. Desiccant cooling: State-of-the-art assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A.A.; Penney, T.R.; Czanderna, A.W.


    The objectives of this document are to present an overview of the work accomplished to date on desiccant cooling to provide assessment of the state of the art of desiccant cooling technology in the field of desiccant material dehumidifier components, desiccant systems, and models. The report also discusses the factors that affect the widespread acceptance of desiccant cooling technology. This report is organized as follows. First, a basic description and historical overview of desiccant cooling technology is provided. Then, the recent research and development (R&D) program history (focusing on DOE`s funded efforts) is discussed. The status of the technology elements (materials, components, systems) is discussed in detail and a preliminary study on the energy impact of desiccant technology is presented. R&D needs for advancing the technology in the market are identified. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s unique desiccant test facilities and their typical outputs are described briefly. Finally, the results of a comprehensive literature search on desiccant cooling are presented in a bibliography. The bibliography contains approximately 900 citations on desiccant cooling.

  20. Desiccant cooling: State-of-the-art assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A.A.; Penney, T.R.; Czanderna, A.W.


    The objectives of this document are to present an overview of the work accomplished to date on desiccant cooling to provide assessment of the state of the art of desiccant cooling technology in the field of desiccant material dehumidifier components, desiccant systems, and models. The report also discusses the factors that affect the widespread acceptance of desiccant cooling technology. This report is organized as follows. First, a basic description and historical overview of desiccant cooling technology is provided. Then, the recent research and development (R D) program history (focusing on DOE's funded efforts) is discussed. The status of the technology elements (materials, components, systems) is discussed in detail and a preliminary study on the energy impact of desiccant technology is presented. R D needs for advancing the technology in the market are identified. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's unique desiccant test facilities and their typical outputs are described briefly. Finally, the results of a comprehensive literature search on desiccant cooling are presented in a bibliography. The bibliography contains approximately 900 citations on desiccant cooling.

  1. 8 Assessment of the Level of Mercury Present in Soaps by the Use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    1Department of Science and Technology, University of The Gambia, PO Box 3530, Serekunda, The Gambia 2Galp Energia Gambia Limited, Independence Drive, Box 263, Banjul, The Gambia. 3University of Education, Winneba, Ghana. 8. Assessment of the Level of Mercury Present in Soaps by the ...

  2. Cyanobacteria Assessment Network (CyAN) - 2017 NASA Water Resources PI Presentation (United States)

    Presentation on the Cyanobacteria Assessment Network (CYAN) and how is supports the environmental management and public use of the U.S. lakes and estuaries by providing a capability of detecting and quantifying algal blooms and related water quality using satellite data records.

  3. Present state and developments in the production of inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine. (United States)

    van Wezel, A L


    A review is given on the present state and developments in the production of inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine. Various aspects of the production such as cell substrates, large scale culture techniques, seed viruses and processing of virus harvests are discussed in view of safety, potency and economics. As far as cell substrates are concerned subcultured monkey kidney cells from captive-bred monkeys or non-tumorigenic continuous cell lines both cultivated in microcarrier culture are at the moment considered to be the best cell substrates in substitution for primary monkey kidney cells. Although with the present seed viruses highly potent vaccines can be prepared attention should be paid to the antigenicity and stability of the seed viruses especially type 1 seed virus. For processing of virus harvests concentration by ultrafiltration followed by purification with column chromatography is giving very pure virus suspensions. The results regarding yields and economics on the processing of virus harvests may be improved by application of affinity chromatography on immobilized antibodies. Inactivation by formalin has proved to be a reliable and safe method for the inactivation of the concentrated and purified virus suspensions.

  4. Shock state: an unrecognized and underestimated presentation of drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms. (United States)

    Kimmoun, Antoine; Dubois, Elsa; Perez, Pierre; Barbaud, Annick; Levy, Bruno


    Some patients with drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) are probably admitted in intensive care unit (ICU), but data concerning their clinical features at admission are scarce. Therefore, in the present study, we used a clinical network of French intensivists to study the clinical features and evolution of DRESS patients hospitalized in ICU. A national, retrospective, multicenter study collected DRESS cases hospitalized in ICU for DRESS from 2000 to end of 2011. All files were analyzed through the RegiSCAR scoring system as "no," "possible," "probable," or "definite" DRESS. Patients were included only if they had a probable or definite DRESS. Demographic, hemodynamic, biological, and infectious data were recorded. Twenty-one patients were included. Hospital mortality was 10 (47%) of 21, and 16 of 21 patients had on admission a shock state necessitating vasopressor agents. Echocardiographic ejection fraction in shock patients was depressed (47% ± 13%). Mechanical ventilation was required in 13 of 21 cases. Hepatic failure was observed in 11 of 21 cases, acute renal failure in 18 of 20 cases, and lactic acidosis in 12 of 20 patients. Initial bacteriology was negative in all patients. Human herpesvirus reactivations were found in five of 15 cases. In conclusion, shock without bacteriological documentation associated with multiple organ failure is the most common presentation of DRESS at admission in ICU and is associated with a higher mortality than previously described.

  5. The Epidemiology of Finger Dislocations Presenting for Emergency Care Within the United States (United States)

    Golan, Elan; Kang, Kevin K.; Culbertson, Maya; Choueka, Jack


    Background: There are little demographic data on finger dislocation injuries. This study examines the epidemiological characteristics of patients presenting for emergency care of finger dislocations within the United States. Methods: The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was queried for finger dislocation injuries treated in US emergency departments between 2004 and 2008. Weighted estimates, in conjunction with Census data, were used to analyze patient demographics, injury locales, and incidence rates within and between, demographic groups. Results: During the 5-year study period, an estimated 166 561 finger dislocations were treated in 1 499 222 917 person-years: an incidence rate of 11.11 per 100 000 person-years. Males were predominantly affected (78.7%) at an incidence rate of 17.8 per 100 000. The rate in females was 4.65 per 100 000 person-years. Most dislocations occurred in the 15- to 19-year age group (38.6 dislocations per 100 000 person-years). Among racial groups, blacks (16.8) were affected more than whites (7.72) or patients characterized as “other” (4.90). In terms of injury venue, 35.9% of cases took place at a sporting or recreational facility. In addition, 44.7% of sports-related dislocations occurred while playing either basketball or football. Conclusions: In the United States, finger dislocations appear to occur most often in black males 15 to 19 years of age and among sports participants, particularly basketball and football players. PMID:27390562

  6. In-situ measurement of bound states in the continuum in photonic crystal slabs (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Kalchmair, Stefan; Gansch, Roman; Genevet, Patrice; Zederbauer, Tobias; MacFarland, Donald; Detz, Hermann; Andrews, Aaron Maxwell; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried; Capasso, Federico; Loncar, Marko


    Photonic crystal slabs have been subject to research for more than a decade, yet the existence of bound states in the radiation continuum (BICs) in photonic crystals has been reported only recently [1]. A BIC is formed when the radiation from all possible channels interferes destructively, causing the overall radiation to vanish. In photonic crystals, BICs are the result of accidental phase matching between incident, reflected and in-plane waves at seemingly random wave vectors [2]. While BICs in photonic crystals have been discussed previously using reflection measurements, we reports for the first time in-situ measurements of the bound states in the continuum in photonic crystal slabs. By embedding a photodetector into a photonic crystal slab we were able to directly observe optical BICs. The photonic crystal slabs are processed from a GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells heterostructure, providing intersubband absorption in the mid-infrared wavelength range. The generated photocurrent is collected via doped contact layers on top and bottom of the suspended photonic crystal slab. We were mapping out the photonic band structure by rotating the device and by acquiring photocurrent spectra every 5°. Our measured photonic bandstructure revealed several BICs, which was confirmed with a rigorously coupled-wave analysis simulation. Since coupling to external fields is suppressed, the photocurrent measured by the photodetector vanishes at the BIC wave vector. To confirm the relation between the measured photocurrent and the Q-factor we used temporal coupled mode theory, which yielded an inverse proportional relation between the photocurrent and the out-coupling loss from the photonic crystal. Implementing a plane wave expansion simulation allowed us to identify the corresponding photonic crystal modes. The ability to directly measure the field intensity inside the photonic crystal presents an important milestone towards integrated opto-electronic BIC devices. Potential

  7. Carbonate mineral saturation states in the East China Sea: present conditions and future scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.-C. Chou


    Full Text Available To assess the impact of rising atmospheric CO2 and eutrophication on the carbonate chemistry of the East China Sea shelf waters, saturation states (Ω for two important biologically relevant carbonate minerals – calcite (Ωc and aragonite (Ωa – were calculated throughout the water column from dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and total alkalinity (TA data collected in spring and summer of 2009. Results show that the highest Ωc (∼9.0 and Ωa (∼5.8 values were found in surface water of the Changjiang plume area in summer, whereas the lowest values (Ωc = ∼2.7 and Ωa = ∼1.7 were concurrently observed in the bottom water of the same area. This divergent behavior of saturation states in surface and bottom waters was driven by intensive biological production and strong stratification of the water column. The high rate of phytoplankton production, stimulated by the enormous nutrient discharge from the Changjiang, acts to decrease the ratio of DIC to TA, and thereby increases Ω values. In contrast, remineralization of organic matter in the bottom water acts to increase the DIC to TA ratio, and thus decreases Ω values. The projected result shows that continued increases of atmospheric CO2 under the IS92a emission scenario will decrease Ω values by 40–50% by the end of this century, but both the surface and bottom waters will remain supersaturated with respect to calcite and aragonite. Nevertheless, superimposed on such Ω decrease is the increasing eutrophication, which would mitigate or enhance the Ω decline caused by anthropogenic CO2 uptake in surface and bottom waters, respectively. Our simulation reveals that, under the combined impact of eutrophication and augmentation of atmospheric CO2, the bottom water of the Changjiang plume area will become undersaturated with respect to aragonite (Ωa = ∼0.8 by the end of this century, which would threaten the health of the benthic ecosystem.

  8. U.S. Natural Gas System Methane Emissions: State of Knowledge from LCAs, Inventories, and Atmospheric Measurements (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, G.


    Natural gas (NG) is a potential "bridge fuel" during transition to a decarbonized energy system: It emits less carbon dioxide during combustion than other fossil fuels and can be used in many industries. However, because of the high global warming potential of methane (CH4, the major component of NG), climate benefits from NG use depend on system leakage rates. Some recent estimates of leakage have challenged the benefits of switching from coal to NG, a large near-term greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction opportunity. During this presentation, Garvin will review evidence from multiple perspectives - life cycle assessments (LCAs), inventories and measurements - about NG leakage in the US. Particular attention will be paid to a recent article in Science magazine which reviewed over 20 years of published measurements to better understand what we know about total methane emissions and those from the oil and gas sectors. Scientific and policy implications of the state of knowledge will be discussed.

  9. Combining traditional dietary assessment methods with novel metabolomics techniques: present efforts by the Food Biomarker Alliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M; Brennan, Lorraine; Drevon, Christian A


    biomarker quality and validity score aiming to assist the systematic evaluation of novel biomarkers. Moreover, to evaluate the applicability of nutritional biomarkers, studies are presently also focusing on associations between food intake biomarkers and diet-related disease risk. In order to be successful...... in these metabolomics studies, knowledge about available electronic metabolomics resources is necessary and further developments of these resources are essential. Ultimately, present efforts in this research area aim to advance quality control of traditional dietary assessment methods, advance compliance evaluation......FFQ, food diaries and 24 h recall methods represent the most commonly used dietary assessment tools in human studies on nutrition and health, but food intake biomarkers are assumed to provide a more objective reflection of intake. Unfortunately, very few of these biomarkers are sufficiently...

  10. Drawing helps children to talk about their presenting problems during a mental health assessment. (United States)

    Woolford, Junie; Patterson, Tess; Macleod, Emily; Hobbs, Linda; Hayne, Harlene


    When children require mental health services, clinicians need to conduct assessments that are developmentally sensitive and that include the child's point of view. Drawing is a popular tool that is commonly used in clinical settings. Research on drawing in experimental settings has confirmed that the opportunity to draw while talking increases the amount of verbal information that children report during an interview. The present research examined whether drawing also facilitates children's self reports during a mental health assessment. A total of 33 5-12-year-old children were asked either to draw and tell about their presenting problem or to tell only. Children who drew and told provided twice as much verbal information as children who told only. Further, interviewers in the draw and tell condition used a greater number of minimal responses than did interviewers in the tell only condition. These data have important implications for clinical practice. © The Author(s) 2013.

  11. Emerging contaminants: presentations at the 2009 Toxicology and Risk Assessment Conference. (United States)

    Murnyak, George; Vandenberg, John; Yaroschak, Paul J; Williams, Larry; Prabhakaran, Krishnan; Hinz, John


    A session entitled "Emerging Contaminants" was held in April 2009 in Cincinnati, OH at the 2009 Toxicology and Risk Assessment Conference. The purpose of the session was to share information on both programmatic and technical aspects associated with emerging contaminants. Emerging contaminants are chemicals or materials that are characterized by a perceived or real threat to human health or environment, a lack of published health standards or an evolving standard. A contaminant may also be "emerging" because of the discovery of a new source, a new pathway to humans, or a new detection method or technology. The session included five speakers representing the Department of Defense (DoD), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and each of the military services. The DoD created the Emerging Contaminant Directorate to proactively address environmental, health, and safety concerns associated with emerging contaminants. This session described the scan-watch-action list process, impact assessment methodology, and integrated risk management concept that DoD has implemented to manage emerging contaminants. EPA presented emerging trends in health risk assessment. Researchers made technical presentations on the status of some emerging contaminates in the assessment process (i.e. manganese, RDX, and naphthalene). Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Dispersion measurement on chirped mirrors at arbitrary incidence angle and polarization state (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Kovacs, Mate; Somoskoi, Tamas; Seres, Imre; Borzsonyi, Adam; Sipos, Aron; Osvay, Károly


    The optical elements of femtosecond high peak power lasers have to fulfill more and more strict requirements in order to support pulses with high intensity and broad spectrum. In most cases chirped pulse amplification scheme is used to generate high peak power ultrashort laser pulses, where a very precise control of spectral intensity and spectral phase is required in reaching transform-limited temporal shape at the output. In the case of few cycle regime, the conventional bulk glass, prism-, grating- and their combination based compressors are not sufficient anymore, due to undesirable nonlinear effects in their material and proneness to optical damages. The chirped mirrors are also commonly used to complete the compression after a beam transport system just before the target. Moreover, the manufacturing technology requires quality checks right after production and over the lifetime of the mirror as well, since undesired deposition on the surface can lead alteration from the designed value over a large part of the aperture. For the high harmonic generation, polarization gating technology is used to generate single attosecond pulses [1]. In this case the pulse to be compressed has various polarization state falling to the chirped mirrors. For this reason, it is crucial to measure the dispersion of the mirrors for the different polarization states. In this presentation we demonstrate a simple technique to measure the dispersion of arbitrary mirror at angles of incidence from 0 to 55 degree, even for a 12" optics. A large aperture 4" mirror has been scanned over with micrometer accuracy and the dispersion property through the surface has been investigated with a stable interference fringes in that robust geometry. We used Spectrally Resolved Interferometry, which is based on a Michaelson interferometer and a combined visible and infrared spectrometer. Tungsten halogen lamp with 10 mW coupled optical power was used as a white-light source so with the selected

  13. Face-evoked steady-state visual potentials: effects of presentation rate and face inversion. (United States)

    Gruss, L Forest; Wieser, Matthias J; Schweinberger, Stefan R; Keil, Andreas


    Face processing can be explored using electrophysiological methods. Research with event-related potentials has demonstrated the so-called face inversion effect, in which the N170 component is enhanced in amplitude and latency to inverted, compared to upright, faces. The present study explored the extent to which repetitive lower-level visual cortical engagement, reflected in flicker steady-state visual evoked potentials (ssVEPs), shows similar amplitude enhancement to face inversion. We also asked if inversion-related ssVEP modulation would be dependent on the stimulation rate at which upright and inverted faces were flickered. To this end, multiple tagging frequencies were used (5, 10, 15, and 20 Hz) across two studies (n = 21, n = 18). Results showed that amplitude enhancement of the ssVEP for inverted faces was found solely at higher stimulation frequencies (15 and 20 Hz). By contrast, lower frequency ssVEPs did not show this inversion effect. These findings suggest that stimulation frequency affects the sensitivity of ssVEPs to face inversion.

  14. [Present state of occupational hazards in automobile maintenance industry in Beijing, China]. (United States)

    Li, Jue; Wang, Huining; Wang, Zhongxu; Wang, Hong; Niu, Dongsheng; Xu, Xiaohong; Sun, Wei


    To explore the present state of occupational hazards and health status of workers in the automobile maintenance industry. The monitoring results of occupational hazards in 25 automobile maintenance companies, occupational health examination results of 751 male workers in 63 automobile maintenance companies, and physical examination results of 205 male students in one Research Institute were statistically analyzed in 2012. The concentrations of benzene, toluene, xylene, ethyl acetate, and butyl acetate in the workplace were 0.3∼21.7, 0.4∼40.3, 0.4∼84.8, 1.9∼34.3, and 0.7∼516.7 mg/m(3), respectively; benzene concentration exceeded the upper limit in two workplaces, and butyl acetate concentration exceeded the upper limit in one workplace. The intensity of noise was 70.3∼ 91.3 dB (A) and exceeded the upper limit in one workplace. The prevalence of blood system involvement in spray painters was 15.6%, significant higher than that of the control group (P occupational hazards in the automobile maintenance industry should not be neglected, and the management of noxious positions and personal protection should be strengthened in enterprises.

  15. High Temperature Versus Geomechanical Parameters of Selected Rocks – The Present State of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sygała


    Full Text Available This paper presents the current state of knowledge concerning the examination of the impact of increased temperatures on changes of geomechanical properties of rocks. Based on historical data, the shape of stress–strain characteristics that illustrate the process of the destruction of rock samples as a result of load impact under uniaxial compression in a testing machine, were discussed. The results from the studies on changes in the basic strength and elasticity parameters of rocks, such as the compressive strength and Young’s modulus were compared. On their basis, it was found that temperature has a significant effect on the change of geomechanical properties of rocks. The nature of these changes also depends on other factors (apart from temperature. They are, among others: the mineral composition of rock, the porosity and density. The research analysis showed that changes in the rock by heating it at various temperatures and then uniaxially loading it in a testing machine, are different for different rock types. Most of the important processes that cause changes in the values of the strength parameters of the examined rocks occured in the temperature range of 400 to 600 °C.

  16. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment of the Chiapas State (SE Mexico) (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lomelí, Anabel Georgina; García-Mayordomo, Julián


    The Chiapas State, in southeastern Mexico, is a very active seismic region due to the interaction of three tectonic plates: Northamerica, Cocos and Caribe. We present a probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) specifically performed to evaluate seismic hazard in the Chiapas state. The PSHA was based on a composited seismic catalogue homogenized to Mw and was used a logic tree procedure for the consideration of different seismogenic source models and ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs). The results were obtained in terms of peak ground acceleration as well as spectral accelerations. The earthquake catalogue was compiled from the International Seismological Center and the Servicio Sismológico Nacional de México sources. Two different seismogenic source zones (SSZ) models were devised based on a revision of the tectonics of the region and the available geomorphological and geological maps. The SSZ were finally defined by the analysis of geophysical data, resulting two main different SSZ models. The Gutenberg-Richter parameters for each SSZ were calculated from the declustered and homogenized catalogue, while the maximum expected earthquake was assessed from both the catalogue and geological criteria. Several worldwide and regional GMPEs for subduction and crustal zones were revised. For each SSZ model we considered four possible combinations of GMPEs. Finally, hazard was calculated in terms of PGA and SA for 500-, 1000-, and 2500-years return periods for each branch of the logic tree using the CRISIS2007 software. The final hazard maps represent the mean values obtained from the two seismogenic and four attenuation models considered in the logic tree. For the three return periods analyzed, the maps locate the most hazardous areas in the Chiapas Central Pacific Zone, the Pacific Coastal Plain and in the Motagua and Polochic Fault Zone; intermediate hazard values in the Chiapas Batholith Zone and in the Strike-Slip Faults Province. The hazard decreases

  17. [Assessment of sociocognitive functions in neurological patients Presentation of a French adaptation of two tools and implementation in frontal dementia]. (United States)

    Ehrlé, Nathalie; Henry, Audrey; Pesa, Audrey; Bakchine, Serge


    This paper presents a French battery designed to assess emotional and sociocognitive abilities in neurological patients in clinical practice. The first part of this battery includes subtests assessing emotions: a recognition task of primary facial emotions, a discrimination task of facial emotions, a task of expressive intensity judgment, a task of gender identification, a recognition task of musical emotions. The second part intends to assess some sociocognitive abilities, that is mainly theory of mind (attribution tasks of mental states to others: false believe tasks of first and second order, faux-pas task) and social norms (moral/conventional distinction task, social situations task) but also abstract language and humour. We present a general description of the battery with special attention to specific methodological constraints for the assessment of neurological patients. After a brief introduction to moral and conventional judgments (definition and current theoretical basis), the French version of the social norm task from RJR Blair (Blair and Cipolotti, 2000) is developed. The relevance of these tasks in frontal variant of frontotemporal dementia (fvFTD is illustrated by the report of the results of a study conducted in 18 patients by the Cambridge group and by the personal study of a patient with early stage of vfFTD. The relevance of the diagnostic of sociocognitive impairment in neurological patients is discussed.

  18. Formulation and Presentation of Risk Assessments to Address Risk Targets for Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmot, R.D. [Galson Sciences Ltd, Oakham (United Kingdom)


    The Swedish regulators have been active in the field of performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal facilities for many years and have developed sophisticated approaches to the development of scenarios and other aspects of assessments. These assessments have generally used dose as the assessment end-point. Regulations recently established in Sweden (SSI FS 1998:1) have introduced a risk criterion for radioactive waste disposal: the annual risk of harmful effects after closure of a disposal facility should not exceed 10{sup -6} for a representative individual in the group exposed to the greatest risk. This report evaluates different approaches to the definition and use of probabilities in the context of risk assessments, and examines the presentation of the results of risk assessments in safety cases to meet risk targets. The report illustrates the strengths and weaknesses of different possible approaches to risk assessment by reference to assessments in other countries, and provides suggestions for future activity and development in this area by the Swedish regulators. The review of experience in other countries has led to a number of key observations relevant to the conduct of regulatory work on risk assessments and preparations for review. These highlight the importance of developing a protocol for conducting calculations, and linking such a protocol to the requirements of risk assessment calculations and to existing code and model capabilities. There are a number of decisions and assumptions required in developing a risk assessment methodology that could potentially affect the calculated results. These assumptions are independent of the analysis of performance, and relate to issues such as the expectation value of risk, risk dilution, the definition of probability density functions and achieving convergence. A review of a proponent's risk assessment should address these issues in determining the appropriateness and validity of the results presented

  19. Estado actual de la cirugia general laparoscópica Present state of videolaparascopic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hernándo Morales Uribe


    Full Text Available

    Los procedimientos laparoscópicos han empezado a reemplazar algunas operaciones
    convencionales porque evitan la cirugía mayor y se logra una recuperación precoz del paciente. En el futuro muchas cirugías tradicionales se realizarán laparoscópicamente. En este artículo se presenta el estado actual de la cirugía laparoscópica en los siguientes casos: cirugía biliar, úlcera péptica, corrección del reflujo gastroesofágico
    y de algunos trastornos motores esofágicos, abdomen agudo, herniorrafia inguinal
    y cirugía colorrectal. Se consignan las ventajas y desventajas en general y para cada
    caso en particular.
    Laparascopic pracedures have begun to replace the conventional ones in arder to
    avoid major surgery and to allow an earlier recovery of the patlent. In thls article the
    present state of laparoscopic surgery is revlewed, concernlng the followlng entities:
    blliary surgery, peptlc ulcer, correction of gastroesophageal reflux and of esophageal
    motility problems, acute abdomen, ingulnal herniorrhaphy and colorectal surgery. Advantages and dlsadvantages are consldered both in general and for each speclflc case. 

  20. Pediatric martial arts injuries presenting to Emergency Departments, United States 1990-2003. (United States)

    Yard, Ellen E; Knox, Christy L; Smith, Gary A; Comstock, R Dawn


    Although an estimated 6.5 million United States (US) children aged 6-17 practiced a martial art in 2004, there have been no nationally representative studies comparing pediatric injuries among the three most popular disciplines, karate, taekwondo, and judo. Describe pediatric martial arts injuries presenting to a representative sample of US Emergency Departments (EDs) from 1990 to 2003. We reviewed all martial arts injuries captured by the US Consumer Product Safety Commission's (CPSC), National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). An estimated 128,400 children martial arts-related injuries from 1990 to 2003. Injured tended to be male (73.0%) and had a mean age of 12.1 years. Most injuries were attributed to karate (79.5%). The most common mechanism of injury was being kicked (25.6%), followed by falling (20.6%) and kicking (18.0%). The majority of injuries occurred to the lower leg/foot/ankle (30.1%) and hand/wrist (24.5%). The most common injury diagnoses were sprains/strains (29.3%), contusions/abrasions (27.8%), and fractures (24.6%). Participants in judo sustained significantly higher proportions of shoulder/upper arm injuries than karate (IPR=4.31, 95% CI: 2.84-6.55) or taekwondo (IPR=9.75, 95% CI: 3.53-26.91) participants. There were also higher proportions of neck injuries sustained by judo participants compared to karate (IPR=4.73, 95% CI: 1.91-11.70) or taekwondo (IPR=4.17, 95% CI: 1.02-17.06) participants. Pediatric martial arts injuries differ by discipline. Understanding these injury patterns can assist with the development of discipline-specific preventive interventions.

  1. Direct observation of entangled multiexciton states in organic semiconductors (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Yong, Chaw Keong; Musser, Andrew J.; Clark, Jenny; Anthony, John E.; Beljonne, David; Friend, Richard H.; Sirringhaus, Henning


    The standard view of singlet exciton fission in organic semiconductor is that one photon creates a singlet exciton which subsequently decays into a correlated triplet pair state (TT) multiexciton states. The triplet pair state then splits to form two free triplets. Although the theoretical description of (TT) is well developed since 1970, it has so far proved difficult to determine the role and nature of the (TT) state in solid films from experiment directly. Here, using a combination of highly sensitive broadband transient absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopies on a range of polyacene films, we demonstrate that the (TT) multiexciton states is bound and energetically stabilised with respect to free triplets in even the most efficient singlet fission materials, such as TIPS-pentacene and pentacene. The (TT) multiexciton state is emissive, and we find that charge-transfer from one (TT) state to the neighboring electron acceptors has a yield of >100%, i.e. more than one charge is transferred per charge-transfer event. Our findings suggest that the formation of spin-correlated (TT) states emits as one particle and generates 2 charges in organic solar cells and thus open a range of fascinating questions regarding the potential to use entanglement to enhance organic photovoltaic efficiency and the application of organic materials in quantum information

  2. Possibility of laboratory assessment of the state of connective tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Berezovskaya


    Full Text Available This article deals with the possibilities of laboratory assessment of the state of the connective tissue. It contains brief information about its structure, functions and roles of the various components in the development of pathological processes, and provides laboratory diagnostic methods of these changes.

  3. Forum on Common Language for States and Assessment Vendors (United States)

    Warren S.; Thurlow, M.; Christensen, L.; Shyyan, V.; Lazarus, S.; Chartrand, A.


    More than 80 individuals representing staff from state departments of education, school districts, other countries, testing and testing-related companies, and other educational organizations participated in a forum on June 20, 2016 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to discuss the need for common accessibility language across assessment platforms. The…

  4. Trophic state categorisation and assessment of water quality in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study we investigated the water quality, determined the trophic state and assessed the influence of lake zones on the physical-chemical parameters of the Manjirenji Dam, Zimbabwe. Furthermore, we tested the applicability of two customary temperate water quality indices, the Canadian Council of Ministers of the ...

  5. An environmental assessment of United States drinking water watersheds (United States)

    James Wickham; Timothy Wade; Kurt Riitters


    Abstract There is an emerging recognition that natural lands and their conservation are important elements of a sustainable drinking water infrastructure. We conducted a national, watershed-level environmental assessment of 5,265 drinking water watersheds using data on land cover, hydrography and conservation status. Approximately 78% of the conterminous United States...

  6. A strategic assessment of biofuels development in the Western States (United States)

    Kenneth E. Skog; Robert Rummer; Bryan Jenkins; Nathan Parker; Peter Tittman; Quinn Hart; Richard Nelson; Ed Gray; Anneliese Schmidt; Marcia Patton-Mallory; Gordon Gayle


    The Western Governors' Association assessment of biofuels potential in western states estimated the location and capacity of biofuels plants that could potentially be built for selected gasoline prices in 2015 using a mixed integer programming model. The model included information on forest biomass supply curves by county (developed using Forest Service FIA data...

  7. Development Control in Lagos State: an Assessment of Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development Control in Lagos State: an Assessment of Public Compliance to Space Standards for Urban Development. ... continual growth and management of a city can be such that make for orderliness ... It also ensures that the environmental challenges as a result of city growth can be reduced to tolerable levels.

  8. State Writing Assessment: Inclusion of Motivational Factors in Writing Tasks (United States)

    Olinghouse, Natalie G.; Zheng, Jinjie; Morlock, Larissa


    This study evaluated large-scale state writing assessments for the inclusion of motivational characteristics in the writing task and written prompt. We identified 6 motivational variables from the authentic activity literature: time allocation, audience specification, audience intimacy, definition of task, allowance for multiple perspectives, and…

  9. Water Stress Assessment in Jharkhand State Using Soil Data and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Full-text Available Online at Water Stress Assessment in Jharkhand ... state is facing acute water crisis and due to lowering of ground water table. Thus this work would help the administrators and ... interactive cycle, ground water is largely an invisible resource, occurring in a range of water producing.

  10. Development Control in Lagos State: an Assessment of Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ISSN 2070--0083 (Online). DOI: Development Control in Lagos State: an Assessment of. Public Compliance to Space Standards for Urban. Development. (Pp. 169-184). Aluko, Ola - Department. of Urban & Regional Planning, Faculty of. Environmental Sciences, University of Lagos, ...

  11. Mini‑Mental State Exam versus Montreal Cognitive Assessment in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mini‑mental state exam (MMSE) was used several times but no study has examined cognition on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in diabetes and diabetic retinopathy (DR). In this study, we compared MMSE with MoCA in patients with DR and searched for an association between the severity of DR ...

  12. An assessment of recreational bank angling in the Free State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recreational angling is an important form of utilisation of inland fisheries in South Africa but there is little information on this sector. The objective of this study was to provide an assessment of recreational bank angling in the Free State Province using licence sale and tournament data. During 2013 and 2014, 8 256 and 7 ...

  13. Motivational needs assessment of extension agents of Abia State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the motivational needs of extension agents of Abia Agricultural Development Project. Stratified random sampling technique was adopted to select a total of 128 extension agents (EAs) from the State. Data on the effects of various needs/motivational theories (as Maslows' needs hierarchy theory, ...

  14. Cutting down substance abuse--present state and visions among surgeons and nurses. (United States)

    Lappalainen-Lehto, Riitta; Seppä, Kaija; Nordback, Isto


    Although substance abuse is variably common among surgical patients, detection of the problem and brief interventions are seldom undertaken. The aim of the present study was to assess surgeons' and nurses' activity in screening substance abuse among their patients and obstacles concerning intervention of patients with substance abuse. Surgeons and nurses of The Department of Surgery, Tampere University Hospital were asked to predict if the surgical patients treated during a 24-h period (n=211) had a substance abuse disorder. This was compared to the patients' self-reports based on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and questions about use of other substances. The surgeons and the nurses were also asked to complete a questionnaire related to interventions of patients with substance abuse; perceived knowledge, skills, attitudes and obstacles. Of the surgical patients, 47 (22%) proved to be substance abusers. Out of them, 23% were detected by surgeons and nurses. Of the surgeons (n=44) 83% and of the nurses (n=332) 84% perceived responsibility for intervention but claimed many obstacles. Nurses reported the lack of knowledge as the main obstacle. Of the nurses 18% reported enough knowledge to conduct the whole brief intervention compared to 34% of surgeons (p=0.021). The main obstacle reported by surgeons was the lack of time. Surgeons and nurses detect only minority of the substance abusing surgical patients. Lack of knowledge and time prevent intervening in patients' substance abuse. These results may be utilized when developing a program to better involve surgeons and nurses in detection and intervention of surgical patients' substance abuse.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotarska Katarzyna


    Full Text Available Introduction. Health behaviours, such as physical activity, are important elements in human life. They are particularly significant and crucial for the elderly in adapting to the new challenges in their daily life. One important indicator of the health status of individuals in the post-working age is its self-assessment. The aim of the study was to determine the self-assessment of the health status of people aged 45-89 years physically active at present and in the past. Material and methods. The research was based on purposeful sampling and was carried out as part of courses related to the physical mobilisation of elderly people held at the Poznań Academy of Physical Education faculty in Gorzów Wielkopolski and at the Faculty of Physical Culture and Health Promotion at the University of Szczecin. The research involved 300 parents and grandparents of the students taking courses at the two universities. Data were collected by means of a diagnostic survey carried out using questionnaires and interviews. Results. Women constituted the majority of respondents and had a higher self-assessment of their health than the men in each age group. The highest self-assessments were reported by urban dwellers, parents, and younger people. People who were physically active (currently and previously - practising sports, travelling, going away on holiday, and taking care of their health (by doing rehabilitation or going to a sanatorium - or professionally active also had a higher self-assessment of their health. Conclusions. Studying the elderly is important not only for diagnosing diseases but also for identifying prevention activities. Knowledge of the types of behaviour that are conducive to health and ways of modifying them, supported by positive behaviour patterns, should contribute to improving the health of society.

  16. OPCW-The Hague Award Presented at 19th Conference of States Parties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    On 1 December 2014, the opening day of the Nineteenth Session of the Conference of the States Parties of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons at the headquaters of the OPCW in The Hague, Dr. Robert Mathews (Australia...

  17. Independent Assessment of Technology Characterizations to Support the Biomass Program Annual State-of-Technology Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, B.


    This report discusses an investigation that addressed two thermochemical conversion pathways for the production of liquid fuels and addressed the steps to the process, the technology providers, a method for determining the state of technology and a tool to continuously assess the state of technology. This report summarizes the findings of the investigation as well as recommendations for improvements for future studies.

  18. Assessing Outside the Bubble: Performance Assessment for Common Core State Standards (United States)

    Bishop, Jesica M.; Bristow, Lora J.; Coriell, Bryn P.; Jensen, Mark E.; Johnson, Leif E.; Luring, Sara R.; Lyons-Tinsley, Mary Ann; Mefford, Megan M.; Neu, Gwen L.; Samulski, Emerson T.; Warner, Timothy D.; White, Mathew F.


    The adoption of Common Core State Standards has increased the need for assessments capable of measuring more performance-based outcomes. This monograph brings together the current literature and resources for the development and implementation of performance assessment. The text was written as part of a project-based graduate course and has…

  19. Psychosocial Assessment of Self-Harm Patients and Risk of Repeat Presentation: An Instrumental Variable Analysis Using Time of Hospital Presentation. (United States)

    Carroll, Robert; Metcalfe, Chris; Steeg, Sarah; Davies, Neil M; Cooper, Jayne; Kapur, Nav; Gunnell, David


    Clinical guidelines have recommended psychosocial assessment of self-harm patients for years, yet estimates of its impact on the risk of repeat self-harm vary. Assessing the association of psychosocial assessment with risk of repeat self-harm is challenging due to the effects of confounding by indication. We analysed data from a cohort study of 15,113 patients presenting to the emergency departments of three UK hospitals to investigate the association of psychosocial assessment with risk of repeat hospital presentation for self-harm. Time of day of hospital presentation was used as an instrument for psychosocial assessment, attempting to control for confounding by indication. Conventional regression analysis suggested psychosocial assessment was not associated with risk of repeat self-harm within 12 months (Risk Difference (RD) 0.00 95% confidence interval (95%CI) -0.01 to 0.02). In contrast, IV analysis suggested risk of repeat self-harm was reduced by 18% (RD -0.18, 95%CI -0.32 to -0.03) in those patients receiving a psychosocial assessment. However, the instrument of time of day did not remove all potential effects of confounding by indication, suggesting the IV effect estimate may be biased. We found that psychosocial assessments reduce risk of repeat self-harm. This is in-line with other non-randomised studies based on populations in which allocation to assessment was less subject to confounding by indication. However, as our instrument did not fully balance important confounders across time of day, the IV effect estimate should be interpreted with caution.

  20. Patterns of presentations at a free eye clinic in an urban state hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Aug 4, 2012 ... welders, Nigerian factory workers, and peasant farmers.[4-6]. The environment could affect the prevalence of ... The hospital runs a free eye care program for all citizens in the State that require eye care. ... The extracted data were analyzed using SPSS 15 software. Summary statistics using mean or median ...

  1. Geothermal energy development in the eastern United States. Papers presented: Geothermal Resources Council Annual Meeting (United States)


    Topic areas covered include: technical assistance (hydrothermal resource application in the eastern United States); GRITS - a computer model for economic evaluation of direct-uses of geothermal energy; geothermal market penetration in the residential sector - capital stock impediments and compensatory incentives; an analysis of benefits and costs of accelerated market penetration by a geothermal community heating system.

  2. The Present State of the Business Law Education of Accounting Students: The Business Law Professor's Perspective (United States)

    Kocakulah, Mehmet C.; Austill, A. David; Long, Brett


    The article aims to provide Certified Public Accountant (CPA) candidates, accounting faculty, the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA), and the state boards of accountancy with an insight into the business law professor's perspective concerning the legal education of accountants. This article first describes various factors,…

  3. Florida State University Work Plan Presentation for 2014-15 Board of Governors Review (United States)

    Board of Governors, State University System of Florida, 2014


    The State University System of Florida has developed three tools that aid in guiding the System's future: (1) The Board of Governors' new "Strategic Plan 2012-2025" is driven by goals and associated metrics that stake out where the System is headed; (2) The Board's "Annual Accountability Report" provides yearly tracking for how…

  4. A state-impact-state methodology for assessing environmental impact in land use planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Longgao [Institute of land resources, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Yang, Xiaoyan [Institute of land resources, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116 (China); School of Environmental Science and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Chen, Longqian, E-mail: [School of Environmental Science and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Potter, Rebecca; Li, Yingkui [Department of Geography, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)


    The implementation of land use planning (LUP) has a large impact on environmental quality. There lacks a widely accepted and consolidated approach to assess the LUP environmental impact using Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). In this paper, we developed a state-impact-state (SIS) model employed in the LUP environmental impact assessment (LUPEA). With the usage of Matter-element (ME) and Extenics method, the methodology based on the SIS model was established and applied in the LUPEA of Zoucheng County, China. The results show that: (1) this methodology provides an intuitive and easy understanding logical model for both the theoretical analysis and application of LUPEA; (2) the spatial multi-temporal assessment from base year, near-future year to planning target year suggests the positive impact on the environmental quality in the whole County despite certain environmental degradation in some towns; (3) besides the spatial assessment, other achievements including the environmental elements influenced by land use and their weights, the identification of key indicators in LUPEA, and the appropriate environmental mitigation measures were obtained; and (4) this methodology can be used to achieve multi-temporal assessment of LUP environmental impact of County or Town level in other areas. - Highlights: • A State-Impact-State model for Land Use Planning Environmental Assessment (LUPEA). • Matter-element (ME) and Extenics methods were embedded in the LUPEA. • The model was applied to the LUPEA of Zoucheng County. • The assessment shows improving environment quality since 2000 in Zoucheng County. • The method provides a useful tool for the LUPEA in the county level.

  5. Real-time assessment of breast surgical margins with fluorescence-guided microscopy (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Iftimia, Nicusor V.; Park, Jesung; Maguluri, Gopi N.; Krishnamurthy, Savitri


    A novel multimodal optical imaging approach for real-time assessment of surgical margins on breast cancer lumpectomy specimens is presented. Our approach is to target cancer cells using an optically silent peptide substrate containing two (NIR) fluorochromes, internally quenched, which are cleaved by highly expressed breast cancer enzymes, like urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA). Thus this agent becomes highly fluorescent only on the cancer area when the specimen is excited by a NIR laser beam. A fluorescence imager is used to highlight cancer-suspect margins on the surgical specimen, while high-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging is used to visualize tissue morphology on the highlighted areas and confirm or rule out cancer presence. This technology will hopefully increase the success rate of cancer surgeries, reduce the risk of cancer recurrence and significantly reduce US healthcare costs.

  6. Assessing thrombocytopenia in the intensive care unit: the past, present, and future. (United States)

    Zarychanski, Ryan; Houston, Donald S


    Thrombocytopenia is common among patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Multiple pathophysiological mechanisms may contribute, including thrombin-mediated platelet activation, dilution, hemophagocytosis, extracellular histones, ADAMTS13 deficiency, and complement activation. From the clinical perspective, the development of thrombocytopenia in the ICU usually indicates serious organ system derangement and physiologic decompensation rather than a primary hematologic disorder. Thrombocytopenia is associated with bleeding, transfusion, and adverse clinical outcomes including death, though few deaths are directly attributable to bleeding. The assessment of thrombocytopenia begins by looking back to the patient's medical history and presenting illness. This past information, combined with careful observation of the platelet trajectory in the context of the patient's clinical course, offers clues to the diagnosis and prognosis. Management is primarily directed at the underlying disorder and transfusion of platelets to prevent or treat clinical bleeding. Optimal platelet transfusion strategies are not defined, and a conservative approach is recommended. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology. All rights reserved.

  7. Preliminary Assessment of Spatial Competition in the Market for E85: Presentation Supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clinton, Bentley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Johnson, Caley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moriarty, Kristi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, Emily [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, Laura [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Anecdotal evidence suggests retail E85 prices may track retail gasoline prices rather than wholesale costs. This indicates E85 prices may be higher than they would be if priced on a cost basis hence limiting adoption by some price-sensitive consumers. Using publicly available and proprietary E85 and regular gasoline price data, we examine pricing behavior in the market for E85. Specifically, we assess the extent to which local retail competition in E85 markets decreases E85 retail prices. Results of econometric analysis suggest that higher levels of retail competition (measured in terms of station density) are associated with lower E85 prices at the pump. While more precise causal estimates may be produced from more comprehensive data, this study is the first to our knowledge that estimates the spatial competition dimension of E85 pricing behavior by firms. This technical report elaborates on a related presentation.

  8. The evolution and present state of the theory of interest groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Kanevskiy


    Full Text Available Interest groups theory holds a remarkable place in the subject of the political sociology. Evolving through multiple methodological disputes it finally became of the cores for study of the political process and decision making. Wherein, among some other political-sociological sub-disciplines, interest groups theory keeps progressing in the XXI century. This article is dedicated to analyses of different approaches for interest groups research and current state of the theory.

  9. Gender, Party, and Presentation of Family in the Social Media Profiles of 10 State Legislatures


    Cook, James M


    Recent research has identified neither consistent gendered stereotypes about legislators among constituents, nor a link between legislators’ gender and their electoral success, nor consistent gender coalitions in legislative voting and co-sponsorship. However, it would be premature to declare that gender is irrelevant to legislative politics. This article considers state legislators’ choice to discuss or omit family in their social media profiles and interprets the choice as a gendered presen...

  10. Objective assessment of the human visual attentional state. (United States)

    Willeford, Kevin T; Ciuffreda, Kenneth J; Yadav, Naveen K; Ludlam, Diana P


    The purpose of this study was to develop an objective way to assess human visual attention using the alpha-band component of the visual-evoked potential (VEP). Six different attentional conditions were tested: eyes-open, eyes-closed, eyes-closed with backwards number counting, and three rapid-serial visual presentation (RSVP) tasks. Eighteen visually normal, young-adult subjects (ages 21-28 years) were tested binocularly at 1 m for each condition on two separate days. The Diopsys™ NOVA-TR system was used to obtain the visual-evoked potential (VEP) and extracted alpha wave and its related power spectrum. Additionally, the Visual Search and Attention Test (VSAT) was administered as a subjective measure of visual attention. Subjects exhibited significant decreases in power in the alpha band when comparing the eyes-closed with the eyes-open conditions, with power in the eyes-closed condition being, on average, twice as large. The response from the other four conditions did not reflect the differential attentional demands. The ratio of the power in the eyes-closed condition to the eyes-open condition in the lower-alpha frequencies (8-10 Hz) was found to be significantly correlated with the group's performance on the VSAT, especially the 10-Hz component. An individual's ability to attenuate their alpha component during visual processing may be a predictor of their visual attentional state. These findings solidify the role of the VEP alpha subcomponent as an objective electrophysiological correlate of visual attention, which may be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of human visual attention disorders in the future.

  11. Comprehensive Care Plan Development Using Resident Assessment Instrument Framework: Past, Present, and Future Practices. (United States)

    Dellefield, Mary Ellen; Corazzini, Kirsten


    Development of the comprehensive care plan (CCP) is a requirement for nursing homes participating in the federal Medicare and Medicaid programs, referred to as skilled nursing facilities. The plan must be developed within the context of the comprehensive interdisciplinary assessment framework-the Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI). Consistent compliance with this requirement has been difficult to achieve. To improve the quality of CCP development within this framework, an increased understanding of complex factors contributing to inconsistent compliance is required. In this commentary, we examine the history of the comprehensive care plan; its development within the RAI framework; linkages between the RAI and registered nurse staffing; empirical evidence of the CCP's efficacy; and the limitations of extant standards of practices in CCP development. Because of the registered nurse's educational preparation, professional practice standards, and licensure obligations, the essential contributions of professional nurses in CCP development are emphasized. Recommendations for evidence-based micro and macro level practice changes with the potential to improve the quality of CCP development and regulatory compliance are presented. Suggestions for future research are given.

  12. Comprehensive Care Plan Development Using Resident Assessment Instrument Framework: Past, Present, and Future Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Ellen Dellefield


    Full Text Available Development of the comprehensive care plan (CCP is a requirement for nursing homes participating in the federal Medicare and Medicaid programs, referred to as skilled nursing facilities. The plan must be developed within the context of the comprehensive interdisciplinary assessment framework—the Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI. Consistent compliance with this requirement has been difficult to achieve. To improve the quality of CCP development within this framework, an increased understanding of complex factors contributing to inconsistent compliance is required. In this commentary, we examine the history of the comprehensive care plan; its development within the RAI framework; linkages between the RAI and registered nurse staffing; empirical evidence of the CCP’s efficacy; and the limitations of extant standards of practices in CCP development. Because of the registered nurse’s educational preparation, professional practice standards, and licensure obligations, the essential contributions of professional nurses in CCP development are emphasized. Recommendations for evidence-based micro and macro level practice changes with the potential to improve the quality of CCP development and regulatory compliance are presented. Suggestions for future research are given.

  13. Atrial lesion transmurality assessment using multi-fiber diffuse reflectance (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Singh-Moon, Rajinder P.; Hendon, Christine P.


    In non-pharmacological treatment of cardiac arrhythmias such as catheter ablation therapy, long-term treatment effectiveness is related in part to the quality of lesion generation. Superficial lesions may lead to arrhythmia recurrence by allowing recovery along conduction channels for arrhythmic impulses to propagate; conversely transmural lesions inhibit conduction. Conventional techniques rely on measurement of surrogate parameters such as change in bioelectrical impedance, or electrogram amplitude dampening as a qualitative assessment for lesion size. In previous work, we've demonstrated a relationship between lesion dimensions and spectroscopic parameters extracted using an optically-integrated ablation catheter. Though these metrics present some trend, a method to directly assess lesion transmurality maybe better suited. In this work, we report a method for direct recovery of lesion depth in cardiac tissue using diffusely reflected optical measurements and present initial in silico validation. Photon transport throughout a heterogeneous volume was simulated for a series of source-detector pairs and optical properties using a GPU-based Monte Carlo (MC) code. Results were used to generate a multi-dimensional look-up table for each collection geometry for partial to transmural lesions. A genetic algorithm-based two-step inversion method was employed to extract lesion transmurality. MC simulated optical measurements for various lesion sizes were generated using optical properties for ablated and normal cardiac tissue found in literature and were fitted using our algorithm. Recovered lesion depths ranged between 2-10% for lesions less than 3mm and were within 20% for lesions greater than 4mm. These results support the application of this technique for lesion validation for atrial tissue.

  14. Microbial Community Assessment in Wetlands for Water Pollution Control: Past, Present, and Future Outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kela P. Weber


    Full Text Available The field of treatment wetlands (TWs is rapidly expanding and, arguably, is tasked with studying and understanding one of the most complex water treatment systems available. Microbial communities are generally considered to be responsible for the majority of wastewater constituent degradation in TWs. However, they are also known to be spatially heterogeneous, temporally dynamic, as well as structurally and functionally diverse. Presented here is a meta-analysis of all peer reviewed TW journal articles which utilized a microbial community assessment methodology over the period of 1988 to July 2016. A total of 1101 papers were reviewed, 512 from 1988 to 2012, 215 of which included a microbial community assessment aspect and were subsequently classified as representing past research, and 589 from 2013 to July 2016, 196 of which were classified as representing current TW microbial community research. In general, TW microbial community research has increased over time, with a marked surge in the past four years. Microbial community structure is currently the most commonly used methodological type followed by activity, enumeration and function, respectively. Areas of research focus included nitrogen transformations (156, organic degradation (33, and emerging contaminants (32, with general characterization studies also accounting for a significant proportion (243. Microbial communities from a range of TW systems have been investigated over the last four years with meso-scale (10–1000 L being the most commonly studied system size followed by large-scale (>100,000 L, micro-scale (<10 L, and pilot-scale (1000–100,000 L. Free water surface flow (SF, horizontal subsurface flow (HF, and vertical flow (VF systems are being studied in approximately equal proportions with the majority of studies focused on gaining fixed media/biofilm samples for analysis (rather than from the rhizosphere or interstitial water. Looking at efforts from a regional perspective

  15. Dangerousness and risk assessment: the state of the art. (United States)

    Bauer, Arie; Rosca, Paula; Khawalled, Razak; Gruzniewski, Adrian; Grinshpoon, Alex


    Risk or dangerousness is an issue which burdens the minds of all mental health and law enforcement professionals. Researchers have attempted to define its extent and constituent elements and to predict and assess it. Risk assessment is a complex task, influenced by the interaction of many variables, such as previous pattern of violence, biological, sociological and psychological factors, divided into facilitating and inhibiting factors. In our paper we discuss the theoretical concepts linked with dangerousness prediction and assessment, and then review the "first" and "second" generations of literature on dangerousness and risk assessment, including the actuarial instruments. We then present the current trends in the field, concentrating on the correlation between dangerousness and mental disorders, dangerousness analysis and risk management, a wider concept including prevention, treatment and communication of risk. Although great progress has been made in this field, there are still many unresolved issues, among them the development of valid instruments for the assessment of risk.

  16. Employing Computer Assisted Assessment (CAA to facilitate formative assessment in the State Secondary School: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effimia Karagianni


    Full Text Available Based on theories of assessment as well as on the pedagogical and administrative advantages Computer Assisted Assessment (CAA has to offer in foreign language learning, the study presented in this paper examines how computers can facilitate the formative assessment of EFL learners and enhance their feeling of responsibility towards monitoring their progress. The subjects of the study were twenty five 14-year-old students attending the third class of a State Gymnasium in Greece. The instruments utilized were questionnaires on motivation and learning styles, three quizzes designed with the software Hot Potatoes, a self–assessment questionnaire and an evaluation questionnaire showing the subjects’ attitudes towards the experience of using computers for assessing purposes. After reviewing formative assessment, CAA and how these two can be combined, the paper focuses on the description of the three class quizzes used in the study. Ιnformation from the questionnaires filled in by students combined with the results of the quizzes, shows how computers can be used to provide continuous ongoing measurement of students’ progress needed for formative assessment. The results are also used to show how students and teachers can benefit from formative CAA and the extent to which such kind of assessment could be applicable in the Greek state school reality.

  17. 34 CFR 403.203 - What are the State's responsibilities for a State assessment? (United States)


    ... (including skills in the areas of mathematics, reading, writing, science, and social studies) in a... leading to both academic and occupational competencies. (3) Increased student work skill attainment and... considered appropriate by the State board. (e) The assessment must include an analysis of— (1) The relative...

  18. Assessing validity of a short food frequency questionnaire on present dietary intake of elderly Icelanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eysteinsdottir Tinna


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies exist on the validity of food frequency questionnaires (FFQs administered to elderly people. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of a short FFQ on present dietary intake, developed specially for the AGES-Reykjavik Study, which includes 5,764 elderly individuals. Assessing the validity of FFQs is essential before they are used in studies on diet-related disease risk and health outcomes. Method 128 healthy elderly participants (74 y ± 5.7; 58.6% female answered the AGES-FFQ, and subsequently filled out a 3-day weighed food record. Validity of the AGES-FFQ was assessed by comparing its answers to the dietary data obtained from the weighed food records, using Spearman's rank correlation, Chi-Square/Kendall's tau, and a Jonckheere-Terpstra test for trend. Result For men a correlation ≥ 0.4 was found for potatoes, fresh fruits, oatmeal/muesli, cakes/cookies, candy, dairy products, milk, pure fruit juice, cod liver oil, coffee, tea and sugar in coffee/tea (r = 0.40-0.71. A lower, but acceptable, correlation was also found for raw vegetables (r = 0.33. The highest correlation for women was found for consumption of rye bread, oatmeal/muesli, raw vegetables, candy, dairy products, milk, pure fruit juice, cod liver oil, coffee and tea (r = 0.40-0.61. An acceptable correlation was also found for fish topping/salad, fresh fruit, blood/liver sausage, whole-wheat bread, and sugar in coffee/tea (r = 0.28-0.37. Questions on meat/fish meals, cooked vegetables and soft drinks did not show a significant correlation to the reference method. Pearson Chi-Square and Kendall's tau showed similar results, as did the Jonckheere-Terpstra trend test. Conclusion A majority of the questions in the AGES-FFQ had an acceptable correlation and may be used to rank individuals according to their level of intake of several important foods/food groups. The AGES-FFQ on present diet may therefore be used to study the relationship between

  19. Assessing validity of a short food frequency questionnaire on present dietary intake of elderly Icelanders (United States)


    Background Few studies exist on the validity of food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) administered to elderly people. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of a short FFQ on present dietary intake, developed specially for the AGES-Reykjavik Study, which includes 5,764 elderly individuals. Assessing the validity of FFQs is essential before they are used in studies on diet-related disease risk and health outcomes. Method 128 healthy elderly participants (74 y ± 5.7; 58.6% female) answered the AGES-FFQ, and subsequently filled out a 3-day weighed food record. Validity of the AGES-FFQ was assessed by comparing its answers to the dietary data obtained from the weighed food records, using Spearman's rank correlation, Chi-Square/Kendall's tau, and a Jonckheere-Terpstra test for trend. Result For men a correlation ≥ 0.4 was found for potatoes, fresh fruits, oatmeal/muesli, cakes/cookies, candy, dairy products, milk, pure fruit juice, cod liver oil, coffee, tea and sugar in coffee/tea (r = 0.40-0.71). A lower, but acceptable, correlation was also found for raw vegetables (r = 0.33). The highest correlation for women was found for consumption of rye bread, oatmeal/muesli, raw vegetables, candy, dairy products, milk, pure fruit juice, cod liver oil, coffee and tea (r = 0.40-0.61). An acceptable correlation was also found for fish topping/salad, fresh fruit, blood/liver sausage, whole-wheat bread, and sugar in coffee/tea (r = 0.28-0.37). Questions on meat/fish meals, cooked vegetables and soft drinks did not show a significant correlation to the reference method. Pearson Chi-Square and Kendall's tau showed similar results, as did the Jonckheere-Terpstra trend test. Conclusion A majority of the questions in the AGES-FFQ had an acceptable correlation and may be used to rank individuals according to their level of intake of several important foods/food groups. The AGES-FFQ on present diet may therefore be used to study the relationship between consumption of several

  20. Estrogenic endocrine disruptors present in sports supplements. A risk assessment for human health. (United States)

    Plotan, Monika; Elliott, Christopher T; Frizzell, Caroline; Connolly, Lisa


    Sports supplements are becoming a regular dietary addition for consumers who view such products as a means of improving their health and performance. Previously estrogenic endocrine disruptors (EDs) were detected in 80% of 116 sports supplements investigated by biological in vitro reporter gene assays (RGAs). The aim of this study was to quantify the hormonal activity in 50 of these sports supplement samples using a validated estrogen RGA and perform an exposure and risk assessment for human health. Results showed that 17β-estradiol equivalent levels were higher than those reported as being present in the typical human omnivore diet in 33 of the sports supplements and higher than the acceptable daily intake (ADI) in 13 of these products. The highest activity samples presented a potential to influence the human daily exposure to 17β-estradiol like activity in various risk groups with a predicted hormonal impact of greatest concern in young boys and postmenopausal women. In conclusion, consumers of sports supplements may be exposed to high levels of estrogenic EDs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of Political Vulnerabilities on Security of Energy Supply in the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Česnakas Giedrius


    Full Text Available The article argues that despite the evident link between political environment and security of energy supply, political elements are not sufficiently represented in contemporary scientific literature, namely in indexes that are designed for the assessment of security of energy supply. In an attempt to fill this gap, the article presents an innovative methodology for quantitative assessment of the political vulnerabilities on security of energy supply and applies it to the analysis of the Baltic States.

  2. An assessment of training needs for the lumber manufacturing industry in the eastern United States (United States)

    Joseph Denig; Scott Page; Yuhua Su; Karen Martinson


    A training needs assessment of the primary forest products industry was conducted for 33 eastern states. his publication presents in detail the statistical analysis of the study. Of the 2,570 lumber manufacturing companies, consisting of firms with more than six employees for the U.S. Department of Labor Standard Industrial Classification Code 2421, the response rate...

  3. CD4 count at presentation for HIV care in the United States and Canada: Are those over 50 years more likely to have a delayed presentation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverberg Michael J


    Full Text Available Abstract We assessed CD4 count at initial presentation for HIV care among ≥50-year-olds from 1997-2007 in 13 US and Canadian clinical cohorts and compared to 3 and 95% confidence intervals ([,] were determined using linear regression stratified by age category and adjusted for gender, race/ethnicity, HIV transmission risk and cohort. From 1997-2007, the proportion of individuals presenting for HIV care who were ≥50-years-old increased from 17% to 27% (p-value 3; ≥50-year-olds: 7 [5 , 9] cells/mm3, after adjusting for sex, race/ethnicity, HIV transmission risk group and cohort; however, increases in the two groups were similar after 2000. A greater proportion of older individuals had an AIDS-defining diagnosis at, or within three months prior to, first presentation for HIV care compared to younger individuals (13% vs. 10%, respectively. Due to the increasing proportion, consistently lower CD4 counts, and more advanced HIV disease in adults ≥50-year-old at first presentation for HIV care, renewed HIV testing efforts are needed.

  4. Assessing state-level active living promotion using network analysis. (United States)

    Buchthal, Opal Vanessa; Taniguchi, Nicole; Iskandar, Livia; Maddock, Jay


    Physical inactivity is a growing problem in the United States, one that is being addressed through the development of active living communities. However, active living promotion requires collaboration among organizations that may not have previously shared goals. A network analysis was conducted to assess Hawaii's active living promotion network. Twenty-six organizations playing a significant role in promoting active living in Hawaii were identified and surveyed about their frequency of contact, level of collaboration, and funding flow with other agencies. A communication network was identified linking all agencies. This network had many long pathways, impeding information flow. The Department of Health (DOH) and the State Nutrition and Physical Activity Coalition (NPAC) were central nodes, but DOH connected state agencies while NPAC linked county and voluntary organizations. Within the network, information sharing was common, but collaboration and formal partnership were low. Linkages between county and state agencies, between counties, and between state agencies with different core agendas were particularly low. Results suggest that in the early stages of development, active living networks may be divided by geography and core missions, requiring work to bridge these divides. Network mapping appears helpful in identifying areas for network development.

  5. Chemotherapy in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer: the present state of the problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ya. Alekseev


    Full Text Available The paper reviews the current possibilities of cytostatic chemotherapy in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. It gives the data of studies dealing with the early use of docetaxel in patents with hormone-susceptible tumors and analyzes approaches to sequential therapy with docetaxel, cabazitaxel, and antiandrogens (abiraterone, enzalutamide in patients with castration-refractory prostate cancer. Assessment of the prognostic role of different clinical and biological factors could provide an algorithm for the choice of first- and second-line therapy in patients with castration resistance.

  6. Chemical food safety issues in the United States: past, present, and future. (United States)

    Jackson, Lauren S


    Considerable advances have been made over the past century in the understanding of the chemical hazards in food and ways for assessing and managing these risks. At the turn of the 20th century, many Americans were exposed to foods adulterated with toxic compounds. In the 1920s the increasing use of insecticides led to concerns of chronic ingestion of heavy metals such as lead and arsenic from residues remaining on crops. By the 1930s, a variety of agrochemicals were commonly used, and food additives were becoming common in processed foods. During the 1940s and 1950s advances were made in toxicology, and more systematic approaches were adopted for evaluating the safety of chemical contaminants in food. Modern gas chromatography and liquid chromatography, both invented in the 1950s and 1960s, were responsible for progress in detecting, quantifying, and assessing the risk of food contaminants and adulterants. In recent decades, chemical food safety issues that have been the center of media attention include the presence of natural toxins, processing-produced toxins (e.g., acrylamide, heterocyclic aromatic amines, and furan), food allergens, heavy metals (e.g., lead, arsenic, mercury, cadmium), industrial chemicals (e.g., benzene, perchlorate), contaminants from packaging materials, and unconventional contaminants (melamine) in food and feed. Due to the global nature of the food supply and advances in analytical capabilities, chemical contaminants will continue to be an area of concern for regulatory agencies, the food industry, and consumers in the future.

  7. Analysis of the astronomical concepts presented by teachers of some state schools (United States)

    Gonzaga, E. P.; Voelzke, M. R.


    Many Basic Education's teachers (EB) don't deal concepts related to astronomy and when they do so, they just follow didactic books which contain many conceptual errors. Astronomy is one of the contents taught in the EB and is part of the curriculum proposed by the Education Department of the State of São Paulo. With the intention to minimise some deficiencies, a University Extension Course for teachers of the Diretoria de Ensino Regional (Mauá, Ribeirão Pires and Rio Grande da Serra) was conducted with the following objectives: to raise alternative conceptions, to subsidise teachers by means of lectures, discussions and workshops, and to check the learning after the course. Therefore, sixteen questions were applied before and after the course. The results were quite satisfactory.

  8. Nonfatal tractor-related injuries presenting to a state trauma system. (United States)

    Swanton, Amanda R; Young, Tracy L; Leinenkugel, Kathy; Torner, James C; Peek-Asa, Corinne


    To identify tractor-related injuries using data from a statewide trauma system, to characterize the mechanisms of nonfatal tractor-related injury, and to determine which injuries are associated with higher severity injury. A retrospective observational study was conducted using the Iowa State Trauma Registry to identify cases of nonfatal tractor-related injuries over an 11-year period from 2002 to 2012. Frequency of injury was reported by age, sex, severity, and nature. Injuries were classified by mechanism and a polytomous regression model was used to predict injury severity adjusting for sex and age. Five-hundred thirteen nonfatal tractor-related injuries were identified with 18% classified as severe. Injuries were most frequent among males and among those ≥45years of age. Rollovers were the most frequent mechanism of both total (25%) and severe injury (38%), although the frequency of injury mechanism varied by age. Falls were the next most frequent mechanism of injury (20%) but resulted in fewer high-severity injuries. Collision (adjOR=1.89, 95% CI=1.01-3.51), rollover (adjOR=2.03, 95% CI=1.21-3.40), and run over/rolled on (adjOR=2.06, 95% CI=1.17-3.62) injuries were significantly associated with higher injury severity. Advanced age was also a significant predictor of higher severity injury (adjOR=1.82, 95% CI=1.06-3.12). Mechanisms of nonfatal tractor-related injuries are heterogeneous, differ by age, and are associated with varying level of severity. This work shows the burden of nonfatal tractor injuries on a rural state trauma system. These findings also demonstrate the heterogeneous nature of nonfatal tractor injuries and underscore the need for a multi-level approaches to injury prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Appropriate use of psychotropic drugs in institutionalized elderly presenting acute confusional state (delirium)]. (United States)

    Pepersack, T; Beernaert, L; Allegre, S; Vandenbroucke, A; Brand, D; Namias, B; Praet, J P


    Delirium (acute confusion) is a common, morbid, and costly geriatric syndrome that affects onethird of hospitalized older adults. As evidence mounts that delirium may persist for weeks to months, concern about delirium can no longer be restricted to acute hospitals. We present a review about non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic management of delirium in institution.

  10. Assessment of geothermal resources of the United States, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muffler, L.J.P. (ed.)


    The geothermal resource assessment presented is a refinement and updating of USGS Circular 726. Nonproprietary information available in June 1978 is used to assess geothermal energy in the ground and, when possible, to evaluate the fraction that might be recovered at the surface. Five categories of geothermal energy are discussed: conduction-dominated regimes, igneous-related geothermal systems, high-temperature (> 150/sup 0/C) and intermediate-temperature (90 to 150/sup 0/C) hydrothermal convection systems, low-temperature (< 90/sup 0/C) geothermal waters, and geopressured-geothermal energy (both thermal energy and energy from dissolved methane). Assessment data are presented on three colored maps prepared in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Separate abstracts were prepared for papers on these five categories.

  11. Reporting quality of abstracts presented at the European Association of Urology meeting: a critical assessment. (United States)

    De Sio, Marco; Yakoubi, Rachid; De Nunzio, Cosimo; Damiano, Rocco; Balsamo, Raffaele; Di Palma, Camine; Cantiello, Francesco; Azzarito, Giuseppina; Mirone, Vicenzo; Tubaro, Andrea; Autorino, Riccardo


    We assessed the reporting quality of randomized and nonrandomized, controlled trials presented in abstract form at the European Association of Urology annual meeting in a 10-year period and determined the impact on subsequent publication. Abstracts presented at the European Association of Urology annual meetings in 1998, 1999, 2008 and 2009 were retrieved and included in analysis. Two 2-year meeting periods were considered, including 1) 1998 and 1999, and 2) 2008 and 2009. Two standardized forms were constructed based on the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) and STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology) guidelines, each including 15 and 16 items for randomized and nonrandomized, controlled trials, respectively. Reporting quality was assessed by measuring the proportion of items respected by authors when preparing the abstract, defined as the score ratio. Subsequent full-length publication within 2 years after the meeting was also determined by a PubMed® search. Differences between the 2 periods were analyzed by the chi-square and simple t tests. Predictors of subsequent full-length publication were evaluated by multiple logistic regression using meeting period, topic, country of origin, design, multi-institutional study and the proportion of reported items (score ratio). A total of 3,139 abstracts were included in analysis, of which 375 (11.9%) were randomized, controlled trials. Overall oncology represented the main topic (49.2% of all abstracts). The score ratio (proportion of adequately reported items in each abstract) was better for period 1 than 2 for randomized, controlled trials (63% vs 57%) but better for period 2 than 1 for nonrandomized, controlled trials (55.4% vs 53.2%, each p European Association of Urology meeting abstracts did not improve in a decade. Nevertheless, this factor did not impact subsequent full-length publication. Ultimately, the reporting quality of abstracts remains to be improved

  12. AFSC/REFM: North Pacific Groundfish Stock Assessment Chapters, 1998-present (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Members of the Alaska Fisheries Science Center's (AFSC) Stock Assessment and Multispecies Assessments Program are responsible for determining the condition of...

  13. Biopower Technical Assessment: State of the Industry and the Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bain, R. L.; Amos, W. P.; Downing, M.; Perlack, R. L.


    This report provides an assessment of the state of the biopower industry and the technology for producing electricity and heat from biomass. Biopower (biomass-to-electricity generation), a proven electricity generating option in the United States and with about 11 GW of installed capacity, is the single largest source of non-hydro renewable electricity. This 11 GW of capacity encompasses about 7.5 GW of forest product industry and agricultural industry residues, about 3.0 GW of municipal solid waste-based generating capacity and 0.5 GW of other capacity such as landfill gas based production. The electricity production from biomass is being used and is expected to continue to be used as base load power in the existing electrical distribution system. An overview of sector barriers to biopower technology development is examined in Chapter 2. The discussion begins with an analysis of technology barriers that must be overcome to achieve successful technology pathways leading to the commercialization of biomass conversion and feedstock technologies. Next, an examination of institutional barriers is presented which encompasses the underlying policies, regulations, market development, and education needed to ensure the success of biopower. Chapter 3 summarizes biomass feedstock resources, characteristics, availability, delivered prices, requirements for processing, and the impediments and barriers to procurement. A discussion of lessons learned includes information on the California biomass energy industry, lessons from commercial biopower plants, lessons from selected DOE demonstration projects, and a short summary of the issues considered most critical for commercial success is presented in Chapter 4. A series of case studies, Chapter 5, have been performed on the three conversion routes for Combined Heat and Power (CHP) applications of biomass--direct combustion, gasification, and cofiring. The studies are based on technology characterizations developed by NREL and EPRI

  14. The Place of Entrepreneurship in Higher Education – Present State and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iga Kott


    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is one of the main driving forces of the national economies. In Poland, more and more jobs are created in private enterprises, set up and running by entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurs are characterized as people, which seize the opportunity to act, have higher self-esteem and a greater sense of control over their lives, and they, usually become successful people. This causes a widespread conviction, that the promotion of entrepreneurship, may result in maximizing the success of both, individual and in the scale of the national economy as well. Therefore, it becomes important to develop standards in the field of entrepreneurship education, the greater numbers of people would have been able to achieve a professional success. This article presents the essence of the entrepreneurship and the role of education, in entrepreneurship’s excitation or strengthening. Also a practical example of the implementation of these provisions by one of the Polish Universities - Czestochowa University of Technology, is presented.

  15. Long-term marriage patterns in the United States from colonial times to the present. (United States)

    Haines, M R


    The author presents an overview of long-term trends in U.S. nuptiality. "Marriage in colonial North America was notable for being early (for women) and marked by low percentages never marrying.... Between 1800 and the present there have been long cycles in nuptiality. Since about 1800, female age at first marriage rose from relatively low levels to a peak around 1900. Thereupon a gradual decline commenced with a trough being reached about 1960 at the height of the baby boom. There then began another, and rapid, upswing in female marriage age. Proportions never married at ages 45-54 replicated these cycles with a lag of about 20-30 years. Since 1880 (when comprehensive census data became available), male nuptiality patterns have generally paralleled those of women. Male marriage ages were higher than those of females with proportions never marrying also usually higher." excerpt

  16. The Aspirin Foundation Scientific Conference: the history, the present state and the future of aspirin prophylaxis


    Smith, Tom; Elwood, Peter; Keating, Conrad; Rothwell, Peter; Detering, Elmar; Freedman, Andrew; Langley, Ruth; Logan, Richard; Phillips, Ceri; DeCensi, Andrea


    The 2013 Aspirin Foundation Conference covered a range of topics from clinical and medical history, epidemiology, health economics, and the current uses of aspirin in general practice and in the treatment and prevention of cancer. The use of aspirin as primary prevention in people at risk of atherosclerotic events is now well known, but its use as a preventative agent in some cancer types is still under discussion, and data on colorectal and lung cancer were presented at this meeting. The pot...

  17. March to Armageddon: The United States and the nuclear arms race, 1939 to the present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powaski, R.


    This history of the events, forces, and factors that have brought the world to the brink of nuclear holocaust probes two basic questions: what factors perpetuate the nuclear arms race and why is it so difficult to end. Starting with the opening days of World War II, this study traces the escalating arms race up to the present and notes that, while nuclear arsenals continue to grow, nuclear arms treaties are on the verge of collapse.

  18. A novel multisensor traffic state assessment system based on incomplete data. (United States)

    Zeng, Yiliang; Lan, Jinhui; Ran, Bin; Jiang, Yaoliang


    A novel multisensor system with incomplete data is presented for traffic state assessment. The system comprises probe vehicle detection sensors, fixed detection sensors, and traffic state assessment algorithm. First of all, the validity checking of the traffic flow data is taken as preprocessing of this method. And then a new method based on the history data information is proposed to fuse and recover the incomplete data. According to the characteristics of space complementary of data based on the probe vehicle detector and fixed detector, a fusion model of space matching is presented to estimate the mean travel speed of the road. Finally, the traffic flow data include flow, speed and, occupancy rate, which are detected between Beijing Deshengmen bridge and Drum Tower bridge, are fused to assess the traffic state of the road by using the fusion decision model of rough sets and cloud. The accuracy of experiment result can reach more than 98%, and the result is in accordance with the actual road traffic state. This system is effective to assess traffic state, and it is suitable for the urban intelligent transportation system.

  19. A Novel Multisensor Traffic State Assessment System Based on Incomplete Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiliang Zeng


    Full Text Available A novel multisensor system with incomplete data is presented for traffic state assessment. The system comprises probe vehicle detection sensors, fixed detection sensors, and traffic state assessment algorithm. First of all, the validity checking of the traffic flow data is taken as preprocessing of this method. And then a new method based on the history data information is proposed to fuse and recover the incomplete data. According to the characteristics of space complementary of data based on the probe vehicle detector and fixed detector, a fusion model of space matching is presented to estimate the mean travel speed of the road. Finally, the traffic flow data include flow, speed and, occupancy rate, which are detected between Beijing Deshengmen bridge and Drum Tower bridge, are fused to assess the traffic state of the road by using the fusion decision model of rough sets and cloud. The accuracy of experiment result can reach more than 98%, and the result is in accordance with the actual road traffic state. This system is effective to assess traffic state, and it is suitable for the urban intelligent transportation system.

  20. Self-Assessment of Oral Communication Presentations in Food Science and Nutrition (United States)

    Reitmeier, C. A.; Vrchota, D. A.


    Self-assessment allows learners to observe, analyze, and evaluate their own performances. Self-reflection allows the student to assess his or her communication skill level and progress against a standard. Additionally, the implementation of self-assessment through carefully prepared classroom experiences enables learners to manage their own…

  1. The present state and future prospects of occupational therapy using technical aids : From an analysis of Japanese Occupational Therapy Society journals for the last ten years.


    笹田, 哲; 宮前, 珠子


    The present state of occupational therapy using technical aids was assessed by examining journals of the Japanese Occupational Therapy Society for the last ten years. The findings were that occupational therapists offered not only bathing aids and excretion aids, but also locomotion and communication aids. Technical aids manufactured by occupational therapists accounted for a little over 50% of the total number. Of the technical aids which the journals had deemed effective, in 70% of cases pl...

  2. Estimate of the Geothermal Energy Resource in the Major Sedimentary Basins in the United States (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, A.; Porro, C.; Augustine, C.; Roberts, B.


    Because most sedimentary basins have been explored for oil and gas, well logs, temperatures at depth, and reservoir properties such as depth to basement and formation thickness are well known. The availability of this data reduces exploration risk and allows development of geologic exploration models for each basin. This study estimates the magnitude of recoverable geothermal energy from 15 major known U.S. sedimentary basins and ranks these basins relative to their potential. The total available thermal resource for each basin was estimated using the volumetric heat-in-place method originally proposed by (Muffler, 1979). A qualitative recovery factor was determined for each basin based on data on flow volume, hydrothermal recharge, and vertical and horizontal permeability. Total sedimentary thickness maps, stratigraphic columns, cross sections, and temperature gradient information was gathered for each basin from published articles, USGS reports, and state geological survey reports. When published data were insufficient, thermal gradients and reservoir properties were derived from oil and gas well logs obtained on oil and gas commission databases. Basin stratigraphy, structural history, and groundwater circulation patterns were studied in order to develop a model that estimates resource size, temperature distribution, and a probable quantitative recovery factor.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, A.


    The liberalisation of the electricity sector started approximately 10 to 15 years ago, depending on the country. Nonetheless, there is still no general agreement on the liberalisation model this sector should follow, mainly because of the discussion of whether the liberalisation is an end in itself, or a means for -basically- lower energy prices. The complexity of the sector and the resilience of the incumbents' market power have currently placed the liberalisation process at a crossroad. In the EU, entrenched national interests are another obstacle to deal with. In this article, we first give an overview of the different liberalisation processes in the electricity sector and then summarize the pending challenges from an EU perspective. Next, we argue that the EU should focus on conditions aiming at implementing an effective liberalisation process, rather than on a formal liberalisation approach. We show how asymmetries between non-sector regulations in the European states and among companies create an uneven playing field, contrary to the European vision of an internal competitive energy market. We end the article studying the compatibility of the current European regulatory framework with the upcoming challenges in the energy sector. (auth)

  4. A new parameter to simultaneously assess antioxidant activity for multiple phenolic compounds present in food products. (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Xue, Xuejia; Li, Huan; Tay-Chan, Su Chin; Ong, Seng Poon; Tian, Edmund Feng


    In this work, we established a new methodology to simultaneously assess the relative reaction rates of multiple antioxidant compounds in one experimental set-up. This new methodology hypothesizes that the competition among antioxidant compounds towards limiting amount of free radical (in this article, DPPH) would reflect their relative reaction rates. In contrast with the conventional detection of DPPH decrease at 515nm on a spectrophotometer, depletion of antioxidant compounds treated by a series of DPPH concentrations was monitored instead using liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight (LC-QTOF). A new parameter, namely relative antioxidant activity (RAA), has been proposed to rank these antioxidants according to their reaction rate constants. We have investigated the applicability of RAA using pre-mixed standard phenolic compounds, and also extended this application to two food products, i.e. red wine and green tea. It has been found that RAA correlates well with the reported k values. This new parameter, RAA, provides a new perspective in evaluating antioxidant compounds present in food and herbal matrices. It not only realistically reflects the antioxidant activity of compounds when co-existing with competitive constituents; and it could also quicken up the discovery process in the search for potent yet rare antioxidants from many herbs of food/medicinal origins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Preliminary Assessment of Spatial Competition in the Market for E85: Presentation Supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clinton, Bentley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Johnson, Caley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moriarty, Kristi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, Emily [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, Laura [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    The Preliminary Assessment of Spatial Competition in the Market for E85 presentation and supplementary report from the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory examine how the spacing of E85 fueling stations impacts E85 retail pricing. The analysis finds an inverse correlation between station density and E85 prices, with local competition putting downward pressure on E85 prices. A gas station with E85 whose nearest competitor is within a 0.5 mile radius is associated with a lower E85 price per gallon than an otherwise identical station with E85 whose nearest competitor is farther away. The analysis also finds a higher level of correlation between E85 and both E10 and wholesale gasoline prices than with ethanol costs. This indicates that E85 may, in fact, be priced with respect to its substitute fuel, and not based on the cost of its inputs. These findings help identify key trends and barriers in E85 markets and highlight data gaps that, if addressed, could help enable competitive E85 markets. The analysis was released in February 2017 and uses national and Minnesota-specific price data.

  6. Fast full-field OCT assessment of clinical tissue specimens (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Dalimier, Eugénie; Harms, Fabrice; Brossolet, Charles; Benoit, Emilie; Martins, Franck; Boccara, Claude


    Full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) offers a non-invasive method of obtaining images of biological tissues at ultrahigh resolution (1µm in all 3 directions) approaching traditional histological sections. Previous clinical studies have shown the high efficiency of this imaging technique for the detection of cancer on various organs. This promises great potential of the technique for an ex-vivo quick analysis of surgical resections or biopsy specimens, in the aim to help the surgeon/radiologist decide on the course of action. Here we will present some of the latest technical developments on a FFOCT system which can produce 1cm2 images with 1 µm resolution in 1 minute. Larger samples, up to 50mm diameter, can also be imaged. Details on the large sample handling, high-speed image acquisition, optimized scanning, and accelerated GPU tiles stitching will be given. Results on the clinical applications for breast, urology, and digestive tissues will also be given. They highlight the relevance of the system characteristics for the detection of cancer on ex-vivo specimens. FFOCT now appears clearly as a very fast and non-destructive imaging technique that provides a quick assessment of the tissue morphology. With the benefit of both new technical developments and clinical validation, it turned into a mature technique to be implemented in the clinical environment. In particular, the technique holds potential for the fast ex-vivo analysis of excision margins or biopsies in the operating room.



    Bajdor, Paula


    At the moment, the Internet is the fastest growing distribution channel for polish e-commerce market. Compared with the year 2010, the value of e-commerce market increased by 16%. In the year 2011. On the polish e-commerce market currently operates approximately 10 thousand e-shops, in addition to several strong leaders (Merlin, Allegro or Empik) this market is very fragmented. The presented article characterizes the polish e-commerce market and its development perspectives. Based on the surv...

  8. Present State and Future Developments in Mechatronics and it's Influence on Fluid Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Georg Kronborg; Zhou, Jianjun; Conrad, Finn


    with electronics, software and mechanics. This synergetic integration is often called Mechatronics.The topic which is rather widespread will be treated in three sections: I) General overview of mechatronics and fluid power. In this section the general trends of mechatronics in fluid power is considered by relating...... trends in the neighbouring fields of software and electronic hardware to fluid power developments. II) Mechatronic case stories from IKS In this section the results of a conceptual design study : "Design of a frequency converter based hydraulic power supply" is presented together with a more detailed...

  9. State of Law, Governmentality and Democracy in Uruguay: the present and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Moreira


    Full Text Available This paper addresses the functioning of democracy in Uruguay in three stages. In the first, briefly discusses some of the central issues of contemporary debate about the quality of democracy, while the second presents the first findings from an ongoing investigation into the situation of rule of law around five dimensions: public policy and security, judicial administrative, institutional and administrative capacity, transparency and civilian control over security forces. Finally, by way of conclusions, we provide a series of reflections on risk areas of rule of law in Uruguayan democracy.

  10. Assessment of the paraspinal muscles of subjects presenting an idiopathic scoliosis: an EMG pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larivière Christian


    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that the back muscles of scoliotic subjects present abnormalities in their fiber type composition. Some researchers have hypothesized that abnormal fiber composition can lead to paraspinal muscle dysfunction such as poor neuromuscular efficiency and muscle fatigue. EMG parameters were used to evaluate these impairments. The purpose of the present study was to examine the clinical potential of different EMG parameters such as amplitude (RMS and median frequency (MF of the power spectrum in order to assess the back muscles of patients presenting idiopathic scoliosis in terms of their neuromuscular efficiency and their muscular fatigue. Methods L5/S1 moments during isometric efforts in extension were measured in six subjects with idiopathic scoliosis and ten healthy controls. The subjects performed three 7 s ramp contractions ranging from 0 to 100% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC and one 30 s sustained contraction at 75% MVC. Surface EMG activity was recorded bilaterally from the paraspinal muscles at L5, L3, L1 and T10. The slope of the EMG RMS/force (neuromuscular efficiency and MF/force (muscle composition relationships were computed during the ramp contractions while the slope of the EMG RMS/time and MF/time relationships (muscle fatigue were computed during the sustained contraction. Comparisons were performed between the two groups and between the left and right sides for the EMG parameters. Results No significant group or side differences between the slopes of the different measures used were found at the level of the apex (around T10 of the major curve of the spine. However, a significant side difference was seen at a lower level (L3, p = 0.01 for the MF/time parameter. Conclusion The EMG parameters used in this study could not discriminate between the back muscles of scoliotic subjects and those of control subject regarding fiber type composition, neuromuscular efficiency and muscle fatigue at the level

  11. Analysis of the astronomical concepts presented by teachers of some Brazilian state schools (United States)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Pereira Gonzaga, Edwon


    The reason for the development of this work is based on the fact that many teachers of the basic education level (EL) don't deal with concepts related to astronomy, but when they do so they just follow didactic books, which contain many conceptual errors. Astronomy is one of the subjects being taught in the EL and it is part of the proposals of the Education Ministry and the Education Department of the State of São Paulo; but it is a fact that several researchers point out many mistakes in teaching Astronomy. Their purpose is to minimize some deficiencies, and this aim was worked out in an Academical Extension Course for Teachers from the Directorate of Regional (DR) Teaching (Mauá, Ribeirão Pires and Rio Grande da Serra) with the following objectives: to raise alternative conceptions; to provide supplemental instruction of teachers by means of lectures, discussions and workshops, and to check the learning success after the course. Therefore, sixteen questions were applied before and after the course, so that quite satisfactory results could be established afterwards: 100.0% of the teachers knew the names of the phases of the moon, 97.0% understood that the Solar System is composed by eight planets, 78.1% were able to explain how a "Lunar Eclipse" occurs, a "Solar Eclipse" and a "Solstice", 72.7% knew how to explain the occurrence of the seasons of the year; 64.5% explained the occurrence of the equinox correctly, 89.7% were able to define properly the term "comet"; 63.6% defined "Asteroid", 54.5% "meteor"; 58.1% "galaxy", and 42.4% "planet".

  12. Comprehensive Environmental Assessment Applied to Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Flame-Retardant Coatings in Upholstery Textiles: A Case Study Presenting Priority Research Gaps for Future Risk Assessments (Final Report) (United States)

    In September 2013, EPA announced the availability of the final report, Comprehensive Environmental Assessment Applied to Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Flame-Retardant Coatings in Upholstery Textiles: A Case Study Presenting Priority Research Gaps for Future Risk Assessments...

  13. Effects of hippocampal state-contingent trial presentation on hippocampus-dependent nonspatial classical conditioning and extinction. (United States)

    Nokia, Miriam S; Wikgren, Jan


    Hippocampal local field potentials are characterized by two mutually exclusive states: one characterized by regular θ oscillations (∼4-8 Hz) and the other by irregular sharp-wave ripples. Presenting stimuli during dominant θ oscillations leads to expedited learning, suggesting that θ indexes a state in which encoding is most effective. However, ripple-contingent training also expedites learning, suggesting that any discrete brain state, much like the external context, can affect learning. We trained adult rabbits in trace eyeblink conditioning, a hippocampus-dependent nonspatial task, followed by extinction. Trials were delivered either in the presence or absence of θ or regardless of hippocampal state. Conditioning in the absence of θ led to more animals learning, although learning was slower compared with a yoked control group. Contrary to expectations, conditioning in the presence of θ did not affect learning. However, extinction was expedited both when it was conducted contingent on θ and when it was conducted in a state contrary to that used to trigger trials during conditioning. Strong phase-locking of hippocampal θ-band responses to the conditioned stimulus early on during conditioning predicted good learning. No such connection was observed during extinction. Our results suggest that any consistent hippocampal oscillatory state can potentially be used to regulate learning. However, the effects depend on the specific state and task at hand. Finally, much like the external environment, the ongoing neural state appears to act as a context for learning and memory retrieval.

  14. Qualitative Assessments via Infrared Vision of Sub-surface Defects Present Beneath Decorative Surface Coatings (United States)

    Sfarra, Stefano; Fernandes, Henrique C.; López, Fernando; Ibarra-Castanedo, Clemente; Zhang, Hai; Maldague, Xavier


    In this work, the potentialities of the infrared vision to explore sub-superficial defects in polychromatic statues were investigated. In particular, it was possible to understand how the reflector effect of the exterior golden layers could be minimized, applying advanced statistical algorithms to thermal images. Since this noble metal is present as external coating in both artworks, an in-depth discussion concerning its physicochemical properties is also added. In this context, the principal component thermography technique and, the more recent, partial least squares thermography technique were used on three different datasets recorded, providing long thermal stimuli. The main images were compared both to phasegrams and to the thermographic signal reconstruction results in order to have a clear outline of the situation to be debated. The effects of view factors on the radiation transfer linked to the specular reflections from the surface did not falsely highlight certain features inadvertently. Indeed, the raw thermograms were analyzed one by one. Reflectograms were used to pinpoint emissivity variations due to, e. g., possible repainting. The paper concludes that, as it is possible to understand from a physical point of view, the near-infrared reflectography technique is able to examine the state of conservation of the upper layers in cultural heritage objects, while the infrared thermography technique explores them more in-depth. The thesis statement is based on the thermal and nonthermal parts of the infrared region, therefore, indicating what can be detected by heating the surface and what can be visualized by illuminating the surface, bearing in mind the nature of the external coating.

  15. Using Fiction to Assess Mental State Understanding: A New Task for Assessing Theory of Mind in Adults (United States)

    Dodell-Feder, David; Lincoln, Sarah Hope; Coulson, Joseph P.; Hooker, Christine I.


    Social functioning depends on the ability to attribute and reason about the mental states of others – an ability known as theory of mind (ToM). Research in this field is limited by the use of tasks in which ceiling effects are ubiquitous, rendering them insensitive to individual differences in ToM ability and instances of subtle ToM impairment. Here, we present data from a new ToM task – the Short Story Task (SST) - intended to improve upon many aspects of existing ToM measures. More specifically, the SST was designed to: (a) assess the full range of individual differences in ToM ability without suffering from ceiling effects; (b) incorporate a range of mental states of differing complexity, including epistemic states, affective states, and intentions to be inferred from a first- and second-order level; (c) use ToM stimuli representative of real-world social interactions; (d) require participants to utilize social context when making mental state inferences; (e) exhibit adequate psychometric properties; and (f) be quick and easy to administer and score. In the task, participants read a short story and were asked questions that assessed explicit mental state reasoning, spontaneous mental state inference, and comprehension of the non-mental aspects of the story. Responses were scored according to a rubric that assigned greater points for accurate mental state attributions that included multiple characters’ mental states. Results demonstrate that the SST is sensitive to variation in ToM ability, can be accurately scored by multiple raters, and exhibits concurrent validity with other social cognitive tasks. The results support the effectiveness of this new measure of ToM in the study of social cognition. The findings are also consistent with studies demonstrating significant relationships among narrative transportation, ToM, and the reading of fiction. Together, the data indicate that reading fiction may be an avenue for improving ToM ability. PMID:24244736

  16. Using fiction to assess mental state understanding: a new task for assessing theory of mind in adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Dodell-Feder

    Full Text Available Social functioning depends on the ability to attribute and reason about the mental states of others--an ability known as theory of mind (ToM. Research in this field is limited by the use of tasks in which ceiling effects are ubiquitous, rendering them insensitive to individual differences in ToM ability and instances of subtle ToM impairment. Here, we present data from a new ToM task--the Short Story Task (SST--intended to improve upon many aspects of existing ToM measures. More specifically, the SST was designed to: (a assess the full range of individual differences in ToM ability without suffering from ceiling effects; (b incorporate a range of mental states of differing complexity, including epistemic states, affective states, and intentions to be inferred from a first- and second-order level; (c use ToM stimuli representative of real-world social interactions; (d require participants to utilize social context when making mental state inferences; (e exhibit adequate psychometric properties; and (f be quick and easy to administer and score. In the task, participants read a short story and were asked questions that assessed explicit mental state reasoning, spontaneous mental state inference, and comprehension of the non-mental aspects of the story. Responses were scored according to a rubric that assigned greater points for accurate mental state attributions that included multiple characters' mental states. Results demonstrate that the SST is sensitive to variation in ToM ability, can be accurately scored by multiple raters, and exhibits concurrent validity with other social cognitive tasks. The results support the effectiveness of this new measure of ToM in the study of social cognition. The findings are also consistent with studies demonstrating significant relationships among narrative transportation, ToM, and the reading of fiction. Together, the data indicate that reading fiction may be an avenue for improving ToM ability.

  17. Using fiction to assess mental state understanding: a new task for assessing theory of mind in adults. (United States)

    Dodell-Feder, David; Lincoln, Sarah Hope; Coulson, Joseph P; Hooker, Christine I


    Social functioning depends on the ability to attribute and reason about the mental states of others--an ability known as theory of mind (ToM). Research in this field is limited by the use of tasks in which ceiling effects are ubiquitous, rendering them insensitive to individual differences in ToM ability and instances of subtle ToM impairment. Here, we present data from a new ToM task--the Short Story Task (SST)--intended to improve upon many aspects of existing ToM measures. More specifically, the SST was designed to: (a) assess the full range of individual differences in ToM ability without suffering from ceiling effects; (b) incorporate a range of mental states of differing complexity, including epistemic states, affective states, and intentions to be inferred from a first- and second-order level; (c) use ToM stimuli representative of real-world social interactions; (d) require participants to utilize social context when making mental state inferences; (e) exhibit adequate psychometric properties; and (f) be quick and easy to administer and score. In the task, participants read a short story and were asked questions that assessed explicit mental state reasoning, spontaneous mental state inference, and comprehension of the non-mental aspects of the story. Responses were scored according to a rubric that assigned greater points for accurate mental state attributions that included multiple characters' mental states. Results demonstrate that the SST is sensitive to variation in ToM ability, can be accurately scored by multiple raters, and exhibits concurrent validity with other social cognitive tasks. The results support the effectiveness of this new measure of ToM in the study of social cognition. The findings are also consistent with studies demonstrating significant relationships among narrative transportation, ToM, and the reading of fiction. Together, the data indicate that reading fiction may be an avenue for improving ToM ability.

  18. Life cycle assessment and additives: state of knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Concerns about possible toxic effects from additives/impurities accumulated in globally recycled waste/resources like paper and plastics was one of the main reasons for starting up the EU FP7 Coordination Action project RiskCycle ( A key aim of the project...... is to identify research needs within this area focusing on both risk assessment (RA) and life cycle assessment (LCA). Besides the sectors on paper and plastics also lubricants, textiles, electronics and leather are included in RiskCycle. On plastics a literature review regarding the state of knowledge...... on additives/impurities in LCA has been performed within RiskCycle. Several inventory databases (LCI data) have been investigated and the result shows that most LCI databases use PlasticsEurope data for plastics production. Most of these data are aggregated and do not include additives. Regarding...

  19. Assessing genetic polymorphisms using DNA extracted from cells present in saliva samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemoda Zsofia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Technical advances following the Human Genome Project revealed that high-quality and -quantity DNA may be obtained from whole saliva samples. However, usability of previously collected samples and the effects of environmental conditions on the samples during collection have not been assessed in detail. In five studies we document the effects of sample volume, handling and storage conditions, type of collection device, and oral sampling location, on quantity, quality, and genetic assessment of DNA extracted from cells present in saliva. Methods Saliva samples were collected from ten adults in each study. Saliva volumes from .10-1.0 ml, different saliva collection devices, sampling locations in the mouth, room temperature storage, and multiple freeze-thaw cycles were tested. One representative single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the catechol-0-methyltransferase gene (COMT rs4680 and one representative variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR: serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region were selected for genetic analyses. Results The smallest tested whole saliva volume of .10 ml yielded, on average, 1.43 ± .77 μg DNA and gave accurate genotype calls in both genetic analyses. The usage of collection devices reduced the amount of DNA extracted from the saliva filtrates compared to the whole saliva sample, as 54-92% of the DNA was retained on the device. An "adhered cell" extraction enabled recovery of this DNA and provided good quality and quantity DNA. The DNA from both the saliva filtrates and the adhered cell recovery provided accurate genotype calls. The effects of storage at room temperature (up to 5 days, repeated freeze-thaw cycles (up to 6 cycles, and oral sampling location on DNA extraction and on genetic analysis from saliva were negligible. Conclusions Whole saliva samples with volumes of at least .10 ml were sufficient to extract good quality and quantity DNA. Using

  20. Assessing genetic polymorphisms using DNA extracted from cells present in saliva samples (United States)


    Background Technical advances following the Human Genome Project revealed that high-quality and -quantity DNA may be obtained from whole saliva samples. However, usability of previously collected samples and the effects of environmental conditions on the samples during collection have not been assessed in detail. In five studies we document the effects of sample volume, handling and storage conditions, type of collection device, and oral sampling location, on quantity, quality, and genetic assessment of DNA extracted from cells present in saliva. Methods Saliva samples were collected from ten adults in each study. Saliva volumes from .10-1.0 ml, different saliva collection devices, sampling locations in the mouth, room temperature storage, and multiple freeze-thaw cycles were tested. One representative single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the catechol-0-methyltransferase gene (COMT rs4680) and one representative variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR: serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region) were selected for genetic analyses. Results The smallest tested whole saliva volume of .10 ml yielded, on average, 1.43 ± .77 μg DNA and gave accurate genotype calls in both genetic analyses. The usage of collection devices reduced the amount of DNA extracted from the saliva filtrates compared to the whole saliva sample, as 54-92% of the DNA was retained on the device. An "adhered cell" extraction enabled recovery of this DNA and provided good quality and quantity DNA. The DNA from both the saliva filtrates and the adhered cell recovery provided accurate genotype calls. The effects of storage at room temperature (up to 5 days), repeated freeze-thaw cycles (up to 6 cycles), and oral sampling location on DNA extraction and on genetic analysis from saliva were negligible. Conclusions Whole saliva samples with volumes of at least .10 ml were sufficient to extract good quality and quantity DNA. Using 10 ng of DNA per

  1. Present State of the Coacervate-Incoacervate Theory - Origin and Evolution of Cell Structure (United States)

    Novak, Vladimir J. A.


    In agreement with the views of Oparin, Fox, Dose etc., the theory assumes that coacervation of protein-like polyaminoacids began with their accumulation along the coasts of the Archaic water basins. Unlike the above authors, however, the present author views the original coacervates as a suitable “culture medium” from which the first polynucleotides orginated and their partial replication started. Their base sequence was not fortuitous, but determined by the proteinoids on the basis of their mutual affinity. The polyfunctional enzymic activity of the proteinoids catalyzed their replication as well as other activities. Around the replicating DNA molecules secondary coacervates (coacervates in coacervates) accumulated which developed gradually to the first prokaryotic cells. Their most probable evolution to the first eukaryotic organisms is discussed on the basis of the modified Studitsky's synbacteriogenesis theory.

  2. [Results of experimental study of psychophysiological state and hematological characteristics in servicemen presenting with hyperuricemia]. (United States)

    Dzhergeniia, S L; Ushakov, I B


    Laboratory, clinical, and pathophysiological methods were used to examine servicemen presenting with hyperuricemia. Pronounced hypersympaticotony was accompanied by stabilization of cardiac rhythm. Neurotic personality profile was identified in 48% of the subjects, psychotic in 17.3%, and undefined in 34.6%. The elevated plasma uric acid level was shown to be a factor associated with the neurotic psychotype. There was no correlation between other hematological characteristics and personality psychotype. The examined subjects exhibited high working capacity and level of ambition. Inability to take mind off the pressure of work creates psychosomatic predisposition for and risk of cardiovascular pathology strengthened by permanent hypersympaticotony. It is proposed to teach the subjects like those included in the study to reach neuromuscular relaxation in combination with cognitive-behavioural training as a means of preventing the development of cardiovascular pathology.

  3. A Souvenir From France: Acrodermatitis Chronica Atrophicans Presenting in the United States. (United States)

    Correa-Selm, Lilia M; Bronsnick, Tara; Rao, Babar K; Kirkorian, A Yasmine; Marcus, Alan; Cha, Jisun


    A 70-year-old man was referred by his rheumatologist to our dermatology clinic for evaluation of dermatitis on his right arm that appeared 3 months earlier. The skin lesion was asymptomatic and the patient denied current systemic symptoms, including fever, chills, and joint pain; however, 10 months prior to this presentation he experienced arthritis in the left knee. At that time, Borrelia serology revealed positive IgG (6.07; <0.8 negative, 0.8 to 0.99 borderline, ≥1 positive) and negative IgM titers. The patient had not received treatment for Lyme disease in the past. He was referred to rheumatology for evaluation of possible Lyme disease but did not follow up until 10 months later. The arthritis has since resolved. He travels frequently to France and recalls multiple tick bites during these trips.

  4. Present state of the liner of the reactor; Estado actual del liner del reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar H, F.; Raya A, R.; Mazon R, R. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    When being presented to work the operation personnel of the reactor, on Monday January 10, 1983, they noticed that the reactor pool was overflowing of water and the floor of the room was partially flooded. The personnel proceeded to revise the feedwater systems to the pool, the Emergency Cooling System of the core and that of Water of Reinstatement, was found that the passing valve of this last it was lightly open. It was discovered that the water that was flooded in the floor of the room it came from the relief valves of the ports TW-1 and RW-2 and of three glides that were in the Thermal Column area. It was proceeded to lower the one level of water of the pool to their normal position and it was clean the water flooded in the salts. (Author)

  5. Develop Oral Presentation Skills through Accounting Curriculum Design and Course-Embedded Assessment (United States)

    Kerby, Debra; Romine, Jeff


    At present, oral communication and presentation skills are important components of accounting education. Students can improve their oral presentation skills when they know the expectations for effective presentations, give multiple group and individual presentations, and experience consistent instructor feedback. The authors use a case study…

  6. A water balance model for Saxonian catchments - present state and projections up to 2100 (United States)

    Winkler, Peter; Hauffe, Corina; Baldy, Agnes; Schwarze, Robert


    The impact of climate change on the regional water balance regime may have severe consequences for agriculture, forestry and water resources management. In this respect the following questions arise: Will extensive irrigation be necessary on Saxonian crop land in future? Which are the necessary adaptions in water resources management? Are new agricultural and forestry concepts necessary? Therefore, the project KliWES aims at modelling the present water balance regime for whole Saxonia (with the exception of the mining regions and the Elbe-corridor which is largely governed by flood events). Moreover, the effects of climate projections from the WetReg model (CEC) on the water balance regime have been investigated. The calibration strategy relies on splitting up the measured discharges into the major water balance components (evaporation, surface flow, subsurface flow and percolation) by a geometrical analysis of the hydrograph (DIFGA, Schwarze et al.). Thereafter, the water balance software ArcEGMO (Pfützner et al.) has been calibrated on these water balance components. Calibration parameters include correction factors for soil macroporosity, evapo-transpiration and the distribution factor between fast and slow groundwater components. Geological and Soil data have been drawn from official databases (LfULG). Subareas where no continuous gauge data are available have been parametrised by a regionalisation procedure relying on correlations between parameters and physical properties of the subareas considered. Possibilities and limitations of such a regionalisation procedure have been pointed out. Focal point of the present study is an investigation of water balance components in different spatial and temporal resolutions. The Results of the model for the climate projections show drastic increase of evaporation and decrease of groundwater recharge especially in the north-eastern parts of Saxonia (Lausitz). Here, this problem is worsened by the predominantly sandy soils

  7. The present state and future of the development of dimension stone mining in Slovak conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viliam Žiaran


    Full Text Available In comparing to both ores and energetical minerals there are occurences of extremly rich non-methallics minerals on the Slovak territory. These minerals represent very large-scale sortiment with a considerable amount of verified reserves. Reserves of magnesite, salt rock, dolomite, limestone, talc, bentonite, clays and another construction minerals present many possibilities of their industrial utilization. A specific case is the mining of dimension stones such as stable ingeneous,sedimentary and metamorphic rocks that are mined in the open-pit blocks. Applicable to the production of both ingeneous stone and gross stone [3].The open-pit mining and dimension stone processing by the both above mentioned stone productions forms are focused mainly to the external and internal building industry. Despite of the fact that the natural reserves of dimension stone are limited at the Slovak territory, being distributed at large numbers of open-pits mines, from the point of view of the next development of the dimension stone industry its technical and economic vitalitycan be expected. The paper deals with both the technological and ecological mining problems of dimension stone and shows the possibilities how to improve both the works productivity and quality of products including the ecological impacts by the dimension stone mining.

  8. Present-day stress state analysis on the Big Island of Hawaíi, USA (United States)

    Pierdominici, Simona; Kueck, Jochem; Millett, John; Planke, Sverre; Jerram, Dougal A.; Haskins, Eric; Thomas, Donald


    : borehole breakouts (bidirectional enlargements) (BB) and drilling induced tensile fractures (DIF). BB and DIF occur when the stresses around the borehole exceed the compressive and tensile yield stress of the borehole wall rock respectively causing failure. A breakout is caused by the development of intersecting conjugate shear planes that cause pieces of the borehole wall to spall off. For a breakout to develop, the stress concentration around a vertical borehole is largest in the direction of the minimum horizontal stress. Hence, BB develops approximately parallel to the orientation of the minimum horizontal stress. For the DIF, the stress concentration around a vertical borehole is at a minimum in the maximum horizontal stress direction. Hence, DIF develop approximately parallel to the orientation of the maximum horizontal stress. Based on the World Stress Map, the present-day stress in this area is defined only by focal mechanism solutions. These data give a unique opportunity to characterize the orientation of the present-day stress field between two large volume shield volcanoes on an active volcanic island using a different approach and stress indicators.

  9. Present-day stress state in the Outokumpu deep drill hole, Finland (United States)

    Pierdominici, Simona; Ask, Maria; Kukkonen, Ilmo; Kueck, Jochem


    This study aims to investigate the present-day stress field in the Outokumpu area, eastern Finland, using interpretation of borehole failure on acoustic image logs in a 2516 m deep hole. Two main objectives of this study are: i. to constrain the orientation of maximum horizontal stress by mapping the occurrence of stress-induced deformation features using two sets of borehole televiewer data, which were collected in 2006 and 2011; and ii. to investigate whether any time dependent deformation of the borehole wall has occurred (creep). The Outokumpu deep hole was drilled during 2004-2005 to study deep structures and seismic reflectors within the Outokumpu formation and conducted within the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP). The hole was continuously core-drilled into Paleoproterozoic formation of metasediments, ophiolite-derived altered ultrabasic rocks and pegmatitic granite. In 2006 and 2011 two downhole logging campaigns were performed by the Operational Support Group of ICDP to acquire a set of geophysical data. Here we focus on a specific downhole logging measurement, the acoustic borehole televiewer (BHTV), to determine the present-day stress field in the Outokumpu area. We constrain the orientation and magnitude of in situ stress tensor based on borehole wall failures detected along a 2516 m deep hole. Horizontal stress orientation was determined by interpreting borehole breakouts (BBs) and drilling-induced tensile fractures (DIFs) from BHTV logs. BBs are stress-induced enlargements of the borehole cross section and occur in two opposite zones at angles around the borehole where the wellbore stress concentration (hoop stress) exceeds the value required to cause compressive failure of intact rock. DIFs are caused by tensile failure of the borehole wall and form at two opposite spots on the borehole where the stress concentration is lower than the tensile strength of the rock. This occurs at angles 90° apart from the center of the

  10. Assessment Center Methods in Educational Administration: Past, Present, and Future. UCEA Monograph Series. (United States)

    Wendel, Frederick C.; Sybouts, Ward

    Issues related to the assessment and induction (preparation, recruitment, and selection) of educational administrators are of critical importance because of the never-ending flow of entrants into administration, and because of the complex variables associated with assessment and selection criteria. Accordingly, this monograph traces the…

  11. Vitamin B12 deficiency presenting as an acute confusional state: a case report and review of literature. (United States)

    Kibirige, D; Wekesa, C; Kaddu-Mukasa, M; Waiswa, M


    Vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with a wide spectrum of neuro-psychiatric manifestations. We report a case of a 44 year old female patient referred to the haematology unit with vitamin B12 deficiency presenting as an acute confusional state or delirium. Total resolution of the psychiatric symptoms occurred following parenteral vitamin B12 replacement therapy. This case report highlights one of the neuro-psychiatric presentations of vitamin B12 deficiency in a previously healthy individual.

  12. Perspectives on the Present State and Future of Higher Education Faculty Development in Kazakhstan: Implications for National Human Resource Development (United States)

    Seitova, Dinara


    The article aims at examining the present state of higher education faculty development in Kazakhstan in the context of multidimensional nationwide development reforms and exploring implications for the National Human Resource Development of the country. For the purpose of this research, theoretical human resource development (HRD) and…

  13. Outlining Purposes, Stating the Nature of the Present Research, and Listing Research Questions or Hypotheses in Academic Papers (United States)

    Shehzad, Wasima


    Driving research questions from the prevailing issues and interests and developing from them new theories, formulas, algorithms, methods, and designs, and linking them to the interests of the larger audience is a vital component of scientific research papers. The present article discusses outlining purposes or stating the nature of the present…

  14. Motor development profile in 9-11 year-old children from the municipal education system of Maceio, Alagoas State, presenting low school performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Natália Santos da Silva


    Full Text Available Introduction: Children may present motor development delays that can influence their learning process, hence the need for specific assessment for the early detection of such delays in an attempt to resolve or mitigate possible future damage. Objective: Profile of motor development in children aged 9-11 years old presenting low academic achievement in the municipal education system of Maceio, Alagoas state. Methodology: An exploratory, descriptive, transversal study which uses the Motor Development Scale (MDS to analyze the main components of performance. Evaluations were carried out with 43 children of both genders. Results: The children assessed presented motor profiles ranging from “normal” to “far below average”, corroborating the findings in the literature. Conclusions: The results obtained are in agreement with the literature, showing a close relation between motor development and low school performance, emphasizing the importance of psychomotor intervention for the maturation of more complex motor patterns.

  15. Assessment of the nutritional state of dialysis patients. (United States)

    Kerr, P G; Strauss, B J; Atkins, R C


    The importance of the nutritional state of our dialysis patients has been stressed for many years. Although the calculation of the protein catabolic rate has become common practice in many dialysis units, there are several problems with this measurement. In addition, the serum albumin level is subject to multiple influences making its interpretation in individual patients difficult. This paper examines a different approach to nutritional assessment-that of using longer term measures of nutrition. Several techniques for measuring body composition are explored and their use in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) examined. Total body nitrogen measurement is a gold standard technique which has been validated in renal patients, unfortunately it is not widely available. Of the alternatives, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning for assessment of fat-free mass appears to be the best technique with the narrowest limits of agreement compared to gold standard techniques. Whilst bioelectrical impedance is reasonable for body water assessment, it is not reliable in ESRD patients for lean-body mass estimation.

  16. NCCOS St. Croix, USVI Rapid Habitat Assessment (RHA) and Monitoring Data (2001 - Present) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This metadata record refers to habitat assessment data collected as part of a larger effort described below. The intent of this work is five fold: 1) To spatially...

  17. Using focus groups to assess presentation methods in a research seminar. (United States)

    Thomas, K Jackson; Lancaster, Carol


    The purpose of this inquiry was to examine preferences between presentation methods among graduate students enrolled in a research seminar course. Participants consisted of 34 second year students enrolled in the Master of Science degree program in physical therapy in the College of Health Professions at the Medical University of South Carolina. All were required to present a published research article on the general topic of exercise in elderly individuals. However, before the student presentations took place, the instructor presented two different published research papers, both of which were done in sequential time segments during a single class period. For Time Segment 1, the instructor/author used a formal, "lecture," or "platform" type presentation, embellished by power point slides with textual information and graphs. For Time Segment 2, the instructor conducted an informal discussion of the background, methods, and findings of the research paper. After the presentations were completed, students were assigned to focus groups for the purpose of providing verbal and written feedback. Examination of the findings using content analysis revealed a variety of opinions regarding presentation techniques, but showed a general preference for the method employed in Time Segment 1. Among the reasons cited were the structure, the visual aids, and past familiarity and comfort with formal, "lecture" type presentations. Also noted was the predominant view that presenter style was a major factor in judging effectiveness. These findings merit further exploration of presentation styles and teaching methodologies for augmenting teaching effectiveness and enhancing the scholarship of teaching.

  18. Psychiatric assessment of severe presentations in autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability. (United States)

    King, Bryan H; de Lacy, Nina; Siegel, Matthew


    Children with autism spectrum and related disorders and intellectual disability are not protected from the experience of psychiatric illnesses. Many factors can contribute to exacerbation of existing behavioral symptoms or to the emergence of new psychiatric problems. The psychiatric assessment must thus take into account a range of possible etiologic or contributory factors. The approach outlined in this article highlights the value of assessing 4 broad domains, including diagnostic (genetic) factors, medical considerations, developmental influences, and environmental factors. Examples of how the consideration of each of these domains may inform the diagnostic formulation are highlighted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Using NANDA, NIC, and NOC (NNN) language for clinical reasoning with the Outcome-Present State-Test (OPT) model. (United States)

    Kautz, Donald D; Kuiper, Ruthanne; Pesut, Daniel J; Williams, Randy L


    To analyze the degree to which standardized nursing language was used by baccalaureate nursing students completing Outcome-Present State-Test (OPT) model worksheets in a clinical practicum. METHODS. A scoring instrument was developed and 100 worksheets were retrospectively analyzed. NANDA nursing diagnoses were correctly stated in 92% of the OPT models. Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) outcomes were explicitly stated in 22%, and implied in 72%. Interventions matched appropriate Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) activities in 61%. NANDA, NIC, and NOC (NNN) language was used inconsistently by students in this sample. If NNN language is to advance nursing knowledge, its promotion, representation in curriculum development, and active use is necessary. Educational research is needed on the facilitators and barriers to NNN language use.

  20. An Overview of the Life Cycle Assessment Method-Past, Present, and Future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijungs, Reinout; Guineév, Jeroen B.


    This chapter gives an overview of the mainstream method behind Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). It does so on the basis of the generally accepted principles, canonized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The first part of the chapter is an overview devoted to the method itself

  1. Intellectual Assessment of Children and Youth in Japan: Past, Present, and Future (United States)

    Ishikuma, Toshinori; Matsuda, Osamu; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Ueno, Kazuhiko


    This article briefly reviews the history of intellectual assessment with children and youth in Japan, as well as current practices and future directions. The history of intelligence test use in Japan began in the early 20th century. Since the 21st century, three major intelligence tests, namely, the Wechsler Intelligence Scales, the Kaufman…

  2. Assessing Spoken Language Competence in Children with Selective Mutism: Using Parents as Test Presenters (United States)

    Klein, Evelyn R.; Armstrong, Sharon Lee; Shipon-Blum, Elisa


    Children with selective mutism (SM) display a failure to speak in select situations despite speaking when comfortable. The purpose of this study was to obtain valid assessments of receptive and expressive language in 33 children (ages 5 to 12) with SM. Because some children with SM will speak to parents but not a professional, another purpose was…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Ababkova


    Full Text Available Introduction. Neurotechnologies based on the principles of a nervous system functioning are being introduced into modern educational process more and more actively. Neurotechnology-based devices give the chance to develop new educational products; to enlarge the content of education by means of transition from text, graphic and sound content filling of educational process to use of tactile, motor, emotional, and other content. One of the most perspective neurotechnologies for the field of education is the method of biofeedback (BF which enables to define students’ mental state, change various physiological processes proceeding from the obtained data, correct educational process, and improve its quality and effectiveness.The aim of the present publication is to identify the opportunities of the biofeedback method application for educational purposes.Methodology and research methods. A pilot study on the basis of biofeedback technique was conducted in order to study the influence of active learning methods on students’ mental state mastering in specialty “Advertising and Public Relations”. H. Eysenck’s PEN Model was used to form focus-groups (control and experimental; psychophysiological technique CMS (Current Mental State was applied for results processing. Also, such methods as comparative analysis, induction and generalization were used.Results. A true picture of psychological attributes of students’ mental condition has been received for efficient studying of the current psychological state on psychophysiological functions, and training active methods impact on a condition of mentality of students according to the results of cardiorhythmogram.The main results of a pilot research were quantitative data (as percentage points of the current mental and psychological conditions of examinees. The obtained results have reflected the degree of attributes manifestation such as general adaptive resource, degree of mobility (lability of

  4. A system of systems assessment of the mitigation of surge and nuisance flooding under present and future conditions (United States)

    Hagen, S. C.; Bilskie, M. V.; Collini, R.; DeLorme, D.; Medeiros, S. C.; Morris, J. T.; Passeri, D. L.; Yoskowitz, D.


    Extensive transdisciplinary efforts since 2010 in the northern Gulf of Mexico (MS, AL, and the FL panhandle) have resulted in a capability to model the coastal dynamics of sea level rise and assess hydrodynamic and ecological impacts at the coastal land margin [1-7]. The establishment of this paradigm shift (i.e., beyond "bathtub" approaches) was made possible, in no small part, by directly involving coastal resource managers at the initial stages and throughout the project process. Potential deleterious effects of sea level rise (SLR) to barrier islands, shorelines, dunes, marshes, etc., are now better understood. The paradigm shift, input from coastal resource managers and future conditions provide a rationale to evaluate and quantify the ability of Natural and Nature-based Feature (NNBF) approaches to mitigate the present and future effects of surge and nuisance flooding. This presentation will describe how we are employing a system of systems approach to assess NNBFs under present and future conditions. Passeri, D.L. et al. "The dynamic effects of sea level rise on low-gradient coastal landscapes: a review." Earth's Future, 3, 159-181, 2015. Morris, J.T. et al. "Contributions of organic and inorganic matter to sediment volume and accretion in tidal wetlands at steady state," Earth's Future, Vol. 4(4), pp. 110-121, 2016. Hovenga, P.A. et al. "The response of runoff and sediment loading in the Apalachicola River, Florida to climate and land use land cover change." Earth's Future, Vol. 4(5), pp. 124-142. 2016. Plant, N.G. et al. "Coupling centennial-scale shoreline change to sea-level rise and coastal morphology in the Gulf of Mexico using a Bayesian network." Earth's Future, Vol. 4(5), pp. 143-158. 2016. Passeri, D.L. et al. "Tidal Hydrodynamics under Future Sea Level Rise and Coastal Morphology in the Northern Gulf of Mexico." Earth's Future, Vol. 4(5), pp. 159-176. 2016. Bilskie, M.V. et al. "Dynamic simulation and numerical analysis of hurricane storm surge

  5. An Assessment of Nutrition Education in Selected Counties in New York State Elementary Schools (Kindergarten through Fifth Grade) (United States)

    Watts, Sheldon O.; Pinero, Domingo J.; Alter, Mark M.; Lancaster, Kristie J.


    Objective: To assess the extent to which nutrition education is implemented in selected counties in New York State elementary schools (kindergarten through fifth grade) and explore how nutrition knowledge is presented in the classroom and what factors support it. Design: Cross-sectional, self-administered survey. Setting: New York State elementary…

  6. The Ultrasonic Polar Scan for Composite Characterization and Damage Assessment: Past, Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Kersemans


    Full Text Available In the early 1980’s, the ultrasonic polar scan (UPS technique was developed to assess the fiber direction of composites in a nondestructive way. In spite of the recognition by several researchers as being a sophisticated and promising methodology for nondestructive testing (NDT and materials science, little advance was made during the following 30 years. Recently however, the UPS technique experienced a strong revival and various modifications to the original UPS setup have been successfully implemented. This revival has exposed several powerful capabilities and interesting applications of the UPS technique for material characterization and damage assessment. This paper gives a short historical overview of the UPS technique for characterizing and inspecting (damaged fiber-reinforced plastics. In addition, a few future research lines are given, which will further expand the applicability and potential of the UPS method to a broader range of (damaged materials, bringing the UPS technique to the next level of maturity.

  7. Consistency of visual assessments of mammographic breast density from vendor-specific "for presentation" images

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abdolell, Mohamed; Tsuruda, Kaitlyn; Lightfoot, Christopher B; Barkova, Eva; McQuaid, Melanie; Caines, Judy; Iles, Sian E


    .... Pairs of "for presentation" digital mammography images were obtained from two mammography units for 146 women who had a screening mammogram on one vendor unit followed by a diagnostic mammogram...

  8. Assessment of the supramolecular structures presents into biological samples by SAXS technique;Avaliacao das estrutras supramoleculares presentes em amostras biologicas atraves da tecnica de SAXS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conceicao, A.L.C.; Antoniassi, M.; Poletti, M., E-mail: [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica e Matematica


    In this work was made an assessment of the supramolecular structures presents into human breast tissue normal and pathological samples, as well as into two types of animals samples (tendon chicken and pork fat) using the small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) technique. The scattering profiles of the samples were determined at the momentum transfer range O.150nm{sup -1}<=5:q(=4pi.sin({theta}/2)/{lambda})<=8.500nm{sup -1}. In this range, it was possible identify structures corresponding to collagen fibrils (glandular tissue) and to triacylglycerides (adipose tissue) from the correlation between the information extracted from the human breast tissues scattering profiles and those extracted from animals samples. (author)

  9. Explaining Teachers' Instructional Use of State Assessment Data: A Multilevel Study of High School Teachers in Washington State (United States)

    Monpas-Huber, Jack B.


    Accountability policies imply much about high school teachers' abilities and willingness to use state assessment data to improve instruction. This study asked what teacher- and school-level variables best predict how frequently teachers use state assessment data and how much instructional benefit they derive from use of data. Research has…

  10. Assessment of theory of mind in children with communication disorders: role of presentation mode. (United States)

    van Buijsen, Marit; Hendriks, Angelique; Ketelaars, Mieke; Verhoeven, Ludo


    Children with communication disorders have problems with both language and social interaction. The theory-of-mind hypothesis provides an explanation for these problems, and different tests have been developed to test this hypothesis. However, different modes of presentation are used in these tasks, which make the results difficult to compare. In the present study, the performances of typically developing children, children with specific language impairments, and children with autism spectrum disorders were therefore compared using three theory-of-mind tests (the Charlie test, the Smarties test, and the Sally-and-Anne test) presented in three different manners each (spoken, video, and line drawing modes). The results showed differential outcomes for the three types of tests and a significant interaction between group of children and mode of presentation. For the typically developing children, no differential effects of presentation mode were detected. For the children with SLI, the highest test scores were consistently evidenced in the line-drawing mode. For the children with ASD, test performance depended on the mode of presentation. Just how the children's non-verbal age, verbal age, and short-term memory related to their test scores was also explored for each group of children. The test scores of the SLI group correlated significantly with their short-term memory, those of the ASD group with their verbal age. These findings demonstrate that performance on theory-of-mind tests clearly depend upon mode of test presentation as well as the children's cognitive and linguistic abilities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of energy research, development, and demonstration priorities for New York State. Interim report. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allentuck, J; Appleman, J; Carroll, T O; Palmedo, P F; Nathans, R


    In compliance with its mandate to accelerate the development and use of energy technologies in furtherance of the state's economic growth and the best interests of its population, the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) initiated, in March 1977, an assessment of energy research and development priorities. This report presents a view of the energy supply-demand future of the state, and the ways in which this future can be affected by external contingencies and concerted policies. That view takes into consideration energy supplies that may be available to the state as well as energy demands as they are affected by demographic and economic changes within the state. Also included are the effects of national energy policies and technological developments as they modify both supplies and demands in New York State. Finally, this report proceeds to identify those general technological areas in which the Authority's program can be of greatest potential benefit to the state's social and economic well being. This effort aims at a cost/benefit analysis determination of RD and D priorities. The preliminary analysis thus far indicates these areas as being of highest priority: energy conservation in buildings (promotion and execution of RD and D) and industry; district heating; fuel cell demonstration;solar heating and cooling (analysis, demonstration, and information dissemination); energy-environment interaction (analysis); energy information services; and, in general, the attraction of Federal RD and D programs to the state.

  12. Weighting and Aggregation in Life Cycle Assessment: Do Present Aggregated Single Scores Provide Correct Decision Support?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalbar, Pradip; Birkved, Morten; Nygaard, Simon Elsborg


    . Finally, we propose a distance-based multiple attribute decision-making method for use in obtaining single scores. This method was found to be more suitable, given that it takes into account the weighting schemes and types of indicators in the process of estimating single scores. The new single......-score calculation method proposed here is considered ideal for environmental decision-making problems in the context of life cycle sustainability assessment. Thus, it is also ideal for situations in which more-complex decision-making situations will emerge by combining LCA indicators (midpoints or endpoints...

  13. Assessment of the combination of temperature and relative humidity on kidney stone presentations. (United States)

    Ross, Michelle E; Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana M; Kopp, Robert E; Song, Lihai; Goldfarb, David S; Pulido, Jose; Warner, Steven; Furth, Susan L; Tasian, Gregory E


    Temperature and relative humidity have opposing effects on evaporative water loss, the likely mediator of the temperature-dependence of nephrolithiasis. However, prior studies considered only dry-bulb temperatures when estimating the temperature-dependence of nephrolithiasis. We used distributed lag non-linear models and repeated 10-fold cross-validation to determine the daily temperature metric and corresponding adjustment for relative humidity that most accurately predicted kidney stone presentations during hot and cold periods in South Carolina from 1997 to 2015. We examined three metrics for wet-bulb temperatures and heat index, both of which measure the combination of temperature and humidity, and for dry-bulb temperatures: (1) daytime mean temperature; (2) 24-h mean temperature; and (3) most extreme 24-h temperature. For models using dry-bulb temperatures, we considered four treatments of relative humidity. Among 188,531 patients who presented with kidney stones, 24-h wet bulb temperature best predicted kidney stone presentation during summer. Mean cross-validated residuals were generally lower in summer for wet-bulb temperatures and heat index than the corresponding dry-bulb temperature metric, regardless of type of adjustment for relative humidity. Those dry-bulb models that additionally adjusted for relative humidity had higher mean residuals than other temperature metrics. The relative risk of kidney stone presentations at the 99th percentile of each temperature metric compared to the respective median temperature in summer months differed by temperature metric and relative humidity adjustment, and ranged from an excess risk of 8-14%. All metrics performed similarly in winter. The combination of temperature and relative humidity determine the risk of kidney stone presentations, particularly during periods of high heat and humidity. These results suggest that metrics that measure moist heat stress should be used to estimate the temperature-dependence of

  14. Rapid full-field OCT assessment of clinical tissue specimens (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Dalimier, Eugénie; Harms, Fabrice; Brossollet, Charles; Benoit, Emilie; Martins, Franck; Boccara, Claude A.


    FFOCT (Full Field Optical Coherence Tomography) is a novel optical technology that gives access to very high resolution tomography images of biological tissues within minutes, non-invasively. This makes it an attractive tool to bridge the gap between medical imaging modalities (MRI, ultrasound, CT) used for cancer lesion identification or targeting and histological diagnosis. Clinical tissue specimens, such as surgical cancer margins or biopsies, can potentially be assessed rapidly, by the clinician, in the aim to help him decide on the course of action. A fast FFOCT prototype was built, that provides 1cm2 images with 1 µm resolution in 1 minute, and can accommodate samples up to 50mm diameter. Specific work was carried out to implement a large sample holder, high-speed image acquisition system, optimized scanning, and accelerated GPU tiles stitching. Results obtained on breast, urology, and digestive tissues show the efficiency of the technique for the detection of cancer on clinical tissue specimens, and reinforce the clinical relevance of the technique. The technical and clinical results show that the fast FFOCT system can successfully be used for a fast assessment of cancer excision margins or biopsies providing a very valuable tool in the clinical environment.

  15. 25 CFR 30.125 - What happens if a State refuses to allow a school access to the State assessment? (United States)


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What happens if a State refuses to allow a school access... INTERIOR EDUCATION ADEQUATE YEARLY PROGRESS Failure To Make Adequate Yearly Progress § 30.125 What happens if a State refuses to allow a school access to the State assessment? (a) The Department will work...

  16. Assessment of the quality of drop size measurements using a non-dedicated present weather sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijnse, H.; Uijlenhoet, R.


    Drop size data from a present weather sensor have been compared to drop size data collected using a nearly co-located dedicated disdrometer. In a rainfall event that lasted more than 9 hours, with rainfall intensities up to 25 mm h-1 drop size distributions (DSDs) estimated by the two different

  17. Assessment of Theory of Mind in Children with Communication Disorders: Role of Presentation Mode (United States)

    van Buijsen, Marit; Hendriks, Angelique; Ketelaars, Mieke; Verhoeven, Ludo


    Children with communication disorders have problems with both language and social interaction. The theory-of-mind hypothesis provides an explanation for these problems, and different tests have been developed to test this hypothesis. However, different modes of presentation are used in these tasks, which make the results difficult to compare. In…

  18. A Methodology for Equitable Performance Assessment and Presentation of Wave Energy Converters Based on Sea Trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Pecher, Arthur; Margheritini, Lucia


    This paper provides a methodology for the analysis and presentation of data obtained from sea trials of wave energy converters (WEC). The equitable aspect of this methodology lies in its wide application, as any WEC at any scale or stage of development can be considered as long as the tests are p...

  19. Assessment of the Level of Mercury Present in Soaps by the Use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixteen brands of soap were analysed for their total mercury content using cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The aim was to find out if the soaps contained mercury and if so, what quantity. In addition, are the quantities acceptable for health purposes. Mercury was found to be present in some soaps which did ...

  20. Transvaginal ultrasound assessment of women presenting with infertility and menstrual irregularity in Calabar, Nigeria. (United States)

    Ikpeme, A A; Udo, A E; Ani, N E


    This study was designed to document the Transvaginal Scan (TVS) findings in women presenting with infertility and menstrual irregularities at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital. Subjects were women of reproductive age presenting at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital with menstrual irregularities and infertility over a two year period, February 2011-January 2013. As part of their management, transvaginal scans were done and findings included a substantial number with polycystic ovarian cysts. Therefore the ovaries were further analysed with controls. Out of seventy-one women with age distribution of 22 to 46years, twenty- four(33.8%) presented with infertility, the rest presented with either menstrual irregularity alone or in combination with infertility. Polycystic ovaries (PCO), chronic pelvic inflammatory disease and fibroids were the main pathologies seen. PCO was by far the commonest. Ovarian volumes and follicular numbers were significantly higher in women with PCO than in controls, whereas their average follicular sizes were lower. PCO is the major finding in women with menstrual irregularity and infertility in the Calabar area. This hitherto poorly recorded pathology should be actively investigated in women representing with these symptoms by the use of TVS.

  1. Assessing oral presentations at the B2 level: Quantitative and qualitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radić-Bojanić Biljana


    Full Text Available The Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR describes the B2 level as having limited operational proficiency, where speakers have an adequate response to situations normally encountered. In the spoken domain a B2 user is said to interact with a degree of fluency and spontaneity, to produce clear, detailed text on a wide range of subjects and to explain a viewpoint on a topical issue giving the advantages and disadvantages of various options. Besides that, a B2 user should be able to spontaneously depart from the previously prepared presentation material and to interact with an audience to develop interesting parts of his/her presentation. This paper, accordingly, focuses on oral presentations of university students who were put at the B2 level of CEFR. The sample comprises students who study English as their major and students of other departments who take classes of English as a foreign language. The primary method of research is observation done by the teacher while students present previously chosen and prepared topics. The aim of the research is to determine whether the students from the sample, representative of their population, fit into the description and criteria of the B2 level.

  2. Assessment of Giant Kelp Physiological State Using Airborne Hyperspectral Imagery (United States)

    Bell, T. W.; Siegel, D.


    Giant kelp is a highly dynamic foundation species that supports an ecologically and economically important ecosystem found throughout the globe. Currently, multispectral sensors (Landsat) provide valuable time series of emergent kelp canopy biomass that are useful for many applications. Hyperspectral sensors can provide information that quantify the quality or physiological condition of the kelp canopy, which can be linked to characteristics such as canopy age and morphology, light exposure, nutrient stress and photosynthetic yield. The HyspIRI Preparatory Airborne Campaign delivered near seasonal hyperspectral imagery of giant kelp canopy using the AVIRIS sensor ( 20 m spatial resolution; 10 nm spectral resolution), to support the proposed spaceborne hyperspectral imager mission. These images, combined with additional AVIRIS imagery, were used to assess giant kelp canopy condition across several years and biogeographical regions, including Monterey Bay, the Santa Barbara Channel, and the Southern California coast. Specifically, we developed novel techniques to infer the chlorophyll a to carbon ratio (Chl:C) from the AVIRIS imagery, derived from field observations of canopy blade reflectance, pigment concentrations and carbon content, and these determinations of Chl:C are used as measures of the physiological state of the kelp canopy. We found that the spatial and temporal variability in physiological condition of the kelp canopy varied with light exposure and timing of nutrient pulses due to coastal upwelling. These observations are consistent with photophysiological theory and field observations. Physiological state dynamics gleaned from airborne sensors and proposed spaceborne hyperspectral sensors enhance our understanding of this important ecosystem engineer, and provide useful information for marine scientists and ecosystem managers.

  3. Priorities in the State Policy of Unshadowing the National Economy of Ukraine at the Present Stage of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avhustyn Ruslan R.


    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to justify the priorities of the state policy of unshadowing the national economy in the system of basic characteristics of the state economic security at the present stage of development. There made a conclusion about the perspectiveness of aligning the policy of economy unshadowing with forming a viable system of economic security of Ukraine, which allows to achieve a synergistic effect oriented both towards counteraction to the shadowing of economic relations and comprehensive enhancement of key parameters of the state economic security, including through the economy unshadowing. Consequently, the strategic priorities are defined in the following areas: (1 self-sufficiency of economic development and provision of the policy of economy unshadowing (forming the environment of perception of the shadow economy, resource support and an information and analytical system of economy unshadowing; introducing effective foreign technologies; increasing the efficiency in the regulatory sphere; (2 stability of the economic system and high capacity of the policy of economy unshadowing (legalization of the national economy in the branch-sectoral as well as spatial and structural aspects by structural elements of the state security, in the financial system and the internal market; (3 ability of the economy to develop and realize the potential of the policy of economy unshadowing (building the infrastructure; introducing «fuses» of control, human and intellectual, investment and innovation support of the economy unshadowing

  4. Assessing the ecological state and managing Armenia's farmlands (United States)

    Saghatelyan, Armen; Asmaryan, Shushanik; Muradyan, Vahagn; Tepanosyan, Garegin; Minasyan, Lilit


    The territory of the Republic of Armenia (RA) occupies an area 29.8 sq. km, the major part of which - 2077 hectares - falls on farmlands located at a height 400-3200m a.s.l. Such a variation in altitude complicates development of territories especially in the case they have an extensive character stemmed from the Soviet era: land plough-up on sites lying at a very steep angle of decline - >20 grade, unregulated grazing and so on. A long-term, unplanned and unregulated use of farmlands entailed intense washout of upper soil horizon, which subsequently provoked intense development of erosion and degradation of lands. A practicable solution to this problem is a scientifically and methodically grounded assessment of ecological state of farmlands and economically 'competent' planning and management of agricultural resources. With the view of developing animal husbandry and managing pastures/hayfields, in 2011-2012 the Government of the Republic of Armenia under support of the World Bank implemented a Farm Resources Management and Competitiveness Program. The goal of the Program is ceasing a trend to overgrazing and degradation of close-to-village sites, using remote pastures/hayfields in the best effective manner, improving feed production and animal feeding networks, and promoting a growth in animal feed production volumes. To achieve that, the following works were planned and implemented successfully in 23 rural communities of 6 marzes of the RA, which was done by 3 stages. In preparatory stage • Accessible web resources - programs and sites (Google Earth, with a view of identifying information to support implementation of the planned activities, were explored and evaluated. • Cartographic material (topographic maps sc.1:10000, landscape maps, panchromatic and multi-spectral high- and medium - resolution satellite images /LANDSAT ETM, QuickBird/ and other thematic cartographic and archival material) required for subsequent treatment of

  5. Assessment of general public exposure to LTE and RF sources present in an urban environment. (United States)

    Joseph, Wout; Verloock, Leen; Goeminne, Francis; Vermeeren, Günter; Martens, Luc


    For the first time, in situ electromagnetic field exposure of the general public to fields from long term evolution (LTE) cellular base stations is assessed. Exposure contributions due to different radiofrequency (RF) sources are compared with LTE exposure at 30 locations in Stockholm, Sweden. Total exposures (0.2-2.6 V/m) satisfy the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) reference levels (from 28 V/m for frequency modulation (FM), up to 61 V/m for LTE) at all locations. LTE exposure levels up to 0.8 V/m were measured, and the average contribution of the LTE signal to the total RF exposure equals 4%.

  6. Assessment of Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence by PCR and LCR in women presenting for termination of pregnancy. (United States)

    Garland, S M; Tabrizi, S; Hallo, J; Chen, S


    To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in a patient population presenting for legal termination of pregnancy by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and ligase chain reaction (LCR), from first catch urine and self administered tampons, and comparing with the traditionally collected endocervical swab tested by both PCR and culture. Consecutive women attending for legal termination of pregnancy were screened for chlamydia by patient collected first catch urine and tampon, and physician collected endocervical swab. Of 1175 patients with complete samples, there were 33 (2.8%) in whom chlamydia was detected by two or more assays from one or more sample site. Chlamydia was detected equally well by both PCR and LCR in first catch urine (p = 0.25), tampon (p = 0.5), and endocervical swab (p = 0.5). However, both PCR and LCR were significantly better than culture of an endocervical swab (p = 0.0005) for detection of C trachomatis. The prevalence of chlamydia in patients presenting for termination of pregnancy was 2.8%. A simple efficient way of performing screening for chlamydia for women presenting for termination of pregnancy is by first catch urine or tampon, which can be tested by the highly sensitive amplification assays, PCR or LCR.

  7. Imaging, Endoscopic and Genetic Assessment of Marfan Syndrome Presenting with Sigmoid Volvulus: A Review (United States)

    Hurairah, Abu; Shaikh, Faiq


    The Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a pleiotropic, autosomal dominant disorder of connective tissue with highly variable clinical manifestations. It primarily involves the skeletal, cardiovascular, and ocular systems; however, gastrointestinal complications are rare. Herein, we describe the case of a 31-year-old male who initially presented with acute abdominal pain for one day. His imaging features revealed a dilated sigmoid colon, consistent with sigmoid volvulus that was immediately decompressed. Surgical resection was recommended to treat the sigmoid volvulus. Preceding the treatment, the patient underwent an extensive workup, including an echocardiography that revealed aortic root dilatation. His clinical history, physical exam, and echocardiographic findings raised the suspicion for MFS. Subsequently, the diagnosis of MFS was confirmed on genetic testing. This is a case that highlights the multidisciplinary (clinical, radiological, endoscopic, molecular/genetic) approach to diagnose a patient with MFS who presented with symptomatic sigmoid volvulus. As this presentation may be a harbinger of more severe manifestations of MFS, it is important to identify it as such in order to accomodate for timely management. PMID:27382527

  8. Wide-area mapping of resting state hemodynamic correlations at microvascular resolution with multi-contrast optical imaging (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Senarathna, Janaka; Hadjiabadi, Darian; Gil, Stacy; Thakor, Nitish V.; Pathak, Arvind P.


    Different brain regions exhibit complex information processing even at rest. Therefore, assessing temporal correlations between regions permits task-free visualization of their `resting state connectivity'. Although functional MRI (fMRI) is widely used for mapping resting state connectivity in the human brain, it is not well suited for `microvascular scale' imaging in rodents because of its limited spatial resolution. Moreover, co-registered cerebral blood flow (CBF) and total hemoglobin (HbT) data are often unavailable in conventional fMRI experiments. Therefore, we built a customized system that combines laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), intrinsic optical signal (IOS) imaging and fluorescence imaging (FI) to generate multi-contrast functional connectivity maps at a spatial resolution of 10 μm. This system comprised of three illumination sources: a 632 nm HeNe laser (for LSCI), a 570 nm ± 5 nm filtered white light source (for IOS), and a 473 nm blue laser (for FI), as well as a sensitive CCD camera operating at 10 frames per second for image acquisition. The acquired data enabled visualization of changes in resting state neurophysiology at microvascular spatial scales. Moreover, concurrent mapping of CBF and HbT-based temporal correlations enabled in vivo mapping of how resting brain regions were linked in terms of their hemodynamics. Additionally, we complemented this approach by exploiting the transit times of a fluorescent tracer (Dextran-FITC) to distinguish arterial from venous perfusion. Overall, we demonstrated the feasibility of wide area mapping of resting state connectivity at microvascular resolution and created a new toolbox for interrogating neurovascular function.

  9. What is the evidence that poster presentations are effective in promoting knowledge transfer? A state of the art review. (United States)

    Ilic, Dragan; Rowe, Nicholas


    Poster presentations are a common form of presenting health information at conferences and in the community. Anecdotal evidence within the discipline indicates that health information framed in a poster presentation may be an effective method of knowledge transfer. A state of the art review of the literature was performed to determine the effectiveness of poster presentations on knowledge transfer. Electronic searches of various electronic databases were performed for studies published until 2012. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they provided empirical data on the effectiveness of poster presentations on changes in participant knowledge, attitude or behaviour. A total of 51 studies were identified through the database searches, of which 15 met the inclusion criteria. No study evaluated the effectiveness of posters in comparison with other educational interventions. Most studies utilised a before/after methodology, with the common conclusion that posters elicit greatest effectiveness in knowledge transfer when integrated with other educational modalities. The poster presentation is a commonly used format for communicating information within the academic and public health fields. Evidence from well-designed studies comparing posters to other educational modalities is required to establish an evidence base on the effectiveness of utilising posters in achieving knowledge transfer. © 2013 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2013 Health Libraries Group.

  10. Additive manufacturing metrology: State of the art and needs assessment (United States)

    Koester, L.; Taheri, H.; Bond, L. J.; Barnard, D.; Gray, J.


    Additive manufacturing (AM) is a technology that first emerged in 1987 with stereolithography (SL) of plastic materials from 3D Systems. It saw light use for rapid prototyping and very low volume production for a number of years. However, in the past few years AM of metallic materials has become a practical fabrication technology, use is rapidly increasing and is projected to continue with double digit growth in coming years. The promise and flexibility shown by AM has spurred efforts to begin standardization of this type of process. This paper provides an assessment of the state of the art for in-situ process monitoring of AM processes with an emphasis on the production of metallic components. It is seen that with the implementation of proper process control there is potential to create reliable and reproducible materials and geometries previously unachievable using metal removal based means of production. A reliable methodology for detection and control of microstructure and defects would be of great value in terms of enabling broader AM utilization.

  11. Probability assessment of burst limit state due to internal corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, Sikder, E-mail: [Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL A1B 3X5 (Canada); Khan, Faisal; Kenny, Shawn [Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL A1B 3X5 (Canada)


    The failure probability of an oil and gas pipeline, with longitudinally oriented internal corrosion defects, due to burst from internal operating pressure can be estimated through characterization of defect geometry, internal corrosion growth rate, and remaining mechanical hoop strength capacity. A number of candidate models to estimate the corrosion defect depth growth rate were evaluated. Defining a corrosion defect length, the corrosion feature geometry was integrated within burst pressure models, which have been adopted by oil and gas industry standards, codes or recommended practices. On this basis the burst pressure failure probability of a pipeline with internal corrosion defects can be estimated. A comparative analysis of pipe burst limit states and failure estimates were conducted, using Monte Carlo simulation and First Order Second Moment (FOSM) methods. Results from the comparative analysis closely matched and demonstrated consistent trends. Based on the probabilistic assessment, the relative conservatism between burst pressure models was analyzed and recommendations provided to assist designers on model selection. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied failure probability of pipeline due to internal corrosion defects. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We compared the burst pressure models of recommended codes/standard or individual models Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Discussed relative conservatism of recommended codes/standards or individual models. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recommendations also provided to assist designer on model selection.

  12. Assessing the Global and Arctic Transport of Polychlorinated Biphenyls Under Present and Future Climate and Emissions (United States)

    Friedman, C. L.; Selin, N. E.


    We simulate the present and potential future atmospheric transport and fate of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), using the global chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. PCBs are toxic, persistent, and bioaccumulative chemicals whose production and use have been banned internationally. PCBs continue to cycle through the global atmosphere, however, because of their persistence, passive emissions from remaining stocks, and release from natural storage reservoirs such as oceans or soils. In particular, PCBs have been shown to transport long distances in the atmosphere to locations remote from emissions, such as the Arctic, where they can accumulate in wildlife and humans, putting health at risk. Previous studies have suggested that PCBs may be remobilized in a changing climate because higher temperatures will cause greater re-emissions from surface reservoirs. Here, we modify GEOS-Chem to simulate atmospheric PCB transport and investigate the relative effects of predicted climate changes and projected declines in primary emissions, especially on transport to the Arctic. We quantify changes in atmospheric concentrations of two PCBs (CB28 and CB 153) under 2050 climate ("FC"); 2050 emissions ("FE"); and 2050 climate and emissions combined ("FCFE"); relative to a 2000 climate, 2000 emissions control scenario, and determine the major processes affecting these changes. In the version of the model presented here, only soil-atmosphere surface interactions are considered, though future versions will include interaction with other surface media. Our results suggest projected 2050 emissions will play a stronger role than 2050 climate in controlling PCB concentrations of different volatilities. Temperature increases under FC cause increases in emissions of only 4% at most, resulting in negligible concentration changes relative to the FE scenario, in which primary emissions are projected to decline to <0.05% of present-day. Thus, the concentrations in the combined FCFE scenario are

  13. Accessibility assessment in municipal schools of Uberaba, Minas Gerais state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Ruan Carvalho Soares


    Full Text Available Introduction: Architectural barriers generate difficulties, significantly impair people’s access to different environments, and limit accessibility. In the Brazilian public school system, these questions become more relevant when the process of school inclusion of students with special needs for mobility is analyzed. The process of school inclusion is intrinsically associated with the accessibility condition of schools. Through the ‘Accessible School Program‘, schools have received financial incentive to adapt their physical spaces according to accessibility. Objective: To describe the accessibility of the schools that have taken part in the ‘Accessible School Program’ in the municipality of Uberaba, Minas Gerais state. The study also aimed to identify the materials purchased and the adjustments and repairs implemented, evaluating whether the changes attend the technical standard of accessibility and agree with the recommended proposals. Methodology: This is an exploratory-descriptive study of quantitative nature; it was conducted in two phases through documental research and field study. Eleven municipal schools that participated in the ‘Accessible School Program’ were identified. Results: Most of the schools presented problems in almost all the items evaluated: sidewalks, common inside area, door squares, restrooms, locker rooms, swimming pools, parking, cinemas or theatres, auditoriums, stadiums, gymnasiums, concert halls, conference rooms and school furniture. Conclusion: The public schools evaluated present limitations regarding accessibility; the physical barriers erected in the past have not been eliminated and they still represent obstacles to be overcome by students with special needs.

  14. Accommodations for Students with Disabilities on State English Language Proficiency Assessments: A Review of 2011 State Policies (United States)

    Christensen, Laurene L.; Albus, Debra A.; Liu, Kristin K.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Kincaid, Aleksis


    English language learners (ELLs) with disabilities are required to participate in all state and district assessments similar to their peers without disabilities. This includes assessments used for the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Title I accountability purposes for demonstrating proficiency in academic content, assessments used…

  15. Photoacoustic imaging of intestinal strictures: microscopic and macroscopic assessment in vivo (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Xu, Guan; Lei, Hao; Johnson, Laura A.; Moons, David S.; Ma, Teng; Zhou, Qifa; Rice, Michael D.; Ni, Jun; Wang, Xueding; Higgins, Peter D. R.


    The pathology of Crohn's disease (CD) is characterized by obstructing intestinal strictures because of inflammation (with high levels of hemoglobin), fibrosis (high levels of collagen), or a combination of both. Inflammatory strictures are medically treated. Fibrotic strictures have to be removed surgically. The accurate characterization of the strictures is therefore critical for the management of CD. Currently the comprehensive assessment of a stricture is difficult, as the standard diagnostic procedure, endoscopic biopsy, is superficial and with limited locations as well as depth. In our previous studies, photoacoustic imaging (PAI) has recovered the layered architectures and the relative content of the molecular components in human and animal tissues ex vivo. This study will investigate the capability of multispectral PAI in resolving the architecture and the molecular components of intestinal strictures in rats in vivo. PA images at 532, 1210 and 1310 nm targeting the strong optical absorption of hemoglobin, lipid and collagen were acquired using two approaches. A compact linear array, CL15-7, was used to transcutaneously acquire PA signals generated by the a fiber optics diffuser positioned within the inner lumen of the strictures. Another approach was to use an endoscopic capsule probe for acoustic resolution PA microscopy. The capsule probe is designed for human and therefore cannot fit into rat colon. The inner surface of the intestinal stricture was exposed and the probe was attached to the diseased location for imaging. The findings in PA images were confirmed by histology results.

  16. Present and future assessment of growing degree days over selected Greek areas with different climate conditions (United States)

    Paparrizos, Spyridon; Matzarakis, Andreas


    The determination of heat requirements in the first developing phases of plants has been expressed as Growing Degree Days (GDD). The current study focuses on three selected study areas in Greece that are characterised by different climatic conditions due to their location and aims to assess the future variation and spatial distribution of Growing Degree Days (GDD) and how these can affect the main cultivations in the study areas. Future temperature data were obtained and analysed by the ENSEMBLES project. The analysis was performed for the future periods 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 with the A1B and B1 scenarios. Spatial distribution was performed using a combination of dynamical and statistical downscaling technique through ArcGIS 10.2.1. The results indicated that for all the future periods and scenarios, the GDD are expected to increase. Furthermore, the increase in the Sperchios River basin will be the highest, followed by the Ardas and the Geropotamos River basins. Moreover, the cultivation period will be shifted from April-October to April-September which will have social, economical and environmental benefits. Additionally, the spatial distribution indicated that in the upcoming years the existing cultivations can find favourable conditions and can be expanded in mountainous areas as well. On the other hand, due to the rough topography that exists in the study areas, the wide expansion of the existing cultivations into higher altitudes is unaffordable. Nevertheless, new more profitable cultivations can be introduced which can find propitious conditions in terms of GDD.

  17. Pacing-induced congenital heart defects assessed by OCT (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Ford, Stephanie M.; McPheeters, Matt T.; Wang, Yves T.; Gu, Shi; Doughman, Yong Qiu; Strainic, James P.; Rollins, Andrew M.; Watanabe, Michiko; Jenkins, Michael W.


    The role of hemodynamics in early heart development is poorly understood. In order to successfully assess the impact of hemodynamics on development, we need to monitor and perturb blood flow, and quantify the resultant effects on morphology. Here, we have utilized cardiac optical pacing to create regurgitant flow in embryonic hearts and OCT to quantify regurgitation percentage and resultant morphology. Embryonic quail in a shell-less culture were optically paced at 3 Hz (well above the intrinsic rate or 1.33-1.67 Hz) on day 2 of development (3-4 weeks human) for 5 minutes. The pacing fatigued the heart and led to a prolonged period (> 1 hour) of increased regurgitant flow. Embryos were kept alive until day 3 (cardiac looping - 4-5 weeks human) or day 8 (4 chambered heart - 8 weeks human) to quantify resultant morphologic changes with OCT. All paced embryos imaged at day 3 displayed cardiac defects. The extent of regurgitant flow immediately after pacing was correlated with cardiac cushion size 24-hours post pacing (p-value cardio-facial/DiGeorge syndrome models suggesting that hemodynamics plays a role in these syndromes as well. Utilizing OCT and optical pacing to understand hemodynamics in development is an important step towards determining CHD mechanisms and ultimately developing earlier treatments.

  18. Assessment of present and future risk to Italian forests and human health: modelling and mapping. (United States)

    De Marco, Alessandra


    A review of ozone pollution in Italy shows levels largely above the thresholds established by EU regulation for vegetation and human health protection. The Italian air quality monitoring network appears quantitatively inadequate to cover all the territorial surface, because of scarcity and unequal distribution of monitoring sites. By applying the integrated assessment model RAINS-Italy to the year 2000, the whole of Italy exceeds the AOT40 critical level for forest, while Northern and central areas show strong potential of O(3) impact on human health with approximately 11% of territory >10 O(3)-induced premature deaths. Two scenarios for the year 2020, the Current Legislation and the Maximum Technical Feasible Reduction, show a reduction of AOT40Forest by 29% and 44%, SOMO35 by 31% and 47%, and O(3)-induced premature deaths by 32% and 48%, compared to 2000. RAINS-Italy can be used to improve the map quality and cover areas not reached by the national monitoring network.

  19. Four Generations of Maintenance Resource Management Programs in the United States: An Analysis of the Past, Present, and Future (United States)

    Taylor, James C.; Patankar, Manoj S.


    This paper analyzes four generations of Maintenance Resource Management (MRM) programs implemented by aviation maintenance organizations in the United States. Data collected from over ten years of survey research and field observations are used for this analysis; they are presented in a case-study format. The first three generations of MRM programs were episodic efforts to increase safety through teamwork, focus group discussions, and awareness courses, respectively. Now, the fourth generation programs, characterized by a commitment to long-term communication and behavioral changes in maintenance, are set to build on those earlier generations, toward a culture of mutual trust between mechanics, their managers, and regulators.

  20. Study on assessing the present situation of the markets for electronic information services in Greece : MSSTUDY/Greece


    Tsimpoglou, Filippos; Petropoulos, Costas


    This report is the Greek contribution to the “Study for assessing the situation of the markets of electronic information services for professional purposes in the member states of the European Economic Area” which was prepared under the project MSSTUDY in the frame of the IMPACT 2 Programme, for the Commission of the European Union DG XIII/E – IMO (Information Market Observatory). Questionnaires, Interviews, articles, inventories, statistics as well as personal knowledge of the author were us...

  1. Assessing the Threat of Amphibian Chytrid Fungus in the Albertine Rift: Past, Present and Future.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracie A Seimon

    Full Text Available Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd, the cause of chytridiomycosis, is a pathogenic fungus that is found worldwide and is a major contributor to amphibian declines and extinctions. We report results of a comprehensive effort to assess the distribution and threat of Bd in one of the Earth's most important biodiversity hotspots, the Albertine Rift in central Africa. In herpetological surveys conducted between 2010 and 2014, 1018 skin swabs from 17 amphibian genera in 39 sites across the Albertine Rift were tested for Bd by PCR. Overall, 19.5% of amphibians tested positive from all sites combined. Skin tissue samples from 163 amphibians were examined histologically; of these two had superficial epidermal intracorneal fungal colonization and lesions consistent with the disease chytridiomycosis. One amphibian was found dead during the surveys, and all others encountered appeared healthy. We found no evidence for Bd-induced mortality events, a finding consistent with other studies. To gain a historical perspective about Bd in the Albertine Rift, skin swabs from 232 museum-archived amphibians collected as voucher specimens from 1925-1994 were tested for Bd. Of these, one sample was positive; an Itombwe River frog (Phrynobatrachus asper collected in 1950 in the Itombwe highlands. This finding represents the earliest record of Bd in the Democratic Republic of Congo. We modeled the distribution of Bd in the Albertine Rift using MaxEnt software, and trained our model for improved predictability. Our model predicts that Bd is currently widespread across the Albertine Rift, with moderate habitat suitability extending into the lowlands. Under climatic modeling scenarios our model predicts that optimal habitat suitability of Bd will decrease causing a major range contraction of the fungus by 2080. Our baseline data and modeling predictions are important for comparative studies, especially if significant changes in amphibian health status or climactic conditions

  2. [Are parents present during invasive procedures? Assessment in 32 Spanish hospitals]. (United States)

    Gamell Fullà, A; Corniero Alonso, P; Parra Cotanda, C; Trenchs Sainz de la Maza, V; Luaces Cubells, C


    Parental participation in medical decisions involving their children is essential and family presence during invasive procedures (IP) is fundamental. 1) To determine the frequency of parental presence during different IP in Spanish Paediatrics Emergency Departments (PED). 2) To assess the reasons for restricting parental presence. 3) To evaluate the agreement of health care professionals with regards to parental presence. Descriptive multicentre study based on questionnaires sent to physicians in charge of different Spanish PED. Thirty-two out of 43 questionnaires were replied. Family presence during IP is never allowed in 11 hospitals. In the rest, this varies depending on the type of IP: blood sampling (15 hospitals), wound suture (14), urethral catheterization (9), lumbar puncture (7), intubation (1) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (1), with no significant differences between hospitals. The main arguments for restricting parental presence are parental anxiety (26/30) and a lower performance by health personnel (23/30). Occasional problems, such as nausea (22/28), have arisen due to family presence. The interviewed physicians in charge think that health care professionals' agreement rates for parental presence decrease significantly with the increasing invasiveness of the procedure. Two hospitals have a working group and one a specific protocol to address parental presence. Parental presence during IP is limited in Spanish PED, due to parental anxiety and is detrimental to the success of the procedure. Physicians and nurses disagree with family presence, especially during the most invasive procedures. 2009 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Computer-aided methods for quantitative assessment of longitudinal changes in retinal images presenting with maculopathy (United States)

    Soliz, Peter; Wilson, Mark P.; Nemeth, Sheila C.; Nguyen, Phong


    This paper presents the results from applying a computer- based methodology for making precise measurements of longitudinal changes in a patient's digital retinal images presenting with age-related macular degeneration. The digital retinal image analysis system applies recognized principles in automatic image segmentation and integrates the automation with a graphical user interface. Drusen, retinal lesions associated with age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), were segmented using a region-growing algorithm. The algorithm calculates the 76 percentile intensity in a region to provide seed points for the neighborhood-growing algorithm. Twenty-one cases were analyzed. Agreement statistics (kappa) were determined by comparing the automated results with those provided from manually derived measurements. Agreement statistics ranged from 0.49 to 0.71 for different regions of the retina. The manual analysis ground truth was performed by trained graders from the University of Wisconsin Reading Center using guidelines found in the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Degeneration Grading Scheme (WARMGS). Because of the time required, the ophthalmic graders can only grade (size, area, type) the most prominent drusen in specific regions, resulting in a small sampling of drusen lesions in the retina. The computer-based approach allows one to efficiently and comprehensively grade all of the lesions for larger numbers of images. The additional advantage, however, is in the precision and total area that can be graded with the computer-aided technology. Computer-registered longitudinal images produced a precise determination of the temporal changes in the individual lesions. This study has demonstrated a robust segmentation and registration methodology for automatic and semiautomatic detection and measurement of abnormal regions in longitudinal retinal images.

  4. An assessment of interstate safety investment properties in Washington state. (United States)


    The Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) commissioned the current study, targeting the entire interstate : mainline network in Washington State, to provide strategic direction to multi-biennial investment interstate locations that of...

  5. Assessing risks from drought and heat stress in productive grasslands under present and future climatic conditions (United States)

    Calanca, Pierluigi; Mosimann, Eric; Meisser, Marco; Deléglise, Claire


    Grasslands cover the majority of the world's agricultural area, provide the feedstock for animal production, contribute to the economy of farms, and deliver a variety of ecological and societal services. Assessing responses of grassland ecosystems to climate change, in particular climate-related risks, is therefore an important step toward identifying adaptation options necessary to secure grassland functioning and productivity. Of particular concern are risks in relation to drought and extreme temperatures, on the one hand because grasslands are very sensitive to water stress, on the other hand also because global warming is expected to increase the occurrence and intensity of these events in many agricultural areas of the world. In this contribution we review findings of ongoing experimental and modelling activities that aim at examining the implications of climate extremes and climate change for grassland vegetation dynamics and herbage productivity. Data collected at the Jura foot in western Switzerland indicate that water scarcity and associated anomalous temperatures slowed plant development in relation to both the summer drought of 2003 as well as the spring drought of 2011, with decline in annual yields of up to 40%. Further effects of drought found from the analysis of recent field trials explicitly designed to study the effects of different water management regimes are changes in the functional composition and nutritive value of grasslands. Similar responses are disclosed by simulations with a process based grassland ecosystem model that was originally developed for the simulation of mixed grass/clover swards. Simulations driven with historical weather records from the Swiss Plateau suggest that drought and extreme temperature could represent one of the main reasons for the observed yield variability in productive systems. Simulations with climate change scenarios further reveal important changes in ecosystem dynamics for the current century. The results

  6. Group marking and peer assessment during a group poster presentation: the experiences and views of midwifery students. (United States)

    Ohaja, Magdalena; Dunlea, Margaret; Muldoon, Kathryn


    Traditionally, written examination and clinical practice assessments are the main ways of deeming midwifery students fit and competent for practice. Contemporary academics in an effort to engage the students in the learning process have employed alternative teaching and assessment strategies. Among the alternative strategies are group projects after which members of the group are awarded the same grade, and peer assessment. With the purpose of informing the midwifery curricular, we utilised a qualitative descriptive approach to explore midwifery students' experiences and views on the use of group poster presentation for learning and assessment. The participants consisted of a purposive sample of 14 higher diploma midwifery students who were registered in a third level institution in Ireland. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted following the completion of the poster presentation assessment. Permission to undertake the study was obtained from the college ethics committee. In this paper, we focus on the participants' views of group marking and peer assessment which are among the key elements that emerged in this study. While awarding a group mark was overall accepted, peer assessment proved a more contentious issue. Most of the participants found it challenging marking their friends. Reactions to group marks were very much influenced by the group dynamics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Special RADMIL report. Assessment of the past and present implications of radioactive contamination of Lancashire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The county of Lancashire in the United Kingdom has a unique relationship with the nuclear industry in respect of the number of nuclear facilities within or close to its boundaries. This special Radiation Monitoring in Lancashire (RADMIL) report collates data collected from 1976 to 1994 to provide a dose reconstruction for that period. It is shown that the radiation exposure of the population of Lancashire has decreased over the past twenty years. This has been due largely to a decrease in the authorised discharges from the facilities at Sellafield. Despite the fact that the advisory public dose limits have been reduced fivefold over the period, the dose to the most exposed groups has been consistently below those limits. Present contamination of the Lancashire environment is much reduced by comparison with earlier years. The accumulated effect of past discharges will mean that little further improvement can be expected, however. Similarly, dose levels to the populations are also expected to remain steady unless discharges increase again. This data compilation will form a baseline against which RADMIL can compare the results of future monitoring. (17 figures, 38 tables, 182 references) (UK).

  8. Environmental risk assessment of pesticides: state of the art and prospective improvement from science. (United States)

    Boivin, Arnaud; Poulsen, Véronique


    Pesticide risk assessment in the European regulatory framework is mandatory performed for active substances (pesticides) and the plant protection products they are constituents of. The aim is to guarantee that safe use can be achieved for the intended use of the product. This paper provides a feedback on the regulatory environmental risk assessment performed for pesticide registration at the EU and member state levels. The different steps of pesticide registration are addressed considering both exposure and hazard. In this paper, we focus on the environmental fate and behaviour in surface water together with the aquatic ecotoxicity of the substances to illustrate pesticide regulatory risk assessment performed for aquatic organisms. Current methodologies are presented along with highlights on potential improvements. For instance, as regards exposure aspects, moving from field based to landscape risk assessments is promising. Regarding ecotoxicology, ecological models may be valuable tools when applied to chemical risk assessment. In addition, interest and further developments to better take into account mitigation measures in risk assessment and management are also presented.

  9. The United States National Climate Assessment - Alaska Technical Regional Report (United States)

    Markon, Carl J.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Chapin, F. Stuart; Markon, Carl J.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Chapin, F. Stuart


    The Alaskan landscape is changing, both in terms of effects of human activities as a consequence of increased population, social and economic development and their effects on the local and broad landscape; and those effects that accompany naturally occurring hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and tsunamis. Some of the most prevalent changes, however, are those resulting from a changing climate, with both near term and potential upcoming effects expected to continue into the future. Alaska's average annual statewide temperatures have increased by nearly 4°F from 1949 to 2005, with significant spatial variability due to the large latitudinal and longitudinal expanse of the State. Increases in mean annual temperature have been greatest in the interior region, and smallest in the State's southwest coastal regions. In general, however, trends point toward increases in both minimum temperatures, and in fewer extreme cold days. Trends in precipitation are somewhat similar to those in temperature, but with more variability. On the whole, Alaska saw a 10-percent increase in precipitation from 1949 to 2005, with the greatest increases recorded in winter. The National Climate Assessment has designated two well-established scenarios developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Nakicenovic and others, 2001) as a minimum set that technical and author teams considered as context in preparing portions of this assessment. These two scenarios are referred to as the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A2 and B1 scenarios, which assume either a continuation of recent trends in fossil fuel use (A2) or a vigorous global effort to reduce fossil fuel use (B1). Temperature increases from 4 to 22°F are predicted (to 2070-2099) depending on which emissions scenario (A2 or B1) is used with the least warming in southeast Alaska and the greatest in the northwest. Concomitant with temperature changes, by the end of the 21st century the growing season is expected

  10. States' Accommodations Policies and Development of Alternate Assessments Based on Modified Achievement Standards: A Discriminant Analysis (United States)

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Cormier, Damien C.; Thurlow, Martha L.


    The characteristics of a state's accommodations policy may affect a state's decision about whether to develop an alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS). A very restrictive accommodations policy may make it more difficult for some students to participate in the state's regular assessment used for accountability…

  11. Epidemiology of Dance-Related Injuries Presenting to Emergency Departments in the United States, 2000-2013. (United States)

    Vassallo, Amy J; Hiller, Claire; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Pappas, Evangelos


    Dance is a popular activity associated with many physical and mental health benefits, but injuries are a concern for all skill levels. Previous studies have focused on professional dancers or particular genres, meaning the population-wide characteristics of injuries is unknown. This study's objective was to identify the incidence and types of dance-related injuries evaluated in emergency departments in the United States over the 14-year period 2000-2013. Data were obtained from the nationally representative National Electronic Injury Surveillance System from 2000-2013. National estimates of injuries were determined using complex sample design. Trends using 2-year intervals were calculated using linear regression and injury proportion ratios using Pearson's X2. The average annual incidence of dance-related injuries requiring emergency medical attention was 17,145 per year. The number of injuries grew from 14,204 in 2000/1 to 21,356 in 2012/3, a change of 33.4% after accounting for population growth. Lower limb injuries were most common, particularly ankle and knee sprains. Females presented with a greater proportion of ankle (injury proportion ratio [IPR]=1.34, p=0.029) and foot sprains (IPR=2.11, p<0.001) but a lower proportion of shoulder sprains (IPR=0.41, p<0.001) and face lacerations (IPR=0.13, p<0.001). Younger dancers presented with a lower proportion of knee (IPR=0.79, p=0.006) and low back sprains (IPR=0.68, p=0.019). The average annual incidence of dance-related injuries of a serious enough nature to require presentation to the emergency department in the United States was 17,145 per year, with ankle and knee sprains being the most common. Injury numbers have increased in recent years.

  12. Assessing the need for hospital admission by the Cape Triage discriminator presentations and the simple clinical score.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Emmanuel, Andrew


    There is uncertainty about how to assess unselected acutely ill medical patients at the time of their admission to hospital. This study examined the use of the Simple Clinical Score (SCS) and the medically relevant Cape Triage discriminator clinical presentations to determine the need for admission to an acute medical unit.

  13. Refined avian risk assessment for chlorpyrifos in the United States. (United States)

    Moore, Dwayne R J; Teed, R Scott; Greer, Colleen D; Solomon, Keith R; Giesy, John P


    Refined risk assessments for birds exposed to flowable and granular formulations ofCPY were conducted for a range of current use patterns in the United States. Overall,the collective evidence from the modeling and field study lines of evidence indicate that flowable and granular CPY do not pose significant risks to the bird communities foraging in agro-ecosystems in the United States. The available information indicates that avian incidents resulting from the legal, registered uses of CPY have been very infrequent since 2002 (see SI Appendix 3). The small number of recent incidents suggests that the current labels for CPY are generally protective of birds.However, incident data are uncertain because of the difficulties associated with finding dead birds in the field and linking any mortality observed to CPY.Plowable CPY is registered for a variety of crops in the United States including alfalfa, brassica vegetables, citrus, corn, cotton, grape, mint, onion, peanut, pome and stone fruits, soybean, sugar beet, sunflower, sweet potato, tree nuts, and wheat under the trade name Lorsban Advanced. The major routes of exposure for birds to flowable CPY were consumption of treated dietary items and drinking water. The Liquid Pesticide Avian Risk Assessment Model (Liquid PARAM) was used to simulate avian ingestion of CPY by these routes of exposure. For acute exposure,Liquid PARAM estimated the maximum retained dose in each of 20 birds on each of1,000 fields that were treated with CPY over the 60-d period following initial application.The model used a 1-h time step. For species lacking acceptable acute oral toxicity data (all focal species except northern bobwhite (C. virginianus) and redwinged blackbird (A. phoeniceus)), a species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach was used to generate hypothetical dose-response curves assuming high, median and low sensitivity to CPY. For acute risk, risk curves were generated for each use pattern and exposure scenario. The risk

  14. Assessing the Legality of State Tournament Bans in Interscholastic Athletics (United States)

    Scott, Beau


    State high school athletic associations are tasked with facilitating equitable athletic opportunities for all member schools. To accomplish this task, state associations implement rules designed to ensure competitive balance (Johnson, Tracy, & Pierce, 2015). With over 7.8 million participants, interscholastic athletics are extremely popular…

  15. Evidence-Based Medicine and State Health Care Coverage: The Washington Health Technology Assessment Program. (United States)

    Rothman, David J; Blackwood, Kristy L; Adair, Whitney; Rothman, Sheila M


    To evaluate the Washington State Health Technology Assessment Program (WHTAP). Washington State Health Technology Assessment Program proceedings in Seattle, Washington. We assessed the program through observation of its proceedings over a 5-year period, 2009-2014. We conducted detailed analyses of the documents it produced and reviewed relevant literature. Washington State Health Technology Assessment Program is unique compared to other state and federal programs. It has successfully applied evidence-based medicine to health care decision making, limited by the strength of available data. It claims cost savings, but they are not substantiated. Washington State Health Technology Assessment Program is a useful model for other states considering implementation of technology assessment programs. We provide key lessons for improving WHTAP's process. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  16. Epidemiology of lower extremity injuries presenting to the emergency room in the United States: Snow skiing vs. snowboarding. (United States)

    DeFroda, Steven F; Gil, Joseph A; Owens, Brett D


    To quantify and compare the incidence of lower extremity injuries in skiers and snowboarders who present to emergency rooms in the United States. Cross-sectional study of lower extremity injuries in skiers and snowboarders that were evaluated in emergency rooms in the United States. The National Electric Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) database was queried from January 1st, 2014 and December 31st, 2014 and the reported cases of lower extremity injuries in skiers and snowboarders were examined. An estimated total of 13,381 snow skiing and 6061 snowboarding lower extremity injuries presented to the emergency department in 2014 representing a national incidence of 42 injuries per 1,000,000 person-years for skiers and 19 injuries for snowboarders. The most common region of the lower extremity that was injured was the knee for skiers (47%) and the lower trunk (e.g. pelvis, hip, lumbar spine) for snowboarders (34%). The incidence of injuries in the pediatric and young adult population in skiers (62 per 1,000,000 person-years) and snowboarders (40 per 1,000,000 person-years) was significantly higher than the incidence of these injuries in adult population (35 and 12 per 1,000,000 person-years respectively) (Psnowboarding (30 per 1,000,000 person-years vs. 9 per 1,000,000 person-years, P snowboarding injuries down trended approaching significance. The incidence of lower extremity injuries in skiers was higher than that of snowboarders in 2014, with the 0-19year old age group and males being those most likely to sustain an injury. The most common region of the lower extremity that was injured was the knee for skiers and the lower trunk (e.g. pelvis, hip, lumbar spine) for snowboarders. Physicians and consumers alike should be aware of this data when considering participation in these sports as well as strategies for injury prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Validation of Actiwatch for Assessment of Sleep-wake States in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Chen Yang, RN, MSN


    Conclusion: Results of this study suggest that high activity thresholds are the most accurate for determining sleep state in preterm infants, and health care professionals must take the limitations into consideration while using the Actiwatch to assess wake states.

  18. Secular Changes in Clinical Features at Presentation of Rheumatoid Arthritis: Increase in Comorbidity But Improved Inflammatory States. (United States)

    Nikiphorou, Elena; Norton, Sam; Carpenter, Lewis; Dixey, Josh; Andrew Walsh, David; Kiely, Patrick; Young, Adam


    To examine secular trends in demographics, clinical manifestations, and comorbidity on first presentation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) prior to disease-modifying antirheumatic drug treatment. A total of 2,701 patients were recruited over 25 years to 2 UK-based RA inception cohorts: the Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Study (9 centers; 1986-2001) and the Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Network (23 centers; 2002-2012). Trends in demographic and baseline clinical/laboratory and radiographic variables and comorbidities were estimated using mixed-effects models, including random effects for recruitment center. Age at onset increased from 53.2 to 57.7 years in 1990 and 2010, respectively (2.6 months/year; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.2, 4.1). Sex ratio, the proportion living in deprived areas, and smoking status were unchanged (P > 0.05) and there were no changes in the proportion seropositive or erosive at baseline (P > 0.05). After controlling for treatment at the time of assessment, erythrocyte sedimentation rate decreased and hemoglobin increased over time (P > 0.05); however, the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), the Disease Activity Score (DAS), the DAS in 28 joints, and joint counts were unchanged (P > 0.05). The overall prevalence of comorbidity increased from 29.0% in 1990 to 50.7% in 2010, mainly due to cardiovascular and non-cardiac vascular conditions, including hypertension. There was a significant increase in body mass index (0.15 units/year; 95% CI 0.11, 0.18), resulting in an increase in the prevalence of obesity from 13.3% in 1990 to 33.6% in 2010. Age at onset and comorbidity burden, especially obesity, have increased at RA presentation over 25 years, reflecting wider demographic trends at the population level. In contrast, there were no accompanying changes in disease severity assessed by composite markers of disease activity, radiographic erosions, seropositivity, or HAQ at presentation. Treatment strategies in early RA should take

  19. Trophic state assessment of Bhindawas Lake, Haryana, India. (United States)

    Saluja, Ridhi; Garg, J K


    Trophic state allows for identification of problems and pressures that an ecosystem faces as well as demarcation of remedial measures. This study focuses on spatial and temporal variations in the trophic state and detection of possible causes of its divergence in Bhindawas Lake, India. The trophic state of the lake undulated between eutrophic and hyper-eutrophic state throughout the study period. Higher phosphorus concentration within the lake ecosystem is the dominant causal factor for its eutrophic state. The influence of other water quality parameters has also been analyzed using Spearman's coefficient of correlation. Deviations between trophic state index (TSI)-chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), TSI-total phosphorus (TP), and TSI-Secchi depth (SD) pointed out that the lake is principally phosphorus limited, and its trophic status is influenced by non-algal turbidity to a large extent. Spatial analysis of trophic levels in geographic information system (GIS) helped in identification of pollution sources and chemical attributes affecting the trophic state of the lake. This study provides a rationale for further investigation of nutrient and sediment loading into the lake system and development of sustainable management and conservation strategy identifying suitable measures ascertaining the ecosystem integrity.

  20. Assessing level of consciousness and cognitive changes from vegetative state to full recovery. (United States)

    Bekinschtein, Tristan; Tiberti, Cecilia; Niklison, Jorge; Tamashiro, Mercedes; Ron, Melania; Carpintiero, Silvina; Villarreal, Mirta; Forcato, Cecilia; Leiguarda, Ramon; Manes, Facundo


    Although investigations addressing cognitive recovery from the vegetative state have been reported, to date there have been no detailed studies of these patients combining both neuropsychology and functional imaging to monitor and record the recovery of consciousness. This paper describes the recovery of a specific vegetative state (VS) case. The patient (OG) remained in the vegetative state for approximately two months, increasing her level of awareness to a minimally conscious state, where she continued for approximately 70 days. In the course of the ensuing 18 months, she was able to reach an acceptable level of cognitive functioning, with partial levels of independence. Throughout this two year period, she received continuous cognitive evaluation, for which several different tools were applied including coma and low functioning scales, full cognitive batteries, and structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We present here preliminary data on fMRI using a word presentation paradigm before and after recovery; we also discuss the difficulty of how to determine level of consciousness using the tools currently available, and the subsequent improvement in different cognitive domains. We confirm that accurate diagnosis and proper cognitive assessment are critical for the rehabilitation of patients with disorders of consciousness.

  1. Compost maturity assessment using physicochemical, solid-state spectroscopy, and plant bioassay analysis. (United States)

    Kumar, D Senthil; Kumar, P Satheesh; Rajendran, N M; Anbuganapathi, G


    The vermicompost produced from flower waste inoculated with biofertilizers was subjected to compost maturity test: (i) physicochemical method (pH, OC, TN, C:N); (ii) solid state spectroscopic analysis (FTIR and (13)C CPMAS NMR); and (iii) plant bioassay (germination index). The pH of vermicompost was decreased toward neutral, C:N ratio microbes present in the gut of earthworm. Plant bioassays are considered the most conventional assessment of compost maturity analysis, and subsequently, it shows the effect of vermicompost maturity on the germination index of Vigna mungo .

  2. Rapid assessment of loiasis endemicity in northern Edo State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -Edo and Etsako East LGAs located in the northern part of Edo State, Nigeria was conducted to determine the endemicity of the disease and to classify the communities according to the level of risk to loiasis related adverse reactions.

  3. Assessing real-time Zika risk in the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lauren A Castro; Spencer J Fox; Xi Chen; Kai Liu; Steven E Bellan; Nedialko B Dimitrov; Alison P Galvani; Lauren Ancel Meyers


    Background Confirmed local transmission of Zika Virus (ZIKV) in Texas and Florida have heightened the need for early and accurate indicators of self-sustaining transmission in high risk areas across the southern United States. Given...

  4. Feasibility of assessing health state by detecting redox state of human body based on Chinese medicine constitution. (United States)

    Li, Ling-Ru; Wang, Qi; Wang, Ji; Wang, Qian-Fei; Yang, Ling-Ling; Zheng, Lu-Yu; Zhang, Yan


    This article discussed the feasibility of assessing health state by detecting redox state of human body. Firstly, the balance of redox state is the basis of homeostasis, and the balance ability of redox can reflflect health state of human body. Secondly, the redox state of human body is a sensitive index of multiple risk factors of health such as age, external environment and psychological factors. It participates in the occurrence and development of multiple diseases involving metabolic diseases and nervous system diseases, and can serve as a cut-in point for treatment of these diseases. Detecting the redox state of high risk people is signifificantly important for early detection and treatment of disease. The blood plasma and urine could be selected to detect, which is convenient. It is pointed that the indexes not only involve oxidation product and antioxidant enzyme but also redox couple. Chinese medicine constitution reflflects the state of body itself and the ability of adapting to external environment, which is consistent with the connotation of health. It is found that there are nine basic types of constitution in Chinese population, which provides a theoretical basis of health preservation, preventive treatment of disease and personalized treatment. With the combination of redox state detection and the Chinese medicine constitution theory, the heath state can be systemically assessed by conducting large-scale epidemiological survey with classifified detection on redox state of human body.

  5. Single-compound and cumulative risk assessment of mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children from Lisbon region, Portugal. (United States)

    Assunção, Ricardo; Vasco, Elsa; Nunes, Baltazar; Loureiro, Susana; Martins, Carla; Alvito, Paula


    Humans can be exposed to multiple chemicals, but current risk assessment is usually carried out on one chemical at a time. Mycotoxins are commonly found in a variety of foods including those intended to consumption by children namely breakfast cereals. The present study aims to perform, the risk assessment of single and multiple mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children (1-3 years old) from Lisbon region, Portugal. Daily exposure of children to ochratoxin A, fumonisins and trichothecenes showed no health risks to the children population considering individual mycotoxins, while exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) suggested a potential health concern for the high percentiles of intake (P90, P95 and P99). The combined exposure to fumonisins and trichothecenes are not expected to be of health concern. The combined margin of exposure (MoET) for the aflatoxins group could constitute a potential health concern and AFB1 was the main contributor for MoET. Legal limits and control strategies regarding the presence of multiple mycotoxins in foodstuffs is an urgent need. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a cumulative risk assessment was performed on multiple mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Earthquake Hazard and Risk Assessment Based on Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes: State of Gujarat, India (United States)

    Parvez, Imtiyaz A.; Nekrasova, Anastasia; Kossobokov, Vladimir


    The Gujarat state of India is one of the most seismically active intercontinental regions of the world. Historically, it has experienced many damaging earthquakes including the devastating 1819 Rann of Kachchh and 2001 Bhuj earthquakes. The effect of the later one is grossly underestimated by the Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP). To assess a more adequate earthquake hazard for the state of Gujarat, we apply Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes (USLE), which generalizes the Gutenberg-Richter recurrence relation taking into account naturally fractal distribution of earthquake loci. USLE has evident implications since any estimate of seismic hazard depends on the size of the territory considered and, therefore, may differ dramatically from the actual one when scaled down to the proportion of the area of interest (e.g. of a city) from the enveloping area of investigation. We cross-compare the seismic hazard maps compiled for the same standard regular grid 0.2° × 0.2° (1) in terms of design ground acceleration based on the neo-deterministic approach, (2) in terms of probabilistic exceedance of peak ground acceleration by GSHAP, and (3) the one resulted from the USLE application. Finally, we present the maps of seismic risks for the state of Gujarat integrating the obtained seismic hazard, population density based on India's Census 2011 data, and a few model assumptions of vulnerability.

  7. Youth Versus Adult “Weightlifting” Injuries Presenting to United States Emergency Rooms: Accidental Versus Nonaccidental Injury Mechanisms (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D.; Quatman, Carmen E.; Khoury, Jane; Wall, Eric J.; Hewett, Timothy E.


    Myer, GD, Quatman, CE, Khoury, J, Wall, EJ, and Hewett, TE. Youth versus adult “weightlifting” injuries presenting to united states emergency rooms: accidental versus nonaccidental injury mechanisms. J Strength Cond Res 23(7): 2054–2060, 2009—Resistance training has previously been purported to be unsafe and ineffective in children. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate resistance training-related injuries presenting to U.S. emergency rooms by age, type, and mechanism of injury. We hypothesized that older athletes would sustain greater percentages of joint sprains and muscle strains, whereas younger athletes would sustain a greater percentage of accidental injuries that would result in an increased percentage of fractures in youths. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was queried from 2002 to 2005 using the CPSC code for “Weightlifting.” Subjects between the ages of 8 and 30 were grouped by age categories 8 to 13 (elementary/middle school age), 14 to 18 (high school), 19 to 22 (college), and 23 to 30 (adult). Injuries were classified as “accidental” if caused by dropped weight or improper equipment use. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare accidental injuries between age groups. The sample consisted of 4, 111 patients. Accidental injuries decreased (p 14 to 18 > 19 to 22 years = 23 to 30 years. Conversely, sprain/strain injuries increased in each successive age group (p sprains and strains relative to younger age categories (p sprains and muscle strains than adults. The majority of youth resistance training injuries are the result of accidents that are potentially preventable with increased supervision and stricter safety guidelines. PMID:19855330

  8. Accounting for correlated observations in an age-based state-space stock assessment model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Casper Willestofte; Nielsen, Anders


    Fish stock assessment models often relyon size- or age-specific observations that are assumed to be statistically independent of each other. In reality, these observations are not raw observations, but rather they are estimates from a catch-standardization model or similar summary statistics based...... and specifically on reported confidence bounds. A state-space assessment model that allows for correlations between age groups within years in the observation model for catches and surveys is presented and applied to data on several North Sea fish stocks using various correlation structures. In all cases...... the independence assumption is rejected. Less fluctuating estimates of the fishing mortality is obtained due to a reduced process error. The improved model does not suffer from correlated residuals unlike the independent model, and the variance of forecasts is decreased....

  9. Implementation of state solar incentives: a preliminary assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashworth, J.; Green, B.; Pollock, P.; Odland, R.; Saltonstall, R.; Perelman, L.J.


    This paper reports the findings of a six-month pilot project designed to gather, analyze, and disseminate information on the operation of state incentives for solar energy. The primary purpose of this report is to provide timely and practical information on the lessons learned from and the problems encountered to date in state incentive programs for solar energy diffusion, adoption, and commercialization. The secondary intent of this SERI program is to identify those research areas within the broad spectrum of implementation experience which require more-extensive future examination to improve the effectiveness of state solar energy incentive programs. The focus of this study is the implementation of official state solar energy incentives programs. Questions of incentive design and program effectiveness are addressed in certain portions of the text, but the bulk of the research effort is directed toward examining how laws and legislative mandates have been transformed into rules, regulations, eligibility criteria, standards, comprehensive land-use plans, grants, tax deductions, and demonstration projects. Most of the programs discussed will be official governmental actions, although the roles of private groups, advisory councils, and universities are addressed. Programs were examined in Arizona, California, Florida, Maine, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Montana, New Mexico, and Oregon. (MCW)

  10. Assessment of Mild Cognitive Impairment with Mini Mental State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mild cognitive impairment is a recently described neuropsychiatric entity with the possibility of evolving into overt dementia. ... Keywords: Cognitive impairment, Mini Mental State Examination, Nigerians. Access this article online. Quick Response Code ... including depression. All had been normally functional in.

  11. Assessment of groundwater quality of Benin City, Edo state, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of groundwater of Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria was investigated between February and July 2008. Water samples were collected from functional bore holes from five locations (stations 1 – 5) and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters including heavy metals. Data obtained were compared with World ...

  12. Assessment of Water Supply Quality in Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patronage of water of questionable qualities in the study area due to the failure of the Anambra State Water Corporation to provide potable water supply in Awka and environs prompted this research work. Various water sources patronized in the study area were collected and subjected to physical, chemical and ...

  13. 1:1 Technology and Computerized State Assessments (United States)

    Medlin, Shane A.


    American students in the 21st century are growing up with Internet accessible technology available at their fingertips. Considering this and the continued pressure to compete in a global society, The United States' Department of Education's National Education Technology Plan (NETP) (2010) calls for educators to leverage technology in order to…

  14. Assessing Student Learning Outcomes in United States Government Courses (United States)

    Champney, Leonard; Edleman, Paul


    This study employs the Solomon Four-Group Design to measure student knowledge of the United States government and student knowledge of current events at the beginning of a U.S. government course and at the end. In both areas, knowledge improves significantly. Regarding knowledge of the U.S. government, both males and females improve at similar…

  15. An Assessment of Dietary Diversity in Six Nigerian States | Ajani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 14-food group model was used to evaluate diet diversity (DD). DD was based on the number of food groups consumed in the previous 24hours period. A DD score (DDS) ranging from 0 to 14 was constructed. A DDS terciles for low, medium and high was also constructed. DD of Nigerian diet was evaluated in six states ...

  16. Assessment of biosafety precautions in Khartoum state diagnostic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, 19 (10%) laboratories had a hepatitis B virus vaccination programme, 5 (6.2%) applied BCG vaccine, and 2 (1.1%0) vaccinated the staff against influenza. Conclusion: The study concluded that the standards biosafety precautions adopted by the diagnostic laboratories in Khartoum state was very low. Further ...

  17. Present state and perspective of downstream processing of biologically produced 1,3-propanediol and 2,3-butanediol. (United States)

    Xiu, Zhi-Long; Zeng, An-Ping


    1,3-Propanediol and 2,3-butanediol are two promising chemicals which have a wide range of applications and can be biologically produced. The separation of these diols from fermentation broth makes more than 50% of the total costs in their microbial production. This review summarizes the present state of methods studied for the recovery and purification of biologically produced diols, with particular emphasis on 1,3-propoanediol. Previous studies on the separation of 1,3-propanediol primarily include evaporation, distillation, membrane filtration, pervaporation, ion exchange chromatography, liquid-liquid extraction, and reactive extraction. Main methods for the recovery of 2,3-butanediol include steam stripping, pervaporation, and solvent extraction. No single method has proved to be simple and efficient, and improvements are especially needed with regard to yield, purity, and energy consumption. Perspectives for an improved downstream processing of biologically produced diols, especially 1,3-propanediol are discussed based on our own experience and recent work. It is argued that separation technologies such as aqueous two-phase extraction with short chain alcohols, pervaporation, reverse osmosis, and in situ extractive or pervaporative fermentations deserve more attention in the future.

  18. Present state and outlook of mineral resources in Peru; Peru no chika shigen no genjo to shorai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, A. [Mitsui Mineral Development Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper introduces the present state and outlook of mineral resources in Peru. Peru is a great mineral resource country in the world. Silver (the third in the world in 1993), lead (the fifth), zinc (the fourth), tin (the fifth), copper (the sixth), gold (the fourteenth), and iron are occurred as main mineral resources. Peru was laid waste due to long-term colonial rule by Spain. After the independence, confusion caused by the political distrust and breakdown of national economy was continued. Mineral resources were not utilized, effectively. Based on the nationalism of mineral resources, mines were nationalized after the 1970`s. Thus, mines lost the international competitive power due to the withdrawal of overseas capitals. Recently, based on the privatization policy, national mines have been sold through bids with participation of foreign capitals. Law systems for the development have been also arranged, which results in the ambitious participation of major mining companies in the world for the development. Survey companies have gone into the exploration. Prevention of environmental pollution, such as waste water quality standards, has been promoted. Environmental pollution by the illegal alluvial mining is serious. The government is promoting the positive measures. 7 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. The Public Understanding of Assessment in Educational Reform in the United States (United States)

    Brookhart, Susan M.


    The United States education system depends on legislation and funding at the federal, state and local levels. Public understanding of assessment therefore is important to educational reform in the USA. Educational reformers often invoke assessment information as a reason for reform, typically by citing unacceptable achievement on some measure or…

  20. Application of a new methodology for coastal multi-hazard-assessment and management on the state of Karnataka, India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelquist, Lars Rosendahl; Balstrom, Thomas


    This paper presents the application of a new Methodology for coastal multi-hazard assessment & management under a changing global climate on the state of Karnataka, India. The recently published methodology termed the Coastal Hazard Wheel (CHW) is designed for local, regional and national hazard...

  1. Assessment of atherosclerotic plaque collagen content and architecture using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Doradla, Pallavi; Villiger, Martin; Tshikudi, Diane M.; Bouma, Brett E.; Nadkarni, Seemantini K.


    Acute myocardial infarction, caused by the rupture of vulnerable coronary plaques, is the leading cause of death worldwide. Collagen is the primary extracellular matrix macromolecule that imparts the mechanical stability to a plaque and its reduction causes plaque instability. Intracoronary polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) measures the polarization states of the backscattered light from the tissue to evaluate plaque birefringence, a material property that is elevated in proteins such as collagen with an ordered structure. Here we investigate the dependence of the PS-OCT parameters on the quantity of the plaque collagen and fiber architecture. In this study, coronary arterial segments from human cadaveric hearts were evaluated with intracoronary PS-OCT and compared with Histopathological assessment of collagen content and architecture from picrosirius-red (PSR) stained sections. PSR sections were visualized with circularly-polarized light microscopy to quantify collagen birefringence, and the additional assessment of color hue indicated fibril thickness. Due to the ordered architecture of thick collagen fibers, a positive correlation between PS-OCT retardation and quantity of thick collagen fibers (r=0.54, p=0.04), and similarly with the total collagen content (r=0.51, p=0.03) was observed. In contrast, there was no perceivable relationship between PS-OCT retardation and the presence of thin collagen fibers (r=0.08, p=0.07), suggesting that thin and disorganized collagen fiber architecture did not significantly contribute to the PS-OCT retardation. Further analysis will be performed to assess the relationship between PS-OCT retardation and collagen architecture based on immunohistochemical analysis of collagen type. These results suggest that intracoronary PS-OCT may open the opportunity to assess collagen architecture in addition total collagen content, potentially enabling an improved understanding of coronary plaque rupture.

  2. State Child Welfare Program Self-Assessment Manual. (United States)

    Sundel, Martin; And Others

    This manual provides a systematic method for administrators and child welfare specialists to assess a child welfare service delivery system. The management of child welfare programs is considered within the framework of five management functions: planning, resource development, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. The manual contains seven…

  3. Seismic risk assessment and application in the central United States (United States)

    Wang, Z.


    Seismic risk is a somewhat subjective, but important, concept in earthquake engineering and other related decision-making. Another important concept that is closely related to seismic risk is seismic hazard. Although seismic hazard and seismic risk have often been used interchangeably, they are fundamentally different: seismic hazard describes the natural phenomenon or physical property of an earthquake, whereas seismic risk describes the probability of loss or damage that could be caused by a seismic hazard. The distinction between seismic hazard and seismic risk is of practical significance because measures for seismic hazard mitigation may differ from those for seismic risk reduction. Seismic risk assessment is a complicated process and starts with seismic hazard assessment. Although probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) is the most widely used method for seismic hazard assessment, recent studies have found that PSHA is not scientifically valid. Use of PSHA will lead to (1) artifact estimates of seismic risk, (2) misleading use of the annual probability of exccedance (i.e., the probability of exceedance in one year) as a frequency (per year), and (3) numerical creation of extremely high ground motion. An alternative approach, which is similar to those used for flood and wind hazard assessments, has been proposed. ?? 2011 ASCE.

  4. hydrological assessments of some rivers in edo state, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Assessment of hydropower potential using GIS and hydrological modeling technique in Kopili River basin in Assam India ,” Appl. Energy, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 298–309, 2010. [3] Spänhoff B. Current status and future prospects of hydropower in Saxony (Germany) compared to trends in Germany, the European Union and the.

  5. Competing Under Pressure : State Anxiety, Sports Performance and Assessment


    Lundqvist, Carolina


    Elevated levels of anxiety are a common response to stressful competitive sports situations, are known to moderate athletic performance and are referred to as an unpleasant emotional state associated with perceptions of situational threat. The empirical studies in this dissertation considered primarily psychometric, methodological and conceptual issues of relevance for the study of anxiety and sports performance. In Study I, athletes were followed across a full competitive season to explore p...

  6. Emergency Food Delivery: A State-of-the-Art Assessment (United States)


    established contacts with other federal offices at the state and local levels and first-hand experience and familiarity with local socioeconomic and...Its readiness to do so forms the essence of the second question that the review raises. While FEMA has acquired a familiarity with disasters, it has not...Bevoling, Ministry of Interior, Schedeldoekshaven 200, Postbus 20011, 2500 The Hague, THE NETHERLANDS. 236. Jefe, Seccion de Estudios y Planificacion

  7. Relationships between recent channel adjustments, present morphological state and river corridor vegetation in the Fortore River (southern Italy) (United States)

    Rosskopf, Carmen Maria; Scorpio, Vittoria; Calabrese, Valentina; Frate, Ludovico; Loy, Anna; Stanisci, Angela


    The Fortore River, as many other rivers in Italy, has experienced huge channel adjustments during the last 60 years that were mainly caused by anthropic interventions, especially in-channel mining and the closure of the Occhito dam in 1966. Such changes deeply modified extension and morphological characteristics of the river corridor and, consequently, also its ecological features. The present study aims to better understand the relationships between channel adjustments and river corridor vegetation changes and those between morphological features and environmental quality of the present-day river corridor. The study has been carried out by means of a multi-temporal GIS analysis of topographic maps and aerial photographs integrated with topographic, geomorphological and ecological field surveys. Results highlight that channel adjustments occurred through two distinct phases. Most of the channel changes occurred from the 1950s until the end of the 1990s (phase 1) and led to an overall channel narrowing (from 81 to 96%) and channel bed lowering (1-4 m). These changes were accompanied by pattern shifts from multithread to single-thread configurations. The reaches located downstream of the Occhito dam were affected by more intense modifications, especially channel narrowing, with respect to upstream reaches. From 2000 to 2016 (phase 2), a trend inversion occurred. Downstream reaches remained essentially stable, while upstream reaches were affected even by some channel widening and bed aggradation and slight increase of the extension of floodplain areas giving more space to the potential development of the riparian vegetation. The evolution and the present geomorphological conditions of the river corridor are also reflected by the state of the riparian vegetation. Upstream reaches are characterized by a higher richness in riparian vegetation types and vegetation cover with respect to downstream reaches. Best conditions occur especially in the upper Fortore valley. In

  8. 34 CFR 462.40 - Must a State have an assessment policy? (United States)


    ... SYSTEM FOR ADULT EDUCATION What Requirements Must States and Local Eligible Providers Follow When... all students who receive 12 hours or more of instruction in the State's adult education program with a... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Must a State have an assessment policy? 462.40 Section...

  9. Using Three-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess Students' Misconceptions of States of Matter (United States)

    Kirbulut, Zubeyde Demet; Geban, Omer


    This study involves the development of a three-tier diagnostic test to measure high school students' understanding of states of matter concepts. The States of Matter Diagnostic Test (SMDT) is a 19-item three-tier diagnostic test consisting of three-tier items for assessing students' understanding of states of matter concepts. The SMDT was…

  10. Assessing the "I" in group work assessment: : State of the art and recommendations for practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Joost; Latijnhouwers, Mieke; Norbart, Adriaan; Tio, Rene A.

    Introduction: The use of group work assessment in medical education is becoming increasingly important to assess the competency of collaborator. However, debate continues on whether this does justice to individual development and assessment. This paper focuses on assessing the individual component

  11. Assessing risk factors, presentation, and management of portomesenteric vein thrombosis after sleeve gastrectomy: a multicenter case-control study. (United States)

    Moon, Rena C; Ghanem, Muhammad; Teixeira, Andre F; De La Cruz-Munoz, Nestor; Young, Meredith K; Domkowski, Patrick; Radecke, Jason; Boyce, Stephen G; Rosenthal, Raul; Menzo, Emmanuel Lo; Blanco, David Gutierrez; Funes, David R; Jawad, Muhammad A


    Portomesenteric vein thrombosis (PMVT) is a rare complication of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. To identify incidence, patient factors, diagnosis, and treatment of PMVT after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy in a large administrative data registry. Academic Hospitals and Private Practices, United States. A retrospective chart review of 5538 sleeve gastrectomy patients between January 1, 2008 and September 30, 2016 was performed at 5 bariatric centers in the United States. A total of 11 patients were identified as developing PMVT, and 3 controls for each patient were selected by matching age, sex, preoperative body mass index, and center. After adjusting for confounding variables, 2 patient factors significantly impacted the risk of PMVT after sleeve gastrectomy including personal history of malignancy (odds ratio 62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-99.9), and type 2 diabetes (odds ratio 12.7, 95% CI 1.2-137.3) compared with controls. Mean period from laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy to presentation of PMVT was 19.3 ± 15.11 days (range, 8-62). All patients except 1 complained of abdominal pain as the main presenting symptom. Other complaints included nausea and vomiting, no bowel movement, decreased appetite, diarrhea, and dehydration, and leukocytosis was present in 45.5% of the patients. All diagnoses were made by using computed tomography. All initial treatments were anticoagulation, heparin drip being the most common method (90.9%). Of patients, 9 (81.8%) required a secondary anticoagulation therapy, and 1 (9.1%) patient required a reoperation. Incidence of PMVT is low after sleeve gastrectomy. A personal history of malignancy and type 2 diabetes increase the risk of PMVT. Increasing abdominal pain in a context of dehydration is common presenting symptoms with diagnosis confirmed by computed tomography. Anticoagulation is the standard treatment. There was no mortality associated with the occurrence of PMVT in this cohort. Copyright © 2017 American Society for

  12. Miocene to present deformation rates in the Yakima Fold Province and implications for earthquake hazards in central Washington State, USA (United States)

    Staisch, Lydia; Sherrod, Brian; Kelsey, Harvey; Blakely, Richard; Möller, Andreas; Styron, Richard


    The Yakima fold province (YFP), located in the Cascadia backarc of central Washington, is a region of active distributed deformation that accommodates NNE-SSW shortening. Geodetic data show modern strain accumulation of 2 mm/yr across this large-scale fold province. Deformation rates on individual structures, however, are difficult to assess from GPS data given low strain rates and the relatively short time period of geodetic observation. Geomorphic and geologic records, on the other hand, span sufficient time to investigate deformation rates on the folds. Resolving fault geometries and slip rates of the YFP is imperative to seismic hazard assessment for nearby infrastructure, including a large nuclear waste facility and hydroelectric dams along the Columbia and Yakima Rivers. We present new results on the timing and magnitude of deformation across several Yakima folds, including the Manastash Ridge, Umtanum Ridge, and Saddle Mountains anticlines. We constructed several line-balanced cross sections across the folds to calculated the magnitude of total shortening since Miocene time. To further constrain our structural models, we include forward-modeling of magnetic and gravity anomaly data. We estimate total shortening between 1.0 and 2.4 km across individual folds, decreasing eastward, consistent with geodetically and geologically measured clockwise rotation. Importantly, we find that thrust faults reactivate and invert normal faults in the basement, and do not appear to sole into a common décollement at shallow to mid-crustal depth. We constrain spatial and temporal variability in deformation rates along the Saddle Mountains, Manastash Ridge and Umtanum Ridge anticlines using geomorphic and stratigraphic markers of topographic evolution. From stratigraphy and geochronology of growth strata along the Saddle Mountains we find that the rate of deformation has increased up to six-fold since late Miocene time. To constrain deformation rates along other Yakima folds

  13. Assessment of state`s needs for building energy information tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattrup, M.P.; Gilbride, T.L.


    In this study for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Codes and Standards, Building Energy Standards Program (BESP), which is operated by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), conducted two surveys of state agencies involved with building codes (including each state energy office) to determine what resources they would find most helpful in complying with the residential and commercial energy efficiency requirements of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. PNL conducted a telephone survey of all 50 states and then a mail survey of each state plus Washington, DC and the six trust territories. In the mail survey the survey participants were provided with a list of 27 hypothetical tool descriptions; the participants were asked to choose the tools they thought would be most useful in helping them implement building energy codes and standards in their state. The respondents were also asked to characterize their state`s commercial and/or residential building energy code development/implementation processes. The mail survey respondents were also asked if they would be interested in serving on task forces for commercial or residential code development, implementation, enforcement or utility programs.

  14. Chemical conditions in present and future ecosystems in Forsmark - implications for selected radionuclides in the safety assessment SR-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troejbom, Mats (Mats Troejbom Konsult AB (Sweden)); Grolander, Sara (Facilia AB (Sweden))


    This report is a background report for the biosphere analysis of the SR-Site Safety Assessment. This work aims to describe the future development of the chemical conditions at Forsmark, based on the present chemical conditions at landscape level taking landscape development and climate cases into consideration. The results presented contribute to the overall understanding of the present and future chemistry in the Forsmark area, and specifically, to the understanding of the behaviour of some selected radionuclides in the surface system. The future development of the chemistry at the site is qualitatively discussed with focus on the interglacial within the next 10,000 years. The effects on the chemical environment of future climate cases as Global Warming and cold permafrost climates are also briefly discussed. The work is presented in two independent parts describing background radionuclide activities in the Forsmark area and the distribution and behaviour of a large number of stable elements in the landscape. In a concluding section, implications of the future chemical environment of a selection of radionuclides important in the Safety Assessment are discussed based on the knowledge of stable elements. The broad range of elements studied show that there are general and expected patterns for the distribution and behaviour in the landscape of different groups of elements. Mass balances reveal major sources and sinks, pool estimations show where elements are accumulated in the landscape and estimations of time-scales give indications of the potential future development. This general knowledge is transferred to radionuclides not measured in order to estimate their behaviour and distribution in the landscape. It could be concluded that the future development of the chemical environment in the Forsmark area might affect element specific parameters used in de radionuclide model in different directions depending on element. The alternative climate cases, Global Warming

  15. Development and validation of an objective structured assessment of technical skill tool for the practice of vertex presentation delivery. (United States)

    Antomarchi, Julie; Delotte, Jérôme; Jordan, Alexis; Tran, Antoine; Bongain, André


    To develop and test the validity of an objective structured assessment of technical skill (OSATS) tool for vertex presentation delivery simulations. Monocentric prospective study conducted in the Department of Gynecology, Obstetrics, Fetal Medicine and Reproductive Biology at the University Hospital of Nice. The study consisted of two parts, the development of the scoring system and then its validation. Experts in obstetrics from several academic institutions and private French hospitals were invited to participate in the development phase of the scoring system. For the validation phase, we formed a group of 20 novices and a group of 20 experts, who performed a childbirth simulation according to a standard scenario. Each participant was filmed and then two experts evaluated their performance with the OSATS score by viewing anonymized videos. The scores obtained by the expert group were significantly higher than those of the novice group, whether we compared the total score or each part of the score (task-specific or global) independently. We obtained a p value of 0.03 for the total score, p = 0.036 for the task-specific score, and p developed in this study for vertex presentation delivery is a reliable mean to assess the medical students' competence in procedural skills using a simulator.

  16. Software for predictive microbiology and risk assessment: a description and comparison of tools presented at the ICPMF8 Software Fair. (United States)

    Tenenhaus-Aziza, Fanny; Ellouze, Mariem


    The 8th International Conference on Predictive Modelling in Food was held in Paris, France in September 2013. One of the major topics of this conference was the transfer of knowledge and tools between academics and stakeholders of the food sector. During the conference, a "Software Fair" was held to provide information and demonstrations of predictive microbiology and risk assessment software. This article presents an overall description of the 16 software tools demonstrated at the session and provides a comparison based on several criteria such as the modeling approach, the different modules available (e.g. databases, predictors, fitting tools, risk assessment tools), the studied environmental factors (temperature, pH, aw, etc.), the type of media (broth or food) and the number and type of the provided micro-organisms (pathogens and spoilers). The present study is a guide to help users select the software tools which are most suitable to their specific needs, before they test and explore the tool(s) in more depth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. National and regional climate change impact assessments in the forestry sector. Workshop summary and abstracts of oral and poster presentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, M. [ed.


    Climate change is likely to affect forests and the forest industry during the 21{sup st} century. Different processes in forest ecosystems and the forest sector are sensitive to climate and many different projects have been conducted, in which the scale of study varied from the individual leaf to the whole globe. Several attempts have been made to link impact models (e.g., ecological and socio-economic models), and to integrate them in national or regional climate impact assessment studies. However, integration of climate impact assessments for the forestry sector is still a relatively new issue on the research agenda. From November 10 to 13, 1999 the Postdam Institue for Climate Impact Research and the European Forest Institute organised a workshop in Wenddoche near Belzig (Germany) to bring together individuals and research groups from the currently developing research community, to provide a forum for the exchange of experience, and to stimulate further research collaboration. The workshop attracted 31 scientists from 12 countries, representing a wide range of disciplines covering ecophysiology, soils, forest ecology, growth and yield, silviculture, remote sensing, forest policy, and forest economics. Several presentations investigated possible impacts of climate change on forest growth and development. A second major topic was the carbon budget and the possible contribution of forestry to carbon dioxide mitigation. The third important focus was the application of economic models to estimate socio-economic consequences of changes in forest productivity and the linkage of ecological and economic models. Non-timber forest benefits were addressed in one regional impact assessment and in two national integrated assessments from the U.S. and Germany. The latter also included social components with the involvement of stakeholders and the decision making of forest owners under global change.

  18. Southeast Regional Assessment Study: an assessment of the opportunities of solar electric power generation in the Southeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The objective of this study was to identify and assess opportunities for demonstration and large scale deployment of solar electric facilities in the southeast region and to define the technical, economic, and institutional factors that can contribute to an accelerated use of solar energy for electric power generation. Graphs and tables are presented indicating the solar resource potential, siting opportunities, energy generation and use, and socioeconomic factors of the region by state. Solar electric technologies considered include both central station and dispersed solar electric generating facilities. Central stations studied include solar thermal electric, wind, photovoltaic, ocean thermal gradient, and biomass; dispersed facilities include solar thermal total energy systems, wind, and photovoltaic. The value of solar electric facilities is determined in terms of the value of conventional facilities and the use of conventional fuels which the solar facilities can replace. Suitable cost and risk sharing mechanisms to accelerate the commercialization of solar electric technologies in the Southeast are identified. The major regulatory and legal factors which could impact on the commercialization of solar facilities are reviewed. The most important factors which affect market penetration are reviewed, ways to accelerate the implementation of these technologies are identified, and market entry paths are identified. Conclusions and recommendations are presented. (WHK)

  19. Assessment of Geothermal Resources of the United States--1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.E.; Williams, D.L. [eds.


    This is the first of two significant assessments of the geological energy potential of the U.S. The second one is U.S.G.S. Circular 790. Systems analyzed include: Hydrothermal convection systems (with estimates of potential for many specific sites in the West), Igneous related systems (related to current or recent volcanism), Estimates of the conductive transport of heat in most areas of CONUS, Recovery of heat from molten igneous systems (magma), and Geopressured geothermal energy in the Gulf Coast area. The significance of this report is that it began to give policy makers a first handle on the quantities and qualities of geothermal energy in the ground in much of the U.S. Economics (costs and revenues) are not considered. (DJE - 2005)

  20. The state of solar energy resource assessment in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Alberto; Escobar, Rodrigo [Mechanical and Metallurgical Engineering Department, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile); Colle, Sergio [Laboratorios de Engenharia de Processos de Conversao e Tecnologia de Energia - LEPTEN, Mechanical Engineering Department, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis (Brazil); de Abreu, Samuel Luna [IFSC - Instituto Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Sao Jose, Sao Jose - SC (Brazil)


    The Chilean government has determined that a renewable energy quota of up to 10% of the electrical energy generated must be met by 2024. This plan has already sparked interest in wind, geothermal, hydro and biomass power plants in order to introduce renewable energy systems to the country. Solar energy is being considered only for demonstration, small-scale CSP plants and for domestic water heating applications. This apparent lack of interest in solar energy is partly due to the absence of a valid solar energy database, adequate for energy system simulation and planning activities. One of the available solar radiation databases is 20-40 years old, with measurements taken by pyranographs and Campbell-Stokes devices. A second database from the Chilean Meteorological Service is composed by pyranometer readings, sparsely distributed along the country and available from 1988, with a number of these stations operating intermittently. The Chilean government through its National Energy Commission (CNE) has contracted the formulation of a simulation model and also the deployment of network of measurement stations in northern Chile. Recent efforts by the authors have resulted in a preliminary assessment by satellite image processing. Here, we compare the existing databases of solar radiation in Chile. Monthly mean solar energy maps are created from ground measurements and satellite estimations and compared. It is found that significant deviation exists between sources, and that all ground-station measurements display unknown uncertainty levels, thus highlighting the need for a proper, country-wide long-term resource assessment initiative. However, the solar energy levels throughout the country can be considered as high, and it is thought that they are adequate for energy planning activities - although not yet for proper power plant design and dimensioning. (author)

  1. State of the Art and Trends in Wind Resource Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Probst


    Full Text Available Given the significant rise of the utilization of wind energy the accurate assessment of the wind potential is becoming increasingly important. Direct applications of wind assessment techniques include the creation of wind maps on a local scale (typically 5 20 km and the micrositing of wind turbines, the estimation of vertical wind speed variations, prospecting on a regional scale (>100 km, estimation of the long-term wind resource at a given site, and forecasting. The measurement of wind speed and direction still widely relies on cup anemometers, though sonic anemometers are becoming increasingly popular. Moreover, remote sensing by Doppler techniques using the backscattering of either sonic beams (SODAR or light (LIDAR allowing for vertical profiling well beyond hub height are quickly moving into the mainstream. Local wind maps are based on the predicted modification of the regional wind flow pattern by the local atmospheric boundary layer which in turn depends on both topographic and roughness features and the measured wind rose obtained from one or several measurement towers within the boundaries of the planned development site. Initial models were based on linearized versions of the Navier-Stokes equations, whereas more recently full CFD models have been applied to wind farm micrositing. Linear models tend to perform well for terrain slopes lower than about 25% and have the advantage of short execution times. Long-term performance is frequently estimated from correlations with nearby reference stations with concurrent information and continuous time series over a period of at least 10 years. Simple methods consider only point-to-point linear correlations; more advanced methods like multiple regression techniques and methods based on the theory of distributions will be discussed. Both for early prospecting in regions where only scarce or unreliable reference information is available, wind flow modeling on a larger scale (mesoscale is becoming

  2. Assessing the state of the art in edge detection: 1992 (United States)

    Boyer, Kim L.; Sarkar, S.


    Hoping the reader will not find the title overly pompous, we offer a brief and decidedly informal view of the state of the edge detection art, as we see it, in early 1992. We make no claim to clairvoyance, nor even to being especially insightful. But we have looked over the recent literature and made some attempt to evaluate where we are as a community with respect to this most ubiquitous problem and where we should be headed. We also briefly summarize the work of this session and our own recent contributions to compare the spectrum of philosophies represented to the community at large. This paper should be taken in the spirit in which it was written, which is to say not too seriously. Our aim is by no means frivolous, but we did try to have a little fun while dabbling as futurists. The ultimate goal of this paper is to stimulate some interesting interchange not so much on the `how to' of edge detection as on the `what next.'

  3. Assessment of the state of urban ecosystems on the basis of remote sensing data (United States)

    Gorokhova, I. N.; Borisochkina, T. I.; Shishkonakova, E. A.


    The results of the soil-ecological monitoring of the Novovladykino (Moscow) key site are presented. The monitoring included the interpretation of aerospace information collected in 2000 and 2010, terrestrial route observations, and mapping of the key site. The data obtained confirm the possibility to use the remote sensing information in the investigation of urban ecosystems and to recognize the arboreal vegetation, shrubs, and lawn grass in images. The approximate identification of the tree species; the assessment of the state of the green belts and the natural, anthropogenic, and technogenic soils and their complexes; the identification of the overcompacted, mechanically destroyed, and sealed soils under the waterproof and permeable surface horizons are also possible. The determination of the species composition of the trees in small groups, the poor state of the individual trees and small groves, and the causes of the changes in the state of the green belts and polluted areas turned out to be impossible. Additional field and laboratory investigations were performed in order to verify and refine information obtained from the satellite images.

  4. Application of non-destructive techniques to assess the state of Hagia Sophia's mosaics (United States)

    Moropoulou, Antonia; Karoglou, Maria; Labropoulos, Kyriakos C.; Delegou, Ekaterini T.; Katsiotis, Nikolaos K.; Karagiannis-Bakolas, Asterios


    The church of Hagia Sophia in Istanbul is a world heritage monument that epitomizes the byzantine ecclesiastic architecture. The church is decorated with mosaics from various historic periods. The preservation state of the mosaics is of high importance. In this study, non-destructive techniques (ground penetrating radar, infra-red thermography, fibreoptics microscopy) were employed on south upper gallery mosaic areas. The main aim of this on-site investigation was the evaluation of the preservation state of the mosaics and the previous interventions (materials characterization and decay diagnosis) in order to assess the performance of previous conservation/restoration interventions, as well as to verify the presence of mosaics in layers below the external plaster surfaces. Results indicated that is indeed possible to locate the grid of rendered mosaics. Regarding the preservation state of the mosaics, it was indicated that the main environmental decay factors were the high relative humidity levels with co-action of salt damp as well as the air pollutants. Moreover, it was revealed that previous incompatible restoration/conservation interventions have often accelerated the mosaics' degradation processes. Using non-destructive techniques it was possible to identify areas where the mosaic materials (tesserae and mortars) presented decay problems and in addition identify sub-layers that pose risk of detachment or decay intensification. In this way, NDT can contribute to the development of a strategic planning for mosaics conservation, protection and revealing.

  5. Distributed Wind Resource Assessment: State of the Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Jason [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tinnesand, Heidi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baring-Gould, Ian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Wind and Water Power Technologies Office (WWPTO) goals, researchers from DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) are investigating the Distributed Wind Resource Assessment (DWRA) process, which includes pre-construction energy estimation as well as turbine site suitability assessment. DWRA can have a direct impact on the Wind Program goals of maximizing stakeholder confidence in turbine performance and safety as well as reducing the levelized cost of energy (LCOE). One of the major components of the LCOE equation is annual energy production. DWRA improvements can maximize the annual energy production, thereby lowering the overall LCOE and improving stakeholder confidence in the distributed wind technology sector by providing more accurate predictions of power production. Over the long term, one of the most significant benefits of a more defined DWRA process could be new turbine designs, tuned to site-specific characteristics that will help the distributed wind industry follow a similar trajectory to the low-wind-speed designs in the utility-scale industry sector. By understanding the wind resource better, the industry could install larger rotors, capture more energy, and as a result, increase deployment while lowering the LCOE. a direct impact on the Wind Program goals of maximizing stakeholder confidence in turbine performance and safety as well as reducing the levelized cost of energy (LCOE). One of the major components of the LCOE equation is annual energy production. DWRA improvements can maximize the annual energy production, thereby lowering the overall LCOE and improving stakeholder confidence in the distributed wind technology sector by providing more accurate predictions of power production. Over the long term, one of the most significant benefits of a more defined DWRA process could be new turbine designs, tuned to site-specific characteristics that

  6. From Forge to Fast Food: A History of Child Labor in New York State. Volume II: Civil War to the Present. (United States)

    Bernstein, Richard B.; And Others

    This volume of essays and activities is written for use in the eighth grade course "United States and New York State History." The volume follows the chronology from the Civil War to the present, emphasizing child labor during those years. The essays are intended for teachers but can be mastered by many students. The activities focus on…

  7. Nutritional status at presentation, comparison of assessment tools, and importance of arm anthropometry in children with cancer in India. (United States)

    Shah, P; Jhaveri, U; Idhate, T B; Dhingra, S; Arolkar, P; Arora, B


    In India, approximately 40,000 new cases of cancer in children are diagnosed each year. However, there are no good studies analyzing their nutritional status. Also, since accurate and sensitive nutritional assessment is critical for optimal clinical outcomes through timely remediation of malnutrition, it is important to assess the relative sensitivity and feasibility of commonly used nutritional screening tools. This observational study analyzed height/length (cm), weight (kg), mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), triceps skinfold thickness (TSFT) as well as their Z-scores or percentiles, albumin levels and history of weight loss at diagnosis in children aged 2-15 years being treated for cancer between November 2008 to December 2013. Body mass index (BMI) and arm muscle circumference (AMC) were calculated respectively from height and weight, and MUAC and TSFT. A total of 1693 new patients were enrolled; 1187 had all anthropometric measurements performed. The prevalence of malnutrition was 38%, 57%, 76%, 69% and 81% on the basis of BMI, TSFT, MUAC, AMC, and arm TSFT + MUAC respectively with the highest prevalence in solid abdominal tumours. Addition of BMI and serum albumin to arm anthropometry increased the proportion classified as severely nutritionally depleted by a mere 2% & 1.5% respectively. Positive history of significant weight loss additionally identified 16.5% at nutritional risk over arm anthropometry. The prevalence of malnutrition in Indian children with cancer at presentation is very high ranging from 40% and 80% depending on the method used for assessment, being higher with MUAC and lowest with BMI. Either MUAC alone or TSFT + MUAC (wherever feasible) should be used for screening for malnutrition in children with cancer at diagnosis to plan timely nutritional interventions, reduce the treatment-related morbidity and optimise their chance of long-term cure.

  8. Clinical assessment of human breast cancer margins with wide-field optical coherence micro-elastography (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Allen, Wes M.; Chin, Lixin; Wijesinghe, Philip; Kirk, Rodney W.; Latham, Bruce; Sampson, David D.; Saunders, Christobel M.; Kennedy, Brendan F.


    Breast cancer has the second highest mortality rate of all cancers in females. Surgical excision of malignant tissue forms a central component of breast-conserving surgery (BCS) procedures. Incomplete excision of malignant tissue is a major issue in BCS with typically 20 - 30% cases requiring a second surgical procedure due to postoperative detection of tumor in the margin. A major challenge for surgeons during BCS is the lack of effective tools to assess the surgical margin intraoperatively. Such tools would enable the surgeon to more effectively remove all tumor during the initial surgery, hence reducing re-excision rates. We report advances in the development of a new tool, optical coherence micro-elastography, which forms images, known as elastograms, based on mechanical contrast within the tissue. We demonstrate the potential of this technique to increase contrast between malignant tumor and healthy stroma in elastograms over OCT images. We demonstrate a key advance toward clinical translation by conducting wide-field imaging in intraoperative time frames with a wide-field scanning system, acquiring mosaicked elastograms with overall dimensions of 50 × 50 mm, large enough to image an entire face of most lumpectomy specimens. We describe this wide-field imaging system, and demonstrate its operation by presenting wide-field optical coherence tomography images and elastograms of a tissue mimicking silicone phantom and a number of representative freshly excised human breast specimens. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of scanning large areas of lumpectomies, which is an important step towards practical intraoperative margin assessment.

  9. The head turn paradigm to assess auditory laterality in cats: influence of ear position and repeated sound presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebke S. Konerding


    Full Text Available In most humans, speech is predominantly processed by the left hemisphere. This auditory laterality was formerly thought to be an exclusive human characteristic, but is now suggested to have pre-human origins. In studies on auditory laterality in nonhuman animals, the head turn paradigm has become very popular due to its non-invasive character. Although there are implications that the head turn direction indicates functional dominance of the contralateral hemisphere in processing a given sound, the validity of the paradigm is under debate. To validate the paradigm via comparison with imaging or electrophysiological methods, it is first necessary to establish turning biases at the individual level. Recently, the domestic cat, a common model in hearing research, has been found to show turning biases at the group level. To assess individual turning asymmetries in cats, we repeatedly presented kitten isolation calls and assessed whether differences in conveyed arousal changed the previously described left-wards lateralisation of conspecific vocalizations. Based on responses to 50 playback presentations (25 of high and 25 of low arousal, we calculated individual head turn indices. Based on the total data set, we found no consistent individual turning bias, irrespective of call category or sex of the receiver. Although the playback paradigm was chosen carefully to reduce any effects of lateralized loudness perception or changes in motivation due to habituation, individual head turn biases changed significantly in concordance with habituation to repeated playback-presentations and was predictable by small deflections in ear position prior to listening. When splitting the data set according to a decline in responsiveness after seven playback presentations, we revealed an initial left turning bias for most of our subjects (i.e., significant at the group level. We propose that this left turning bias is related to right hemisphere dominance in processes

  10. The head turn paradigm to assess auditory laterality in cats: influence of ear position and repeated sound presentation. (United States)

    Konerding, Wiebke S; Zimmermann, Elke; Bleich, Eva; Hedrich, Hans-Jürgen; Scheumann, Marina


    In most humans, speech is predominantly processed by the left hemisphere. This auditory laterality was formerly thought to be an exclusive human characteristic, but is now suggested to have pre-human origins. In studies on auditory laterality in nonhuman animals, the head turn paradigm has become very popular due to its non-invasive character. Although there are implications that the head turn direction indicates functional dominance of the contralateral hemisphere in processing a given sound, the validity of the paradigm is under debate. To validate the paradigm via comparison with imaging or electrophysiological methods, it is first necessary to establish turning biases at the individual level. Recently, the domestic cat, a common model in hearing research, has been found to show turning biases at the group level. To assess individual turning asymmetries in cats, we repeatedly presented kitten isolation calls and assessed whether differences in conveyed arousal changed the previously described left-wards lateralisation of conspecific vocalizations. Based on responses to 50 playback presentations (25 of high and 25 of low arousal), we calculated individual head turn indices. Based on the total data set, we found no consistent individual turning bias, irrespective of call category or sex of the receiver. Although the playback paradigm was chosen carefully to reduce any effects of lateralized loudness perception or changes in motivation due to habituation, individual head turn biases changed significantly in concordance with habituation to repeated playback-presentations and was predictable by small deflections in ear position prior to listening. When splitting the data set according to a decline in responsiveness after seven playback presentations, we revealed an initial left turning bias for most of our subjects (i.e., significant at the group level). We propose that this left turning bias is related to right hemisphere dominance in processes like vigilance

  11. Indicators assessing the performance of renewable energy support policies in 27 Member States. D17 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhilber, S.; Ragwitz, M. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany); Rathmann, M.; Klessmann, C.; Noothout, P. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)


    The core objective of the RE-Shaping project is to assist Member State governments in preparing for the implementation of Directive 2009/28/EC (on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources) and to guide a European policy for RES (renewable energy sources) in the mid- to long term. The past and present success of policies for renewable energies will be evaluated and recommendations derived to improve future RES support schemes. The core content of this collaborative research activity comprises: Developing a comprehensive policy background for RES support instruments; Providing the European Commission and Member States with scientifically based and statistically robust indicators to measure the success of currently implemented RES policies; Proposing innovative financing schemes for lower costs and better capital availability in RES financing; Initiation of National Policy Processes which attempt to stimulate debate and offer key stakeholders a meeting place to set and implement RES targets as well as options to improve the national policies fostering RES market penetration; Assessing options to coordinate or even gradually harmonize national RES policy approaches. It is the objective of this report to assess the performance of Member States in promoting renewable energy technologies (RET) that has been achieved during recent years. The report was originally published in late 2010 and has now been updated using the latest available data. The focus shall be on the following aspects: Monitoring the historic success of RET-support with quantitative indicators; Extension of existing Policy Effectiveness Indicator and economic indicators; New: Deployment Status Indicator and Electricity Market Preparedness indicator; followed by Conclusions and recommendations.

  12. Assessment of Climate Change and Vector-borne Diseases in the United States (United States)

    Monaghan, A. J.; Beard, C. B.; Eisen, R. J.; Barker, C. M.; Garofalo, J.; Hahn, M.; Hayden, M.; Ogden, N.; Schramm, P.


    Vector-borne diseases are illnesses that are transmitted by vectors, which include mosquitoes, ticks, and fleas. The seasonality, distribution, and prevalence of vector-borne diseases are influenced significantly by climate factors, primarily high and low temperature extremes and precipitation patterns. In this presentation we summarize key findings from Chapter 5 ("Vector-borne Diseases") of the recently published USGCRP Scientific Assessment of the Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States. Climate change is expected to alter geographic and seasonal distributions of vectors and vector-borne diseases, leading to earlier activity and northward range expansion of ticks capable of carrying the bacteria that cause Lyme disease and other pathogens, and influencing the distribution, abundance and prevalence of infection in mosquitoes that transmit West Nile virus and other pathogens. The emergence or reemergence of vector-borne pathogens is also likely.

  13. Assessment of materials selection and performance for direct-coal- liquefaction plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, A.R.; Judkins, R.R.; Keiser, J.R.


    Several direct coal liquefaction processes have been demonstrated at the pilot plant level in the United States. Presently only one plant remains operational, namely, the Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., 4.0- ton-per-day process development unit in Lawrenceville, New Jersey. The period from 1974 to 1982 saw the greatest amount of development of direct coal liquefaction in the United States with four major pilot plants being devoted to variants of this technology. The plants included the SRC-I plant at Wilsonville, Alabama, which operated from 1974 to 1992; the SRC-I/II plant at Fort Lewis, Washington, which operated from 1974 to 1981; the H-Coal plant at Catlettsburg, Kentucky, which operated from 1980 to 1982; and the Exxon Coal Liquefaction Pilot Plant at Baytown, Texas, which operated from 1980 to 1982. Oak Ridge National Laboratory scientists and engineers were actively involved in many phases and technical disciplines at all four of these plants, especially in materials testing, evaluation, and failure analyses. In addition, ORNL materials scientists and engineers conducted reviews of the demonstration and commercial plant designs for materials selections. The ORNL staff members worked closely with materials engineers at the pilot plants in identifying causes of materials degradation and failures, and in identifying solutions to these problems. This report provides a comprehensive summary of those materials activities. Materials performance data from laboratory and coal liquefaction pilot plant tests, failure analyses, and analyses of components after use in pilot plants were reviewed and assessed to determine the extent and causes of materials degradation in direct coal liquefaction process environments. Reviews of demonstration and commercial plant design documents for materials selections were conducted. These reviews and assessments are presented to capture the knowledge base on the most likely materials of construction for direct coal liquefaction plants.

  14. The highly anxious individual presenting for Huntington disease-predictive genetic testing: the psychiatrist's role in assessment and counseling. (United States)

    Groves, Mark


    Guidelines in the Huntington disease genetic counseling community have set a standard for the process of at-risk counseling, recommending the involvement of a multidisciplinary team, which includes a psychiatrist or psychologist. Though most studies have been largely reassuring regarding the psychologic consequences of predictive testing, there are individuals presenting to testing who really want something else other than the test results, who are being pressured by others to obtain results, or who remain deeply ambivalent about testing. Particularly concerning are those testing candidates who are highly anxious or depressed at the time of presentation. Balancing the ethical principles of autonomy with beneficence and nonmaleficence requires careful exploration of the motivations behind testing to ensure that all are fully informed of alternatives, and opportunities for further support are offered when needed. This chapter illustrates 13 areas of focus and inquiry in the psychiatric interview and gives some case examples to illustrate an approach to the psychiatric assessment and counseling of highly anxious individuals seeking genetic testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Conservation assessments in climate change scenarios: spatial perspectives for present and future in two Pristidactylus (Squamata: Leiosauridae) lizards from Argentina. (United States)

    Minoli, Ignacio; Avila, Luciano Javier


    The consequences of global climate change can already be seen in many physical and biological systems and these effects could change the distribution of suitable areas for a wide variety of organisms to the middle of this century. We analyzed the current habitat use and we projected the suitable area of present conditions into the geographical space of future scenarios (2050), to assess and quantify whether future climate change would affect the distribution and size of suitable environments in two Pristidactylus lizard species. Comparing the habitat use and future forecasts of the two studied species, P. achalensis showed a more restricted use of available resource units (RUs) and a moderate reduction of the potential future area. On the contrary, P. nigroiugulus uses more available RUs and has a considerable area decrease for both future scenarios. These results suggest that both species have a moderately different trend towards reducing available area of suitable habitats, the persistent localities for both 2050 CO2 concentration models, and in the available RUs used. We discussed the relation between size and use of the current habitat, changes in future projections along with the protected areas from present-future and the usefulness of these results in conservation plans. This work illustrates how ectothermic organisms might have to face major changes in their availability suitable areas as a consequence of the effect of future climate change.

  16. Development and validation of an objective structured assessment of technical skill tool for the practice of breech presentation delivery. (United States)

    Jordan, Alexis; Antomarchi, Julie; Bongain, André; Tran, Antoine; Delotte, Jérome


    To develop and test the validity of an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) tool for breech presentation delivery. Monocentric prospective study conducted in the Department of Gynecology, Obstetrics, Fetal Medicine and Reproductive Medicine at the University Hospital of Nice. The study consisted of two parts, the development of the OSATS scoring system and its objective validation. Several experts in obstetrics from university hospital centers and private French hospitals were invited to participate in the development phase of the scoring system. For the validation phase, we formed a group of 20 novices and a group of 20 experts, who had to perform a breech presentation delivery on a simulator, according to a standardized scenario. Each participant was filmed and two experts would then evaluate their performance by viewing anonymized videos and using the OSATS score. The scores obtained by the expert group were significantly higher than those of the novice group, with a total score of 21.73/25 versus 6.95/25 (p skills using a simulator.

  17. Past, Present, and Future Old Growth in Frequent-fire Conifer Forests of the Western United States


    Scott R. Abella; W. Wallace. Covington; Peter Z. Fulé; Leigh B. Lentile; Andrew J. Sánchez Meador; Penelope Morgan


    Old growth in the frequent-fire conifer forests of the western United States, such as those containing ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), Jeffrey pine (P. jeffreyi), giant sequoia (Sequioa giganteum) and other species, has undergone major changes since Euro-American settlement. Understanding past changes and anticipating future changes under different potential management scenarios are fundamental to developing ecologically based fuel reduction or ecological restoration treatments. Some of the...

  18. Ten years after the Jali Commission Assessing the state of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten years have lapsed since the Jali Commission's final report became publicly available, and it is therefore an opportune time to assess the state of South Africa's prison system. The Jali Commission was appointed when it became clear that the state had lost control of the Department of Correctional Services (DCS).

  19. Impact of Design Effects in Large-Scale District and State Assessments (United States)

    Phillips, Gary W.


    This article proposes that sampling design effects have potentially huge unrecognized impacts on the results reported by large-scale district and state assessments in the United States. When design effects are unrecognized and unaccounted for they lead to underestimating the sampling error in item and test statistics. Underestimating the sampling…

  20. An assessment of the accuracy of soil map of Kwara state, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of the accuracy of soil map of Kwara state, Nigeria. ... Nigerian Journal of Soil Science ... within and among the three major soil mapping units delineated in Kwara State, on the Federal Department of Agricultural Land Resources (FDALR) soil map of Nigeria was examined using some statistical measures.

  1. Developing a Successful State-Level Environmental Education Organization: A Nationwide Assessment (United States)

    Smaldone, David; Dey, Shannon E.


    The purpose of this study was to conduct a nationwide assessment of state-level environmental education (EE) organizations to determine the components that are essential to the establishment and success of these organizations. E-mail surveys were used to collect data from North American Association for Environmental Education state affiliates, and…

  2. Assessment of Social Media Utilization and Study Habit of Students of Tertiary Institutions in Katsina State (United States)

    Olutola, Adekunle Thomas; Olatoye, Olufunke Omotoke; Olatoye, Rafiu Ademola


    This study investigated assessment of social media utilization and study habits of students of tertiary institutions in Katsina State. The descriptive survey design was adopted for this study. Three hundred and eighty-one (381) students' of tertiary institutions in Katsina State were randomly selected for the study. Researchers'-designed…

  3. The Status of Genetics Curriculum in Higher Education in the United States: Goals and Assessment (United States)

    McElhinny, Teresa L.; Dougherty, Michael J.; Bowling, Bethany V.; Libarkin, Julie C.


    We review the state of genetics instruction in the United States through the lens of backward design, with particular attention to the goals and assessments that inform curricular practice. An analysis of syllabi and leading textbooks indicates that genetics instruction focuses most strongly on foundations of DNA and Mendelian genetics. At the…

  4. A broad assessment of factors determining Culicoides imicola abundance: modelling the present and forecasting its future in climate change scenarios. (United States)

    Acevedo, Pelayo; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Estrada, Rosa; Márquez, Ana Luz; Miranda, Miguel Angel; Gortázar, Christian; Lucientes, Javier


    Bluetongue (BT) is still present in Europe and the introduction of new serotypes from endemic areas in the African continent is a possible threat. Culicoides imicola remains one of the most relevant BT vectors in Spain and research on the environmental determinants driving its life cycle is key to preventing and controlling BT. Our aim was to improve our understanding of the biotic and abiotic determinants of C. imicola by modelling its present abundance, studying the spatial pattern of predicted abundance in relation to BT outbreaks, and investigating how the predicted current distribution and abundance patterns might change under future (2011-2040) scenarios of climate change according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. C. imicola abundance data from the bluetongue national surveillance programme were modelled with spatial, topoclimatic, host and soil factors. The influence of these factors was further assessed by variation partitioning procedures. The predicted abundance of C. imicola was also projected to a future period. Variation partitioning demonstrated that the pure effect of host and topoclimate factors explained a high percentage (>80%) of the variation. The pure effect of soil followed in importance in explaining the abundance of C. imicola. A close link was confirmed between C. imicola abundance and BT outbreaks. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to consider wild and domestic hosts in predictive modelling for an arthropod vector. The main findings regarding the near future show that there is no evidence to suggest that there will be an important increase in the distribution range of C. imicola; this contrasts with an expected increase in abundance in the areas where it is already present in mainland Spain. What may be expected regarding the future scenario for orbiviruses in mainland Spain, is that higher predicted C. imicola abundance may significantly change the rate of transmission of orbiviruses.

  5. Performance Assessment of Discontinuous Fibers in Fiber Reinforced Concrete: Current State-of-the-Art (United States)


    ER D C/ G SL T R- 17 -1 9 Performance Assessment of Discontinuous Fibers in Fiber-Reinforced Concrete: Current State-of-the- Art G eo te...Discontinuous Fibers in Ultra-High Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete: Current State-of-the- Art Charles A. Burchfield Geotechnical and...Finally, a summary of the current state-of-the- art and future research recommendations will be discussed in Chapter 4. 1.1 Fiber-reinforced concrete

  6. An Analysis of Future Publications, Career Choices, and Practice Characteristics of Research Presenters at an American College of Surgeons State Conference: A 15-Year Review. (United States)

    Ahmad, Humera F; Jarman, Benjamin T; Kallies, Kara J; Shapiro, Stephen B

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requires scholarly activity within general surgery residency programs. The association between in-training research presentations and postgraduation publications is unknown. We hypothesized that surgical trainee presentations at an American College of Surgeons (ACS) state chapter meeting resulted in peer-reviewed publications and future scholarly activity. The ACS Wisconsin state chapter meeting agendas from 2000 to 2014 were reviewed to identify all trainees who delivered podium presentations. A literature search was completed for subsequent publications. Program coordinators were queried and an electronic search was performed to determine practice location and type for each residency graduate. Wisconsin state chapter ACS meeting. General surgery residents, fellows, and medical students in Wisconsin. There were 288 podium presentations by trainees (76% residents, 20% medical students, and 4% fellows). Presentations were clinical (79.5%) and basic science (20.5%). There were 204 unique presenters; 25% presented at subsequent meetings. Of these unique presenters, 46% published their research and 31% published additional research after residency. Among presenters who completed residency or fellowship (N = 119), 34% practiced in a university setting, and 61% practiced in a community setting; 31% practiced in Wisconsin. When comparing clinical vs basic science presenters, there was no difference in fellowship completion (37% vs 44%; p = 0.190) or practice type (38% vs 46% in a university setting; p = 0.397). Repeat presenters were more likely to pursue a fellowship vs those presenting once (76% vs 37%; p = 0.001). Research presentations by surgical trainees at an ACS state chapter meeting frequently led to peer-reviewed publications. Presenters were likely to pursue research opportunities after residency. Repeat presenters were more likely to pursue a fellowship. ACS Wisconsin chapter meetings provide an

  7. Assessment of the state of food waste treatment in the United States and Canada. (United States)

    Levis, J W; Barlaz, M A; Themelis, N J; Ulloa, P


    Currently in the US, over 97% of food waste is estimated to be buried in landfills. There is nonetheless interest in strategies to divert this waste from landfills as evidenced by a number of programs and policies at the local and state levels, including collection programs for source separated organic wastes (SSO). The objective of this study was to characterize the state-of-the-practice of food waste treatment alternatives in the US and Canada. Site visits were conducted to aerobic composting and two anaerobic digestion facilities, in addition to meetings with officials that are responsible for program implementation and financing. The technology to produce useful products from either aerobic or anaerobic treatment of SSO is in place. However, there are a number of implementation issues that must be addressed, principally project economics and feedstock purity. Project economics varied by region based on landfill disposal fees. Feedstock purity can be obtained by enforcement of contaminant standards and/or manual or mechanical sorting of the feedstock prior to and after treatment. Future SSO diversion will be governed by economics and policy incentives, including landfill organics bans and climate change mitigation policies. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An education in contrast: state-by-state assessment of school immunization records requirements. (United States)

    Hedden, Erika M; Jessop, Amy B; Field, Robert I


    We reviewed the complexities of school-related immunization policies, their relation to immunization information systems (IIS) and immunization registries, and the historical context to better understand this convoluted policy system. We used legal databases (Lexis-Nexis and Westlaw) to identify school immunization records policies for 50 states, 5 cities, and the District of Columbia (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention "grantees"). The original search took place from May to September 2010 (cross-referenced in July 2013 with the list on ). We describe the requirements, agreement with IIS policies, and penalties for policy violations. We found a complex web of public health, medical, and education-directed policies, which complicates immunization data sharing. Most (79%) require records of immunizations for children to attend school or for a child-care institution licensure, but only a few (11%) require coordination between IIS and schools or child-care facilities. To realize the full benefit of IIS investment, including improved immunization and school health program efficiencies, IIS and school immunization records policies must be better coordinated. States with well-integrated policies may serve as models for effective harmonization.

  9. Ultimate Limit State Assessment of Timber Bolt Connection Subjected to Double Unequal Shears (United States)

    Musilek, Josef; Plachy, Jan


    Nowadays the problems occur when a structure engineer need to assess the ultimate limit state of timber bolt connection which is subjected to double unequal shears. This assessment of ultimate limit state shows the reliability of these connections. In assessing the reliability of this connection in ultimate limit state is a problem, because the formulas and equations that are currently available in design standards and available literature, describing only connections loaded symmetrically – this mean that they describe the timber bolt connection subjected to double equal shears. This fact causes problems because structural engineers have no available support, according to which they could assess reliability of the connection in terms of the ultimate limit state. They must therefore often report following an asymmetrically loaded connections carry about using formulas, which are primarily designed for checking connections loaded symmetrically. This leads logically to the fact that it is not respected by the actual behaviour of the connection in the ultimate limit state. Formulas derived in this paper provide the possibility to assess the ultimate limit state for such connection. The formulas derived in this article allow to carry out a reliability assessment of the ultimate limit state of timber bolt connection subjected to double shear. The using of the formulas derived in this paper leads to better description of the behaviour of this type of connection and also to the more economic design. An example of using these derived formulas is shown. There is shown in this example, how to assess the reliability of timber bolt connection subjected to double unequal shears in terms of ultimate limit states.

  10. Optical metabolic imaging of colorectal adenocarcinoma derived organoids: assessing cellular-level resistance to therapy (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    James, Haley M.; Prieto, Sandra P.; Greening, Gage J.; Muldoon, Timothy J.


    Locally advanced adenocarcinomas located in the distal rectum are commonly treated via 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT). The occurrence of pre-operative pathological complete response, or the absence of any histological evidence of residual cancer, is seen in 15-27% of rectal cancer cases. Response to chemotherapeutic agents varies between patients, introducing the need for a system to predict optimal drug combinations. We propose a method of utilizing optical metabolic imaging of in vitro, primary tumor-derived, three-dimensional organoid culture to create specific drug sensitivity profiles, and to rapidly assess a patient's potential response to drugs. Murine xenografts were developed in Swiss athymic nude mice, using human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines, implanted in the flank (RKO, ATCC). Tumors were excised upon reaching a volume of 500mm3 and processed for organoid culture. Organoids were subjected to longitudinal metabolic imaging of metabolic cofactors FAD and NADH for seven days. The resulting images were used to yield an optical redox value on a cell-by-cell basis, determined by the fluorescence intensity ratio of FAD/(FAD+NADH). This data infers proliferative index of the organoids. Beginning on day three, a control vehicle dimethyl sulfoxide, or the cytotoxic agent 5-FU, was added to the organoid growth media in wells, with metabolic imaging performed the same as previously stated. The optical redox values decreased due to the addition of 5-FU, which targets rapidly dividing cells and induces apoptosis. The changes in the optical redox histograms were correlated to markers of cell proliferation (Ki-67) and apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3).

  11. Assessment of dietary adequacy for important brain micronutrients in patients presenting to a traumatic brain injury clinic for evaluation. (United States)

    Wahls, Terry; Rubenstein, Linda; Hall, Michael; Snetselaar, Linda


    To evaluate dietary adequacy of patients presenting for evaluation at an outpatient traumatic brain injury (TBI) clinic. We identified 14 key micronutrients with defined dietary intake reference ranges that are considered important for brain health. Adult patients completed the Brief NutritionQuest Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) to calculate estimated nutrient intake. Medical records were abstracted for diagnoses, body mass index, and neurobehavioral subscale scores. Nutrients were assessed individually and were also summarized into a summary score. Associations between individual nutrients, summary nutrient intake, and neurobehavioral scores were assessed. A total of 39 FFQs were completed by subjects, and 25 (64%) had recorded neurobehavioral scores. No subjects met the recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) for all 14 micronutrients. Ten (26%) met the RDAs for 6 or fewer nutrients, and 10 met the RDAs for 11-12 nutrients. Of 12 nutrients with sufficient sample size for analysis, 11 (92%) were associated with worse mean somatic scores, 9 (75%) were associated with worse cognitive scores, and 8 (67%) were linked with worse affective scores for those with the lowest nutrient intake compared with those who had the highest intake. However, only four nutrients were statistically associated with the somatic mean score: folate (P = 0.010), magnesium (P = 0.082), vitamin C (P = 0.021), and vitamin K (P = 0.024). None were linked with cognitive or affective scores. Diets failing to meet RDAs for important brain nutrients were common in an outpatient TBI clinic, with the worst mean neurobehavioral scores for those patients not meeting the estimated average requirements.

  12. Training Needs Assessment in the Botswana Public Service: A Case Study of Five State Sector Ministries (United States)

    Balisi, Shadreck


    Using qualitative methods, this study analysed the process of training needs assessment in the Botswana public service, with special focus on five state sector ministries. It is evident from the research findings that there is little and an unsystematic approach to the needs assessment prior to training. The research further revealed that the…

  13. Assessment of Computer Literacy of Secondary School Teachers in Ekiti State, Nigeria (United States)

    Oluwatayo, James Ayodele


    The study assessed computer literacy of secondary school teachers in Ekiti State. Three hundred teachers (Male = 150; Female = 150) selected from 30 public schools in 15 out of 16 local government areas participated. The instrument for collecting data was a 25-item Self-Assessment of Computer Literacy questionnaire and each item was rated on a…

  14. The 2% Transition: Supporting Access to State Assessments for Students with Disabilities (United States)

    Jamgochian, Elisa M.; Ketterlin-Geller, Leanne R.


    Most students with disabilities participate in state assessments with or without accommodations [based on each student's Individualized Education Program (IEP)]. A small number of students with the most severe or profound intellectual disabilities participate in an alternate assessment based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS). Until…

  15. Common Core State Standards Benchmark Assessments: Item Alignment to the Shifts in Tennessee (United States)

    Stugart, Melissa


    Our nation is in the midst of one of the largest education reforms in decades centered on the adoption of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and aligned assessments. In an era of rising accountability measures and declining literacy proficiency, it is vital to ensure that educational resources, such as benchmark assessments, are appropriately…

  16. Impact Assessment of the SADC FTA on SACU Member States: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact Assessment of the SADC FTA on SACU Member States: A CGE Analysis. BO Tsheko, Scott McDonald. Abstract. This paper provides a quantitative assessment of the implications for Southern African Customs Union (SACU) members of a Southern African Development Community (SADC) Free Trade Area (FTA).

  17. Rapid Assessment of Loiasis in parts of the Niger Delta, in Imo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of loiasis was rapidly assessed based on the World Health Organisation RAPLOA technique in 24 rural communities of the Niger Delta Area of Imo State, Nigeria using 78-82 adults per community. The rapid assessment was based on history of eye worm and Calabar swellings from individual, as well as ...

  18. Challenges and Developments in the Assessment of (Mal)adaptive Personality and Pathological States in Older Adults. (United States)

    Rossi, Gina; Videler, Arjan; van Alphen, S P J


    Since older adults often show an atypical presentation of (mal)adaptive personality traits and pathological states, the articles in this special issue will concisely discuss some perennial issues in clinical assessment in older adults and thus outline the main challenges this domain faces. By bringing empirical work and meta-analytic studies from leading scholars in the field of geropsychology, the articles will also address these challenges by reporting the latest developments in the field. This way, we hope to reshape the way clinicians and researchers assess (mal)adaptive personality and pathological states in older adults into a more reliable and valid assessment method that integrates the specific biopsychosocial context of older age.

  19. Assessing the risk of type 1 allergy to enzymes present in laundry and cleaning products: evidence from the clinical data. (United States)

    Sarlo, Katherine; Kirchner, Donald B; Troyano, Esperanza; Smith, Larry A; Carr, Gregory J; Rodriguez, Carlos


    Microbial enzymes have been used in laundry detergent products for several decades. These enzymes have also long been known to have the potential to give rise to occupational type 1 allergic responses. A few cases of allergy among consumers using dusty enzyme detergents were reported in the early 1970s. Encapsulation of the enzymes along with other formula changes were made to ensure that consumer exposure levels were sufficiently low that the likelihood of either the induction of IgE antibody (sensitization) or the elicitation of clinical symptoms be highly improbable. Understanding the consumer exposure to enzymes which are used in laundry and cleaning products is a key step to the risk management process. Validation of the risk assessment conclusions and the risk management process only comes with practical experience and evidence from the marketplace. In the present work, clinical data from a range of sources collected over the past 40 years have been analysed. These include data from peer reviewed literature and enzyme specific IgE antibody test results in detergent manufacturers' employees and from clinical study subjects. In total, enzyme specific IgE antibody data were available on 15,765 individuals. There were 37 individuals with IgE antibody. The majority of these cases were from the 1970s where 23 of 4687 subjects (0.49%) were IgE positive and 15 of the 23 were reported to have symptoms of allergy. The remaining 14 cases were identified post-1977 for a prevalence of 0.126% (14/11,078). No symptoms were reported and no relationship to exposure to laundry and cleaning products was found. There was a significant difference between the pre- and post-1977 cohorts in that the higher rates of sensitization with symptoms were associated with higher exposure to enzyme. The clinical testing revealed that the prevalence of enzyme specific IgE in the population is very rare (0.126% since 1977). This demonstrates that exposure to these strong respiratory allergens

  20. Government regulation of forestry practices on private forest land in the United States: an assessment of state government responsibilities and program performance (United States)

    Paul V. Ellefson; Michael A. Kilgore; James E. Granskog


    In 2003, a comprehensive assessment of state government, forest practice regulatory programs in the United States was undertaken. Involved was an extensive review of the literature and information gathering h m program administration in all 50 states. The assessment determined that regulatory programs focus on a wide range of forestry practices applied to private...

  1. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Assessment Program Sites (1986 to present) Compiled from NOAA's National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains sample collection location information for the National Status and Trends, Bioeffects Assessment Project. The Bioeffects Assessment Sites data...

  2. Fatigue and Serviceability Limit State Model Basis for Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöns, Sebastian; Faber, M. H.; Rücker, W.


    This paper develops the models for the structural performance of the loading and probabilistic characterization for the fatigue and the serviceability limit states for the support structure of offshore wind energy converters. These models and a sensitivity study are part of a risk based assessment...... al. ("Ultimate Limit State Model Basis for Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Con-verters," ASME J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng.), the model basis for the assessment is completed. The process of establishing and analyzing such a model basis contributes to a detailed understanding of the deterministic...

  3. Performance Assessments: How State Policy Can Advance Assessments for 21st Century Learning. White Paper (United States)

    Parsi, Ace; Darling-Hammond, Linda


    Employers, postsecondary institutions, and civic leaders are urging greater focus on 21st century skills essential for college, career, and civic success: problem solving, interpersonal skills, and collaboration, among others. In response to these demands, states across the country are working to realign policies--on learning standards,…

  4. Diagnostic and therapeutic hardships with mixed affective state presenting as catatonia in a patient with intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthick Subramanian


    Full Text Available Mixed affective episodes can be misdiagnosed, especially in patients with intellectual disability (ID. We describe the case of an 18-year-old girl with mild ID, who presented with features of catatonia during the first mixed episode. These symptoms responded well to electroconvulsive therapy, following which clear affective symptoms emerged. Her affective episode did not respond adequately to olanzapine but improved significantly after the addition of sodium valproate. The difficulties of diagnosing affective episodes in persons with intellectual disabilities are discussed. This case suggests that mixed affective episodes should be considered in the differential diagnosis when poorly elaborated affective and psychotic symptoms are present in a patient with ID.

  5. A Global Flood Model in the Context of the Global Assessment Report 2015: methodology presentation and discussion (United States)

    Rudari, Roberto; Campo, Lorenzo; Silvestro, Francesco; Herold, Christian


    The Global Assessment Report (GAR) is a major initiative of the UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR). It contributes to the achievement of the Hyogo Framework of Action (HFA) through monitoring risk patterns and trends and progress in disaster risk reduction and by providing guidance, to governments and non-governmental actors alike, on why and how they can, together, reduce disaster risks. Among its goals is an enhanced Global Risk Model, addressing gaps in current knowledge on risk patterns and trends and providing accurate and credible information for the global disaster risk reduction community. Within this goal the present work aimed at improving the Global Flood Model. The contribution will focus on the Hazard maps definition starting form a combination of stream-flow gauges frequency analysis and Hydrologic-hydraulic modelling. The Hazard maps produced by the Global Flood Model are not considering flood defences and are therefore not suitable as such for risk parameters computations; a post-processing procedure to consider flood defences is proposed and applied. The Hazard maps are then used to produce a full set of Possible Flood scenarios in order to compute PML curves. Results are discussed with reference to some example countries highlighting advantages and limitations of the approach undertaken.

  6. Transit time distributions to assess present and future contamination risk of karst aquifers over Europe and the Mediterranean (United States)

    Hartmann, Andreas; Gleeson, Tom; Wada, Yoshihide; Wagener, Thorsten


    Karst develops through the dissolution of carbonate rock. Karst groundwater in Europe is a major source of fresh water contributing up to half of the total drinking water supply in some countries. Climate model projections suggest that in the next 100 years, karst regions will experience a strong increase in temperature and a serious decrease of precipitation - especially in the Mediterranean region. Previous work showed that the karstic preferential recharge processes result in enhanced recharge rates and future climate sensitivity. But as there is fast water flow form the surface to the aquifer, there is also an enhanced risk of groundwater contamination. In this study we will assess the contamination risk of karst aquifers over Europe and the Mediterranean using simulated transit time distributions. Using a new type of semi-distributed model that considers the spatial heterogeneity of the karst system by distribution functions we simulated a range of spatially variable pathways of karstic groundwater recharge. The model is driven by the bias-corrected 5 GCMs of the ISI-MIP project (RCP8.5). Transit time distributions are calculated by virtual tracer experiments. These are repeated several times in the present (1991-2010) and the future (2080-2099). We can show that regions with larger fractions of preferential recharge show higher risks of contamination and that spatial patterns of contamination risk change towards the future.

  7. Historic, pre-European settlement, and present-day contribution of wild ruminants to enteric methane emissions in the United States. (United States)

    Hristov, A N


    The objectives of this analysis were to estimate historic (pre-European settlement) enteric CH(4) emissions from wild ruminants in the contiguous United States and compare these with present-day CH(4) emissions from farmed ruminants. The analysis included bison, elk (wapiti), and deer (white-tailed and mule). Wild ruminants such as moose, antelope (pronghorn), caribou, and mountain sheep and goat were not included in the analysis because their natural range is mostly outside the contiguous United States or because they have relatively small population sizes. Data for presettlement and present-day population sizes, animal BW, feed intake, and CH(4) emission factors were adopted from various sources. Present-day CH(4) emissions from livestock were from recent United States Environmental Protection Agency estimates. The most important factor determining CH(4) emissions from wild ruminants in the presettlement period was the size of the bison population. Overall, enteric CH(4) emissions from bison, elk, and deer in the presettlement period were about 86% (assuming bison population size of 50 million) of the current CH(4) emissions from farmed ruminants in the United States. Present-day CH(4) emissions from wild ruminants (bison, elk, and deer) were estimated at 0.28 Tg/yr, or 4.3% of the emissions from domestic ruminants. Due to its population size (estimated at 25 million), the white-tailed deer is the most significant present-day wild ruminant contributor to enteric CH(4) emissions in the contiguous United States.

  8. Quantitative Literacy at Michigan State University, 1: Development and Initial Evaluation of the Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Sikorskii


    Full Text Available Development, psychometric testing, and the results of the administration of a quantitative literacy (QL assessment to undergraduate students are described. Three forms were developed covering a wide range of skills, contexts, and quantitative information presentation formats. Following item generation and revision based on preliminary testing and cognitive interviewing, a total of 3,701 consented undergraduate students at Michigan State University completed one of the three forms. Two of the forms contained 14 multiple-choice items, and one form contained 17 multiple-choice items. All forms were completed by students in less than 30 minutes. Evidence of validity and reliability were obtained for the three forms. Unidimensionality of the underlying construct was established using confirmatory factor analysis. Correlations with ACT and university mathematics placement test ranged from .41 to .67, and correlations with the Lipkus numeracy scale ranged from .40 to .45. Cronbach’s alphas for the three forms were near or exceeded .70. Comparison of student QL performance according to demographic characteristics revealed gender differences, with males scoring higher than females. These gender differences persisted even after controlling for ACT composite scores. Race/ethnicity differences were significant in unadjusted analysis, but did not persist over and above ACT composite scores in the adjusted analyses. The three newly developed forms of QL assessment will need to be further tested in the future to determine if they capture the effects of interventions that aim to improve QL.

  9. Pediatric Crohn Disease Clinical Outcome Assessments and Biomarkers: Current State and Path Forward for Global Collaboration. (United States)

    Sun, Haihao; Vesely, Richard; Lee, Kerry Jo; Klein, Agnes; Ikima, Mutsuhiro; Mulberg, Andrew E


    There is a pressing need for drug development in pediatric Crohn disease (CD). Our aim was to provide strategic approaches toward harmonization of current thinking about clinical outcome assessments (COAs) and biomarkers to facilitate drug development in pediatric CD. Scientists from the United States Food and Drug Administration, European Medicines Agency, Health Canada, and the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency of Japan had monthly teleconferences from January 2014 through May 2015. A literature review was conducted to assess the measurement properties of all existing COA tools and to evaluate the current landscape of biomarkers used in pediatric CD. Based on the findings of literature review, we reached the consensus on the strategic approaches for evaluating outcomes in pediatric CD trials. The pediatric Crohn's Disease Activity Index, Crohn's Disease Activity Index, and Harvey-Bradshaw's index were used in pediatric CD clinical studies. But they lack adequate measurement properties (validity, reliability, and ability to detect change of the treatment) that are required to support approval of products intended to treat pediatric CD. Biomarkers (ie, fecal lactoferrin, osteoprotegerin, and calprotectin) have shown some promise for their potential as noninvasive surrogate endpoints in CD. Lack of well-defined and reliable COAs presents a hurdle for global drug development in pediatric CD. It is essential to develop well-defined and reliable COAs that can measure meaningful clinical benefit for patients in terms of how they feel, function, and survive. Development of noninvasive biomarkers as reliable surrogate endpoints needs to be further explored.

  10. [The present state of the clinical and epidemiologic research on chemical and carcinogenic risks in the metalworking industry]. (United States)

    Piolatto, Pier Giorgio; Catalani, Simona


    In this report several publications on clinical-epidemiologic patterns are presented regarding chemical and oncogenic risk in the metalworking industry. Sources of information were mainly PubMed and TOXNET. As far as cancer is concerned the body of the epidemiological data is difficult to interpret, mainly due to the fact that even the most recent papers and reviews refer to past exposure to MWF. Moreover, the great number of cancer sites are hardly explainable as to the biological plausibility. However, it is likely that current problems might be overcome by the almost total elimination of PAH and some additives. Moreover, cancer risk for welders and painters should be considered according to the different techniques used. Several studies reported repeated outbreaks of Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis, especially in US, most probably caused by mycobacterial antigens present in water-based oils. In Italy this disease is probably misdiagnosed or underreported. Some cross-sectional studies on respiratory disease and hearing loss, caused by the interaction of noise and chemical agent (mainly solvents), provided limited information because of the nature itself of this type of studies. Dermal pathologies still affect MWF exposed workers. Some antigens present in compounds, which are now gradually substituted, have been identified for allergic dermatitis (ADC).

  11. Assessment of fresh breast tissue specimens with confocal strip-mosaicking microscopy in an emulated pathology setting (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Abeytunge, Sanjeewa; Larson, Bjorg A.; Peterson, Gary; Rajadhyaksha, Milind; Murray, Melissa


    Confocal microscopy is in clinical use to diagnose skin cancers in the United States and in Europe. Potentially, this technology may provide bed-side pathology in breast cancer surgery during tumor removal. Initial studies have described major findings of invasive breast cancers as seen on fluorescence confocal microscopy. In many of these studies the region of interest (ROI) used in the analysis was user-selected and small (typically 15 square-mm). Although these important findings open exploration into rapid pathology, further development and implementation in a surgical setting will require examination of large specimens in a blinded fashion that will address the needs of typical surgical settings. In post surgery pathology viewing, pathologists inspect the entire pathology section with a low (2X) magnification objective lens initially and then zoomed in to ROIs with higher magnification lenses (10X to 40X) magnifications to further investigate suspected regions. In this study we explore the possibility of implementation in a typical surgical setting with a new microscope, termed confocal strip-mosaicking microscope (CSM microscope), which images an area of 400 square-mm (2 cm x 2 cm) of tissue with cellular level resolution in 10 minutes. CSM images of 34 human breast tissue specimens from 18 patients were blindly analyzed by a board-certified pathologist and correlated with the corresponding standard fixed histopathology. Invasive tumors and benign tissue were clearly identified in CSM images. Thirty specimens were concordant for images-to-histopathology correlation while four were discordant. Preliminary results from on-going work to molecularly target tumor margin will also be presented.

  12. Alignment and the States: Three Approaches to Aligning the National Assessment of Educational Progress with State Assessments, Other Assessments, and Standards (United States)

    Vockley, Martha; Lang, Vockley


    Since 1969, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has been the common yardstick for measuring the progress of students' education over time across the country. Teachers, principals, parents, policymakers, and researchers all use NAEP results to assess progress and develop ways to improve education in America. To make the…

  13. Assessment of lidar remote sensing capability of Raman water temperature from laboratory and field experiments (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Josset, Damien B.; Hou, Weilin W.; Goode, Wesley; Matt, Silvia C.; Hu, Yongxiang


    Lidar remote sensing based on visible wavelength is one of the only way to penetrate the water surface and to obtain range resolved information of the ocean surface mixed layer at the synoptic scale. Accurate measurement of the mixed layer properties is important for ocean weather forecast and to assist the optimal deployment of military assets. Turbulence within the mixed layer also plays an important role in climate variability as it also influences ocean heat storage and algae photosynthesis (Sverdrup 1953, Behrenfeld 2010). As of today, mixed layer depth changes are represented in the models through various parameterizations constrained mostly by surface properties like wind speed, surface salinity and sea surface temperature. However, cooling by wind and rain can create strong gradients (0.5C) of temperature between the submillimeter surface layer and the subsurface layer (Soloviev and Lukas, 1997) which will manifest itself as a low temperature bias in the observations. Temperature and salinity profiles are typically used to characterize the mixed layer variability (de Boyer Montégut et al. 2004) and are both key components of turbulence characterization (Hou 2009). Recently, several research groups have been investigating ocean temperature profiling with laser remote sensing based either on Brillouin (Fry 2012, Rudolf and Walther 2014) or Raman scattering (Artlett and Pask 2015, Lednev et al. 2016). It is the continuity of promising research that started decades ago (Leonard et al. 1979, Guagliardo and Dufilho 1980, Hirschberg et al. 1984) and can benefit from the current state of laser and detector technology. One aspect of this research that has not been overlooked (Artlett and Pask 2012) but has yet to be revisited is the impact of temperature on vibrational Raman polarization (Chang and Young, 1972). The TURBulence Ocean Lidar is an experimental system, aimed at characterizing underwater turbulence by examining various Stokes parameters. Its

  14. [Social concern and the present state of intergenerational programs. An analysis of newspaper articles and a survey of organizations]. (United States)

    Murayama, Yoh; Takeuchi, Rumi; Ohba, Hiromi; Yasunaga, Masashi; Kuraoka, Masataka; Nonaka, Kumiko; Fujiwara, Yoshinori


    The objectives of this study were (1) to clarify changes in social concern in intergenerational programs and (2) to determine the current state of and issues affecting intergenerational programs. Articles including the words "intergenerational programs" were selected from 3 major Japanese newspapers (Asahi Shimbun, Yomiuri Shimbun, and Mainichi Shimbun) using an online database (399 articles). Content analysis was conducted to check changes in the number and content of articles. A total of 56 cases of intergenerational programs were selected, and a questionnaire survey was conducted with the responsible organization. The problems were classified using cluster analysis. Content analysis revealed that the number of articles relating to this topic increased towards the end of the 1990s, which corresponds with a change in social policy. The questionnaire survey revealed that most of the intergenerational programs were either annual or periodic activities. Furthermore, it was shown that the 4 main issues facing current intergenerational programs were the intergenerational gap, operating problems, activity selection, and lack of participants. In summary, social concern regarding the intergenerational programs has increased. However, most intergenerational programs were infrequent and quite time-intensive. Furthermore, the 4 issues mentioned above must be addressed in order to create programs that have wide-ranging benefits for each community. Resolving the problem of compartmentalized administration and appointing local coordinators is necessary to solve these problems.

  15. Estimating the frequency and characteristics of respiratory disease outbreaks at mass gatherings in the United States: Findings from a state and local health department assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Argelia Figueroa; Reena K Gulati; Jeanette J Rainey


    .... We administered an online assessment to the 50 state health departments and 31 large local health departments in the United States to gather information about mass gathering-related respiratory...

  16. Assessment of CEPH accredited institutions offering Public Health programs in the United States: A Short Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish eJoshi


    Full Text Available Aims: Examine the distribution of the CEPH accredited institutions offering public health educational programs in the United States, and characterize their various attributes.Methods: A search was conducted during the period of June 2014, using the Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health database (ASPPH, and individual university websites to obtain a complete list of CEPH accredited institutions offering programs in Public Health at the Certificate, Masters, and Doctoral levels in the United States. Detailed information were abstracted from the various programs offerings including: school/program information, school type, geographic location, admission cycle, education delivery format, public health concentration, number of credits, presence of a global component, joint programs and tuition. The data was analyzed in August 2014. Results: A total of 85 CEPH accredited institutions designated as either Schools of Public Health, or individual Programs of Public Health were present in the ASPPH database at the time of this data collection (2014. These institutions offer programs in public health at the Certificate (61%, n=52, Masters (100%, n=85 and Doctoral (44%, n=37 levels in the US. More than half of the programs offered were provided by schools of public health (58%, N=49, which were mostly public universities (75%, n=64, concentrated in the Northeast (22%, n=19 and mainly admitted students during the fall semester. Ninety three concentrations of Public Health currently exist, of which 25 concentrations are predominant. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study which examines the distribution of existing CEPH accredited Public Health educational programs offered by US institutions. We suggest future areas of research to assess existing Public Health workforce demands, and map them to the curriculums and competencies provided by institutions offering Public Health educational programs in the United States

  17. Analysis And Assessment Of Forest Cover Change For The State Of Wisconsin (United States)

    Perry, C. H.; Nelson, M. D.; Stueve, K.; Gormanson, D.


    The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the USDA Forest Service is charged with documenting the status and trends of forest resources of the United States. Since the 1930s, FIA has implemented an intensive field campaign that collects measurements on plots distributed across all ownerships, historically completing analyses which include estimates of forest area, volume, mortality, growth, removals, and timber products output in various ways, such as by ownership, region, or State. Originally a periodic inventory, FIA has been measuring plots on an annual basis since the passage of the Agriculture Research, Extension and Education Reform Act of 1998 (Farm Bill). The resulting change in sampling design and intensity presents challenges to establishing baseline and measuring changes in forest area and biomass. A project jointly sponsored by the Forest Service and the National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) titled “Integrating Landscape-scale Forest Measurements with Remote Sensing and Ecosystem Models to Improve Carbon Management Decisions” seeks to improve estimates of landscape- and continental-scale carbon dynamics and causes of change for North American forest land, and to use this information to support land management decisions. Specifically, we are developing and applying methods to scale up intensive biomass and carbon measurements from the field campaign to larger land management areas while simultaneously estimating change in the above-ground forest carbon stocks; the State of Wisconsin is being used as the testbed for this large-scale integration remote sensing with field measurements. Once defined, the temporal and spatial patterns of forest resources by watershed for Lake Superior and Lake Michigan outputs are being integrated into water quality assessments for the Great Lakes.

  18. Environmental risk assessment of hydrotropes in the United States, Europe, and Australia. (United States)

    Stanton, Kathleen; Tibazarwa, Caritas; Certa, Hans; Greggs, William; Hillebold, Donna; Jovanovich, Lela; Woltering, Daniel; Sedlak, Richard


    An environmental assessment of hydrotropes was conducted under the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Screening Information Data Sets (SIDS) for High Production Volume (HPV) Program via the Global International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) Hydrotropes Consortium. The assessment and its conclusions were presented at a meeting of the OECD member countries in Washington, DC in 2005. The SIDS Initial Assessment Report (SIAR) was accepted by the membership. Their conclusion was “The chemicals in this [hydrotropes] category are of low priority for further work because of their low hazard profile.” Hydrotropes are used to solubilize the water-insoluble ingredients of cleaning and personal care products including, for example, powder and liquid laundry detergents, hard-surface cleaners, machine dishwashing rinse aids, hand dishwashing liquids, body washes, shampoos, hair conditioners, and liquid hand and face soaps. Global production equals approximately 46 500 metric tons, a little more than half of which is used in the United States. The 8 chemicals accounted for in the “hydrotropes category” include ammonium, Ca, K, and Na salts that are described by 10 Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) registration numbers. The 8 chemical entities are generally comparable and predictable in their chemical behavior and that measured and/or modeled data for members from one subgroup can be applied to other subgroups and to the hydrotropes category as a whole. The assessment is based on a search for and evaluation of available data on physical–chemical properties, biodegradability, removal by wastewater treatment, and aquatic toxicity. Reliable ecotoxicity and environmental fate data were found for selected members of the category. Partitioning, once released into the environment, and exposure in surface waters were modeled for consumer use and manufacturing scenarios relevant to the United States, Europe, and Australia. The models indicate

  19. Evaluation of a peer assessment approach for enhancing the organizational capacity of state injury prevention programs. (United States)

    Hunter, Wanda M; Schmidt, Ellen R; Zakocs, Ronda


    To conduct a formative and pilot impact evaluation of the State Technical Assessment Team (STAT) program, a visitation-based (visitatie) peer assessment program designed to enhance the organizational capacity of state health department injury prevention programs. The formative evaluation was based on observational, record review, and key informant interview data collected during the implementation of the first 7 STAT visits. Pilot impact data were derived from semi-structured interviews with state injury prevention personnel one year after the visit. Formative evaluation identified 6 significant implementation problems in the first visits that were addressed by the program planners, resulting in improvements to the STAT assessment protocol. Impact evaluation revealed that after one year, the 7 state injury prevention programs had acted on 81% of the recommendations received during their STAT visits. All programs reported gains in visibility and credibility within the state health department and increased collaboration and cooperation with other units and agencies. Other significant program advancements were also reported. Specific program standards and review procedures are important to the success of peer assessment programs such as STAT. Early impact evaluation suggests that peer assessment protocols using the visitatie model can lead to gains in organizational capacity.

  20. Past, Present, and Future Old Growth in Frequent-fire Conifer Forests of the Western United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott R. Abella


    Full Text Available Old growth in the frequent-fire conifer forests of the western United States, such as those containing ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa, Jeffrey pine (P. jeffreyi, giant sequoia (Sequioa giganteum and other species, has undergone major changes since Euro-American settlement. Understanding past changes and anticipating future changes under different potential management scenarios are fundamental to developing ecologically based fuel reduction or ecological restoration treatments. Some of the many changes that have occurred in these forests include shifts from historically frequent surface fire to no fire or to stand-replacing fire regimes, increases in tree density, increased abundance of fire-intolerant trees, decreases in understory productivity, hydrological alterations, and accelerated mortality of old trees. Although these changes are widespread, the magnitude and causes of changes may vary within and among landscapes. Agents of change, such as fire exclusion or livestock grazing, likely interacted and had multiple effects. For example, historical ranching operations may have altered both fire regimes and understory vegetation, and facilitated institutional fire exclusion through fragmentation and settlement. Evidence exists for large variation in presettlement characteristics and current condition of old growth across this broad forest region, although there are many examples of striking similarities on widely distant landscapes. Exotic species, climate change, unnatural stand-replacing wildfires, and other factors will likely continue to degrade or eradicate old growth in many areas. As a policy of fire exclusion is proving to be unsustainable, mechanical tree thinning, prescribed fire, or wildland fire use will likely be key options for forestalling continued eradication of old growth by severe crown fires. For many practical and societal reasons, the wildland-urban interface may afford some of the most immediate opportunities for re

  1. Characteristics of child commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking victims presenting for medical care in the United States. (United States)

    Varma, Selina; Gillespie, Scott; McCracken, Courtney; Greenbaum, V Jordan


    The objective of the study is to describe distinguishing characteristics of commercial sexual exploitation of children/child sex trafficking victims (CSEC) who present for health care in the pediatric setting. This is a retrospective study of patients aged 12-18 years who presented to any of three pediatric emergency departments or one child protection clinic, and who were identified as suspected victims of CSEC. The sample was compared with gender and age-matched patients with allegations of child sexual abuse/sexual assault (CSA) without evidence of CSEC on variables related to demographics, medical and reproductive history, high-risk behavior, injury history and exam findings. There were 84 study participants, 27 in the CSEC group and 57 in the CSA group. Average age was 15.7 years for CSEC patients and 15.2 years for CSA patients; 100% of the CSEC and 94.6% of the CSA patients were female. The two groups significantly differed in 11 evaluated areas with the CSEC patients more likely to have had experiences with violence, substance use, running away from home, and involvement with child protective services and/or law enforcement. CSEC patients also had a longer history of sexual activity. Adolescent CSEC victims differ from sexual abuse victims without evidence of CSEC in their reproductive history, high risk behavior, involvement with authorities, and history of violence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The present state of the medical record data base for the A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Hiroyuki; Mine, Mariko; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Okumura, Yutaka (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)


    It has been 13 years since the operation of medical record data base for A-bomb survivors was started in the Scientific Data Center for Atomic Bomb Disaster at the Nagasaki University. This paper presents the basic data in handling the data base. The present data base consists of the following 6 items: (1) 'fundamental data' for approximately 120,000 A-bomb survivors having an A-bomb survivors' handbook who have been living in Nagasaki City; (2) 'Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Hospital's data', covering admission medical records in the ward of internal medicine; (3) 'pathological data', covering autopsy records in Nagasaki City; (4) 'household data reconstructed by the survey data'; (5) 'second generation A-bomb survivors data', including the results of mass screening since 1979, and (6) 'address data'. Based on the data, the number of A-bomb survivors, diagnosis records at the time of death, the number of A-bomb survivors' participants in health examination, tumor registration, records of admission to the internal ward in Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Hospital, autopsy records, and household records are tabulated in relation to annual changes, age at the time of A-bombing, distance from the hypocenter, or sex. (N.K.).

  3. Assessing the Impact of Voice-Over Screen-Captured Presentations Delivered Online on Dental Students' Learning. (United States)

    Schönwetter, Dieter J; Gareau-Wilson, Nicole; Cunha, Rodrigo Sanches; Mello, Isabel


    The traditional lecturing method is still one of the most common forms of delivering content to students in dental education, but innovative learning technologies have the potential to improve the effectiveness and quality of teaching dental students. What challenges instructors is the extent to which these learning tools have a direct impact on student learning outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a voice-over screen-captured learning tool by identifying a positive, nil, or negative impact on student learning as well as student engagement (affective, behavioral, and cognitive) when compared to the traditional face-to-face lecture. Extraneous variables thought to impact student learning were controlled by the use of baseline measures as well as random assignment of second-year dental students to one of two teaching conditions: voice-over screen-captured presentation delivered online and the traditional classroom lecture. A total of 28 students enrolled in the preclinical course in endodontics at a Canadian dental school participated in the study, 14 in each of the two teaching conditions. The results showed that, in most cases, the students who experienced the online lecture had somewhat higher posttest scores and perceived satisfaction levels than those in the face-to-face lecture group, but the differences did not achieve statistical significance except for their long-term recognition test scores. This study found that the students had comparable learning outcomes whether they experienced the face-to-face or the online lecture, but that the online lecture had a more positive impact on their long-term learning. The controls for extraneous variables used in this study suggest ways to improve research into the comparative impact of traditional and innovative teaching methods on student learning outcomes.

  4. Assessment of plaque vulnerability in atherosclerosis via intravascular photoacoustic imaging of targeted liposomal ICG J-aggregates (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Harris, Justin T.; Dumani, Diego S.; Cook, Jason R.; Sokolov, Konstantin V.; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.; Homan, Kimberly A.


    While molecular and cellular imaging can be used to visualize the conventional morphology characteristics of vulnerable plaques, there is a need to monitor other physiological factors correlated with high rupture rates; a high M1 activated macrophage concentration is one such indicator of high plaque vulnerability. Here, we present a molecularly targeted contrast agent for intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging consisting of liposomes loaded with indocyanine green (ICG) J-aggregates with high absorption at 890 nm, allowing for imaging in the presence of blood. This "Lipo-ICG" was targeted to a biomarker of M1 activated macrophages in vulnerable plaques: folate receptor beta (FRβ). The targeted liposomes accumulate in plaques through areas of endothelial dysfunction, while the liposome encapsulation prevents nonspecific interaction with lipids and endothelium. Lipo-ICG specifically interacts with M1 activated macrophages, causing a spectral shift and change in the 890/780 nm photoacoustic intensity ratio upon breakdown of J-aggregates. This sensing mechanism enables assessment of the M1 activated macrophage concentration, providing a measure of plaque vulnerability. In a pilot in vivo study utilizing ApoE deficient mouse models of atherosclerosis, diseased mice showed increased uptake of FRβ targeted Lipo-ICG in the heart and arteries vs. normal mice. Likewise, targeted Lipo-ICG showed increased uptake vs. two non-targeted controls. Thus, we successfully synthesized a contrast agent to detect M1 activated macrophages in high risk atherosclerotic plaques and exhibited targeting both in vitro and in vivo. This biocompatible agent could enable M1 macrophage detection, allowing better clinical decision making in treatment of atherosclerosis.

  5. Efficacy and safety of sarolaner (Simparica™) against fleas on dogs presented as veterinary patients in the United States. (United States)

    Cherni, Judith A; Mahabir, Sean P; Six, Robert H


    The efficacy and safety of a novel isoxazoline parasiticide, sarolaner (Simparica™), for the control of fleas on dogs was evaluated in a randomized, controlled clinical study conducted in 19 general veterinary practices throughout the United States. Four hundred and seventy nine (479) dogs from 293 households were enrolled. Each household was randomly assigned to treatment with either sarolaner oral tablets (Simparica™, Zoetis) at the proposed label dose or an approved comparator product at the label dose (spinosad, Comfortis(®), Elanco). Dogs were dosed by their owners at home on Day 0 and on approximately Days 30 and 60. Dogs were examined at the clinics for general health, flea and tick infestation, and clinical signs of flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) at the initial visit and Days 14, 30, 60 and 90. Blood was collected for clinical pathology at screening and Day 90. Sarolaner was well-accepted by dogs with the majority of flavored chewable tablets (91.5%) accepted free choice, by hand or in food. Geometric mean live flea counts were reduced by >99% at the first time measured (14 days) after initiation of treatment and continued to reduce through the study. Treatment success (proportion of dogs with ≥90% reduction in fleas) for the sarolaner-treated dogs was superior to that for spinosad-treated dogs at Days 14 and 30 and non-inferior on Days 60 and 90 (P≤0.025) The rapid reduction in flea infestations resulted in a similar rapid resolution of the clinical signs associated with FAD. Sarolaner chewable tablets were well tolerated with no treatment related adverse reactions. Most of the clinical signs reported were consistent with allergies and dermatitis or sporadic occurrences of conditions commonly observed in the general dog population. A wide variety of concomitant medications, including many commercially available heartworm preventatives and other anthelmintic drugs, were administered to study dogs and all were well tolerated. Sarolaner administered

  6. Update of the U.S. States and Territories National Tsunami Hazard Assessment: Historical Record and Sources for Waves (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Goldfinger, C.


    The NOAA-National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collaborated to conduct the first qualitative United States tsunami hazard assessment, published in 2008 by the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP). Since that time, significant events such as the 2009 Samoa and 2011 Tohoku tsunamis have affected the U.S. and reinforced the importance of considering all of the evidence when conducting an assessment. In addition, there has been progress in tsunami research that reduces some of the earlier uncertainties. In 2011, the National Academies released their assessment of the U.S. Tsunami Program recommending that NOAA and its NTHMP partners, in collaboration with researchers in social and physical sciences, should complete an initial national assessment of tsunami risk and should institute a periodic assessment of the sources of tsunamis that threaten the United States. Therefore, the NTHMP is updating the national tsunami hazard assessment. Although the second assessment will not be a national probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment, areas where there is progress in this methodology will be presented. As a result, a national tsunami vulnerability and risk assessment is not possible at this time, but examples of ongoing work will be presented. This paper looks at the data sources in the first report, including an examination of the NGDC historical tsunami database that resulted in a qualitative assessment based on the distribution of runup heights and the frequency of tsunami runups. Although tsunami deaths are a measure of risk rather than hazard, the known tsunami deaths were compared with the qualitative assessments based on frequency and amplitude. The 2009 American Samoa tsunami resulted in a change for the U.S. Pacific island territories qualitative tsunami hazard assessment from 'Moderate' to 'High'. The NGDC tsunami database contains reported tsunamis and is therefore limited to written records existing for an area

  7. U.S. Geological Survey assessment of reserve growth outside of the United States (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Le, Phuong A.


    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated volumes of potential additions to oil and gas reserves for the United States by reserve growth in discovered accumulations. These volumes were derived by using a new methodology developed by the U.S. Geological Survey and reviewed by the American Association of Petroleum Geologists Committee on Resource Evaluation. This methodology was used to assess reserve growth in individual accumulations (reservoirs, groups of reservoirs, or fields). Selected, large, well-studied, conventional accumulations in the United States that are estimated to contribute most to reserve growth were assessed using analysis of geology and engineering practices. Potential additions to oil and gas reserves for large, discovered, conventional accumulations outside of the United States due to reserve growth were assessed using the U.S. accumulations as analogs. Potential oil and gas volumes were assumed to be added to proven plus probable reserves.

  8. The sociologist and the state. An assessment of Pierre Bourdieu's sociology. (United States)

    Schinkel, Willem


    This paper provides an assessment of Pierre Bourdieu's sociology based on a reading of his posthumously published lectures on the state in Sur l'État. It argues that the state was a foundational element in Bourdieu's rendition of the symbolic order of everyday life. As such, the state becomes equally pivotal in Bourdieu's sociology, the applicability of which rests on the existence of the state, which stabilizes the social fields and their symbolic action that constitute the object of sociology. The state, which Bourdieu considers a 'meta'-ordering principle in social life, ensures that sociology has a well-ordered object of study, vis-à-vis which it can posit itself as 'meta-meta'. The state thus functions as an epistemic guarantee in Bourdieu's sociology. A critical analysis of Bourdieu's sociology of the state offers the chance of a more fundamental overall assessment of Bourdieu's conception of sociology that has relevance for any critical sociological perspective that rests on the assumption of a meta-social entity, such as the state in Bourdieu's work, as a final ordering instance. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2015.

  9. Assessment of morphological-functional state of children with cochlear implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pysanko V.M.


    Full Text Available Purpose: assessment of morphological-functional state of pre-school age children with cochlear implants and substantiation of need in post-operative rehabilitation in period of preparation for comprehensive school. Material: we tested weakly hearing children with cochlear implants (n=127, age - 5.6±0.6 years. They were the main group. Control group consisted of children with normal hearing (n=70, age - 5.7±0.4 years. Morphological-functional state was assessed by indicators of physical and biological condition, visual analyzer, posture parameters and foot arch, muscular system and level of coordination. We calculated index of integral morphological-functional state assessment. Results: Morphological functional state of most of children (with cochlear implants was characterized by low physical condition indicators and disharmony. We observed delay in biological development. Index of morphological-functional state integral assessment witnesses, that such child can not study in comprehensive school. Rehabilitation program can reduce the gap between children with normal hearing and those with cochlear implants. Conclusions: Rehabilitation program facilitates quicker domestic and social rehabilitation of children at the account of widening the circle of communication, learning new actions and conceptions. It can permit for such children to study at school together with their healthy peers.

  10. Assessment of Moderate- and High-Temperature Geothermal Resources of the United States (United States)

    Williams, Colin F.; Reed, Marshall J.; Mariner, Robert H.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Galanis, S. Peter


    Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an assessment of our Nation's geothermal resources. Geothermal power plants are currently operating in six states: Alaska, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Nevada, and Utah. The assessment indicates that the electric power generation potential from identified geothermal systems is 9,057 Megawatts-electric (MWe), distributed over 13 states. The mean estimated power production potential from undiscovered geothermal resources is 30,033 MWe. Additionally, another estimated 517,800 MWe could be generated through implementation of technology for creating geothermal reservoirs in regions characterized by high temperature, but low permeability, rock formations.

  11. The potential energy surfaces of the T1 state of 1,3,5-hexatrienes and methylated derivatives: a survey of present knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilbrandt, R.; M?ller, S.; Langkilde, F.W.; Brouwer, A.M.; Negri, F.; Orlandi, G.


    In previous studies considered was the time-resolved resonance Raman (TRRR) spectra of 1,3,5-hexatriene (HT) in its lowest excited triplet state in order to obtain information about the geometry of the T1 intermediate and the mechanism of the cis-trans photoisomerization in T1. In the present paper

  12. Voting Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Lo


    Full Text Available During his time as a state senator in Illinois, Barack Obama voted “Present” 129 times, a deliberate act of nonvoting that subsequently became an important campaign issue during the 2008 presidential elections. In this article, I examine the use of Present votes in the Illinois state senate. I find evidence that Present votes can largely be characterized as protest votes used as a legislative tool by the minority party. Incorporating information from Present votes into a Bayesian polytomous item-response model, I find that this information increases the efficiency of ideal point estimates by approximately 35%. There is little evidence of significant moderation by Obama when Present votes are accounted for, though my results suggest that Obama’s voting record may have moderated significantly before his subsequent election to the U.S. Senate. My results also suggest that because legislative nonvoting may occur for a variety of reasons, naive inclusion of nonvoting behavior into vote choice models may lead to biased results.

  13. Effects of state organizational structure and forensic examiner training on pretrial competence assessments. (United States)

    Edens, J F; Poythress, N G; Nicholson, R A; Otto, R K


    States differ widely in their delivery of pretrial forensic evaluation services, in terms of organizational structure and training requirements of forensic examiners. It was hypothesized that defendants adjudicated incompetent to proceed in states using community-based, private-practitioner systems would show less impairment on a competence assessment measure, the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool-Criminal Adjudication (MacCAT-CA), than defendants adjudicated incompetent in states using traditional, inpatient systems. It also was hypothesized that mean MacCAT-CA scores for incompetent defendants from states requiring forensic training/certification would be lower than for defendants from states lacking such requirements. Results indicated significant differences across the four types of service delivery systems examined. However, planned comparisons revealed no differences between a state using a traditional, inpatient model and a state employing a community-based, private-practitioner model. Analyses examining the effects of mandatory forensic training failed to support the hypothesis that training requirements result in the adoption of higher thresholds for determining incompetence.

  14. Unsteady-state human-body exergy consumption rate and its relation to subjective assessment of dynamic thermal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweiker, Marcel; Kolarik, Jakub; Dovjak, Mateja


    Few examples studied applicability of exergy analysis on human thermal comfort. These examples relate the human-body exergy consumption rate with subjectively obtained thermal sensation votes and had been based on steady-state calculation methods. However, humans are rarely exposed to steady...... between the human-body exergy consumption rate and subjective assessment of thermal environment represented by thermal sensation as well as to extend the investigation towards thermal acceptability votes. Comparison of steady-state and unsteady-state model showed that results from both models were...... of the present study confirmed previously indicated trends that lowest human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation close to neutrality. Moreover, higher acceptability was in general associated with lower human body exergy consumption rate. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  15. Assessing the Invasion Risk of Eucalyptus in the United States Using the Australian Weed Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doria R. Gordon


    Full Text Available Many agricultural species have undergone selection for traits that are consistent with those that increase the probability that a species will become invasive. However, the risk of invasion may be accurately predicted for the majority of plant species tested using the Australian Weed Risk Assessment (WRA. This system has been tested in multiple climates and geographies and, on average, correctly identifies 90% of the major plant invaders as having high invasion risk, and 70% of the noninvaders as having low risk. We used this tool to evaluate the invasion risk of 38 Eucalyptus taxa currently being tested and cultivated in the USA for pulp, biofuel, and other purposes. We predict 15 taxa to have low risk of invasion, 14 taxa to have high risk, and 9 taxa to require further information. In addition to a history of naturalization and invasiveness elsewhere, the traits that significantly contribute to a high invasion risk conclusion include having prolific seed production and a short generation time. Selection against these traits should reduce the probability that eucalypts cultivated in the USA will become invasive threats to natural areas and agricultural systems.

  16. Monitoring and long-term assessment of the Mediterranean Sea physical state (United States)

    Simoncelli, Simona; Fratianni, Claudia; Clementi, Emanuela; Drudi, Massimiliano; Pistoia, Jenny; Grandi, Alessandro; Del Rosso, Damiano


    The near real time monitoring and long-term assessment of the physical state of the ocean are crucial for the wide CMEMS user community providing a continuous and up to date overview of key indicators computed from operational analysis and reanalysis datasets. This constitutes an operational warning system on particular events, stimulating the research towards a deeper understanding of them and consequently increasing CMEMS products uptake. Ocean Monitoring Indicators (OMIs) of some Essential Ocean Variables have been identified and developed by the Mediterranean Monitoring and Forecasting Centre (MED-MFC) under the umbrella of the CMEMS MYP WG (Multi Year Products Working Group). These OMIs have been operationally implemented starting from the physical reanalysis products and then they have been applied to the operational analyses product. Sea surface temperature, salinity, height as well as heat, water and momentum fluxes at the air-sea interface have been operationally implemented since the reanalysis system development as a real time monitoring of the data production. Their consistency analysis against available observational products or budget values recognized in literature guarantees the high quality of the numerical dataset. The results of the reanalysis validation procedures are yearly published in the QUality Information Document since 2014 available through the CMEMS catalogue (, together with the yearly dataset extension. New OMIs of the winter mixed layer depth, the eddy kinetic energy and the heat content will be presented, in particular we will analyze their time evolution and trends starting from 1987, then we will focus on the recent time period 2013-2016 when reanalysis and analyses datasets overlap to show their consistency beside their different system implementation (i.e. atmospheric forcing, wave coupling, nesting). At the end the focus will be on 2016 sea state and circulation of the Mediterranean Sea and its

  17. [Assessment of quality indicators with routine data: Presentation of a feasibility test in ten specialist clinics for psychiatry and psychotherapy]. (United States)

    Großimlinghaus, I; Falkai, P; Gaebel, W; Hasan, A; Jänner, M; Janssen, B; Reich-Erkelenz, D; Grüber, L; Böttcher, V; Wobrock, T; Zielasek, J


    Prior to nationwide implementation, the feasibility of newly developed quality indicators must be assessed. The aim of this multicenter feasibility test was an evaluation of the measurability of cross-sectoral quality indicators for depression and schizophrenia by means of routine data. The feasibility of the quality indicators was assessed in ten specialist clinics for psychiatry and psychotherapy by means of retrospective analyses of anonymous routine data. The data were extracted from the routine clinical documentation of the hospital information systems and the data from the admission and discharge sheets of the basic documentation in psychiatry (BADO) were additionally used for some clinics. Analyses were conducted for all cases of adults diagnosed with depression or schizophrenia within predefined assessment periods. In total five indicators for depression and nine indicators for schizophrenia were assessed and evaluated as measurable or measurable to a limited extent, sometimes with slight adaptations in the operationalization of the indicator. Due to variations in documentation, some indicators could not be calculated for all clinics. Most indicators could be collated with the data from the BADO. An assessment of indicators that measure quality-relevant aspects of care in depression and schizophrenia, is partially feasible by means of current routine data documentation analysis from the participating clinics. However, differing documentation methodologies in the participating clinics impeded a uniform assessment; therefore, for the implementation of nationwide minimum standards for the quality assurance of mental healthcare, a uniform cross-sectoral documentation methodology should be adapted to consensus and relevant quality indicators. The BADO appears to be a suitable instrument for this purpose.

  18. Ambulatory assessment of skin conductivity during first thesis presentation: lower self-confidence predicts prolonged stress response. (United States)

    Elfering, Achim; Grebner, Simone


    In this field study self-confidence was tested to predict the course of galvanic electrodermal stress response prior, during and after public speaking. Ten graduate students initially rated their self-confidence and afterwards presented their thesis proposals orally in a 10-min presentation to their supervisor and peers. Galvanic skin response level was measured throughout and analysed for 10 min prior to, during, and 10 min after the presentation. Two major galvanic electrodermal stress response types were observed. Five students showed a 'healthy response', i.e. an anticipatory increase in electrodermal conductance, followed by a decrease after termination of the presentation. The other five students showed a steady increase of skin conductance during and after their presentation ('prolonged response'). In line with the allostatic load model the 'prolonged response' group reported significantly lower self-confidence before presentation than the 'healthy response' group (p < 0.01). Self-confidence is a resource in novices facing an unfamiliar stressor.

  19. Chemistry Students' Assessment of Their Teachers' Effectiveness in Secondary Schools in Benue State (United States)

    Aduloju, M. O.; Obinne, A. D. E.


    This study examined the assessment of chemistry teachers' effectiveness by chemistry students. A survey research design was used. Two hundred students were sampled for the study from Benue State. The result showed that students agreed that their teachers cover a large part of the syllabus before the examination. Findings also revealed that there…

  20. Literacy Curricula and Assessment: A Survey of Early Childhood Educators in Two States (United States)

    Gischlar, Karen L.; Vesay, Joanne P.


    Research has consistently demonstrated the importance of early literacy instruction, as these skills are the developmental precursors to conventional reading. In this study, 215 early childhood educators in two states responded to a survey regarding early literacy curricula and assessment. Results indicated that most teachers used either a…

  1. Ability of Early Literacy Measures to Predict Future State Assessment Performance (United States)

    Utchell, Lynn A.; Schmitt, Ara J.; McCallum, Elizabeth; McGoey, Kara E.; Piselli, Kate


    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which early literacy measures administered in kindergarten and Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) measures administered in Grade 1 are related to and predict future state reading assessment performances up to 7 years later. Results indicated that early literacy and ORF performances were…

  2. Conceptual framework for improved wind-related forest threat assessment in the Southeastern United States (United States)

    Scott L. Goodrick; John A. Stanturf


    In the Southeastern United States, forests are subject to a variety of damage-causing wind phenomena that range in scale from very localized (downbursts and tornadoes) to broad spatial scales (hurricanes). Incorporating the threat of wind damage into forest management plans requires tools capable of assessing risk across this range of scales. Our conceptual approach...

  3. Stakeholders' Perception on Teachers' Assessment Effectiveness in Secondary Schools in Port Harcourt Metropolis in Rivers State (United States)

    Ogidi, Reuben C.; Udechukwu, Jonathan O.


    The study sought to investigate the perception of stakeholders on teachers' assessment effectiveness in secondary schools in Port Harcourt Metropolis in Rivers State. Three research questions and one hypothesis were formulated to guide the study. The study adopted survey research design. The sample of the study consisted of 20 principles, 30 vice…

  4. Review of Education-Focused Health Impact Assessments Conducted in the United States (United States)

    Gase, Lauren N.; DeFosset, Amelia R.; Gakh, Maxim; Harris, Celia; Weisman, Susan R.; Dannenberg, Andrew L.


    Background: Health impact assessment (HIA) provides a structured process for examining the potential health impacts of proposed policies, plans, programs, and projects. This study systematically reviewed HIAs conducted in the United States on prekindergarten, primary, and secondary education-focused decisions. Methods: Relevant HIA reports were…

  5. Ultimate Limit State Model Basis for Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöns, Sebastian; Faber, M. H.; Rücker, W.


    This paper establishes the model basis regarding the ultimate limit state consisting of structural, loading, and probabilistic models of the support structure of offshore wind energy converters together with a sensitivity study. The model basis is part of a risk based assessment and monitoring...

  6. Voices from the Field: Making State Assessment Decisions for English Language Learners with Disabilities (United States)

    Liu, Kristin K.; Goldstone, Linda; Thurlow, Martha L.; Ward, Jenna; Hatten, James; Christensen, Laurene L.


    English language learners (ELLs) with disabilities are an increasing presence in schools in the United States. Title I and Title III of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act require that these students meet the same academic grade-level standards and participate in content assessments as their fluent-English speaking peers without…

  7. Evaluation of Student Engagement Assessment in Colorado State University's Warner College of Natural Resources (United States)

    Holman, Debra Kaye


    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to conduct a participatory program evaluation of student engagement assessment in Colorado State University's (CSU) Warner College of Natural Resources (WCNR). The college requested the evaluation after completing two pilot studies of undergraduate engagement which led them to consider establishing the…

  8. Influencing Public School Policy in the United States: The Role of Large-Scale Assessments (United States)

    Schmidt, William H.; Burroughs, Nathan A.


    The authors review the influence of state, national and international large-scale assessments (LSAs) on education policy and research. They distinguish between two main uses of LSAs: as a means for conducting research that informs educational reform and LSAs as a tool for implementing standards and enforcing accountability. The authors discuss the…

  9. Assessment of Users Information Needs and Satisfaction in Selected Seminary Libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria (United States)

    Adekunjo, Olalekan Abraham; Adepoju, Samuel Olusegun; Adeola, Anuoluwapo Odebunmi


    The study assessed users' information needs and satisfaction in selected seminary libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria. This paper employed the descriptive survey research design, whereby the expost-facto was employed with a sample size of three hundred (300) participants, selected from six seminaries located in Ibadan, Oyo and Ogbomoso, all in Oyo…

  10. An integrated vulnerability index for socio-climate risk assessment over the continental United States (United States)

    Batıbeniz, Fulden; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Preston, Ben; Pagan, Brianna; Rastogi, Deeksha


    There is no clear knowledge towards the collective risk associated with multivariate extremes for natural and human systems, as the research thus far has not taken into account the combined impact of changes in hot, cold, wet and dry extremes. Concurrently, not all the factors influencing human vulnerability to climate change are related with natural system's response to climate forcing as future changes in both the magnitude and the distribution of human population and income levels can potentially multiply or reduce the risk of human exposure to climatic changes. For a comprehensive socio-climate risk assessment, a county-level integrated vulnerability index is developed in this study to provide an estimate of future exposure to both changes in climate extremes and socioeconomic conditions over the continental United States. The integrated vulnerability index is based on the combination of a unified climate extremes indices, which summarize overall exposure to multivariate and multidimensional climate extremes, including hot, cold, wet and dry, and shared socioeconomic pathways, which identify communities at risk based on projected population and income levels. We will present results from the application of the proposed integrated vulnerability index on a high-resolution (4km) 11-member ensemble of regional climate simulations and multiple socioeconomic pathways, aggregated at county scale, which cover 1966-2005 in the baseline and 2011-2050 in the near-term future climate under Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5. Overall, this research should help advance robust strategies for assessing the risk and vulnerability associated with projected changes in temperature and precipitation characteristics, as well as socioeconomic conditions.

  11. The National School Lunch Program: Ideas, proposals, policies, and politics shaping students' experiences with school lunch in the United States, 1946 - present


    Gosliner, Wendi Anne


    AbstractThe National School Lunch Program:Ideas, proposals, policies, and politics shaping students' experiences with school lunch in the United States, 1946 - presentBy Wendi Anne GoslinerDoctor of Public HealthUniversity of California, BerkeleyProfessor Ann Keller, ChairOn an average school day in 2012, The National School Lunch Program (NSLP) supported the provision of lunch meals to almost 2/3 of school-age youth in the United States. Recent spikes in childhood obesity rates and the emerg...

  12. Caffeine in Boston Harbor past and present, assessing its utility as a tracer of wastewater contamination in an urban estuary (United States)

    Sites throughout Boston Harbor were analyzed for caffeine to assess its utility as a tracer in identifying sources of sanitary wastewater. Caffeine ranged from 15 ng/L in the outer harbor to a high of 185 ng/L in the inner harbor. Inner harbor concentrations were a result of comb...

  13. The Nursing Home Minimum Data Set Assessment Instrument: Manifest Functions and Unintended Consequences--Past, Present, and Future (United States)

    Rahman, Anna N.; Applebaum, Robert A.


    The Minimum Data Set (MDS) is a uniform instrument used in nursing homes to assess residents. In January 2008, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services published a draft of a new MDS--version 3.0. This article traces the instrument's development and the design decisions that shaped it, discusses the MDS's manifest functions--data collection…

  14. Graduates' Self-Assessment of Their Oral Presentations of Group Projects: An EFL Case Study in Romania (United States)

    Macari, Ileana Oana


    This study investigated tourism graduate students' perceptions of academic achievement as revealed in the end of term self-assessment grids for the course English for tourism. Data were collected from 59 first year Romanian Master of Arts students by examining their personal portfolios after the in-class and follow-up activities. The selection of…

  15. Present and past microsatellite variation and assessment of genetic structure in Eurasian badger (Meles meles) in Denmark

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pertoldi, C; Loeschcke, [No Value; Randi, E; Madsen, AB; Hansen, MM; Bijlsma, R; Van De Zande, L

    During the past 50 years the number of badgers (Meles meles) in Denmark has declined by c. 50%. To assess the genetic consequences of the demographic decline, six DNA-microsatellite loci were used to analyse 139 badger tissue-samples, which were collected in 1995-98 from three zones (1, 2 and 3) in

  16. Taking Stock: Implications of a New Vision of Science Learning for State Science Assessment (United States)

    Wertheim, Jill


    This article presents the author's response to the article "Taking Stock: Existing Resources for Assessing a New Vision of Science Learning" by Alonzo and Ke (this issue), which identifies numerous challenges that the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) pose for large-scale assessment. Jill Werthem comments that among those…

  17. Communicating forest management science and practices through visualized and animated media approaches to community presentations: An exploration and assessment (United States)

    Donald E. Zimmerman; Carol Akerelrea; Jane Kapler Smith; Garrett J. O' Keefe


    Natural-resource managers have used a variety of computer-mediated presentation methods to communicate management practices to diverse publics. We explored the effects of visualizing and animating predictions from mathematical models in computerized presentations explaining forest succession (forest growth and change through time), fire behavior, and management options...

  18. Observation evaluation to assess race and educational bias in state-mandated standard testing of nurse aides in nursing homes. (United States)

    Baker, S L; Stoskopf, C H; Ciesla, J R; Glik, D C; Cover, C M


    This article presents an assessment of whether race, education, gender, or other testing bias was present in a state-mandated nurse aide competency test. This assessment was carried out with data from two sources: (a) a statewide standardized test for all nurse aides that was given by a nationally known testing company, (b) an independent observational evaluation with a Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS) for nurse aides' performance that was carried out by the investigators. The results show that race and education level were predictors of performance on written and manual portions of the standardized test. Gender, age, and years of experience were also shown to predict test success. Comparing data from the two sources suggests that a possible bias in the standardized nurse aid test. The independent observation of performance on the job with the BARS is shown to be less biased.

  19. Human health risk assessment related to contaminated land: state of the art. (United States)

    Swartjes, F A


    Exposure of humans to contaminants from contaminated land may result in many types of health damage ranging from relatively innocent symptoms such as skin eruption or nausea, on up to cancer or even death. Human health protection is generally considered as a major protection target. State-of-the-art possibilities and limitations of human health risk assessment tools are described in this paper. Human health risk assessment includes two different activities, i.e. the exposure assessment and the hazard assessment. The combination of these is called the risk characterization, which results in an appraisal of the contaminated land. Exposure assessment covers a smart combination of calculations, using exposure models, and measurements in contact media and body liquids and tissue (biomonitoring). Regarding the time frame represented by exposure estimates, biomonitoring generally relates to exposure history, measurements in contact media to actual exposures, while exposure calculations enable a focus on exposure in future situations. The hazard assessment, which is different for contaminants with or without a threshold for effects, results in a critical exposure value. Good human health risk assessment practice accounts for tiered approaches and multiple lines of evidence. Specific attention is given here to phenomena such as the time factor in human health risk assessment, suitability for the local situation, background exposure, combined exposure and harmonization of human health risk assessment tools.

  20. Comparison of advanced optical imaging techniques with current otolaryngology diagnostics for improved middle ear assessment (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Nolan, Ryan M.; Shelton, Ryan L.; Monroy, Guillermo L.; Spillman, Darold R.; Novak, Michael A.; Boppart, Stephen A.


    Otolaryngologists utilize a variety of diagnostic techniques to assess middle ear health. Tympanometry, audiometry, and otoacoustic emissions examine the mobility of the tympanic membrane (eardrum) and ossicles using ear canal pressure and auditory tone delivery and detection. Laser Doppler vibrometry provides non-contact vibrational measurement, and acoustic reflectometry is used to assess middle ear effusion using sonar. These technologies and techniques have advanced the field beyond the use of the standard otoscope, a simple tissue magnifier, yet the need for direct visualization of middle ear disease for superior detection, assessment, and management remains. In this study, we evaluated the use of portable optical coherence tomography (OCT) and pneumatic low-coherence interferometry (LCI) systems with handheld probe delivery to standard tympanometry, audiometry, otoacoustic emissions, laser Doppler vibrometry, and acoustic reflectometry. Comparison of these advanced optical imaging techniques and current diagnostics was conducted with a case study subject with a history of unilateral eardrum trauma. OCT and pneumatic LCI provide novel dynamic spatiotemporal structural data of the middle ear, such as the thickness of the eardrum and quantitative detection of underlying disease pathology, which could allow for more accurate diagnosis and more appropriate management than currently possible.

  1. New Stream-reach Development: A Comprehensive Assessment of Hydropower Energy Potential in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, Shih-Chieh [ORNL; McManamay, Ryan A [ORNL; Stewart, Kevin M [ORNL; Samu, Nicole M [ORNL; Hadjerioua, Boualem [ORNL; DeNeale, Scott T [ORNL; Yeasmin, Dilruba [California State University, Fresno; Pasha, M. Fayzul K. [California State University, Fresno; Oubeidillah, Abdoul A [ORNL; Smith, Brennan T [ORNL


    The rapid development of multiple national geospatial datasets related to topography, hydrology, and environmental characteristics in the past decade have provided new opportunities for the refinement of hydropower resource potential from undeveloped stream-reaches. Through 2011 to 2013, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked by the Department of Energy (DOE) Water Power Program to evaluate the new stream-reach development (NSD) resource potential for more than 3 million US streams. A methodology was designed that contains three main components: (1) identification of stream-reaches with high energy density, (2) topographical analysis of stream-reaches to estimate inundated surface area and reservoir storage, and (3) environmental attribution to spatially join information related to the natural ecological systems, social and cultural settings, policies, management, and legal constraints to stream-reaches of energy potential. An initial report on methodology (Hadjerioua et al., 2013) was later reviewed and revised based on the comments gathered from two peer review workshops. After implementing the assessment across the entire United States, major findings were summarized in this final report. The estimated NSD capacity and generation, including both higher-energy-density (>1 MW per reach) and lower-energy-density (<1 MW per reach) stream-reaches is 84.7 GW, around the same size as the existing US conventional hydropower nameplate capacity (79.5 GW; NHAAP, 2013). In terms of energy, the total undeveloped NSD generation is estimated to be 460 TWh/year, around 169% of average 2002 2011 net annual generation from existing conventional hydropower plants (272 TWh/year; EIA, 2013). Given the run-of-river assumption, NSD stream-reaches have higher capacity factors (53 71%), especially compared with conventional larger-storage peaking-operation projects that usually have capacity factors of around 30%. The highest potential is identified in the Pacific Northwest

  2. Assessment of Ports for Offshore Wind Development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkinton, Chris [DNV GL; Blatiak, Alicia; Ameen, Hafsa


    on GL GH’s review of U.S. ports infrastructure and its readiness to support the development of proposed offshore wind projects in U.S. waters. Specific examples of facility costs and benefits are provided for five coastal regions (North Atlantic, South Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, Great Lakes, and Pacific) around the country. GL GH began this study by identifying the logistical requirements of offshore wind ports to service offshore wind. This review was based on lessons learned through industry practice in Northern Europe. A web-based port readiness assessment tool was developed to allow a capability gap analysis to be conducted on existing port facilities based on the identified requirements. Cost models were added to the assessment tool, which allowed GL GH to estimate the total upgrade cost to a port over the period 2014-2030 based on a set of regional project build-out scenarios. Port fee information was gathered from each port allowing an estimate of the potential revenue to the port under this same set of scenarios. The comparison of these revenue and improvement cost figures provides an initial indication of the level of offshore wind port readiness. To facilitate a more in-depth infrastructure analysis, six ports from different geographic regions, with varied levels of interest and preparedness towards offshore wind, were evaluated by modeling a range of installation strategies and port use types to identify gaps in capability and potential opportunities for economic development. Commonalities, trends, and specific examples from these case studies are presented and provide a summary of the current state of offshore wind port readiness in the U.S. and also illustrate the direction some ports have chosen to take to prepare for offshore wind projects. For example, the land area required for wind turbine and foundation manufacturing is substantial, particularly due to the large size of offshore wind components. Also, the necessary bearing capacities of the

  3. Development and investigation of the nanosensor-based apparatus to assess the psycho-emotional state of a person (United States)

    Avdeeva, D. K.; Ivanov, M. L.; Natalinova, N. M.; Nguyen, D. K.; Rybalka, S. A.; Turushev, N. V.


    Psycho-emotional state is one of the factors effecting human health. Its evaluation allows revealing hidden psychological trauma which can be reason of chronic stress, depression or psychosomatic disorders. Modern techniques of objective psycho-emotional state assessment involve a device which detects electrophysiological parameters of human body connected with emotional reaction and psychological condition. The present study covers development and testing of psycho-emotional state assessment device. The developed implement uses three methods of electrophysiological activity evaluation: electrocardiography, electroencephalography and galvanic skin response detection. The device represents hardware-software complex consisting of nanosensors, measuring unit, lead wires and laptop. Filters are excluded from the measuring circuit due to metrological parameters and noise immunity of implemented nanosensors. This solution minimizes signal distortion and allows measuring signals of 0.3 μV and higher in a wide frequency range (0-10000 Hz) with minimal data loss. In addition, results of preliminary medical studies aimed to find correspondence between different psycho-emotional states and electrophysiological parameters are described. Impact of filters on electrophysiological studies was studied. According to the results conventional filters significantly distort EEG channel information. Further research will be directed to the creation of complete base of electrophysiological parameters related to a particular emotion.

  4. Assessing the quality of corporate social responsibility reports: the case of reporting practices in selected European Union member states. (United States)

    Hąbek, Patrycja; Wolniak, Radosław

    The organization may communicate its engagement in sustainability and may presents results achieved in this field by creating and publishing corporate social responsibility (CSR) reports. Today, we can observe a growing number of companies issuing such reports as a part of their annual reports or as stand-alone CSR reports. Despite the increase in the number of such reports their quality is different. CSR reports do not always provide complete data that readers desire, which in turn intensifies the problem with the evaluation and comparison of the organization's results achieved in this scope. Differences also occur between reporting models used in different EU countries caused by, inter alia, differently applied EU legislation on the disclosure of non-financial information in different Member States. This paper is one of the first attempts to perform a quantitative and qualitative analysis of corporate sustainability reporting practices in several European Union countries. The purpose of this article is to present the current state of CSR reporting practices in selected EU Member States and identify the differences in the quality and level of this kind of practices, taking into account the mandatory and voluntary model of disclosure. The study included separate CSR reports as well as annual reports with CSR sections and integrated reports published in 2012 in six selected EU Member States. The authors have used a specific evaluation tool in the examination of the individual reports. The assessment questionnaire consists of seventeen criteria grouped into two categories (relevance and credibility of information). In order to assess the quality of examined reports, the authors aggregated the indicators related with the reporting practices. The findings show that the quality level of the studied reports is generally low. Referring to its components, the relevance of the information provided in the assessed reports is at the higher level than its credibility. The

  5. Assessment of buckling-restrained braced frame reliability using an experimental limit-state model and stochastic dynamic analysis (United States)

    Andrews, Blake M.; Song, Junho; Fahnestock, Larry A.


    Buckling-restrained braces (BRBs) have recently become popular in the United States for use as primary members of seismic lateral-force-resisting systems. A BRB is a steel brace that does not buckle in compression but instead yields in both tension and compression. Although design guidelines for BRB applications have been developed, systematic procedures for assessing performance and quantifying reliability are still needed. This paper presents an analytical framework for assessing buckling-restrained braced frame (BRBF) reliability when subjected to seismic loads. This framework efficiently quantifies the risk of BRB failure due to low-cycle fatigue fracture of the BRB core. The procedure includes a series of components that: (1) quantify BRB demand in terms of BRB core deformation histories generated through stochastic dynamic analyses; (2) quantify the limit-state of a BRB in terms of its remaining cumulative plastic ductility capacity based on an experimental database; and (3) evaluate the probability of BRB failure, given the quantified demand and capacity, through structural reliability analyses. Parametric studies were conducted to investigate the effects of the seismic load, and characteristics of the BRB and BRBF on the probability of brace failure. In addition, fragility curves (i.e., conditional probabilities of brace failure given ground shaking intensity parameters) were created by the proposed framework. While the framework presented in this paper is applied to the assessment of BRBFs, the modular nature of the framework components allows for application to other structural components and systems.

  6. Utah State Prison Space Heating with Geothermal Heat - Resource Assessment Report Crystal Hot Springs Geothermal Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Reported herein is a summary of work conducted under the Resource Assessment Program-Task 2, for the Utah State Prison Geothermal Space Heating Project at Crystal Hot Springs, Draper, Utah. Assessment of the geothermal resource in and around the Utah State Prison property began in october of 1979 with an aeromagnetic and gravity survey. These tasks were designed to provide detailed subsurface structural information in the vicinity of the thermal springs so that an informed decision as to the locations of test and production holes could be made. The geophysical reconnaissance program provided the structural details needed to focus the test drilling program on the most promising production targets available to the State Prison. The subsequent drilling and well testing program was conducted to provide information to aid fin the siting and design of a production well and preliminary design activities. As part of the resource assessment portion of the Utah State Prison Geothermal Project, a program for periodic geophysical monitoring of the Crystal Hot Springs resource was developed. The program was designed to enable determination of baseline thermal, hydraulic, and chemical characteristics in the vicinity of Crystal Hot Springs prior to production and to provide a history of these characteristics during resource development.

  7. Utility assessment of HIV/AIDS-related health states in HIV-infected Ugandans. (United States)

    Lara, Antonieta Medina; Wakholi, Barbara Nyanzi; Kasirye, Agnes; Munderi, Paula; Watera, Christine; Lalloo, David G; Haycox, Alan; Gilks, Charles F; Grosskurth, Heiner


    To assess the psychometric performance of using standard gamble (SG), time trade-off (TTO) and visual analogue scale (VAS) in the evaluation of three predetermined HIV/AIDS health states in HIV-infected Ugandans, for use in cost-effectiveness analyses. We recruited participants with CD4 cells health state using VAS; rank and evaluate HIV/AIDS predetermined health states using TTO and SG relative to an improved health state. Tools were tested for psychometrical properties. Women constituted 64% and 76% of the DART and Entebbe Cohorts. Mean age was 36.5 and 36.7 years, respectively. Participants could discriminate between predetermined HIV/AIDS health states. Deterioration in health status was associated with a reduction in rating scores (VAS), increased willingness to give up time (TTO) and acceptance of increased risk (SG) to achieve a better health state, independent of the participant's actual health state, as measured by CD4 cell counts. VAS, TTO and SG have good psychometric properties, making them good candidates for use in resource-constrained settings. Further research in a wider population is necessary to generate an evidence base with which to inform resource allocation decisions.

  8. Assessment of vascularization and myelination following peripheral nerve repair using angiographic and polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Nam, Ahhyun S.; Chico-Calero, Isabel; Easow, Jeena M.; Villiger, Martin; Welt, Jonathan; Winograd, Jonathan M.; Randolph, Mark A.; Redmond, Robert W.; Vakoc, Benjamin J.


    A severe traumatic injury to a peripheral nerve often requires surgical graft repair. However, functional recovery after these surgical repairs is often unsatisfactory. To improve interventional procedures, it is important to understand the regeneration of the nerve grafts. The rodent sciatic nerve is commonly used to investigate these parameters. However, the ability to longitudinally assess the reinnervation of injured nerves are limited, and to our knowledge, no methods currently exist to investigate the timing of the revascularization in functional recovery. In this work, we describe the development and use of angiographic and polarization-sensitive (PS) optical coherence tomography (OCT) to visualize the vascularization, demyelination and remyelination of peripheral nerve healing after crush and transection injuries, and across a variety of graft repair methods. A microscope was customized to provide 3.6 cm fields of view along the nerve axis with a capability to track the nerve height to maintain the nerve within the focal plane. Motion artifact rejection was implemented in the angiography algorithm to reduce degradation by bulk respiratory motion in the hindlimb site. Vectorial birefringence imaging methods were developed to significantly enhance the accuracy of myelination measurements and to discriminate birefringent contributions from the myelin and epineurium. These results demonstrate that the OCT platform has the potential to reveal new insights in preclinical studies and may ultimately provide a means for clinical intra-surgical assessment of peripheral nerve function.

  9. Investigating Portfolio Assessment with Learners of the 3rd Grade in a Greek State Primary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Kouzouli


    Full Text Available Assessment is a field increasingly explored in relation to the parameters it involves. The special characteristics of the learners and the interactive relationship between instruction and assessment lead to the use not only of traditional assessment techniques but also of alternative methods such as the portfolio. This study intends to investigate the implementation of a process portfolio in a Greek state primary school with a class of third graders aged between 8-9, concentrating on integration of skills. The findings show that this technique is appropriate for young learners and that it meets specific pedagogical and assessment criteria. It also exerts positive impact on metacognitive awareness, learner autonomy and positive attitude towards learning. Finally, the findings give insight to emerging problems and issues requiring further research.

  10. Caffeine in Boston Harbor past and present, assessing its utility as a tracer of wastewater contamination in an urban estuary. (United States)

    Cantwell, Mark G; Katz, David R; Sullivan, Julia C; Borci, Todd; Chen, Robert F


    Sites throughout Boston Harbor were analyzed for caffeine to assess its utility as a tracer in identifying sources of sanitary wastewater. Caffeine ranged from 15ng/L in the outer harbor to a high of 185ng/L in the inner harbor. Inner harbor concentrations were a result of combined sewage overflow (CSO) events as well as illicit discharge of sanitary sewage into municipal storm drains. Comparing current results to data from 1998 to 1999 shows reductions in caffeine levels. Reductions are attributed to termination of effluent discharge to the harbor, declines in the number of CSOs and discharge volume along with efforts to eliminate illicit discharges. Spatial distributions of caffeine identified CSOs as major contemporary sources to the inner harbor. The findings further establish the utility of caffeine as a tracer for sanitary wastewater contamination in urban estuaries and demonstrate the efficacy of pollution reduction strategies undertaken in recent decades in Boston Harbor. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Video preference assessment and behavioral management of single-caged Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) by movie presentation. (United States)

    Ogura, Tadatoshi; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro


    Movie presentation can act as an enrichment technique for nonhuman primates, who also show preferences for certain contents. This study investigated the video preferences and effects of movies on behavioral abnormalities in single-caged Japanese macaques. When movie rewards were provided for subjects' touch responses, the subjects maintained the touch responses during 40 2-hr sessions. Although repeated presentation of 1 stimulus set decreased the subject's touch response, changing the stimulus set led to recovery of this response. The subjects showed clear preferences, consistent across 2 different stimulus sets, for movies showing humans or animation (61.1% of total duration). Subjects consistently played movies both with and without their preferred content. The availability of a variety of contents might be important for attracting subjects' interest. The frequency with which monkeys engaged in abnormal behaviors decreased in the experimental (20.9%) and the postexperimental (25.6%) periods compared with the preexperimental period (33.5%). Movie presentations could keep attracting the interest of single-caged monkeys in their visual environment, ameliorating their behavioral abnormalities for some time. In summary, social experience during infancy might influence Japanese macaques' movie preferences. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  12. An assessment of seismic monitoring in the United States; requirement for an Advanced National Seismic System (United States)



    This report assesses the status, needs, and associated costs of seismic monitoring in the United States. It sets down the requirement for an effective, national seismic monitoring strategy and an advanced system linking national, regional, and urban monitoring networks. Modernized seismic monitoring can provide alerts of imminent strong earthquake shaking; rapid assessment of distribution and severity of earthquake shaking (for use in emergency response); warnings of a possible tsunami from an offshore earthquake; warnings of volcanic eruptions; information for correctly characterizing earthquake hazards and for improving building codes; and data on response of buildings and structures during earthquakes, for safe, cost-effective design, engineering, and construction practices in earthquake-prone regions.

  13. Evolution, present state and future of the radiochromic dyeing films; Evolucion, estado actual y futuro de las peliculas de tinte radiocromico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villarreal B, J.E. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)


    The evolution of radiochromic films, their present state and their developing future are the object of this work. For this purpose a review of the evolution was realized and also of the present state of using the radiochromic dyeing films as tools to determine the absorbed doses distribution produces by beta emissor sources, beta-gamma, electrons and X-rays. In particular it is presented the development of radiochromic films type GafChromic that by their quality in terms of reproducibility, sensibility and high spatial resolution they have been converted in those films of greatest use so dominating market. Since one of the application fields more important of this type of films is clinical dosimetry, the more eminent applications in this area are presented, which the high resolution dosimetry that use GafChromic has been converted in a basic tool. On the other hand the scopes of this type of dosimetry and the possible development lines of dosimetry with radiochromic dyeing films are discussed. (Author)

  14. 1992 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites. National Low-Level Waste Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, R.L.; McDonald, S.D.


    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive waste commercially disposed in the United States. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volumes, and radionuclide activity. Included in this report are tables showing the distribution of waste by state for 1992 and a comparison of waste volumes and radioactivity by state for 1988 through 1992; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States as of December 31, 1992. This report distinguishes between low-level radioactive waste shipped directly for disposal by generators and waste that was handled by an intermediary, a reporting change introduced in the 1988 state-by-state report.

  15. A State-of-the-Art Report on Technologies of a Safety Assessment and a Radioactivity Exposure Assessment for the Decommissioning Process of Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kwan Seong; Kang, Young Ae; Lee, Dong Gyu; Lee, Kune Woo; Jung, Chong Hun


    This report is to provide the reference contents of research and development for technologies of radioactivity exposure and safety assessment for development of the decommissioning technology for nuclear facilities. This report consists of as follows: - Analyzing and discussing on state-of-the-art technologies of a radioactivity exposure assessment of a decommissioning for nuclear facilities - Analyzing and discussing on state-of-the-art technologies of a safety assessment of a decommissioning for nuclear facilities.

  16. Current Practices in Assessing Professionalism in United States and Canadian Allopathic Medical Students and Residents (United States)

    Nittur, Nandini


    Professionalism is a critically important competency that must be evaluated in medical trainees but is a complex construct that is hard to assess. A systematic review was undertaken to give insight into the current best practices for assessment of professionalism in medical trainees and to identify new research priorities in the field. A search was conducted on PubMed for behavioral assessments of medical students and residents among the United States and Canadian allopathic schools in the last 15 years. An initial search yielded 594 results, 28 of which met our inclusion criteria. Our analysis indicated that there are robust generic definitions of the major attributes of medical professionalism. The most commonly used assessment tools are survey instruments that use Likert scales tied to attributes of professionalism. While significant progress has been made in this field in recent years, several opportunities for system-wide improvement were identified that require further research. These include a paucity of information about assessment reliability, the need for rater training, a need to better define competency in professionalism according to learner level (preclinical, clerkship, resident etc.) and ways to remediate lapses in professionalism. Student acceptance of assessment of professionalism may be increased if assessment tools are shifted to better incorporate feedback. Tackling the impact of the hidden curriculum in which students may observe lapses in professionalism by faculty and other health care providers is another priority for further study. PMID:28652951

  17. How information resources are used by state agencies in risk assessment applications - Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, C.S.


    The Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Illinois (Illinois EPA) has programs in water, air, and land pollution and water supplies paralleling those of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The organization is part of a tripartite arrangement in which the Pollution Control Board is the judicial arm, the Department of Energy and Natural Resources is the research arm, and the Illinois EPA is the enforcement arm. Other state agencies are also concerned with various aspects of the environment and may do risk assessments for chemicals. Although there are various risk assessment activities, both formal and informal, in our agency and in others, this paper will discuss only recent initiatives in water quality criteria.

  18. Brief report on ecological momentary assessment: everyday states predict HIV prevention behaviors. (United States)

    Cook, Paul F; McElwain, Catherine J; Bradley-Springer, Lucy A


    Prevention behaviors help persons living with HIV (PLWH) to avoid transmitting HIV, and psychological variables have been found to predict HIV prevention behaviors. These variables have typically been measured using retrospective questionnaires about average psychological states over a period of time, which are likely to be biased by selective recall and interpretation. Measuring the same variables as momentary states, in the day-to-day context where they actually occur, may reveal different relationships to behavior. 21 PLWH completed daily surveys about momentary states and prevention behaviors. Brief, validated measures were used to assess control beliefs, mood, stress, coping, social support, stigma, knowledge, and motivation. We used multilevel models to predict prevention behaviors from momentary states the previous day, while controlling for the effect of multiple observations from the same person over time. Participants reported a moderate overall level of HIV prevention behaviors during the 6-month study. Although lapses in prevention were infrequent, there was room for improvement. Control beliefs, mood, and motivation had significant prospective effects on HIV prevention behaviors, rs = 0.07-0.21. Stress and coping had effects approaching significance. Some momentary states predicted prevention behaviors, providing partial support for the motivational model. This finding supports past research showing effects of momentary states on behavior, and advances the science by testing multiple predictors. High within-sample diversity strengthened generalizability, but the overall sample size was small and the findings require replication. Future research should continue to examine the everyday experiences of PLWH as influences on their behavior.

  19. Assessment of General Public Exposure to LTE signals compared to other Cellular Networks Present in Thessaloniki, Greece. (United States)

    Gkonis, Fotios; Boursianis, Achilles; Samaras, Theodoros


    To assess general public exposure to electromagnetic fields from Long Term Evolution (LTE) base stations, measurements at 10 sites in Thessaloniki, Greece were performed. Results are compared with other mobile cellular networks currently in use. All exposure values satisfy the guidelines for general public exposure of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), as well as the reference levels by the Greek legislation at all sites. LTE electric field measurements were recorded up to 0.645 V/m. By applying the ICNIRP guidelines, the exposure ratio for all LTE signals is between 2.9 × 10-5 and 2.8 × 10-2. From the measurements results it is concluded that the average and maximum power density contribution of LTE downlink signals to the overall cellular networks signals are 7.8% and 36.7%, respectively. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  20. Oceanic influence on extreme rainfall trends in the north central coast of Venezuela: present and future climate assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lelys Guenni


    Full Text Available Extreme events are an important part of climate variability and their intensity and persistence are often modulated by large scale climatic patterns which might act as forcing drivers affecting their probability of occurrence. When the North Tropical Atlantic (NTA and the Equatorial Pacific (Ni\\~no 3 region sea surface temperature (SST anomalies are of opposite signs and the first one is positive while the second one is negative, the rainfall response is stronger in the northern coast of Venezuela as well as in the Pacific coast of Central America during the Nov-Feb period. The difference between these two SST anomaly time series (NTA-Ni\\~no3 is used in this analysis and it is called the Atlantic-Pacific Index or API. By fitting a dynamic generalized extreme value (GEV model to station based daily rainfall at different locations and to the Xie and Arkin dataset for the Vargas state, we found the API index to be an adequate index to explain the probabilistic nature of rainfall extremes in the northern Venezuelan coast for the months Nov-Feb. Dependence between the Atlantic-Pacific index and the probabilistic behavior of extreme rainfall was also explored for simulations from two global coupled General Circulation Models for the 20th century climate (20C3M experiment and the 21st century climate (SRES A2 experiment: the Echam5 model and the HadCM3 model. A significant dependence of extreme rainfall on the Atlantic-Pacific index is well described by the GEV dynamic model for the Echam5 20C3M experiment model outputs. When looking at future climates under the SRES A2 experiment, the dependence of extreme rainfall from the API index is still significant for the middle part of the 21st century (2046-2064, while this dependence fades off for the latest part of the century (2081-2099

  1. Assessment of geometry in 2D immune systems using high accuracy laser-based bioprinting techniques (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Lauzurica, Sara; Márquez, Andrés.; Molpeceres, Carlos; Notario, Laura; Gómez-Fontela, Miguel; Lauzurica, Pilar


    The immune system is a very complex system that comprises a network of genetic and signaling pathways subtending a network of interacting cells. The location of the cells in a network, along with the gene products they interact with, rules the behavior of the immune system. Therefore, there is a great interest in understanding properly the role of a cell in such networks to increase our knowledge of the immune system response. In order to acquire a better understanding of these processes, cell printing with high spatial resolution emerges as one of the promising approaches to organize cells in two and three-dimensional patterns to enable the study the geometry influence in these interactions. In particular, laser assisted bio-printing techniques using sub-nanosecond laser sources have better characteristics for application in this field, mainly due to its higher spatial resolution, cell viability percentage and process automation. This work presents laser assisted bio-printing of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in two-dimensional geometries, placing cellular components on a matrix previously generated on demand, permitting to test the molecular interactions between APCs and lymphocytes; as well as the generation of two-dimensional structures designed ad hoc in order to study the mechanisms of mobilization of immune system cells. The use of laser assisted bio-printing, along with APCs and lymphocytes emulate the structure of different niches of the immune system so that we can analyse functional requirement of these interaction.

  2. Spinal and sacroiliac assessment and treatment techniques used by osteopathic physicians in the United States


    Fryer, Gary; Morse, Christopher M; Johnson, Jane C


    Background Osteopathic manipulative medicine texts and educators advocate a range of approaches for physical assessment and treatment, but little is known about their use by osteopathic physicians in the United States. Methods A web-based survey using a 5-point Likert scale was developed and e-mailed to 777 practicing osteopathic physician members of the American Academy of Osteopathy. Responses in the "frequently" and "always" categories were combined for reporting purposes. Friedman tests w...

  3. Application of the probability-based Maryland Biological Stream Survey to the state's assessment of water quality standards. (United States)

    Southerland, Mark T; Vølstad, Jon H; Weber, Edward D; Klauda, Ronald J; Poukish, Charles A; Rowe, Matthew C


    The Clean Water Act presents a daunting task for states by requiring them to assess and restore all their waters. Traditional monitoring has led to two beliefs: (1) ad hoc sampling (i.e., non-random) is adequate if enough sites are sampled and (2) more intensive sampling (e.g., collecting more organisms) at each site is always better. We analyzed the 1,500 Maryland Biological Stream Survey (MBSS) random sites sampled in 2000-2004 to describe the variability of Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) scores at the site, reach, and watershed scales. Average variability for fish and benthic IBI scores increased with increasing spatial scale, demonstrating that single site IBI scores are not representative at watershed scales and therefore at best 25% of a state's stream length can be representatively sampled with non-random designs. We evaluated the effects on total taxa captured and IBI precision of sampling for twice as many benthic macroinvertebrates at 73 MBSS sites with replicate samples. When sampling costs were fixed, the precision of the IBI decreased as the number of sites had to be reduced by 15%. Only 1% more taxa were found overall when the 73 sites where combined. We concluded that (1) comprehensive assessment of a state's waters should be done using probability-based sampling that allows the condition across all reaches to be inferred statistically and (2) additional site sampling effort should not be incorporated into state biomonitoring when it will reduce the number of sites sampled to the point where overall assessment precision is lower.

  4. Assessment Orientations of State Primary EFL Teachers in Two Mediterranean Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Tsagari


    Full Text Available Many researchers have highlighted the central role that assessment plays in second language (L2 classrooms and have expressed the need for research into classroom-based language assessment (CBLA, an area that is gradually coming into its own in the field of language testing and assessment (e.g., Hasselgreen, 2008; Leung, 2014; Hill & McNamara, 2012; Turner, 2012. Motivated by the prominence of CBLA in recent discussions, the present study set out to investigate the CBLA practices, knowledge and skills of Greek and Cypriot primary school EFL teachers. The data was collected through teacher interviews and classroom-based tests. The results showed that teachers employ a summative orientation towards evaluating their students’ performance and seem to have unclear ideas about the purposes and implementation of formative assessment, mainly due to lack of professional training in language assessment. The paper concludes with suggestions as to how EFL teachers’ CBLA literacy can be enhanced.

  5. Bridge scour countermeasure assessments at select bridges in the United States, 2014–16 (United States)

    Dudunake, Taylor J.; Huizinga, Richard J.; Fosness, Ryan L.


    In 2009, the Federal Highway Administration published Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 23 (HEC-23) to provide specific design and implementation guidelines for bridge scour and stream instability countermeasures. However, the effectiveness of countermeasures implemented over the past decade following those guidelines has not been evaluated. Therefore, in 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration, began a study to assess the current condition of bridge-scour countermeasures at selected sites to evaluate their effectiveness. Bridge-scour countermeasures were assessed during 2014-2016. Site assessments included reviewing countermeasure design plans, summarizing the peak and daily streamflow history, and assessments at each site. Each site survey included a photo log summary, field form, and topographic and bathymetric geospatial data and metadata. This report documents the study area and site-selection criteria, explains the survey methods used to evaluate the condition of countermeasures, and presents the complete documentation for each countermeasure assessment.

  6. Risk Assessment in the Istanbul Strait Using Black Sea MOU Port State Control Inspections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esma Gül Emecen Kara


    Full Text Available The Istanbul Strait has intense maritime traffic while, at the same time, it poses significant navigational challenges. Due to these properties, there is always a high risk arising from maritime shipping in this region. Especially, substandard ships threaten life, as well as the marine environment. In this aspect, Black Sea Memorandum of Understanding (MOU Port State Control Inspections are important for maritime safety in the Istanbul Strait, because they directly reflect the performance of ships passing through the Istanbul Strait. Stringent and effective inspections assist in the enhancement of navigation safety and help to develop sustainable environment management. In this context, this study aims to assess maritime safety for the Strait region concerning passing flag states. Firstly, to assess the performance of flag states in general, the Black Sea MOU Black-Grey-White lists were generated for the period 2004–2014 and the change in the performance of these flags was examined. Secondly, the risk level of each flag state passing from the Strait region was determined using the method of weighted points based on the Black-Grey-White List, deficiency index level, casualty index level, and passing index level.

  7. Climate Change Impacts on Texas Water: A White Paper Assessment of the Past, Present and Future and Recommendations for Action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banner, Jay L.; Jackson, Charles S.; Yang, Zong-Liang; Hayhoe, Katharine; Woodhouse, Connie; Gulden, Lindsey; Jacobs, Kathy; North, Gerald; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Washington, Warren M.; Jiang, Xiaoyan; Casteel, Richard


    Texas comprises the eastern portion of the Southwest region, where the convergence of climatological and geopolitical forces has the potential to put extreme stress on water resources. Geologic records indicate that Texas experienced large climate changes on millennial time scales in the past, and over the last thousand years, tree-ring records indicate that there were significant periods of drought in Texas. These droughts were of longer duration than the 1950s 'drought of record' that is commonly used in planning, and they occurred independently of human-induced global climate change. Although there has been a negligible net temperature increase in Texas over the past century, temperatures have increased more significantly over the past three decades. Under essentially all climate model projections, Texas is susceptible to significant climate change in the future. Most projections for the 21st century show that with increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, there will be an increase in temperatures across Texas and a shift to a more arid average climate. Studies agree that Texas will likely become significantly warmer and drier, yet the magnitude, timing, and regional distribution of these changes are uncertain. There is a large uncertainty in the projected changes in precipitation for Texas for the 21st century. In contrast, the more robust projected increase in temperature with its effect on evaporation, which is a dominant component in the region's hydrologic cycle, is consistent with model projections of frequent and extended droughts throughout the state. For these reasons, we recommend that Texas invest resources to investigate and anticipate the impacts of climate change on Texas water resources, with the goal of providing data to inform resource planning. This investment should support development of (1) research programs that provide policy-relevant science; (2) education programs to engage future researchers and policy

  8. PRELIDA D3.1 State of the art assessment on Linked Data and Digital Preservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batsakis, Sotiris; Giaretta, David; Gueret, Christophe; van Horik, M.P.M.; Hoogerwerf, Maarten; Isaac, Antoine; Meghini, Carlo; Scharnhorst, Andrea


    The state of the art of Linked Data technologies and standards and of Digital Preservation solutions, standards and technologies is presented, along with an analysis of the characteristics of Linked Data that make their preservation different from that of other digital resources (A consolidated

  9. Uncertainty Assessment of Equations of State with Application to an Organic Rankine Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frutiger, Jerome; Bell, Ian; O’Connell, John P.


    Evaluations of equations of state (EoS) with application to process systems should include uncertainty analysis. A generic method is presented for determining such uncertainties from both the mathematical formand the data for obtaining EoS parameter values. The method is implemented for the Soave...

  10. Assessing the Impact of Urbanization Using Remote Sensing On A Global Scale, Past Present And Future Directions (United States)

    Luvall, J. C.


    channel mid/thermal infrared instrument. These instruments build on a long heritage of NASA funded research using aircraft based urban remote sensing instruments to develop techniques for assessing the UHI. HyspIRI will provide the global datasets necessary to monitor and study the impacts of urbanization on a global scale.

  11. Application of the Coastal Hazard Wheel methodology for coastal multi-hazard assessment and management in the state of Djibouti

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelquist, Lars Rosendahl; Balstrøm, Thomas


    coastal classification system that incorporates the main static and dynamic parameters determining the characteristics of a coastal environment. The methodology provides information on the hazards of ecosystem disruption, gradual inundation, salt water intrusion, erosion and flooding and can be used...... to support management decisions at local, regional and national level, in areas with limited access to geophysical data. The assessment for Djibouti applies a geographic information system (GIS) to develop a range of national hazard maps along with relevant hazard statistics and is showcasing the procedure......This paper presents the application of a new methodology for coastal multi-hazard assessment and management in a changing global climate on the state of Djibouti. The methodology termed the Coastal Hazard Wheel (CHW) is developed for worldwide application and is based on a specially designed...

  12. Planning Science Instruction for Critical Thinking: Two Urban Elementary Teachers’ Responses to a State Science Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Silva Mangiante


    Full Text Available Science education reform standards have shifted focus from exploration and experimentation to evidence-based explanation and argumentation to prepare students with knowledge for a changing workforce and critical thinking skills to evaluate issues requiring increasing scientific literacy. However, in urban schools serving poor, diverse populations, where the priority is on students’ assessment results in reading and math, students may not receive reform-based science. The rationale for this qualitative study was to examine how two elementary teachers from high-poverty urban schools planned for reform-based science in response to a quality state science assessment in conjunction with their training and resources. Their state assessment included an inquiry task requiring students to construct responses to questions based on their investigation data. From evaluating evidence using Zembal-Saul’s continuum for teaching science as argument, the findings indicated that both teachers adopted an investigation-based and evidence-based approach to science teaching to prepare students for the inquiry task. However, one teacher provided argument-based science teaching from her explicit training in that approach. The results suggested that the teachers’ training and resources informed their interpretation of the focus areas on the science assessment inquiry task and influenced the extent to which they offered students an equitable opportunity to develop higher-order thinking from reform-based science.

  13. Assessing the Present in Perspective of the Past: Experiences from a Chronicle Workshop on Company-Level Work Disability Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrik Gensby


    Full Text Available Participatory approaches to jointly address development and change processes are increasingly applied in Nordic working life research. One approach, the Chronicle Workshop (CW, aims at facilitating collective history through collaborative exploration and joint analysis of organizational development and change processes to guide forthcoming change. This study presents the CW methodology as an interactive research process. The study examines how the CW can facilitate mutual understanding and explanation of sickness absence and return to work efforts in the healthcare workplace, and discuss the extent to which the CW methodology can inform researchers involved in organizational development and change to address some potential limitations that exist. The CW encouraged the expression of diverse perspectives, incorporating insight from different organizational levels, and identified various kinds of resources and dilemmas in mapping the collective history of company-level sickness absence and return to work efforts. More attention to consensus building and power relations, greater explicitness about theoretical groundings, researcher role, and follow-up action ought to be considered prospectively to develop the method further. Inspiration from action research principles and the combined use of critical realism and interactive research may guide future development of the CW methodology.

  14. Techno-Economic and Life Cycle Assessment of Wastewater Management from Potato Starch Production: Present Status and Alternative Biotreatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro F. Souza Filho


    Full Text Available Potato liquor, a byproduct of potato starch production, is steam-treated to produce protein isolate. The heat treated potato liquor (HTPL, containing significant amounts of organic compounds, still needs to be further treated before it is discarded. Presently, the most common strategy for HTPL management is concentrating it via evaporation before using it as a fertilizer. In this study, this scenario was compared with two biotreatments: (1 fermentation using filamentous fungus R. oryzae to produce a protein-rich biomass, and (2 anaerobic digestion of the HTPL to produce biogas. Technical, economic and environmental analyses were performed via computational simulation to determine potential benefits of the proposed scenarios to a plant discarding 19.64 ton/h of HTPL. Fungal cultivation was found to be the preferred scenario with respect to the economic aspects. This scenario needed only 46% of the investment needed for the evaporation scenario. In terms of the environmental impacts, fungal cultivation yielded the lowest impacts in the acidification, terrestrial eutrophication, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication and freshwater ecotoxicity impact categories. The lowest impact in the climate change category was obtained when using the HTPL for anaerobic digestion.

  15. The state of school-based bilingual assessment: actual practice versus recommended guidelines. (United States)

    Caesar, Lena G; Kohler, Paula D


    This study was designed to investigate the frequency with which school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) used recommended practices when assessing the language skills of bilingual students. The study also investigated the frequency with which SLPs used formal, standardized tests versus informal, alternative procedures with this population. A total of 596 surveys were mailed out to school-based SLPs in the state of Michigan who were members of the Michigan Speech, Language, and Hearing Association (MSHA) during the 2003-2004 academic year. Of the 409 usable surveys that were returned, 130 respondents indicated being involved in assessing bilingual children and comprised the sample used in this study. Results indicated that SLPs used formal, standardized English tests more frequently than informal assessment procedures when assessing bilingual students. Further in-depth analyses of SLPs' responses indicated that neither factors related to their years of experience or factors related to their academic preparation were significantly related to their use of recommended assessment practices. However, significant differences in use were noted based on respondents' employment settings. This study underscores the need for academic training programs and professional organizations to intentionally disseminate information regarding the expediency of alternative testing procedures. Implications for the adequate nonbiased assessment of bilingual children are discussed.

  16. Expert assessment of the current state of the energy management system in the company (United States)

    Minnullina, Anna; Abdrazakov, Rais


    The authors’ expert assessment of the current state of the energy management system in the company is proposed in the article. The experts are invited to assess the status of the energy management system in the following categories: energy policy, organizational structure, training, motivation, control, communication, investment, and energy consumption culture. For the purposes of interpretation of the results of the expert evaluation obtained, a gradation based on a possible range of values is proposed. The expert evaluation allows representing the status of the energy management system in general and at each of its individual levels, which makes it possible to identify the problem areas more accurately. To confirm the applied nature of the proposed methodology, the authors assessed the opinions of 8 experts, employed by the road construction company of the Tyumen Region and related in one way or another to the process of energy consumption in the company due to the nature of their activities.

  17. Steady State Visual Evoked Potential Based Brain-Computer Interface for Cognitive Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergren, Nicolai; Bendtsen, Rasmus L.; Kjær, Troels W.


    decline is important. Cognitive decline may be detected using fullyautomated computerized assessment. Such systems will provide inexpensive and widely available screenings of cognitive ability. The aim of this pilot study is to develop a real time steady state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) based brain-computer...... interface (BCI) for neurological cognitive assessment. It is intended for use by patients who suffer from diseases impairing their motor skills, but are still able to control their gaze. Results are based on 11 healthy test subjects. The system performance have an average accuracy of 100% ± 0%. The test...... subjects achieved an information transfer rate (ITR) of 14:64 bits/min ± 7:63 bits=min and a subject test performance of 47:22% ± 34:10%. This study suggests that BCI may be applicable in practice as a computerized cognitive assessment tool. However, many improvements are required for the system...

  18. Mapping State Proficiency Standards onto NAEP Scales: Results from the 2013 NAEP Reading and Mathematics Assessments. NCES 2015-046 (United States)

    Bandeira de Mello, V.; Bohrnstedt, G.; Blankenship, C.; Sherman, D.


    Under the 2001 reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, states developed their own assessments and set their own proficiency standards to measure student achievement. This has resulted in a great deal of variation among the states, both in their proficiency standards and in their student assessments (NCES 2008-475).…

  19. Projecting climate change in the United States: A technical document supporting the Forest Service RPA 2010 Assessment (United States)

    Linda A. Joyce; David T. Price; David P. Coulson; Daniel W. McKenney; R. Martin Siltanen; Pia Papadopol; Kevin. Lawrence


    A set of climate change projections for the United States was developed for use in the 2010 USDA Forest Service RPA Assessment. These climate projections, along with projections for population dynamics, economic growth, and land use change in the United States, comprise the RPA scenarios and are used in the RPA Assessment to project future renewable resource conditions...

  20. Pest risk assessment of the importation into the United States of unprocessed Pinus and Abies logs from Mexico (United States)

    B. M. Tkacz; H. H. Burdsall; G. A. DeNitto; A. Eglitis; J. B. Hanson; J. T. Kliejunas; W. E. Wallner; J. G. O`Brien; E. L. Smith


    The unmitigated pest risk potential for the importation of Pinus and Abies logs from all states of Mexico into the United States was assessed by estimating the probability and consequences of establishment of representative insects and pathogens of concern. Twenty-two individual pest risk assessments were prepared for Pinus logs, twelve dealing with insects and ten...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut ÖZER


    Full Text Available In this study sigmoid-shaped curves are fitted for steady-state activation and inactivation data of ionic currents which are defined in literature to be present in Purkinje cell somata. Marquardt-Levenberg nonlinear least-square parameter estimation algorithm is used for curve fitting. Then a somatic compartmental model of Purkinje cell is constructed, and somatic membrane potentials are calculated for several different current injection cases. It's shown that means and standard deviations of differences between somatic membrane potentials which are calculated with fitted curves and original equations separately are so small.

  2. Cradle-to-gate life-cycle assessment of laminated veneer lumber (LVL) produced in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Sevda Alanya-Rosenbaum


    The goal of the present study was to develop life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) data associated with laminated veneer lumber (LVL) production in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of the United States from cradle-to-gate mill output. The authors collected primary (survey) mill data from LVL production facilities per Consortium on Research for Renewable Industrial...

  3. Technical assessment of Navitar Zoom 6000 optic and Sony HDC-X310 camera for MEMS presentations and training.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diegert, Carl F.


    This report evaluates a newly-available, high-definition, video camera coupled with a zoom optical system for microscopic imaging of micro-electro-mechanical systems. We did this work to support configuration of three document-camera-like stations as part of an installation in a new Microsystems building at Sandia National Laboratories. The video display walls to be installed as part of these three presentation and training stations are of extraordinary resolution and quality. The new availability of a reasonably-priced, cinema-quality, high-definition video camera offers the prospect of filling these displays with full-motion imaging of Sandia's microscopic products at a quality substantially beyond the quality of typical video microscopes. Simple and robust operation of the microscope stations will allow the extraordinary-quality imaging to contribute to Sandia's day-to-day research and training operations. This report illustrates the disappointing image quality from a camera/lens system comprised of a Sony HDC-X310 high-definition video camera coupled to a Navitar Zoom 6000 lens. We determined that this Sony camera is capable of substantially more image quality than the Navitar optic can deliver. We identified an optical doubler lens from Navitar as the component of their optical system that accounts for a substantial part of the image quality problem. While work continues to incrementally improve performance of the Navitar system, we are also evaluating optical systems from other vendors to couple to this Sony camera.

  4. Making Decisions under Ambiguity: Judgment Bias Tasks for Assessing Emotional State in Animals (United States)

    Roelofs, Sanne; Boleij, Hetty; Nordquist, Rebecca E.; van der Staay, Franz Josef


    Judgment bias tasks (JBTs) are considered as a family of promising tools in the assessment of emotional states of animals. JBTs provide a cognitive measure of optimism and/or pessimism by recording behavioral responses to ambiguous stimuli. For instance, a negative emotional state is expected to produce a negative or pessimistic judgment of an ambiguous stimulus, whereas a positive emotional state produces a positive or optimistic judgment of the same ambiguous stimulus. Measuring an animal’s emotional state or mood is relevant in both animal welfare research and biomedical research. This is reflected in the increasing use of JBTs in both research areas. We discuss the different implementations of JBTs with animals, with a focus on their potential as an accurate measure of emotional state. JBTs have been successfully applied to a very broad range of species, using many different types of testing equipment and experimental protocols. However, further validation of this test is deemed necessary. For example, the often extensive training period required for successful judgment bias testing remains a possible factor confounding results. Also, the issue of ambiguous stimuli losing their ambiguity with repeated testing requires additional attention. Possible improvements are suggested to further develop the JBTs in both animal welfare and biomedical research. PMID:27375454

  5. Making Decisions under Ambiguity: Judgment Bias Tasks for Assessing Emotional State in Animals. (United States)

    Roelofs, Sanne; Boleij, Hetty; Nordquist, Rebecca E; van der Staay, Franz Josef


    Judgment bias tasks (JBTs) are considered as a family of promising tools in the assessment of emotional states of animals. JBTs provide a cognitive measure of optimism and/or pessimism by recording behavioral responses to ambiguous stimuli. For instance, a negative emotional state is expected to produce a negative or pessimistic judgment of an ambiguous stimulus, whereas a positive emotional state produces a positive or optimistic judgment of the same ambiguous stimulus. Measuring an animal's emotional state or mood is relevant in both animal welfare research and biomedical research. This is reflected in the increasing use of JBTs in both research areas. We discuss the different implementations of JBTs with animals, with a focus on their potential as an accurate measure of emotional state. JBTs have been successfully applied to a very broad range of species, using many different types of testing equipment and experimental protocols. However, further validation of this test is deemed necessary. For example, the often extensive training period required for successful judgment bias testing remains a possible factor confounding results. Also, the issue of ambiguous stimuli losing their ambiguity with repeated testing requires additional attention. Possible improvements are suggested to further develop the JBTs in both animal welfare and biomedical research.

  6. Interim initial state report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pers, Karin (ed.) [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)


    A thorough description of the initial state of the engineered parts of the repository system is one of the main bases for the SR-Can safety assessment. The initial state refers to the state at the time of deposition for the spent fuel and the engineered barriers and the natural, undisturbed state at the time of beginning of excavation for the repository for the geosphere and the biosphere. The repository system is based on the KBS-3 method, where copper canisters with a cast iron insert containing spent nuclear fuel are surrounded by bentonite clay and deposited at approximately 500 m depth in saturated, granitic rock. For the purpose of the safety assessment the engineered portion of the repository system has been divided into a number of consecutive barriers or sub-systems. The importance of a particular feature for safety has influenced the resolution into components. In principle, components close to the source term and those that play an important role for safety are treated in more detail than more peripheral components. For the option with 40 years of reactor operation, the quantity of BWR fuel is estimated at 7200 tonnes and the quantity of PWR fuel at 2300 tonnes. The fuel burn-up may vary from 15 MWd/kgU up to 60 MWd/kg. Geometric aspects of the fuel cladding tubes of importance in the safety assessment are, as a rule, handled sufficiently pessimistically in analyses of radionuclide transport that differences between different fuel types are irrelevant. The relative differences in radionuclide inventory with respect to burn-up are small. Deviations in inventory and deviating or damaged fuel are not considered in the SR-Can interim reporting but will be handled in the final reporting of SR-Can. The canister consists of an inner container, the insert of cast iron and an outer shell of copper. The cast iron insert provides mechanical stability and the copper shell protects against corrosion in the repository environment. The copper shell is 5 cm thick and

  7. Plant-wide quantitative assessment of a process industry system's operating state based on color-spectrum (United States)

    Kai, Sun; Jianmin, Gao; Zhiyong, Gao; Hongquan, Jiang; Xu, Gao


    This paper presents a general theoretical framework to assess the operating state of a process industry system quantitatively based on meshing the theory of scientific data visualization and digital image processing. First, a series of color-spectrum, which represent the operating state of the system, is formed by mapping the monitor data set to a group of digital color images. Second, the common feature of color-spectrum, which is named benchmark-color-spectrum, is extracted as a standard of the normal state. Third, the abnormal degree can be quantified by calculating the difference of the benchmark-color-spectrum with observed color-spectrum. At last, a plant-wide operating state of the system in a period of time can be shown by plotting quantitative abnormal degree. Two case is included to illustrate the proposed method and its appropriateness. One is a general process industry system simulator named Tennessee Eastman Process. Another is an air compressor group which belongs to a real chemical plant.

  8. Assessment of coal technology options and implications for the State of Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, J.L.; Elcock, D.; Elliott, T.J. [and others


    The mandate of this research report was to provide the state of Hawaii with an assessment of the potential opportunities and drawbacks of relying on coal-fired generating technologies to diversify its fuel mix and satisfy future electric power requirements. This assessment was to include a review of existing and emerging coal-based power technologies-including their associated costs, environmental impacts, land use, and infrastructure requirements-to determine the range of impacts likely to occur if such systems were deployed in Hawaii. Coupled with this review, the report was also to (1) address siting and safety issues as they relate to technology choice and coal transport, (2) consider how environmental costs associated with coal usage are included in the integrated resource planning (ERP) process, and (3) develop an analytical tool from which the Department of Business, Economic Development & Tourism of the State of Hawaii could conduct first-order comparisons of power plant selection and siting. The prepared report addresses each element identified above. However, available resources and data limitations limited the extent to which particular characteristics of coal use could be assessed. For example, the technology profiles are current but not as complete regarding future developments and cost/emissions data as possible, and the assessment of coal technology deployment issues in Hawaii was conducted on an aggregate (not site-specific) basis. Nonetheless, the information and findings contained in this report do provide an accurate depiction of the opportunities for and issues associated with coal utilization in the state of Hawaii.

  9. Biocorrosion and biofouling of metals and alloys of industrial usage. Present state of the art at the beginning of the new millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Videla, H. A.


    Full Text Available An overview on the present state of the art on Biocorrosion and Biofouling of metals and alloys of industrial usage is offered on the basis of the experience gathered in our laboratory over 25 years of research. The key concepts to understand the main effects of microorganisms on metal decay are briefly discussed. New trends in monitoring and control strategies to mitigate biocorrosion and biofouling deleterious effects are also described. Several relevant cases of biocorrosion studied by our research group are successively described: i biocorrosion of aluminum and its alloys by fungal contaminants of jet fuels; ii Sulfate-reducing bacteria SRB induced corrosion of steel; iii biocorrosion and biofouling interactions in the marine environment; iv monitoring strategies for assessing biocorrosion in industrial water systems; v microbial inhibition of corrosion; vi use and limitations of electrochemical techniques for evaluating biocorrosion effects. The future perspective of the field is made considering the potential of innovative techniques in microscopy (environmental scanning electron microscopy, confocal scanning laser microscopy, atomic force microscopy, new spectroscopical techniques used for the study of corrosion products and biofilms (energy dispersion X-ray analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron microprobe analysis and electrochemistry (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, electrochemical noise analysis.

    Se ofrece una revisión del estado actual del conocimiento sobre Biocorrosión y Biofouling de metales y aleaciones de uso industrial basada en la experiencia desarrollada en nuestro laboratorio durante 25 años de investigación en el área. Se discuten brevemente los conceptos clave necesarios para entender los principales efectos de los microorganismos en el deterioro de los metales. También se presentan las nuevas tendencias seguidas para el monitoreo y las nuevas estrategias de control para mitigar

  10. Assessing the invasive potential of biofuel species proposed for Florida and the United States using the Australian Weed Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, D.R. [The Nature Conservancy, PO Box 118526, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Department of Biology, PO Box 118526, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Tancig, K.J. [PO Box 116455, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Onderdonk, D.A.; Gantz, C.A. [Department of Biology, PO Box 118526, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)


    Twelve taxa under exploration as bioenergy crops in Florida and the U.S. were evaluated for potential invasiveness using the Australian Weed Risk Assessment system (WRA) modified for separate assessment at the state and national scales. When tested across a range of geographies, this system correctly identifies invaders 90%, and non-invaders 70% of the time, on average. Predictions for Florida were the same as for the U.S. Arundo donax, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus grandis, Jatropha curcas, Leucaena leucocephala, Pennisetum purpureum, and Ricinus communis were found to have a high probability of becoming invasive, while Miscanthus x giganteus, Saccharum arundinaceum, Saccharum officinarum, and the sweet variety of Sorghum bicolor have a low probability of becoming invasive. Eucalyptus amplifolia requires further evaluation before a prediction is possible. These results are consistent with reports on other tests of these taxa. Given the economic and ecological impacts of invasive species, including the carbon expended for mechanical and chemical control efforts, cultivation of taxa likely to become invasive should be avoided. (author)

  11. The State of Alaska's early experience with institutionalization of health impact assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Anderson


    Full Text Available Background . Many nations routinely include health impact assessments (HIA in public policy decisions. Institutionalization of HIA formally integrates health considerations into a governmental decision-making process. We describe an example of institutionalization in the United States through Alaska's early experience with institutionalization of HIA. Literature review . HIA arose from a series of health conferences in the 1970s that affirmed the importance of “health for all.” A number of key milestones eventually defined HIA as a unique field of impact assessment. There are several approaches to institutionalization, and one common approach in the United States is through the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA. NEPA formed the basis for the earliest HIAs in Alaska. Program description . Early HIAs in Alaska led to conferences, working groups, a state guidance document and the institutionalization of a HIA program within the Department of Health and Social Services in 2010. A medical epidemiologist staffs the program, which utilizes contractors to meet rising demand for HIA. The HIA program has sustainable funding from the state budget and from the state's natural resource permitting process. The HIA document is the main deliverable, but the program performs other tasks, including fieldwork and technical reviews. The HIA program works closely with a host of collaborative partners. Conclusion . Alaska's institutionalized HIA program benefits from sustainable funding that promotes continuous quality improvement and involves the program in the entire life cycle of a development project. The program structure adapts well to variations in workflow and supports a host of quality control activities. Currently, the program focuses on HIAs for natural resource development projects.

  12. The assessment of data sources for influenza virologic surveillance in New York State. (United States)

    Escuyer, Kay L; Waters, Christine L; Gowie, Donna L; Maxted, Angie M; Farrell, Gregory M; Fuschino, Meghan E; St George, Kirsten


    Following the 2013 USA release of the Influenza Virologic Surveillance Right Size Roadmap, the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) embarked on an evaluation of data sources for influenza virologic surveillance. To assess NYS data sources, additional to data generated by the state public health laboratory (PHL), which could enhance influenza surveillance at the state and national level. Potential sources of laboratory test data for influenza were analyzed for quantity and quality. Computer models, designed to assess sample sizes and the confidence of data for statistical representation of influenza activity, were used to compare PHL test data to results from clinical and commercial laboratories, reported between June 8, 2013 and May 31, 2014. Sample sizes tested for influenza at the state PHL were sufficient for situational awareness surveillance with optimal confidence levels, only during peak weeks of the influenza season. Influenza data pooled from NYS PHLs and clinical laboratories generated optimal confidence levels for situational awareness throughout the influenza season. For novel influenza virus detection in NYS, combined real-time (rt) RT-PCR data from state and regional PHLs achieved ≥85% confidence during peak influenza activity, and ≥95% confidence for most of low season and all of off-season. In NYS, combined data from clinical, commercial, and public health laboratories generated optimal influenza surveillance for situational awareness throughout the season. Statistical confidence for novel virus detection, which is reliant on only PHL data, was achieved for most of the year. © 2016 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The State of Alaska's early experience with institutionalization of health impact assessment. (United States)

    Anderson, Paul J; Yoder, Sarah; Fogels, Ed; Krieger, Gary; McLaughlin, Joseph


    Many nations routinely include health impact assessments (HIA) in public policy decisions. Institutionalization of HIA formally integrates health considerations into a governmental decision-making process. We describe an example of institutionalization in the United States through Alaska's early experience with institutionalization of HIA. HIA arose from a series of health conferences in the 1970s that affirmed the importance of "health for all." A number of key milestones eventually defined HIA as a unique field of impact assessment. There are several approaches to institutionalization, and one common approach in the United States is through the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). NEPA formed the basis for the earliest HIAs in Alaska. Early HIAs in Alaska led to conferences, working groups, a state guidance document and the institutionalization of a HIA program within the Department of Health and Social Services in 2010. A medical epidemiologist staffs the program, which utilizes contractors to meet rising demand for HIA. The HIA program has sustainable funding from the state budget and from the state's natural resource permitting process. The HIA document is the main deliverable, but the program performs other tasks, including fieldwork and technical reviews. The HIA program works closely with a host of collaborative partners. Alaska's institutionalized HIA program benefits from sustainable funding that promotes continuous quality improvement and involves the program in the entire life cycle of a development project. The program structure adapts well to variations in workflow and supports a host of quality control activities. Currently, the program focuses on HIAs for natural resource development projects.

  14. 76 FR 70076 - Technical Revisions To Update Reference to the Required Assessment Tool for State Nursing Homes... (United States)


    ... Tool for State Nursing Homes Receiving Per Diem Payments From VA AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs... diem from VA for providing nursing home care to veterans. The proposed rule would require State nursing... Required Assessment Tool for State Nursing Homes Receiving Per Diem Payments From VA.'' Copies of comments...

  15. Epidemiology of Snow Skiing- Versus Snowboarding-Related Concussions Presenting to the Emergency Department in the United States from 2010 to 2014. (United States)

    Gil, Joseph A; DeFroda, Steven F; Kriz, Peter; Owens, Brett D


    To examine the trend of concussions in skiers and snowboarders from 2010 to 2014; and to quantify and compare the incidence of concussions injuries in skiers and snowboarders who presented to emergency departments in the United States in 2014. Cross-sectional study of concussions in skiers and snowboarders who were evaluated in emergency departments in the United States. Incidence of concussions. The trend of the annual incidence of concussions for skiers and snowboarders remained stable from 2010 to 2014. An estimated total of 5388 skiing-related concussions and 5558 snowboarding-related concussions presented to emergency departments in the United States between January 1st, 2014, and December 31st, 2014. This represented an incidence of 16.9 concussions per 1 000 000 person-years for skiers and 17.4 concussions per 1 000 000 person-years for snowboarders. The incidence of concussions in the pediatric and young adult population of skiers was significantly higher than the incidence in the adult population. Similarly, the incidence of concussions in the pediatric and young adult population of snowboarders was significantly higher than the incidence in the adult population. The incidence of concussions was significantly higher in males compared with females in both skiing and snowboarding. The incidence of concussions from 2010 to 2014 plateaued in both skiers and snowboarders. Pediatric and young adult skiers and snowboarders had significantly higher incidences of concussion than the adult population. In contrast to the higher incidence of concussions in females in several sports including ice hockey, soccer, and basketball, the incidence of concussions was higher in males compared with females in both skiing and snowboarding.

  16. A State-of-the-Art Review on Fatigue Life Assessment of Steel Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. W. Ye


    Full Text Available Fatigue is among the most critical forms of damage potentially occurring in steel bridges, while accurate assessment or prediction of the fatigue damage status as well as the remaining fatigue life of steel bridges is still a challenging and unsolved issue. There have been numerous investigations on the fatigue damage evaluation and life prediction of steel bridges by use of deterministic or probabilistic methods. The purpose of this review is devoted to presenting a summary on the development history and current status of fatigue condition assessment of steel bridges, containing basic aspects of fatigue, classical fatigue analysis methods, data-driven fatigue life assessment, and reliability-based fatigue condition assessment.

  17. Use of a Measure of Reading Comprehension to Enhance Prediction on the State High Stakes Assessment. (United States)

    Shapiro, Edward S; Solari, Emily; Petscher, Yaacov

    The current study examined the diagnostic accuracy of two screening measures of risk for future difficulties in reading comprehension, as well as the degree to which adding a screening measure of reading comprehension enhanced the prediction of Oral Reading Fluency to outcomes of student reading performance on the state high stakes assessment for grades 3 through 5. Data from fall and winter assessments of the DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency (DORF) and 4Sight Benchmark Assessment (4Sight) measures along with outcomes on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) across a total of 1000 students from 6 schools were examined using indices of diagnostic efficiency, ROC curve, and logistic regression analyses. Results showed that the addition of a measure of reading comprehension (4Sight) to DORF enhanced the decision making process for identifying students at risk for reading difficulties, especially for those students at higher elementary grades and those who achieved benchmark levels on the DORF. Although DORF alone showed a good level of prediction to the statewide assessment, the combination of the DORF plus 4Sight measures resulted consistently in the best predictive outcomes. Suggestions are made to consider alternative cut points for the DORF and 4Sight measures.

  18. [Assessment system for watershed ecological health in the United States: development and application]. (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Luo, Yong-Ming


    To meet the water quality goals of the Clean Water Act, the environmental agencies in the United States (U.S.) have developed a comprehensive ecological assessment system of watershed health in the last two decades. The system employs a watershed approach, and includes a large set of hydrological, chemical, and biological indices, having become an essential part of the watershed water quality management system in the U.S. and provided strong support for the protection of water environment and the restoration of aquatic system. In this paper, the development and application of the ecological assessment system of watershed health by the U.S. environmental regulators, especially the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), were overviewed from the aspects of related laws and regulations, ecosystem function analysis, ecological health indicators, comprehensive assessment system, and monitoring and data management systems, and the health assessment systems for the rivers, lakes, estuaries, coasts, and wetlands adopted by the National$t1-1-1 Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) were introduced. Some suggestions for the future development of the scientific ecological assessment system of watershed health in China were put forward based on the understanding of the protection and remediation practices of our water environment.

  19. Dataset of timberland variables used to assess forest conditions in two Southeastern United States׳ fuelsheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther S. Parish


    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “How is wood-based pellet production affecting forest conditions in the southeastern United States?” (Dale et al., 2017 [1]. This article describes how United States Forest Service (USFS Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA data from multiple state inventories were aggregated and used to extract ten annual timberland variables for trend analysis in two case study bioenergy fuelshed areas. This dataset is made publically available to enable critical or extended analyses of changes in forest conditions, either for the fuelshed areas supplying the ports of Savannah, Georgia and Chesapeake, Virginia, or for other southeastern US forested areas contributing biomass to the export wood pellet industry.

  20. Application of the Coastal Hazard Wheel methodology for coastal multi-hazard assessment and management in the state of Djibouti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rosendahl Appelquist


    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of a new methodology for coastal multi-hazard assessment and management in a changing global climate on the state of Djibouti. The methodology termed the Coastal Hazard Wheel (CHW is developed for worldwide application and is based on a specially designed coastal classification system that incorporates the main static and dynamic parameters determining the characteristics of a coastal environment. The methodology provides information on the hazards of ecosystem disruption, gradual inundation, salt water intrusion, erosion and flooding and can be used to support management decisions at local, regional and national level, in areas with limited access to geophysical data. The assessment for Djibouti applies a geographic information system (GIS to develop a range of national hazard maps along with relevant hazard statistics and is showcasing the procedure for applying the CHW methodology for national hazard assessments. The assessment shows that the coastline of Djibouti is characterized by extensive stretches with high or very high hazards of ecosystem disruption, mainly related to coral reefs and mangrove forests, while large sections along the coastlines of especially northern and southern Djibouti have high hazard levels for gradual inundation. The hazard of salt water intrusion is moderate along most of Djibouti’s coastline, although groundwater availability is considered to be very sensitive to human ground water extraction. High or very high erosion hazards are associated with Djibouti’s sedimentary plains, estuaries and river mouths, while very high flooding hazards are associated with the dry river mouths.