WorldWideScience

Sample records for assessment ppa technique

  1. Cross-cultural adaptation and reliability of child-initiated pretend play assessment (chlPPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Luzia I; Queiroz, Mirella A; Santos, Jair L F; Stagnitti, Karen E

    2011-06-01

    Play is an indication of a children's development. Purpose. Organize a culturally adapt the Child-Initiated Pretend Play Assessment to Brazilian population. Translation and cultural adaptation procedures consisted of translation, synthesis, back translation, author's approval, and pretest of the assessment. For the pretest, 14 typically developing children were assessed. Was evaluated the use of play materials, duration of the assessment, and reliability. Play materials and duration of the assessment were appropriate for Brazilian children. Analysis of intra-rater reliability showed good agreement ranging from 0.90 to 1.00. Inter-rater reliability showed good to moderate agreement for five items ranging from 0.76 to 0.59. Four items showed chance to poor agreement (rho = -0.13 to 0.50). Results of the pretest indicate the Brazilian version of the ChlPPA is potentially useful for Brazilian children. ChlPPA training in Portuguese in Brazil with play observation feedback is recommended to improve inter-rater reliability.

  2. Identifying Organizational Inefficiencies with Pictorial Process Analysis (PPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David John Patrishkoff

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Pictorial Process Analysis (PPA was created by the author in 2004. PPA is a unique methodology which offers ten layers of additional analysis when compared to standard process mapping techniques.  The goal of PPA is to identify and eliminate waste, inefficiencies and risk in manufacturing or transactional business processes at 5 levels in an organization. The highest level being assessed is the process management, followed by the process work environment, detailed work habits, process performance metrics and general attitudes towards the process. This detailed process assessment and analysis is carried out during process improvement brainstorming efforts and Kaizen events. PPA creates a detailed visual efficiency rating for each step of the process under review.  A selection of 54 pictorial Inefficiency Icons (cards are available for use to highlight major inefficiencies and risks that are present in the business process under review. These inefficiency icons were identified during the author's independent research on the topic of why things go wrong in business. This paper will highlight how PPA was developed and show the steps required to conduct Pictorial Process Analysis on a sample manufacturing process. The author has successfully used PPA to dramatically improve business processes in over 55 different industries since 2004.  

  3. Assessing Classroom Assessment Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson-Beck, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Classroom assessment techniques (CATs) are teaching strategies that provide formative assessments of student learning. It has been argued that the use of CATs enhances and improves student learning. Although the various types of CATs have been extensively documented and qualitatively studied, there appears to be little quantitative research…

  4. Effects of phenylpropanolamine (PPA) on in vitro human erythrocyte membranes and molecular models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suwalsky, Mario, E-mail: msuwalsk@udec.cl [Faculty of Chemical Sciences, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Zambrano, Pablo; Mennickent, Sigrid [Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Villena, Fernando [Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Sotomayor, Carlos P.; Aguilar, Luis F. [Instituto de Quimica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile); Bolognin, Silvia [CNR-Institute for Biomedical Technologies, University of Padova, Padova (Italy)

    2011-03-18

    Research highlights: {yields} PPA is a common ingredient in cough-cold medication and appetite suppressants. {yields} Reports on its effects on human erythrocytes are very scarce. {yields} We found that PPA induced in vitro morphological changes to human erythrocytes. {yields} PPA interacted with isolated unsealed human erythrocyte membranes. {yields} PPA interacted with class of lipid present in the erythrocyte membrane outer monolayer. -- Abstract: Norephedrine, also called phenylpropanolamine (PPA), is a synthetic form of the ephedrine alkaloid. After reports of the occurrence of intracranial hemorrhage and other adverse effects, including several deaths, PPA is no longer sold in USA and Canada. Despite the extensive information about PPA toxicity, reports on its effects on cell membranes are scarce. With the aim to better understand the molecular mechanisms of the interaction of PPA with cell membranes, ranges of concentrations were incubated with intact human erythrocytes, isolated unsealed human erythrocyte membranes (IUM), and molecular models of cell membranes. The latter consisted in bilayers built-up of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE), phospholipid classes present in the outer and inner monolayers of most plasmatic cell membranes, respectively. The capacity of PPA to perturb the bilayer structures of DMPC and DMPE was assessed by X-ray diffraction, DMPC large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) and IUM were studied by fluorescence spectroscopy, and intact human erythrocytes were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This study presents evidence that PPA affects human red cell membranes as follows: (a) in SEM studies on human erythrocytes it was observed that 0.5 mM PPA induced shape changes; (b) in IUM PPA induced a sharp decrease in the fluorescence anisotropy in the lipid bilayer acyl chains in a concentration range lower than 100 {mu}M; (c) X-ray diffraction studies showed that PPA in the 0.1-0.5 m

  5. Effects of phenylpropanolamine (PPA) on in vitro human erythrocyte membranes and molecular models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwalsky, Mario; Zambrano, Pablo; Mennickent, Sigrid; Villena, Fernando; Sotomayor, Carlos P; Aguilar, Luis F; Bolognin, Silvia

    2011-03-18

    Norephedrine, also called phenylpropanolamine (PPA), is a synthetic form of the ephedrine alkaloid. After reports of the occurrence of intracranial hemorrhage and other adverse effects, including several deaths, PPA is no longer sold in USA and Canada. Despite the extensive information about PPA toxicity, reports on its effects on cell membranes are scarce. With the aim to better understand the molecular mechanisms of the interaction of PPA with cell membranes, ranges of concentrations were incubated with intact human erythrocytes, isolated unsealed human erythrocyte membranes (IUM), and molecular models of cell membranes. The latter consisted in bilayers built-up of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE), phospholipid classes present in the outer and inner monolayers of most plasmatic cell membranes, respectively. The capacity of PPA to perturb the bilayer structures of DMPC and DMPE was assessed by X-ray diffraction, DMPC large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) and IUM were studied by fluorescence spectroscopy, and intact human erythrocytes were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This study presents evidence that PPA affects human red cell membranes as follows: (a) in SEM studies on human erythrocytes it was observed that 0.5 mM PPA induced shape changes; (b) in IUM PPA induced a sharp decrease in the fluorescence anisotropy in the lipid bilayer acyl chains in a concentration range lower than 100 μM; (c) X-ray diffraction studies showed that PPA in the 0.1-0.5 mM range induced increasing structural perturbation to DMPC, but no effects on DMPE multibilayers were detected. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Parapapillary atrophy and optic disc region assessment (PANDORA): retinal imaging tool for assessment of the optic disc and parapapillary atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cheng-Kai; Tang, Tong Boon; Laude, Augustinus; Dhillon, Baljean; Murray, Alan F

    2012-10-01

    We describe a computer-aided measuring tool, named parapapillary atrophy and optic disc region assessment (PANDORA), for automated detection and quantification of both the parapapillary atrophy (PPA) and the optic disc (OD) regions in two-dimensional color retinal fundus images. The OD region is segmented using a combination of edge detection and ellipse fitting methods. The PPA region is identified by the presence of bright pixels in the temporal zone of the OD, and it is segmented using a sequence of techniques, including a modified Chan-Vese approach, thresholding, scanning filter, and multiseed region growing. PANDORA has been tested with 133 color retinal images (82 with PPA; 51 without PPA) drawn randomly from the Lothian Birth Cohort (LBC) database, together with a "ground truth" estimate from an ophthalmologist. The PPA detection rate is 89.47% with a sensitivity of 0.83 and a specificity of 1. The mean accuracy in defining the OD region is 81.31% (SD=10.45) when PPA is present and 95.32% (SD=4.36) when PPA is absent. The mean accuracy in defining the PPA region is 73.57% (SD=11.62). PANDORA demonstrates for the first time how to quantify the OD and PPA regions using two-dimensional fundus images, enabling ophthalmologists to study ocular diseases related to PPA using a standard fundus camera.

  7. Dermal exposure assessment techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, R A

    1993-12-01

    Exposure of the skin to chemical substances can contribute significantly to total dose in many workplace situations, and its relative importance will increase when airborne occupational exposure limits are reduced, unless steps to reduce skin exposure are undertaken simultaneously. Its assessment employs personal sampling techniques to measure skin loading rates, and combines these measurements with models of percutaneous absorption to estimate absorbed dose. Knowledge of dermal exposure pathways is in many cases fundamental to hazard evaluation and control. When the skin is the primary contributor to absorbed dose, dermal exposure measurements and biological monitoring play complementary roles in defining occupational exposures. Exposure normally occurs by one of three pathways: (i) immersion (direct contact with a liquid or solid chemical substance); (ii) deposition of aerosol or uptake of vapour through the skin; or (iii) surface contact (residue transfer from contaminated surfaces). Sampling methods fall into three categories: surrogate skin; chemical removal; and fluorescent tracers. Surface sampling represents a supplementary approach, providing an estimate of dermal exposure potential. Surrogate skin techniques involve placing a chemical collection medium on the skin. Whole-body garment samplers do not require assumptions relating to distribution, an inherent limitation of patch sampling. The validity of these techniques rests on the ability of the sampling medium to capture and retain chemicals in a manner similar to skin. Removal techniques include skin washing and wiping, but these measure only what can be removed from the skin, not exposure: laboratory removal efficiency studies are required for proper interpretation of data. Fluorescent tracer techniques exploit the visual properties of fluorescent compounds, and combined with video imaging make quantification of dermal exposure patterns possible, but the need to introduce a chemical substance (tracer

  8. Advanced Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) Reactor and Process Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Hadley, Neal M.; Dahl, Roger W.; Abney, Morgan B.; Greenwood, Zachary; Miller, Lee; Medlen, Amber

    2012-01-01

    Design and development of a second generation Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) reactor is currently underway as part of NASA's Atmosphere Revitalization Resource Recovery effort. By recovering up to 75% of the hydrogen currently lost as methane in the Sabatier reactor effluent, the PPA helps to minimize life support resupply costs for extended duration missions. To date, second generation PPA development has demonstrated significant technology advancements over the first generation device by doubling the methane processing rate while, at the same time, more than halving the required power. One development area of particular interest to NASA system engineers is fouling of the PPA reactor with carbonaceous products. As a mitigation plan, NASA MSFC has explored the feasibility of using an oxidative plasma based upon metabolic CO2 to regenerate the reactor window and gas inlet ports. The results and implications of this testing are addressed along with the advanced PPA reactor development.

  9. Use of the Progressive Aphasia Severity Scale (PASS) in monitoring speech and language status in PPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapolsky, Daisy; Domoto-Reilly, Kimiko; Dickerson, Bradford C

    2014-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a devastating neurodegenerative syndrome involving the gradual development of aphasia, slowly impairing the patient's ability to communicate. Pharmaceutical treatments do not currently exist and intervention often focuses on speech-language behavioral therapies, although further investigation is warranted to determine how best to harness functional benefits. Efforts to develop pharmaceutical and behavioral treatments have been hindered by a lack of standardized methods to monitor disease progression and treatment efficacy. Here we describe our current approach to monitoring progression of PPA, including the development and applications of a novel clinical instrument for this purpose, the Progressive Aphasia Severity Scale (PASS). We also outline some of the issues related to initial evaluation and longitudinal monitoring of PPA. In our clinical and research practice we perform initial and follow-up assessments of PPA patients using a multi-faceted approach. In addition to standardized assessment measures, we use the PASS to rate presence and severity of symptoms across distinct domains of speech, language, and functional and pragmatic aspects of communication. Ratings are made using the clinician's best judgment, integrating information from patient test performance in the office as well as a companion's description of routine daily functioning. Monitoring symptom characteristics and severity with the PASS can assist in developing behavioral therapies, planning treatment goals, and counseling patients and families on clinical status and prognosis. The PASS also has potential to advance the implementation of PPA clinical trials. PPA patients display heterogeneous language profiles that change over time given the progressive nature of the disease. The monitoring of symptom progression is therefore crucial to ensure that proposed treatments are appropriate at any given stage, including speech-language therapy and potentially

  10. Semantic Interference during Object Naming in Agrammatic and Logopenic Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cynthia K.; Cho, Soojin; Price, Charis; Wieneke, Christina; Bonakdarpour, Borna; Rogalski, Emily; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, M-Marsel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the time course of object naming in 21 individuals with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) (8 agrammatic (PPA-G); 13 logopenic (PPA-L)) and healthy age-matched speakers (n=17) using a semantic interference paradigm with related and unrelated interfering stimuli presented at stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) of -1000, -500, -100…

  11. Synthesis and enhancing electrical properties of PANI and PPA composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yahia Abed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyaniline (PANI was prepared by chemical method using FeCl3 as oxidizing agent. Emeraldine base (EB was prepared using 0.1 M ammonia solution, and redoped using HCl, (±-10-camphorsulfonic acid (CSA and p-toluenesulfonic acid (PTSA. The electrical conductivity of EB was increased by doping. Polyphenylacetylene (PPA and its complexes with KI and NaOEt were prepared and their electrical conductivities were studied. FTIR was used for characterizing the structures.

  12. Redox speciation of uranium with phenylphosphonic acid (PPA) in aqueous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Ashutosh; Tomar, Bhupendra S. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Radioanalytical Chemistry Div.; Kumar, Pranaw [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Fuel Chemistry Div.

    2017-06-01

    Studies on complexation of uranium with organophosphorous ligands in aquatic systems are important from point of view of mobility of uranium in environment. In the present paper, we report the results of complexation of U(VI) by a model ligand for organophosphorus functionalities in humic substances (HS), that is, phenylphosphonic acid (PPA), using electro analytical techniques. The UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} has been found to form 1:1 and 1:2 complexes with mono-protonated PPA (HPhPO{sub 3}{sup -}) and 1:1 complex with non-protonated PPA, (PhPO{sub 3}){sup 2-}, with the latter complex (UO{sub 2}PhPO{sub 3}) dominating over the other two species. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) were used to investigate the redox behavior of UO{sub 2}PhPO{sub 3} species and to explore the kinetics of its reduction by evaluating heterogeneous electron-transfer kinetic (D, k{sub s} and α) parameters. The diffusion coefficient (D) value was found to be 6.76 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} and 5.03 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} at pH 5 and 3, respectively, with rate constant, k{sub s}=0.304 x 10{sup -3} cm/s. Using the DeFord and Hume formalism the stability constant (log β) of UO{sub 2}PhPO{sub 3} was calculated to be (6.98±0.12), which is in agreement with the literature data. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) studies corroborated the existence of UO{sub 2}PhPO{sub 3} complex.

  13. Tracer kinetics of 15-(ortho-123/131I-phenyl)-pentadecanoic acid (oPPA) and 15-(para-123/131I-phenyl)-pentadecanoic acid (pPPA) in animals and man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, K.P.; Geuting, B.; Grossmann, K.; Vester, E.; Loesse, B.A.; Antar, M.A.; Machulla, H.J.; Feinendegen, L.E. (Nuclear Research Center, Juelich (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-10-01

    The human myocardium retains oPPA as opposed to pPPA. Therefore turnover of oPPA was compared with that of pPPA in rat hearts and in man, the latter by using substrates double-labeled with 123/131I and 14C. Moreover, substrate binding to coenzyme-A was tested in vitro. In rats, oPPA remained mainly in the pool of free fatty acids, as opposed to pPPA, which was metabolized by mitochondrial beta-oxidation. Binding to coenzyme-A at maximum was 62% for oPPA, 81% for pPPA and 90% for palmitic acid. In man, after i.v. and intracoronary injection of double-labeled oPPA, the two radionuclides reappeared together in venous blood and in coronary sinus respectively, in an unchanged ratio but at a significantly lower rate than with pPPA. It can be concluded that oPPA is bound to coenzyme-A and is retained in the cytosolic lipid pool, while pPPA is metabolized by mitochondrial beta-oxidation. A dual-tracer application of oPPA and pPPA has the potential of being a specific probe for the function of the carnitine shuttle.

  14. Generalization and Maintenance of Treatment Gains in Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA): A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadório, Inês; Lousada, Marisa; Martins, Paula; Figueiredo, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cognitive-linguistic treatments and interventions targeting communication have been developed within the context of primary progressive aphasia (PPA), however knowledge about the scope of generalization and maintenance of therapy gains considering PPA subtypes remains scarce and awaits systematic investigation. Aims: To analyse the…

  15. Grammatical production deficits in PPA: Relating narrative and structured task performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Barbieri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Grammatical production impairments in primary progressive aphasia (PPA have been investigated using structured language tasks and analysis of narrative language samples (for review see Thompson & Mack, 2014; Wilson et al., 2012. However, little research has examined the relationship between them in PPA. Whereas structured tasks often assess production accuracy at different levels of syntactic complexity (e.g., Thompson et al., 2013, narrative measures typically assess overall lexical and grammatical usage (e.g., % grammatical sentences; noun-to-verb ratio, with lesser emphasis on complexity. The present study investigated the relationship between narrative measures of grammatical production and performance on structured language tests in the domains of syntax, verb morphology, and verb-argument structure (VAS. Materials and methods Data from 101 individuals with PPA were included. Participants completed a test battery including the Northwestern Assessment of Verbs and Sentences (NAVS, Thompson, 2011, the Northwestern Assessment of Verb Inflection (NAVI, Lee & Thompson, experimental version and the Northwestern Anagram Test (NAT, Thompson, Weintraub, & Mesulam, 2012. Grammatical production deficits were quantified as follows: for syntax, accuracy of non-canonical sentence production on the NAVS Sentence Production Priming Test (SPPT and the NAT; for morphology, the accuracy on finite verbs on the NAVI; for VAS, the accuracy of sentences produced with 2- and 3-argument verbs on the NAVS Argument Structure Production Test (ASPT. Cinderella narrative samples were analyzed using the Northwestern Narrative Language Analysis system (e.g., Thompson et al., 2012. For syntax, complexity was measured by the ratio of syntactically complex to simple sentences produced, whereas accuracy was indexed by computing the proportion of words with a locally grammatical lexical category. Morphological complexity was measured by mean number of verb

  16. Online Sentence Comprehension in PPA: Verb-Based Integration and Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E Mack

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Impaired language comprehension is frequently observed in primary progressive aphasia (PPA. Word comprehension deficits are characteristic of the semantic variant (PPA-S whereas sentence comprehension deficits are more prevalent in the agrammatic (PPA-G and logopenic (PPA-L variants (Amici et al., 2007; Gorno-Tempini et al., 2011; Thompson et al., 2013. Word and sentence comprehension deficits have also been shown to have distinct neural substrates in PPA (Mesulam, Thompson, Weintraub, & Rogalski, in press. However, little is known about the relationship between word and sentence comprehension processes in PPA, specifically how words are accessed, combined, and used to predict upcoming elements within a sentence. A previous study demonstrated that listeners with stroke-induced agrammatic aphasia rapidly access verb meanings and use them to semantically integrate verb-arguments; however, they show deficits in using verb meanings predictively (Mack, Ji, & Thompson, 2013. The present study tested whether listeners with PPA are able to access verb meanings and to use this information to integrate and predict verb-arguments. Methods. Fifteen adults with PPA (8 with PPA-G, 3 with PPA-L, and 4 with PPA-S and ten age-matched controls participated in two eyetracking experiments. In both experiments, participants heard sentences with restrictive verbs that were semantically compatible with only one object in a four-picture visual array (e.g., eat when the array included a cake and three non-edible objects and unrestrictive verbs (e.g., move that were compatible with all four objects. The verb-based integration experiment tested access to verb meaning and its effects on integration of the direct object (e.g., Susan will eat/move the cake; the verb-based prediction experiment examined prediction of the direct object (e.g., Susan will eat/move the …. The dependent variable was the rate of fixations on the target picture (e.g., the cake in the

  17. The Pipeline, Portal and Archive (PPA) System for the WIYN Partial One Degree Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Jayadev

    2013-06-01

    The WIYN telescope has recently commissioned the partial One Degree Imager (pODI), which has already demonstrated very high image quality over a wide field. The PPA system was envisioned as the transport, archiving, reduction and discovery system for the complex and high-volume data from this instrument. The building blocks of the PPA are a high-speed transport conduit from the WIYN Observatory to Indiana where the archive resides, a pipeline data reduction system running on an NSF super computing facility (XSEDE) and a data access and discovery Portal. In many ways, the PPA is a forerunner of data systems for the extremely large data from the mega-surveys envisaged for the future. PPA has been designed and executed jointly by the WIYN partnership and Pervasive Technologies Institute (PTI) at IU. NOAO designed the pipeline algorithms and data transport, and PTI hosts the Archive, handles XSEDE computing and developed the Portal. The PPA was deployed for the first semester (2013A) of pODI shared-risk operation with essential services in place. When complete, the PPA will offer users, in addition to advanced data visualization tools, the option of generating pipeline re-runs and a virtual Desktop for limited custom analysis of reduced data. I will describe the development and report on the current status of the PPA system.

  18. Classroom Assessment Techniques: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, Kristen; Cooper, Lori

    2014-01-01

    Effective classroom assessment techniques are directly linked to course objectives and proposed outcomes. Results within formative and summative assessments have been studied in the online learning environment as educators seek to meet objectives with respect to student success in the non-traditional setting. Online classroom assessment techniques…

  19. Solvation effects on isomeric preferences of curium(iii) complexes with multidentate phosphonopropionic acid ligands: CmH(2)PPA(2+) and CmHPPA(+) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhiji; Balasubramanian, K; Calvert, Michael G; Nitsche, Heino

    2009-10-19

    We have carried out both time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopic and computational studies on the complexes of curium(III) with multidentate Phosphonopropionic (PPA) acid ligands. A number of complexes of Cm(III) with these ligands, such as CmH(2)PPA(2+), CmHPPA(+), Cm[H(2)PPA](2)(+), and Cm[HPPA](2)(-) have been studied. Our computational studies focused on all possible isomers in the gas phase and aqueous solution so that the relative binding strengths of carboxylic versus phosphoric groups can be assessed in these multidentate systems. The solvation effects play an important role in the determination of the preferred configurations and binding propensities of carboxylate versus phosphate sites of the ligands. Our computations assess the relative strengths of single and multidentate complexes in solutions for these systems. The computed free energies of solvation explain the experimentally observed fluorescence spectra and the lifetimes of these complexes in that as more water molecules are displaced from the first hydration sphere by the ligands that bind to Cm(III), the fluorescence lifetime increases. We have found that the most stable complex for CmH(2)PPA(2+) in the aqueous phase exhibits a monodentate complex where the curium(III) is bound to the deprotonated phosphate oxygen atom. Our computations support the observed longer fluorescence lifetime of CmH(2)PPA(2+) (112 mus) compared to the free Cm(III) aquo ion (65 mus), suggesting a greater degree of H(2)O displacement from the hydration sphere. For the Cm-HPPA(+) complex, we find a tridentate form as the most stable structure which supports the observed fluorescence lifetime for the CmHPPA(+) complex (172 mus), confirming the removal of up to six water molecules from the inner hydration sphere. The relative stabilities of the complexes are found to vary substantially between the gas phase and solution, indicating a major role of solvation in the relative stabilities of these complexes.

  20. Air Quality Assessment Using Interpolation Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Awkash Kumar; Rashmi S. Patil; Anil Kumar Dikshit; Rakesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is increasing rapidly in almost all cities around the world due to increase in population. Mumbai city in India is one of the mega cities where air quality is deteriorating at a very rapid rate. Air quality monitoring stations have been installed in the city to regulate air pollution control strategies to reduce the air pollution level. In this paper, air quality assessment has been carried out over the sample region using interpolation techniques. The technique Inverse Distance...

  1. A measure of family eating habits: initial psychometric properties using the profile pattern approach (PPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klempel, Natalie; Kim, Se-Kang; Wilson, Monique; Annunziato, Rachel A

    2013-01-01

    Although it seems likely that family characteristics and eating habits are a major factor in the development of eating behaviors, there are no self-report measures that examine how individuals view their family's eating habits. Seventy-one women ages 18-22 were recruited from a private university in a large northeastern city and asked to complete a short questionnaire packet consisting of demographic questions, the newly developed Family Eating Habits Questionnaire (FEHQ) and the Eating Inventory (EI). Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the FEHQ was established. Significant associations were found between the FEHQ and the EI, indicating convergent validity for the FEHQ. Further validation was conducted using a novel statistical technique, the profile pattern approach (PPA). The results of the present study are limited by the restricted sample characteristic of a university setting. However, our findings show that the family eating habits' measure appears psychometrically sound. A future aim will be to continue validating this instrument in other samples, particularly to determine its predictive value. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Environmental Assessment Technique: An Empirical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, Jesse U., IV

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of Alexander Astin's Environmental Assessment Technique (EAT) in describing the environmental press at a large public university, California State University at Los Angeles. Results indicate that EAT is a very economical method for broadly describing aspects of a university's…

  3. Classroom assessment techniques to assess Chinese students’ sense of division

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, X.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413577805; Van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069266255; Veldhuis, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338041869

    2015-01-01

    This paper is about an explorative study of the use of classroom assessment techniques (CATs) by primary school mathematics teachers in China. Six female teachers and 216 third-grade students from two schools in Nanjing were involved. The focus was on assessing whole number arithmetic. Teachers’ use

  4. Identification of Critical Elements for Regulation of Inorganic Pyrophosphatase (PPA1 in MCF7 Breast Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipti Ranjan Mishra

    Full Text Available Cytosolic inorganic pyrophosphatase plays an important role in the cellular metabolism by hydrolyzing inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi formed as a by-product of various metabolic reactions. Inorganic pyrophosphatases are known to be associated with important functions related to the growth and development of various organisms. In humans, the expression of inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPA1 is deregulated in different types of cancer and is involved in the migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells and proliferation of ovarian cancer cells. However, the transcriptional regulation of the gene encoding PPA1 is poorly understood. To gain insights into PPA1 gene regulation, a 1217 bp of its 5'-flanking region was cloned and analyzed. The 5'-deletion analysis of the promoter revealed a 266 bp proximal promoter region exhibit most of the transcriptional activity and upon sequence analysis, three putative Sp1 binding sites were found to be present in this region. Binding of Sp1 to the PPA1 promoter was confirmed by Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA and Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assay. Importance of these binding sites was verified by site-directed mutagenesis and overexpression of Sp1 transactivates PPA1 promoter activity, upregulates protein expression and increases chromatin accessibility. p300 binds to the PPA1 promoter and stimulates Sp1 induced promoter activity. Trichostatin A (TSA, a histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor induces PPA1 promoter activity and protein expression and HAT activity of p300 was important in regulation of PPA1 expression. These results demonstrated that PPA1 is positively regulated by Sp1 and p300 coactivates Sp1 induced PPA1 promoter activity and histone acetylation/deacetylation may contribute to a local chromatin remodeling across the PPA1 promoter. Further, knockdown of PPA1 decreased colony formation and viability of MCF7 cells.

  5. Sudden Cardiac Death Due to Deficiency of the Mitochondrial Inorganic Pyrophosphatase PPA2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennedy, H.; Haack, T.B.; Hartill, V.; Matakovic, L.; Baumgartner, E.R.; Potter, H.; Mackay, R.; Alston, C.L.; O'Sullivan, S.; McFarland, R.; Connolly, G.; Gannon, C.; King, R.; Mead, S.; Crozier, I.; Chan, W.; Florkowski, C.M.; Sage, M.; Hofken, T.; Alhaddad, B.; Kremer, L.S.; Kopajtich, R.; Feichtinger, R.G.; Sperl, W.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Minet, J.C.; Dobbie, A.; Strom, T.M.; Meitinger, T.; George, P.M.; Johnson, C.A.; Taylor, R.W.; Prokisch, H.; Doudney, K.; Mayr, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    We have used whole-exome sequencing in ten individuals from four unrelated pedigrees to identify biallelic missense mutations in the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPA2) that are associated with mitochondrial disease. These individuals show a range of severity, indicating

  6. Implementasi Algoritma K-Nearest Neighbor Sebagai Pendukung Keputusan Klasifikasi Penerima Beasiswa PPA dan BBM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumarlin Sumarlin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In line with the growth in the academic field especially college, scholarship is a problem that is interesting to study. Several studies in the field of computers for the screening or classification scholarships have been carried out in the academic authorities to minimize the error in awarding scholarships. This study discusses the classification of PPA and BBM scholarships based on variables that have been determined by applying the k-nearest neighbor algorithm. The process of selecting awardees PPA and BBM requires a decision support system (DSS to help provide alternative solutions. The results of the classification system will be used as a decision in awarding scholarships to students who submit. Results of testing to measure the performance of k - nearest neighbor algorithm using cross validation method, Confusion Matrix and the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve, the accuracy obtained for PPA scholarships reached 88.33% with a value of 0.925 area under curve (AUC  dataset of 227 records, while accuracy is obtained for fuel BBM scholarships reached 90% with a value of  0.937% AUC dataset of 183 records​​, accuracy for PPA and BBM scholarships reached 85,56% and AUC value 0,958. Because AUC values ​​were in the range of 0.9 to 1.0  the method falls within the category of very good (excellent. Keywords: Decision Support System; K-nearest neighbor; Classification; Scholarship

  7. Landslide hazard assessment: recent trends and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardeshi, Sudhakar D; Autade, Sumant E; Pardeshi, Suchitra S

    2013-01-01

    Landslide hazard assessment is an important step towards landslide hazard and risk management. There are several methods of Landslide Hazard Zonation (LHZ) viz. heuristic, semi quantitative, quantitative, probabilistic and multi-criteria decision making process. However, no one method is accepted universally for effective assessment of landslide hazards. In recent years, several attempts have been made to apply different methods of LHZ and to compare results in order to find the best suited model. This paper presents the review of researches on landslide hazard mapping published in recent years. The advanced multivariate techniques are proved to be effective in spatial prediction of landslides with high degree of accuracy. Physical process based models also perform well in LHZ mapping even in the areas with poor database. Multi-criteria decision making approach also play significant role in determining relative importance of landslide causative factors in slope instability process. Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) are powerful tools to assess landslide hazards and are being used extensively in landslide researches since last decade. Aerial photographs and high resolution satellite data are useful in detection, mapping and monitoring landslide processes. GIS based LHZ models helps not only to map and monitor landslides but also to predict future slope failures. The advancements in Geo-spatial technologies have opened the doors for detailed and accurate assessment of landslide hazards.

  8. Spelling rehabilitation using transcranial direct current (tDCS in primary progressive aphasia (PPA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantine Frangakis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spelling impairments are one of the first deficits that occur early in PPA and can usually predict the variant of PPA in which the patient may progress (Sepelyak et al., 2011. PPA is a neurodegenerative disease that affects people relatively early in life (between 55-65 years and therefore it is important to find ways to alleviate the symptoms or impede the degree of degeneration. We present and discuss new data indicating that a neuromodulatory treatment, using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS combined with a spelling intervention, shows promise for maintaining or even improving language abilities in PPA. The aim of this research is to determine whether tDCS plus language therapy is more effective than language therapy alone in treating written language deficits in PPA. Methods: Eight PPA participants underwent anodal tDCS or sham plus spelling intervention in a randomized order using a within-subject cross-over design. They were evaluated before, after, and at 2 weeks and 2 months post-intervention. Spelling intervention varied for each participant according to the main spelling deficit: 3 patients had phoneme-to-grapheme conversion (PGC intervention, 2 had lexical intervention and 3 had advanced PGC intervention (combined with written fluency and PGC practice. Four more patients have already finished the first period of stimulations (ether sham or tDCS and all their other sessions and evaluations will be completed in the next couple months. Analyses-Results: We analyzed the existing set of full data using both within-subject analyses (McNemar tests and across-subjects analyses while taking into account carry-over effects. We evaluated therapy effects by the Generalized Estimating Equation approach (Liang & Zeger, 1986. All participants showed improvement in spelling after spelling intervention in trained items (with either sham or tDCS. There was, however, a significant improvement for untrained items only in the t

  9. Classification and clinicoradiologic features of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) and apraxia of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, Hugo; Duffy, Joseph R; Whitwell, Jennifer L; Strand, Edythe A; Machulda, Mary M; Schwarz, Christopher G; Reid, Robert I; Spychalla, Anthony J; Senjem, Matthew L; Jones, David T; Lowe, Val; Jack, Clifford R; Josephs, Keith A

    2015-08-01

    The consensus criteria for the diagnosis and classification of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) have served as an important tool in studying this group of disorders. However, a large proportion of patients remain unclassifiable whilst others simultaneously meet criteria for multiple subtypes. We prospectively evaluated a large cohort of patients with degenerative aphasia and/or apraxia of speech using multidisciplinary clinical assessments and multimodal imaging. Blinded diagnoses were made using operational definitions with important differences compared to the consensus criteria. Of the 130 included patients, 40 were diagnosed with progressive apraxia of speech (PAOS), 12 with progressive agrammatic aphasia, 9 with semantic dementia, 52 with logopenic progressive aphasia, and 4 with progressive fluent aphasia, while 13 were unclassified. The PAOS and progressive fluent aphasia groups were least impaired. Performance on repetition and sentence comprehension was especially poor in the logopenic group. The semantic and progressive fluent aphasia groups had prominent anomia, but only semantic subjects had loss of word meaning and object knowledge. Distinct patterns of grey matter loss and white matter changes were found in all groups compared to controls. PAOS subjects had bilateral frontal grey matter loss, including the premotor and supplementary motor areas, and bilateral frontal white matter involvement. The agrammatic group had more widespread, predominantly left sided grey matter loss and white matter abnormalities. Semantic subjects had bitemporal grey matter loss and white matter changes, including the uncinate and inferior occipitofrontal fasciculi, whereas progressive fluent subjects only had left sided temporal involvement. Logopenic subjects had diffuse and bilateral grey matter loss and diffusion tensor abnormalities, maximal in the posterior temporal region. A diagnosis of logopenic aphasia was strongly associated with being amyloid positive (46

  10. Investigating the possibility of a syntactic impairment in the semantic variant of PPA using a constrained production task: Preliminary findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Cupit

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (svPPA, syntactic skills are generally thought to be preserved, while in the non-fluent variant (nfvPPA syntactic impairment is a core diagnostic feature (Gorno-Tempini et al., 2011. There are, however, some indications in the literature that syntactic processing may not be entirely normal in svPPA. Most studies of syntactic production in svPPA have used unconstrained tasks and have found no syntactic impairment (e.g., Bird et al., 2000; Kave et al., 2007. In the two published studies that have found a syntactic impairment in svPPA, one used a constrained task (Benedet et al., 2006, and the other (Meteyard & Patterson, 2009 did not. However, the authors of the latter article suggested that the observed syntactic errors were subtle. They also suggested that a syntactic impairment in svPPA might not be observed in spontaneous language samples due to an overreliance on simpler structures. In the current study, we used a constrained sentence production task to compare the syntactic abilities of individuals with nfvPPA, svPPA and healthy controls longitudinally, to investigate the existence of a syntactic impairment in the different PPA variants. We predicted that by using a constrained task we would observe a syntactic impairment in both variants of PPA. We tested 18 participants with nfvPPA, 13 with svPPA and 23 control participants. They were tested up to three separate times, with approximately one year between sessions. Groups were matched on age and years of education. The patient groups were matched on Mini Mental State Examination score (Folstein, Folstein & McHugh, 1975 and estimated time post onset of initial symptoms, but the nfvPPA group scored higher than the svPPA group on the Boston Naming Test (Kaplan, Goodglass, & Weintraub, 2001. We used the sentence production task from Caplan and Hanna (1998 to elicit active, passive, dative and dative-passive sentences. A mixed ANOVA (Group X

  11. Air Quality Assessment Using Interpolation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awkash Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is increasing rapidly in almost all cities around the world due to increase in population. Mumbai city in India is one of the mega cities where air quality is deteriorating at a very rapid rate. Air quality monitoring stations have been installed in the city to regulate air pollution control strategies to reduce the air pollution level. In this paper, air quality assessment has been carried out over the sample region using interpolation techniques. The technique Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW of Geographical Information System (GIS has been used to perform interpolation with the help of concentration data on air quality at three locations of Mumbai for the year 2008. The classification was done for the spatial and temporal variation in air quality levels for Mumbai region. The seasonal and annual variations of air quality levels for SO2, NOx and SPM (Suspended Particulate Matter have been focused in this study. Results show that SPM concentration always exceeded the permissible limit of National Ambient Air Quality Standard. Also, seasonal trends of pollutant SPM was low in monsoon due rain fall. The finding of this study will help to formulate control strategies for rational management of air pollution and can be used for many other regions.

  12. Characterization of Carbon Particulates in the Exit Flow of a Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert D.; Meyer, Marit E.; Agui, Juan H.; Berger, Gordon M.; Vijayakumar, R.; Abney, Morgan B.; Greenwood, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    The ISS presently recovers oxygen from crew respiration via a Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) that utilizes the Sabatier chemical process to reduce captured carbon dioxide to methane (CH4) and water. In order to recover more of the hydrogen from the methane and increase oxygen recovery, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is investigating a technology, plasma pyrolysis, to convert the methane to acetylene. The Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (or PPA), achieves 90% or greater conversion efficiency, but a small amount of solid carbon particulates are generated as a side product and must be filtered before the acetylene is removed and the hydrogen-rich gas stream is recycled back to the CRA. In this work, we present the experimental results of an initial characterization of the carbon particulates in the PPA exit gas stream. We also present several potential options to remove these carbon particulates via carbon traps and filters to minimize resupply mass and required downtime for regeneration.

  13. Non-Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) Options for Financing Solar Deployment at Universities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-10-01

    Financing solar using power purchase agreements (PPAs) has facilitated solar deployment of more than 100 megawatts (MW) at universities--as compared to 50 MW facilitated by financing models not using PPAs. This brochure, which overviews existing financing models and funding mechanisms available for solar procurement, focuses on non-PPA financing models. For more information on solar deployment at universities using PPAs, refer to Using Power Purchase Agreements for Solar Deployment at Universities.

  14. GR@PPA 2.7 event generator for pp/pp¯ collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuno, S.; Kaneko, T.; Kurihara, Y.; Odaka, S.; Kato, K.

    2006-11-01

    The GR@PPA event generator has been updated to version 2.7. This distribution provides event generators for V ( W or Z) + jets (⩽4 jets), VV+jets (⩽2 jets) and QCD multi-jet (⩽4 jets) production processes at pp and pp¯ collisions, in addition to the four bottom quark productions implemented in our previous work (GR@PPA_4b). Also included are the top-pair and top-pair + jet production processes, where the correlation between the decay products are fully reproduced at the tree level. Namely, processes up to seven-body productions can be simulated, based on ordinary Feynman diagram calculations at the tree level. In this version, the GR@PPA framework and the process dependent matrix-element routines are separately provided. This makes it easier to add further new processes, and allows users to make a choice of processes to implement. This version also has several new features to handle complicated multi-body production processes. A systematic way to combine many subprocesses to a single base-subprocess has been introduced, and a new method has been adopted to calculate the color factors of complicated QCD processes. They speed up the calculation significantly. Program summaryTitle of program:GR@PPA (v2.7) Catalogue identifier:ADRH_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADRH_v2_0 Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Operating system under which the program has been tested:UNIX Programming language used:Fortran77 Other CPC library programs required:PYTHIA, HERWIG, BASES, SPRING Memory required to execute with typical data:56.5 kwords for an integration, 74.6 kwords for an event generation Number of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 570 587 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:143 327 Distribution format:tar.gz Nature of physical problem:The multi-legs interaction processes have become more important with increasing the colliding energy available

  15. KaPPA-view: a web-based analysis tool for integration of transcript and metabolite data on plant metabolic pathway maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokimatsu, Toshiaki; Sakurai, Nozomu; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Nishitani, Kazuhiko; Koyama, Tanetoshi; Umezawa, Toshiaki; Misawa, Norihiko; Saito, Kazuki; Shibata, Daisuke

    2005-07-01

    The application of DNA array technology and chromatographic separation techniques coupled with mass spectrometry to transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses in plants has resulted in the generation of considerable quantitative data related to transcription and metabolism. The integration of "omic" data is one of the major concerns associated with research into identifying gene function. Thus, we developed a Web-based tool, KaPPA-View, for representing quantitative data for individual transcripts and/or metabolites on plant metabolic pathway maps. We prepared a set of comprehensive metabolic pathway maps for Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and depicted these graphically in Scalable Vector Graphics format. Individual transcripts assigned to a reaction are represented symbolically together with the symbols of the reaction and metabolites on metabolic pathway maps. Using quantitative values for transcripts and/or metabolites submitted by the user as Comma Separated Value-formatted text through the Internet, the KaPPA-View server inserts colored symbols corresponding to a defined metabolic process at that site on the maps and returns them to the user's browser. The server also provides information on transcripts and metabolites in pop-up windows. To demonstrate the process, we describe the dataset obtained for transgenic plants that overexpress the PAP1 gene encoding a MYB transcription factor on metabolic pathway maps. The presentation of data in this manner is useful for viewing metabolic data in a way that facilitates the discussion of gene function.

  16. KaPPA-View. A Web-Based Analysis Tool for Integration of Transcript and Metabolite Data on Plant Metabolic Pathway Maps1[w

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokimatsu, Toshiaki; Sakurai, Nozomu; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Nishitani, Kazuhiko; Koyama, Tanetoshi; Umezawa, Toshiaki; Misawa, Norihiko; Saito, Kazuki; Shibata, Daisuke

    2005-01-01

    The application of DNA array technology and chromatographic separation techniques coupled with mass spectrometry to transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses in plants has resulted in the generation of considerable quantitative data related to transcription and metabolism. The integration of “omic” data is one of the major concerns associated with research into identifying gene function. Thus, we developed a Web-based tool, KaPPA-View, for representing quantitative data for individual transcripts and/or metabolites on plant metabolic pathway maps. We prepared a set of comprehensive metabolic pathway maps for Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and depicted these graphically in Scalable Vector Graphics format. Individual transcripts assigned to a reaction are represented symbolically together with the symbols of the reaction and metabolites on metabolic pathway maps. Using quantitative values for transcripts and/or metabolites submitted by the user as Comma Separated Value-formatted text through the Internet, the KaPPA-View server inserts colored symbols corresponding to a defined metabolic process at that site on the maps and returns them to the user's browser. The server also provides information on transcripts and metabolites in pop-up windows. To demonstrate the process, we describe the dataset obtained for transgenic plants that overexpress the PAP1 gene encoding a MYB transcription factor on metabolic pathway maps. The presentation of data in this manner is useful for viewing metabolic data in a way that facilitates the discussion of gene function. PMID:16010003

  17. Reliability and Assessment Techniques on Ground Excavation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanga Tangchawal

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Planning and assessment on the excavation of the brittle materials (soil or rock can be done by using the machinery and/or explosives. The reliability assessment has been proposed to predict the failure of ground during excavation process. The stability planning on cutting soil (rock face by machinery can be compared between the deterministic and the statistical method. The risk of using explosives for rock excavation has to concern on the damage and environmental impacts after blasting events.

  18. In Vitro Toxicity Assessment Technique for Volatile ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is tasked with evaluating the human health, environmental, and wildlife effects of over 80,000 chemicals registered for use in the environment and commerce. The challenge is that sparse chemical data exists; traditional toxicity testing methods are slow, costly, involve animal studies, and cannot keep up with a chemical registry that typically grows by at least 1000 chemicals every year. In recent years, High Throughput Screening (HTS) has been used in order to prioritize chemicals for traditional toxicity screening or to complement traditional toxicity studies. HTS is an in vitro approach of rapidly assaying a large number of chemicals for biochemical activity using robotics and automation. However, no method currently exists for screening volatile chemicals such as air pollutants in a HTS fashion. Additionally, significant uncertainty regarding in vitro to in in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) remains. An approach to bridge the IVIVE gap and the current lack of ability to screen volatile chemicals in a HTS fashion is by using a probe molecule (PrM) technique. The proposed technique uses chemicals with empirical human pharmacokinetic data as PrMs to study toxicity of molecules with no known data for gas-phase analysis. We are currently studying the xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme CYP2A6 using transfected BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cell line. The CYP2A6 pathway activity is studied by the formation of cotinine from nicot

  19. ASSESSING 3D PHOTOGRAMMETRY TECHNIQUES IN CRANIOMETRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Moshobane

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphometrics (the measurement of morphological features has been revolutionized by the creation of new techniques to study how organismal shape co-varies with several factors such as ecophenotypy. Ecophenotypy refers to the divergence of phenotypes due to developmental changes induced by local environmental conditions, producing distinct ecophenotypes. None of the techniques hitherto utilized could explicitly address organismal shape in a complete biological form, i.e. three-dimensionally. This study investigates the use of the commercial software, Photomodeler Scanner® (PMSc® three-dimensional (3D modelling software to produce accurate and high-resolution 3D models. Henceforth, the modelling of Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis and Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella skulls which could allow for 3D measurements. Using this method, sixteen accurate 3D skull models were produced and five metrics were determined. The 3D linear measurements were compared to measurements taken manually with a digital caliper. In addition, repetitive measurements were recorded by varying researchers to determine repeatability. To allow for comparison straight line measurements were taken with the software, assuming that close accord with all manually measured features would illustrate the model’s accurate replication of reality. Measurements were not significantly different demonstrating that realistic 3D skull models can be successfully produced to provide a consistent basis for craniometrics, with the additional benefit of allowing non-linear measurements if required.

  20. Talking Drawings as a University Classroom Assessment Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Victoria Groves; Weishaar, Mary Konya

    2008-01-01

    Increased focus on assessment of student learning, within college classrooms, has lead many professors to routinely employ classroom assessment techniques as a means to make adjustments in teaching during the instructional process. This article describes a technique, Talking Drawings, which was developed by a high school teacher as a teaching…

  1. Intelligent Techniques for Power Systems Vulnerability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. El-Sharkawi

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available With power grids considered national security matters, the reliable operation of the system is of top priority to utilities.  This concern is amplified by the utility’s deregulation, which increases the system’s openness while simultaneously decreasing the applied degree of control.  Vulnerability Assessment (VA deals with the power system’s ability to continue to provide service in case of an unforeseen catastrophic contingency.  Such contingencies may include unauthorized tripping, breaks in communication links, sabotage or intrusion by external agents, human errors, natural calamities and faults.  These contingencies could lead to a disruption of service to part or all of the system.  The service disruption is known as outage or blackout.  The paper outlines an approach by which feature extraction and boundary tracking can be implemented to achieve on line vulnerability assessment.

  2. Assessment of Jordanian salt using nuclear techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Saleh, K.A.; Arafah, D.E.; Jabr, I.J.; Saleh, N.S.

    1987-09-01

    Elemental study and concentration determinations have been conducted on Jordanian crude salt using Rutherford Back-Scattering (RBS) and X-ray Fluorescence (SRF) spectrometry techniques. Analysis have also been carried out on different purified salt samples available in the local market. The concentration of some elements, in particular bromide, content and its significance on human health and nutrition is discussed. Results reveal relatively high traces of elemental concentrations in crude salt. For example, bromide concentration ranges from 178 to 384 ppm in comparison to a tolerance limit of 30 ppm set by the Unites States Food and Drug Administration (USDA) and other International Agencies like FAO/WHO. It is suggested that refining crude salt may result in a reduction of bromide concentration and other traces considerably, thus making it feasible for human consumption.

  3. Solar PV Project Financing: Regulatory and Legislative Challenges for Third-Party PPA System Owners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kollins, K.; Speer, B.; Cory, K.

    2009-11-01

    Residential and commercial end users of electricity who want to generate electricity using on-site solar photovoltaic (PV) systems face challenging initial and O&M costs. The third-party ownership power purchase agreement (PPA) finance model addresses these and other challenges. It allows developers to build and own PV systems on customers? properties and sell power back to customers. However, third-party electricity sales commonly face five regulatory challenges. The first three challenges involve legislative or regulatory definitions of electric utilities, power generation equipment, and providers of electric services. These definitions may compel third-party owners of solar PV systems to comply with regulations that may be cost prohibitive. Third-party owners face an additional challenge if they may not net meter, a practice that provides significant financial incentive to owning solar PV systems. Finally, municipalities and cooperatives worry about the regulatory implications of allowing an entity to sell electricity within their service territories. This paper summarizes these challenges, when they occur, and how they have been addressed in five states. This paper also presents alternative to the third-party ownership PPA finance model, including solar leases, contractual intermediaries, standardized contract language, federal investment tax credits, clean renewable energy bonds, and waived monopoly powers.

  4. Operational Support for Instrument Stability through ODI-PPA Metadata Visualization and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M. D.; Hayashi, S.; Gopu, A.; Kotulla, R.; Harbeck, D.; Liu, W.

    2015-09-01

    Over long time scales, quality assurance metrics taken from calibration and calibrated data products can aid observatory operations in quantifying the performance and stability of the instrument, and identify potential areas of concern or guide troubleshooting and engineering efforts. Such methods traditionally require manual SQL entries, assuming the requisite metadata has even been ingested into a database. With the ODI-PPA system, QA metadata has been harvested and indexed for all data products produced over the life of the instrument. In this paper we will describe how, utilizing the industry standard Highcharts Javascript charting package with a customized AngularJS-driven user interface, we have made the process of visualizing the long-term behavior of these QA metadata simple and easily replicated. Operators can easily craft a custom query using the powerful and flexible ODI-PPA search interface and visualize the associated metadata in a variety of ways. These customized visualizations can be bookmarked, shared, or embedded externally, and will be dynamically updated as new data products enter the system, enabling operators to monitor the long-term health of their instrument with ease.

  5. Tremor: Clinical Phenomenology and Assessment Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Christopher W.; Pullman, Seth L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Tremors are among the most common movement disorders. As there can be considerable variability in the manner in which clinicians assess tremor, objective quantitative tools such as electromyography, accelerometry, and computerized, spiral analysis can be very useful in establishing a clinical diagnosis and in research settings. Methods In this review, we discuss the various methods of quantitative tremor analysis and the classification and pathogenesis of tremor. The most common pathologic tremors and an approach to the diagnosis of tremor etiology are described. Conclusions Pathologic tremors are common, and the diagnosis of underlying etiology is not always straightforward. Computerized quantitative tremor analysis is a valuable adjunct to careful clinical evaluation in distinguishing tremulous diseases from physiologic tremors, and can also help shed light on their pathogenesis. PMID:23439931

  6. The Current Status of Peer Assessment Techniques and Sociometric Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, William M.; Castellanos, Melisa; Persram, Ryan J.

    Current issues in the use of peer assessment techniques and sociometric methods are discussed. Attention is paid to the contributions of the four articles in this volume. Together these contributions point to the continual level of change and progress in these techniques. They also show that the paradigm underlying these methods has been unchanged…

  7. Assessing the Effectiveness of Credit risk Management Techniques ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One fundamental problem faced by the Microfinance industry in Ghana during the period 2003-2007 was the technique adopted for credit risk management by the Microfinance firms (MFFs). This problem prompted this deductive study which was to assess the effectiveness of the techniques adopted by the MFFs to manage ...

  8. A comparison of some range condition assessment techniques used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Techniques currently used to assess range condition in the grassland biome of Southern Africa are reviewed. These indices were then used to evaluate each method in terms of sensitivity, index interpretation and efficiency, bearing in mind the objectives of each technique. The weighted key species method and ...

  9. Semester-Long Assessment of Aseptic Technique in Microbiology Labs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Aruscavage

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Biology educators emphasize aseptic technique when teaching lab courses. Aseptic technique is very important in microbiology to ensure safety and prevent cross-contamination. Although it can be assessed throughout the semester by examining the students’ technique and observation of contamination, this tool offers a simple semester-long graded assessment of each student’s technique. The procedures allow the students to perform a quick exercise that can determine if cross-contamination occurs, thus determining if aseptic technique was observed. Instructors can quickly check for the presence of cross-contamination. After implementing this procedure, a quantifiable improvement in my students’ aseptic technique throughout the semester was observed. It was noted that between the middle and end of the semester there was a slight increase in the amount of cross-contamination but still well below the contamination observed at the beginning of the semester. This procedure was a valuable way to assess aseptic technique during the course of a semester. A search for “aseptic technique” on the American Society of Microbiology website reveals that several lab experiments and job opportunities mention the importance of aseptic technique. It is a skill that must be used for all laboratory procedures when working with microorganisms. It is important for both the safety of the students and for the proper handling of microorganisms. There are several good explanations of aseptic technique on the Internet, and the Nuffield Foundation provides a very good description of techniques (1. The goal of this project is to provide instructors with a tool to assess the aseptic technique of their students by using simple transfers of bacteria to fresh media to identify cross-contamination. When class experiments do not work students may not understand how poor aseptic technique impacted the project. This tool would work best for undergraduate students in an

  10. A review of the pre-assessment and assessment techniques used in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent years have seen the development of a large number of pre-assessment and assessment techniques for respectively identifying waste minimisation focus areas (opportunities) or options (solutions) during a waste minimisation audit. This paper critically reviews these techniques and assesses their relative merits.

  11. Specificity and sensitivity assessment of selected nasal provocation testing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Krzych-Fałta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nasal provocation testing involves an allergen-specific local reaction of the nasal mucosa to the administered allergen. Aim: To determine the most objective nasal occlusion assessment technique that could be used in nasal provocation testing. Material and methods : A total of 60 subjects, including 30 patients diagnosed with allergy to common environmental allergens and 30 healthy subjects were enrolled into the study. The method used in the study was a nasal provocation test with an allergen, with a standard dose of a control solution and an allergen (5,000 SBU/ml administered using a calibrated atomizer into both nostrils at room temperature. Early-phase nasal mucosa response in the early phase of the allergic reaction was assessed via acoustic rhinometry, optical rhinometry, nitric oxide in nasal air, and tryptase levels in the nasal lavage fluid. Results : In estimating the homogeneity of the average values, the Levene’s test was used and receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted for all the methods used for assessing the nasal provocation test with an allergen. Statistically significant results were defined for p < 0.05. Of all the objective assessment techniques, the most sensitive and characteristic ones were the optical rhinometry techniques (specificity = 1, sensitivity = 1, AUC = 1, PPV = 1, NPV = 1. Conclusions : The techniques used showed significant differences between the group of patients with allergic rhinitis and the control group. Of all the objective assessment techniques, those most sensitive and characteristic were the optical rhinometry.

  12. Reliability of Blotting Techniques to Assess Contact Lens Water Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañadas, Pilar; López-Miguel, Alberto; Gómez, Alba; López-de la Rosa, Alberto; Fernández, Itziar; González-García, María J

    2018-02-15

    To determine the reliability of wet and modified dry blotting techniques used in the gravimetric method to assess contact lens (CL) water content (WC), the accuracy of both techniques in comparison with the nominal WC, and also their agreement. We evaluated hydrated and dry CL mass values and WC using the gravimetric method in 440 daily disposable CLs. Samples assessed corresponded to Dailies Total 1, Dailies AquaComfort Plus, 1-Day Acuvue TruEye, and Biotrue ONEday. Back vertex power ranged from +3.00 diopters (D) to -6.00 D. Within-subject coefficient of variation (CVw) and intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated. Bland-Altman analysis was also performed. The modified dry blotting technique yielded significantly (P≤0.0001) higher hydrated CL mass values. The wet blotting technique provided significantly (P≤0.04) better consistency than the modified dry one. Values of CVw for wet and modified dry blotting techniques ranged from 1.2% to 2.1% and from 3.7% to 5.4%, respectively. As for dry CL mass values, CVw values were not significantly different (P≥0.05) between wet (range: 1.1%-1.9%) and dry (range: 1.0%-5.1%) blotting techniques, except for Dailies AquaComfort Plus (P=0.03). Bland-Altman analysis showed poor agreement between the techniques. The wet blotting technique yielded WC values close (around 1%) to nominal ones, in contrast to modified dry blotting technique (≥2.5%). The wet blotting technique is not only more reliable than the modified dry one when obtaining hydrated CL mass but also provides more accurate nominal WC measurements. Agreement between the techniques was poor.

  13. Current MRI techniques for the assessment of renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Takamune; Wang, Feng; Quarles, Christopher C

    2015-05-01

    Over the past decade, a variety of MRI methods have been developed and applied to many kidney diseases. These MRI techniques show great promise, enabling the noninvasive assessment of renal structure, function and injury in individuals. This review will highlight the current applications of functional MRI techniques for the assessment of renal disease and discuss future directions. Many pathological (functional and structural) changes or factors in renal disease can be assessed by advanced MRI techniques. These include renal vascular structure and function (contrast-enhanced MRI, arterial spin labelling), tissue oxygenation (blood oxygen level dependent MRI), renal tissue injury and fibrosis (diffusion or magnetization transfer imaging, magnetic resonance elastography), renal metabolism (chemical exchange saturation transfer, spectroscopic imaging), nephron endowment (cationic-contrast imaging), sodium concentration (23Na-MRI) and molecular events (targeted-contrast imaging). Current advances in MRI techniques have enabled the noninvasive investigation of renal disease. Further development, evaluation and application of the MRI techniques should facilitate better understanding and assessment of renal disease, and the development of new imaging biomarkers, enabling the intensified treatment of high-risk populations and a more rapid interrogation of novel therapeutic agents and protocols.

  14. Junior College Transfers and the Environmental Assessment Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihrig, James P.

    This study compared two subgroups at the University of Missouri: the junior college transfers and the native students. The Environmental Assessment Technique (EAT) was used, with its personal orientation classifications of realistic, scientific, social, conventional, enterprising, and artistic. The major for each of the subjects was categorized by…

  15. Alternative Assessment Techniques for Blended and Online Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchfield, Brenda C.; Dempsey, John V.

    2013-01-01

    Alternative assessment techniques are essential for increasing student learning in blended and online courses. Rather than simply answer multiple-choice questions, students can choose activities in an academic contract. By using a contract, students will be active participants in their own learning. Contracts add a dimension of authenticity to…

  16. Coping with uncertainty in environmental impact assessments: Open techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chivatá Cárdenas, Ibsen; Halman, Johannes I.M.

    2016-01-01

    Uncertainty is virtually unavoidable in environmental impact assessments (EIAs). From the literature related to treating and managing uncertainty, we have identified specific techniques for coping with uncertainty in EIAs. Here, we have focused on basic steps in the decision-making process that take

  17. Refinement of the Nanoparticle Emission Assessment Technique into the Nanomaterial Exposure Assessment Technique (NEAT 2.0).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastlake, Adrienne C; Beaucham, Catherine; Martinez, Kenneth F; Dahm, Matthew M; Sparks, Christopher; Hodson, Laura L; Geraci, Charles L

    2016-09-01

    Engineered nanomaterial emission and exposure characterization studies have been completed at more than 60 different facilities by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). These experiences have provided NIOSH the opportunity to refine an earlier published technique, the Nanoparticle Emission Assessment Technique (NEAT 1.0), into a more comprehensive technique for assessing worker and workplace exposures to engineered nanomaterials. This change is reflected in the new name Nanomaterial Exposure Assessment Technique (NEAT 2.0) which distinguishes it from NEAT 1.0. NEAT 2.0 places a stronger emphasis on time-integrated, filter-based sampling (i.e., elemental mass analysis and particle morphology) in the worker's breathing zone (full shift and task specific) and area samples to develop job exposure matrices. NEAT 2.0 includes a comprehensive assessment of emissions at processes and job tasks, using direct-reading instruments (i.e., particle counters) in data-logging mode to better understand peak emission periods. Evaluation of worker practices, ventilation efficacy, and other engineering exposure control systems and risk management strategies serve to allow for a comprehensive exposure assessment.

  18. Monitoramento e avaliação de resultados dos programas governamentais delineados no PPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Kraus dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo:Este artigo apresenta uma proposição metodológica de monitoramento físico e financeiro dos programas e ações governamentais delineados nos Planos Plurianuais (PPA do Governo do Estado de Santa Catarina (SC. Trata-se de uma pesquisa aplicada, de caráter descritivo, com abordagem quali-quantitativa. Para tanto, utilizaram-se de procedimentos técnicos de uma pesquisa-ação na Secretaria de Estado da Fazenda (SC, por meio de observação sistemática e de entrevistas com gestores. A pesquisa resultou em um método de desdobramento do produto da ação orçamentária em bens e serviços específicos, passíveis de monitoramento nas dimensões físicas e financeiras. No entanto, de acordo com os gestores catarinenses, a confiabilidade das informações físicas dos bens e serviços continua sendo o maior desafio do método.

  19. Nonfluent/Agrammatic PPA with In-Vivo Cortical Amyloidosis and Pick’s Disease Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Caso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of biomarkers in predicting pathological findings in the frontotemporal dementia (FTD clinical spectrum disorders is still being explored. We present comprehensive, prospective longitudinal data for a 66 year old, right-handed female who met current criteria for the nonfluent/agrammatic variant of primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA. She first presented with a 3-year history of progressive speech and language impairment mainly characterized by severe apraxia of speech. Neuropsychological and general motor functions remained relatively spared throughout the clinical course. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM showed selective cortical atrophy of the left posterior inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and underlying insula that worsened over time, extending along the left premotor strip. Five years after her first evaluation, she developed mild memory impairment and underwent PET-FDG and PiB scans that showed left frontal hypometabolism and cortical amyloidosis. Three years later (11 years from first symptom, post-mortem histopathological evaluation revealed Pick's disease, with severe degeneration of left IFG, mid-insula, and precentral gyrus. Alzheimer’s disease (AD (CERAD frequent/Braak Stage V was also detected. This patient demonstrates that biomarkers indicating brain amyloidosis should not be considered conclusive evidence that AD pathology accounts for a typical FTD clinical/anatomical syndrome.

  20. PROYECCIÓN DE LA TASA DE CAMBIO DE COLOMBIA BAJO CONDICIONES DE PPA: EVIDENCIA EMPÍRICA USANDO VAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CATHERINE FAYAD HERNÁNDEZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo evalúa la proyección de la tasa de cambio (peso colombiano/dólar con datos de 1995 a 2005 de Colombia a través del modelo de Tasa de Cambio de Paridad de Poder Adquisitivo (TCPPA. Se realizó una comparación del desempeño en la muestra (reservando los datos históricos de 2001 a 2005 de las proyecciones de modelos que utilizan la PPA, con las de un modelo de Vectores Autorregresivos (VAR. El método VAR tiene mejor desempeño para predecir la tasa de cambio nominal, de acuerdo con los indicadores RMSE, MAE y U-Theil, mientras que de acuerdo con el MAPE en el primer y segundo mes pronosticado, el VAR tiene peor desempeño que los modelos que utilizan PPA.

  1. ODI - Portal, Pipeline, and Archive (ODI-PPA): a web-based astronomical compute archive, visualization, and analysis service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopu, Arvind; Hayashi, Soichi; Young, Michael D.; Harbeck, Daniel R.; Boroson, Todd; Liu, Wilson; Kotulla, Ralf; Shaw, Richard; Henschel, Robert; Rajagopal, Jayadev; Stobie, Elizabeth; Knezek, Patricia; Martin, R. Pierre; Archbold, Kevin

    2014-07-01

    The One Degree Imager-Portal, Pipeline, and Archive (ODI-PPA) is a web science gateway that provides astronomers a modern web interface that acts as a single point of access to their data, and rich computational and visualization capabilities. Its goal is to support scientists in handling complex data sets, and to enhance WIYN Observatory's scientific productivity beyond data acquisition on its 3.5m telescope. ODI-PPA is designed, with periodic user feedback, to be a compute archive that has built-in frameworks including: (1) Collections that allow an astronomer to create logical collations of data products intended for publication, further research, instructional purposes, or to execute data processing tasks (2) Image Explorer and Source Explorer, which together enable real-time interactive visual analysis of massive astronomical data products within an HTML5 capable web browser, and overlaid standard catalog and Source Extractor-generated source markers (3) Workflow framework which enables rapid integration of data processing pipelines on an associated compute cluster and users to request such pipelines to be executed on their data via custom user interfaces. ODI-PPA is made up of several light-weight services connected by a message bus; the web portal built using Twitter/Bootstrap, AngularJS and jQuery JavaScript libraries, and backend services written in PHP (using the Zend framework) and Python; it leverages supercomputing and storage resources at Indiana University. ODI-PPA is designed to be reconfigurable for use in other science domains with large and complex datasets, including an ongoing offshoot project for electron microscopy data.

  2. Coping with uncertainty in environmental impact assessments: Open techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas, Ibsen C., E-mail: c.cardenas@utwente.nl [IceBridge Research Institutea, Universiteit Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Halman, Johannes I.M., E-mail: J.I.M.Halman@utwente.nl [Universiteit Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2016-09-15

    Uncertainty is virtually unavoidable in environmental impact assessments (EIAs). From the literature related to treating and managing uncertainty, we have identified specific techniques for coping with uncertainty in EIAs. Here, we have focused on basic steps in the decision-making process that take place within an EIA setting. More specifically, we have identified uncertainties involved in each decision-making step and discussed the extent to which these can be treated and managed in the context of an activity or project that may have environmental impacts. To further demonstrate the relevance of the techniques identified, we have examined the extent to which the EIA guidelines currently used in Colombia consider and provide guidance on managing the uncertainty involved in these assessments. Some points that should be considered in order to provide greater robustness in impact assessments in Colombia have been identified. These include the management of stakeholder values, the systematic generation of project options, and their associated impacts as well as the associated management actions, and the evaluation of uncertainties and assumptions. We believe that the relevant and specific techniques reported here can be a reference for future evaluations of other EIA guidelines in different countries. - Highlights: • uncertainty is unavoidable in environmental impact assessments, EIAs; • we have identified some open techniques to EIAs for treating and managing uncertainty in these assessments; • points for improvement that should be considered in order to provide greater robustness in EIAs in Colombia have been identified; • the paper provides substantiated a reference for possible examinations of EIAs guidelines in other countries.

  3. Objective techniques for psychological assessment, phase 2. [techniques for measuring human performance during space flight stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortz, E. C.; Saur, A. J.; Nowlis, D. P.; Kendall, M. P.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of an initial experiment in a research program designed to develop objective techniques for psychological assessment of individuals and groups participating in long-duration space flights. Specifically examined is the rationale for utilizing measures of attention as an objective assessment technique. Subjects participating in the experiment performed various tasks (eg, playing matrix games which appeared on a display screen along with auditory stimuli). The psychophysiological reactions of the subjects were measured and are given. Previous research of various performance and psychophysiological methods of measuring attention is also discussed. The experiment design (independent and dependent variables) and apparatus (computers and display devices) are described and shown. Conclusions and recommendations are presented.

  4. Performance assessment techniques for groundwater recovery and treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, G.L. [Environmental Resources Management, Inc., Exton, PA (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Groundwater recovery and treatment (pump and treat systems) continue to be the most commonly selected remedial technology for groundwater restoration and protection programs at hazardous waste sites and RCRA facilities nationwide. Implementing a typical groundwater recovery and treatment system includes the initial assessment of groundwater quality, characterizing aquifer hydrodynamics, recovery system design, system installation, testing, permitting, and operation and maintenance. This paper focuses on methods used to assess the long-term efficiency of a pump and treat system. Regulatory agencies and industry alike are sensitive to the need for accurate assessment of the performance and success of groundwater recovery systems for contaminant plume abatement and aquifer restoration. Several assessment methods are available to measure the long-term performance of a groundwater recovery system. This paper presents six assessment techniques: degree of compliance with regulatory agency agreement (Consent Order of Record of Decision), hydraulic demonstration of system performance, contaminant mass recovery calculation, system design and performance comparison, statistical evaluation of groundwater quality and preferably, integration of the assessment methods. Applying specific recovery system assessment methods depends upon the type, amount, and quality of data available. Use of an integrated approach is encouraged to evaluate the success of a groundwater recovery and treatment system. The methods presented in this paper are for engineers and corporate management to use when discussing the effectiveness of groundwater remediation systems with their environmental consultant. In addition, an independent (third party) system evaluation is recommended to be sure that a recovery system operates efficiently and with minimum expense.

  5. Induction, immunochemical identity and immunofluorescence localization of an 80000-molecular-weight peroxisome-proliferation-associated polypeptide (polypeptide PPA-80) and peroxisomal enoyl-CoA hydratase of mouse liver and renal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalwani, Narendra D.; Reddy, M. Kumudavalli; Mangkornkanok-Mark, Mai; Reddy, Janardan K.

    1981-01-01

    The hypolipidaemic drugs methyl clofenapate, BR-931, Wy-14643 and procetofen induced a marked proliferation of peroxisomes in the parenchymal cells of liver and the proximal-convoluted-tubular epithelium of mouse kidney. The proliferation of peroxisomes was associated with 6–12-fold increase in the peroxisomal palmitoyl-CoA oxidizing capacity of the mouse liver. Enhanced activity of the peroxisomal palmitoyl-CoA oxidation system was also found in the renal-cortical homogenates of hypolipidaemic-drug-treated mice. The activity of enoyl-CoA hydratase in the mouse liver increased 30–50-fold and in the kidney cortex 3–5-fold with hypolipidaemic-drug-induced peroxisome proliferation in these tissues, and over 95% of this induced activity was found to be heat-labile peroxisomal enzyme in both organs. Sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoretic analysis of large-particle and microsomal fractions obtained from the liver and kidney cortex of mice treated with hypolipidaemic peroxisome proliferators demonstrated a substantial increase in the quantity of an 80000-mol.wt. peroxisome-proliferation-associated polypeptide (polypeptide PPA-80). The heat-labile peroxisomal enoyl-CoA hydratase was purified from the livers of mice treated with the hypolipidaemic drug methyl clofenapate; the antibodies raised against this electrophoretically homogeneous protein yielded a single immunoprecipitin band with purified mouse liver enoyl-CoA hydratase and with liver and kidney cortical extracts of normal and hypolipidaemic-drug-treated mice. These anti-(mouse liver enoyl-CoA hydratase) antibodies also cross-reacted with purified rat liver enoyl-CoA hydratase and with the polypeptide PPA-80 obtained from rat and mouse liver. Immunofluorescence studies with anti-(polypeptide PPA-80) and anti-(peroxisomal enoyl-CoA hydratase) provided visual evidence for the localization and induction of polypeptide PPA-80 and peroxisomal enoyl-CoA hydratase in the liver and kidney

  6. Risk assessment techniques with applicability in marine engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenko, E.; Panaitescu, F. V.; Panaitescu, M.

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays risk management is a carefully planned process. The task of risk management is organically woven into the general problem of increasing the efficiency of business. Passive attitude to risk and awareness of its existence are replaced by active management techniques. Risk assessment is one of the most important stages of risk management, since for risk management it is necessary first to analyze and evaluate risk. There are many definitions of this notion but in general case risk assessment refers to the systematic process of identifying the factors and types of risk and their quantitative assessment, i.e. risk analysis methodology combines mutually complementary quantitative and qualitative approaches. Purpose of the work: In this paper we will consider as risk assessment technique Fault Tree analysis (FTA). The objectives are: understand purpose of FTA, understand and apply rules of Boolean algebra, analyse a simple system using FTA, FTA advantages and disadvantages. Research and methodology: The main purpose is to help identify potential causes of system failures before the failures actually occur. We can evaluate the probability of the Top event.The steps of this analize are: the system's examination from Top to Down, the use of symbols to represent events, the use of mathematical tools for critical areas, the use of Fault tree logic diagrams to identify the cause of the Top event. Results: In the finally of study it will be obtained: critical areas, Fault tree logical diagrams and the probability of the Top event. These results can be used for the risk assessment analyses.

  7. Life-assessment technique for nuclear power plant cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartonicek, B.; Hnat, V.; Placek, V

    1998-06-01

    The condition of polymer-based cable material can be best characterized by measuring elongation at break of its insulating materials. However, it is not often possible to take sufficiently large samples for measurement with the tensile testing machine. The problem has been conveniently solved by utilizing differential scanning calorimetry technique. From the tested cable, several microsamples are taken and the oxidation induction time (OIT) is determined. For each cable which is subject to the assessment of the lifetime, the correlation of OIT with elongation at break and the correlation of elongation at break with the cable service time has to be performed. A reliable assessment of the cable lifetime depends on accuracy of these correlations. Consequently, synergistic effects well known at this time - dose rate effects and effects resulting from the different sequence of applying radiation and elevated temperature must be taken into account.

  8. Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC for a patient with a nonfluent/ agrammatic variant of PPA in the mutism stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Góral-Półrola

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction. [/b]The paper presents an example of the successful administration of the Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC system. Such an approach is of particular significance in cases of patients with speech and language deterioration, which is observed in a nonfluent/agrammatic variant of primary progressive aphasia (PPA-G. Regaining the ability to communicate with others proves to be very important for the patients’ self-esteem and enables them to restore previously broken social bonds. [b]Case history.[/b] The patient A.G., aged 73, a right-handed woman, had been a teacher of Polish before suffering from speech disorders of the PPA-G type. As the disease progressed, her communication deteriorated and finally she developed mutism. The patient was given a clinical and imaging-supported diagnosis of an isolated nonfluent/ agrammatic variant of primary progressive aphasia (PPA-G. The Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC system specially designed for her needs was introduced to help the patient to regain the possibility to communicate. After 20 sessions of training with the use of simple equipment she was again able to communicate non-verbally with her son and with the staff of the nursing home. At the same time, a considerable improvements in her social functioning, including daily activities, was observed. [b]Conclusions. [/b]Loss of the ability to communicate with others has a serious impact upon a patient’s quality of life, and often results in withdrawal and an inability to lead an independent life. The introduction of the Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC system proves to be a great help, not only for regaining the ability to communicate, but also for the restoration of social bonds. In consequence, the previously mute patient begins to show signs of social cooperation.

  9. Assessment of banana fruit maturity by image processing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surya Prabha, D; Satheesh Kumar, J

    2015-03-01

    Maturity stage of fresh banana fruit is an important factor that affects the fruit quality during ripening and marketability after ripening. The ability to identify maturity of fresh banana fruit will be a great support for farmers to optimize harvesting phase which helps to avoid harvesting either under-matured or over-matured banana. This study attempted to use image processing technique to detect the maturity stage of fresh banana fruit by its color and size value of their images precisely. A total of 120 images comprising 40 images from each stage such as under-mature, mature and over-mature were used for developing algorithm and accuracy prediction. The mean color intensity from histogram; area, perimeter, major axis length and minor axis length from the size values, were extracted from the calibration images. Analysis of variance between each maturity stage on these features indicated that the mean color intensity and area features were more significant in predicting the maturity of banana fruit. Hence, two classifier algorithms namely, mean color intensity algorithm and area algorithm were developed and their accuracy on maturity detection was assessed. The mean color intensity algorithm showed 99.1 % accuracy in classifying the banana fruit maturity. The area algorithm classified the under-mature fruit at 85 % accuracy. Hence the maturity assessment technique proposed in this paper could be used commercially to develop a field based complete automatic detection system to take decision on the right time of harvest by the banana growers.

  10. Laser ultrasonic techniques for assessment of tooth structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, David W.; Baldwin, Kevin C.

    2000-06-01

    Dental health care and research workers require a means of imaging the structures within teeth in vivo. For example, there is a need to image the margins of a restoration for the detection of poor bonding or voids between the restorative material and the dentin. With conventional x-ray techniques, it is difficult to detect cracks and to visualize interfaces between hard media. This due to the x-ray providing only a 2 dimensional projection of the internal structure (i.e. a silhouette). In addition, a high resolution imaging modality is needed to detect tooth decay in its early stages. If decay can be detected early enough, the process can be monitored and interventional procedures, such as fluoride washes and controlled diet, can be initiated which can help the tooth to re-mineralize itself. Currently employed x-ray imaging is incapable of detecting decay at a stage early enough to avoid invasive cavity preparation followed by a restoration with a synthetic material. Other clinical applications include the visualization of periodontal defects, the localization of intraosseous lesions, and determining the degree of osseointegration between a dental implant and the surrounding bone. A means of assessing the internal structure of the tooth based upon use of high frequency, highly localized ultrasound (acoustic waves) generated by a laser pulse is discussed. Optical interferometric detection of ultrasound provides a complementary technique with a very small detection footprint. Initial results using laser-based ultrasound for assessment of dental structures are presented. Discussion will center on the adaptability of this technique to clinical applications.

  11. Dynamic CT technique for assessment of wrist joint instabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Shuai; Zhao, Kristin; Qu, Mingliang; An, Kai-Nan; Berger, Richard; McCollough, Cynthia H

    2011-07-01

    To develop a 4D [three-dimensional (3D) + time] CT technique to capture high spatial and temporal resolution images of wrist joint motion so that dynamic joint instabilities can be detected before the development of static joint instability and onset of osteoarthritis (OA). A cadaveric wrist was mounted onto a custom motion simulator and scanned with a dual source CT scanner during radial-ulnar deviation. A dynamic 4D CT technique was utilized to reconstruct images at 20 equidistant time points from one motion cycle. 3D images of carpal bones were generated using volume rendering techniques (VRT) at each of the 20 time points and then 4D movies were generated to depict the dynamic joint motion. The same cadaveric wrist was also scanned after cutting all portions of the scapholunate interosseus ligament to simulate scapholunate joint instability. Image quality were assessed on an ordinal scale (1-4, 4 being excellent) by three experienced orthopedic surgeons (specialized in hand surgery) by scoring 2D axial images. Dynamic instability was evaluated by the same surgeons by comparing the two 4D movies of joint motion. Finally, dose reduction was investigated using the cadaveric wrist by scanning at different dose levels to determine the lowest radiation dose that did not substantially alter diagnostic image quality. The mean image quality scores for dynamic and static CT images were 3.7 and 4.0, respectively. The carpal bones, distal radius and ulna, and joint spaces were clearly delineated in the 3D VRT images, without motion blurring or banding artifacts, at all time points during the motion cycle. Appropriate viewing angles could be interactively selected to view any articulating structure using different 3D processing techniques. The motion of each carpal bone and the relative motion among the carpal bones were easily observed in the 4D movies. Joint instability was correctly and easily detected in the scan performed after the ligament was cut by observing the

  12. Reef Fish Survey Techniques: Assessing the Potential for Standardizing Methodologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary R Caldwell

    Full Text Available Dramatic changes in populations of fishes living on coral reefs have been documented globally and, in response, the research community has initiated efforts to assess and monitor reef fish assemblages. A variety of visual census techniques are employed, however results are often incomparable due to differential methodological performance. Although comparability of data may promote improved assessment of fish populations, and thus management of often critically important nearshore fisheries, to date no standardized and agreed-upon survey method has emerged. This study describes the use of methods across the research community and identifies potential drivers of method selection. An online survey was distributed to researchers from academic, governmental, and non-governmental organizations internationally. Although many methods were identified, 89% of survey-based projects employed one of three methods-belt transect, stationary point count, and some variation of the timed swim method. The selection of survey method was independent of the research design (i.e., assessment goal and region of study, but was related to the researcher's home institution. While some researchers expressed willingness to modify their current survey protocols to more standardized protocols (76%, their willingness decreased when methodologies were tied to long-term datasets spanning five or more years. Willingness to modify current methodologies was also less common among academic researchers than resource managers. By understanding both the current application of methods and the reported motivations for method selection, we hope to focus discussions towards increasing the comparability of quantitative reef fish survey data.

  13. Integrated Testlets and the Immediate Feedback Assessment Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Slepkov, Aaron D

    2013-01-01

    The increased use of multiple-choice (MC) questions in introductory-level physics final exams is largely hindered by reservations about its ability to test the broad cognitive domain that is routinely accessed with typical constructed-response (CR) questions. Thus, there is a need to explore ways in which MC questions can be utilized pedagogically more like CR questions while maintaining their attendant procedural advantages. we describe how an answer-until-correct MC response format allows for the construction of multiple-choice examinations designed to operate much as a hybrid between standard MC and CR testing. With this tool - the immediate feedback assessment technique (IF-AT) - students gain complete knowledge of the correct answer for each question during the examination, and can use such information for solving subsequent test items. This feature allows for the creation of a new type of context-dependent item sets; the "integrated testlet". In an integrated testlet certain items are purposefully inter...

  14. Assessing the Accuracy of the Precise Point Positioning Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisnath, S. B.; Collins, P.; Seepersad, G.

    2012-12-01

    The Precise Point Positioning (PPP) GPS data processing technique has developed over the past 15 years to become a standard method for growing categories of positioning and navigation applications. The technique relies on single receiver point positioning combined with the use of precise satellite orbit and clock information and high-fidelity error modelling. The research presented here uniquely addresses the current accuracy of the technique, explains the limits of performance, and defines paths to improvements. For geodetic purposes, performance refers to daily static position accuracy. PPP processing of over 80 IGS stations over one week results in few millimetre positioning rms error in the north and east components and few centimetres in the vertical (all one sigma values). Larger error statistics for real-time and kinematic processing are also given. GPS PPP with ambiguity resolution processing is also carried out, producing slight improvements over the float solution results. These results are categorised into quality classes in order to analyse the root error causes of the resultant accuracies: "best", "worst", multipath, site displacement effects, satellite availability and geometry, etc. Also of interest in PPP performance is solution convergence period. Static, conventional solutions are slow to converge, with approximately 35 minutes required for 95% of solutions to reach the 20 cm or better horizontal accuracy. Ambiguity resolution can significantly reduce this period without biasing solutions. The definition of a PPP error budget is a complex task even with the resulting numerical assessment, as unlike the epoch-by-epoch processing in the Standard Position Service, PPP processing involving filtering. An attempt is made here to 1) define the magnitude of each error source in terms of range, 2) transform ranging error to position error via Dilution Of Precision (DOP), and 3) scale the DOP through the filtering process. The result is a deeper

  15. A bio-inspired herbal tea flavour assessment technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Nur Zawatil Isqi; Masnan, Maz Jamilah; Zakaria, Ammar; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md

    2014-07-09

    Herbal-based products are becoming a widespread production trend among manufacturers for the domestic and international markets. As the production increases to meet the market demand, it is very crucial for the manufacturer to ensure that their products have met specific criteria and fulfil the intended quality determined by the quality controller. One famous herbal-based product is herbal tea. This paper investigates bio-inspired flavour assessments in a data fusion framework involving an e-nose and e-tongue. The objectives are to attain good classification of different types and brands of herbal tea, classification of different flavour masking effects and finally classification of different concentrations of herbal tea. Two data fusion levels were employed in this research, low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. Four classification approaches; LDA, SVM, KNN and PNN were examined in search of the best classifier to achieve the research objectives. In order to evaluate the classifiers' performance, an error estimator based on k-fold cross validation and leave-one-out were applied. Classification based on GC-MS TIC data was also included as a comparison to the classification performance using fusion approaches. Generally, KNN outperformed the other classification techniques for the three flavour assessments in the low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. However, the classification results based on GC-MS TIC data are varied.

  16. A Bio-Inspired Herbal Tea Flavour Assessment Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Zawatil Isqi Zakaria

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Herbal-based products are becoming a widespread production trend among manufacturers for the domestic and international markets. As the production increases to meet the market demand, it is very crucial for the manufacturer to ensure that their products have met specific criteria and fulfil the intended quality determined by the quality controller. One famous herbal-based product is herbal tea. This paper investigates bio-inspired flavour assessments in a data fusion framework involving an e-nose and e-tongue. The objectives are to attain good classification of different types and brands of herbal tea, classification of different flavour masking effects and finally classification of different concentrations of herbal tea. Two data fusion levels were employed in this research, low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. Four classification approaches; LDA, SVM, KNN and PNN were examined in search of the best classifier to achieve the research objectives. In order to evaluate the classifiers’ performance, an error estimator based on k-fold cross validation and leave-one-out were applied. Classification based on GC-MS TIC data was also included as a comparison to the classification performance using fusion approaches. Generally, KNN outperformed the other classification techniques for the three flavour assessments in the low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. However, the classification results based on GC-MS TIC data are varied.

  17. Essentials of TAT and Other Storytelling Techniques Assessment. Essentials of Psychological Assessment Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teglasi, Hedwig

    This book provides guidance into the use of storytelling techniques as an approach to personality assessment and explains how to administer, score, and interpret such tests. The tests discussed include the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), the Roberts Apperception Test for Children, and the TEMAS (Tell-Me-a-Story). Each chapter contains callout…

  18. Client Assessment: A Manual for Employment and Training Agencies. Volume 2: Assessment Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer, Thomas E.

    Several standard measures of aptitude, interest, attitude, and personality are briefly described, including the General Aptitude Test Battery, the Clerical Skills Tests, other tests sponsored by the United States Employment Service; and the Strong Campbell Interest Inventory. This volume also reviews special assessment techniques for the severely…

  19. A heuristic risk assessment technique for birdstrike management at airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, John

    2006-06-01

    Collisions between birds and aircraft (birdstrikes) have caused the loss of at least 88 aircraft and 243 lives in world civil aviation. Conservative estimates suggest that more routine damage and delays following birdstrikes cost the industry and its insurers US$1.2-1.5 billion per year. The majority of strikes happen close to airports and most countries have regulations that require airport managers to control the birdstrike risk on their property. Birdstrike prevention has, however, lagged behind other aspects of flight safety in the development and implementation of risk assessment protocols, possibly because of the inherent difficulty in quantifying the variability in the populations and behavior of the various bird species involved. This article presents a technique that uses both national and airport-specific data to evaluate risk by creating a simple probability-times-severity matrix. It uses the frequency of strikes reported for different bird species at a given airport over the preceding five years as a measure of strike probability, and the proportion of strikes with each species that result in damage to aircraft, in the national birdstrike database, as a measure of likely severity. Action thresholds for risk levels for particular bird species are then defined, above which the airport should take action to reduce the risk further. The assessment is designed for airports where the reporting and collation of birdstrike events is reasonably consistent over time and where a bird hazard management program of some sort is already in place. This risk assessment is designed to measure risk to the airport as a business rather than risk to the traveling passenger individually. It therefore takes no account of aircraft movement rate in the calculations and is aimed at minimizing the number of damaging incidents rather than concentrating on catastrophic events. Once set up at an airport, the technique is simple to implement for nonexperts, and it allows managers to

  20. Immediate Feedback Assessment Technique in a Chemistry Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kate R.

    The Immediate Feedback Assessment Technique, or IFAT, is a new testing system that turns a student's traditional multiple-choice testing into a chance for hands-on learning; and provides teachers with an opportunity to obtain more information about a student's knowledge during testing. In the current study we wanted to know if: When students are given the second-chance afforded by the IFAT system, are they guessing or using prior knowledge when making their second chance choice. Additionally, while there has been some adaptation of this testing system in non-science disciplines, we wanted to study if the IFAT-system would be well- received among faculty in the sciences, more specifically chemistry faculty. By comparing the students rate of success on second-chance afforded by the IFAT-system versus the statistical likelihood of guessing correctly, statistical analysis was used to determine if we observed enough students earning the second-chance points to reject the likelihood that students were randomly guessing. Our data analysis revealed that is statistically highly unlikely that students were only guessing when the IFAT system was utilized. (It is important to note that while we can find that students are getting the answer correct at a much higher rate than random guessing we can never truly know if every student is using thought or not.).

  1. Damage assessment of the equine sperm membranes by fluorimetric technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneiva Carla Carvalho Celeghini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To validate a practical technique of simultaneous evaluation of the plasma, acrosomal and mitochondrial membranes in equine spermatozoa three fluorescent probes (PI, FITC-PSA and MITO were associated. Four ejaculates from three stallions (n=12 were diluted in TALP medium and split into 2 aliquots, 1 aliquot was flash frozen in liquid nitrogen to induce damage in cellular membranes. Three treatments were prepared with the following fixed ratios of fresh semen: flash frozen semen: 100:0 (T100, 50:50 (T50, and 0:100 (T0. A 150-µL aliquot of diluted semen of each treatment was added of 2 µL of PI, 2 µL of MITO and 80 µL of FITC-PSA; incubated at 38.5ºC/8 min, and sperm cells were evaluated by epifluorescent microscopy. Based in regression analysis, this could be an efficient and practical technique to assess damage in equine spermatozoa, as it was able to determine the sperm percentage more representative of the potential to fertilize the oocyte.Para validar uma técnica prática de avaliação simultânea das membranas plasmática, acrossomal e mitocondrial em espermatozóides eqüinos três sondas fluorescentes (PI, FITC-PSA e MITO foram associadas. Quatro ejaculados de três garanhões (n=12 foram diluídos em meio TALP e divididos em duas alíquotas, uma alíquota foi submetida a flash frozen em nitrogênio líquido para induzir danos nas membranas celulares. Três tratamentos foram preparados com as seguintes proporções de sêmen fresco: sêmen flash frozen: 100:0 (T100, 50:50 (T50, e 0:100 (T0. Uma amostra de 150 µL de sêmen diluído de cada tratamento foi adicionada de 2 µL de PI, 2 µL de MITO e 80 µL de FITC-PSA; incubadas à 38,5ºC/8 min, e as células espermáticas foram avaliadas por microscopia de epifluorescência. Baseados na análise de regressão esta é uma técnica eficiente e prática para determinar danos em espermatozóides eqüinos, capaz de determinar a porcentagem de espermatozóides mais representativa do

  2. Photometer Performance Assessment in Kepler Science Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Allen, Christopher; Bryson, Stephen T.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Chandrasekaran, Hema; Clarke, Bruce D.; Gunter, Jay P.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Klaus, Todd C.; Quintana, Elisa V.; hide

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the algorithms of the Photometer Performance Assessment (PPA) software component in the science data processing pipeline of the Kepler mission. The PPA performs two tasks: One is to analyze the health and performance of the Kepler photometer based on the long cadence science data down-linked via Ka band approximately every 30 days. The second is to determine the attitude of the Kepler spacecraft with high precision at each long cadence. The PPA component is demonstrated to work effectively with the Kepler flight data.

  3. assessment of environmental impacts in comfortable furniture production process using life cycle assessment (LCA technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hejhar abbasi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Furniture industry releases annually a large amount of volatile organic compound to the environment due to the use of adhesives, textiles, paints and coating materials. There are some different methods to measure the load of pollutions and the environmental impacts. Life cycle assessment (LCA is one of the best techniques. LCA is a technique in which all environmental impacts related to a product assessed all over its life cycle, from cradle to grave, and ultimately can be used to improve the production process and to prevent unsuitable environmental impacts. In summary, it can be concluded that the use of this technique is the basis for sustainable development and improving social, economic, and environmental indices. This study focused on the collecting of a comprehensive life cycle inventory data for comfortable furniture in two different production processes (B1 and B2 located in Tehran province, and analyzed the environmental impacts during the production process as gate to gate investigation. The results revealed that emissions in production process B1 were higher than that of production process B2. The reason for this is that basic operations such as sawing and frame assembling along with final operation have been done in the same unit for case B1. Textile production and usage, and polyurethane foam were identified as the main hotspots, respectively. Moreover, the results showed that comfortable furniture production process has the highest effects on ecosystem quality, human health, and resources (fossil fuels and mines, respectively.

  4. A constrained modulus reconstruction technique for breast cancer assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samani, A; Bishop, J; Plewes, D B

    2001-09-01

    A reconstruction technique for breast tissue elasticity modulus is described. This technique assumes that the geometry of normal and suspicious tissues is available from a contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance image. Furthermore, it is assumed that the modulus is constant throughout each tissue volume. The technique, which uses quasi-static strain data, is iterative where each iteration involves modulus updating followed by stress calculation. Breast mechanical stimulation is assumed to be done by two compressional rigid plates. As a result, stress is calculated using the finite element method based on the well-controlled boundary conditions of the compression plates. Using the calculated stress and the measured strain, modulus updating is done element-by-element based on Hooke's law. Breast tissue modulus reconstruction using simulated data and phantom modulus reconstruction using experimental data indicate that the technique is robust.

  5. Increasing Learning: Classroom Assessment Techniques in the Online Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Ted; Palese, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Five full-time online mathematics instructors participated in a study to test the impact of using discussion forums as a space for formative assessments. Mean student posting activity and student quiz scores for sections in which the instructors used formative assessments were compared with previous sections in which formative assessments were not…

  6. Quantitative assessments of distributed systems methodologies and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bruneo, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Distributed systems employed in critical infrastructures must fulfill dependability, timeliness, and performance specifications. Since these systems most often operate in an unpredictable environment, their design and maintenance require quantitative evaluation of deterministic and probabilistic timed models. This need gave birth to an abundant literature devoted to formal modeling languages combined with analytical and simulative solution techniques The aim of the book is to provide an overview of techniques and methodologies dealing with such specific issues in the context of distributed

  7. MODERN TECHNIQUES OF CERVICAL INSTRUMENTATION IN IMMATURE SKELETON: VIABILITY ASSESSMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Aires, Ayrana Soares; Silva, Luís Eduardo Carelli Teixeira da; Barros, Alderico Girão Campos de; Azevedo, Gustavo Borges Laurindo de; Naves, Cleiton Dias

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: This study describes the use of materials for modern cervical instrumentation, evaluating its viability in children and adolescents, and the techniques used in different cases. The efficacy of the techniques was analyzed through improvement of pain, maintenance of cervical range of motion, recovery of craniocervical stability, bone consolidation, and spinal stenosis in the postoperative follow-up. Method: Retrospective study of the clinical and radiological parameters of 2...

  8. MODERN TECHNIQUES OF CERVICAL INSTRUMENTATION IN IMMATURE SKELETON: VIABILITY ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayrana Soares Aires

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: This study describes the use of materials for modern cervical instrumentation, evaluating its viability in children and adolescents, and the techniques used in different cases. The efficacy of the techniques was analyzed through improvement of pain, maintenance of cervical range of motion, recovery of craniocervical stability, bone consolidation, and spinal stenosis in the postoperative follow-up. Method: Retrospective study of the clinical and radiological parameters of 27 patients aged two to 16 years with cervical spine diseases. Results: Two patients had chronic dislocation in C1-C2, one had congenital axis spondylolisthesis, two had congenital dislocation in C1-C2, three had tumors, one had kyphosis after laminectomy, one had post-infection kyphosis, one had fracture, 11 were syndromic with instabilities, and five had congenital cervical scoliosis. As to surgical approaches, two patients were transorally operated, three by anterior approach, 15 by posterior approach, two by anterior and posterior approaches, and five were treated in three stages (anterior, posterior and anterior approaches. Regarding the technique of cervical stabilization, seven patients were treated by Goel-Harms technique, two received Goel’s facet distraction, and three, Wright translaminar screws. There were complications in four cases. Two patients in the instrumentation of C1 lateral mass due to poor positioning, one with cerebrospinal fluid fistula and one with surgical wound infection. Conclusion: Modern cervical instrumentation in pediatric patients is a safe and effective technique for the treatment of cervical instability.

  9. A Brief Review of Molecular Techniques to Assess Plant Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim A. Arif

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Massive loss of valuable plant species in the past centuries and its adverse impact on environmental and socioeconomic values has triggered the conservation of plant resources. Appropriate identification and characterization of plant materials is essential for the successful conservation of plant resources and to ensure their sustainable use. Molecular tools developed in the past few years provide easy, less laborious means for assigning known and unknown plant taxa. These techniques answer many new evolutionary and taxonomic questions, which were not previously possible with only phenotypic methods. Molecular techniques such as DNA barcoding, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP, microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP have recently been used for plant diversity studies. Each technique has its own advantages and limitations. These techniques differ in their resolving power to detect genetic differences, type of data they generate and their applicability to particular taxonomic levels. This review presents a basic description of different molecular techniques that can be utilized for DNA fingerprinting and molecular diversity analysis of plant species.

  10. Assessment of Gear Damage Monitoring Techniques Using Vibration Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wilson Q.; Ismail, Fathy; Farid Golnaraghi, M.

    2001-09-01

    Each gear damage monitoring technique has its merits and limitations. This paper experimentally investigates the sensitivity and robustness of the currently well-accepted techniques: phase and amplitude demodulation, beta kurtosis and wavelet transform. Four gear test cases were used: healthy gears, cracked, filed and chipped gears. The vibration signal was measured on the gearbox housing and processed, online, under three filtering conditions: general signal average, overall residual and dominant meshing frequency residual. Test results show that beta kurtosis is a very reliable time-domain diagnostic technique. Phase modulation is very sensitive to gear imperfections, but other information should be used to confirm its diagnostic results. Continuous wavelet transform provides a good visual inspection especially when residual signals are used. The diagnosis based only on dominant meshing frequency residual, however, should not be used independently for gear health condition monitoring, it may give false alarms.

  11. Assessment of viability of microorganisms employing fluorescence techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeuwer, P.

    1996-01-01


    Viability assessment of microorganisms is relevant for a wide variety of applications in industry, including evaluation of inactivation treatments and quality assessment of starter cultures for beer, wine, and yoghurt production.

    Usually, the ability of microbial cells to

  12. Assessment of three major decomposition techniques for sample ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three main rock-decomposition techniques; microwave oven, open beaker acid and basic fusion were examined in an attempt to establish the most appropriate method for the decomposition of granite rocks for elemental analysis. Standard reference rock material NIM- SARM-I was dissolved using each of the digestion ...

  13. Assessing the accuracy of remote sensing techniques in vegetation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at exploring different remote sensing (RS) techniques for quantitatively measuring vegetation and bare soil fractions in dune ecosystems along the Kenyan coast. The accurate measurements of field samples are required by Kenya Wildlife for environmental monitoring. The current methodology for ...

  14. Techniques for the Health Assessment of Automotive Alternators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    information (36X) can be removed and residual signal can offer diagnostic information. Envelope Demodulation Demodulation around 36X can reveal...common use in Army vehicles. This effort was an investigation on the feasibility of early fault detection using data analysis techniques. Using data...11 4.6 Residual and Regular Signal Processing .......................................................................12 4.7 Envelope Analysis

  15. Image processing techniques for quantification and assessment of brain MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijf, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a widely used technique to acquire digital images of the human brain. A variety of acquisition protocols is available to generate images in vivo and noninvasively, giving great opportunities to study the anatomy and physiology of the human brain. In my thesis,

  16. An Assessment of Promotion And Distribution Techniques Of Book ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various techniques are employed by book publishers to promote and distribute their products. Book promotion and distribution revolves around creating awareness and communicating the benefits contained in books to existing and potential buyers. Findings on the various distribution methods employed by book publishers ...

  17. Objective Assessments of Temperature Maintenance Using In Vitro Culture Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, Simon; Tyler, John P. P.; Driscoll, Geoff

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the ability of various facets of embryo culture (microscope stage warmers, volumes of culture media, culture vessel lids, and type of culture incubator) to maintain a constant temperature in vitro.

  18. An assessment of machine learning techniques for review recommendation

    OpenAIRE

    O'Mahony, Michael P.; Cunningham, Pádraig; Smyth, Barry

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a classification-based approach to the recommendation of user-generated product reviews. In particular, we develop review ranking techniques that allow the most helpful reviews for a particular product to be recommended, thereby facilitating users to readily asses the quality of the product in question. We apply a supervised machine learning approach to this task and compare the performance achieved by several classification algorithms using a large-scale study b...

  19. Assessment of banana fruit maturity by image processing technique

    OpenAIRE

    Surya Prabha, D.; J. Satheesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Maturity stage of fresh banana fruit is an important factor that affects the fruit quality during ripening and marketability after ripening. The ability to identify maturity of fresh banana fruit will be a great support for farmers to optimize harvesting phase which helps to avoid harvesting either under-matured or over-matured banana. This study attempted to use image processing technique to detect the maturity stage of fresh banana fruit by its color and size value of their images precisely...

  20. Novel MRI techniques in the assessment of dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teipel, Stefan J. [Ludwig-Maximilian University, Dementia and Neuroimaging Section, Department of Psychiatry, Alzheimer Memorial Center, Munich (Germany); University Rostock, Department of Psychiatry, Rostock (Germany); Meindl, Thomas [Ludwig-Maximilian University, Department of Clinical Radiology, University Hospitals-Grosshadern, Munich (Germany); Grinberg, Lea [Departamento di Patologia da FMUSP, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Instituto Israelita de Ensino e Pesquisa Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Heinsen, Helmut [University Wuerzburg, Morphological Brain Research Unit, Wuerzburg (Germany); Hampel, Harald [Ludwig-Maximilian University, Dementia and Neuroimaging Section, Department of Psychiatry, Alzheimer Memorial Center, Munich (Germany); The Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Incorporating The National Children' s Hospital and Trinity College Institute of Neuroscience, Discipline of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin (Ireland)

    2008-03-15

    Positive markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been established in MRI that may allow early detection of AD in at-risk groups. In the near future, these markers will be of high relevance for the selection of at-risk subjects in secondary preventive trials. We describe the methodology and diagnostic value of manual volumetry of the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex, automated voxel-based morphometry, cortical thickness measurement, basal forebrain volumetry and deformation-based morphometry, implementing multivariate statistics and machine learning algorithms to improve group separation and prediction of AD in at-risk groups. We also describe the methodological basis and results obtained in AD using the recently developed technique of diffusion tensor-based morphometry (DTI). This technique gives access to the integrity of subcortical fibre systems in the human brain. The best established structural biomarker of AD to date is hippocampus volume that already has been implemented as secondary endpoint in clinical trials on disease modification in AD. Automated approaches will gain an increasing role as endpoints of clinical trials in the near future given the interest in these techniques expressed by the regulatory authorities. DTI is still a developing field where analysis techniques are presently being devised to make optimal use of the multivariate data. Data on changes of fibre tract in preclinical AD are still limited, but the first results are promising in respect to a further enhancement of diagnostic accuracy by combining MRI and DTI. Besides their diagnostic use, MRI and DTI will broaden our understanding of the pathophysiology of AD and the structural and functional basis of normal cognition. (orig.)

  1. An observational model for biomechanical assessment of sprint kayaking technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Lisa K; Hume, Patria A; Nolte, Volker

    2012-11-01

    Sprint kayaking stroke phase descriptions for biomechanical analysis of technique vary among kayaking literature, with inconsistencies not conducive for the advancement of biomechanics applied service or research. We aimed to provide a consistent basis for the categorisation and analysis of sprint kayak technique by proposing a clear observational model. Electronic databases were searched using key words kayak, sprint, technique, and biomechanics, with 20 sources reviewed. Nine phase-defining positions were identified within the kayak literature and were divided into three distinct types based on how positions were defined: water-contact-defined positions, paddle-shaft-defined positions, and body-defined positions. Videos of elite paddlers from multiple camera views were reviewed to determine the visibility of positions used to define phases. The water-contact-defined positions of catch, immersion, extraction, and release were visible from multiple camera views, therefore were suitable for practical use by coaches and researchers. Using these positions, phases and sub-phases were created for a new observational model. We recommend that kayaking data should be reported using single strokes and described using two phases: water and aerial. For more detailed analysis without disrupting the basic two-phase model, a four-sub-phase model consisting of entry, pull, exit, and aerial sub-phases should be used.

  2. Statistical Techniques for Assessing water‐quality effects of BMPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, John F.

    1994-01-01

    Little has been published on the effectiveness of various management practices in small rural lakes and streams at the watershed scale. In this study, statistical techniques were used to test for changes in water‐quality data from watersheds where best management practices (BMPs) were implemented. Reductions in data variability due to climate and seasonality were accomplished through the use of regression methods. This study discusses the merits of using storm‐mass‐transport data as a means of improving the ability to detect BMP effects on stream‐water quality. Statistical techniques were applied to suspended‐sediment records from three rural watersheds in Illinois for the period 1981–84. None of the techniques identified changes in suspended sediment, primarily because of the small degree of BMP implementation and because of potential errors introduced through the estimation of storm‐mass transport. A Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis was used to determine the level of discrete change that could be detected for each watershed. In all cases, the use of regressions improved the ability to detect trends.Read More: http://ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9437(1994)120:2(334)

  3. Tools and Techniques for Basin-Scale Climate Change Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagona, E.; Rajagopalan, B.; Oakley, W.; Wilson, N.; Weinstein, P.; Verdin, A.; Jerla, C.; Prairie, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Department of Interior's WaterSMART Program seeks to secure and stretch water supplies to benefit future generations and identify adaptive measures to address climate change. Under WaterSMART, Basin Studies are comprehensive water studies to explore options for meeting projected imbalances in water supply and demand in specific basins. Such studies could be most beneficial with application of recent scientific advances in climate projections, stochastic simulation, operational modeling and robust decision-making, as well as computational techniques to organize and analyze many alternatives. A new integrated set of tools and techniques to facilitate these studies includes the following components: Future supply scenarios are produced by the Hydrology Simulator, which uses non-parametric K-nearest neighbor resampling techniques to generate ensembles of hydrologic traces based on historical data, optionally conditioned on long paleo reconstructed data using various Markov Chain techniuqes. Resampling can also be conditioned on climate change projections from e.g., downscaled GCM projections to capture increased variability; spatial and temporal disaggregation is also provided. The simulations produced are ensembles of hydrologic inputs to the RiverWare operations/infrastucture decision modeling software. Alternative demand scenarios can be produced with the Demand Input Tool (DIT), an Excel-based tool that allows modifying future demands by groups such as states; sectors, e.g., agriculture, municipal, energy; and hydrologic basins. The demands can be scaled at future dates or changes ramped over specified time periods. Resulting data is imported directly into the decision model. Different model files can represent infrastructure alternatives and different Policy Sets represent alternative operating policies, including options for noticing when conditions point to unacceptable vulnerabilities, which trigger dynamically executing changes in operations or other

  4. Subjective Workload Assessment Technique (SWAT): A User’s Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    The effects of supervisor experience and the presence of a shift technical advisor on the performance of two-man crews in a nuclear power plant...et de Recherches de Medecine Acrospatiale, Laboratoire d’Etudes Medicophysiologiques 16/330). S 110 Potter, S. S., 1986, Subjective workload assessment

  5. Assessing soil erosion on trails: A comparison of techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark C. Jewell; William E. Hammitt

    2000-01-01

    Reports of trail degradation have been increasing in different wildernesses. This impact has become a common concern among managers. Deteriorating tread conditions of trails are increasing, as is concern at protected areas worldwide. In order to make objective and timely trail resource decisions, managers need to have effective and efficient methods of assessing trail...

  6. Development of acoustic techniques for assessment of orange ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biomass in three such areas, where most commercial fishing occurs (the Johnies, Frankies and Rix Quota Management Areas, or QMAs) has been assessed ... biomass and its standard error could be computed for each survey, effectively correcting for identified sources of bias and quantifying the overall uncertainty.

  7. Integrated Assessment of National Power Sources Using AHP Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Ho; Kim, Tae Woon; Ha, Jae Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Soon H. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Here, various national power sources including conventional as well as renewable energy systems are comparatively assessed in view of multicriteria decisionmaking (MCDM) spaces. The main objectives of this work are to understand priority of power sources and to figure out nuclear power's synergetic role in the national energy sector.

  8. Assessment techniques and South African community studies of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviews: (i) trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) assessment instruments currently in use and (ii) trauma and PTSD studies in South African children and adolescents. Rates of trauma exposure in South African children and adolescents range from 40% to 100% and rates of PTSD range from 6% to ...

  9. Assessment of Process Monitoring Techniques for Pyro processing Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Y. E.; Kim, C. M.; Yim, M. S. [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    PM technologies can be used to inspect normal/off-normal operation with various data obtained from facility operations in real time to meet safeguards objectives. To support the use of PM technologies for the purpose of pyroprocessing safeguards, this study aims at identifying technologies that could be useful for PM purposes and evaluating their applicability to a pyroprocessing facility. This paper describes the development of the assessment criteria to evaluate the practicality of candidate technologies for PM based on a variety of requirements and considerations. By using the developed assessment criteria, application of technologies in the oxide reduction process was assessed as a test case example. Research is necessary to validate the criteria according to the needs of each unit process, perhaps based on expert elicitation and/or international collaboration with other expert organization(s). These advanced assessment criteria will serve a useful guideline for selecting appropriate candidate PM technologies for pyroprocessing safeguards. Based on the results of using these evaluation criteria, the optimum technologies can be successfully selected for use at a large scale pyroprocessing facility.

  10. Some Viable Techniques for Assessing and Counselling Cognitive Processing Weakness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruna, Abubakar Sadiq

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive Processing weakness (CPW) is a psychological problem that impedes students' ability to learn effectively in a normal school setting. Such weakness may include; auditory, visual, conceptual, sequential, speed and attention processing. This paper therefore examines the basic assessment or diagnostic approaches such as Diagnosis by…

  11. Optical techniques for the intraoperative assessment of nodal status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootendorst, Diederik; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Manohar, Srirang; Ruers, Theo J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The lymphatic system is an important pathway in the metastatic spread of many malignancies and a key prognostic indicator. Nondestructive assessment of the nodal status during surgery could limit the amount of lymph nodes that need to be resected and allow for immediate regional lymphadenectomy

  12. Remote sensing and geochemistry techniques for the assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chiedza

    SRK Report, 2013. Draft Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for the Proposed Development of an Energy Recovery Plant at the Samancor Chrome Middelburg Ferrochrome Plant, Middelburg. SRK Project Number: 408836. Sutherland, R.A. 2000. Bed sediment associated trace metals in an urban stream Oahu. Hawaii.

  13. Wetland assessment, monitoring and management in India using geospatial techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, J K

    2015-01-15

    Satellite remote sensing and GIS have emerged as the most powerful tools for inventorying, monitoring and management of natural resources and environment. In the special context of wetland ecosystems, remotely sensed data from orbital platforms have been extensively used in India for the inventory, monitoring and preparation of action plans for conservation and management. First scientific inventory of wetlands in India was carried out in 1998 by Space Applications Centre (ISRO), Ahmedabad using indigenous IRS (Indian Remote Sensing Satellite) data of 1992-93 timeframe, which stimulated extensive use of geospatial techniques for wetland conservation and management. Subsequently, with advances in GIS, studies were carried out for development of Wetland Information System for a state (West Bengal) and for Loktak lake wetland (a Ramsar site) as a prelude to National Wetland Information System. Research has also been carried out for preparation of action plans especially for Ramsar sites in the country. In a novel research, use of the geospatial technology has also been demonstrated for biodiversity conservation using landscape ecological metrics. A country-wide estimate of emission of methane, a Green House Gas, from wetlands has also been made using MODIS data. Present article critically reviews the work carried out in India for wetland conservation and management using geospatial techniques. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A novel ultraviolet photography technique for assessing photodamage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe Diana; Klein, Gregory; Biancone, Gregory

    2008-09-01

    Photography is critical to accurately capturing clinical results in cosmetic dermatology. However, this shift from film to digital photography has made the capture of true ultraviolet (UV) images more difficult. Film cameras were developed that used special lighting and film to create true UV images, but this technology has not translated into the digital realm. At present, commercial digital photography systems use computer processing to generate UV-like images from visible light photography. This research developed a technique to obtain UV images with a UV pass glass filter placed in front of the camera lens. The UV filter was opaque to visible light (400-750 nm) with a peak transmission at 360 nm. In addition, a glass infrared (IR) block filter was also placed in front of the UV filter during photography. This research resulted in the development of an affordable digital camera system that was able to capture true UV light photographs. This technique can be used by research and clinical dermatologists to obtain photographs demonstrating changes in photodamage as a result of therapeutic intervention.

  15. Small specimen technique for assessing mechanical properties of metallic components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, Raquel M.; Andrade, Arnaldo H.P.; Morcelli, Aparecido E., E-mail: rmlobo@ipen.br, E-mail: morcelliae@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Small Punch Test (SPT) is one of the most promising techniques of small specimen test, which was originally applied in testing of irradiated materials in nuclear engineering. Then it was introduced to other fields as an almost nondestructive method to measure the local mechanical properties that are difficult to be obtained using conventional mechanical tests. Most studies to date are focused on metallic materials, although SPT applications are recently spreading to other materials. The small punch test (SPT) employs small-sized specimens (for example, samples measuring 8 mm in diameter and 0.5 mm thick). The specimen is firmly clamped between two circular dies and is bi-axially strained until failure into a circular hole using a hemispherical punch. The 'load-punch displacement' record can be used to estimate the yield strength, the ultimate tensile strength, the tensile elongation, and the temperature of the ductile-to-brittle transition. Recently, some researchers are working on the use of miniature notched or pre-cracked specimens (denoted as p-SPT) to validate its geometry and dimensions for obtaining the fracture properties of metallic materials. In a first approach, the technique makes it possible to convert primary experimental data into conventional mechanical properties of a massive specimen. In this paper a comprehensive review of the different STP applications is presented with the aim of clarifying its usefulness. (author)

  16. Proyección de la tasa de cambio de colombia bajo condiciones de ppa: evidencia empírica usando var1,2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Fayad Hernández

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo evalúa la proyección de la tasa de cambio (peso colombiano/dólar con datos de 1995 a 2005 de Colombia a través del modelo de Tasa de Cambio de Paridad de Poder Adquisitivo (TCPPA. Se realizó una comparación del desempeño en la muestra (reservando los datos históricos de 2001 a 2005 de las proyecciones de modelos que utilizan la PPA, con las de un modelo de Vectores Autorregresivos (VAR. El método VAR tiene mejor desempeño para predecir la tasa de cambio nominal, de acuerdo con los indicadores RMSE, MAE y U-Theil, mientras que de acuerdo con el MAPE en el primer y segundo mes pronosticado, el VAR tiene peor desempeño que los modelos que utilizan PPA.

  17. High-resolution Imaging Techniques for the Assessment of Osteoporosis

    OpenAIRE

    Krug, Roland; Burghardt, Andrew J.; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    The importance of assessing the bone’s microarchitectural make-up in addition to its mineral density in the context of osteoporosis has been emphasized in a number of publications. The high spatial resolution required to resolve the bone’s microstructure in a clinically feasible scan time is challenging. Currently, the best suited modalities meeting these requirements in vivo are high-resolution peripheral quantitative imaging (HR-pQCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Whereas HR-pQCT is...

  18. Assess Sleep Stage by Modern Signal Processing Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Hau-tieng; Lo, Yu-Lun

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, two modern adaptive signal processing techniques, Empirical Intrinsic Geometry and Synchrosqueezing transform, are applied to quantify different dynamical features of the respiratory and electroencephalographic signals. We show that the proposed features are theoretically rigorously supported, as well as capture the sleep information hidden inside the signals. The features are used as input to multiclass support vector machines with the radial basis function to automatically classify sleep stages. The effectiveness of the classification based on the proposed features is shown to be comparable to human expert classification -- the proposed classification of awake, REM, N1, N2 and N3 sleeping stages based on the respiratory signal (resp. respiratory and EEG signals) has the overall accuracy $81.7\\%$ (resp. $89.3\\%$) in the relatively normal subject group. In addition, by examining the combination of the respiratory signal with the electroencephalographic signal, we conclude that the respiratory s...

  19. Assessment of three mitigation techniques for permafrost protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders Stuhr

    The presence of permafrost is an important aspect in civil engineering in arctic regions. The construction of engineering structures, such as road and airfield embankments, will change the thermal regime of the ground, and may lead to permafrost degradation under or adjacent to such structures....... This problem, has in the last decades, been amplified by the climate warming, which has been most evident in the arctic regions. The construction of a road embankment usually results in an increased mean annual surface temperature, which will increase the thawing of permafrost and expose the road embankment...... embankments. Both methods will allow cold air to penetrate the embankment from the bottom, while warm air is dissipated at the top. The results from the test-site at Tasiujaq Airport (Nunavik, Québec, Canada) showed that both techniques will cause a decrease in the mean annual temperature at the sub...

  20. Assessment of Fevicol (adhesive Drying Process through Dynamic Speckle Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Z. Ansari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic laser speckle (or biospeckle analysis is a useful measurement tool to analyze micro-motion on a sample surface via temporal statistics based on a sequence of speckle images. The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of dynamic speckles as an alternative tool to monitoring Fevicol drying process. Experimental demonstration of intensity-based algorithm to monitor Fevicol drying process is reported. The experiment was explored with the technique called Inertia Moment of co-occurrence matrix. The results allowed verifying the drying process and it was possible to observe different activity stages during the drying process. Statistical Tukey test at 5% significance level allowed differentiating different stages of drying. In conclusion, speckle activity, measured by the Inertia Moment, can be used to monitor drying processes of the Fevicol.

  1. Development of Improved Caprock Integrity and Risk Assessment Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, Michael [Geomechanics Technologies, Incorporated, Monrovia, CA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    GeoMechanics Technologies has completed a geomechanical caprock integrity analysis and risk assessment study funded through the US Department of Energy. The project included: a detailed review of historical caprock integrity problems experienced in the natural gas storage industry; a theoretical description and documentation of caprock integrity issues; advanced coupled transport flow modelling and geomechanical simulation of three large-scale potential geologic sequestration sites to estimate geomechanical effects from CO₂ injection; development of a quantitative risk and decision analysis tool to assess caprock integrity risks; and, ultimately the development of recommendations and guidelines for caprock characterization and CO₂ injection operating practices. Historical data from gas storage operations and CO₂ sequestration projects suggest that leakage and containment incident risks are on the order of 10-1 to 10-2, which is higher risk than some previous studies have suggested for CO₂. Geomechanical analysis, as described herein, can be applied to quantify risks and to provide operating guidelines to reduce risks. The risk assessment tool developed for this project has been applied to five areas: The Wilmington Graben offshore Southern California, Kevin Dome in Montana, the Louden Field in Illinois, the Sleipner CO₂ sequestration operation in the North Sea, and the In Salah CO₂ sequestration operation in North Africa. Of these five, the Wilmington Graben area represents the highest relative risk while the Kevin Dome area represents the lowest relative risk.

  2. Assessment of eye drop instillation technique in glaucoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Fiuza Gomes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To study the technique of eye drop instillation in glaucoma patients and identify independent factors that may influence their performance. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 71 consecutive patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension, self-administering topical anti-glaucoma medications for ≥6 months were evaluated. All patients instilled a tear substitute into the eye with the worst eyesight using the technique normally used at home. The following parameters were evaluated: age, number of years receiving treatment with ocular hypotensive eye drops, time spent to instill the first drop, number of drops instilled, correct location of the eye drops, contact of the bottle with the eye, closing of the eyelids or occlusion of the tear punctum, and asepsis of the hands. Results: The mean age of the patients was 66 ± 10.8 years, and patients were on ocular hypotensive drugs for 11.3 ± 7.3 (range, 2-35 years. Only 28% of the patients were able to correctly instill the eye drops (squeeze out 1 drop and instill it into the conjunctival sac without bottle tip contact. Touching the tip of the bottle to the globe or periocular tissue occurred in 62% of the patients. In 49% of the patients, the eye drops fell on the eyelids or cheek. Two or more drops were squeezed by 27% of the patients. Conclusions: The majority of glaucoma patients were unable to correctly instill eye drops. Age was an independent factor associated with eye drop instillation performance.

  3. Assessment of heterogeneity of residual variances using changepoint techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toro Miguel A

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several studies using test-day models show clear heterogeneity of residual variance along lactation. A changepoint technique to account for this heterogeneity is proposed. The data set included 100 744 test-day records of 10 869 Holstein-Friesian cows from northern Spain. A three-stage hierarchical model using the Wood lactation function was employed. Two unknown changepoints at times T1 and T2, (0 T1 T2 tmax, with continuity of residual variance at these points, were assumed. Also, a nonlinear relationship between residual variance and the number of days of milking t was postulated. The residual variance at a time t( in the lactation phase i was modeled as: for (i = 1, 2, 3, where λι is a phase-specific parameter. A Bayesian analysis using Gibbs sampling and the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm for marginalization was implemented. After a burn-in of 20 000 iterations, 40 000 samples were drawn to estimate posterior features. The posterior modes of T1, T2, λ1, λ2, λ3, , , were 53.2 and 248.2 days; 0.575, -0.406, 0.797 and 0.702, 34.63 and 0.0455 kg2, respectively. The residual variance predicted using these point estimates were 2.64, 6.88, 3.59 and 4.35 kg2 at days of milking 10, 53, 248 and 305, respectively. This technique requires less restrictive assumptions and the model has fewer parameters than other methods proposed to account for the heterogeneity of residual variance during lactation.

  4. Review of Physical Based Monitoring Techniques for Condition Assessment of Corrosion in Reinforced Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Lei; Zhu-Peng Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring the condition of steel corrosion in reinforced concrete (RC) is imperative for structural durability. In the past decades, many electrochemistry based techniques have been developed for monitoring steel corrosion. However, these electrochemistry techniques can only assess steel corrosion through monitoring the surrounding concrete medium. As alternative tools, some physical based techniques have been proposed for accurate condition assessment of steel corrosion through direct measu...

  5. PEMETAAN PELANGGARAN PESERTA PENGENALAN PROGRAM AKADEMIK (PPA DI UMS TAHUN 2014 DAN VARIASI PENANGANANNYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Budi Wahyudi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to describe the violations by the students of the 2014 initiation at UMS and identify their solutions by the activity coordinators and line coordinators. The primary data included the verbal abuse by the coordinators, committees, and students’ responses to the 2014 Academic Program Activity of Teacher and Training Education Faculty - UMS. The secondary data included the non-verbal (physical abuse obtained from observation and interview. The data were collected through observation, inter-view and written documentation which include the results of the verbal and non-verbal strictness observation, summary of the initiation program and its regulation, and photos. The data validity used was data and data source triangulation. The data were analyzed using case study technique. The results of the study showed that there were some violations by the students during the initiation program as follows: (1 smoking a cigarette, (2 wearing a short skirt for the female, (3 wearing a transparent and tight cloth for the female, (4 not wearing a complete attribute, (5 speaking unethically or using four lette-words, (6 having a long hair beyond the ears, and (7 coming late. The solutions to the violations seemed that the line coordinators tended to permit them and they did not give any punishment so that the students kept on behaving badly. Some students thought that the team of the line coordinators were linient, particularly in giving punishment to the students who violated the regulations of the initiation program.

  6. CyPPA, a positive SK3/SK2 modulator, reduces activity of dopaminergic neurons, inhibits dopamine release, and counteracts hyperdopaminergic behaviors induced by methylphenidate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjartan F. Herrik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine (DA containing midbrain neurons play critical roles in several psychiatric and neurological diseases, including schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and the substantia nigra pars compacta neurons selectively degenerate in Parkinson’s disease. Pharmacological modulation of DA receptors and transporters are well established approaches for treatment of DA-related disorders. Direct modulation of the DA system by influencing the discharge pattern of these autonomously firing neurons has yet to be exploited as a potential therapeutic strategy. Small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (SK channels, in particular the SK3 subtype, are important in the physiology of DA neurons, and agents modifying SK channel activity could potentially affect DA-signaling and DA-related behaviors. Here we show that CyPPA (cyclohexyl-[2-(3,5-dimethyl-pyrazol-1-yl-6-methyl-pyrimidin-4-yl]-amine, a subtype-selective positive modulator of SK channels (SK3 > SK2 >>> SK1, IK, decreased spontaneous firing rate, increased the duration of the apamin-sensitive, medium duration afterhyperpolarization (mAHP, and caused an activity-dependent inhibition of current-evoked action potentials in DA neurons from both mouse and rat midbrain slices. Using a immunohistochemically and pharmacologically validated DA release assay employing cultured DA neurons from rats, we show that CyPPA repressed DA release in a concentration-dependent manner with a maximal effect equal to the D2 receptor agonist quinpirole. In vivo studies revealed that systemic administration of CyPPA attenuated methylphenidate-induced hyperactivity and stereotypic behaviors in mice. Taken together, the data accentuate the important role played by SK3 channels in the physiology of DA neurons, and indicate that their facilitation by CyPPA profoundly influences physiological as well as pharmacologically induced hyperdopaminergic behavior.

  7. Assessment of Kidney Volume Measurement Techniques for Ultrasound Images

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Mahani Hafizah Wan Mahmud; Eko Supriyanto

    2015-01-01

    This study intends to assess and compare the accuracy of different methods for estimating the kidney volume of ultrasound images consist of volume measurement from length-based, area-based and surface-based. For length-based method, the ellipsoid formula was used and for surface-based method, the volume can be automatically obtained from 3D ultrasound system after some manual contouring. For area-based method, sets of ultrasound images with different number of slices were used. After manual c...

  8. Assess sleep stage by modern signal processing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hau-Tieng; Talmon, Ronen; Lo, Yu-Lun

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, two modern adaptive signal processing techniques, empirical intrinsic geometry and synchrosqueezing transform, are applied to quantify different dynamical features of the respiratory and electroencephalographic signals. We show that the proposed features are theoretically rigorously supported, as well as capture the sleep information hidden inside the signals. The features are used as input to multiclass support vector machines with the radial basis function to automatically classify sleep stages. The effectiveness of the classification based on the proposed features is shown to be comparable to human expert classification-the proposed classification of awake, REM, N1, N2, and N3 sleeping stages based on the respiratory signal (resp. respiratory and EEG signals) has the overall accuracy 81.7% (resp. 89.3%) in the relatively normal subject group. In addition, by examining the combination of the respiratory signal with the electroencephalographic signal, we conclude that the respiratory signal consists of ample sleep information, which supplements to the information stored in the electroencephalographic signal.

  9. Stability assessment for underground excavations and key construction techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Hanhua; Zhao, Yu; Niu, Fusheng

    2017-01-01

    This book examines how the state of underground structures can be determined with the assistance of force, deformation and energy. It then analyzes mechanized shield methods, the New Austrian tunneling method (NATM) and conventional methods from this new perspective. The book gathers a wealth of cases reflecting the experiences of practitioners and administrators alike. Based on statistical and engineering studies of these cases, as well as lab and field experiments, it develops a stability assessment approach incorporating a stable equilibrium, which enables engineers to keep the structure and surrounding rocks safe as long as the stable equilibrium and deformation compliance are maintained. The book illustrates the implementation of the method in various tunneling contexts, including soil-rock mixed strata, tunneling beneath operating roads, underwater tunnels, and tunnel pit excavation. It offers a valuable guide for researchers, designers and engineers, especially those who are seeking to understand the u...

  10. Water quality assessment at Omerli Dam using remote sensing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alparslan, Erhan; Aydöner, Cihangir; Tufekci, Vildan; Tüfekci, Hüseyin

    2007-12-01

    Water quality at Omerli Dam, which is a vital potable water resource of Istanbul City, Turkey was assessed using the first four bands of Landsat 7-ETM satellite data, acquired in May 2001 and water quality parameters, such as chlorophyll-a, suspended solid matter, secchi disk and total phosphate measured at several measurement stations at Omerli Dam during satellite image acquisition time and archived at the Marine Pollution and Ecotoxicology laboratory of the Marmara Research Center, where this study was carried out. Establishing a relationship between this data, and the pixel reflectance values in the satellite image, chlorophyll-a, suspended solid matter, secchi disk and total phosphate maps were produced for the Omerli Dam.

  11. Computational techniques for the assessment of fracture repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Donald D; Thomas, Thaddeus P; Campos Marin, Ana; Elkins, Jacob M; Lack, William D; Lacroix, Damien

    2014-06-01

    The combination of high-resolution three-dimensional medical imaging, increased computing power, and modern computational methods provide unprecedented capabilities for assessing the repair and healing of fractured bone. Fracture healing is a natural process that restores the mechanical integrity of bone and is greatly influenced by the prevailing mechanical environment. Mechanobiological theories have been proposed to provide greater insight into the relationships between mechanics (stress and strain) and biology. Computational approaches for modelling these relationships have evolved from simple tools to analyze fracture healing at a single point in time to current models that capture complex biological events such as angiogenesis, stochasticity in cellular activities, and cell-phenotype specific activities. The predictive capacity of these models has been established using corroborating physical experiments. For clinical application, mechanobiological models accounting for patient-to-patient variability hold the potential to predict fracture healing and thereby help clinicians to customize treatment. Advanced imaging tools permit patient-specific geometries to be used in such models. Refining the models to study the strain fields within a fracture gap and adapting the models for case-specific simulation may provide more accurate examination of the relationship between strain and fracture healing in actual patients. Medical imaging systems have significantly advanced the capability for less invasive visualization of injured musculoskeletal tissues, but all too often the consideration of these rich datasets has stopped at the level of subjective observation. Computational image analysis methods have not yet been applied to study fracture healing, but two comparable challenges which have been addressed in this general area are the evaluation of fracture severity and of fracture-associated soft tissue injury. CT-based methodologies developed to assess and quantify

  12. High-resolution Imaging Techniques for the Assessment of Osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Roland; Burghardt, Andrew J.; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis The importance of assessing the bone’s microarchitectural make-up in addition to its mineral density in the context of osteoporosis has been emphasized in a number of publications. The high spatial resolution required to resolve the bone’s microstructure in a clinically feasible scan time is challenging. Currently, the best suited modalities meeting these requirements in vivo are high-resolution peripheral quantitative imaging (HR-pQCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Whereas HR-pQCT is limited to peripheral skeleton regions like the wrist and ankle, MRI can also image other sites like the proximal femur but usually with lower spatial resolution. In addition Multidetector-CT has been used for high-resolution imaging of trabecular bone structure, however, the radiation dose is a limiting factor. This article provides an overview of the different modalities, technical requirements and recent developments in this emerging field. Details regarding imaging protocols as well as image post-processing methods for bone structure quantification are discussed. PMID:20609895

  13. CyPPA, a positive modulator of small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels, inhibits phasic uterine contractions and delays preterm birth in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarra, Dana V; Cornwell, Trudy; Solodushko, Viktoriya; Brown, Amber; Taylor, Mark S

    2011-11-01

    Organized uterine contractions, including those necessary for parturition, are dependent on calcium entry through voltage-gated calcium channels in myometrial smooth muscle cells. Recent evidence suggests that small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium channels (K(Ca)2), specifically isoforms K(Ca)2.2 and 2.3, may control these contractions through negative feedback regulation of Ca(2+) entry. We tested whether selective pharmacologic activation of K(Ca)2.2/2.3 channels might depress uterine contractions, providing a new strategy for preterm labor intervention. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence microscopy revealed expression of both K(Ca)2.2 and K(Ca)2.3 in the myometrium of nonpregnant (NP) and pregnant (gestation day 10 and 16; D10 and D16, respectively) mice. Spontaneous phasic contractions of isolated NP, D10, and D16 uterine strips were all suppressed by the K(Ca)2.2/2.3-selective activator CyPPA in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect was antagonized by the selective K(Ca)2 inhibitor apamin. Whereas CyPPA sensitivity was reduced in D10 and D16 versus NP strips (pIC(50) 5.33 ± 0.09, 4.64 ± 0.03, 4.72 ± 0.10, respectively), all contractions were abolished between 30 and 60 μM. Blunted contractions were associated with CyPPA depression of spontaneous Ca(2+) events in myometrial smooth muscle bundles. Augmentation of uterine contractions with oxytocin or prostaglandin F(2α) did not reduce CyPPA sensitivity or efficacy. Finally, in an RU486-induced preterm labor model, CyPPA significantly delayed time to delivery by 3.4 h and caused a 2.5-fold increase in pup retention. These data indicate that pharmacologic stimulation of myometrial K(Ca)2.2/2.3 channels effectively suppresses Ca(2+)-mediated uterine contractions and delays preterm birth in mice, supporting the potential utility of this approach in tocolytic therapies.

  14. Soil organic carbon assessments in cropping systems using isotopic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín De Dios Herrero, Juan; Cruz Colazo, Juan; Guzman, María Laura; Saenz, Claudio; Sager, Ricardo; Sakadevan, Karuppan

    2016-04-01

    Introduction of improved farming practices are important to address the challenges of agricultural production, food security, climate change and resource use efficiency. The integration of livestock with crops provides many benefits including: (1) resource conservation, (2) ecosystem services, (3) soil quality improvements, and (4) risk reduction through diversification of enterprises. Integrated crop livestock systems (ICLS) with the combination of no-tillage and pastures are useful practices to enhance soil organic carbon (SOC) compared with continuous cropping systems (CCS). In this study, the SOC and its fractions in two cropping systems namely (1) ICLS, and (2) CCS were evaluated in Southern Santa Fe Province in Argentina, and the use of delta carbon-13 technique and soil physical fractionation were evaluated to identify sources of SOC in these systems. Two farms inside the same soil cartographic unit and landscape position in the region were compared. The ICLS farm produces lucerne (Medicago sativa Merrill) and oat (Avena sativa L.) grazed by cattle alternatively with grain summer crops sequence of soybean (Glicine max L.) and corn (Zea mays L.), and the farm under continuous cropping system (CCS) produces soybean and corn in a continuous sequence. The soil in the area is predominantly a Typic Hapludoll. Soil samples from 0-5 and 0-20 cm depths (n=4) after the harvest of grain crops were collected in each system and analyzed for total organic carbon (SOC, 0-2000 μm), particulate organic carbon (POC, 50-100 μm) and mineral organic carbon (MOC, <50 μm). Delta carbon-13 was determined by isotopic ratio mass spectrometry. In addition, a site with natural vegetation (reference site, REF) was also sampled for delta carbon-13 determination. ANOVA and Tukey statistical analysis were carried out for all data. The SOC was higher in ICLS than in CCS at both depths (20.8 vs 17.7 g kg-1 for 0-5 cm and 16.1 vs 12.7 g kg-1 at 0-20 cm, respectively, P<0.05). MOC was

  15. A Novel Technique for Assessing Antioxidant Concentration in Retrieved UHMWPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Barbara H; Van Citters, Douglas W

    2017-05-01

    identification of antioxidant content. Paired Student's t-tests were used to compare as-retrieved articular antioxidant index with expected antioxidant index (the bulk value for blended antioxidants where constant antioxidant content is expected throughout and the extrapolated original vitamin E concentration at the articular surface based on the as-manufactured vitamin E concentration gradient). Linear regression was used for each of the retrievals to evaluate the correlation of antioxidant index to ester content with the goal of extrapolation to the antioxidant index at zero ester content. On average, vitamin E index at the articular surface (0.04 ± 0.03) was reduced compared with expected vitamin E index (0.09 ± 0.04; 95% confidence interval [CI] of the difference, 0.04-0.07; p antioxidant indices at zero absorbed ester index. Absorbed esters from time in vivo caused erroneous values of antioxidant index to be calculated. However, hexane extraction to remove absorbed species also removed diffused vitamin E. Correlating antioxidant indices with ester content, measured by FTIR in unextracted antioxidant retrievals, provides a nonaltered method for estimating actual articular surface vitamin E index and demonstrates that there was no measurable elution in these short-term retrievals. Assessing antioxidant content in retrieved polyethylene inserts is important to determine how much of the antioxidant remains in place to prevent oxidation of the polyethylene over time in vivo. Retrieval analyses reporting antioxidant content must account for absorbed species to be valid. Because standard hexane extraction removes both absorbed species and vitamin E from diffused vitamin E retrievals, the correlation method presented in this study is the recommended analysis alternative.

  16. Particle Physics & Astrophysics (PPA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Scientists at SLAC's Particle Physics and Astrophysics develop and utilize unique instruments from underground to outer space to explore the ultimate laws of nature...

  17. Evaluation of techniques for assessing neonatal caribou calf mortality in the Porcupine Caribou Herd

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses the evaluation of techniques for assessing neonatal caribou calf mortality in the Porcupine caribou herd in Arctic National Wildlife Refuge....

  18. Meta-Analysis of Studies Assessing the Efficacy of Projective Techniques in Discriminating Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Maxine M.

    1998-01-01

    This meta-analysis of 12 studies assessed the efficacy of projective techniques to discriminate between sexually abused and nonsexually abused children. Results indicated the techniques were able to discriminate distressed children from nondistressed subjects, but were less able to discriminate the type of distress. (Author/DB)

  19. Anal acoustic reflectometry: a new technique for assessing anal sphincter function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, P J; Klarskov, N; Hosker, G

    2010-01-01

    Anal acoustic reflectometry (AAR) is a new technique that offers an assessment of anal sphincter function by the measurement of additional parameters not available with conventional manometry. The aim of this study is to describe the technique, methodology and initial pilot study results....

  20. The Effectiveness of Active and Traditional Teaching Techniques in the Orthopedic Assessment Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottingham, Sara; Verscheure, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Active learning is a teaching methodology with a focus on student-centered learning that engages students in the educational process. This study implemented active learning techniques in an orthopedic assessment laboratory, and the effects of these teaching techniques. Mean scores from written exams, practical exams, and final course evaluations…

  1. Review of Physical Based Monitoring Techniques for Condition Assessment of Corrosion in Reinforced Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Lei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the condition of steel corrosion in reinforced concrete (RC is imperative for structural durability. In the past decades, many electrochemistry based techniques have been developed for monitoring steel corrosion. However, these electrochemistry techniques can only assess steel corrosion through monitoring the surrounding concrete medium. As alternative tools, some physical based techniques have been proposed for accurate condition assessment of steel corrosion through direct measurements on embedded steels. In this paper, some physical based monitoring techniques developed in the last decade for condition assessment of steel corrosion in RC are reviewed. In particular, techniques based on ultrasonic guided wave (UGW and Fiber Bragg grating (FBG are emphasized. UGW based technique is first reviewed, including important characters of UGW, corrosion monitoring mechanism and feature extraction, monitoring corrosion induced deboning, pitting, interface roughness, and influence factors. Subsequently, FBG for monitoring corrosion in RC is reviewed. The studies and application of the FBG based corrosion sensor developed by the authors are presented. Other physical techniques for monitoring corrosion in RC are also introduced. Finally, the challenges and future trends in the development of physical based monitoring techniques for condition assessment of steel corrosion in RC are put forward.

  2. Assessing the Value of Structured Analytic Techniques in the U.S. Intelligence Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    to assess whether SATs in general or specific SATs are improving the quality of analysis. One primarily qualitative method of evaluating these...assessing these techniques would be to initiate qualitative reviews of their contribu- tion in bodies of intelligence production on a variety of topics...Analytic Techniques, and Why Do Analysts Use Them? SATs are methods of organizing and stimulating thinking about intelligence problems. These methods

  3. Implementing the Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment and Placement Program (VB-MAPP): Teaching Assessment Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barnes, Clarissa S; Mellor, James R; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne

    2014-01-01

    The Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment and Placement Program (VB-MAPP) is an assessment tool used with individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and other language delays (Sundberg 2008...

  4. Techniques for assessing relative values for multiple objective management on private forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald F. Dennis; Thomas H. Stevens; David B. Kittredge; Mark G. Rickenbach

    2003-01-01

    Decision models for assessing multiple objective management of private lands will require estimates of the relative values of various nonmarket outputs or objectives that have become increasingly important. In this study, conjoint techniques are used to assess the relative values and acceptable trade-offs (marginal rates of substitution) among various objectives...

  5. A Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Alternative Assessment Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozuyesil, Eda; Tanriseven, Isil

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Recent trends have encouraged the use of alternative assessment tools in class in line with the recommendations made by the updated curricula. It is of great importance to understand how alternative assessment affects students' academic outcomes and which techniques are most effective in which contexts. This study aims to examine the…

  6. Use of Formative Classroom Assessment Techniques in a Project Management Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Bernice M.

    2014-01-01

    Formative assessment is considered to be an evaluation technique that informs the instructor of the level of student learning, giving evidence when it may be necessary for the instructor to make a change in delivery based upon the results. Several theories of formative assessment exist, all which propound the importance of feedback to the student.…

  7. An attempt to describe a relationship between concrete deterioration quantities and bridge deck condition assessment techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnavina, Aleksandra V.; Sneed, Lesley H.; Khamzin, Aleksey K.; Torgashov, Evgeniy V.; Anderson, Neil L.

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a study of the performance of four techniques - visual inspection, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Ultrasonic Surface Wave (USW), and core control - that were used to assess condition of a concrete bridge deck. The bridge deck was then rehabilitated using hydrodemolition, and the concrete removed during hydrodemolition was assumed to be deteriorated. LiDAR measurements of concrete depth removal collected after hydrodemolition were used as ground truth. Comparisons of bridge deck condition assessment data and LiDAR concrete removal measurements were performed in this study. The comparisons attempt to find and describe a possible relationship between bridge deck assessment techniques and quantities of concrete deterioration.

  8. Poli-Fital-Amid (PPA Polimerinin Tribolojik Özelliklerine Karbon Fiber Ve Kayma Hızı’nın Etkisinin İncelenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Hakan YETGİN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bu deneysel çalışmada, katkısız poli-fital-amid (PPA polimeri ile %30 karbon fiber takviyeli poli-fital-amid (PPA+30%CF kompozitin, kuru kayma şartları altında paslanmaz çelik disk malzemeye karşı tribolojik performansları araştırılmıştır. Karbon fiber takviyeli kompozit malzeme üretimi endüstriyel tip çift vidalı ekstruder kullanılarak gerçekleştirilmiş olup, aşınma test numuneleri de geleneksel enjeksiyon makinesi kullanılarak kalıplanmıştır. Aşınma testleri 40N yük altında 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 ve 4.0 m/s gibi yüksek kayma hızlarında pim-disk aşınma cihazında, oda sıcaklığında gerçekleştirilmiştir. Aşınma test sonuçlarına göre, %30 karbon fiber takviyeli poli-fital-amid kompozitin spesifik aşınma oranı 10-13 m2/N  iken katkısız poli-fital-amidin aşınma oranı ise 10-12 m2/N olarak elde edilmiştir.  Karbon fiber takviyeli poli-fital-amid kompozitin sürtünme katsayısı katkısız poli-fital-amide göre daha düşük olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Karbon fiber takviyeli poli-fital-amid kompozitin kırılma yüzey incelemeleri taramalı elektron mikroskobu kullanılarak yapılmıştır. Deneylerde kullanılan PPA polimer ve PPA+30%CF kompozit malzemelerin aşınma yüzeylerinin mikroyapıları optik mikroskop kullanılarak incelenmiştir.

  9. Experimental and modelling techniques for assessing the adhesion of very thin coatings on glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Jinju; Bull, S J [School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials, Newcastle University, Merz Court, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Lin Zheshuai; Phillips, C L; Bristowe, P D [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-07

    The adhesion of very thin (<100 nm) coatings on glass is not easy to assess. A particular issue at the present time is the assessment of the adhesion of thin metal coatings sandwiched between dielectric layers in a multilayer stack as is used in solar control coatings. A range of experimental techniques have been developed for thicker coatings but they do not always give consistent results, particularly as the coating thickness decreases. In all cases the operating failure mechanisms must be identified and the correct methods for analysing the data produced must be selected. In this paper, the experimental techniques, models and atomistic simulations which can determine the interfacial adhesion of thin ZnO/Ag ceramic/metal layers have been investigated. Overlayer techniques, scratch and nanoindentation techniques, and double cantilever beam methods can give reasonable and consistent results which agree very well with the intrinsic interface adhesion obtained from atomistic simulations.

  10. Experimental and modelling techniques for assessing the adhesion of very thin coatings on glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinju; Lin, Zheshuai; Bull, S. J.; Phillips, C. L.; Bristowe, P. D.

    2009-11-01

    The adhesion of very thin (<100 nm) coatings on glass is not easy to assess. A particular issue at the present time is the assessment of the adhesion of thin metal coatings sandwiched between dielectric layers in a multilayer stack as is used in solar control coatings. A range of experimental techniques have been developed for thicker coatings but they do not always give consistent results, particularly as the coating thickness decreases. In all cases the operating failure mechanisms must be identified and the correct methods for analysing the data produced must be selected. In this paper, the experimental techniques, models and atomistic simulations which can determine the interfacial adhesion of thin ZnO/Ag ceramic/metal layers have been investigated. Overlayer techniques, scratch and nanoindentation techniques, and double cantilever beam methods can give reasonable and consistent results which agree very well with the intrinsic interface adhesion obtained from atomistic simulations.

  11. An image processing technique for the radiographic assessment of vertebral derangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breen, A.C. (Anglo-European Coll. of Chiropractic, Bournemouth (UK)); Allen, R. (Southampton Univ. (UK). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Morris, A. (Odstock Hospital, Salisbury (UK). Dept. of Radiology)

    1989-01-01

    A technique for measuring inter-vertebral motion by the digitization and processing of intensifier images is described. The technique reduces the time and X-ray dosage currently required to make such assessments. The errors associated with computing kinematic indices at increments of coronal plane rotations in the lumbar spine have been calculated using a calibration model designed to produce a facsimile of in vivo conditions in terms of image quality and geometric distortion. (author).

  12. Fluorescence techniques to detect and to assess viability of plant pathogenic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Chitarra, L.G.

    2001-01-01

    Plant pathogenic bacteria cause major economic losses in commercial crop production worldwide every year. The current methods used to detect and to assess the viability of bacterial pathogens and to test seed lots or plants for contamination are usually based on plate assays or on serological techniques. Plating methods provide information about cell viability, but are generally laborious and time-consuming. Serological techniques, such as immunofluorescence microscopy (IF) and enzym...

  13. Effect of recording/playback technique and experimental method on assessments of noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celik, Emine; Persson-Waye, Kerstin; Møller, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated possible effects of recording/playback technique and experimental method on assessments of annoyance, loudness and unpleasantness. A possible effect of exposure duration was also studied. Sounds were recorded with two different techniques: monophonic and binaural (dummy...... of experiments and interpretation of results. The results also show that long-term annoyance and unpleasantness are poorly predicted by short-duration methods....

  14. Reliability and normative values of the foot line test: a technique to assess foot posture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brushøj, C; Larsen, Klaus; Nielsen, MB

    2007-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Test-retest reliability. OBJECTIVE: To examine the reliability and report normative values of a novel test, the foot line test (FLT), to describe foot morphology. BACKGROUND: Numerous foot examinations are performed each day, but most existing examination techniques have considerabl......). There was no significant association between foot size and FLT values. CONCLUSION: The FLT is a reproducible technique to assess foot posture....

  15. The Effect of Learning Based on Technology Model and Assessment Technique toward Thermodynamic Learning Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makahinda, T.

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this research is to find out the effect of learning model based on technology and assessment technique toward thermodynamic achievement by controlling students intelligence. This research is an experimental research. The sample is taken through cluster random sampling with the total respondent of 80 students. The result of the research shows that the result of learning of thermodynamics of students who taught the learning model of environmental utilization is higher than the learning result of student thermodynamics taught by simulation animation, after controlling student intelligence. There is influence of student interaction, and the subject between models of technology-based learning with assessment technique to student learning result of Thermodynamics, after controlling student intelligence. Based on the finding in the lecture then should be used a thermodynamic model of the learning environment with the use of project assessment technique.

  16. GR@PPA 2.8: Initial-state jet matching for weak-boson production processes at hadron collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odaka, Shigeru; Kurihara, Yoshimasa

    2012-04-01

    The initial-state jet matching method introduced in our previous studies has been applied to the event generation of single W and Z production processes and diboson (WW, WZ and ZZ) production processes at hadron collisions in the framework of the GR@PPA event generator. The generated events reproduce the transverse momentum spectra of weak bosons continuously in the entire kinematical region. The matrix elements (ME) for hard interactions are still at the tree level. As in previous versions, the decays of weak bosons are included in the matrix elements. Therefore, spin correlations and phase-space effects in the decay of weak bosons are exact at the tree level. The program package includes custom-made parton shower programs as well as ME-based hard interaction generators in order to achieve self-consistent jet matching. The generated events can be passed to general-purpose event generators to make the simulation proceed down to the hadron level. Catalogue identifier: ADRH_v3_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADRH_v3_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 112 146 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 596 667 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran; with some included libraries coded in C and C++ Computer: All Operating system: Any UNIX-like system RAM: 1.6 Mega bytes at minimum Classification: 11.2 Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADRH_v2_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 175 (2006) 665 External routines: Bash and Perl for the setup, and CERNLIB, ROOT, LHAPDF, PYTHIA according to the user's choice. Does the new version supersede the previous version?: No, this version supports only a part of the processes included in the previous versions. Nature of problem: We

  17. Assessing Dental Hygienists' Communication Techniques for Use with Low Oral Health Literacy Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Priscilla; Acharya, Amit; Schwei, Kelsey; VanWormer, Jeffrey; Skrzypcak, Kaitlyn

    2016-06-01

    This primary aim of this study was to assess communication techniques used with low oral health literacy patients by dental hygienists in rural Wisconsin dental clinics. A secondary aim was to determine the utility of the survey instrument used in this study. A mixed methods study consisting of a cross-sectional survey, immediately followed by focus groups, was conducted among dental hygienists in the Marshfield Clinic (Wisconsin) service area. The survey quantified the routine use of 18 communication techniques previously shown to be effective with low oral health literacy patients. Linear regression was used to analyze the association between routine use of each communication technique and several indicator variables, including geographic practice region, oral health literacy familiarity, communication skills training and demographic indicators. Qualitative analyses included code mapping to the 18 communication techniques identified in the survey, and generating new codes based on discussion content. On average, the 38 study participants routinely used 6.3 communication techniques. Dental hygienists who used an oral health literacy assessment tool reported using significantly more communication techniques compared to those who did not use an oral health literacy assessment tool. Focus group results differed from survey responses as few dental hygienists stated familiarity with the term "oral health literacy." Motivational interviewing techniques and using an integrated electronic medical-dental record were additional communication techniques identified as useful with low oral health literacy patients. Dental hygienists in this study routinely used approximately one-third of the communication techniques recommended for low oral health literacy patients supporting the need for training on this topic. Based on focus group results, the survey used in this study warrants modification and psychometric testing prior to further use. Copyright © 2016 The American Dental

  18. Performing the Parryscope technique gently for office tubal patency assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, J Preston; Riche, Daniel; Rushing, John; Linton, Brittany; Butler, Vicki; Lindheim, Steven R

    2017-10-01

    To demonstrate a novel approach to office tubal patency assessment through infusing air into saline during flexible office hysteroscopy. We also provide data addressing pain and patient experience relative to hysterosalpingography (HSG). Video presentation of clinical technique with supportive crossover data (Canadian Task Force classification II-1). Its University of Mississippi Medical Center Institutional Review Board protocol number is 2013-0230. Academic hospital. Women undergoing office hysteroscopy and ultrasound, with a subset also having HSG. Air infusion into saline during office hysteroscopy. The focus is on demonstrating how the technique appears and is performed, with supplemental Likert data addressing subjective pain and preference relative to HSG. When performed as described, this office technique has 98.3%-100% sensitivity to tubal occlusion and 83.7% specificity. The gentle technique is central to accurate outcomes, which is facilitated through use of a small-caliber (maximum discomfort with HSG. Among patients who also had HSG, 92% somewhat or strongly prefer hysteroscopic assessment. Also, 96% of patients reporting maximum discomfort with HSG had mild to no discomfort with the described technique. Air-infused saline at flexible office hysteroscopy can accurately, gently, and rapidly assess tubal patency. Coupled with strong patient preference for this technique over HSG, it is a promising option for evaluating fertility. NCT02005263. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Comparing and assessing different measurement techniques for mercury in coal systhesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, D.P.; Richardson, C.F. [Radian Corporation, Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Three mercury measurement techniques were performed on synthesis gas streams before and after an amine-based sulfur removal system. The syngas was sampled using (1) gas impingers containing a nitric acid-hydrogen peroxide solution, (2) coconut-based charcoal sorbent, and (3) an on-line atomic absorption spectrophotometer equipped with a gold amalgamation trap and cold vapor cell. Various impinger solutions were applied upstream of the gold amalgamation trap to remove hydrogen sulfide and isolate oxidized and elemental species of mercury. The results from these three techniques are compared to provide an assessment of these measurement techniques in reducing gas atmospheres.

  20. Techniques for Liquid Rocket Combustion Spontaneous Stability and Rough Combustion Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, R. J.; Giacomoni, C.; Casiano, M. J.; Fischbach, S. R.

    2016-01-01

    This work presents techniques for liquid rocket engine combustion stability assessments with respect to spontaneous stability and rough combustion. Techniques covering empirical parameter extraction, which were established in prior works, are applied for three additional programs: the F-1 Gas Generator (F1GG) component test program, the RS-84 preburner component test program, and the Marshall Integrated Test Rig (MITR) program. Stability assessment parameters from these programs are compared against prior established spontaneous stability metrics and updates are identified. Also, a procedure for comparing measured with predicted mode shapes is presented, based on an extension of the Modal Assurance Criterion (MAC).

  1. Preceptor use of classroom assessment techniques to stimulate higher-order thinking in the clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Judy E

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide examples of learning activities to be used as formative (interim) evaluation of an in-hospital orientation or cross-training program. Examples are provided in the form of vignettes that have been derived from strategies described in the literature as classroom assessment techniques. Although these classroom assessment techniques were originally designed for classroom experiences, they are proposed as methods for preceptors to stimulate the development of higher-order thinking such as synthesizing information, solving problems, and learning how to learn.

  2. Direct Assessment of Graduate Competencies Through Collaboration of Classroom Assessment Technique as The Basic Evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Herawati

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Graduate competencies are the combination of knowledge, skills or abilities that play important roles in the successful completion of a task at work. However, that does not mean graduate competencies are proven most in the job occupation. The assessment during four years of undergraduate program will be effective ways to assess the achievement of graduate competencies. In the curriculum process, the graduate competencies are broken down into some related learning outcomes. As the main aims, the learning outcomes should pass some assessment to see the achievement of them and get the feedback. The types of the assessment are based on the needs. The decision of this achievement is based on some analysis through various ways, including analytical rubric and checklist. The achievement of learning outcomes will be analyzed more to see how the graduate competencies have been achieved. The result of this analysis will be the basis of direct assessment of the graduate competencies that will result in the collection of evidences as the feedback of the improvement of the whole curriculum.   

  3. Perceptions of Teachers towards Assessment Techniques at Secondary Level Private School of Karachi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henna Fatemah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets out to explore the perceptions of teachers towards assessment techniques at a secondary level private school of Karachi. This was conjectured on the basis of the circumstances of parallel boards in the education system of Pakistan and its effectiveness within the context with respect to the curriculum. This was gauged in line with the forms and techniques of assessment corresponding with the curriculum. A qualitative research design based on interviews was chosen for this study. Purposive sampling was used to select the teachers from a school. The findings of the study revealed that the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE is best suited to assess students’ knowledge and skills and the teachers viewed that in order for students to be accomplished in this board, the ways of assessment must take a more meaningful measure of evaluating student’s progress

  4. Assessing doctors' competence: application of CUSUM technique in monitoring doctors' performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, T O; Soraya, A; Ding, L M; Morad, Z

    2002-06-01

    Quality assurance of medical practice requires assessment of doctors' performance, whether informally via a system such as peer review or more formally via one such as credentialing. Current methods of assessment are, however, subjective or implicit. More objective methods of assessment based on statistical process control technique such as cumulative sum (CUSUM) procedure may be helpful. To determine the usefulness and acceptability of CUSUM charting for assessing doctors' performance. We applied CUSUM charting to assess doctors' performance of endoscopic retrograde pancreatography, renal and breast biopsies, thyroidectomy, and instrumental deliver. A CUSUM chart is a graphical representation of the trend in the outcome of a series of consecutive procedures. At acceptable levels of performance, the CUSUM curve is flat, while at unacceptable levels of performance, the curve slopes upward and eventually crosses a decision interval. When this occurs, the CUSUM chart indicates unsatisfactory performance. Thus, it provides an early warning of an adverse trend. All participating doctors found the technique useful to objectively measure their proficiency. CUSUM charts showed the progress of trainees in acquiring new skills. As they become more skillful with training, their CUSUM curves flatten. Among consultants, level CUSUM curves demonstrated ongoing maintenance of competence. All participants found the technique acceptable as a self-assessment tool. They were, however, less certain of its acceptability as a basis for credentialing. We recommend the use of CUSUM charting as a tool for personal audit at an individual level. It may also be used to show proof of technical competence for the purpose of credentialing.

  5. A Systematic Review of the Evolution of Laser Doppler Techniques in Burn Depth Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manaf Khatib

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The introduction of laser Doppler (LD techniques to assess burn depth has revolutionized the treatment of burns of indeterminate depth. This paper will systematically review studies related to these two techniques and trace their evolution. At the same time we hope to highlight current controversies and areas where further research is necessary with regard to LD imaging (LDI techniques. Methods. A systematic search for relevant literature was carried out on PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. Key search terms included the following: “Laser Doppler imaging,” “laser Doppler flow,” and “burn depth.” Results. A total of 53 studies were identified. Twenty-six studies which met the inclusion/exclusion criteria were included in the review. Conclusions. The numerous advantages of LDI over those of LD flowmetry have resulted in the former technique superseding the latter one. Despite the presence of alternative burn depth assessment techniques, LDI remains the most favoured. Various newer LDI machines with increasingly sophisticated methods of assessing burn depth have been introduced throughout the years. However, factors such as cost effectiveness, scanning of topographically inconsistent areas of the body, and skewing of results due to tattoos, peripheral vascular disease, and anaemia continue to be sighted as obstacles to LDI which require further research.

  6. Post flooding damage assessment of earth dams and historical reservoirs using non-invasive geophysical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentenac, Philippe; Benes, Vojtech; Budinsky, Vladimir; Keenan, Helen; Baron, Ron

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes the use of four geophysical techniques to map the structural integrity of historical earth reservoir embankments which are susceptible to natural decay with time. The four techniques that were used to assess the post flood damage were 1. A fast scanning technique using a dipole electromagnetic profile apparatus (GEM2), 2. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) in order to obtain a high resolution image of the shape of the damaged/seepage zone, 3. Self-Potential surveys were carried out to relate the detected seepage evolution and change of the water displacement inside the embankment, 4. The washed zone in the areas with piping was characterised with microgravimetry. The four geophysical techniques used were evaluated against the case studies of two reservoirs in South Bohemia, Czech Republic. A risk approach based on the Geophysical results was undertaken for the reservoir embankments. The four techniques together enabled a comprehensive non-invasive assessment whereby remedial action could be recommended where required. Conclusions were also drawn on the efficiency of the techniques to be applied for embankments with wood structures.

  7. Quality assessment of hypospadias repair with emphasis on techniques used and experience of pediatric urologic surgeons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chrzan, Rafal; Dik, Pieter; Klijn, Aart J.; de Jong, Tom P. V. M.

    2007-01-01

    To assess outcomes in hypospadias repair at our institution, as compared with the literature, with repair technique and surgeon considered as risk factors. The results of 299 primary hypospadias corrections were analyzed. All procedures were performed by three experienced pediatric urologists. Mean

  8. Wet meadow restoration in Western Europe : A quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of several techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klimkowska, Agata; Diggelen, Rudy Van; Bakker, Jan P.; Grootjans, Ab P.

    2007-01-01

    Techniques such as rewetting, topsoil removal, diaspore transfer or combinations of these are increasingly applied in fen meadow and flood meadow restoration in Western Europe. In this paper, we present a quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of the commonly used meadow restoration methods.

  9. Delphi technique as a tool in assessing injury priorities and actions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Delphi technique as a tool in assessing injury priorities and actions for injury prevention in the European Union. Delia-Marina Alexe, Ilias Skalkidis, Kiki Petroulaki, Eleni Petridou. Abstract. No Abstract. African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention Vol. 4(1) 2006: 119-129.

  10. Formative Assessment and the Intuitive Incorporation of Research-Based Instruction Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, Paula; VanOeffelen, Rachel; Veldkamp, Simon; Bokma, Isaac; Breems, Luke; Fynewever, Herb

    2015-01-01

    Using Max Weber's theory of ideal types, the authors classify the formative assessment techniques used by 12 college instructors. Their data reveal two pairs of opposing preferences: (1) highly preplanned vs. highly emergent and (2) focused on individual students vs. focused on the class as a whole. Using interview data, they illustrate how each…

  11. Research and Teaching: Assessment of Graduate Teaching Assistants Enrolled in a Teaching Techniques Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, Caralyn

    2016-01-01

    At the authors' public liberal arts institution, biology masters students are required to enroll in BIOL 5050: Teaching Techniques. Course topics include designing effective lectures, assessment, classroom management, diversity in the classroom, and active learning strategies. The impact of this type of training on graduate students' attitudes and…

  12. Development of flexural vibration inspection techniques to rapidly assess the structural health of rural bridge systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian K. Brashaw; Robert Vatalaro; Xiping Wang; Kevin Sarvela; James P. Wacker

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 4,000 vehicle bridges in the State of Minnesota contain structural timber members. Recent research at the University of Minnesota Duluth Natural Resources Research Institute (UMD NRRI) has been conducted on vibration testing of timber bridges as a means of developing rapid in-place testing techniques for assessing the structural health of bridges. The...

  13. Mode of Delivery: A Classroom Assessment Technique Comparison between Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Andrea; Daw, Jolene

    2014-01-01

    This study explores how using Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs) in phone conversations with students may help to clarify learning objectives and encourage active learning in distance education. For this study, research was collected from introductory undergraduate online courses at a university in the Southwest. Data was collected from three…

  14. Classroom Assessment Techniques: Checking for Student Understanding in an Introductory University Success Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbeck, Rick; Bergquist, Emily; Lees, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs) have been used in traditional university classrooms as a strategy to check for student understanding (Angelo & Cross, 1993). With the emergence of online learning and its popularity for non-traditional students, it is equally important that instructors in the online environment check for student…

  15. The Ticket to Retention: A Classroom Assessment Technique Designed to Improve Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divoll, Kent A.; Browning, Sandra T.; Vesey, Winona M.

    2012-01-01

    Classroom assessment techniques (CATs) or other closure activities are widely promoted for use in college classrooms. However, research on whether CATs improve student learning are mixed. The authors posit that the results are mixed because CATs were designed to "help teachers find out what students are learning in the classroom and how well…

  16. Adding Rigor to Classroom Assessment Techniques for Non-Traditional Adult Programs: A Lifecycle Improvement Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jason E.; Hornsey, Philip E.

    2014-01-01

    Formative Classroom Assessment Techniques (CAT) have been well-established instructional tools in higher education since their exposition in the late 1980s (Angelo & Cross, 1993). A large body of literature exists surrounding the strengths and weaknesses of formative CATs. Simpson-Beck (2011) suggested insufficient quantitative evidence exists…

  17. Technique of an Assessment of Industrial Safety of Paint and Varnish Productions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelchenko, E. V.; Trushkova, E. A.; Pushenko, S. L.; Sitnik, S. V.; Firsov, V. A.

    2017-05-01

    In article the technique of an assessment and the analysis of industrial safety of paint and varnish productions is described, the main measures of prevention, the main reasons for traumatism and action for decrease in risks of influence of dangerous and harmful production factors on workers are given.

  18. [Hand hygiene technique assessment using electronic equipment in 26 Hungarian healthcare institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehotsky, Ákos; Morvai, Júlia; Szilágyi, László; Bánsághi, Száva; Benkó, Alíz; Haidegger, Tamás

    2017-07-01

    Hand hygiene is probably the most effective tool of nosocomial infection prevention, however, proper feedback and control is needed to develop the individual hand hygiene practice. Assessing the efficiency of modern education tools, and digital demonstration and verification equipment during their wide-range deployment. 1269 healthcare workers took part in a training organized by our team. The training included the assessment of the participants' hand hygiene technique to identify the most often missed areas. The hand hygiene technique was examined by a digital device. 33% of the participants disinfected their hands incorrectly. The most often missed sites are the fingertips (33% on the left hand, 37% on the right hand) and the thumbs (42% on the left hand, 32% on the right hand). The feedback has a fundamental role in the development of the hand hygiene technique. With the usage of electronic devices feedback can be provided efficiently and simply. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(29): 1143-1148.

  19. Comparison of three bioimpedance techniques with hydrodensitometry for assessment of body composition in young adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristizábal, Juan Carlos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bioimpedance measurement allows quick and safe estimation of the body composition. However, it remains controversial which bioimpedance measurement technique is more exact for calculating the fat mass percentage (%FM. Objective: To compare the %FM obtained with three bioimpedance techniques with hydrodensitometry, as a reference method. Materials and methods: In 31 women, the %FM was assessed by hydrodensitometry with simultaneous lung residual volume measurement and three bioimpedance techniques: hands-to-feet (8-electrodes, hand-to-foot (4-electrodes and footto-foot (4-electrodes. Results: Average age and body mass index were 22.4 ± 2.8 years and 23.6 ± 3.3 kg/m2, respectively. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05 between the %FM obtained by hydrodensitometry (31.4 ± 6.6 and hands-to-feet technique (31.9 ± 5.9. However, hand-to-foot and foot-to-foot techniques showed differences (p < 0.05 with the reference method of +1.4 % and -4.9%, respectively. There was a fair agreement between hydrodensitometry and the results obtained with hands-to-feet (Bland-Altman: IC95 %: -6.6; 5.6 and hand-to-foot (Bland-Altman: IC95 %: -8.0; 5.2 techniques. The foot-to-foot measurement showed poor agreement with the reference method (Bland-Altman: IC95 %: -4.7; 14.4. Conclusions: In this group of young women with healthy body weight, the hands-to-feet bioimpedance technique generates body composition values closer to the hydrodensitometry results as compared with the hand-to-foot and foot-to-foot techniques. Additionally, the hands-to-feet technique shows a slightly better agreement with hydrodensitometry than the hand-to-foot and foot-to-foot techniques.

  20. Life Cycle Assessments of Manure Management Techniques for the Baltic Sea Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Baky, A; Cano-Bernal, J

    , fattening pig slurry, horse manure and solid manure from fattening pigs) and five BSR countries (Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Poland and Sweden). Three main categories of techniques were investigated: i) separation technologies; ii) technologies involving energy production; and iii) other technologies......The report summarizes the key results of the consequential life cycle assessments (LCAs) carried out for a variety of manure management techniques over the Baltic Sea Regions (BSR). For all manure management technologies assessed, the environmental impacts (in terms of potential to global warming....... Assessed separation technologies include concentration technologies, state-of-the-art decanter centrifuge and source-separation technologies. The energy production technologies addressed consist of thermal gasification, incineration and anaerobic digestion (for which a myriad of carbon co...

  1. A contemporary perspective on techniques for the clinical assessment of alveolar bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausmann, E. (State Univ. of New York, Buffalo (USA))

    1990-03-01

    Radiographic techniques, traditional ones as well as newer ones under development, for clinically assessing alveolar bone are critically assessed. Traditional intraoral radiography is reexamined, in particular with regard to the accuracy with which the alveolar crest is seen. Evidence is presented for a more accurate representation of the alveolar crest on bitewings rather than periapical films. Application in periodontics of newer radiographic techniques, subtraction radiography, and single and dual photon aborptiometry presently under clinical development are discussed in regard to their potential and limitations. Similarly, radiopharmaceuticals to evaluate the metabolic status of alveolar bone are discussed as well as the potential for using analyses of gingival crevice fluid as a window for assessment of alveolar crest metabolism. 46 references.

  2. Using stable isotope techniques in nutrition assessments and tracking of global targets post-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owino, Victor O; Slater, Christine; Loechl, Cornelia U

    2017-11-01

    Stable isotopes are non-radioactive, safe and are applied for various purposes in human health assessment in trace amounts that minimally disturb normal physiology. The International Atomic Energy Agency supports the use of stable isotope techniques to design and evaluate interventions addressing malnutrition in all its forms with focus on infant and young child feeding; maternal and adolescent nutrition; diet quality; prevention and control of non-communicable diseases; healthy ageing and gut function. These techniques can be used to objectively measure: (1) amount of human milk consumed and whether an infant is exclusively breastfed; (2) body composition in the context of re-feeding programmes for moderate and severe acute malnutrition and as an indicator of the risk for obesity; (3) bioavailability and bioconversion of pro-vitamin A and vitamin A body stores following vitamin A intervention programmes; (4) absorption and retention of iron, zinc and protein; (5) total energy expenditure for validation of physical activity measurement and dietary assessment tools and (6) diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori. Stable isotope techniques will be invaluable in the tracking of global targets on exclusive breast-feeding childhood obesity and anaemia among women. Efforts are underway to make nuclear techniques more affordable, field-friendly and less invasive, and to develop less sophisticated but precise equipment. Advocacy for the wide adoption of the techniques is needed.

  3. Rescuing the Clinical Breast Examination: Advances in Classifying Technique and Assessing Physician Competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Shlomi; D'Angelo, Anne-Lise D; Kwan, Calvin; Ray, Rebbeca D; Yudkowsky, Rachel; Boulet, John R; McGaghie, William C; Pugh, Carla M

    2017-12-01

    Develop new performance evaluation standards for the clinical breast examination (CBE). There are several, technical aspects of a proper CBE. Our recent work discovered a significant, linear relationship between palpation force and CBE accuracy. This article investigates the relationship between other technical aspects of the CBE and accuracy. This performance assessment study involved data collection from physicians (n = 553) attending 3 different clinical meetings between 2013 and 2014: American Society of Breast Surgeons, American Academy of Family Physicians, and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Four, previously validated, sensor-enabled breast models were used for clinical skills assessment. Models A and B had solitary, superficial, 2 cm and 1 cm soft masses, respectively. Models C and D had solitary, deep, 2 cm hard and moderately firm masses, respectively. Finger movements (search technique) from 1137 CBE video recordings were independently classified by 2 observers. Final classifications were compared with CBE accuracy. Accuracy rates were model A = 99.6%, model B = 89.7%, model C = 75%, and model D = 60%. Final classification categories for search technique included rubbing movement, vertical movement, piano fingers, and other. Interrater reliability was (k = 0.79). Rubbing movement was 4 times more likely to yield an accurate assessment (odds ratio 3.81, P clinical skills. The newly described piano fingers palpation technique was noted to have unusually high failure rates. Medical educators should be aware of the potential differences in effectiveness for various CBE techniques.

  4. Awareness and Utilization of Classroom Assessment Techniques in Higher Education: The Case of a State College in Bicol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth B. Barandon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Assessment plays a crucial role in the delivery of quality education. In the triad of education, assessment is considered one of the key areas aside from curriculum and instruction; thus, educators need to give premium to classroom assessment techniques. This descriptive study determined the level of awareness and extent of utilization of classroom assessment techniques by faculty of a state college in Bicol. Respondents were seventy-six (76 randomly chosen permanent and Contract of Service faculty provided the data by answering a questionnaire. Findings show that the faculties were moderately aware of formative assessment technique and summative assessment technique. Likewise, the faculty moderately utilized both the formative assessment and summative assessment techniques. Pearson product-moment correlation test results show that there is a significant relationship between the level of awareness and the extent of utilization of assessment techniques. Over-all, it is concluded that the higher the level of awareness of the faculty, the higher is their extent of utilization of classroom assessment techniques. Among the proposed measures to enhance utilization of classroom assessment technique are training in classroom assessment by external experts, intensive follow-up activity after the training, and classroom observation.

  5. Spinal and sacroiliac assessment and treatment techniques used by osteopathic physicians in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Gary; Morse, Christopher M; Johnson, Jane C

    2009-01-01

    Background Osteopathic manipulative medicine texts and educators advocate a range of approaches for physical assessment and treatment, but little is known about their use by osteopathic physicians in the United States. Methods A web-based survey using a 5-point Likert scale was developed and e-mailed to 777 practicing osteopathic physician members of the American Academy of Osteopathy. Responses in the "frequently" and "always" categories were combined for reporting purposes. Friedman tests were used to analyze the reported usage of each item. The effect of gender was analyzed using Mann-Whitney tests. Results One hundred seventy-one osteopathic physicians completed the survey (22%). For the assessment of spinal somatic dysfunction, paraspinal tissue texture (98%), transverse process asymmetry (89%), and tenderness (85%) were most commonly reported. Myofascial release (78%), soft tissue technique (77%), and patient self-stretches (71%) were most commonly used for treatment of the spine. For assessment of pelvic landmark asymmetry, the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS, 87%), sacral base (82%), posterior superior iliac spine (81%), sacral sulci (78%), iliac crests (77%), and inferior lateral angle of the sacrum (74%) were commonly palpated. For assessment of sacroiliac joint motion, ASIS compression (68%) was most commonly used. Sacroiliac pain provocation tests were also employed although their use was less common than asymmetry or motion tests. Muscle energy (70%), myofascial release (67%), patient self-stretches (66%), osteopathy in the cranial field (59%), muscle strengthening exercises (58%), soft tissue technique (58%), and articulatory technique (53%) were most commonly used for treatment of the pelvis and sacroiliac. The effect of gender was significant for many of the treatment procedures, with females using more soft tissue and muscle energy and males more high-velocity techniques. The majority of respondents document the types of osteopathic

  6. Diagnostic radiography students' perceptions of formative peer assessment within a radiographic technique module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshami, W; Abdalla, M E

    2017-02-01

    Assessment is a central part of student learning. Student involvement in peer assessment leads to significant improvement in students' performance, supports students' learning, promotes the development of evaluation skills and encourages reflection. The aim of this study is to assess perceptions of the Formative Peer Assessment (FPA) initiative within a higher education setting for undergraduate radiography students. Qualitative action research was conducted. Students were allowed to anonymously assess each other's assignments using a standardized evaluation sheet that they had been trained to use. Participants' perceptions were assessed through focus group discussion. The findings showed that students' experiences with peer assessment were positive. Students acknowledged that they received valuable feedback and learned from assessing their peers. Students recommended the need for training and suggested using more than one evaluator. The FPA initiative in the study institution believed to be succeed as the students had a positive experience with the FPA. Students learnt from PA and from self-assessment. Implementation of PA will promote reflection and critical thinking and problem solving skills, that are important traits in radiography graduate profile as in radiography clinical practice the professional require to modify imaging techniques and critique images to ensure the quality of care. Copyright © 2016 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Feasibility, Reproducibility, and Agreement between Different Speckle Tracking Echocardiographic Techniques for the Assessment of Longitudinal Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Buccheri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Left ventricular (LV longitudinal deformation can be assessed with new echocardiographic techniques like triplane echocardiography (3PE and four-dimensional echocardiography (4DE. We aimed to assess the feasibility, reproducibility, and agreement between these different speckle-tracking techniques for the assessment of longitudinal deformation. Methods. 101 consecutive subjects underwent echocardiographic examination. 2D cine loops from the apical views, a triplane view, and an LV 4D full volume were acquired in all subjects. LV longitudinal strain was obtained for each imaging modality. Results. 2DE analysis of LV strain was feasible in 90/101 subjects, 3PE strain in 89/101, and 4DE strain in 90/101. The mean value of 2DE and 3PE longitudinal strains was significantly higher with respect to 4DE. The relationship between 2DE and 3PE derived strains (r=0.782 was significantly higher (z=3.72, P<0.001 than that between 2DE and 4DE (r=0.429 and that between 3PE and 4DE (r=0.510; z=3.09, P=0.001. The mean bias between 2DE and 4DE strains was -6.61±7.31% while -6.42±6.81% between 3PE and 4DE strains; the bias between 2DE and 3PE strain was of 0.21±4.16%. Intraobserver and interobserver variabilities were acceptable among the techniques. Conclusions. Echocardiographic techniques for the assessment of longitudinal deformation are not interchangeable, and further studies are needed to assess specific reference values.

  8. Influence of singlet oxygen (1O2) generated by a lipophilic photosensitizer (Pyropheophorbide-a, PPa) on membrane and firing properties of cultured hippocampus neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbach, Thomas; Ogilby, Peter Remsen; Lambert, John D. C.

    2008-01-01

    During Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) of cancer, cells are killed by 1O2, which is generated in a photosensitized process. A photosensitizer (PS) is applied to the tissue and irradiated with light to form an exited molecule. This generates 1O2 from ground state oxygen, which then induce processes....... Incubation period was 5h in normal culture medium with the PS Pyropheophorbide-a (PPa), which has a high lipophilicity and is mainly located in the membrane. Laser depended detection of singlet oxygen was carried out according to Snyder et al. (Photochem. Photobiol. (2006), 82; 177-84). Irradiation and whole...... range of singlet oxygen are very small, its effects will be restricted. The intra-membrane generated 1O2 alters the composition of the lipid and also proteins or channels. This is reflected both in the immediate response to low irradiation-dose and in formation of long plateaus, which could be caused...

  9. CyPPA, a Positive SK3/SK2 Modulator, Reduces Activity of Dopaminergic Neurons, Inhibits Dopamine Release, and Counteracts Hyperdopaminergic Behaviors Induced by Methylphenidate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrik, Kjartan F; Redrobe, John P; Holst, Dorte

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) containing midbrain neurons play critical roles in several psychiatric and neurological diseases, including schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and the substantia nigra pars compacta neurons selectively degenerate in Parkinson's disease. Pharmacological...... modulation of DA receptors and transporters are well established approaches for treatment of DA-related disorders. Direct modulation of the DA system by influencing the discharge pattern of these autonomously firing neurons has yet to be exploited as a potential therapeutic strategy. Small conductance Ca(2...... mouse and rat midbrain slices. Using an immunocytochemically and pharmacologically validated DA release assay employing cultured DA neurons from rats, we show that CyPPA repressed DA release in a concentration-dependent manner with a maximal effect equal to the D2 receptor agonist quinpirole. In vivo...

  10. Biotin-c10-AppCH2ppA is an effective new chemical proteomics probe for diadenosine polyphosphate binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, M Ameruddin; Wright, Michael; Kamal, Ahmed; Nagy, Judith; Miller, Andrew D

    2014-07-01

    Here we report on the synthesis of a synthetic, stable biotin-c10-AppCH2ppA conjugate involving an unusual Cannizzaro reaction step. This conjugate is used to bind prospective Ap4A binding proteins from Escherichia coli bacterial cell lyzates. Following binding, identities of these proteins are then determined smoothly by a process of magnetic bio-panning and electrospray mass spectrometry. Protein hits appear to be a definitive set of stress protein related targets. While this hit list may not be exclusive, and may vary with the nature of sampling conditions and organism status, nevertheless hits do appear to correspond with bona fide Ap4A-binding proteins. Therefore these hits represent a sound basis on which to construct new hypotheses concerning the cellular importance of Ap4A to bacterial cells and the potential biological significance of Ap4A-protein binding interactions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Assessing temporal and spatial evolution of clusters of functionally interdependent neurons using graph partitioning techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oweiss, Karim G; Jin, Rong; Chen, Feilong

    2006-01-01

    This paper suggests a new approach for identifying clusters of neurons with correlated spiking activity in large-size neuronal ensembles recorded with high-density microelectrode arrays. The nonparametric approach relies on mapping the neuronal spike trains to a 'scale space' using a nested multiresolution projection. Similarity measures can be arbitrarily defined in the scale space independent of the fixed bin width classically used to assess neuronal correlation. This representation allows efficient graph partitioning techniques to be used to identify clusters of correlated firing within distinct behavioral contexts. We use a new probabilistic spectral clustering algorithm that simultaneously maximizes cluster aggregation based on similarity measures. The technique is able to efficiently identify functionally interdependent neurons regardless of the temporal scale from which rate functions are typically estimated. We report the clustering performance of the algorithm applied to a synthesized neurophysiological data set and compare it to known clustering techniques to illustrate the substantial gain in the performance.

  12. Plant-Damage Assessment Technique for Evaluating Military Vehicular Impacts to Vegetation in the Mojave Desert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. J. Hansen; W. K. Ostler

    2001-09-01

    A new plant damage assessment technique was developed by plant ecologists from Bechtel Nevada at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Security Administration Nevada Operations Office and funded by the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program Project CS-1131 in cooperation with the U.S. Army's National Training Center (NTC) at Fort Irwin, California. The technique establishes linear transects the width of vehicle tracts from evidence of vehicle tracks in the soil (usually during a prior training rotation period of 30 days or since the last rain or wind storm), and measures vegetation within the tracks to determine the area of plant parts being run over, the percent of the impacted parts damaged, and the percent of impacted parts expected to recover. It documents prior-damage classes based on estimated of damage that plants have apparently experienced previously (as assessed from field indicators of damage such as plant shape and height). The technique was used to evaluate different vehicle types (rubber-tire wheels vs. tracks) in six area at the NTC with different soils and training intensity levels. The technique provides tabular data that can be sorted and queried to show a variety of trends related to military vehicular impacts. The technique also appears suitable for assessing other non-military off-road traffic impacts. Findings report: (1) differences in plant sensitivity of different vehicular impacts, (2) plant cover and density by species and training area, (3) the degree to which wheels have less impact than tracks, and (4) the mean percent survival is inversely proportional to the degree of prior damage received by the vegetation (i.e., plants previously impacted have lower survival than plants not previously impacted).

  13. Recent developments in analyses techniques for non-destructive testing and assessment of concrete properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breyssea D.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Non destructive techniques (NDT offer many possibilities for evaluating concrete properties. They can provide estimates of input data useful for assessing the residual service life or reliability of infrastructures, among them power plants. The issue is to know the quality of such estimates. The weaknesses of NDT have been pointed for a long time, since they are not considered as a reliable mean for providing quantitative data. Several recent research programs have resulted in significant improvements. Several issues are addressed here: (a the adequacy of a NDT for a given purpose, (b the quality/uncertainty of the material assessment provided by using one NDT, (c the possibility of combining several techniques, so as to reduce the effect of uncontrolled parameters. For each of these issues, some general criteria are defined and it is explained how to derive quantitative information enabling their practical use in a decision process.

  14. Alzheimer's Disease Assessment: A Review and Illustrations Focusing on Item Response Theory Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsis, Steve; Choudhury, Tabina K; Geraci, Lisa; Benge, Jared F; Patrick, Christopher J

    2017-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) affects neurological, cognitive, and behavioral processes. Thus, to accurately assess this disease, researchers and clinicians need to combine and incorporate data across these domains. This presents not only distinct methodological and statistical challenges but also unique opportunities for the development and advancement of psychometric techniques. In this article, we describe relatively recent research using item response theory (IRT) that has been used to make progress in assessing the disease across its various symptomatic and pathological manifestations. We focus on applications of IRT to improve scoring, test development (including cross-validation and adaptation), and linking and calibration. We conclude by describing potential future multidimensional applications of IRT techniques that may improve the precision with which AD is measured.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of degenerative cervical myelopathy: a review of structural changes and measurement techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Aria; Martin, Allan R; Mikulis, David; Fehlings, Michael G

    2016-06-01

    Degenerative cervical myelopathy encompasses a spectrum of age-related structural changes of the cervical spine that result in static and dynamic injury to the spinal cord and collectively represent the most common cause of myelopathy in adults. Although cervical myelopathy is determined clinically, the diagnosis requires confirmation via imaging, and MRI is the preferred modality. Because of the heterogeneity of the condition and evolution of MRI technology, multiple techniques have been developed over the years in an attempt to quantify the degree of baseline severity and potential for neurological recovery. In this review, these techniques are categorized anatomically into those that focus on bone, ligaments, discs, and the spinal cord. In addition, measurements for the cervical spine canal size and sagittal alignment are also described briefly. These tools have resulted collectively in the identification of numerous useful parameters. However, the development of multiple techniques for assessing the same feature, such as cord compression, has also resulted in a number of challenges, including introducing ambiguity in terms of which methods to use and hindering effective comparisons of analysis in the literature. In addition, newer techniques that use advanced MRI are emerging and providing exciting new tools for assessing the spinal cord in patients with degenerative cervical myelopathy.

  16. Improving the Accuracy of Urban Environmental Quality Assessment Using Geographically-Weighted Regression Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Kamil; Shaker, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Urban Environmental Quality (UEQ) can be treated as a generic indicator that objectively represents the physical and socio-economic condition of the urban and built environment. The value of UEQ illustrates a sense of satisfaction to its population through assessing different environmental, urban and socio-economic parameters. This paper elucidates the use of the Geographic Information System (GIS), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Geographically-Weighted Regression (GWR) techniques to integrate various parameters and estimate the UEQ of two major cities in Ontario, Canada. Remote sensing, GIS and census data were first obtained to derive various environmental, urban and socio-economic parameters. The aforementioned techniques were used to integrate all of these environmental, urban and socio-economic parameters. Three key indicators, including family income, higher level of education and land value, were used as a reference to validate the outcomes derived from the integration techniques. The results were evaluated by assessing the relationship between the extracted UEQ results and the reference layers. Initial findings showed that the GWR with the spatial lag model represents an improved precision and accuracy by up to 20% with respect to those derived by using GIS overlay and PCA techniques for the City of Toronto and the City of Ottawa. The findings of the research can help the authorities and decision makers to understand the empirical relationships among environmental factors, urban morphology and real estate and decide for more environmental justice. PMID:28272334

  17. Improving the Accuracy of Urban Environmental Quality Assessment Using Geographically-Weighted Regression Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Kamil; Shaker, Ahmed

    2017-03-07

    Urban Environmental Quality (UEQ) can be treated as a generic indicator that objectively represents the physical and socio-economic condition of the urban and built environment. The value of UEQ illustrates a sense of satisfaction to its population through assessing different environmental, urban and socio-economic parameters. This paper elucidates the use of the Geographic Information System (GIS), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Geographically-Weighted Regression (GWR) techniques to integrate various parameters and estimate the UEQ of two major cities in Ontario, Canada. Remote sensing, GIS and census data were first obtained to derive various environmental, urban and socio-economic parameters. The aforementioned techniques were used to integrate all of these environmental, urban and socio-economic parameters. Three key indicators, including family income, higher level of education and land value, were used as a reference to validate the outcomes derived from the integration techniques. The results were evaluated by assessing the relationship between the extracted UEQ results and the reference layers. Initial findings showed that the GWR with the spatial lag model represents an improved precision and accuracy by up to 20% with respect to those derived by using GIS overlay and PCA techniques for the City of Toronto and the City of Ottawa. The findings of the research can help the authorities and decision makers to understand the empirical relationships among environmental factors, urban morphology and real estate and decide for more environmental justice.

  18. A novel optical investigation technique for railroad track inspection and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabato, Alessandro; Beale, Christopher H.; Niezrecki, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    Track failures due to cross tie degradation or loss in ballast support may result in a number of problems ranging from simple service interruptions to derailments. Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of railway track is important for safety reasons and to reduce downtime and maintenance costs. For this reason, novel and cost-effective track inspection technologies for assessing tracks' health are currently insufficient and needed. Advancements achieved in recent years in cameras technology, optical sensors, and image-processing algorithms have made machine vision, Structure from Motion (SfM), and three-dimensional (3D) Digital Image Correlation (DIC) systems extremely appealing techniques for extracting structural deformations and geometry profiles. Therefore, optically based, non-contact measurement techniques may be used for assessing surface defects, rail and tie deflection profiles, and ballast condition. In this study, the design of two camera-based measurement systems is proposed for crossties-ballast condition assessment and track examination purposes. The first one consists of four pairs of cameras installed on the underside of a rail car to detect the induced deformation and displacement on the whole length of the track's cross tie using 3D DIC measurement techniques. The second consists of another set of cameras using SfM techniques for obtaining a 3D rendering of the infrastructure from a series of two-dimensional (2D) images to evaluate the state of the track qualitatively. The feasibility of the proposed optical systems is evaluated through extensive laboratory tests, demonstrating their ability to measure parameters of interest (e.g. crosstie's full-field displacement, vertical deflection, shape, etc.) for assessment and SHM of railroad track.

  19. WAYS TO INCREASE ACCURACY AND RELIABILITY OF INDIVIDUAL DOSES ASSESSMENTS IN PERSONNEL WITHIN THERMOLUMINESCENCE TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Kaydanovskiy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the main sources of measurement errors of individual doses in personnel performed within the thermoluminescence technique and gives recommendations to minimize these errors. The reasons that reduce reliability of effective dose assessments derived from measured values of personal dose equivalent are imperfections of guidance documents. Changes to the Guidelines «Organization and implementation of individual dosimetric control. Staff of health institutions» are justified.

  20. A Methodology to Assess and Evaluate Rainwater Harvesting Techniques in (Semi-)Arid Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ammar; Riksen, Michel; Ouessar, Mohamed; Ritsema, Coen

    2015-04-01

    Arid and semi-arid regions around the world are generally facing water scarcity problems due to lack of precipitation and unpredictable rainfall patterns. For thousands of years rainwater harvesting (RWH) techniques have been applied to cope with water scarcity. Many researchers have presented and applied different methodologies for determining suitable sites and techniques for RWH. However, there is still little attention given to evaluation of the performance of RWH structures. The aim of this research was to design a scientifically-based and generally applicable methodology to evaluate and assess the performance of existing RWH techniques in (semi-) arid regions. The methodology takes engineering, biophysical, and socio-economic criteria into account to assess the performance of RWH using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) supported by Geographic Information System (GIS). The Oum Zessar watershed in south-eastern Tunisia is used as a case study site to test this evaluation tool. The performance of 58 RWH locations (14 jessour and 44 tabias) in three main sub-catchments of Oum Zessar watershed were assessed and evaluated. Based on the criteria selected, 60performance, 36received good performance scores. The results very accurately represent the real performance of each site. This integrated methodology, which is highly flexible, saves time and costs, and is easy to adapt in different regions, provides a scientifically based analytical tool to support designers and decision makers aiming to improve the performance of existing and new RWH sites.

  1. Digital education and dynamic assessment of tongue diagnosis based on Mashup technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chin-Chuan; Lo, Yen-Cheng; Chiang, John Y; Sainbuyan, Natsagdorj

    2017-01-24

    To assess the digital education and dynamic assessment of tongue diagnosis based on Mashup technique (DEDATD) according to specifific user's answering pattern, and provide pertinent information tailored to user's specifific needs supplemented by the teaching materials constantly updated through the Mashup technique. Fifty-four undergraduate students were tested with DEDATD developed. The effificacy of the DEDATD was evaluated based on the pre- and post-test performance, with interleaving training sessions targeting on the weakness of the student under test. The t-test demonstrated that signifificant difference was reached in scores gained during pre- and post-test sessions, and positive correlation between scores gained and length of time spent on learning, while no signifificant differences between the gender and post-test score, and the years of students in school and the progress in score gained. DEDATD, coupled with Mashup technique, could provide updated materials fifiltered through diverse sources located across the network. The dynamic assessment could tailor each individual learner's needs to offer custom-made learning materials. DEDATD poses as a great improvement over the traditional teaching methods.

  2. Avaliação dos efeitos da radiação ultravioleta sobre propriedades reológicas de ligantes asfálticos modificados com PPA e copolímeros SBS e SBR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita Cristina Brito Nascimento

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aging process suffered by asphalt binders interferes directly with the mechanical properties of HMA mixes. In order to avoid an excessive hardening of the asphalt binder, the specifications limit certain aging indices or aging param-eters. However, asphalt binder specifications do not take account of the effect of the ultraviolet radiation (UV on the rheo-logical properties of such materials. The objectives of this work are (i to quantify the effects of the UV radiation on the rheological properties of a 50/70 pen-grade asphalt binder and five asphalt binders modified with polyphosphoric acid and the SBS and SBR copolymers (binder+PPA, binder+SBS, binder+SBS+PPA, binder+SBR and binder+SBR+PPA and (ii to compare the aging levels caused by UV radiation with the aging level in the PAV. The samples aged in the PAV and in the wetherometer were previously aged in the RTFO oven. The use of modifiers increased the resistance to long-term aging of the materials, either in the PAV or in the wetherometer. The binder+SBR+PPA showed the best performance in terms of aging resistance.

  3. Assessment techniques for a learning-centered curriculum: evaluation design for adventures in supercomputing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helland, B. [Ames Lab., IA (United States); Summers, B.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-09-01

    As the classroom paradigm shifts from being teacher-centered to being learner-centered, student assessments are evolving from typical paper and pencil testing to other methods of evaluation. Students should be probed for understanding, reasoning, and critical thinking abilities rather than their ability to return memorized facts. The assessment of the Department of Energy`s pilot program, Adventures in Supercomputing (AiS), offers one example of assessment techniques developed for learner-centered curricula. This assessment has employed a variety of methods to collect student data. Methods of assessment used were traditional testing, performance testing, interviews, short questionnaires via email, and student presentations of projects. The data obtained from these sources have been analyzed by a professional assessment team at the Center for Children and Technology. The results have been used to improve the AiS curriculum and establish the quality of the overall AiS program. This paper will discuss the various methods of assessment used and the results.

  4. Assessment of dye distribution in sensitized solar cells by microprobe techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreiros, M.A., E-mail: alexandra.barreiros@lneg.pt [Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, LEN/UES, Estrada do Paço do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); Corregidor, V. [IPFN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Alves, L.C. [C2TN, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Guimarães, F. [Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, LGM/UCTM, Rua da Amieira, Apartado 1089, 4466-901 S. Mamede de Infesta (Portugal); Mascarenhas, J.; Torres, E.; Brites, M.J. [Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, LEN/UES, Estrada do Paço do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-04-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have received considerable attention once this technology offers economic and environmental advantages over conventional photovoltaic (PV) devices. The PV performance of a DSC relies on the characteristics of its photoanode, which typically consists of a nanocrystalline porous TiO{sub 2} film, enabled with a large adsorptive surface area. Dye molecules that capture photons from light during device operation are attached to the film nanoparticles. The effective loading of the dye in the TiO{sub 2} electrode is of paramount relevance for controlling and optimizing solar cell parameters. Relatively few methods are known today for quantitative evaluation of the total dye adsorbed on the film. In this context, microprobe techniques come out as suitable tools to evaluate the dye surface distribution and depth profile in sensitized films. Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) and Ion Beam Analytical (IBA) techniques using a micro-ion beam were used to quantify and to study the distribution of the Ru organometallic dye in TiO{sub 2} films, making use of the different penetration depth and beam sizes of each technique. Different 1D nanostructured TiO{sub 2} films were prepared, morphologically characterized by SEM, sensitized and analyzed by the referred techniques. Dye load evaluation in different TiO{sub 2} films by three different techniques (PIXE, RBS and EPMA/WDS) provided similar results of Ru/Ti mass fraction ratio. Moreover, it was possible to assess dye surface distribution and its depth profile, by means of Ru signal, and to visualize the dye distribution in sample cross-section through X-ray mapping by EPMA/EDS. PIXE maps of Ru and Ti indicated an homogeneous surface distribution. The assessment of Ru depth profile by RBS showed that some films have homogeneous Ru depth distribution while others present different Ru concentration in the top layer (2 μm thickness). These results are consistent with the EPMA/EDS maps obtained.

  5. Myocardial deformation assessment using cardiovascular magnetic resonance-feature tracking technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutairi, Haifa M; Boubertakh, Redha; Miquel, Marc E; Petersen, Steffen E

    2017-12-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is an important modality that allows the assessment of regional myocardial function by measuring myocardial deformation parameters, such as strain and strain rate throughout the cardiac cycle. Feature tracking is a promising quantitative post-processing technique that is increasingly used. It is commonly applied to cine images, in particular steady-state free precession, acquired during routine CMR examinations. To review the studies that have used feature tracking techniques in healthy subjects or patients with cardiovascular diseases. The article emphasizes the advantages and limitations of feature tracking when applied to regional deformation parameters. The challenges of applying the techniques in clinics and potential solutions are also reviewed. Research studies in healthy volunteers and/or patients either applied CMR-feature tracking alone to assess myocardial motion or compared it with either established CMR-tagging techniques or to speckle tracking echocardiography. These studies assessed the feasibility and reliability of calculating or determining global and regional myocardial deformation strain parameters. Regional deformation parameters are reviewed and compared. Better reproducibility for global deformation was observed compared with segmental parameters. Overall, studies demonstrated that circumferential was the most reproducible deformation parameter, usually followed by longitudinal strain; in contrast, radial strain showed high variability. Although feature tracking is a promising tool, there are still discrepancies in the results obtained using different software packages. This highlights a clear need for standardization of MRI acquisition parameters and feature tracking analysis methodologies. Validation, including physical and numerical phantoms, is still required to facilitate the use of feature tracking in routine clinical practice.

  6. Interpersonal Hostility Assessment Technique: description and validation against the criterion of coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, T L; Maynard, K E; Houseworth, S J; Scherwitz, L W; Williams, R B; Barefoot, J C

    1996-04-01

    High levels of hostility are associated with adverse health outcomes. The Interpersonal Hostility Assessment Technique (IHAT; Barefoot, 1992) measures hostility from verbal behavior during a standardized interview. Four types of behaviors are scored as hostility: evading the question, irritation, and indirect and direct challenges to the interviewer. The sum of the frequencies of these acts is a Hostile Behavior Index (HBI), which is divided into two components: verbal, scored with speech content in mind, and paraverbal, based on vocal stylistics. This study examined characteristics of IHAT assessments in 129 male coronary patients. Satisfactory interrater reliabilities were obtained. The HBI correlated highly (.58) with coronary artery disease severity after controlling for traditional risk factors. This relation was not affected by question topic or by differential weighting of the four hostile behaviors. Both HBI components were significantly correlated with disease. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for hostility assessment.

  7. Lung volume assessments in normal and surfactant depleted lungs: agreement between bedside techniques and CT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albu, Gergely; Petak, Ferenc; Zand, Tristan; Hallbäck, Magnus; Wallin, Mats; Habre, Walid

    2014-01-01

    Bedside assessment of lung volume in clinical practice is crucial to adapt ventilation strategy. We compared bedside measures of lung volume by helium multiple-breath washout technique (EELVMBW,He) and effective lung volume based on capnodynamics (ELV) to those assessed from spiral chest CT scans (EELVCT) under different PEEP levels in control and surfactant-depleted lungs. Lung volume was assessed in anaesthetized mechanically ventilated rabbits successively by measuring i) ELV by analyzing CO2 elimination traces during the application of periods of 5 consecutive alterations in inspiratory/expiratory ratio (1:2 to 1.5:1), ii) measuring EELVMBW,He by using helium as a tracer gas, and iii) EELVCT from CT scan images by computing the normalized lung density. All measurements were performed at PEEP of 0, 3 and 9 cmH2O in random order under control condition and following surfactant depletion by whole lung lavage. Variables obtained with all techniques followed sensitively the lung volume changes with PEEP. Excellent correlation and close agreement was observed between EELVMBW,He and EELVCT (r = 0.93, p lungs, whereas this difference was not evidenced following surfactant depletion. These findings resulted in somewhat diminished but still significant correlations between ELV and EELVCT (r = 0.58, p Lung volume assessed with bedside techniques allow the monitoring of the changes in the lung aeration with PEEP both in normal lungs and in a model of acute lung injury. Under stable pulmonary haemodynamic condition, ELV allows continuous lung volume monitoring, whereas EELVMBW,He offers a more accurate estimation, but intermittently.

  8. Technology in S&C: Assessing Bodyweight Squat Technique with Wearable Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Martin A; Whelan, Darragh F; Ward, Tomas E; Delahunt, Eamonn; Caulfield, Brian M

    2017-04-15

    Strength and conditioning (S&C) coaches offer expert guidance to help those they work with achieve their personal fitness goals. However it is not always practical to operate under the direct supervision of an S&C coach and consequently individuals are often left training without expert oversight. Recent developments in inertial measurement units (IMUs) and mobile computing platforms have allowed for the possibility of unobtrusive motion tracking systems and the provision of real-time individualised feedback regarding exercise performance. These systems could enable S&C coaches to remotely monitor sessions and help individuals record their workout performance. One aspect of such technologies is the ability to assess exercise technique and detect common deviations from acceptable exercise form. In this study we investigate this ability in the context of a bodyweight (BW) squat exercise. IMUs were positioned on the lumbar spine, thighs and shanks of 77 healthy participants. Participants completed repetitions of BW squats with acceptable form and five common deviations from acceptable BW squatting technique. Descriptive features were extracted from the IMU signals for each BW squat repetition and these were used to train a technique classifier. Acceptable or aberrant BW squat technique can be detected with 98% accuracy, 96% sensitivity and 99% specificity when using features derived from all 5 IMUs. A single IMU system can also distinguish between acceptable and aberrant BW squat biomechanics with excellent accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. Detecting exact deviations from acceptable BW squatting technique can be achieved with 80% accuracy using a 5 IMU system and 72% accuracy when using a single IMU positioned on the right shank. These results suggest IMU based systems can distinguish between acceptable and aberrant BW squat technique with excellent accuracy with a single IMU system. Identification of exact deviations is also possible but multi-IMU systems

  9. Computed tomography assessment of the efficiency of different techniques for removal of root canal filling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall' agnol, Cristina; Barletta, Fernando Branco [Lutheran University of Brazil, Canoas, RS (Brazil). Dental School. Dept. of Dentistry and Endodontics]. E-mail: fbarletta@terra.com.br; Hartmann, Mateus Silveira Martins [Uninga Dental School, Passo Fundo, RS (Brazil). Postgraduate Program in Dentistry

    2008-07-01

    This study evaluated the efficiency of different techniques for removal of filling material from root canals, using computed tomography (CT). Sixty mesial roots from extracted human mandibular molars were used. Root canals were filled and, after 6 months, the teeth were randomly assigned to 3 groups, according to the root-filling removal technique: Group A - hand instrumentation with K-type files; Group B - reciprocating instrumentation with engine-driven K-type files; and Group C rotary instrumentation with engine-driven ProTaper system. CT scans were used to assess the volume of filling material inside the root canals before and after the removal procedure. In both moments, the area of filling material was outlined by an experienced radiologist and the volume of filling material was automatically calculated by the CT software program. Based on the volume of initial and residual filling material of each specimen, the percentage of filling material removed from the root canals by the different techniques was calculated. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and chi-square test for linear trend ({alpha}=0.05). No statistically significant difference (p=0.36) was found among the groups regarding the percent means of removed filling material. The analysis of the association between the percentage of filling material removal (high or low) and the proposed techniques by chi-square test showed statistically significant difference (p=0.015), as most cases in group B (reciprocating technique) presented less than 50% of filling material removed (low percent removal). In conclusion, none of the techniques evaluated in this study was effective in providing complete removal of filling material from the root canals. (author)

  10. Assessment of robotic patient simulators for training in manual physical therapy examination techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Shun; Okamoto, Shogo; Isogai, Kaoru; Akiyama, Yasuhiro; Yanagihara, Naomi; Yamada, Yoji

    2015-01-01

    Robots that simulate patients suffering from joint resistance caused by biomechanical and neural impairments are used to aid the training of physical therapists in manual examination techniques. However, there are few methods for assessing such robots. This article proposes two types of assessment measures based on typical judgments of clinicians. One of the measures involves the evaluation of how well the simulator presents different severities of a specified disease. Experienced clinicians were requested to rate the simulated symptoms in terms of severity, and the consistency of their ratings was used as a performance measure. The other measure involves the evaluation of how well the simulator presents different types of symptoms. In this case, the clinicians were requested to classify the simulated resistances in terms of symptom type, and the average ratios of their answers were used as performance measures. For both types of assessment measures, a higher index implied higher agreement among the experienced clinicians that subjectively assessed the symptoms based on typical symptom features. We applied these two assessment methods to a patient knee robot and achieved positive appraisals. The assessment measures have potential for use in comparing several patient simulators for training physical therapists, rather than as absolute indices for developing a standard.

  11. A longitudinal study using tibial ultrasonometry as a bone assessment technique in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lequin, Maarten H.; van der Sluis, Inge M.; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.; Hop, Wim J.; van Rijn, Rick R.; de Muinck Keizer-Schrama, Sabine F.; van Kuijk, Cees

    2003-01-01

    Several longitudinal studies have shown contradictory results regarding the change in bone status in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry as the bone assessment technique. To determine whether a more recently developed bone assessment technique

  12. High-Confidence Compositional Reliability Assessment of SOA-Based Systems Using Machine Learning Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challagulla, Venkata U. B.; Bastani, Farokh B.; Yen, I.-Ling

    Service-oriented architecture (SOA) techniques are being increasingly used for developing critical applications, especially network-centric systems. While the SOA paradigm provides flexibility and agility to better respond to changing business requirements, the task of assessing the reliability of SOA-based systems is quite challenging. Deriving high confidence reliability estimates for mission-critical systems can require huge costs and time. SOAsystems/ applications are built by using either atomic or composite services as building blocks. These services are generally assumed to be realized with reuse and logical composition of components. One approach for assessing the reliability of SOA-based systems is to use AI reasoning techniques on dynamically collected failure data of each service and its components as one of the evidences together with results from random testing. Memory-Based Reasoning technique and Bayesian Belief Net-works are verified as the reasoning tools best suited to guide the prediction analysis. A framework constructed from the above approach identifies the least tested and “high usage” input subdomains of the service(s) and performs necessary remedial actions depending on the predicted results.

  13. Non invasive blood flow assessment in diabetic foot ulcer using laser speckle contrast imaging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanthy, A. K.; Sujatha, N.; Reddy, M. Ramasubba; Narayanamoorthy, V. B.

    2014-03-01

    Measuring microcirculatory tissue blood perfusion is of interest for both clinicians and researchers in a wide range of applications and can provide essential information of the progress of treatment of certain diseases which causes either an increased or decreased blood flow. Diabetic ulcer associated with alterations in tissue blood flow is the most common cause of non-traumatic lower extremity amputations. A technique which can detect the onset of ulcer and provide essential information on the progress of the treatment of ulcer would be of great help to the clinicians. A noninvasive, noncontact and whole field laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) technique has been described in this paper which is used to assess the changes in blood flow in diabetic ulcer affected areas of the foot. The blood flow assessment at the wound site can provide critical information on the efficiency and progress of the treatment given to the diabetic ulcer subjects. The technique may also potentially fulfill a significant need in diabetic foot ulcer screening and management.

  14. Microbial microleakage assessment of class V cavities restored with different materials and techniques: A laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nematollahi, Hossein; Bagherian, Ali; Ghazvini, Kiarash; Esmaily, Habibollah; Mehr, Mina Azadegan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare microbial microleakage of class V cavities restored with different materials and techniques using a microbial leakage assessment method. One hundred extracted, caries-free, human maxillary premolars were randomly divided into five groups. Group 1: Resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI), Group 2: Closed sandwich with flowable composite + nanohybrid composite, Group 3: Nanohybrid composite, Group 4: Closed sandwich with RMGI + nanohybrid composite, and Group 5: Flowable composite + nanohybrid composite that were co-cured together ("snow-plow" technique). A microbial penetration method utilizing Streptococcus mutans as an indicator was tested for leakage assessment. Data were analyzed and the significance level was α =0.05. The log-rank test indicated a statistically significant difference in leakage rates among the five groups (P = 0.008). Mantel-Cox log-rank test indicated statistically significant differences in microleakage rates between Groups 1 and 3 (P = 0.029), between Groups 2 and 5 (P = 0.005), and between Groups 3 and 5 (P = 0.002). With respect to the limitations of an in vitro study, our findings suggest that adding a thin layer of flowable composite or RMGI under nanohybrid composite in class V cavities did not decrease the bacterial leakage rate, whereas use of the "snow-plow" technique caused an increase in the microleakage rate.

  15. Technology in Strength and Conditioning: Assessing Bodyweight Squat Technique With Wearable Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OʼReilly, Martin A; Whelan, Darragh F; Ward, Tomas E; Delahunt, Eamonn; Caulfield, Brian M

    2017-08-01

    O'Reilly, MA, Whelan, DF, Ward, TE, Delahunt, E, and Caulfield, BM. Technology in strength and conditioning: assessing bodyweight squat technique with wearable sensors. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2303-2312, 2017-Strength and conditioning (S&C) coaches offer expert guidance to help those they work with achieve their personal fitness goals. However, it is not always practical to operate under the direct supervision of an S&C coach and consequently individuals are often left training without expert oversight. Recent developments in inertial measurement units (IMUs) and mobile computing platforms have allowed for the possibility of unobtrusive motion tracking systems and the provision of real-time individualized feedback regarding exercise performance. These systems could enable S&C coaches to remotely monitor sessions and help individuals record their workout performance. One aspect of such technologies is the ability to assess exercise technique and detect common deviations from acceptable exercise form. In this study, we investigate this ability in the context of a bodyweight (BW) squat exercise. Inertial measurement units were positioned on the lumbar spine, thighs, and shanks of 77 healthy participants. Participants completed repetitions of BW squats with acceptable form and 5 common deviations from acceptable BW squatting technique. Descriptive features were extracted from the IMU signals for each BW squat repetition, and these were used to train a technique classifier. Acceptable or aberrant BW squat technique can be detected with 98% accuracy, 96% sensitivity, and 99% specificity when using features derived from all 5 IMUs. A single IMU system can also distinguish between acceptable and aberrant BW squat biomechanics with excellent accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. Detecting exact deviations from acceptable BW squatting technique can be achieved with 80% accuracy using a 5 IMU system and 72% accuracy when using a single IMU positioned on the right shank

  16. Psychometric validation of the Sentence Verification Technique to assess L2 reading comprehension ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Pichette

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available English teachers use the Sentence Verification Technique (Royer et al., 1979 to determine the readability of written material for their classes. This process requires students to read short passages from a book, followed by isolated sentences. These sentences can be either identical or different from the original passages, in their meaning as well as in their form. For each sentence, students must indicate whether or not itscontent corresponds to that of the original passage. This paper reports on the design and assessment of an SVT test created for measuring reading comprehension ability, based on four English texts. The instrument was administered to 171 adult English learners, of various levels of English proficiency. The data were analysed using both traditional psychometric methods and the Raschmodel. Results indicate that the test shows high internal consistency, that it respects the basic assumptions behind the Rasch model, and that it is in the recommended range of difficulty for that technique.

  17. Current state of the art cardiovascular MR imaging techniques for assessment of ischemic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Christopher J

    2015-03-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is increasingly being used to evaluate patients with known or suspected ischemic heart disease, because of its ability to acquire images in any orientation and the wide variety of sequences available to characterize normal and abnormal structure and function. Substantial improvements have been made in the hardware and software used to perform CMR, resulting in better and more consistent image quality. There has been a greater emphasis recently in developing and validating quantitative CMR techniques. This article reviews advances in CMR techniques for assessing cardiac function, myocardial perfusion, late gadolinium enhancement, and tissue characterization with T1 and T2 mapping sequences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Electrical-Based Diagnostic Techniques for Assessing Insulation Condition in Aged Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issouf Fofana

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The condition of the internal cellulosic paper and oil insulation are of concern for the performance of power transformers. Over the years, a number of methods have been developed to diagnose and monitor the degradation/aging of the transformer internal insulation system. Some of this degradation/aging can be assessed from electrical responses. Currently there are a variety of electrical-based diagnostic techniques available for insulation condition monitoring of power transformers. In most cases, the electrical signals being monitored are due to mechanical or electric changes caused by physical changes in resistivity, inductance or capacitance, moisture, contamination or aging by-products in the insulation. This paper presents a description of commonly used and modern electrical-based diagnostic techniques along with their interpretation schemes.

  19. Fatigue Life Assessment of Structures Using Electro-Mechanical Impedance Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, S.

    2012-05-01

    This paper describes a new experimental approach for fatigue life assessment of structures based on the equivalent stiffness determined by surface bonded piezo-impedance transducers through the electro-mechanical impedance (EMI) technique. The remaining life of the component (in terms of the cycles of loading that can be sustained) is non-dimensionally correlated with the equivalent identified stiffness. The proposed approach circumvents the determination of the absolute stiffness of the joint and employs the admittance signature of the surface-bonded piezo-transducers directly. The second part of the paper briefly describes the recent advances made in the field of impedance based structural health monitoring (SHM) in terms of low-cost hardware system and improved damage diagnosis through the integration of global dynamic and EMI techniques using the same set of piezo-sensors. Other recent applications such as bio-sensors and traffic sensors pioneered at the Smart Structures and Dynamics Laboratory (SSDL) are also briefly covered.

  20. Recent trends in reinforcement corrosion assessment using piezo sensors via electro mechanical impedance technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visalakshi, Talakokula; Bhalla, Suresh; Gupta, Ashok; Bhattacharjee, Bishwajit

    2014-03-01

    Reinforced concrete (RC) is an economical, versatile and successful construction material as it can be moulded into a variety of shapes and finishes. In most cases, it is durable and strong, performing well throughout its service life. However, in some cases, it does not perform adequately due to various reasons, one of which is the corrosion of the embedded steel bars used as reinforcement. . Although the electro-mechanical impedance (EMI) technique is well established for damage detection and quantification of civil, mechanical and aerospace structures, only limited studies have been reported of its application for rebar corrosion detection in RC structures. This paper presents the recent trends in corrosion assessment based on the model derived from the equivalent structural parameters extracted from the impedance spectrum of concrete-rebar system using the lead zirconate titanate (PZT) sensors via EMI technique.

  1. Digital imaging: a valuable technique for the postoperative assessment of cochlear implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, J.T. [Department of Radiology, Belfast City Hospital Trust, Belfast (United Kingdom); Cranley, K. [Northern Ireland Regional Medical Physics Agency, Forster Green Hospital, Belfast (United Kingdom); Toner, J.G. [Regional Cochlear Implant Centre, Belfast City Hospital Trust, Belfast (United Kingdom)

    1998-07-01

    Cochlear implantation with a multi-channel electrode array which provides stimulation via the auditory nerve has become a standard treatment for profound deafness. Postoperative radiography demonstrates electrode position and enables confirmation of satisfactory intra-cochlear electrode placement. The number of active electrodes which have been inserted can be determined and possible complications such as electrode kinking or slippage can be assessed. We evaluated digital radiography with confirmation of electrode position by intermittent fluoroscopy and assessed the relative radiation dose of the digital technique, conventional radiography and CT scanning. Radiation dose for this method usually ranges between 40 {mu}Gy and 440 {mu}Gy compared with a single exposure on the skull stand which produces a dose to the region of the cochlea of 470 {mu}Gy and a CT exposure of 950 {mu}Gy. The digital technique is comfortable for the patient, easily reproducible and provides images of high diagnostic quality enabling each electrode to be identified, which is especially valuable in association with postoperative electrode mapping. It also involves a lower radiation dose than conventional radiography. We now use digital radiography for all postoperative cochlear implant assessment. (orig.) With 4 figs., 13 refs.

  2. Can juvenile corals be surveyed effectively using digital photography?: implications for rapid assessment techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Scott C; Osborne, Kate; Sfiligoj, Bianca; Sweatman, Hugh

    2010-12-01

    The widespread decline of coral reefs requires integrated management measures across whole regions. Knowledge of demographic processes of reef organisms is important for informed management, yet current techniques for assessing such processes are time consuming, making it impractical to gather relevant information over large scales. We tested the usefulness of digital still photography as a rapid assessment technique to estimate coral recruitment--an important process in coral reef recovery. Estimates of the density and diversity of juvenile hard corals from digital images were compared with direct visual estimates from the same plots made in the field. Multiple plots were sampled on four reefs from a range of locations on Australia's Great Barrier Reef. On average, estimates of juvenile densities from photographic images were lower, in both absolute and relative terms, than that estimated from images. This was the case whether colonies <20 mm or <50 mm in diameter were considered. Overall differences between methods were generally greater at reefs where recruitment was higher, though proportional differences (density from images/density from direct visual census) still varied among reefs. Although the ranking of taxa, in terms of their densities, from the two methods were similar, the density of common genera was generally underestimated in images, and the occurrence of 'unknown' taxa was higher. We conclude that photographic images do not constitute a reliable rapid assessment method for estimating the spatial patterns in the density or diversity of juvenile hard corals.

  3. [Cerebral blood flow assessment of preterm infants during respiratory therapy with the expiratory flow increase technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassani, Mariana Almada; Caldas, Jamil Pedro Siqueira; Netto, Abimael Aranha; Marba, Sérgio Tadeu Martins

    2016-06-01

    To assess the impact of respiratory therapy with the expiratory flow increase technique on cerebral hemodynamics of premature newborns. This is an intervention study, which included 40 preterm infants (≤34 weeks) aged 8-15 days of life, clinically stable in ambient air or oxygen catheter use. Children with heart defects, diagnosis of brain lesion and/or those using vasoactive drugs were excluded. Ultrasonographic assessments with transcranial Doppler flowmetry were performed before, during and after the increase in expiratory flow session, which lasted 5minutes. Cerebral blood flow velocity and resistance and pulsatility indices in the pericallosal artery were assessed. Respiratory physical therapy did not significantly alter flow velocity at the systolic peak (p=0.50), the end diastolic flow velocity (p=0.17), the mean flow velocity (p=0.07), the resistance index (p=0.41) and the pulsatility index (p=0.67) over time. The expiratory flow increase technique did not affect cerebral blood flow in clinically-stable preterm infants. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Cerebral blood flow assessment of preterm infants during respiratory therapy with the expiratory flow increase technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Almada Bassani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To assess the impact of respiratory therapy with the expiratory flow increase technique on cerebral hemodynamics of premature newborns. Methods: This is an intervention study, which included 40 preterm infants (≤34 weeks aged 8-15 days of life, clinically stable in ambient air or oxygen catheter use. Children with heart defects, diagnosis of brain lesion and/or those using vasoactive drugs were excluded. Ultrasonographic assessments with transcranial Doppler flowmetry were performed before, during and after the increase in expiratory flow session, which lasted 5min. Cerebral blood flow velocity and resistance and pulsatility indices in the pericallosal artery were assessed. Results: Respiratory physical therapy did not significantly alter flow velocity at the systolic peak (p=0.50, the end diastolic flow velocity (p=0.17, the mean flow velocity (p=0.07, the resistance index (p=0.41 and the pulsatility index (p=0.67 over time. Conclusions: The expiratory flow increase technique did not affect cerebral blood flow in clinically-stable preterm infants.

  5. Infrastructure Security of the Ural Regions: Assessment Technique and Diagnostic Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Arkadyevich Pykhov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the infrastructure as one of the important elements of the economic system. Authors have considered the stages of formation of this concept in the scientific world, the ideas of a number of scientists on a role and place of infrastructure in the economic system are given. Short genesis of approaches to the description of infrastructure and to assignment of its functions to certain branches is created. The paper emphasized the importance of strengthening the infrastructural support to the transition of the economy to the machine mode of production. Two main methodological approaches describing the nature and content of infrastructure are allocated: branch-wise and functional. The author's technique of the assessment of infrastructure security of territories at the regional level is offered. A basis of this technique is the allocation of the set of special indicators which values allow to see the level of development of separate elements of infrastructure. Indicative analysis, which is the basis of the methods, allows to judge any phenomenon by comparing the current observed values with the previously accepted threshold levels. This comparison allows one to classify the observations on the scale of "norm-pre-crisis-crisis". The essential advantage of this method is the normalization of indicators, i.e. their reduction to one comparable conditional size. It allows to receive the assessment on certain blocks of indicators and a complex assessment on all set in general. Authors have allocated four basic elements of infrastructure, such as transport, communications and telecommunications, utilities and health care availability. In total, the technique includes 21 indicators. The results of approbatory calculations with the author's method have revealed shortcomings in the infrastructure development of the Ural region. The article is a brief analysis of the data with the accents on the individual indicators and areas.

  6. Towards a myocardial contraction force reconstruction technique for heart disease assessment and therapy planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Seyyed M. H.; Drangova, Maria; White, James A.; Samani, Abbas

    2014-03-01

    Cardiac ischemic injuries can be classified into two main categories: reversible and irreversible. Treatment of reversible damages is possible through revascularization therapies. Clinically, it is quite vital to determine the reversibility of ischemic injuries and local efficiency using accurate diagnostics techniques. For this purpose, a number of imaging techniques have been developed. To our knowledge, while some of these techniques are capable of assessing tissue viability which is believed to be correlated with ischemic injuries reversibility, none of them are capable of providing information about local myocardial tissue efficiency. Note that this efficiency indicates the local tissue contribution to the overall (global) heart mechanical function which is characterized by parameters such as ejection fraction. While contraction force generation of the myocardium is a reliable and straightforward mechanical measure for the local myocardium functionality, it is also hypothesized that the level of damage reversibility expected from therapy is proportional to the intensity and distribution of these forces. As such this research involves developing a new imaging technique for cardiac contraction force quantification. This work is also geared towards another application, namely Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT), specifically for electrode leads configuration optimization. The latter has not been tackled through a systematic technique thus far. In the proposed method, contraction force reconstruction is accomplished by an inverse problem algorithm solved through an optimization framework which uses forward mechanical modelling of the myocardium iteratively to obtain the contraction forces field. As a result, the method requires a forward mechanical model of the myocardium which is computationally efficient and robust against divergence. Therefore, we developed such a model which considers all aspects of the myocardial mechanics including hyperelasticity

  7. Application of acoustic emission technique to limoges enamels for damage assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Studer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available L'éclairage de tungstène-halide a été mis en cause quant à son impact dans les vitrines. Un tel risque n'est pas facile à évaluer : c’est la technique d'émission acoustique qui a été utilisée pour détecter de microdégâts sur des émaux de Limoges, puisque des recherches précédentes avaient mis en évidence la fragilité et vulnérabilité de ceux-ci. Avant d'appliquer la technique aux originaux, les échantillons d'émail ont été utilisés dans des tests et exposés aux variations de température pour évaluer leur réponse à la détérioration induite. La distribution d'humidité relative et de température dans deux vitrines a été mesurée afin d'évaluer le changement thermique. De plus, la performance de méthodes actuelles pour contrôler l'humidité relative, le taux de renouvellement de l’air et les risques de polluants carbonyl dans les vitrines a été aussi évaluée. Cette analyse a abouti à plusieurs modifications pour améliorer le microenvironnement lors de la présentation-exposition.Tungsten-halide lighting has been found to cause significant temperature distributions within showcases. The risk from such medium scale heating events is not easy to assess; therefore the acoustic emission technique was used to detect micro damage within Limoges enamels, as previous research has shown how vulnerable these enamels are. Prior to applying the technique to the originals, enamel samples were used in flexure tests and exposed to variations of temperature to assess their response to stress induced deterioration. The temperature and relative humidity distribution in two display cases were measured with data loggers at different points to assess the thermal loading. In addition, the performance of current methods to control relative humidity, the air exchange rate, and the risks from carbonyl pollutants within the showcases were also assessed. This analysis resulted in several changes to improve the display

  8. Comprehensive Assessment of New Modulation Techniques in 40 Gb/s Optical Communication Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bing Linlin; Lei Jianming; Lu Li; Zou Xuecheng, E-mail: leijianming@mail.hust.edu.cn [Research Center for VLSI and Systems, Department of Electronic Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, comprehensive assessments are proposed for intensity modulations and phase modulations respectively. Several key performance features, like receiver sensitivity, chromatic dispersion tolerance, nonlinearity tolerance, and noise sensitivity were compared among these modulation techniques. Results show that 66% duty cycle RZ signal so-called the carrier-suppressed return-to-zero (CSRZ) format has the best performance in the intensity modulations. In phase modulations, the most outstanding modulation is DPSK. DQPSK modulation is also a very promising choice if the effect of noise could be resolved. The combination of intensity modulation and phase modulation will compromise the performance advantages of both.

  9. Research on the development of green chemistry technology assessment techniques: a material reutilization case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seokpyo; Ahn, Kilsoo; Kim, Sungjune; Gong, Sungyong

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a methodology that enables a quantitative assessment of green chemistry technologies. The study carries out a quantitative evaluation of a particular case of material reutilization by calculating the level of "greenness" i.e., the level of compliance with the principles of green chemistry that was achieved by implementing a green chemistry technology. The results indicate that the greenness level was enhanced by 42% compared to the pre-improvement level, thus demonstrating the economic feasibility of green chemistry. The assessment technique established in this study will serve as a useful reference for setting the direction of industry-level and government-level technological R&D and for evaluating newly developed technologies, which can greatly contribute toward gaining a competitive advantage in the global market.

  10. Image Processing Techniques for Assessing Contractility in Isolated Adult Cardiac Myocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bazan

    2009-01-01

    The physiologic application of the methodology is evaluated by assessing overall contraction in enzymatically dissociated adult rat cardiocytes. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in characterizing the true, two-dimensional, “shortening” in the contraction process of adult cardiocytes. We compare the performance of the proposed method to that of a popular edge detection system in the literature. The proposed method not only provides a more comprehensive assessment of the myocyte contraction process but also can potentially eliminate historical concerns and sources of errors caused by myocyte rotation or translation during contraction. Furthermore, the versatility of the image processing techniques makes the method suitable for determining myocyte shortening in cells that usually bend or move during contraction. The proposed method can be utilized to evaluate changes in contractile behavior resulting from drug intervention, disease modeling, transgeneity, or other common applications to mammalian cardiocytes.

  11. Effects of fishing technique on assessing species composition in aquatic systems in semi-arid Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESF Medeiros

    Full Text Available In most ecological field research, appropriate sampling is critical for the understanding of processes underlying fish populations and communities, and is even more important in heterogeneous environments such as the aquatic systems of the semi-arid region of Brazil. This study intends to make a contribution to the development of sampling programs and gear selection in aquatic systems of semi-arid Brazil by evaluating the effects of different fishing techniques on the assessment of richness and composition of the fish fauna in selected aquatic environments. Six sites were selected to represent typical artificial (reservoirs and natural (intermittent streams environments and four different types of sampling gear were applied to each site during four occasions. The present study shows that when selecting sampling techniques to be used in aquatic systems in semi-arid Brazil, one must consider the objectives of the study, e.g. ecological or taxonomic, in order to decide on inclusion of rare species in the sampling population. Also, the effect of the sampling gear on natural abundances of fish must be considered given that some sampling techniques are highly detrimental to fish population numbers.

  12. Using aversion learning techniques to assess the mental state, suffering, and welfare of farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushen, J

    1996-08-01

    The extent that handling farm animals causes them to suffer is a central concern when assessing their welfare. "Suffering" is a mental state, resulting from different emotions, such as fear, pain, or boredom, which have different causes and effects on the animal's behavior and physiology. What is common is that they are aversive; animals will seek to avoid such experiences. The degree of aversiveness can be measured using behavioral techniques, which are based on an animal's ability to learn the predictive relationships between events. Compared with physiological stress responses, aversion learning techniques are more easily interpreted in terms of animal suffering and are more able to discriminate between handling treatments. They can sometimes be used to predict physiological responses to handling. The outcome of experiments in aversion learning can be affected by factors influencing the learning ability and memory of animals, and researchers need be aware of potential confounding in experimental design. Such techniques have been used to compare sheep handling practices, examine which components of transport are aversive for pigs and poultry, and examine the relationship between animals and handlers.

  13. Techniques to assess bone ultrastructure organization: orientation and arrangement of mineralized collagen fibrils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, Marios; Müller, Ralph; Schneider, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Bone's remarkable mechanical properties are a result of its hierarchical structure. The mineralized collagen fibrils, made up of collagen fibrils and crystal platelets, are bone's building blocks at an ultrastructural level. The organization of bone's ultrastructure with respect to the orientation and arrangement of mineralized collagen fibrils has been the matter of numerous studies based on a variety of imaging techniques in the past decades. These techniques either exploit physical principles, such as polarization, diffraction or scattering to examine bone ultrastructure orientation and arrangement, or directly image the fibrils at the sub-micrometre scale. They make use of diverse probes such as visible light, X-rays and electrons at different scales, from centimetres down to nanometres. They allow imaging of bone sections or surfaces in two dimensions or investigating bone tissue truly in three dimensions, in vivo or ex vivo, and sometimes in combination with in situ mechanical experiments. The purpose of this review is to summarize and discuss this broad range of imaging techniques and the different modalities of their use, in order to discuss their advantages and limitations for the assessment of bone ultrastructure organization with respect to the orientation and arrangement of mineralized collagen fibrils. PMID:27335222

  14. Assessing Cerebrovascular Reactivity in Carotid Steno-Occlusive Disease Using MRI BOLD and ASL Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata F. Leoni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Impaired cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR, a predictive factor of imminent stroke, has been shown to be associated with carotid steno-occlusive disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques, such as blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD and arterial spin labeling (ASL, have emerged as promising noninvasive tools to evaluate altered CVR with whole-brain coverage, when combined with a vasoactive stimulus, such as respiratory task or injection of acetazolamide. Under normal cerebrovascular conditions, CVR has been shown to be globally and homogenously distributed between hemispheres, but with differences among cerebral regions. Such differences can be explained by anatomical specificities and different biochemical mechanisms responsible for vascular regulation. In patients with carotid steno-occlusive disease, studies have shown that MRI techniques can detect impaired CVR in brain tissue supplied by the affected artery. Moreover, resulting CVR estimations have been well correlated to those obtained with more established techniques, indicating that BOLD and ASL are robust and reliable methods to assess CVR in patients with cerebrovascular diseases. Therefore, the present paper aims to review recent studies which use BOLD and ASL to evaluate CVR, in healthy individuals and in patients with carotid steno-occlusive disease, providing a source of information regarding the obtained results and the methodological difficulties.

  15. Hyaluronan and the "mushroom" technique: an assessment of hyaluronan injections into the glans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheels, Patrick; Saint Hillier, Stéphane; Elias, Badwi; Pujos, Eric

    2012-02-01

    An Asian technique of injecting collagen below the corona of the glans-the "mushroom" technique-increases the diameter of the penis glans and heightens sexual sensations for the participant and his sexual partner. To improve the physical and aesthetic results of the "mushroom" technique-compared with previous procedures using collagen-by using a new material and alternative injection locations and patterns. The team used a monophasic polydensified hyaluronan (HA) gel for superficial injection into the glans of 12 men aged 28 to 61. Local anesthetic was applied, and one of three injection patterns was tried. Participants self-assessed efficacy and pre- versus postinjection sensitivity using a visual analogue scale and a multiple-choice questionnaire. All participants experienced heightened levels of sensation and increased glans diameter. The hyaluronan gel was well tolerated. Of the three injection patterns tested, one (retrograde contiguous injection) was found to be an improvement over the "mushroom" injection protocol. Injection directly into the glans increases its diameter when the penis is erect, and heightens sexual sensations. The monophasic and polydensified hyaluronan gels are suitable alternatives to collagen. © 2011 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Assessment of Geophysical Techniques Application during CTBTO On-Site inspections using the Evaluation Matrix concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaya-Piqué, Luis R.; Stefanova, Stefka; Hawkins, Ward L.; Sweeney, Jerry J.; Melamud, Mordechai; Prah, Matjaz

    2010-05-01

    Application of geophysical methods to collect evidence of possible conduct of an underground nuclear explosion is an essential element of the on-site inspection (OSI) verification component of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). As with any geophysical survey, effective use of resources during an OSI is essential. The evaluation matrix approach can be applied to both assess in a comprehensive manner the suitability of OSI techniques with respect to an ensemble of different conditions based on a specific OSI scenario (Technology Evaluation Matrix, TEM) and to estimate the technical readiness status of a specific technology (Technical Readiness Status Matrix, TRSM). Applied to the work of the OSI Division of the Provisional Secretariat of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), the TRSM will support policy planning and operational projects that need to be thoroughly analyzed, providing a flexible mechanism that allows for fast and rationale decision making for resource allocation; on the other hand, the TEM will improve the functionality of an OSI by providing the inspection team a reference tool for a particular OSI scenario (e.g., yield and depth of the triggering event, geology of the inspection area, possible emplacement conditions). This assessment is important because of the limited time and number of team members provided to the inspection team for the conduct of an inspection. In this work we discuss the application of the TEM concept to the set of geophysical techniques that can be applied during an OSI for two basic underground nuclear explosion (UNE) scenarios: explosions conducted in a vertical emplacement (i.e. borehole) and explosions conducted in a horizontal emplacement (i.e. tunnel). After introducing the natural and manmade signatures usually associated with an UNE and the geophysical techniques allowed by the Treaty (with imposed constraints), examples of evaluation matrices are given for each scenario. The

  17. Dynamic drought risk assessment using crop model and remote sensing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H.; Su, Z.; Lv, J.; Li, L.; Wang, Y.

    2017-02-01

    Drought risk assessment is of great significance to reduce the loss of agricultural drought and ensure food security. The normally drought risk assessment method is to evaluate its exposure to the hazard and the vulnerability to extended periods of water shortage for a specific region, which is a static evaluation method. The Dynamic Drought Risk Assessment (DDRA) is to estimate the drought risk according to the crop growth and water stress conditions in real time. In this study, a DDRA method using crop model and remote sensing techniques was proposed. The crop model we employed is DeNitrification and DeComposition (DNDC) model. The drought risk was quantified by the yield losses predicted by the crop model in a scenario-based method. The crop model was re-calibrated to improve the performance by the Leaf Area Index (LAI) retrieved from MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. And the in-situ station-based crop model was extended to assess the regional drought risk by integrating crop planted mapping. The crop planted area was extracted with extended CPPI method from MODIS data. This study was implemented and validated on maize crop in Liaoning province, China.

  18. Assessment of air quality in Haora River basin using fuzzy multiple-attribute decision making techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajit Pratap; Chakrabarti, Sumanta; Kumar, Sumit; Singh, Anjaney

    2017-08-01

    This paper deals with assessment of air quality in Haora River basin using two techniques. Initially, air quality indices were evaluated using a modified EPA method. The indices were also evaluated using a fuzzy comprehensive assessment (FCA) method. The results obtained from the fuzzy comprehensive assessment method were compared to that obtained from the modified EPA method. To illustrate the applicability of the methodology proposed herein, a case study has been presented. Air samples have been collected at 10 sampling sites located along Haora River. Six important air pollutants, namely, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, suspended particulate matter (SPM), PM10, and lead, were monitored continuously, and air quality maps were generated on the GIS platform. Comparison of the methodologies has clearly highlighted superiority and robustness of the fuzzy comprehensive assessment method in determining air quality indices under study. It has effectively addressed the inherent uncertainties involved in the evaluation, modeling, and interpretation of sampling data, which was beyond the scope of the traditional weighted approaches employed otherwise. The FCA method is robust and prepares a credible platform of air quality evaluation and identification, in face of the uncertainties that remain eclipsed in the traditional approaches like the modified EPA method. The insights gained through the present study are believed to be of pivotal significance in guiding the development and implementation of effective environmental remedial action plans in the study area.

  19. Assessment of tumour invasion into the mandible: the value of different imaging techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brekel, M.W.M. van den; Tiwari, R.M.; Snow, G.B. [Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, Free University Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Runne, R.W. [Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, Free University Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)]|[Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Free University Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Smeele, L.E. [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Pathology, Free University Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Castelijns, J.A. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Free University Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1998-12-01

    In oral carcinomas close to the mandible, tumour invasion of the mandible is important in selecting segmental or marginal resection. Imaging may play a role in assessing tumour invasion. This study compares the accuracy of panoramic X-ray, CT and MR imaging in assessing invasion of the mandible in 29 patients. At histopathology, 6 patients had mandible erosion, 12 had invasion and 11 had an intact mandible. Magnetic resonance imaging had the highest sensitivity (94 %), but a low specificity (73 %), with 3 of 11 intact mandibles interpreted as positive. Furthermore, MR often overestimated the extent of tumour invasion. On the other hand, CT and panoramic X-ray had a lower sensitivity (64 and 63 %, respectively) and a higher specificity (89 and 90 %, respectively). Computed tomography (using 5-mm sections) and panoramic X-ray had a similar accuracy, and negative findings do not exclude invasion. Magnetic resonance imaging was the most sensitive technique but had more false positives and frequently overestimated the extent of tumour invasion. Because none of the radiological techniques are accurate enough, clinical examination seems at present to remain the most important modality in deciding between segmental and marginal resection. Tumour invasion at CT or panoramic X-ray is a strong argument for a segmental resection. (orig.) With 3 figs., 3 tabs., 30 refs.

  20. Developing the interaction matrix technique as a tool assessing the impact of traffic on air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroulidou, Maria; Hughes, Susan J; Hellawell, Emma E

    2007-09-01

    This paper develops a technique which can be used as a preliminary tool for assessing air quality related to urban traffic. It combines a Geographic Information System (GIS) with an interaction matrix-type methodology based on a system analysis approach. The matrix identifies and quantifies interactions between all selected variables involved in a system as well as their interaction with the system as a whole. This matrix is used to determine the weightings to apply to spatial datasets within a GIS to develop a pollution vulnerability map. The focus of the paper is to introduce and assess a more versatile coding of the interaction matrix with respect to previously used coding. A case study is presented in which the modified interaction methodology is applied to data for a busy urban location. The resulting vulnerability map, in terms of pollution vulnerable hot spots, was compared to a pollution map derived from an advanced dispersion model. The interaction matrix technique with GIS can be used as a tool complementary to sophisticated numerical modelling and has potential as an analytical tool to evaluate multidisciplinary systems.

  1. Potential of Using Remote Sensing Techniques for Global Assessment of Water Footprint of Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Romaguera

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing has long been a useful tool in global applications, since it provides physically-based, worldwide, and consistent spatial information. This paper discusses the potential of using these techniques in the research field of water management, particularly for ‘Water Footprint’ (WF studies. The WF of a crop is defined as the volume of water consumed for its production, where green and blue WF stand for rain and irrigation water usage, respectively. In this paper evapotranspiration, precipitation, water storage, runoff and land use are identified as key variables to potentially be estimated by remote sensing and used for WF assessment. A mass water balance is proposed to calculate the volume of irrigation applied, and green and blue WF are obtained from the green and blue evapotranspiration components. The source of remote sensing data is described and a simplified example is included, which uses evapotranspiration estimates from the geostationary satellite Meteosat 9 and precipitation estimates obtained with the Climatic Prediction Center Morphing Technique (CMORPH. The combination of data in this approach brings several limitations with respect to discrepancies in spatial and temporal resolution and data availability, which are discussed in detail. This work provides new tools for global WF assessment and represents an innovative approach to global irrigation mapping, enabling the estimation of green and blue water use.

  2. A patient image-based technique to assess the image quality of clinical chest radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan; Samei, Ehsan; Luo, Hui; Dobbins, James T., III; McAdams, H. Page; Wang, Xiaohui; Sehnert, William J.; Barski, Lori; Foos, David H.

    2011-03-01

    Current clinical image quality assessment techniques mainly analyze image quality for the imaging system in terms of factors such as the capture system DQE and MTF, the exposure technique, and the particular image processing method and processing parameters. However, when assessing a clinical image, radiologists seldom refer to these factors, but rather examine several specific regions of the image to see whether the image is suitable for diagnosis. In this work, we developed a new strategy to learn and simulate radiologists' evaluation process on actual clinical chest images. Based on this strategy, a preliminary study was conducted on 254 digital chest radiographs (38 AP without grids, 35 AP with 6:1 ratio grids and 151 PA with 10:1 ratio grids). First, ten regional based perceptual qualities were summarized through an observer study. Each quality was characterized in terms of a physical quantity measured from the image, and as a first step, the three physical quantities in lung region were then implemented algorithmically. A pilot observer study was performed to verify the correlation between image perceptual qualities and physical quantitative qualities. The results demonstrated that our regional based metrics have promising performance for grading perceptual properties of chest radiographs.

  3. Electrophysiological assessment of driving pleasure and difficulty using a task-irrelevant probe technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Yuji; Inoue, Kazuya; Kimura, Motohiro; Sato, Toshihisa; Nagai, Chikara

    2016-10-01

    The amplitude of event-related brain potentials (ERPs) elicited by task-irrelevant auditory probes decreases when more attentional resources are allocated to a visual task. This task-irrelevant probe technique is considered to be useful in assessing the degree of interest in a visual task, as well as task difficulty. The present study examined the amplitude of the N1 and P2 components elicited by task-irrelevant auditory probes during a driving task in a simulated environment. The analysis of ERPs showed that the N1 amplitude decreased when participants drove on the road course that had more frequent and sharper curves, whereas the P2 amplitude decreased when the road contained sharper curves, irrespective of curve frequency. Subjective ratings of driving pleasure and difficulty showed the same variation patterns as the N1 and P2 amplitudes, respectively. These results suggest that use of the task-irrelevant probe technique can assess the degree of driving pleasure and difficulty separately. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The US DOE A2e Mesoscale to Microscale Coupling Project: Nonstationary Modeling Techniques and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, Sue Ellen; Kosovic, Branko; Shaw, William

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of the US DOE's Mesoscale-Microscale Coupling (MMC) Project is to develop, verify, and validate physical models and modeling techniques that bridge the most important atmospheric scales that determine wind plant performance and reliability. As part of DOE's Atmosphere to Electrons (A2e) program, the MMC project seeks to create a new predictive numerical simulation capability that is able to represent the full range of atmospheric flow conditions impacting wind plant performance. The recent focus of MMC has been on nonstationary conditions over flat terrain. These nonstationary cases are critical for wind energy and represent a primary need for mesoscale meteorological forcing of the microscale models. The MMC team modeled two types of non-stationary cases: 1) diurnal cycles in which the daytime convective boundary layer collapses with the setting of the sun when the surface heat flux changes from positive to negative, passing through a brief period of neutral stability before becoming stable, with smaller scale turbulence and the potential for low level jet (LLJ) formation; and 2) frontal passage as an example of a synoptic weather event that may cause relatively rapid changes in wind speed and direction. The team compared and contrasted two primary techniques for non-stationary forcing of the microscale by the mesoscale model. The first is to use the tendencies from the mesoscale model to directly force the microscale mode. The second method is to couple not only the microscale domain's internal forcing parameters, but also its lateral boundaries, to a mesoscale simulation. While the boundary coupled approach provides the greatest generality, since the mesoscale flow information providing the lateral boundary information for the microscale domain contains no explicit turbulence information, the approach requires methods to accelerate turbulence production at the microscale domain's inflow boundaries. Forefront assessment strategies, including comparing

  5. Uncertainties in assessing tillage erosion - how appropriate are our measuring techniques?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiener, Peter; Deumlich, Detlef; Gómez, José A.; Guzmán, Gema; Hardy, Robert; Jague, Emilien A.; Quinton, John; Sommer, Michael; van Oost, Kristof; Wexler, Robert; Wilken, Florian

    2017-04-01

    In undulating arable landscapes tillage erosion is one of the dominant processes initiating lateral transfer of soil and soil constituents. Especially, in relatively dry regions, where tillage erosion can be much larger than water erosion, the associated changes in soil hydraulic properties might have substantial effects upon the sustainable use of soil resources. There have been some studies using different techniques to determine tillage erosion which build the basis for tillage erosion modelling approaches. However, tillage erosion is rather understudied compared to water erosion. The goal of this study was to bring together experts using different techniques to determine tillage erosion in an experimental set-up and to analyse the different results and assess the uncertainties associated with typical model inputs. Tillage erosion on a 50 x 10 m plot was determined after two phases of seven tillage passes performed within a week (simulating 10-14 yrs of tillage). As tracers, two different micro-tracers (magnetite mixed with soil and fluorescent sand) and one macro-tracer (passive Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) transponders; dia. 3 mm, length 20 mm) were used. Moreover, tillage induced changes in topography were spatially determined for the entire plot with two different terrestrial laser scanners and an UAV-based structure by motion topography analysis. Topography changes were also evaluated at 12 points using buried concrete flagstones as reference. A preliminary analysis of tracer movement indicates substantial differences in tillage induced translocation depending on type of tracer. While the mean translocation of the RFIDs was 0.47 m per pass the mean movement of the micro-tracers was 0.70 m. Substantial differences were also found for the different techniques to determine changes in topography. Overall the experiment underlines the importance of tillage erosion for the lateral transfer of soil and soil constituents, but also shows the large

  6. Accuracy of ultrasound imaging technique for assessing lipoatrophy in HIV-infected subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraioli, Giovanna; Tinelli, Carmine; Scudeller, Luigia; Filice, Gaetano; Filice, Carlo

    2011-07-01

    To compare the accuracy of ultrasound imaging technique to that of clinical diagnosis in evaluating subcutaneous fat changes in HIV-infected subjects. HIV-uninfected control subjects (Group A), HIV-infected subjects with clinically assessed lipoatrophy (Group B), and HIV-infected subjects without clinical lipoatrophy (Group C) underwent ultrasound measurements of subcutaneous fat thickness at facial, brachial and thigh regions. ROC curve analyses were used to estimate ultrasound prediction accuracy and cut-off values of subcutaneous fat thickness. 228 subjects were enrolled: 78 in Group A, 73 in Group B, and 77 in Group C. Facial lipoatrophy: ROC curve analysis identified optimal cut-off value of 13.3 mm [sensitivity, 96.0%; specificity, 76.9% AUC 0.92], 5.0 mm [sensitivity, 71.4%; specificity, 92.3%; AUC 0.90] and 11.2 mm [sensitivity, 95.8%; specificity, 89.7%; AUC 0.97] for females and 12.05 mm [sensitivity, 51.2%; specificity, 87.2%; AUC 0.74], 4.1 mm [sensitivity, 76.2%; specificity, 89.7%; AUC 0.85] and 4.35 mm [sensitivity, 60.0%; specificity, 89.7%; AUC 0.82] for males in assessing facial, brachial and crural lipoatrophy respectively. Using this cut-off values, 12/25 (48%) females and 17/49 (34.7%) males, 12/28 (42.9%) females and 23/49 (46.9%) males, 19/28 (67.9%) females and 12/49 (24.5%) males in Group C would be classified as "sub-clinical" facial, brachial and crural lipoatrophy respectively. The results of our study show that in the assessment of subtle subcutaneous fat changes ultrasound is more accurate than clinical evaluation and confirm the usefulness of ultrasound imaging technique in identifying lipoatrophy at an early stage.

  7. One-pot preparation of N,N′-alkylidene bisamide derivatives catalyzed by silica supported polyphosphoric acid (SiO2-PPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mohammad Shafiee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Silica supported polyphosphoric acid (SiO2-PPA as an efficient heterogeneous catalyst was found to be effective for the one-pot three-component condensation reaction of phenyl acetylene/1-hexyne, aromatic aldehyde and benzamide/acetamide to produce a series of N,N′-alkylidene bisamides. The desired products were obtained in good to high yields. The assistance of alkynes has been confirmed by using thin layer chromatographic (TLC studies. All the reactions were done at 100 °C using 0.025 g of catalyst. The developed method is valid for either substituted aldehyde, thus it constitutes a general synthetic method for these kinds of compounds. In all the cases aromatic aldehydes containing electron-withdrawing groups gave shorter time than that with electron-donating groups. Additionally, the reaction of butyraldehyde with benzamide failed to have any product in the presence of phenyl acetylene but with 1-hexyne the product was formed in moderate yield.

  8. Three-dimensional True Spine Length: A Novel Technique for Assessing the Outcomes of Scoliosis Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurway, Alan J; Hurry, Jennifer K; Gauthier, Luke; Orlik, Ben; Chukwunyerenwa, Chukwudi K; Kishta, Waleed E; El-Hawary, Ron

    2017-12-01

    Current assessment of spine growth for patients undergoing growth friendly surgical treatment for early-onset scoliosis (EOS) is the use of serial, 1-dimensional standard-of-care coronal vertical spine height (SoCVH) measurements. Any growth of the spine out of the coronal plane is missed by the SoCVH, which may underestimate the actual growth of the spine. This study set to validate the novel 3-dimensional true spine length (3DTSL) radiographic measurement technique for measuring growth of EOS patients. 3DTSL measurement accuracy, reliability, and repeatability was assessed using 10 physical model configurations. In addition, interrater and intrarater reliabilities (IRRs) were assessed using interclass coefficient (ICC) analyses of 23 retrospective EOS patient clinical radiographs. 3DTSL measurements were compared with SoCVH measurements. The model assessment showed excellent accuracy with a mean error of 1.2 mm (SD=0.9; range, 0.0 to 3.0) and mean ICC of 0.999.IRR ICCs of the clinical radiographs averaged 0.952 for the 3DTSL and 0.975 for the vertical height whereas IRRs averaged 0.944 and 0.965, respectively (all Prange, 142.8 to 276.8), whereas the SoCVH averaged 156.1 mm (SD=29.7; range, 74.7 to 207.3). The mean difference between the matched 3DTSL and SoCVH measurements was 37.8 mm (SD=21.4; range, 1.3 to 95.4) and was statistically significant (Paverage, the 3DTSL of the measured spines was 124.2% of the measured SoCVH, with a progressive difference as the Cobb or kyphosis angles increased. The novel 3DTSL measurement is accurate, repeatable, and complements the current growth assessments for EOS treatments. Level II-diagnostic study-development of a diagnostic criteria on basis of consecutive patients, with gold standard.

  9. FLOOD RISK ASSESSMENT IN RIVER TIMIS BASIN - THE CARANSEBES - LUGOJ SECTOR- USING GIS TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAI VALENTIN HERBEI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Flood risk assessment in Timis River basin - the Caransebes -Lugoj sector- using GIS technique. Over time freshets, thus floods constituted and constitute a particularly important issue that requires attention. In many cases, flood damages are extensive to the environment, to the economy and also socially. The purpose of this paper is to identify flood-prone areas between Caransebes and Lugoj, land that is part of the Timis river basin. This paper is based on a theoretical model in which we considered the building elements of the flood produced on the Timis river in April 2005 (levels and flows. to represent the zones flood – prone, we used the numerical model of the terrain, created for the abovementioned area. On this model , according to levels measured at hydrometric stations, were defined those flood prone areas. The Timis river hydrographic basin includes a varied terrain (mountains, hills and plains, with pronounced differences in altitude and massiveness, resulting from tectonic movements that have affected the region, this fact has affected water flow processes, both directly through fragmentation and slope, and indirectly, by creating the vertical climate, vegetation and soils zones. Using GIS technology to study hydrological phenomena and their impact on the geographic area are of particular importance due to the complexity of these techniques, which enables detailed analysis and analytical precision as well as an increased speed of the analysis. Creating theoretical models that give scale to the hydrological phenomena, in this case representing the flood areas, is of great practical importance because based on these models the areas can be defined and viewed, having the possibility of taking measures to prevent environmental effects on the natural and / or anthropogenic environment. In the studied area review of the flood of 2005, were represented flood areas, therefore, according with the researches, several villages, located in

  10. Conjunction Assessment Techniques and Operational Results from the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Trevor; Carpenter, Russell; Farahmand, Mitra; Ottenstein, Neil; Demoret, Michael; Godine, Dominic

    2017-01-01

    This paper will describe the results that have been obtained to date during the MMS mission concerning conjunction assessment. MMS navigation makes use of a weak-signal GPS-based system: this allows signals to be received even when MMS is flying above the GPS orbits, producing a highly accurate determination of the four MMS orbits. This data is downlinked to the MMS Mission Operations Center (MOC) and used by the Flight Dynamics Operations Area (FDOA) for both maneuver design and conjunction assessment. The MMS fly in tetrahedron formations around apogee, in order to collect simultaneous particles and fields science data. The original plan was to fly tetrahedra between 10 and 160 km in size; however, after Phase 1a of the mission, the science team requested that smaller sizes be flown if feasible. After analysis (to be detailed in a companion paper), a new minimum size of 7 km was decided upon. Flying at this reduced scale size makes conjunction assessment between the MMS spacecraft even more important: the methods that are used by the MMS FDOA to address this problem will be described in the paper, and a summary given of the previous analyses that went into the development of these techniques. Details will also be given of operational experiences to date. Finally, two CA mitigation maneuver types that have been designed (but never yet required to actually be performed) will also be outlined.

  11. Coronary stent on coronary CT angiography: Assessment with model-based iterative reconstruction technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Chae; Kim, Yeo Koon; Chun, Eun Ju; Choi, Sang IL [Dept. of of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    To assess the performance of model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) technique for evaluation of coronary artery stents on coronary CT angiography (CCTA). Twenty-two patients with coronary stent implantation who underwent CCTA were retrospectively enrolled for comparison of image quality between filtered back projection (FBP), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) and MBIR. In each data set, image noise was measured as the standard deviation of the measured attenuation units within circular regions of interest in the ascending aorta (AA) and left main coronary artery (LM). To objectively assess the noise and blooming artifacts in coronary stent, we additionally measured the standard deviation of the measured attenuation and intra-luminal stent diameters of total 35 stents with dedicated software. All image noise measured in the AA (all p < 0.001), LM (p < 0.001, p = 0.001) and coronary stent (all p < 0.001) were significantly lower with MBIR in comparison to those with FBP or ASIR. Intraluminal stent diameter was significantly higher with MBIR, as compared with ASIR or FBP (p < 0.001, p = 0.001). MBIR can reduce image noise and blooming artifact from the stent, leading to better in-stent assessment in patients with coronary artery stent.

  12. Assessing base rates of sexual behavior using the unmatched count technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starosta, Amy J; Earleywine, Mitch

    2014-01-01

    Estimating the prevalence of sexual behaviors is difficult because of self-report biases. This is particularly relevant in assessing high-risk sexual behaviors for the purpose of reducing the transmission and acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV/AIDS. The present study employed the unmatched count technique (UCT), which provides estimates of the prevalence of risky sexual behaviors without requiring participants to confess to socially undesirable or stigmatized behaviors. Compared to a standard, anonymous self-report questionnaire, the UCT protocol revealed that people were less likely to notify their partners about STIs or discuss their history of sexual experiences. Effects were particularly large in women suggesting that women may be more likely to misrepresent their sexual behaviors. The findings suggest that conventional, anonymous self-report questionnaire data of base rates of risky sexual behavior and sexual communication are consistently inaccurate. These discrepant base rates suggest that the UCT might provide a better estimate of the frequency of these behaviors. Results suggest that inconsistent sexual behavior is more rampant than anonymous questionnaires suggest. They also underscore the need for improvements in the anonymity of assessment of sexual behaviors, which could in turn improve the targeting of prevention efforts. Results have important public health implications because accurate assessment of sexual behaviors is crucial for developing effective STI prevention interventions among target populations.

  13. Validation of polyvinylidene fluoride nasal sensor to assess nasal obstruction in comparison with subjective technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopa Manjunatha, G; Mahapatra, D Roy; Prakash, Surya; Rajanna, K

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to validate the applicability of the PolyVinyliDene Fluoride (PVDF) nasal sensor to assess the nasal airflow, in healthy subjects and patients with nasal obstruction and to correlate the results with the score of Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). PVDF nasal sensor and VAS measurements were carried out in 50 subjects (25-healthy subjects and 25 patients). The VAS score of nasal obstruction and peak-to-peak amplitude (Vp-p) of nasal cycle measured by PVDF nasal sensors were analyzed for right nostril (RN) and left nostril (LN) in both the groups. Spearman's rho correlation was calculated. The relationship between PVDF nasal sensor measurements and severity of nasal obstruction (VAS score) were assessed by ANOVA. In healthy group, the measurement of nasal airflow by PVDF nasal sensor for RN and LN were found to be 51.14±5.87% and 48.85±5.87%, respectively. In patient group, PVDF nasal sensor indicated lesser nasal airflow in the blocked nostrils (RN: 23.33±10.54% and LN: 32.24±11.54%). Moderate correlation was observed in healthy group (r=-0.710, p<0.001 for RN and r=-0.651, p<0.001 for LN), and moderate to strong correlation in patient group (r=-0.751, p<0.01 for RN and r=-0.885, p<0.0001 for LN). PVDF nasal sensor method is a newly developed technique for measuring the nasal airflow. Moderate to strong correlation was observed between PVDF nasal sensor data and VAS scores for nasal obstruction. In our present study, PVDF nasal sensor technique successfully differentiated between healthy subjects and patients with nasal obstruction. Additionally, it can also assess severity of nasal obstruction in comparison with VAS. Thus, we propose that the PVDF nasal sensor technique could be used as a new diagnostic method to evaluate nasal obstruction in routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of ultrasonic techniques for characterization of stress corrosion cracks in SG partition stubs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartre, B.; Banchet, J. [AREVA NP, Saint-Marcel (France); Moras, D.; Bastin, P. [Intercontrole, Rungis (France); Beroni, C. [EDF/CEIDRE, Saint-Denis (France)

    2006-07-01

    Studies by EDF and AREVA NP on Inconel zones have identified the Inconel 600 partition stubs of steam generators as potential areas of SCC, on the hot leg side. Decision was made to perform an expert assessment using ultrasonic testing (UT) techniques to be applied on the whole area of the stub showing penetrant testing (PT) techniques indications. UT techniques, probes and tools were then developed for that purpose. The aim is to size shallow defects, sizing capacity being maintained for defects propagated to a half-thickness. Although no formal qualification was required, the development was performed in view of a performance demonstration. Three mock-ups were manufactured by AREVA NP: two welded mock-ups with machined defects, surface condition and geometry representative of the ''envelope'' of situations likely to be found on the SG; one mock-up, with representative corrosion cracks Development was carried out in two phases: development of techniques and specification of probes and tooling, then development of tools, industrialization of probes, development of procedures, personnel training and performance demonstration. The basic inspection relied on TOFDT, with a contact probe; frequencies, PCS and dimensions were optimised using the results from the mock-ups. Three sets of transducers were defined: a HF transducer for flaw sizes close to the critical size, another HF transducer, with lower PCS for smaller defects, both transducers for material whose permeability was equivalent to that of the mock-ups; anticipating less permeable materials, a MF probe was added. Tests having shown that these transducers did not cover the whole plate thickness, a back-up phased-array probe was selected to scan the plate beyond halfthickness. For a better access under the TSP, a focused transducer was also added to complete the previous set. All of these transducers were operated in immersion, with the same tool: a COBRA type arm which positioned the probes

  15. The comparative study of evaluating human error assessment and reduction technique and cognitive reliability and error analysis method techniques in the control room of the cement industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Babaei Pouya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The present study aimed to evaluate the assessment methods of human errors and compare the results of these techniques in order to introduce the precise method of human error assessment, and recognize the factors affecting the occurrence of these errors. Materials and Methods: This case study was done at three workstation control room of a cement industry in 2014. After determining the responsibilities and critical jobs by hierarchical task analysis, cognitive reliability and error analysis method (CREAM and human error assessment and reduction technique (HEART were used in order to analyze the human errors. Results: The results showed that in the CREAM method, the highest probability of error occurrence is related to monitoring and control (operator with a probability of 0.207, and that of in the HEART method, is related to control signs (operator with a probability of 0.416. The number of errors detected by CREAM and HEART method were 85 and 80, respectively. Time and cost of applying the CREAM methods were 235 h and 1175($, while those in the HEART techniques were 215 h and 1075($. Conclusion: We concluded that the highest probability of calculated errors relates to "monitoring and control (operator," "controlling warning signs (operators," and "cooperation in solving the problem (supervisor" for both techniques. By considering the time and cost factors, HEART has superiority, while CREAM is better due to its extensive evaluation and the number of detected errors.

  16. Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART) and Human Factor Analysis and Classification System (HFACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Tiffaney Miller

    2017-01-01

    Research results have shown that more than half of aviation, aerospace and aeronautics mishaps incidents are attributed to human error. As a part of Safety within space exploration ground processing operations, the identification and/or classification of underlying contributors and causes of human error must be identified, in order to manage human error. This research provides a framework and methodology using the Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART) and Human Factor Analysis and Classification System (HFACS), as an analysis tool to identify contributing factors, their impact on human error events, and predict the Human Error probabilities (HEPs) of future occurrences. This research methodology was applied (retrospectively) to six (6) NASA ground processing operations scenarios and thirty (30) years of Launch Vehicle related mishap data. This modifiable framework can be used and followed by other space and similar complex operations.

  17. Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART) and Human Factor Analysis and Classification System (HFACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Tiffaney Miller

    2017-01-01

    Research results have shown that more than half of aviation, aerospace and aeronautics mishaps incidents are attributed to human error. As a part of Quality within space exploration ground processing operations, the identification and or classification of underlying contributors and causes of human error must be identified, in order to manage human error.This presentation will provide a framework and methodology using the Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART) and Human Factor Analysis and Classification System (HFACS), as an analysis tool to identify contributing factors, their impact on human error events, and predict the Human Error probabilities (HEPs) of future occurrences. This research methodology was applied (retrospectively) to six (6) NASA ground processing operations scenarios and thirty (30) years of Launch Vehicle related mishap data. This modifiable framework can be used and followed by other space and similar complex operations.

  18. Optimum cooling of data centers application of risk assessment and mitigation techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Jun; Das, Diganta; Pecht, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    This book provides data center designers and operators with methods by which to assess and mitigate the risks associated with utilization of optimum cooling solutions. The goal is to provide readers with sufficient knowledge to implement measures such as free air cooling or direct liquid immersion cooling properly, or combination of existing and emerging cooling technologies in data centers, base stations, and server farms. This book also: Discusses various telecommunication infrastructures, with an emphasis on data centers and base stations Covers the most commonly known energy and power management techniques, as well as emerging cooling solutions for data centers Describes the risks to the electronic equipment fitted in these installations and the methods of risk mitigation Devotes  a particular focus to an up-to-date review of the emerging cooling methods (such as free air cooling and direct liquid immersion cooling) and tools and best practices for designers, technology developers, installation operators...

  19. Cardiac abnormalities assessed by non-invasive techniques in patients with newly diagnosed idiopathic inflammatory myopathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Louise Pyndt; Simonsen, Jane Angel; Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Knowledge of cardiac involvement in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) is limited, especially in the early stage of disease. The objective of the present study was to perform a controlled evaluation of cardiac abnormalities in newly diagnosed, untreated patients with idiopathic...... inflammatory myopathies (IIM) by means of non-invasive techniques. METHODS: Fourteen patients with IIM (8 polymyositis, 4 dermatomyositis, 2 cancer-associated dermatomyositis) and 14 gender- and age- matched healthy control subjects were investigated. Participant assessments included a cardiac questionnaire......, cardiac troponin-I (TnI), electrocardiogram (standard 12-lead and 48-h Holter monitoring), echocardiography with tissue Doppler measures, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging with T2 mapping and semi-quantitative (99m)technetium pyrophosphate ((99m)Tc-PYP) scintigraphy. RESULTS: Dyspnoea was present...

  20. Determination of whole-body nitrogen and radiation assessment using in vivo prompt gamma activation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, C; Wei, Y Y; Chen, Y Y

    1993-06-01

    Body nitrogen content in the phantom is measured by semiconducting and scintillation spectrometers using in vivo prompt gamma-ray activation analysis technique. The effective dose rate equivalents for sensitive organs and tissues inside the phantom are assessed by dosimetric measurement and neutron transport calculation. The bismuth germanate scintillator is found superior to the germanium semiconducting detector to quantitatively measure the photopeak of the 10.829 MeV prompt gamma-ray emitted from the 14N(n, gamma) reaction. Recommended scanning period for current setup using the BGO detector is 1 h on the modified mobile nuclear reactor. The effective dose equivalents from both neutrons and gamma-rays are estimated around 63 microSv per scan in the phantom test, making it a safe and reliable nuclear analytical method for in vivo body nitrogen measurement.

  1. Determination of whole-body nitrogen and radiation assessment using in vivo prompt gamma activation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien Chung; Yuanyaw Wei; Yayu Chen (National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu, Taiwan (China). Inst. of Nuclear Science)

    1993-06-01

    Body nitrogen content in the phantom is measured by semiconducting and scintillation spectrometers using in vivo prompt gamma-ray activation analysis technique. The effective dose rate equivalents for sensitive organs and tissues inside the phantom are assessed by dosimetric measurement and neutron transport calculation. The bismuth germanate scintillator is found superior to the germanium semiconducting detector to quantitatively measure the photopeak of the 10.829 MeV prompt gamma-ray emitted from the [sup 14]N(n,[gamma]) reaction. Recommended scanning period for current setup using the BGO detector is 1 h on the modified mobile nuclear reactor. The effective dose equivalents from both neutrons and gamma-rays are estimated around 63 [mu]Sv per scan in the phantom test, making it a safe and reliable nuclear analytical method for in vivo body nitrogen measurement. (author).

  2. Cardiac CT for the assessment of chest pain: Imaging techniques and clinical results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Hans-Christoph, E-mail: christoph.becker@med.uni-muenchen.de [Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Grosshadern Clinic, Department of Clinical Radiology, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Johnson, Thorsten [Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Grosshadern Clinic, Department of Clinical Radiology, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Immediate and efficient risk stratification and management of patients with acute chest pain in the emergency department is challenging. Traditional management of these patients includes serial ECG, laboratory tests and further on radionuclide perfusion imaging or ECG treadmill testing. Due to the advances of multi-detector CT technology, dedicated coronary CT angiography provides the potential to rapidly and reliably diagnose or exclude acute coronary artery disease. Life-threatening causes of chest pain, such as aortic dissection and pulmonary embolism can simultaneously be assessed with a single scan, sometimes referred to as “triple rule out” scan. With appropriate patient selection, cardiac CT can accurately diagnose heart disease or other sources of chest pain, markedly decrease health care costs, and reliably predict clinical outcomes. This article reviews imaging techniques and clinical results for CT been used to evaluate patients with chest pain entering the emergency department.

  3. Exploratory assessment of groundwater vulnerability to pollution in Abi, southeastern Nigeria, using geophysical and geological techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpan, Anthony E; Ebong, Ebong D; Emeka, Chimezie N

    2015-04-01

    The geophysical-based integrated electrical conductivity (IEC) and the groundwater hydraulic confinement-overlying strata-depth to water table (GOD) techniques were used to assess vulnerability levels of aquifers and the extent of aquifer protection in Abi, Nigeria. The IEC indices was generated from constrained one dimensional (1D) inversion of vertical electrical sounding (VES) and two dimensional (2D) electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data, acquired randomly in the area. The GOD indices were sourced from existing geologic data within the area. Results showed that IEC values vary from 2.0 S in the strongly protected areas. The GOD indices vary from vulnerable areas to 0.6 in the highly vulnerable areas. Thus, the groundwater resources in the area need to be properly managed for sustainability and such management practices have been suggested.

  4. Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART) and Human Factor Analysis and Classification System (HFACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Tiffaney Miller

    2017-01-01

    Research results have shown that more than half of aviation, aerospace and aeronautics mishaps/incidents are attributed to human error. As a part of Safety within space exploration ground processing operations, the identification and/or classification of underlying contributors and causes of human error must be identified, in order to manage human error. This research provides a framework and methodology using the Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART) and Human Factor Analysis and Classification System (HFACS), as an analysis tool to identify contributing factors, their impact on human error events, and predict the Human Error probabilities (HEPs) of future occurrences. This research methodology was applied (retrospectively) to six (6) NASA ground processing operations scenarios and thirty (30) years of Launch Vehicle related mishap data. This modifiable framework can be used and followed by other space and similar complex operations.

  5. Incorporating active-learning techniques and competency assessment into a critical care elective course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcom, Daniel R; Hibbs, Jennifer L

    2012-09-10

    To design, implement, and measure the effectiveness of a critical care elective course for second-year students in a 3-year accelerated doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program. A critical care elective course was developed that used active-learning techniques, including cooperative learning and group presentations, to deliver content on critical care topics. Group presentations had to include a disease state overview, practice guidelines, and clinical recommendations, and were evaluated by course faculty members and peers. Students' mean scores on a 20-question critical-care competency assessment administered before and after the course improved by 11% (p critical care elective course resulted in significantly improved competency in critical care and was well-received by students.

  6. Improved knowledge retention among clinical pharmacy students using an anthropology classroom assessment technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Heather P; Parton, Jason M

    2014-09-15

    To adapt a classroom assessment technique (CAT) from an anthropology course to a diabetes module in a clinical pharmacy skills laboratory and to determine student knowledge retention from baseline. Diabetes item stems, focused on module objectives, replaced anthropology terms. Answer choices, coded to Bloom's Taxonomy, were expanded to include higher-order thinking. Students completed the online 5-item probe 4 times: prelaboratory lecture, postlaboratory, and at 6 months and 12 months after laboratory. Statistical analyses utilized a single factor, repeated measures design using rank transformations of means with a Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test. The CAT revealed a significant increase in knowledge from prelaboratory compared to all postlaboratory measurements (passessment tool was effectively adapted using Bloom's Taxonomy as a guide and, when used repeatedly, demonstrated knowledge retention. Minimal time was devoted to application of the probe making it an easily adaptable CAT.

  7. Reproducibility of a new signal processing technique to assess joint sway during standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rast, Fabian Marcel; Graser, Judith Verena; Meichtry, André; Ernst, Markus Josef; Bauer, Christoph Michael

    2017-01-25

    Postural control strategies can be investigated by kinematic analysis of joint movements. However, current research is focussing mainly on the analysis of centre of pressure excursion and lacks consensus on how to assess joint movement during postural control tasks. This study introduces a new signal processing technique to comprehensively quantify joint sway during standing and evaluates its reproducibility. Fifteen patients with non-specific low back pain and ten asymptomatic participants performed three repetitions of a 60-second standing task on foam surface. This procedure was repeated on a second day. Lumbar spine movement was recorded using an inertial measurement system. The signal was temporally divided into six sections. Two outcome variables (mean absolute sway and sways per second) were calculated for each section. The reproducibility of single and averaged measurements was quantified with linear mixed-effects models and the generalizability theory. A single measurement of ten seconds duration revealed reliability coefficients of .75 for mean absolute sway and .76 for sways per second. Averaging a measurement of 40 seconds duration on two different days revealed reliability coefficients higher than .90 for both outcome variables. The outcome variables' reliability compares favourably to previously published results using different signal processing techniques or centre of pressure excursion. The introduced signal processing technique with two outcome variables to quantify joint sway during standing proved to be a highly reliable method. Since different populations, tasks or measurement tools could influence reproducibility, further investigation in other settings is still necessary. Nevertheless, the presented method has been shown to be highly promising. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. USING CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUES(CATS AND DIARY KEEPING IN TEACHER TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KÖPRÜLÜ,Özlem

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the use of classroom assessment techniques and diaries as a reflection technique in the 3rd class students of English Language Teaching Department in Buca Faculty of Education. The outcome of this study suggests that the inclusion of learners in the learning-teaching process through the use of CATs(classroom asssessment techniques provides teachers-in-preparation with access to important information about the learning process,their own teaching styles,teaching materials and activities they use and the importance of affective factors in teaching a foreign language.There were 33 3rd class students,each tutoring a learner they themselves chose.During the five-week period ,each practiced teaching one hour a week and each week they applied a different CAT to their learners to get feedback on their own teaching and learners’ learning.Totally 11 different CATs were used and learners’ ages were beetween 10 to 41.After each lesson and after getting CAT results they kept diaries as a self-reflection and evaluated themselves, their teaching and their drawbacks during the lessons.All of their reflections were collected under18 main headings.After their reports on CAT results and their diary entries were collected ,they informed that they found their learners’ CAT results very valuable to develop their way of teaching, and keeping diaries was invaluable for them to have a cool and objective look at their own teaching practice. It was hoped that trainee teachers would apply the information they get from CATs and their diaries to their lesson planning to reflect on their teaching and students’ learning and to make necessary changes in their teaching styles and in this way to develop their teaching to bring about more effective student learning.

  9. Demonstration of a novel technique to quantitatively assess inflammatory mediators and cells in rat knee joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chessell Iain P

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inflammation that accompanies the pain and swelling associated with osteo- and rheumatoid arthritis is mediated by complex interactions of inflammatory mediators. Cytokines play a pivotal role in orchestrating many of these processes, including inflammatory cell recruitment, adhesion and activation. In addition, prostaglandins are secreted into the synovial cavity and are involved in perpetuation of local inflammation, vasodilatation and vasoconstriction, and also with bone resorption. Pre-clinical models have been developed in order to correlate to the human disease and principle among these is the adjuvant-induced arthritis model in the rat. Methods We have developed a technique to quantitatively assess the contents of synovial fluid samples from rat joints. Two needles joined together are inserted into the knee joint of anaesthetised rats and connected to a Watson-Marlow perfusion pump. Sterile saline is infused and withdrawn at 100 μl min-1 until a 250 μl sample is collected. Results Our results demonstrate up to 125 fold increases in synovial IL1α and IL1β concentrations, approximately 30 fold increases in levels of IL6 and IL10 and a 200–300 fold elevation in synovial concentrations of TNFα during FCA-induced experimental arthritis. Finally, this novel technique has demonstrated a dose-response relationship between FCA and the total cell counts of synovial perfusates. Conclusion In summary, this new technique provides a robust method for quantifying inflammatory mediators and cells from the synovial cavity itself, thereby detailing the inflammatory processes from within the capsule and excluding those processes occurring in other tissues surrounding the entire articulation.

  10. Categorizing natural disaster damage assessment using satellite-based geospatial techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, S. W.; Yuan, M.; Cerveny, R. S.; Giri, C.

    2008-07-01

    Remote sensing of a natural disaster's damage offers an exciting backup and/or alternative to traditional means of on-site damage assessment. Although necessary for complete assessment of damage areas, ground-based damage surveys conducted in the aftermath of natural hazard passage can sometimes be potentially complicated due to on-site difficulties (e.g., interaction with various authorities and emergency services) and hazards (e.g., downed power lines, gas lines, etc.), the need for rapid mobilization (particularly for remote locations), and the increasing cost of rapid physical transportation of manpower and equipment. Satellite image analysis, because of its global ubiquity, its ability for repeated independent analysis, and, as we demonstrate here, its ability to verify on-site damage assessment provides an interesting new perspective and investigative aide to researchers. Using one of the strongest tornado events in US history, the 3 May 1999 Oklahoma City Tornado, as a case example, we digitized the tornado damage path and co-registered the damage path using pre- and post-Landsat Thematic Mapper image data to perform a damage assessment. We employed several geospatial approaches, specifically the Getis index, Geary's C, and two lacunarity approaches to categorize damage characteristics according to the original Fujita tornado damage scale (F-scale). Our results indicate strong relationships between spatial indices computed within a local window and tornado F-scale damage categories identified through the ground survey. Consequently, linear regression models, even incorporating just a single band, appear effective in identifying F-scale damage categories using satellite imagery. This study demonstrates that satellite-based geospatial techniques can effectively add spatial perspectives to natural disaster damages, and in particular for this case study, tornado damages.

  11. Categorizing natural disaster damage assessment using satellite-based geospatial techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, S.W.; Yuan, M.; Cerveny, R.S.; Giri, C.

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing of a natural disaster's damage offers an exciting backup and/or alternative to traditional means of on-site damage assessment. Although necessary for complete assessment of damage areas, ground-based damage surveys conducted in the aftermath of natural hazard passage can sometimes be potentially complicated due to on-site difficulties (e.g., interaction with various authorities and emergency services) and hazards (e.g., downed power lines, gas lines, etc.), the need for rapid mobilization (particularly for remote locations), and the increasing cost of rapid physical transportation of manpower and equipment. Satellite image analysis, because of its global ubiquity, its ability for repeated independent analysis, and, as we demonstrate here, its ability to verify on-site damage assessment provides an interesting new perspective and investigative aide to researchers. Using one of the strongest tornado events in US history, the 3 May 1999 Oklahoma City Tornado, as a case example, we digitized the tornado damage path and co-registered the damage path using pre- and post-Landsat Thematic Mapper image data to perform a damage assessment. We employed several geospatial approaches, specifically the Getis index, Geary's C, and two lacunarity approaches to categorize damage characteristics according to the original Fujita tornado damage scale (F-scale). Our results indicate strong relationships between spatial indices computed within a local window and tornado F-scale damage categories identified through the ground survey. Consequently, linear regression models, even incorporating just a single band, appear effective in identifying F-scale damage categories using satellite imagery. This study demonstrates that satellite-based geospatial techniques can effectively add spatial perspectives to natural disaster damages, and in particular for this case study, tornado damages.

  12. Towards Systematic Prediction of Urban Heat Islands: Grounding Measurements, Assessing Modeling Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Voelkel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available While there exists extensive assessment of urban heat, we observe myriad methods for describing thermal distribution, factors that mediate temperatures, and potential impacts on urban populations. In addition, the limited spatial and temporal resolution of satellite-derived heat measurements may limit the capacity of decision makers to take effective actions for reducing mortalities in vulnerable populations whose locations require highly-refined measurements. Needed are high resolution spatial and temporal information for urban heat. In this study, we ask three questions: (1 how do urban heat islands vary throughout the day? (2 what statistical methods best explain the presence of temperatures at sub-meter spatial scales; and (3 what landscape features help to explain variation in urban heat islands? Using vehicle-based temperature measurements at three periods of the day in the Pacific Northwest city of Portland, Oregon (USA, we incorporate LiDAR-derived datasets, and evaluate three statistical techniques for modeling and predicting variation in temperatures during a heat wave. Our results indicate that the random forest technique best predicts temperatures, and that the evening model best explains the variation in temperature. The results suggest that ground-based measurements provide high levels of accuracy for describing the distribution of urban heat, its temporal variation, and specific locations where targeted interventions with communities can reduce mortalities from heat events.

  13. A new technique for assessing hybrid layer interfacial micromorphology and integrity: two-photon laser microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alpino, Paulo H P; Pereira, José C; Svizero, Nádia R; Rueggeberg, Frederick A; Carvalho, Ricardo M; Pashley, David H

    2006-10-01

    This study describes a two-photon laser fluorescence microscopy technique developed to evaluate the interfacial micromorphology of the hybrid layer in bonded restorations. Micropermeability of the hybrid layer was characterized by means of simultaneously contrasting a dye-containing adhesive with a differently colored dye placed into the pulp chamber and allowed to diffuse toward the different-colored hybrid layer. A fluorescent red dye (rhodamine B) was incorporated into a commercial dentin bonding agent. Class I preparations (margins in enamel) were made on extracted human third molars. The teeth were restored using conventional methods: bonding agent, composite, finishing, and polishing. An aqueous solution of a yellow/green dye (fluorescein) was then placed into the pulp chamber for 3 h, allowing time to diffuse toward the different-colored bonded interface. The teeth were then embedded, sectioned, and microscopically analyzed using two-photon laser microscopy at 40X magnification. Subsurface fluorescent imaging using this technique enabled interfacial micromorphology to be characterized at submicrometer resolution and provided high-contrast images. The quality of surrounding structures and potential presence of gaps were also precisely assessed. Two-photon laser microscopy provided high quality, high-resolution images of the bonded interface and surrounding areas, allowing accurate qualitative and quantitative analysis of the structure and integrity of the hybrid layer.

  14. Assessment technique for acne treatments based on statistical parameters of skin thermal images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Medina, J Alfredo; León-Ordoñez, Francisco; Prado-Olivarez, Juan; Vela-Aguirre, Noe; Ramírez-Agundis, Agustin; Díaz-Carmona, Javier

    2014-04-01

    Acne vulgaris as an inflammatory disease, with an excessive production of subdermal fat, modifies the dynamics of the bloodstream, and consequently temperature, on the affected skin zone. A high percentage of this heat interchange is manifested as electromagnetic radiation with far-infrared wavelengths, which can be captured through a thermal imaging camera. A technique based on thermal image analysis for efficiency assessment in acne vulgaris is described. The procedure is based on computing statistical parameters of thermal images captured from the affected skin zone being attended by an acne treatment. The proposed technique was used to determine the skin thermal behavior according to acne severity levels in different acne treatment stages. Infrared images of acne skin zones on eight patients, diagnosed with acne vulgaris and attended by one specific acne treatment, were weekly registered during 11 weeks. The infrared images were captured until no more improvement in affected zones was detected. The obtained results suggest a direct relationship between the used statistical parameters, particularly first- and second-order statistics, and the acne vulgaris severity level on the affected zones.

  15. Assessment of trabecular bone changes around endosseous implants using image analysis techniques: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuki, Mervet El [Dept. of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Benghazi University College of Dentistry, Benghazi (Libya); Omami, Galal [Oral Diagnosis and Polyclinics, Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Horner, Keith [Dept. of Oral Radiology, University Dental Hospital of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the trabecular bone changes that occurred around functional endosseous dental implants by means of radiographic image analysis techniques. Immediate preoperative and postoperative periapical radiographs of de-identified implant patients at the University Dental Hospital of Manchester were retrieved, screened for specific inclusion criteria, digitized, and quantified for structural elements of the trabecular bone around the endosseous implants, by using image analysis techniques. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 11.5. P values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. A total of 12 implants from 11 patients were selected for the study, and 26 regions of interest were obtained. There was a significant increase in the bone area in terms of the mean distance between nodes (p=0.006) and a significant decrease in the marrow area in terms of the bone area (p=0.006) and the length of marrow spaces (p=0.032). It appeared that the bone around the implant underwent remodeling that resulted in a net increase in bone after implant placement.

  16. Application of non-destructive techniques to assess the state of Hagia Sophia's mosaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moropoulou, Antonia; Karoglou, Maria; Labropoulos, Kyriakos C.; Delegou, Ekaterini T.; Katsiotis, Nikolaos K.; Karagiannis-Bakolas, Asterios

    2012-04-01

    The church of Hagia Sophia in Istanbul is a world heritage monument that epitomizes the byzantine ecclesiastic architecture. The church is decorated with mosaics from various historic periods. The preservation state of the mosaics is of high importance. In this study, non-destructive techniques (ground penetrating radar, infra-red thermography, fibreoptics microscopy) were employed on south upper gallery mosaic areas. The main aim of this on-site investigation was the evaluation of the preservation state of the mosaics and the previous interventions (materials characterization and decay diagnosis) in order to assess the performance of previous conservation/restoration interventions, as well as to verify the presence of mosaics in layers below the external plaster surfaces. Results indicated that is indeed possible to locate the grid of rendered mosaics. Regarding the preservation state of the mosaics, it was indicated that the main environmental decay factors were the high relative humidity levels with co-action of salt damp as well as the air pollutants. Moreover, it was revealed that previous incompatible restoration/conservation interventions have often accelerated the mosaics' degradation processes. Using non-destructive techniques it was possible to identify areas where the mosaic materials (tesserae and mortars) presented decay problems and in addition identify sub-layers that pose risk of detachment or decay intensification. In this way, NDT can contribute to the development of a strategic planning for mosaics conservation, protection and revealing.

  17. Assessing the Performance of the Laser Fluorescence Technique in Detecting Proximal Caries Cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Akbari

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diagnosing the necessity of cavity preparation and restoration in demineralized proximal areas is always considered as a challenge in restorative treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to assess the performance of the laser fluorescence (LF technique in detection of proximal cavities.Materials & Methods: In this clinical trial, 44 proximal surfaces in 38 dental students were evaluated. The selected patients had radiolucent proximal lesions restricted to inner half of enamel or outer third of dentine in bitewing radiographs (BW. DIAGNOdent pen (LF pen device was used to determine the presence or absence of caries cavities in suspected proximal surfaces. Orthodontic elastic separators were then placed in the contact areas to provide enough space for direct visual and tactile examination. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the laser fluorescence technique were calculated versus the reference standard. The ROC curve was drawn and the best cut-off to determine the presence or absence of proximal cavities was determined.Results: Using DIAGNOdent pen, the optimal cut-off for detecting proximal cavities was 18. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of DIAGNOdent pen for diagnosing proximal caries cavities were 100 per cent, 97.3 per cent and 97.7 per cent, respectively. Conclusion: Due to the high diagnostic accuracy of DIAGNOdent pen in detecting proximal caries cavities, it can be used as a valuable supplement in restorative treatment planning.

  18. Assessing sequential data assimilation techniques for integrating GRACE data into a hydrological model

    KAUST Repository

    Khaki, M.

    2017-07-06

    The time-variable terrestrial water storage (TWS) products from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) have been increasingly used in recent years to improve the simulation of hydrological models by applying data assimilation techniques. In this study, for the first time, we assess the performance of the most popular data assimilation sequential techniques for integrating GRACE TWS into the World-Wide Water Resources Assessment (W3RA) model. We implement and test stochastic and deterministic ensemble-based Kalman filters (EnKF), as well as Particle filters (PF) using two different resampling approaches of Multinomial Resampling and Systematic Resampling. These choices provide various opportunities for weighting observations and model simulations during the assimilation and also accounting for error distributions. Particularly, the deterministic EnKF is tested to avoid perturbing observations before assimilation (that is the case in an ordinary EnKF). Gaussian-based random updates in the EnKF approaches likely do not fully represent the statistical properties of the model simulations and TWS observations. Therefore, the fully non-Gaussian PF is also applied to estimate more realistic updates. Monthly GRACE TWS are assimilated into W3RA covering the entire Australia. To evaluate the filters performances and analyze their impact on model simulations, their estimates are validated by independent in-situ measurements. Our results indicate that all implemented filters improve the estimation of water storage simulations of W3RA. The best results are obtained using two versions of deterministic EnKF, i.e. the Square Root Analysis (SQRA) scheme and the Ensemble Square Root Filter (EnSRF), respectively improving the model groundwater estimations errors by 34% and 31% compared to a model run without assimilation. Applying the PF along with Systematic Resampling successfully decreases the model estimation error by 23%.

  19. Assessment of delamination in composite beam using infrared thermography, optical sensors and terahertz technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Katarzyna; Soman, Rohan; Mieloszyk, Magdalena; Ostachowicz, Wieslaw

    2017-04-01

    Composite materials find wide ranging applications due to their high strength-to-weight ratio. Due to this increasing dependence on composite materials there is a need to study their mechanical behavior in case of damage. There are several ENDT and SHM methods for the assessment of the mechanical properties each with their set of advantages and disadvantages. The paper presents a comparative study of three distinct damage detection methods (infrared thermography, neutral axis method based on optical strain sensor measurements and terahertz spectroscopy) for the detection of delamination in a simple GFRP beam-like structure. Each of the methods have their own set of advantages and disadvantages. The terahertz spectroscopy is a specialized technique suitable for detecting deterioration inside the structure, but is not suitable for in performance monitoring. Similarly the infrared thermography technique in the active domain may be used for in situ monitoring but not in in-service assessment. Both methods allow the visualization of the internal structure and hence allow identification of the type and the extent of damage. Fibre optic sensors (especially FBG) due to their small diameter and no need of calibration can be permanently integrated within the sample and applied for continuous dynamic strain measurements. The measured strain is treated as an input for neutral axis (NA) method, which as a damage sensitive feature may be used for in-service monitoring but gives absolutely no information about the type and extent of damage. The results for damage detection based on proposed comparative studies give a complete description of the analyzed structure.

  20. Assessing sequential data assimilation techniques for integrating GRACE data into a hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaki, M.; Hoteit, I.; Kuhn, M.; Awange, J.; Forootan, E.; van Dijk, A. I. J. M.; Schumacher, M.; Pattiaratchi, C.

    2017-09-01

    The time-variable terrestrial water storage (TWS) products from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) have been increasingly used in recent years to improve the simulation of hydrological models by applying data assimilation techniques. In this study, for the first time, we assess the performance of the most popular data assimilation sequential techniques for integrating GRACE TWS into the World-Wide Water Resources Assessment (W3RA) model. We implement and test stochastic and deterministic ensemble-based Kalman filters (EnKF), as well as Particle filters (PF) using two different resampling approaches of Multinomial Resampling and Systematic Resampling. These choices provide various opportunities for weighting observations and model simulations during the assimilation and also accounting for error distributions. Particularly, the deterministic EnKF is tested to avoid perturbing observations before assimilation (that is the case in an ordinary EnKF). Gaussian-based random updates in the EnKF approaches likely do not fully represent the statistical properties of the model simulations and TWS observations. Therefore, the fully non-Gaussian PF is also applied to estimate more realistic updates. Monthly GRACE TWS are assimilated into W3RA covering the entire Australia. To evaluate the filters performances and analyze their impact on model simulations, their estimates are validated by independent in-situ measurements. Our results indicate that all implemented filters improve the estimation of water storage simulations of W3RA. The best results are obtained using two versions of deterministic EnKF, i.e. the Square Root Analysis (SQRA) scheme and the Ensemble Square Root Filter (EnSRF), respectively, improving the model groundwater estimations errors by 34% and 31% compared to a model run without assimilation. Applying the PF along with Systematic Resampling successfully decreases the model estimation error by 23%.

  1. ASSESSMENT OF DYNAMIC PRA TECHNIQUES WITH INDUSTRY AVERAGE COMPONENT PERFORMANCE DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Vaibhav; Agarwal, Vivek; Gribok, Andrei V.; Smith, Curtis L.

    2017-06-01

    In the nuclear industry, risk monitors are intended to provide a point-in-time estimate of the system risk given the current plant configuration. Current risk monitors are limited in that they do not properly take into account the deteriorating states of plant equipment, which are unit-specific. Current approaches to computing risk monitors use probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) techniques, but the assessment is typically a snapshot in time. Living PRA models attempt to address limitations of traditional PRA models in a limited sense by including temporary changes in plant and system configurations. However, information on plant component health are not considered. This often leaves risk monitors using living PRA models incapable of conducting evaluations with dynamic degradation scenarios evolving over time. There is a need to develop enabling approaches to solidify risk monitors to provide time and condition-dependent risk by integrating traditional PRA models with condition monitoring and prognostic techniques. This paper presents estimation of system risk evolution over time by integrating plant risk monitoring data with dynamic PRA methods incorporating aging and degradation. Several online, non-destructive approaches have been developed for diagnosing plant component conditions in nuclear industry, i.e., condition indication index, using vibration analysis, current signatures, and operational history [1]. In this work the component performance measures at U.S. commercial nuclear power plants (NPP) [2] are incorporated within the various dynamic PRA methodologies [3] to provide better estimates of probability of failures. Aging and degradation is modeled within the Level-1 PRA framework and is applied to several failure modes of pumps and can be extended to a range of components, viz. valves, generators, batteries, and pipes.

  2. Endotracheal Tube Cuff Pressure Assessment: Education May Improve but not Guarantee the Safety of Palpation Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed Siamdoust, Seyed Alireza; Mohseni, Masood; Memarian, Arash

    2015-01-01

    Background: Endotracheal Tube Cuff Pressure (ETCP) should be kept in the range of 20 - 30 cm H2O. Earlier studies suggested that ETCP assessment by palpation of pilot balloon results in overinflation or underinflation and subsequent complications such as tracheal wall damage and aspiration. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of an in vitro educational program on the ability of anesthesia personnel to inflate Endotracheal Tube Cuffs (ETT) within safe pressure limits. Patients and Methods: The survey included two series of blinded ETCP measurements in intubated patients before and two weeks after an in vitro educational intervention. The in vitro educational program included two separate trials. The anesthesia personnel were asked to inflate an ETT cuff inserted in a tracheal model using their usual inflation technique. In the same session, six ETTs at different pressure levels were examined by the participants and their estimation of ETCP was recorded. After the in vitro assessment, the participants were informed about the actual pressure of the in vitro ETCPs and were allowed to train their fingers by in vitro pilot balloon palpation with validated manometer measurements. Results: The mean ETCP after the in vitro survey was significantly lower than the mean ETCP before the intervention (45 ± 13 vs. 51 ± 15 cm H2O, P = 0.002). The rate of measurements within the safe pressure limits significantly improved after the in vitro education (24.2% vs. 39.7%, P = 0.002). Conclusions: Implementing educational programs with the introduction of estimation techniques besides the use of manometer as a standard intraoperative monitoring will improve the safety of the practice. PMID:26161313

  3. A novel optic nerve photograph alignment and subtraction technique for the detection of structural progression in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, Elizabeth D; McGlynn, Margaret M; Radcliffe, Nathan M

    2014-06-01

    To highlight changing features over time within a single static image through the auto-alignment and subtraction of serial optic nerve photographs. Subtraction maps were generated from auto-aligned (EyeIC, Narbeth, PA) baseline and follow-up images using Adobe Photoshop software. They demonstrated progressive retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) defects, optic disc haemorrhage (DH), neuroretinal rim loss (RL) and peripapillary atrophy (PPA). A masked glaucoma specialist identified features of progression on subtraction map first, then assessed feature strength by comparison with original images using alternation flicker. Control images with no progression and parallax-only images (as determined by flicker) were included. Eighty eyes of 67 patients were used to generate subtraction maps that detected glaucoma progression in 87% of DH (n = 28, sensitivity (Se) 82%, specificity (Sp) 98%) and 84% of PPA (n = 30, Se 80%, Sp 98%) cases. The lowest rate of detection was seen with RL at 67% (n = 31, Se 65%, Sp 100%). The subtraction technique was most sensitive for detecting parallax (n = 39, Se 98%, Sp 94%). Features of glaucoma progression appeared equally strong in flicker and subtraction images, but parallax was often enhanced on subtraction maps. Among control images selected for absence of features of glaucomatous change (n = 9) in original flicker images, no features were detected on subtraction maps. Auto-alignment and subtraction of serial optic nerve photographs reliably detects features of glaucoma progression with a single static image. Parallax identification may also be facilitated. Auto-alignment and subtraction of serial optic nerve photographs may prove especially useful in education and printed publications when dynamic imaging is not feasible. © 2014 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Sex education in schools in Denmark. Does Foreningen for Familieplanlaegning (the Danish PPA) have a role to play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risor, H

    1991-05-01

    The Danish Foreningen for Familieplanlaegning (FF), planned parenthood, has a role to play as a watchdog for human sexuality education in schools and teacher training and development of educational material. Sex education has been in the school system since the 1900's, but in 1970 it was made compulsory. Sex education must be integrated in all subjects, and teacher or student may introduce a sex topic/question at any time. Minimum requirements are information on contraceptives and STD's. In 1970, the Curriculum Committee provided Guidelines for Sex Education in Public Schools which stated the following limitations for teachers: no vulgar terminology, no pupil counseling, no information on sexual intercourse techniques, and no erotic photographic material. In 1986, the Committee on Health and Sex Education was formed to work out subject and guide materials; these curriculum guidelines will be available in August 1991. FF was invited only to address the committee, at which time it was advised that teachers not lump health and sex together, and that specific issues such as sex anatomy, contraception, STD's, AIDs, and abortion be addressed as well as the rights of saying no, first sexual experiences, emotions and feelings, and being in love. After some insistence and negotiation, the final draft included more on sex education. The FF Education Committee plans to hold a 3-day training course for teachers at teacher training colleges in the Fall, 1991. One of the first tasks of the Sex Education Committee was to form a workshop with representatives from 10 schools. Their conclusions were that 1) the class teacher be responsible for sex education, 2) cross professional collaboration needs to be implemented with, for example, guest speakers who are homosexuals, prostitutes, AID's related persons. 3) Parents must be given information and sought out for advice. 4) The limitations in the 1970 Guidelines need to be cancelled. 5) Teacher training must be expanded and improved.

  5. Bedside Doppler ultrasound for the assessment of renal perfusion in the ICU: advantages and limitations of the available techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, David; Darmon, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Three Doppler-derived techniques have been proposed to assess renal perfusion at bedside: Doppler-based renal resistive index (RI) which has been extensively but imperfectly studied in assessing renal allograft status and changes in renal perfusion in critically ill patients and for predicting the reversibility of an acute kidney injury (AKI), semi-quantitative evaluation of renal perfusion using colour-Doppler which may be easier to perform and may give similar information than RI and contrast-enhanced sonography that may allow more precise renal and cortical perfusion assessment. These promising tools have several obvious advantages including their feasibility, non-invasiveness, repeatability and potential interest in assessing renal function or perfusion. However, several limits need to be taken into account with these techniques, and promising results remain associated with large areas of uncertainty. This editorial will describe more carefully advantages and limits of these techniques and will discuss their potential interest in assessing renal perfusion.

  6. Assessment of dermal exposure during airless spray painting using a quantitative visualisation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, D H; Lansink, C M; Cherrie, J W; van Hemmen, J J

    2000-10-01

    The range of dermal exposure to non-volatile compounds during spray painting was studied in a semi-experimental study involving three enterprises and 12 painters. A fluorescent tracer was added to the paint and deposition of the tracer on clothing and uncovered parts of the skin was assessed using video imaging and processing techniques. A container (volume 36 m(3)) was sprayed with a colourless laquer (varnish) containing 66.7 mg/l fluorescent whitening agent. All painters sprayed the outside of the container. Nine painters repeated the painting a second time and five also sprayed the inside of the container. The painters wore white Tyvek coveralls, but no gloves. Duration of spraying the outside ranged from 4 to 21 min with a mean of 10 min and the amount of paint sprayed ranged from 3.0 to 12.8 l (mean 6.6 l). The mass of tracer deposited on the coverall ranged from 2.2 to 471 microg (90th percentile 256 microg), whereas, mass deposited on skin (i.e. the hands, wrists, and face) ranged from 0.01 to 52 microg tracer (90th percentile 20 microg). The quantity of tracer on the coverall was three times higher after spraying the inside of the container compared to spraying the outside, whereas the quantity on the skin was similar in both cases. On average 10% of the surface area of the coverall and skin was exposed during spraying the outside. Exposures, expressed in units of mass per area exposed were slightly higher for skin compared to coverall. In this study, deposited mass of tracer was correlated with an alternative exposure metric, i.e. surface area exposed multiplied by the duration of exposure, which has been proposed as a surrogate for uptake. Using a quantitative fluorescent tracer technique, it could be demonstrated that body parts which showed the lowest mass of tracer had the highest exposure as mass per surface area. Compared to other techniques which only determine mass, the ability to identify and quantify the actual surface area exposed is a clear

  7. Sonographic assessment of normal fetal palate using three-dimensional imaging: a new technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, J M; Captier, G; Bäumler, M; Boulot, P

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this study was to describe a novel three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound rendering technique to examine the normal fetal posterior palate and to assess its correspondence with the real fetal anatomy. A prospective longitudinal study was conducted from January to October 2005 and included 100 fetuses in a low-risk population. Fetal ultrasound examinations were performed at 17, 22, 27 and 32 weeks' gestation to determine the normal 3D ultrasound view of the fetal palate at different gestational ages. The ultrasound scans were performed using the strict anterior axial plane of the starting reconstruction volume and the underside 3D view of the fetal palate. The 3D view of the fetal palate was compared with the normal anatomical view of the fetal palate obtained by surgical fetopathological examination of fetuses at the same gestational ages. The sonographic visualization rates of seven defined anatomical landmarks of the fetal palate were computed for each gestational age. The visualization rates across gestational ages were compared by use of the Cochrane Q test. The reliability of detection of each anatomical landmark across gestational ages was determined by Cronbach's Alpha. In all cases a 3D ultrasound view of the fetal maxilla and secondary palate was obtained at each period of gestation and corresponded well to the fetal anatomical specimens. The seven defined anatomical landmarks of the fetal palate were identified in 42-100% of cases. The visualization rates across gestational ages were significantly different in five of these anatomical landmarks. These differences can be explained by different developmental processes of these anatomical structures. The overall reliability of visualization across the gestational ages for the anatomical landmarks was medium to very high (0.73-0.96), except for the landmark interpalatal suture which was low (0.48). This technique of anterior axial 3D view reconstruction of the fetal palate seen by an underside view can

  8. Enamel mineralization by calcium-containing-bicarbonate toothpastes: assessment by various techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charig, Andrew; Winston, Anthony; Flickinger, Mark

    2004-09-01

    Surface defects such as scratching, acidic erosion, and natural dimpling of the tooth enamel can significantly affect its cosmetic appearance. There are many analytical techniques that can be used to view the surface of enamel and to assess the effect of surface treatments. Light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), profilometry, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) can usefully be applied to viewing mineral surfaces and obtaining information about surface morphology and smoothness. Energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence and other surface-ionizing techniques can give information about surface chemistry. Microhardness instrumentation can be used to determine surface hardness, while gloss meters and reflectometry can provide measurements of gloss and whiteness. In this study, four sets of in vitro experiments were performed, which illustrate the value of three of these techniques. Specially formulated calcium-containing toothpastes, designed to fill in surface defects in tooth enamel, were evaluated in four experiments for their ability to effect cosmetic improvements in etched tooth enamel: (1) two calcium-containing, sodium-bicarbonate-based toothpaste formulations were shown by SEM to smooth tooth enamel without introducing new scratches. In contrast, a commercial whitening toothpaste removed similar scratches but also created new ones; (2) calcium-containing dentifrices were shown by SEM and hardness measurements to put mineral onto the surface of enamel and to harden it. The effects of uneven dispensing of the two-phase, bicarbonate-based, calcium-containing formulation were shown to be small; (3) a number of different calcium-containing toothpastes were shown by SEM to deliver mineral onto the etched enamel surfaces, whereas a conventional fluoride toothpaste did not; and (4) AFM was used to follow the smoothing of an etched enamel surface after serial treatments with a calcium-containing, bicarbonate-based toothpaste. After 15 in vitro cycles, surface

  9. Application of molecular techniques for the assessment of microorganism diversity on cultural heritage objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otlewska, Anna; Adamiak, Justyna; Gutarowska, Beata

    2014-01-01

    As a result of their unpredictable ability to adapt to varying environmental conditions, microorganisms inhabit different types of biological niches on Earth. Owing to the key role of microorganisms in many biogeochemical processes, trends in modern microbiology emphasize the need to know and understand the structure and function of complex microbial communities. This is particularly important if the strategy relates to microbial communities that cause biodeterioration of materials that constitute our cultural heritage. Until recently, the detection and identification of microorganisms inhabiting objects of cultural value was based only on cultivation-dependent methods. In spite of many advantages, these methods provide limited information because they identify only viable organisms capable of growth under standard laboratory conditions. However, in order to carry out proper conservation and renovation, it is necessary to know the complete composition of microbial communities and their activity. This paper presents and characterizes modern techniques such as genetic fingerprinting and clone library construction for the assessment of microbial diversity based on molecular biology. Molecular methods represent a favourable alternative to culture-dependent methods and make it possible to assess the biodiversity of microorganisms inhabiting technical materials and cultural heritage objects.

  10. Model Checking Techniques for Assessing Functional Form Specifications in Censored Linear Regression Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Larry F; Cai, Tianxi

    2012-04-01

    In this paper we develop model checking techniques for assessing functional form specifications of covariates in censored linear regression models. These procedures are based on a censored data analog to taking cumulative sums of "robust" residuals over the space of the covariate under investigation. These cumulative sums are formed by integrating certain Kaplan-Meier estimators and may be viewed as "robust" censored data analogs to the processes considered by Lin, Wei & Ying (2002). The null distributions of these stochastic processes can be approximated by the distributions of certain zero-mean Gaussian processes whose realizations can be generated by computer simulation. Each observed process can then be graphically compared with a few realizations from the Gaussian process. We also develop formal test statistics for numerical comparison. Such comparisons enable one to assess objectively whether an apparent trend seen in a residual plot reects model misspecification or natural variation. We illustrate the methods with a well known dataset. In addition, we examine the finite sample performance of the proposed test statistics in simulation experiments. In our simulation experiments, the proposed test statistics have good power of detecting misspecification while at the same time controlling the size of the test.

  11. Safety Assessment of Auxiliary Lanes in Freeway Interchange Weaving Areas based on Traffic Conflict Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Rao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Auxiliary lanes can provide an improved weaving environment rather than a forced or direct merge or diverse for vehicles entering and departing freeway weaving segments. Considering China's traffic composition and operational status, this paper proposed safety assessment of auxiliary lanes in freeway interchange weaving areas based on traffic conflict technique in order to estimate its safety impacts and related influential factors considered in design. Based on freeway interchange weaving areas data and actual traffic characteristics, simulation models were built with VISSIM. This paper used Surrogate Safety Assessment Model (SSAM to calculate conflicts by inputting vehicle trajectories from VISSIM, analysed the influence of ramp spacing, lane number of mainline, traffic volume, weaving ratio and percentage of heavy vehicles on safety performance of auxiliary lanes in freeway weaving areas. Finally, Traffic Conflict Modification Factor was presented to evaluate effectiveness of implementing auxiliary lanes. The paper found the safety impacts and related influential factors of auxiliary lanes. T he findings can provide support to effective decision making with regards to constructing future auxiliary lanes in freeway interchange weaving areas.

  12. Assessing women's sexuality after cancer therapy: checking assumptions with the focus group technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, D W; Boyd, C P

    1999-12-01

    Cancer and cancer therapies impair sexual health in a multitude of ways. The promotion of sexual health is therefore vital for preserving quality of life and is an integral part of total or holistic cancer management. Nursing, to provide holistic care, requires research that is meaningful to patients as well as the profession to develop educational and interventional studies to promote sexual health and coping. To obtain meaningful research data instruments that are reliable, valid, and pertinent to patients' needs are required. Several sexual functioning instruments were reviewed for this study and found to be lacking in either a conceptual foundation or psychometric validation. Without a defined conceptual framework, authors of the instruments must have made certain assumptions regarding what women undergoing cancer therapy experience and what they perceive as important. To check these assumptions before assessing women's sexuality after cancer therapies in a larger study, a pilot study was designed to compare what women experience and perceive as important regarding their sexuality with what is assessed in several currently available research instruments, using the focus group technique. Based on the focus group findings, current sexual functioning questionnaires may be lacking in pertinent areas of concern for women treated for breast or gynecologic malignancies. Better conceptual foundations may help future questionnaire design. Self-regulation theory may provide an acceptable conceptual framework from which to develop a sexual functioning questionnaire.

  13. A Closed-Form Technique for the Reliability and Risk Assessment of Wind Turbine Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Dueñas-Osorio

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a closed-form method to evaluate wind turbine system reliability and associated failure consequences. Monte Carlo simulation, a widely used approach for system reliability assessment, usually requires large numbers of computational experiments, while existing analytical methods are limited to simple system event configurations with a focus on average values of reliability metrics. By analyzing a wind turbine system and its components in a combinatorial yet computationally efficient form, the proposed approach provides an entire probability distribution of system failure that contains all possible configurations of component failure and survival events. The approach is also capable of handling unique component attributes such as downtime and repair cost needed for risk estimations, and enables sensitivity analysis for quantifying the criticality of individual components to wind turbine system reliability. Applications of the technique are illustrated by assessing the reliability of a 12-subassembly turbine system. In addition, component downtimes and repair costs of components are embedded in the formulation to compute expected annual wind turbine unavailability and repair cost probabilities, and component importance metrics useful for maintenance planning and research prioritization. Furthermore, this paper introduces a recursive solution to closed-form method and applies this to a 45-component turbine system. The proposed approach proves to be computationally efficient and yields vital reliability information that could be readily used by wind farm stakeholders for decision making and risk management.

  14. Assessment of high resolution melting analysis as a potential SNP genotyping technique in forensic casework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venables, Samantha J; Mehta, Bhavik; Daniel, Runa; Walsh, Simon J; van Oorschot, Roland A H; McNevin, Dennis

    2014-11-01

    High resolution melting (HRM) analysis is a simple, cost effective, closed tube SNP genotyping technique with high throughput potential. The effectiveness of HRM for forensic SNP genotyping was assessed with five commercially available HRM kits evaluated on the ViiA™ 7 Real Time PCR instrument. Four kits performed satisfactorily against forensically relevant criteria. One was further assessed to determine the sensitivity, reproducibility, and accuracy of HRM SNP genotyping. The manufacturer's protocol using 0.5 ng input DNA and 45 PCR cycles produced accurate and reproducible results for 17 of the 19 SNPs examined. Problematic SNPs had GC rich flanking regions which introduced additional melting domains into the melting curve (rs1800407) or included homozygotes that were difficult to distinguish reliably (rs16891982; a G to C SNP). A proof of concept multiplexing experiment revealed that multiplexing a small number of SNPs may be possible after further investigation. HRM enables genotyping of a number of SNPs in a large number of samples without extensive optimization. However, it requires more genomic DNA as template in comparison to SNaPshot®. Furthermore, suitably modifying pre-existing forensic intelligence SNP panels for HRM analysis may pose difficulties due to the properties of some SNPs. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Sagittal Spine Length Measurement: A Novel Technique to Assess Growth of the Spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurway, Alan J; Chukwunyerenwa, Chukwudi K; Kishta, Waleed E; Hurry, Jennifer K; El-Hawary, Ron

    2016-09-01

    The accuracy and repeatability of a novel sagittal spine length (SSL) radiographic measurement was examined using photographic and radiographic imaging. To validate the new SSL technique for measuring growth in early-onset scoliosis (EOS) patients. Current assessment of patient growth undergoing growth-friendly surgical treatment for EOS is the use of serial vertical spine height measurements (VH) on coronal radiographs. Spine-based distraction implants are able to control the coronal plane deformity of scoliosis, but exhibit a "law of diminishing returns" in the impact of each follow-up lengthening surgery. As these treatments are kyphogenic, we hypothesize that the increase in kyphosis is, in fact, growth out of plane, not captured by standard spine height measurements. Measurement accuracy was assessed using 6 spine model alignments and clinical radiographs of 23 retrospective EOS patients. Inter- and intrarater reliabilities were assessed using interclass coefficient (ICC) analyses. The discrepancy between the VH and SSL was also investigated. The model assessment showed excellent accuracy, with a 1.54 mm (SD: 1.07, range: 0.03-3.14, p = .226) mean error and mean ICCs of 0.999. As the kyphosis increased, a progressive difference between the phantom VH and SSL was observed. Interrater reliability ICCs of the clinical radiographs averaged 0.981 and 0.804, whereas intrarater reliabilities averaged 0.966 and 0.826, for the coronal and sagittal radiographs, respectively. Mean clinical SSLs were 177.5 mm (SD: 28.5, range: 114.3-250.3), whereas the VH averaged 161.6 mm (SD: 31.8, range: 58.5-243.0), resulting in a 16.0-mm (SD: 16.7, range: 0.3-90.3, p < .0001) difference between the two measurements with a progressive difference as the kyphosis increased. The novel SSL measurement is accurate, repeatable, and complements the current growth assessments for EOS treatments. Until sagittal spine lengths are taken into consideration, the "law of diminishing returns" should

  16. Teachers’ use of classroom assessment techniques in primary mathematics education - An explorative study with six Chinese teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, X.; Van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, M.; Veldhuis, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background This paper reports on the use of classroom assessment techniques (CATs) by primary school mathematics teachers in China. CATs are short, focused assessment activities that can reveal students’ understanding of specific mathematical subjects. The study involved six female third-grade

  17. Firefly luciferase-based dynamic bioluminescence imaging: a noninvasive technique to assess tumor angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Amy; Hou, Lewis; Prugpichailers, Tiffany; Dunkel, Jason; Kalani, Maziyar A; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Kalani, M Yashar S; Tse, Victor

    2010-04-01

    Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) is emerging as a cost-effective, high-throughput, noninvasive, and sensitive imaging modality to monitor cell growth and trafficking. We describe the use of dynamic BLI as a noninvasive method of assessing vessel permeability during brain tumor growth. With the use of stereotactic technique, 10 firefly luciferase-transfected GL26 mouse glioblastoma multiforme cells were injected into the brains of C57BL/6 mice (n = 80). After intraperitoneal injection of D-luciferin (150 mg/kg), serial dynamic BLI was performed at 1-minute intervals (30 seconds exposure) every 2 to 3 days until death of the animals. The maximum intensity was used as an indirect measurement of tumor growth. The adjusted slope of initial intensity (I90/Im) was used as a proxy to monitor the flow rate of blood into the vascular tree. Using a modified Evans blue perfusion protocol, we calculated the relative permeability of the vascular tree at various time points. Daily maximum intensity correlated strongly with tumor volume. At postinjection day 23, histology and BLI demonstrated an exponential growth of the tumor mass. Slopes were calculated to reflect the flow in the vessels feeding the tumor (adjusted slope = I90/Im). The increase in BLI intensity was correlated with a decrease in adjusted slope, reflecting a decrease in the rate of blood flow as tumor volume increased (y = 93.8e-0.49, R2 = 0.63). Examination of calculated slopes revealed a peak in permeability around postinjection day 20 (n = 42, P maximum intensity observed; as angiogenesis progressed, tumor vessel caliber increased dramatically, resulting in sluggish but increased flow. This trend was correlated with Evans blue histology, revealing an increase in Evans blue dye uptake into the tumor, as slope calculated by BLI increases. Dynamic BLI is a practical, noninvasive technique that can semiquantitatively monitor changes in vascular permeability and therefore facilitate the study of tumor angiogenesis in

  18. Detecting river sediments to assess hazardous materials at volcanic lake using advanced remote sensing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saepuloh, Asep; Fitrianingtyas, Chintya

    2016-05-01

    The Toba Caldera formed from large depression of Quaternary volcanism is a remarkable feature at the Earth surface. The last Toba super eruptions were recorded around 73 ka and produced the Youngest Toba Tuff about 2,800 km3. Since then, there is no record of significant volcanic seismicity at Toba Volcanic Complex (TVC). However, the hydrothermal activities are still on going as presented by the existence of hot springs and alteration zones at the northwest caldera. The hydrothermal fluids probably containing some chemical compositions mixed with surficial water pollutant and contaminated the Toba Lake. Therefore, an environmental issues related to the existence of chemical composition and degradation of water clearness in the lake had been raised in the local community. The pollutant sources are debatable between natural and anthropogenic influences because some human activities grow rapidly at and around the lake such as hotels, tourisms, husbandry, aquaculture, as well as urbanization. Therefore, obtaining correct information about the source materials floating at the surface of the Toba Lake is crucial for environmental and hazard mitigation purposes. Overcoming the problem, we presented this paper to assess the source possibility of floating materials at Toba Lake, especially from natural sources such as hydrothermal activities of TVC and river stream sediments. The Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) techniques using atmospherically corrected of Landsat-8 and colour composite of Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) were used to map the distribution of floating materials. The seven ground truth points were used to confirm the correctness of proposed method. Based on the SAM and PolSAR techniques, we could detect the interface of hydrothermal fluid at the lake surfaces. Various distributions of stream sediment were also detected from the river mouth to the lake. The influence possibilities of the upwelling process from the bottom floor of Toba Lake were also

  19. Accuracy of forced oscillation technique to assess lung function in geriatric COPD population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tse HN

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hoi Nam Tse,1 Cee Zhung Steven Tseng,1 King Ying Wong,2 Kwok Sang Yee,2 Lai Yun Ng1 1Medical and Geriatric Department, Respiratory Unit, Kwong Wah Hospital, 2Department of Tuberculosis and Chest Unit, Wong Tai Sin Hospital, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China Introduction: Performing lung function test in geriatric patients has never been an easy task. With well-established evidence indicating impaired small airway function and air trapping in patients with geriatric COPD, utilizing forced oscillation technique (FOT as a supplementary tool may aid in the assessment of lung function in this population. Aims: To study the use of FOT in the assessment of airflow limitation and air trapping in geriatric COPD patients. Study design: A cross-sectional study in a public hospital in Hong Kong. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01553812. Methods: Geriatric patients who had spirometry-diagnosed COPD were recruited, with both FOT and plethysmography performed. “Resistance” and “reactance” FOT parameters were compared to plethysmography for the assessment of air trapping and airflow limitation. Results: In total, 158 COPD subjects with a mean age of 71.9±0.7 years and percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 second of 53.4±1.7 L were recruited. FOT values had a good correlation (r=0.4–0.7 to spirometric data. In general, X values (reactance were better than R values (resistance, showing a higher correlation with spirometric data in airflow limitation (r=0.07–0.49 vs 0.61–0.67, small airway (r=0.05–0.48 vs 0.56–0.65, and lung volume (r=0.12–0.29 vs 0.43–0.49. In addition, resonance frequency (Fres and frequency dependence (FDep could well identify the severe type (percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 second <50% of COPD with high sensitivity (0.76, 0.71 and specificity (0.72, 0.64 (area under the curve: 0.8 and 0.77, respectively. Moreover, X values could stratify different severities of air trapping, while R values could not

  20. Life Cycle Assessment of Two Vineyards after the Application of Precision Viticulture Techniques: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios T. Balafoutis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Precision viticulture is the application of site-specific techniques to vineyard production to improve grape quality and yield and minimize the negative effects on the environment. While there are various studies on the inherent spatial and temporal variability of vineyards, the assessment of the environmental impact of variable rate applications has attracted limited attention. In this study, two vineyards planted with different grapevine cultivars (Sauvignon Blanc and Syrah were examined for four consecutive growing seasons (2013–2016. The first year, the two vineyards were only studied in terms of soil properties and crop characteristics, which resulted in the delineation of two distinct management zones for each field. For the following three years, variable rate nutrient application was applied to each management zone based on leaf canopy reflectance, where variable rate irrigation was based on soil moisture sensors, meteorological data, evapotranspiration calculation, and leaf canopy reflectance. Life cycle assessment was carried out to identify the effect of variable rate applications on vineyard agro-ecosystems. The results of variable rate nutrients and water application in the selected management zones as an average value of three growing seasons were compared to the conventional practice. It was found that the reduction of product carbon footprint (PCF of grapes in Sauvignon Blanc between the two periods was 25% in total. Fertilizer production and distribution (direct and application (indirect was the most important sector of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions reduction, accounting for 17.2%, and the within-farm energy use was the second ranked sector with 8.8% (crop residue management increase GHG emissions by 1.1%, while 0.1% GHG reduction is obtained by pesticide use. For the Syrah vineyard, where the production was less intensive, precision viticulture led to a PCF reduction of 28.3% compared to conventional production. Fertilizers

  1. Application of multivariate statistical technique for hydrogeochemical assessment of groundwater within the Lower Pra Basin, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, C. K.; Hayford, E. K.; Hodgson, I. O. A.

    2017-06-01

    Multivariate statistical technique and hydrogeochemical approach were employed for groundwater assessment within the Lower Pra Basin. The main objective was to delineate the main processes that are responsible for the water chemistry and pollution of groundwater within the basin. Fifty-four (54) (No) boreholes were sampled in January 2012 for quality assessment. PCA using Varimax with Kaiser Normalization method of extraction for both rotated space and component matrix have been applied to the data. Results show that Spearman's correlation matrix of major ions revealed expected process-based relationships derived mainly from the geochemical processes, such as ion-exchange and silicate/aluminosilicate weathering within the aquifer. Three main principal components influence the water chemistry and pollution of groundwater within the basin. The three principal components have accounted for approximately 79% of the total variance in the hydrochemical data. Component 1 delineates the main natural processes (water-soil-rock interactions) through which groundwater within the basin acquires its chemical characteristics, Component 2 delineates the incongruent dissolution of silicate/aluminosilicates, while Component 3 delineates the prevalence of pollution principally from agricultural input as well as trace metal mobilization in groundwater within the basin. The loadings and score plots of the first two PCs show grouping pattern which indicates the strength of the mutual relation among the hydrochemical variables. In terms of proper management and development of groundwater within the basin, communities, where intense agriculture is taking place, should be monitored and protected from agricultural activities. especially where inorganic fertilizers are used by creating buffer zones. Monitoring of the water quality especially the water pH is recommended to ensure the acid neutralizing potential of groundwater within the basin thereby, curtailing further trace metal

  2. Reliability and clinical validity of a technique to assess lifetime illicit injection drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Barbara; Templin, Thomas N; Birk, Thomas J; Kirsner, Robert S

    2008-02-01

    A lifetime injection drug history is necessary to examine the impact of injection drug use on a physical health problem but it may cover time periods for which information and/or data reported may not be reliable. A test-retest study design was used to examine a technique of questioning persons about lifetime illicit injection drug use history (the Lifetime Injection History Questionnaire), including its reliability and relation to chronic venous disorders as an assessment of validity. Study participants included 104 persons (60 men, 44 women, M age = 49.3 years) provided services at a methadone maintenance treatment center located in a large industrial city in the Midwest. Kappa values for "ever injected" drugs ranged from 1.00 for heroin to .50 for nonprescription methadone (median = .75). High interclass correlations were found for youngest and oldest ages of injecting, years not injecting, and total injecting years (.90 to .98). Interclass correlation values for years injecting in the upper body and lower body were .79 and .70, respectively. Interrater reliability for the clinical portion of the venous disease assessment tool (the Clinical-Etiology-Anatomy-Pathophysiology - CEAP - classification) was high: .97, right leg; .94, left leg. Controlling for age, gender, comorbidities, and body mass index, a classification of injection drug use based on the Lifetime Injection History scales accounted for 32% of the variance in the clinical CEAP scores. This is the first study to examine years of injection drug use that takes periods not injecting drugs into consideration. Focused substance abuse questioning (eg, drug, route, years of use) may help clinicians evaluate health problems related to drug use.

  3. Assessment of groundwater potentiality using geophysical techniques in Wadi Allaqi basin, Eastern Desert, Egypt - Case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helaly, Ahmad Sobhy

    2017-12-01

    Electrical resistivity surveying has been carried out for the determination of the thickness and resistivity of layered media in Wadi Allaqi, Eastern Desert, Egypt. That is widely used geophysical tool for the purpose of assessing the groundwater potential and siting the best locations for boreholes in the unconfined Nubian Sandstone aquifers within the study area. This has been done using thirteen 1D Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) surveys. 1D-VES surveys provide only layered model structures for the subsurface and do not provide comprehensive information for interpreting the structure and extent of subsurface hydro-geological features. The integration of two-dimensional (2D) geophysical techniques for groundwater prospecting has been done to provide a more detailed identification for the subsurface hydro-geological features from which potential sites for successful borehole locations are recognized. In addition, five magnetic profiles were measured for basement depth determination, expected geological structures and thickness of sedimentary succession that could include some basins suitable for groundwater accumulation as groundwater aquifers.

  4. Inquiry-Based Learning: Inflammation as a Model to Teach Molecular Techniques for Assessing Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn E. Gunn

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This laboratory module simulates the process used by working scientists to ask and answer a question of biological interest. Instructors facilitate acquisition of knowledge using a comprehensive, inquiry-based approach in which students learn theory, hypothesis development, experimental design, and data interpretation and presentation. Using inflammation in macrophages as a model system, students perform a series of molecular biology techniques to address the biological question: “Does stimulus ‘X’ induce inflammation?” To ask this question, macrophage cells are treated with putative inflammatory mediators and then assayed for evidence of inflammatory response. Students become familiar with their assigned mediator and the relationship between their mediator and inflammation by conducting literature searches, then using this information to generate hypotheses which address the effect of their mediator on induction of inflammation. The cellular and molecular approaches used to test their hypotheses include transfection and luciferase reporter assay, immunoblot, fluorescence microscopy, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and quantitative PCR. Quantitative and qualitative reasoning skills are developed through data analysis and demonstrated by successful completion of post-lab worksheets and the generation and oral presentation of a scientific poster. Learning objective assessment relies on four instruments: pre-lab quizzes, post-lab worksheets, poster presentation, and posttest. Within three cohorts (n = 85 more than 95% of our students successfully achieved the learning objectives.

  5. Assessing regional lung mechanics by combining electrical impedance tomography and forced oscillation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Chuong; Spagnesi, Sarah; Munoz, Carlos; Lehmann, Sylvia; Vollmer, Thomas; Misgeld, Berno; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2017-08-29

    There is a lack of noninvasive pulmonary function tests which can assess regional information of the lungs. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a radiation-free, non-invasive real-time imaging that provides regional information of ventilation volume regarding the measurement of electrical impedance distribution. Forced oscillation technique (FOT) is a pulmonary function test which is based on the measurement of respiratory mechanical impedance over a frequency range. In this article, we introduce a new measurement approach by combining FOT and EIT, named the oscillatory electrical impedance tomography (oEIT). Our oEIT measurement system consists of a valve-based FOT device, an EIT device, pressure and flow sensors, and a computer fusing the data streams. Measurements were performed on five healthy volunteers at the frequencies 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 15, and 20 Hz. The measurements suggest that the combination of FOT and EIT is a promising approach. High frequency responses are visible in the derivative of the global impedance index ΔZeit(t,fos). $\\Delta {Z_{{\\text{eit}}}}(t,{f_{{\\text{os}}}}).$ The oEIT signals consist of three main components: forced oscillation, spontaneous breathing, and heart activity. The amplitude of the oscillation component decreases with increasing frequency. The band-pass filtered oEIT signal might be a new tool in regional lung function diagnostics, since local responses to high frequency perturbation could be distinguished between different lung regions.

  6. The use of ESR technique for assessment of heating temperatures of archaeological lentil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydaş, Canan; Engin, Birol; Dönmez, Emel Oybak; Belli, Oktay

    2010-01-01

    Heat-induced paramagnetic centers in modern and archaeological lentils ( Lens culinaris, Medik.) were studied by X-band (9.3 GHz) electron spin resonance (ESR) technique. The modern red lentil samples were heated in an electrical furnace at increasing temperatures in the range 70-500 °C. The ESR spectral parameters (the intensity, g-value and peak-to-peak line width) of the heat-induced organic radicals were investigated for modern red lentil ( Lens culinaris, Medik.) samples. The obtained ESR spectra indicate that the relative number of heat-induced paramagnetic species and peak-to-peak line widths depends on the temperature and heating time of the modern lentil. The g-values also depend on the heating temperature but not heating time. Heated modern red lentils produced a range of organic radicals with g-values from g = 2.0062 to 2.0035. ESR signals of carbonised archaeological lentil samples from two archaeological deposits of the Van province in Turkey were studied and g-values, peak-to-peak line widths, intensities and elemental compositions were compared with those obtained for modern samples in order to assess at which temperature these archaeological lentils were heated in prehistoric sites. The maximum temperatures of the previous heating of carbonised UA5 and Y11 lentil seeds are as follows about 500 °C and above 500 °C, respectively.

  7. Potential interests and limits of magnetic and electrical stimulation techniques to assess neuromuscular fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, G Y; Bachasson, D; Temesi, J; Wuyam, B; Féasson, L; Vergès, S; Lévy, P

    2012-12-01

    Neuromuscular function can change under different conditions such as ageing, training/detraining, long-term spaceflight, environmental conditions (e.g. hypoxia, hyperthermia), disease, therapy/retraining programs and also with the appearance of fatigue. Neuromuscular fatigue can be defined as any decrease in maximal voluntary strength or power. There is no standardized method to induce fatigue and various protocols involving different contraction patterns (such as sustained or intermittent submaximal isometric or dynamic contractions on isokinetic or custom chairs) have been used. Probably due to lack of motivation/cooperation, results of fatigue resistance protocols are more variable in patients than in healthy subjects. Magnetic and electrical stimulation techniques allow non-invasive assessment of central and peripheral origins of fatigue. They also allow investigation of different types of muscle fatigue when combining various types of stimulation with force/surface EMG measurements. Since maximal electrical stimuli may be uncomfortable or even sometimes painful, several alternative methods have been recently proposed: submaximal muscle stimulation, low/high-frequency paired pulses instead of tetanic stimuli and the use of magnetic stimulation at the peripheral level. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Imaging techniques in nuclear cardiology for the assessment of myocardial viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slart, Riemer H J A; Bax, Jeroen J; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; van der Wall, Ernst E; Dierckx, Rudi A J O; Jager, Pieter L

    2006-02-01

    The assessment of myocardial viability has become an important aspect of the diagnostic and prognostic work-up of patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. Although revascularization may be considered in patients with sufficient viable myocardium, patients with predominantly scar tissue should be treated medically. Patients with left ventricular dysfunction who have viable myocardium are the patients at highest risk because of the potential for ischemia but at the same time benefit most from revascularization. It is important to identify viable myocardium in these patients, and radionuclide myocardial scintigraphy is an excellent tool for this. Single-photon emission computed tomography perfusion scintigraphy (SPECT), whether using (201)thallium, (99m)Tc-sestamibi, or (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin, in stress and/or rest protocols, has consistently been shown to be an effective modality for identifying myocardial viability and guiding appropriate management. Metabolic and perfusion imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers frequently adds additional information and is a powerful tool for predicting which patients will have an improved outcome from revascularization. New techniques in the nuclear cardiology field, like attenuation corrected SPECT, dual isotope simultaneous acquisition (DISA) SPECT and gated FDG PET are promising and will further improve the detection of myocardial viability. Also the combination of multislice computed tomography scanners with PET opens possibilities of adding coronary calcium scoring and non-invasive coronary angiography to myocardial perfusion imaging and quantification. Evaluation of the clinical role of these creative new possibilities warrants investigation.

  9. Development of cell culture techniques for assessment of the toxicity of plant products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, B J

    1996-02-01

    Plant products consumed by humans contain a wide variety of both beneficial and toxic compounds. Studies have been undertaken to explore the utility of cell culture techniques in testing plant products for toxicity and antitoxicity. Preliminary results are reported on the cytotoxic effects of aqueous and methanol extracts of a range of conventional and herb teas and a variety of vegetables. The teas were tested in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes, using lactate dehydrogenase release and inhibition of protein synthesis as endpoints of cytotoxicity. Toxicity was detected in aqueous preparations but not in methanol extracts. Korean green tea and a conventional black tea were more toxic than herb teas such as comfrey and ragwort, which are thought to contain hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Extracts of five vegetables were tested using the same assays and also the MTT assay in hepatocytes and the Kenacid blue assay in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Toxicity to hepatocytes was low but most extracts were more toxic to CHO cells. The toxicity of cabbage was reduced by cooking and that of potato was increased by greening, which increases the levels of glycoalkaloids and other toxins in the tubers. The results suggest a number of ways in which cell culture tests may be useful for detecting and assessing the effects of toxins and antitoxins in plant products.

  10. Rapid non-destructive assessment of pork edible quality by using VIS/NIR spectroscopic technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leilei; Peng, Yankun; Dhakal, Sagar; Song, Yulin; Zhao, Juan; Zhao, Songwei

    2013-05-01

    The objectives of this research were to develop a rapid non-destructive method to evaluate the edible quality of chilled pork. A total of 42 samples were packed in seal plastic bags and stored at 4°C for 1 to 21 days. Reflectance spectra were collected from visible/near-infrared spectroscopy system in the range of 400nm to 1100nm. Microbiological, physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics such as the total viable counts (TVC), total volatile basic-nitrogen (TVB-N), pH value and color parameters L* were determined to appraise pork edible quality. Savitzky-Golay (SG) based on five and eleven smoothing points, Multiple Scattering Correlation (MSC) and first derivative pre-processing methods were employed to eliminate the spectra noise. The support vector machines (SVM) and partial least square regression (PLSR) were applied to establish prediction models using the de-noised spectra. A linear correlation was developed between the VIS/NIR spectroscopy and parameters such as TVC, TVB-N, pH and color parameter L* indexes, which could gain prediction results with Rv of 0.931, 0.844, 0.805 and 0.852, respectively. The results demonstrated that VIS/NIR spectroscopy technique combined with SVM possesses a powerful assessment capability. It can provide a potential tool for detecting pork edible quality rapidly and non-destructively.

  11. Cocoa bean quality assessment by using hyperspectral images and fuzzy logic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Juan; Granda, Guillermo; Prieto, Flavio; Ipanaque, William; Machacuay, Jorge

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, cocoa bean exportation from Piura-Peru is having a positive international market response due to their inherent high quality. Nevertheless, when using subjective techniques for quality assessment, such as the cut test, a wastefulness of grains is generated, additional to a restriction in the selection as well as improvement approaches in earlier stages for optimizing the quality. Thus, in an attempt to standardize the internal features analyzed by the cut test, for instance, crack formation and internal color changes during the fermentation, this research is submitted as an approach which aims to make use of hyperspectral images, with the purpose of having a quick and accurate analysis. Hyperspectral cube size was reduced by using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The image generated by principal component PC1 provides enough information to clearly distinguish the internal cracks of the cocoa bean, since the zones where these cracks are, have a negative correlation with PC1. The features taken were processed through a fuzzy block, which is able to describe the cocoa bean quality. Three membership functions were defined in the output: unfermented, partly fermented and well fermented, by using trapezoidal-shaped and triangular-shaped functions. A total of twelve rules were propounded. Furthermore, the bisector method was chosen for the defuzzification. Begin the abstract two lines below author names and addresses.

  12. Assessment of blind source separation techniques for video-based cardiac pulse extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedekind, Daniel; Trumpp, Alexander; Gaetjen, Frederik; Rasche, Stefan; Matschke, Klaus; Malberg, Hagen; Zaunseder, Sebastian

    2017-03-01

    Blind source separation (BSS) aims at separating useful signal content from distortions. In the contactless acquisition of vital signs by means of the camera-based photoplethysmogram (cbPPG), BSS has evolved the most widely used approach to extract the cardiac pulse. Despite its frequent application, there is no consensus about the optimal usage of BSS and its general benefit. This contribution investigates the performance of BSS to enhance the cardiac pulse from cbPPGs in dependency to varying input data characteristics. The BSS input conditions are controlled by an automated spatial preselection routine of regions of interest. Input data of different characteristics (wavelength, dominant frequency, and signal quality) from 18 postoperative cardiovascular patients are processed with standard BSS techniques, namely principal component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA). The effect of BSS is assessed by the spectral signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the cardiac pulse. The preselection of cbPPGs, appears beneficial providing higher SNR compared to standard cbPPGs. Both, PCA and ICA yielded better outcomes by using monochrome inputs (green wavelength) instead of inputs of different wavelengths. PCA outperforms ICA for more homogeneous input signals. Moreover, for high input SNR, the application of ICA using standard contrast is likely to decrease the SNR.

  13. Effects of preparation techniques on root canal shaping assessed by micro-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavileci, Miranda; Hoxha, Veton; Görduysus, Ömer; Tatar, Ilkan; Laperre, Kjell; Hostens, Jeroen; Küçükkaya, Selen; Berisha, Merita

    2013-06-13

    Root canal shaping without any procedural error is of the utmost preference. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to use micro-computed tomography to evaluate and compare the root canal shaping efficacy of ProTaper rotary files and standard stainless steel K-files. Sixty extracted upper second premolars were selected and were divided into 2 groups of 30. Before preparation, all samples were scanned by micro-CT. Then, 30 teeth were prepared with stainless steel files and the remaining 30 with ProTaper rotary files. Canal transportation and centering ability before and after root canal shaping were assessed using micro-CT. The amount and direction of canal transportation and the centering ratio of each instrument were determined in the coronal, middle, and apical parts of the canal. The 2 groups were statistically compared using one-way ANOVA. ProTaper rotary files gave less transportation (p<0.001) and better centering ability (p<0.00001) compared with stainless steel files. The manual technique for preparation of root canals with stainless steel files produces more canal transportation, whereas rotary files remain more centered in the canal.

  14. Assessing Land Suitability for Rainwater Harvesting Using Geospatial Techniques: A Case Study of Njoro Catchment, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. W. Maina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water demand increases as population increases leading to overexploitation of water resource. Consequently, there is need for improved water resources management complemented with rain water harvesting within the catchments. This study sought to assess land suitability for surface runoff harvesting using geospatial techniques. Land use/land cover maps of the area were derived from Landsat image. Land use and soils data were used in generating curve number map of the catchment. Lineaments greatly affect the storage depending on whether runoff is for surface storage or ground water recharge purposes. As a result, ArcGIS was used in delineating the lineaments from Digital Elevation Model (DEM of the catchment. Further, using weighted overlay the catchment was grouped into categories of restricted, not suitable, moderately suitable, suitable, or highly suitable. The study found that forest, agriculture, and built-up areas occupied about 39.42%, 36.32%, and 1.35% of catchment area, respectively. A large part of catchment was found to have curve number range of 82–89. About 50% of the catchment was found to fall within suitable and highly suitable categories. This implied that a great potential exists for rain water harvesting within the catchment.

  15. Demonstration of Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) techniques in Colorado montane streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, P.C. [Environmental Protection Agency, Denver, CO (United States). Region VIII; Lazorchak, J.M.; Hill, B.H. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Environmental Monitoring and Systems Lab.] [and others

    1994-12-31

    A pilot study of EMAP techniques was conducted during September, 1993, at seventeen sites in the Arkansas and Eagle River basins with the goal of field testing EMAP methodologies in Rocky Mountain streams. Parameters evaluated included water chemistry and toxicity, metals concentration and toxicity of sediments, habitat assessment, sediment metabolism, and enumeration of fish, macroinvertebrate, and periphyton communities. These data will be used in preparing for a larger Regional EMAP study in the mineralized portion of the Southern Rockies eco-region in Colorado, scheduled for August--September of 1994 and 1995. The study design for the main project will be described, including local on of sites for the 1994 sampling period. Pilot data indicate that existing EMAP protocols can be successfully employed in a sub-set of montane streams in Colorado. Various endpoints distinguished metals-impacted sites from control sites, including water column and sediment toxicity, chemical analyses (water and sediments), and macroinvertebrate community structure. Fish results were more interpretable in one of the basins, due to the presence of a ``sentinel`` species (Paiute sculpin).

  16. Inquiry-based learning: inflammation as a model to teach molecular techniques for assessing gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Kathryn E; McCauslin, Christine Seitz; Staiger, Jennifer; Pirone, Dana M

    2013-01-01

    This laboratory module simulates the process used by working scientists to ask and answer a question of biological interest. Instructors facilitate acquisition of knowledge using a comprehensive, inquiry-based approach in which students learn theory, hypothesis development, experimental design, and data interpretation and presentation. Using inflammation in macrophages as a model system, students perform a series of molecular biology techniques to address the biological question: "Does stimulus 'X' induce inflammation?" To ask this question, macrophage cells are treated with putative inflammatory mediators and then assayed for evidence of inflammatory response. Students become familiar with their assigned mediator and the relationship between their mediator and inflammation by conducting literature searches, then using this information to generate hypotheses which address the effect of their mediator on induction of inflammation. The cellular and molecular approaches used to test their hypotheses include transfection and luciferase reporter assay, immunoblot, fluorescence microscopy, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and quantitative PCR. Quantitative and qualitative reasoning skills are developed through data analysis and demonstrated by successful completion of post-lab worksheets and the generation and oral presentation of a scientific poster. Learning objective assessment relies on four instruments: pre-lab quizzes, post-lab worksheets, poster presentation, and posttest. Within three cohorts (n = 85) more than 95% of our students successfully achieved the learning objectives.

  17. Inquiry-Based Learning: Inflammation as a Model to Teach Molecular Techniques for Assessing Gene Expression†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Kathryn E.; McCauslin, Christine Seitz; Staiger, Jennifer; Pirone, Dana M.

    2013-01-01

    This laboratory module simulates the process used by working scientists to ask and answer a question of biological interest. Instructors facilitate acquisition of knowledge using a comprehensive, inquiry-based approach in which students learn theory, hypothesis development, experimental design, and data interpretation and presentation. Using inflammation in macrophages as a model system, students perform a series of molecular biology techniques to address the biological question: “Does stimulus ‘X’ induce inflammation?” To ask this question, macrophage cells are treated with putative inflammatory mediators and then assayed for evidence of inflammatory response. Students become familiar with their assigned mediator and the relationship between their mediator and inflammation by conducting literature searches, then using this information to generate hypotheses which address the effect of their mediator on induction of inflammation. The cellular and molecular approaches used to test their hypotheses include transfection and luciferase reporter assay, immunoblot, fluorescence microscopy, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and quantitative PCR. Quantitative and qualitative reasoning skills are developed through data analysis and demonstrated by successful completion of post-lab worksheets and the generation and oral presentation of a scientific poster. Learning objective assessment relies on four instruments: pre-lab quizzes, post-lab worksheets, poster presentation, and posttest. Within three cohorts (n = 85) more than 95% of our students successfully achieved the learning objectives. PMID:24358382

  18. The Novel Quantitative Technique for Assessment of Gait Symmetry Using Advanced Statistical Learning Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianning Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The accurate identification of gait asymmetry is very beneficial to the assessment of at-risk gait in the clinical applications. This paper investigated the application of classification method based on statistical learning algorithm to quantify gait symmetry based on the assumption that the degree of intrinsic change in dynamical system of gait is associated with the different statistical distributions between gait variables from left-right side of lower limbs; that is, the discrimination of small difference of similarity between lower limbs is considered the reorganization of their different probability distribution. The kinetic gait data of 60 participants were recorded using a strain gauge force platform during normal walking. The classification method is designed based on advanced statistical learning algorithm such as support vector machine algorithm for binary classification and is adopted to quantitatively evaluate gait symmetry. The experiment results showed that the proposed method could capture more intrinsic dynamic information hidden in gait variables and recognize the right-left gait patterns with superior generalization performance. Moreover, our proposed techniques could identify the small significant difference between lower limbs when compared to the traditional symmetry index method for gait. The proposed algorithm would become an effective tool for early identification of the elderly gait asymmetry in the clinical diagnosis.

  19. Characterizing Student Perceptions of and Buy-In toward Common Formative Assessment Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazeal, Kathleen R.; Brown, Tanya L.; Couch, Brian A.

    2016-01-01

    Formative assessments (FAs) can occur as preclass assignments, in-class activities, or postclass homework. FAs aim to promote student learning by accomplishing key objectives, including clarifying learning expectations, revealing student thinking to the instructor, providing feedback to the student that promotes learning, facilitating peer interactions, and activating student ownership of learning. While FAs have gained prominence within the education community, we have limited knowledge regarding student perceptions of these activities. We used a mixed-methods approach to determine whether students recognize and value the role of FAs in their learning and how students perceive course activities to align with five key FA objectives. To address these questions, we administered a midsemester survey in seven introductory biology course sections that were using multiple FA techniques. Overall, responses to both open-ended and closed-ended questions revealed that the majority of students held positive perceptions of FAs and perceived FAs to facilitate their learning in a variety of ways. Students consistently considered FA activities to have accomplished particular objectives, but there was greater variation among FAs in how students perceived the achievement of other objectives. We further discuss potential sources of student resistance and implications of these results for instructor practice. PMID:27909023

  20. PAHs in baby food: assessment of three different processing techniques for the preparation of reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas-Pérez, José Fernando; Bordajandi, Luisa R; Sejerøe-Olsen, Berit; Emteborg, Håkan; Baù, Andrea; Schimmel, Heinz; Dabrio, Marta

    2015-04-01

    A feasibility study for producing a matrix reference material for selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in baby food is reported. A commercially available baby food, containing carrots, potatoes, tomato, white beans and meat, was spiked with the so-called 15 + 1 PAHs included in the PAHs priority list for food of the EU, at a mass fraction level of 1 μg/kg. The contaminated baby food was further processed by autoclaving, freezing or freeze drying. The homogeneity of the three materials (bottle-to-bottle variation) and their short-term (4 weeks) and long-term (18 months) stability at different temperatures were assessed. To this end, an analytical method based on a solid-liquid extraction followed by cleaning up with gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and solid phase extraction (SPE) and GC-IDMS determination, was validated in-house. It could be demonstrated that the procedure fulfilled the demands for application to the homogeneity and isochronous stability studies for the candidate reference materials targeted here. All three materials proved to be sufficiently homogeneous for the intended use. Measurements on the autoclaved material provided the most promising results in terms of envisaged shelf life, although freeze drying was also found to be a suitable processing technique for most of the investigated PAHs. These results are an important step towards the development of a matrix reference material for PAHs in a processed food matrix in a presentation very similar to routine samples.

  1. Technique for Assessing Reliability of Insurance Companies Draudimo kompanijų patikimumo įvertinimo metodika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Voronova

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to improve the research technique for as­sessing the reliability of non-life insurance companies’ position. In this study, the author considers problems of assessment of reliability of insurance companies’ position. The author analyses indicators enabling to make complex assessment of insurance companies’ reliability. A technique of creating an integral indicator by using different methods of determining weighting rates of ratios validity is offered. Practical example of using an integral indicator of reliability of Latvian non-life insurance companies on the basis of public information is introduced. Rating is a risk indicator for potential consumers of insurance services. The offered technique may serve as an instrument for analysis of the reserves for enhancing reliability and competitiveness of insurance companies.

    Šio tyrimo tikslas yra pagerinti ne gyvybės draudimo kompanijų pozicijos patikimumo vertinimo tyrimų metodiką. Nagrinėjamos šių kompanijų pozicijos patikimumo vertinimo problemos, analizuo­jami rodikliai, sudarantys prielaidas atlikti kompleksinį draudimo kompanijų patikimumo vertinimą. Straipsnyje si

  2. Assessing the Effectiveness of Inquiry-based Learning Techniques Implemented in Large Classroom Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steer, D. N.; McConnell, D. A.; Owens, K.

    2001-12-01

    assessments of knowledge-level learning included evaluations of student responses to pre- and post-instruction conceptual test questions, short group exercises and content-oriented exam questions. Higher level thinking skills were assessed when students completed exercises that required the completion of Venn diagrams, concept maps and/or evaluation rubrics both during class periods and on exams. Initial results indicate that these techniques improved student attendance significantly and improved overall retention in the course by 8-14% over traditional lecture formats. Student scores on multiple choice exam questions were slightly higher (1-3%) for students taught in the active learning environment and short answer questions showed larger gains (7%) over students' scores in a more traditional class structure.

  3. Korean round-robin result for new international program to assess the reliability of emerging nondestructive techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Cho; Kim, Jin Gyum; Kang, Sung Sik; Jhung, Myung Jo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    The Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, as a representative organization of Korea, in February 2012 participated in an international Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques initiated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The goal of the Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques is to investigate the performance of emerging and prospective novel nondestructive techniques to find flaws in nickel-alloy welds and base materials. In this article, Korean round-robin test results were evaluated with respect to the test blocks and various nondestructive examination techniques. The test blocks were prepared to simulate large-bore dissimilar metal welds, small-bore dissimilar metal welds, and bottom-mounted instrumentation penetration welds in nuclear power plants. Also, lessons learned from the Korean round-robin test were summarized and discussed.

  4. Korean Round-Robin Tests Result for New International Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Cho Kim

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, as a representative organization of Korea, in February 2012 participated in an international Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques initiated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The goal of the Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques is to investigate the performance of emerging and prospective novel nondestructive techniques to find flaws in nickel-alloy welds and base materials. In this article, Korean round-robin test results were evaluated with respect to the test blocks and various nondestructive examination techniques. The test blocks were prepared to simulate large-bore dissimilar metal welds, small-bore dissimilar metal welds, and bottom-mounted instrumentation penetration welds in nuclear power plants. Also, lessons learned from the Korean round-robin test were summarized and discussed.

  5. Application of microscopy technique and high performance liquid chromatography for quality assessment of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (Heshouwu)

    OpenAIRE

    Li Liang; Zhongzhen Zhao; Tingguo Kang

    2014-01-01

    Background: The technique of microscopy has been applied for identification of Chinese materia medica (CMM) since decades. However, very few scientific publications report the combination of conventional microscopy and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques for further application to quality assessment of CMM. Objective: The objective of this study is to analyze the quality of the dried root tuber of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (Heshouwu) and to establish the relationships ...

  6. Development of a New Technique to Assess Susceptibility to Predation Resulting from Sublethal Stresses (Indirect Mortality)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cada, G.F.

    2003-08-25

    Fish that pass through a hydroelectric turbine may not be killed directly, but may nonetheless experience sublethal stresses that will increase their susceptibility to predators (indirect mortality). There is a need to develop reliable tests for indirect mortality so that the full consequences of passage through turbines (and other routes around a hydroelectric dam) can be assessed. We evaluated a new technique for assessing indirect mortality, based on a behavioral response to a startling stimulus (akin to perceiving an approaching predator). We compare this technique to the standard predator preference test. The behavioral response is a rapid movement commonly referred to as a startle response, escape response, or C-shape, based on the characteristic body position assumed by the fish. When viewed from above, a startled fish bends into a C-shape, then springs back and swims away in a direction different from its original orientation. This predator avoidance (escape) behavior can be compromised by sublethal stresses that temporarily stun or disorient the fish. We subjected striped shiners and fathead minnows to varying intensities of either turbulence (10-, 20- or 30-min) or 2-min exposures to a fish anesthetic (100 or 200 mg/L of tricaine methanesulfonate), and evaluated their subsequent behavior. Individual fish were given a startle stimulus and filmed with a high-speed video camera. Each fish was startled and filmed twice before being stressed, and then at 1-, 5-, 15-, and 30-min post-exposure. The resulting image files were analyzed for a variety of behavioral measures including: presence of a response, time to first reaction, duration of reaction, time to formation of maximum C-shape, time to completion of C-shape, and completeness of C-shape. The most immediate measure of potential changes in fish behavior was whether stressed fish exhibited a startle response. For striped shiners, the number of fish not responding to the stimulus was significantly different

  7. Firefly Luciferase–Based Dynamic Bioluminescence Imaging: A Noninvasive Technique to Assess Tumor Angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Amy; Hou, Lewis; Prugpichailers, Tiffany; Dunkel, Jason; Kalani, Maziyar A.; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Kalani, M. Yashar S.; Tse, Victor

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) is emerging as a cost-effective, high-throughput, noninvasive, and sensitive imaging modality to monitor cell growth and trafficking. We describe the use of dynamic BLI as a noninvasive method of assessing vessel permeability during brain tumor growth. METHODS With the use of stereotactic technique, 105 firefly luciferase–transfected GL26 mouse glioblastoma multiforme cells were injected into the brains of C57BL/6 mice (n = 80). After intraperitoneal injection of d-luciferin (150 mg/kg), serial dynamic BLI was performed at 1-minute intervals (30 seconds exposure) every 2 to 3 days until death of the animals. The maximum intensity was used as an indirect measurement of tumor growth. The adjusted slope of initial intensity (I90/Im) was used as a proxy to monitor the flow rate of blood into the vascular tree. Using a modified Evans blue perfusion protocol, we calculated the relative permeability of the vascular tree at various time points. RESULTS Daily maximum intensity correlated strongly with tumor volume. At postinjection day 23, histology and BLI demonstrated an exponential growth of the tumor mass. Slopes were calculated to reflect the flow in the vessels feeding the tumor (adjusted slope = I90/Im). The increase in BLI intensity was correlated with a decrease in adjusted slope, reflecting a decrease in the rate of blood flow as tumor volume increased (y = 93.8e−0.49, R2 = 0.63). Examination of calculated slopes revealed a peak in permeability around postinjection day 20 (n = 42, P maximum intensity observed; as angiogenesis progressed, tumor vessel caliber increased dramatically, resulting in sluggish but increased flow. This trend was correlated with Evans blue histology, revealing an increase in Evans blue dye uptake into the tumor, as slope calculated by BLI increases. CONCLUSION Dynamic BLI is a practical, noninvasive technique that can semiquantitatively monitor changes in vascular permeability and therefore

  8. CHARACTERIZATION AND USES OF THE “QUALITATIVE TECHNIQUES" FOR HAZARD IDENTIFICATION AND ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL PROCESS INDUSTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eusebio V. Ibarra-Hernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper determines and studies, analyzes and elaborates and classifies and categorizes the main qualitative techniques for hazards identification and assessment in chemical industrial processes. It specifies that these techniques base their effectiveness both, on analytical estimation processes and on the safety managers-engineers ability. It enumerates also those that present a bigger use frequency as well as the dangers that identify and the results that they give. Their use is linked, in function of the complexity level of the analysis technique, with the different stages of the life of industrial projects / processes.

  9. Application of fisheries management techniques to assessing impacts: task I report. [Assessment of chemical, radiological, and thermal impacts of nuclear power plants on fish populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie, D.H.; Baker, K.S.; Fickeisen, D.H.; Metzger, R.M.; Skalski, J.R.

    1979-03-01

    Task I efforts examined the available fisheries management techniques and assessed their potential application in a confirmatory monitoring program. The objective of such monitoring programs is to confirm that the prediction of an insignificant impact (usually made in the FES) was correct. Fisheries resource managers have developed several tools for assessing the fish population response to stress (exploitation) and they were thought potentially useful for detecting nuclear power plant impacts. Techniques in three categories were examined; catch removal, population dynamics, and nondestructive censuses, and the report contains their description, examples of application, advantages, and disadvantages. The techniques applied at nuclear power plant sites were examined in detail to provide information on implementation and variability of specific approaches. The most suitable techniques to incorporate into a monitoring program confirming no impact appear to be those based on Catch Per Unity Effort (CPUE) and hydroacoustic data. In some specific cases, age and growth studies and indirect census techniques may be beneficial. Recommendations for task II efforts to incorporate these techniques into monitoring program designs are presented. These include development of guidelines for; (1) designing and implementing a data collection program; (2) interpreting these data and assessing the occurrence of impact, and (3) establishment of the monitoring program's ability to detect changes in the affected populations.

  10. A simple and inexpensive technique for assessing microbial contamination during drilling operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, André; Vuillemin, Aurèle; Kallmeyer, Jens; Wagner, Dirk

    2016-04-01

    , the core was cut and the liner fluid collected. From each whole round core (WRC) that was taken for microbiological and biogeochemical analyses, small samples of 1 cc were retrieved with sterile cutoff syringes from the rim, the center and an intermediate position. After dilution and homogenization in 9 mL MilliQ water, 10 μL of the sediment slurry was transferred onto a filter membrane and particles counted via fluorescence microscopy. Additionally, particles in the liner fluid were also quantified. This allows the quantification of the amount of drilling fluid that has entered the sediment sample during drilling. The minimum detectable volume of drilling fluid was in the order of single nanoliters per cc of sediment, which is in the range of established techniques. The presented method requires only a minimum of equipment and allows rapid determination of contamination in the sediment core and an easy to handle on-site analysis at low costs. The sensitivity is in the same range as perfluorocarbon and microsphere tracer applications. Thus, it offers an inexpensive but powerful technique for contamination assessment for future drilling campaigns.

  11. Assessment of Software Modeling Techniques for Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Khalil Jacoub

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs monitor environment phenomena and in some cases react in response to the observed phenomena. The distributed nature of WSNs and the interaction between software and hardware components makes it difficult to correctly design and develop WSN systems. One solution to the WSN design challenges is system modeling. In this paper we present a survey of 9 WSN modeling techniques and show how each technique models different parts of the system such as sensor behavior, sensor data and hardware. Furthermore, we consider how each modeling technique represents the network behavior and network topology. We also consider the available supporting tools for each of the modeling techniques. Based on the survey, we classify the modeling techniques and derive examples of the surveyed modeling techniques by using SensIV system.

  12. Assessment of maceration techniques used to remove soft tissue from bone in cut mark analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Christine; Birch, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Maceration techniques employed in forensics must be effective without compromising the bone's integrity and morphology, and prevent destruction of evidence. Techniques must also be fast, safe, easily obtainable and inexpensive; not all techniques currently employed are appropriate for forensic use. To evaluate the most suitable approach, seven techniques including current and new methodologies were applied to fresh, fleshed porcine ribs exhibiting cut marks. A sample size of 30 specimens per technique was examined under scanning electron microscopy at the cut mark and the surrounding uncompromised regions; a scoring system of effectiveness was applied. The previously unpublished microwave method fared best for bone and cut mark preservation. Sodium hypochlorite destroyed cut marks, and was deemed unsuitable for forensic analysis. No single technique fulfilled all criteria; however, this study provides a benchmark for forensic anthropologists to select the most appropriate method for their situation, while maintaining the high standards required by forensic science. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Comparative analysis of three data treatment techniques for landslide susceptibility assessment in the Eastern Pyrenees, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, S.; Corominas, J.; Lantada, N.; Angulo, C.; Baeza, C.

    2009-04-01

    In this communication, the comparison of three data treatment methodologies for assessing landslide susceptibility is presented. The artificial neural networks (ANN) analysis, discriminant analysis (DA) and logistic regression (LR) have been performed in a test area of the Eastern Pyrenees (Spain), at a local scale (1:5.000). The main objective of our research is the comparison of the results obtained with the different techniques and to discuss the advantages and drawbacks of each of them. A database containing an inventory of 280 shallow landslides triggered during the intense rainy event of November of 1982 has been used. Additional information on significant conditioning factors such as vegetation cover and presence of superficial formation has been included as well as other input variables captured automatically from the Digital Elevation Model (DEM). ANN was performed with MATLAB while DA and LR with the statistical package SPSS. The input data and the results have been implemented on a GIS platform (ArcGIS). The test area has a size of about 40km2 and the susceptibility has been determined at each cell (15x15m). The input variables were selected from previous susceptibility assessment studies carried out in the area. The training and validation analyses have worked with two input cell classes (stable and unstable) and final maps with five susceptibility levels have been prepared. DA and LR classify dichotomous variables. The ANN analysis has been carried out with both classification and regression structures. The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves obtained are similar in all the models. However, frequency histograms on stable and unstable populations show significant differences in the distance between the mean values of the populations and in the distribution of the overlapping area. The susceptibility maps prepared with ANN and LR minimize the potentially unstable area. The cumulative percentage curves (Duman et al. 2006) show that using

  14. Soil Degradation Assessment in North Nile Delta Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Nahry, A. H.; Ibraheim, M. M.; El Baroudy, A. A.

    2015-04-01

    The present work aims at monitoring soil degradation process within the last two decades in the northern part of Nile Delta. The investigated area lies between longitudes 31° 00- & 31° 15- E and latitudes 31° 00' & 31° 37' N., covering an area of about 161760 feddans. Detecting soil degradation and recognizing its various types is a necessity to take the practical measures for combating it as well as conserving and keeping the agricultural soil healthy. Land degradation was assessed by adopting new approach through the integration of GLASOD/FAO approach and Remote Sensing / GIS techniques .The main types of human induced soil degradation that observed in the studied area are salinity, alkalinity (sodicity), compaction and water logging .On the other hand water erosion because of sea rise is assessed. The obtained data showed that, areas that were affected by compaction increment have been spatially enlarged by 40.9 % and those affected by compaction decrease have been spatially reduced by 22.6 % of the total area ,meanwhile areas that have been unchanged were estimated by 36.5% of the total area. The areas that were affected by water logging increase have been spatially enlarged by 52.2 % and those affected by water logging decrease have been spatially reduced by 10.1 % of the total area, meanwhile the areas which have been unchanged were represented by 37.7 % of the total area. Areas that were affected by salinity increase have been spatially enlarged by 31.4 % of the total area and those affected by salinity decrease have been reduced by 43.3 % of the total area. An area represented by 25.2 % of the total area has been unchanged. Alkalinization (sodicity) was expressed by the exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP).Areas that were affected by sodicity increase have been spatially enlarged by 33.7 %, meanwhile those affected by sodicity decrease have been spatially reduced by 33.6 % of the total area. An area represented by 32.6 % of the total area has been

  15. Practical assessment of preoperative functional mapping techniques: navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangraviti, Antonella; Casali, Cecilia; Cordella, Roberto; Legnani, Federico Giuseppe; Mattei, Luca; Prada, Francesco; Saladino, Andrea; Contarino, Valeria Elisa; Perin, Alessandro; DiMeco, Francesco

    2013-09-01

    Preoperative brain mapping is vital to improve the outcome of patients with tumors located in eloquent areas. While functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) remains the most commonly used preoperative mapping technique, navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) has recently been proposed as a new preoperative method for the clinical and surgical management of such patients. This study aims at evaluating the impact of nTMS as a routine examination and its ultimate contribution to patient outcome. We performed a preliminary prospective study on eight patients harboring a cerebral lesion in eloquent motor areas. Each patient underwent preoperative cortical brain mapping via both fMRI and nTMS; then, we assessed the reliability of both methods by comparing them with intraoperative mapping by direct cortical stimulation (DCS). This study suggests that nTMS was more accurate than fMRI in detecting the true cortical motor area when compared with DCS data, with a mean of deviation ± confidence interval (CI) of 8.47 ± 4.6 mm between nTMS and DCS and of 12.9 ± 5.7 mm between fMRI and DCS (p < 0.05). The results indicated that within the limits of our statistical sample, nTMS was found to be a useful, reliable, and non-invasive option for preoperative planning as well as for the identification of the motor strip; in addition, it usually has short processing times and is very well tolerated by patients, thereby increasing their compliance and possibly improving surgical outcome.

  16. Assessment of bone quality by the technique of multispiral computer tomography in patients with chronic osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Dyachkova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - to study the roentgenomorphological features of the lower limb long bones in patients with chronic osteomyelitis using the technique of multi-spiral computer tomography (MSCT, and to propose the complex of parameters to assess bone quality. Material and methods. Roentgenography and computer tomography of the hips were performed in 49 patients with chronic osteomyelitis of long bones of lower extremities. The studies made using computer tomographs GE Light Speed VCT, Toshiba Aquilion-64, Somatom Smile. Results. The changes in bone structure of proximal femur were characterized by extremely marked polymorphism, and they almost didn’t repeat in the anatomical component. The cortical plate had heterogenous structure with resorption zones in the area of its transfer to the shaft. The character of roentgenomorphological changes in the shaft was individual in all the patients, but there were common manifestations as well which consisted in thickening of the cortical plate, different intensity of periosteal and endosteal layers. The cortical plate was significantly different in density, which exceeded 1700 HU in some places. When osteomyelitic process localized in the knee marked changes affected its all components, they manifested themselves in extended osteoporosis and local osteosclerosis. When osteomyelitic process localized in proximal tibia extensive resorption zones observed, the cortical plate thinned in proximal parts, its density was not more than 350 HU. Conclusion. The data demonstrated that bone quality in patients with chronic osteomyelitis had significant deviations from normal values in terms of changing both its density and architectonics. The deviations consisted in bone density decrease in the meta-epiphyseal part regardless of the process localization, in highly variable density values of the cortical plate as a result of its thickening or thinning, presence of resorption or sclerosis areas.

  17. A novel technique to assess chromatin texture using pixel optical densitometry in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Srikant; Juneja, Manish; Pallam, Nandita Kottieth; Boaz, Karen; Mohindra, Aashima; Lewis, Amitha

    2012-08-01

    The early detection of neoplasia is the prime aim of a diagnostician. Altered chromatin distribution is the earliest microscopic change observed in malignant transformation making it a valuable morphometric parameter. This study was aimed to assess and correlate the progressive changes in chromatin texture from normal to varying grades of premalignancies to malignancy of the oral cavity. Thirty-four archival tissue specimens categorized as normal buccal mucosa (5), low-grade epithelial dysplasia (11), high-grade epithelial dysplasia (7), and squamous cell carcinoma (11) were stained with Feulgen reaction. Pixel optical densitometry histograms were obtained from analysis of an average of 300 cells/case using ImageJ software. Nine histogram curve characteristics (including area under the curve, area integer percentage, center, centroid) were then analyzed statistically for differences between the four groups. Area integer percentage (P = 0.002), center (P = 0.038), and centroid (P = 0.021) were statistically significant within the four groups The parameters showed a dip in their value from normal to low-grade dysplasia but showed a steady increase in high-grade dysplasia and carcinoma. The optical density characteristics had the ability to differentiate the progression of neoplastic changes by extracting information of the chromatin distribution not quantifiable by routine microscopy. The early clumping of chromatin in the periphery in low-grade dysplasia followed by progressively increasing chromatin aggregates in high-grade dysplasia and carcinoma correlated well with the shift observed in the histogram center and centroid. The novel pixel optical densitometry technique efficiently predicted malignant transformation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Condition assessment of concrete pavements using both ground penetrating radar and stress-wave based techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengxing; Anderson, Neil; Sneed, Lesley; Torgashov, Evgeniy

    2016-12-01

    Two stress-wave based techniques, ultrasonic surface wave (USW) and impact echo (IE), as well as ground penetrating radar (GPR) were used to assess the condition of a segment of concrete pavement that includes a layer of concrete, a granular base and their interface. Core specimens retrieved at multiple locations were used to confirm the accuracy and reliability of each non-destructive testing (NDT) result. Results from this study demonstrate that the GPR method is accurate for estimating the pavement thickness and locating separations (air voids) between the concrete and granular base layers. The USW method is a rapid way to estimate the in-situ elastic modulus (dynamic elastic modulus) of the concrete, however, the existence of air voids at the interface could potentially affect the accuracy and reliability of the USW test results. The estimation of the dynamic modulus and the P-wave velocity of concrete was improved when a shorter wavelength range (3 in. to 8.5 in.) corresponding to the concrete layer thickness was applied instead of the full wavelength rage (3 in. to 11 in.) based on the standard spacing of the receiver transducers. The IE method is proved to be fairly accurate in estimating the thickness of concrete pavements. However, the flexural mode vibration could affect the accuracy and reliability of the test results. Furthermore, the existence of air voids between the concrete and granular base layers could affect the estimation of the compression wave velocity of concrete when the full wavelength range was applied (3 in. to 11 in.). Future work is needed in order to improve the accuracy and reliability of both USW and IE test results.

  19. Application of Spectral Decomposition Techniques in the Assessment and Intercomparison of Models and Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, B. E.; Li, J.; Lacis, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    In the assessment of models using observations, or the intercomparison between different observational datasets, it is necessary to examine the coherency in the spatial and temporal variability present in different datasets. Meanwhile, global datasets are always high dimensional, therefore efficient comparison is not an easy task. In this study, we apply several spectral decomposition techniques, namely Combined Principal Component Analysis (CPCA) and Combined Maximum Covariance Analysis (CMCA), as effective means to reduce data dimension and extract the dominant variability. More importantly, these methods find the common modes of variability in different datasets, therefore allowing parallel comparison and evaluation. These methods were applied to the AOD fields from fifteen CMIP5 models and three observational datasets: MODIS, MISR and AERONET. We focus on large-scale features including the spatial distribution, seasonality and long term trends. Results show that while models qualitatively agree with observations, significant regional differences still exist, especially in regions with mixed aerosol types such as the Sahel, North India and East Asia. Compared with observations, models in general lack interannual variability. Moreover, all models indicate consistent AOD trends with increases over East Asia and decreases over East US and Europe. However, the AOD trends over these regions are not very significant in the observations Instead, a significant increase in dust concentrations over the Arabian Peninsula and a significant decrease over the biomass burning regions of South America are found in MODIS and MISR. The aerosol composition for the regions with largest disagreement is also examined. Figure caption: The dominant mode of CMCA analysis using fifteen CMIP5 models and MODIS, MISR and AERONET. The color of the circles indicate the signal of AERONET. This mode is associated with a summer-winter seasonal cycle and models agree qualitatively with

  20. Wind Energy Potential Assessment and Forecasting Research Based on the Data Pre-Processing Technique and Swarm Intelligent Optimization Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilong Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Accurate quantification and characterization of a wind energy potential assessment and forecasting is significant to optimal wind farm design, evaluation and scheduling. However, wind energy potential assessment and forecasting remain difficult and challenging research topics at present. Traditional wind energy assessment and forecasting models usually ignore the problem of data pre-processing as well as parameter optimization, which leads to low accuracy. Therefore, this paper aims to assess the potential of wind energy and forecast the wind speed in four locations in China based on the data pre-processing technique and swarm intelligent optimization algorithms. In the assessment stage, the cuckoo search (CS algorithm, ant colony (AC algorithm, firefly algorithm (FA and genetic algorithm (GA are used to estimate the two unknown parameters in the Weibull distribution. Then, the wind energy potential assessment results obtained by three data-preprocessing approaches are compared to recognize the best data-preprocessing approach and process the original wind speed time series. While in the forecasting stage, by considering the pre-processed wind speed time series as the original data, the CS and AC optimization algorithms are adopted to optimize three neural networks, namely, the Elman neural network, back propagation neural network, and wavelet neural network. The comparison results demonstrate that the new proposed wind energy assessment and speed forecasting techniques produce promising assessments and predictions and perform better than the single assessment and forecasting components.

  1. Assessment of Haar Wavelet-Quasilinearization Technique in Heat Convection-Radiation Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umer Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We showed that solutions by the Haar wavelet-quasilinearization technique for the two problems, namely, (i temperature distribution equation in lumped system of combined convection-radiation in a slab made of materials with variable thermal conductivity and (ii cooling of a lumped system by combined convection and radiation are strongly reliable and also more accurate than the other numerical methods and are in good agreement with exact solution. According to the Haar wavelet-quasilinearization technique, we convert the nonlinear heat transfer equation to linear discretized equation with the help of quasilinearization technique and apply the Haar wavelet method at each iteration of quasilinearization technique to get the solution. The main aim of present work is to show the reliability of the Haar wavelet-quasilinearization technique for heat transfer equations.

  2. Non-Destructive Spectroscopic Techniques and Multivariate Analysis for Assessment of Fat Quality in Pork and Pork Products: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucha, Christopher T; Liu, Li; Ngadi, Michael O

    2018-01-28

    Fat is one of the most important traits determining the quality of pork. The composition of the fat greatly influences the quality of pork and its processed products, and contribute to defining the overall carcass value. However, establishing an efficient method for assessing fat quality parameters such as fatty acid composition, solid fat content, oxidative stability, iodine value, and fat color, remains a challenge that must be addressed. Conventional methods such as visual inspection, mechanical methods, and chemical methods are used off the production line, which often results in an inaccurate representation of the process because the dynamics are lost due to the time required to perform the analysis. Consequently, rapid, and non-destructive alternative methods are needed. In this paper, the traditional fat quality assessment techniques are discussed with emphasis on spectroscopic techniques as an alternative. Potential spectroscopic techniques include infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance and Raman spectroscopy. Hyperspectral imaging as an emerging advanced spectroscopy-based technology is introduced and discussed for the recent development of assessment for fat quality attributes. All techniques are described in terms of their operating principles and the research advances involving their application for pork fat quality parameters. Future trends for the non-destructive spectroscopic techniques are also discussed.

  3. Examining the Reliability of Scores from the Consensual Assessment Technique in the Measurement of Individual and Small Group Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanic, Nicholas; Randles, Clint

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the reliability of measures of both individual and group creative work using the consensual assessment technique (CAT). CAT was used to measure individual and group creativity among a population of pre-service music teachers enrolled in a secondary general music class (n = 23) and was evaluated from…

  4. Use of Portfolio Assessment Technique in Teaching Map Sketching and Location in Secondary School Geography in Jos, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugodulunwa, Christiana; Wakjissa, Sayita

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the use of portfolio assessment technique in teaching map sketching and location in geography in Jos, Nigeria. It adopted a quasi-experimental design. Two schools were selected using a table of random numbers from a population of 51 schools in Jos South and assigned to each of experimental and control group. The…

  5. Gender Differential in Self-Assessment: A Fact Neglected in Higher Education Peer and Self-Assessment Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Guijarro, Soledad; Bengoechea, Mercedes

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses student cross-assessment with a gender perspective in three different courses along several academic years in an engineering school in Spain. The aim of this study is to contribute to a wider understanding of the hidden effect of gender in higher education by testing if gender has any effect on the way students assess others…

  6. Techniques for determining subsurface stress direction and assessing hydraulic fracture azimuth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, R.E.; Peterson, R.E.; Warpinski, N.R.; Lorenz, J.C.; Teufel, L.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aslakson, J.K.

    1994-12-31

    This reference paper reviews and describes 15 techniques for determining hydraulic fracture azimuth. The techniques described are categorized into core-based, borehole-based, near-wellbore, and regional geologic indicators that can be used to predict or measure hydraulic fracture azimuth. The core based methods include: (1) circumferential velocity anisotropy, (2) anelastic strain recovery, (3) differential strain curve analysis, (4) axial point load tests, (5) petrographic examination of microcracks, (6) overcoming of archived core, (7) drilling-induced fractures in core, and (8) direct observation of over-cored open-hole stress test fractures. The borehole based techniques include: (9) borehole breakouts, (10) borehole deformation, (11) borehole imaging of drilling induced fractures, and (12) directional gamma ray logging. The near-wellbore techniques provided data on the orientation of the fracture induced during an actual fracture treatment and include: (13) microseismic logging and (14) earth tilt surveys. Finally there are the geologic indicators (Method 15) including earthquake focal mechanisms, fault slip data, surface mapping of neotectonic joints, and volcanic vent alignment. These regional data have been compiled for the World Stress Mapping Project and many maps are available that can be used as a first approximation of stress direction. Experience has shown that the more techniques that can be used in a single well or field, the more reliable the result. The concept or theoretical basis for each technique as well as the benefits and limitations of the techniques are described.

  7. Consolidation and assessment of a technique to provide fast and precise point positioning (Fast-PPP)

    OpenAIRE

    Rovira Garcia, Adrià

    2016-01-01

    The research of this paper-based dissertation is focused on the Fast Precise Point Positioning (Fast-PPP) technique. The novelty relies on using an accurate ionosphere model, in combination with the standard precise satellite clock and orbit products, to reduce the convergence time of state-of-the-art high-accuracy navigation techniques from approximately one hour to few minutes. My first contribution to the Fast-PPP technique as a Ph.D. student has been the design and implementation of a ...

  8. Assessment of roadside surface water quality of Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh using GIS and multivariate statistical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Fahad; Fakhruddin, A. N. M.; Imam, MD. Toufick; Khan, Nasima; Abdullah, Abu Tareq Mohammad; Khan, Tanzir Ahmed; Rahman, Md. Mahfuzur; Uddin, Mohammad Nashir

    2017-11-01

    In this study, multivariate statistical techniques in collaboration with GIS are used to assess the roadside surface water quality of Savar region. Nineteen water samples were collected in dry season and 15 water quality parameters including TSS, TDS, pH, DO, BOD, Cl-, F-, NO3 2-, NO2 -, SO4 2-, Ca, Mg, K, Zn and Pb were measured. The univariate overview of water quality parameters are TSS 25.154 ± 8.674 mg/l, TDS 840.400 ± 311.081 mg/l, pH 7.574 ± 0.256 pH unit, DO 4.544 ± 0.933 mg/l, BOD 0.758 ± 0.179 mg/l, Cl- 51.494 ± 28.095 mg/l, F- 0.771 ± 0.153 mg/l, NO3 2- 2.211 ± 0.878 mg/l, NO2 - 4.692 ± 5.971 mg/l, SO4 2- 69.545 ± 53.873 mg/l, Ca 48.458 ± 22.690 mg/l, Mg 19.676 ± 7.361 mg/l, K 12.874 ± 11.382 mg/l, Zn 0.027 ± 0.029 mg/l, Pb 0.096 ± 0.154 mg/l. The water quality data were subjected to R-mode PCA which resulted in five major components. PC1 explains 28% of total variance and indicates the roadside and brick field dust settle down (TDS, TSS) in the nearby water body. PC2 explains 22.123% of total variance and indicates the agricultural influence (K, Ca, and NO2 -). PC3 describes the contribution of nonpoint pollution from agricultural and soil erosion processes (SO4 2-, Cl-, and K). PC4 depicts heavy positively loaded by vehicle emission and diffusion from battery stores (Zn, Pb). PC5 depicts strong positive loading of BOD and strong negative loading of pH. Cluster analysis represents three major clusters for both water parameters and sampling sites. The site based on cluster showed similar grouping pattern of R-mode factor score map. The present work reveals a new scope to monitor the roadside water quality for future research in Bangladesh.

  9. Differences in blood pressure by measurement technique in neurocritically ill patients: A technological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lele, Abhijit V; Wilson, Daren; Chalise, Prabhakar; Nazzaro, Jules; Krishnamoorthy, Vijay; Vavilala, Monica S

    2018-01-01

    Blood pressure data may vary by measurement technique. We performed a technological assessment of differences in blood pressure measurement between non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP) and invasive arterial blood pressure (ABP) in neurocritically ill patients. After IRB approval, a prospective observational study was performed to study differences in systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) values measured by NIBP arm, ABP at level of the phlebostatic axis (ABP heart) and ABP at level of the external auditory meatus (ABP brain) at 30 and 45-degree head of bed elevation (HOB) using repeated measure analysis of covariance and correlation coefficients. Overall, 168 patients were studied with median age of 57 ± 15 years, were mostly female (57%), with body mass index ≤30 (66%). Twenty-three percent (n = 39) had indwelling intracranial pressure monitors, and 19.7% (n = 33) received vasoactive agents. ABP heart overestimated ABP brain for SBP (11.5 ± 2.7 mmHg, p < .001), MAP (mean difference 13.3 ± 0.5 mmHg, p < .001) and CPP (13.4 ± 3.2 mmHg, p < .001). ABP heart overestimated NIBP arm for SBP (8 ± 1.5 mmHg, p < .001), MAP (mean difference 8.6 ± 0.8 mmHg, p < .001), and CPP (mean difference 9.8 ± 3.2 mmHg, p < .001). Regardless of HOB elevation, ABP heart overestimates MAP compared to ABP brain and NIBP arm. Using ABP heart data overestimates CPP and may be responsible for not achieving SBP, MAP or CPP targets aimed at the brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of roadside surface water quality of Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh using GIS and multivariate statistical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Fahad; Fakhruddin, A. N. M.; Imam, MD. Toufick; Khan, Nasima; Abdullah, Abu Tareq Mohammad; Khan, Tanzir Ahmed; Rahman, Md. Mahfuzur; Uddin, Mohammad Nashir

    2017-09-01

    In this study, multivariate statistical techniques in collaboration with GIS are used to assess the roadside surface water quality of Savar region. Nineteen water samples were collected in dry season and 15 water quality parameters including TSS, TDS, pH, DO, BOD, Cl-, F-, NO3 2-, NO2 -, SO4 2-, Ca, Mg, K, Zn and Pb were measured. The univariate overview of water quality parameters are TSS 25.154 ± 8.674 mg/l, TDS 840.400 ± 311.081 mg/l, pH 7.574 ± 0.256 pH unit, DO 4.544 ± 0.933 mg/l, BOD 0.758 ± 0.179 mg/l, Cl- 51.494 ± 28.095 mg/l, F- 0.771 ± 0.153 mg/l, NO3 2- 2.211 ± 0.878 mg/l, NO2 - 4.692 ± 5.971 mg/l, SO4 2- 69.545 ± 53.873 mg/l, Ca 48.458 ± 22.690 mg/l, Mg 19.676 ± 7.361 mg/l, K 12.874 ± 11.382 mg/l, Zn 0.027 ± 0.029 mg/l, Pb 0.096 ± 0.154 mg/l. The water quality data were subjected to R-mode PCA which resulted in five major components. PC1 explains 28% of total variance and indicates the roadside and brick field dust settle down (TDS, TSS) in the nearby water body. PC2 explains 22.123% of total variance and indicates the agricultural influence (K, Ca, and NO2 -). PC3 describes the contribution of nonpoint pollution from agricultural and soil erosion processes (SO4 2-, Cl-, and K). PC4 depicts heavy positively loaded by vehicle emission and diffusion from battery stores (Zn, Pb). PC5 depicts strong positive loading of BOD and strong negative loading of pH. Cluster analysis represents three major clusters for both water parameters and sampling sites. The site based on cluster showed similar grouping pattern of R-mode factor score map. The present work reveals a new scope to monitor the roadside water quality for future research in Bangladesh.

  11. Accuracy assessment of GPS and surveying technique in forest road mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Abdi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Forest road networks provide access to the forest as a source of timber production and tourism services. Moreover, it is considered the main tool to protect forests from fire and smuggling. The prerequisite of road management and maintenance planning is to have spatial distribution and map of the roads. But newly constructed or some other forest road segments are not available in national maps. Therefore, mapping these networks is raised as a priority for a forest manager. The aim of this study was to assess accuracy of routine methods in road mapping. For this purpose, Patom district forest road was selected and road network map was extracted from the National Cartographic Center maps as the ground truth or base map. The map of the network was acquired using two methods, a GPS receiver and survey technique. Selecting 70 sample points on the network and considering the National Cartographic Center map as base map, accuracy was determined for two methods. The results showed that while the survey method was more accurate at the beginning of the path (first 500 meters, accumulation of errors resulted in higher rates of error in this method (up to 263 meters compared to GPS. Mann-Whitney test revealed significant differences in accuracy of two methods and mean accuracies were 38.86 and 147.90 for GPS and surveying respectively. The results showed that for samples 1-15 there was no significant difference between the survey and GPS data but for samples 28-42 and 56-70 statistically significant difference were existed between the survey and GPS data. Regression analysis showed that the relation between GPS and surveying accuracies and distance were best defined by cubic (R2 adj = 0.65 and linear (R2 adj = 0.83 regression models respectively. Applying 10 and 5 meters buffers around base map, 68 and 41% of GPS and 44 and 21% of surveying derived road were overlapped with buffer zones. The time required to complete the survey was found to increase the

  12. Dietary Assessment on a Mobile Phone Using Image Processing and Pattern Recognition Techniques: Algorithm Design and System Prototyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmine Probst

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dietary assessment, while traditionally based on pen-and-paper, is rapidly moving towards automatic approaches. This study describes an Australian automatic food record method and its prototype for dietary assessment via the use of a mobile phone and techniques of image processing and pattern recognition. Common visual features including scale invariant feature transformation (SIFT, local binary patterns (LBP, and colour are used for describing food images. The popular bag-of-words (BoW model is employed for recognizing the images taken by a mobile phone for dietary assessment. Technical details are provided together with discussions on the issues and future work.

  13. Solid transport in mountain rivers: monitoring techniques and long term assessment as flood prevention tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longoni, Laura; Brambilla, Davide; Ivanov, Vladislav; Messa, Giacomo; Veronelli, Andrea; Radice, Alessio; Papini, Monica

    2017-04-01

    Floods are calamitous phenomena with an ever-increasing frequency around the globe, that often result in socio-economic damage and casualties. The role of the solid fraction in the river dynamic has been widely debated in the last decade and its importance is recognized as critical and not negligible in flood simulations as it has been evidenced that the severity of an event is often the result of the coupling of a flood wave with elevated solid transport rates. Nevertheless, assessing the quantity of sediment mobilized in a particular event is not feasible without a long term analysis of the river's dynamics and its morphological evolution since it is defined by past events. This work is focused on the techniques to improve knowledge about sediment production and transport through hydrological networks as a necessary component of a wise flood prevention planning. In particular, a multidisciplinary approach that combines hydraulic and geological knowledge is required in order to understand the evolution of the river sediment and how it will influence the following critical event. The methods are presented through a case study in Italy where a series of different approaches have been integrated to gain a comprehensive understanding of the problem: the sediment movement has been studied by a Eulerian as well as a Lagrangian approaches while hydraulic properties of the stream have been measured. The research started with an attempt to monitor sediment movements: in June 2016 300 sample pebbles, equipped with RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) transponders, have been deployed in the river and tracked after every major rainfall event. The obtained data-set has been combined with a morphological analysis and a river flow discharge computed through PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) method in order to identify the relation between a given rainfall event and sediment transport. Moreover, critical sediment size has been estimated from field data using three approaches: two

  14. Reliability assessment of restructured power systems using reliability network equivalent and pseudo-sequential simulation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Yi; Wang, Peng; Goel, Lalit [Nanyang Technological University, School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Block S1, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Billinton, Roy; Karki, Rajesh [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada)

    2007-10-15

    This paper presents a technique to evaluate reliability of a restructured power system with a bilateral market. The proposed technique is based on the combination of the reliability network equivalent and pseudo-sequential simulation approaches. The reliability network equivalent techniques have been implemented in the Monte Carlo simulation procedure to reduce the computational burden of the analysis. Pseudo-sequential simulation has been used to increase the computational efficiency of the non-sequential simulation method and to model the chronological aspects of market trading and system operation. Multi-state Markov models for generation and transmission systems are proposed and implemented in the simulation. A new load shedding scheme is proposed during generation inadequacy and network congestion to minimize the load curtailment. The IEEE reliability test system (RTS) is used to illustrate the technique. (author)

  15. Technique to assess the alveolar bone width for immediate implant placement in fresh extraction sockets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Kumar Chandraker

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: This technique will help the surgeon understand the thickness of labial plate especially the apical region without reflecting the flap, also aid in selection of proper dimension of dental implant, and if bone graft is needed.

  16. Deuterium dilution technique for body composition assessment: resolving methodological issues in children with moderate acute malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiansen, Christian; Yaméogo, Charles W; Devi, Sarita; Friis, Henrik; Kurpad, Anura; Wells, Jonathan C

    2017-08-01

    Childhood malnutrition is highly prevalent and associated with high mortality risk. In observational and interventional studies among malnourished children, body composition is increasingly recognised as a key outcome. The deuterium dilution technique has generated high-quality data on body composition in studies of infants and young children in several settings, but its feasibility and accuracy in children suffering from moderate acute malnutrition requires further study. Prior to a large nutritional intervention trial among children with moderate acute malnutrition, we conducted pilot work to develop and adapt the deuterium dilution technique. We refined procedures for administration of isotope doses and collection of saliva. Furthermore, we established that equilibration time in local context is 3 h. These findings and the resulting standard operating procedures are important to improve data quality when using the deuterium dilution technique in malnutrition studies in field conditions, and may encourage a wider use of isotope techniques.

  17. Industrial fouling: problem characterization, economic assessment, and review of prevention, mitigation, and accommodation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett-Price, B.A.; Smith, S.A.; Watts, R.L.

    1984-02-01

    A comprehensive overview of heat exchanger fouling in the manufacturing industries is provided. Specifically, this overview addresses: the characteristics of industrial fouling problems; the mitigation and accommodation techniques currently used by industry; and the types and magnitude of costs associated with industrial fouling. A detailed review of the fouling problems, costs and mitigation techniques is provided for the food, textile, pulp and paper, chemical, petroleum, cement, glass and primary metals industries.

  18. Nurses' Educational Needs Assessment for Financial Management Education Using the Nominal Group Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Noh, Wonjung; Lim, Ji Young

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the financial management educational needs of nurses in order to development an educational program to strengthen their financial management competencies. Methods: Data were collected from two focus groups using the nominal group technique. The study consisted of three steps: a literature review, focus group discussion using the nominal group technique, and data synthesis. Results: After analyzing the results, nine key components were s...

  19. Develop an environmental assessment technique for human comfort requirements in buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ahmed Fekry

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental assessment methods have emerged to assess the environmental performance of buildings across the world. Accurate results obtained using these methods are considered highly important, especially when taking into account the global trend of being obligatory and the use of their results to compare the environmental performance of buildings creating a fair competition amongst them. They are used for assessing green buildings regarding issues such as energy, water …, etc. The indoor quality is one of these issues and human comfort is evaluated in those methods using a set of items to assess achieving the identified comfortable ranges by evaluating a number of factors influencing them. These items are using quantitative measurements, so the current assessing way is considered complex besides the consumption of time and effort without reaching significantly accurate results. Therefore the research problem appears in the lack of an appropriate mean in the current assessment methods to evaluate items linked with sensation and emotions. The research paper aims to propose a more credible and an accurate assessment approach to assess those items, and also helps evaluating another set of items which are linked to the psychological comfort. The previous type of comfort rarely appears in current assessment methods despite being one of the green architecture principles. The ‘Kano Model’ is the proposed way used for the application of questionnaires that are put through the information network and linked to assessment methods to get more accurate and creditable results when assessing human comfort items.

  20. A no-gold-standard technique for objective assessment of quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Abhinav K; Caffo, Brian; Frey, Eric C

    2016-04-07

    The objective optimization and evaluation of nuclear-medicine quantitative imaging methods using patient data is highly desirable but often hindered by the lack of a gold standard. Previously, a regression-without-truth (RWT) approach has been proposed for evaluating quantitative imaging methods in the absence of a gold standard, but this approach implicitly assumes that bounds on the distribution of true values are known. Several quantitative imaging methods in nuclear-medicine imaging measure parameters where these bounds are not known, such as the activity concentration in an organ or the volume of a tumor. We extended upon the RWT approach to develop a no-gold-standard (NGS) technique for objectively evaluating such quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods with patient data in the absence of any ground truth. Using the parameters estimated with the NGS technique, a figure of merit, the noise-to-slope ratio (NSR), can be computed, which can rank the methods on the basis of precision. An issue with NGS evaluation techniques is the requirement of a large number of patient studies. To reduce this requirement, the proposed method explored the use of multiple quantitative measurements from the same patient, such as the activity concentration values from different organs in the same patient. The proposed technique was evaluated using rigorous numerical experiments and using data from realistic simulation studies. The numerical experiments demonstrated that the NSR was estimated accurately using the proposed NGS technique when the bounds on the distribution of true values were not precisely known, thus serving as a very reliable metric for ranking the methods on the basis of precision. In the realistic simulation study, the NGS technique was used to rank reconstruction methods for quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) based on their performance on the task of estimating the mean activity concentration within a known volume of interest

  1. Adapting developing country epidemiological assessment techniques to improve the quality of health needs assessments in developed countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handy Deirdre

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We were commissioned to carry out three health assessments in urban areas of Dublin in Ireland. We required an epidemiologically robust method that could collect data rapidly and inexpensively. We were dealing with inadequate health information systems, weak planning data and a history of inadequate recipient involvement in health service planning. These problems had also been identified by researchers carrying out health assessments in developing countries. This paper reports our experience of adapting a cluster survey model originally developed by international organisations to assess community health needs and service coverage in developing countries and applying our adapted model to three urban areas in Dublin, Ireland Methods We adapted the model to control for socio-economic heterogeneity, to take account of the inadequate population list, to ensure a representative sample and to account for a higher prevalence of degenerative and chronic diseases. We employed formal as well as informal communication methods and adjusted data collection times to maximise participation. Results The model we adapted had the capacity to ascertain both health needs and health care delivery needs. The community participated throughout the process and members were trained and employed as data collectors. The assessments have been used by local health boards and non-governmental agencies to plan and deliver better or additional services. Conclusion We were able to carry out high quality health needs assessments in urban areas by adapting and applying a developing country health assessment method. Issues arose relating to health needs assessment as part of the planning cycle and the role of participants in the process.

  2. Imaging techniques for the assessment of myocardial hibernation. Report of a Study Group of the European Society of Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, S Richard; Bax, Jeroen J; vom Dahl, Jürgen; Henein, Michael Y; Knuuti, Juhani; van Rossum, Albert C; Schwarz, Ernst R; Vanoverschelde, Jean-Louis; van der Wall, Ernst E; Wijns, William

    2004-05-01

    This report of an ESC Study Group reviews current knowledge on myocardial hibernation and relevant imaging techniques, and provides an algorithm for investigation and management when a patient presents with ischaemic left ventricular dysfunction. It covers the definitions of myocardial viability, stunning and hibernation, it reviews the morphological findings in hibernation and it describes relevant clinical settings. The imaging and other techniques that are reviewed are electrocardiography, positron-emitting and single photon-emitting scintigraphic imaging, echocardiography, radionuclide angiocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, X-ray transmission tomography, invasive X-ray angiocardiography and electromechanical mapping. The evidence for the techniques to predict improvement of regional and global function after revascularisation is summarised and patient symptoms and clinical outcome are also considered. Each technique is classified in its ability to assess myocardial viability, function and perfusion and also for their roles in the assessment of the patient with ischaemic left ventricular dysfunction who is asymptomatic or who has angina or heart failure. A simplified clinical algorithm describes the initial assessment of left ventricular function, then viability and then perfusion reserve allowing regions of myocardium to be characterised as transmural scar, intramural scar, hibernation or ischaemia.

  3. Longitudinal assessment of short-term memory deterioration in a logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia with post-mortem confirmed Alzheimer's Disease pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tree, Jeremy; Kay, Janice

    2015-09-01

    In the field of dementia research, there are reports of neurodegenerative cases with a focal loss of language, termed primary progressive aphasia (PPA). Currently, this condition has been further sub-classified, with the most recent sub-type dubbed logopenic variant (PPA-LV). As yet, there remains somewhat limited evaluation of the characteristics of this condition, with no studies providing longitudinal assessment accompanied by post-mortem examination. Moreover, a key characteristic of the PPA-LV case is a deterioration of phonological short-term memory, but again little work has scrutinized the nature of this impairment over time. The current study seeks to redress these oversights and presents detailed longitudinal examination of language and memory function in a case of PPA-LV, with special focus on tests linked to components of phonological short-term memory function. Our findings are then considered with reference to a contemporary model of the neuropsychology of phonological short-term memory. Additionally, post-mortem examinations indicated Alzheimer's disease type pathology, providing further evidence that the PPA-LV presentation may reflect an atypical presentation of this condition. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging and Assessment of the Macula During Cataract Surgery: A Novel Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Koushik; Chawla, Rohan; Kumawat, Babulal; Sharma, Yog Raj

    2016-09-01

    The authors describe a technique to qualitatively analyze the posterior segment during cataract surgery using intraoperative optical coherence tomography (iOCT). Macular iOCT can be done before and after intraocular lens implantation after the media is rendered clear following phacoemulsification. A handheld irrigating planoconcave contact lens is placed over the cornea with the operating microscope in retroillumination mode. After focusing the microscope and upon getting a clear view of the posterior segment, iOCT is switched on, centered at the macula, and focused. This technique enables the surgeon to intraoperatively analyze and document the macular morphology and vitreoretinal interface. Potential uses of this technique include intraoperative decision-making regarding concurrent use of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents or steroids in cases with dense cataracts where preoperative OCT is difficult. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:846-847.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Endotracheal Tube Cuff Pressure Assessment: Education May Improve but not Guarantee the Safety of Palpation Technique

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seyed Siamdoust, Seyed Alireza; Mohseni, Masood; Memarian, Arash

    2015-01-01

    .... Earlier studies suggested that ETCP assessment by palpation of pilot balloon results in overinflation or underinflation and subsequent complications such as tracheal wall damage and aspiration...

  6. Comparison of Risk Assessment Using HAZOP and ETBA Techniques: Case Study of a Gasoline Refinery Unit in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirazeh Arghami

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevention of accidents—a crucial requirement in oil industries—involves hazard recognition, risk assessment, and corrective actions. The purpose of this study was to compare the ETBA and HAZOP techniques for risk assessment in a gasoline refinery unit. Methods: In this case study, data were collected using process flow diagram, walking–talking through method, piping and instrumentation diagram, and direct observations. Worksheets for both techniques were filled on the basis of the risk assessment matrix MIL-STD-882E. Results: The HAZOP method identified 44 deviations attributable to 118 causes. In addition, 11.37% of the identified hazards were associated with unacceptable risk, and 36.36%, with unfavorable risk. The ETBA method detected 10 groups of energy (24 subgroups; 33 hazards were detected, 10.62% of which were associated with unacceptable risk. Conclusion: HAZOP proved to be the more powerful technique for the prediction and identification of hazards. However, ETBA detected certain hazards that were not identifiable using HAZOP. Therefore, a combination of these two methods is desirable for the assessment of hazard risk in process industries.

  7. Foliar symptoms recovery: developing scoring technique for assessment of soybean resistance to CPMMV (Cowpea Mild Mottle Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Zubaidah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is a commodity that has an important role as the source of protein, but its production is affected by various factors including disease. CpMMV (Cowpea mild mottle virus is one of the most damaging viruses that cause soybean disease. CpMMVs belong to the group of Carlavirus that are transmitted by whitefly (Bemisia tabaci. The use of CpMMV resistant plants as biological control can prevent viral diseases. Indonesia has many soybean germplasm from many regions and introduction from other countries that need to be evaluated for CpMMV. The assessment technique for soybean resistance to CpMMV is not available yet, but it is still based on other virus diseases. The specific assessment of plant resistance is important because some diseases can cause certain symptoms, depends on the resistance and the kinds of plants that are infected. This paper presents the assessment technique for soybean resistance to CpMMV infection, which can be used for various purposes and studies. One of the benefits is to find out soybean resistance to CpMMV or other objectives. This resistance assessment is not only based on leaves symptoms, but also based on the phenomenon of foliar symptoms recovery. Keywords: CpMMV, foliar symptoms recovery, scoring technique, soybean resistance.

  8. Assessment of the effectiveness of two heat removal techniques for permafrost protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders Stuhr; Doré, Guy; Voyer, Érika

    2008-01-01

    that the effectiveness of the air convection embankment technique can be increased during winter conditions by ventilating the top and the bottom of the embankment shoulders. Installation of air intakes along the shoulders will facilitate air flow info the system during winter and will trap the cold air in the bottom...... the embankment from the bottom, while warm air is dissipated at the top. The techniques have been tested in the laboratory, where a small-scale embankment (SSE) was build and placed in a cold room to measure the embankment temperatures during winter conditions. A numerical modeling has been developed...

  9. Evaluation of a Novel Technique for Assessing Speech Discrimination in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Caroline; Chiat, Shula; Hald, Lea

    2008-01-01

    Methods used to assess children's speech perception and recognition in the clinical setting are out of step with current methods used to investigate these experimentally. Traditional methods of assessing speech discrimination, such as picture pointing, yield accuracy scores which may fail to detect subtle perceptual difficulties. This paper will…

  10. Automated Assessment of the Quality of Peer Reviews Using Natural Language Processing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Lakshmi; Gehringer, Edward F.; Yadav, Ravi K.

    2017-01-01

    A "review" is textual feedback provided by a reviewer to the author of a submitted version. Peer reviews are used in academic publishing and in education to assess student work. While reviews are important to e-commerce sites like Amazon and e-bay, which use them to assess the quality of products and services, our work focuses on…

  11. Mobile Formative Assessment Tool Based on Data Mining Techniques for Supporting Web-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ming; Chen, Ming-Chuan

    2009-01-01

    Current trends clearly indicate that online learning has become an important learning mode. However, no effective assessment mechanism for learning performance yet exists for e-learning systems. Learning performance assessment aims to evaluate what learners learned during the learning process. Traditional summative evaluation only considers final…

  12. Classroom Assessment Techniques: A Conceptual Model for CATs in the Online Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergquist, Emily; Holbeck, Rick

    2014-01-01

    Formative assessments are an important part of the teaching and learning cycle. Instructors need to monitor student learning and check for understanding throughout the instructional phase of teaching to confirm that students understand the objective before embarking on the summative assessment. Typically, online classrooms are developed with…

  13. Non-Destructive Assessment of Concrete Structures Reliability and Limits of Single and Combined Techniques State-of-the-Art Report of the RILEM Technical Committee 207-INR

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This book gives information on non destructive techniques for assessment of concrete structures. It synthesizes the best of international knowledge about what techniques can be used for assessing material properties (strength) and structural properties (geometry, defects...). It describes how the techniques can be used so as to answer a series of usual questions, highlighting their capabilities and limits, and providing advices for a better use of techniques. It also focuses on possible combinations of techniques so as to improve the assessment. It is based on many illustrative examples and give in each case references to standards and guidelines.

  14. Fibrin glue: an alternative technique for nerve coaptation--Part II. Nerve regeneration and histomorphometric assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas, Lorraine; Padilla, Luis; Di Silvio, Mauricio; Schalch, Paul; Esperante, Sandro; Infante, Raul López; Bustamante, Juan Carlos; Avalos, Pablo; Varela, Deborah; López, Manuel

    2006-02-01

    The results of nerve repair with fibrin glue and microsuture were evaluated in rat nerve transection models. Ninety Wistar-Furth rat median nerves were exposed, transected, and repaired in an end-to-end fashion with one of four substances/techniques: 1) human fibrin sealant (Quixil); 2) autologous graft and human fibrin sealant (Quixil); 3) bovine fibrin sealant (Tissucol); and 4) nylon microsuture, epineurial technique. Histologic analyses were performed at 3-, 6-, and 9-month postoperative intervals, and factors evaluated included: presence of inflammatory cells (i.e., macrophages and T cells); number of Schwann cells at the repair site; number of blood vessels; fibrosis; axonal regeneration; and fiber alignment. An additional group underwent histologic analysis at 3 weeks following repair with Quixil. Surgical time of repair was also measured. Nerve repairs performed with fibrin sealants produced less inflammatory response and fibrosis, and better axonal regeneration and fiber alignment than nerve repairs performed with microsuture. In addition, the fibrin sealant techniques were quicker and easier to use. The authors conclude that fibrin sealant represents a good alternative technique to microsuture for peripheral-nerve repair.

  15. Assessment and Comparison of Electrokinetic and Electrokinetic-bioremediation Techniques for Mercury Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, A. T. S.; Nabila, A. T. A.; Nurshuhaila, M. S.; Zaidi, E.; Azim, M. A. M.; Farhana, S. M. S.

    2016-11-01

    Landfills are major sources of contamination due to the presence of harmful bacteria and heavy metals. Electrokinetic-Bioremediation (Ek-Bio) is one of the techniques that can be conducted to remediate contaminated soil. Therefore, the most prominent bacteria from landfill soil will be isolated to determine their optimal conditions for culture and growth. The degradation rate and the effectiveness of selected local bacteria were used to reduce soil contamination. Hence, this enhances microbiological activities to degrade contaminants in soil and reduce the content of heavy metals. The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of isolated bacteria (Lysinibacillus fusiformis) to remove mercury in landfill soil. 5 kg of landfill soil was mixed with deionized water to make it into slurry condition for the purpose of electrokinetic and bioremediation. This remediation technique was conducted for 7 days by using 50 V/m of electrical gradient and Lysinibacillus fusiformis bacteria was applied at the anode reservoir. The slurry landfill soil was located at the middle of the reservoir while distilled water was placed at the cathode of reservoir. After undergoing treatment for 7 days, the mercury analyzer showed that there was a significant reduction of approximately up to 78 % of mercury concentration for the landfill soil. From the results, it is proven that electrokinetic bioremediation technique is able to remove mercury within in a short period of time. Thus, a combination of Lysinibacillus fusiformis and electrokinetic technique has the potential to remove mercury from contaminated soil in Malaysia.

  16. Effects of stimulation techniques on vocal responses: implications for assessment and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastav, R; Yamaguchi, H; Andrews, M

    2000-09-01

    During voice evaluation and treatment it is customary for clinicians to elicit samples of the vowel /a/ from clients using various elicitation techniques. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of four commonly used stimulation tasks on the laryngeal mechanism. Eleven female singing students, studying at a university music school, served as subjects for the study. The subjects phonated the vowel /a/ using 4 vocal stimulation techniques: yawn-sigh, gentle onset, focus, and the use of the voiceless fricative. Videoendoscopic and acoustic evaluations of their productions were done. Results show that, in the first 100 ms following the end of the formant transition, these techniques affected voice differently. The fundamental frequency was found to be highest in the yawn-sigh condition, whereas the maximum frequency perturbation was obtained for the voiceless fricative condition. Planned comparisons were made by comparing the data across 2 dimensions: (1) vowels elicited with voiced contexts versus those elicited with voiceless consonantal contexts and (2) vowels elicited with obstruent versus vowels elicited with nonobstruent consonantal contexts. Some changes in acoustic parameters brought about by these stimulation techniques may be explained on the basis of coarticulatory effects of the consonantal context.

  17. Assessing inconsistencies in standard setting with the Angoff or Nedelsky technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.

    A latent trait method is presented to investigate the possibility that Angoff or Nedelsky judges specify inconsistent probabilities in standard setting techniques for objectives-based instructional programs. It is suggested that judges frequently specify a low probability of success for an easy item

  18. Assessment of the impact strength of the denture base resin polymerized by various processing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajashree Jadhav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : To measure the impact strength of denture base resins polymerized using short and long curing cycles by water bath, pressure cooker and microwave techniques. Materials and Methods: For impact strength testing, 60 samples were made. The sample dimensions were 60 mm × 12 mm × 3 mm, as standardized by the American Standards for Testing and Materials (ASTM. A digital caliper was used to locate the midpoint of sample. The impact strength was measured in IZOD type of impact tester using CEAST Impact tester. The pendulum struck the sample and it broke. The energy required to break the sample was measured in Joules. Data were analyzed using Student′s " t" test. Results: There was statistically significant difference in the impact strength of denture base resins polymerized by long curing cycle and short curing cycle in each technique, with the long curing processing being the best. Conclusion: The polymerization technique plays an important role in the influence of impact strength in the denture base resin. This research demonstrates that the denture base resin polymerized by microwave processing technique possessed the highest impact strength.

  19. Potential of using remote sensing techniques for global assessment of water footprint of crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romaguera Albentosa, M.R.; Romaguera, Mireia; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Su, Zhongbo; Krol, Martinus S.; Salama, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    Remote sensing has long been a useful tool in global applications, since it provides physically-based, worldwide, and consistent spatial information. This paper discusses the potential of using these techniques in the research field of water management, particularly for ‘Water Footprint’ (WF)

  20. APPLICATION OF TEXTURE ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES TO NMR IMAGES FOR QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF MUSCLE DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Snezhko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Results on development of the basic concept of the medical image analysis methodology are presented. The techniques used in the research are based on adaptation and utilization of the gene-ralized image features for quantitative interpretation of muscles on nuclear magnetic resonance im-ages.

  1. Multi-technique assessment of spatial and temporal variability of methane fluxes in a peat meadow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, D.M.D.; van Huissteden, J.; Dolman, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Methane fluxes measured in a eutrophic peat meadow in The Netherlands dominated by vascular plants showed high spatial and temporal variability. To elucidate this variability as well as the underlying processes, various measurement techniques were used: soil gradients of methane concentrations, the

  2. Comparative assessment of PIV-based pressure evaluation techniques applied to a transonic base flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blinde, P; Michaelis, D; van Oudheusden, B.W.; Weiss, P.E.; de Kat, R.; Laskari, A.; Jeon, Y.J.; David, L; Schanz, D; Huhn, F.; Gesemann, S; Novara, M.; McPhaden, C.; Neeteson, N.; Rival, D.; Schneiders, J.F.G.; Schrijer, F.F.J.

    2016-01-01

    A test case for PIV-based pressure evaluation techniques has been developed by constructing a simulated experiment from a ZDES simulation for an axisymmetric base flow at Mach 0.7. The test case comprises sequences of four subsequent particle images (representing multi-pulse data) as well as

  3. High-throughput tri-colour flow cytometry technique to assess Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia in bioassays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiendrebeogo, Regis W; Adu, Bright; Singh, Susheel K

    2014-01-01

    distinction of early ring stages of Plasmodium falciparum from uninfected red blood cells (uRBC) remains a challenge. METHODS: Here, a high-throughput, three-parameter (tri-colour) flow cytometry technique based on mitotracker red dye, the nucleic acid dye coriphosphine O (CPO) and the leucocyte marker CD45...

  4. [Nuclear techniques in nutrition: assessment of body fat and intake of human milk in breast-fed infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallaro, Anabel; Tarducci, Gabriel

    2014-12-01

    The application of nuclear techniques in the area of nutrition is safe because they use stable isotopes. The deuterium dilution method is used in body composition and human milk intake analysis. It is a reference method for body fat and validates inexpensive tools because of its accuracy, simplicity of application in individuals and population and the background of its usefulness in adults and children as an evaluation tool in clinical and health programs. It is a non-invasive technique as it uses saliva, which facilitates the assessment in pediatric populations. Changes in body fat are associated with non-communicable diseases; moreover, normal weight individuals with high fat deposition were reported. Furthermore, this technique is the only accurate way to determine whether infants are exclusively breast-fed and validate conventional methods based on surveys to mothers.

  5. Novel digital imaging techniques to assess the outcome in oral rehabilitation with dental implants: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benic, Goran I; Elmasry, Moustafa; Hämmerle, Christoph H F

    2015-09-01

    To examine the literature on novel digital imaging techniques for the assessment of outcomes in oral rehabilitation with dental implants. An electronic search of Medline and Embase databases including studies published prior to 28th December 2014 was performed and supplemented by a manual search. A synthesis of the publications was presented describing the use of computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasonography, optical scanning, spectrophotometry or optical coherence tomography (OCT) related to the outcome measures in implant therapy. Most of the digital imaging techniques have not yet sufficiently been validated to be used for outcome measures in implant dentistry. In clinical research, cone beam CT (CBCT) is increasingly being used for 3D assessment of bone and soft tissue following augmentation procedures and implant placement. Currently, there are no effective methods for the reduction of artifacts around implants in CBCT. Optical scanning is being used for the 3D assessment of changes in the soft tissue contour. The combination of optical scan with pre-operative CBCT allows the determination of the implant position and its spatial relation to anatomical structures. Spectrophotometry is the method most commonly used to objectively assess the color match of reconstructions and peri-implant mucosa to natural dentition and gingiva. New optical imaging techniques may be considered possible approaches for monitoring peri-implant soft tissue health. MRI and ultrasonography appear promising non-ionizing radiation imaging modalities for the assessment of soft tissue and bone defect morphologies. Optical scanners and OCT may represent efficient clinical methods for accurate assessment of the misfit between the reconstructions and the implants. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Potentials of Optical Damage Assessment Techniques in Automotive Crash-Concepts composed of FRP-Steel Hybrid Material Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugosch, M.; Spiegelhalter, B.; Soot, T.; Lukaszewicz, D.; Fritsch, J.; Hiermaier, S.

    2017-05-01

    With car manufacturers simultaneously facing increasing passive safety and efficiency requirements, FRP-metal hybrid material systems are one way to design lightweight and crashworthy vehicle structures. Generic automotive hybrid structural concepts have been tested under crash loading conditions. In order to assess the state of overall damage and structural integrity, and primarily to validate simulation data, several NDT techniques have been assessed regarding their potential to detect common damage mechanisms in such hybrid systems. Significant potentials were found particularly in combining 3D-topography laser scanning and X-Ray imaging results. Ultrasonic testing proved to be limited by the signal coupling quality on damaged or curved surfaces.

  7. Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment Technique Scores on the COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE: An Analysis of the Skills Assessed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Larissa L; Xu, Wei; Sandella, Jeanne M; Dowling, Dennis J

    2016-06-01

    The National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners uses the Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment (OMT) Global Rating Tool to score candidate performance in OMT during standardized patient encounters. To the authors' knowledge, no validity research has been published on the underlying constructs measured by this instrument to date. To evaluate whether the OMT Global Rating Tool measures 1 holistic skill or multiple skill sets. Structural equation models were fit to data from first-time test-takers who took the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination-USA Level 2-Performance Evaluation (COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE) between July 7, 2014, and April 30, 2015. Two theoretical models were evaluated: a model that posited a single underlying skill set, and a model that posited 2 related but distinct skill sets. The 1-factor and 2-factor models were fit to data from 4673 third- and fourth-year osteopathic medical students. Fit statistics indicated that the data were best fit by a model representing 2 factors: pre- and post-OMT technique assessment and OMT technique (r=0.47). The OMT Global Rating Tool seems to measure 2 distinct but related skills. Although the results of this study are applicable to broad populations and cannot be used to provide skill-specific subscores, it might be helpful to remediation efforts to target pre- and post-OMT technique assessments and OMT techniques as distinct areas for intervention.

  8. Application of a Fuzzy Verification Technique for Assessment of the Weather Running Estimate-Nowcast (WRE-N) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The WRE–N model output data were converted from native Network Common Data Form files to hourly Gridded Binary format, edition 1 (GRIB) files by the...observations and convert the files to GRIB format (DTC 2016). MET Grid -Stat was used to generate the grid -to- grid , fuzzy verification scores and...illustrates how one fuzzy verification technique available from the Model Evaluation Tools Grid -Stat tool can be applied to the assessment of the Army

  9. Attitudes Toward Patient Management Problems as a Self-Assessment Technique in Dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, David L.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Patient management problems were found to be favorable methods of self-assessment by an overwhelming majority of practicing dermatologists and those in training, regardless of the type of practice or the number of years in practice. (LBH)

  10. Assessment of Competence in EVAR Procedures: A Novel Rating Scale Developed by the Delphi Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strøm, M; Lönn, L; Bech, B; Schroeder, T V; Konge, L

    2017-07-01

    To develop a procedure specific global rating scale for assessment of operator competence in endovascular aortic repair (EVAR). A Delphi approach was used to achieve expert consensus. A panel of 32 international experts (median 300 EVAR procedures, range 200-3000) from vascular surgery (n = 21) and radiology (n = 11) was established. The first Delphi round was based on a review of endovascular skills assessment papers, stent graft instructions for use, and structured interviews. It led to a primary pool of 83 items that were formulated as global rating scale items with tentative anchors. Iterative Delphi rounds were executed. The panellists rated the importance of each item on a 5 point Likert scale. Consensus was defined as 80% of the panel rating an item 4 or 5 in the primary round and 90% in subsequent rounds. Consensus on the final assessment tool was defined as Cronbach's alpha > .8 after a minimum of three rounds. Thirty-two of 35 invited experts participated. Three rounds of surveys were completed with a completion rate of 100% in the first two rounds and 91% in round three. The 83 primary assessment items were supplemented with five items suggested by the panel and reduced to seven pivotal assessment items that reached consensus, Cronbach's alpha = 0.82. The seven item rating scale covers key elements of competence in EVAR stent placement and deployment. Each item has well defined grades with explicit anchors at unacceptable, acceptable, and superior performance on a 5 point Likert scale. The Delphi methodology allowed for international consensus on a new procedure specific global rating scale for assessment of competence in EVAR. The resulting scale, EndoVascular Aortic Repair Assessment of Technical Expertise (EVARATE), represents key elements in the procedure. EVARATE constitutes an assessment tool for providing structured feedback to endovascular operators in training. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier

  11. Optimization of the cumulative risk assessment of pesticides and biocides using computational techniques: Pilot project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Svava Osk; Reffstrup, Trine Klein; Petersen, Annette

    This pilot project is intended as the first step in developing a computational strategy to assist in refining methods for higher tier cumulative and aggregate risk assessment of exposure to mixture of pesticides and biocides. For this purpose, physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) models were...... the models. Exposure scenarios were constructed based on findings of pesticide residues in food of ordinary consumers, and assessment of dermal exposure of professional workers. PBTK simulations were carried using these scenarios....

  12. Gastrointestinal parasites of cats in Denmark assessed by necropsy and concentration McMaster technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takeuchi-Storm, Nao; Mejer, H.; Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman

    2015-01-01

    The large population of feral cats in Denmark may potentially transmit pathogens to household cats and zoonotic parasites to humans. A total of 99 euthanized cats; feral cats (n = 92) and household cats with outdoor access (n = 7), were collected from March to May 2014 from the Zealand region......, Denmark. The sedimentation and counting technique (SCT) was used to isolate helminths and coproscopy was done by concentration McMaster technique (c-McMaster). Overall, 90.1% of the cats were infected and a total of 10 species were recorded by SCT: 5 nematode species: Toxocara cati (84.8%). , Ollulanus...... was the second most common gastrointestinal nematode of cats but had the highest intensity of infection. For T. cati, prevalence and worm burden were significantly higher in feral than household cats. No juvenile cats were infected with H. taeniaeformis, and age thus had a significant effect on prevalence...

  13. Available techniques for objective assessment of upper airway narrowing in snoring and sleep apnea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Christian; Grymer, Luisa

    2003-01-01

    A number of techniques are available to determine the level of obstructive predominance in snoring and in the obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS): lateral cephalography, awake endoscopy, awake endoscopy with the Müller maneuver, endoscopy during sleep, endoscopy with nasal continuous...... positive airway pressure during sleep, fluoroscopy, CT scanning, MR scanning, manometry, and acoustic reflections. Data from different studies using various methods suggest that different patients have different patterns of narrowing or collapse of the pharynx. No reference standard exists...... for the determination of the predominant obstructive level during obstructive events, so further investigations are necessary to improve and validate existing methods and develop new techniques. These would improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of OSAHS and snoring and help to select the correct treatment...

  14. Nurses' Educational Needs Assessment for Financial Management Education Using the Nominal Group Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Wonjung; Lim, Ji Young

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the financial management educational needs of nurses in order to development an educational program to strengthen their financial management competencies. Data were collected from two focus groups using the nominal group technique. The study consisted of three steps: a literature review, focus group discussion using the nominal group technique, and data synthesis. After analyzing the results, nine key components were selected: corporate management and accounting, introduction to financial management in hospitals, basic structure of accounting, basics of hospital accounting, basics of financial statements, understanding the accounts of financial statements, advanced analysis of financial statements, application of financial management, and capital financing of hospitals. The present findings can be used to develop a financial management education program to strengthen the financial management competencies of nurses. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. AN ACCURACY ASSESSMENT OF AUTOMATED PHOTOGRAMMETRIC TECHNIQUES FOR 3D MODELING OF COMPLEX INTERIORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Georgantas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison of automatic photogrammetric techniques to terrestrial laser scanning for 3D modelling of complex interior spaces. We try to evaluate the automated photogrammetric techniques not only in terms of their geometric quality compared to laser scanning but also in terms of cost in money, acquisition and computational time. To this purpose we chose as test site a modern building’s stairway. APERO/MICMAC ( ©IGN which is an Open Source photogrammetric software was used for the production of the 3D photogrammetric point cloud which was compared to the one acquired by a Leica Scanstation 2 laser scanner. After performing various qualitative and quantitative controls we present the advantages and disadvantages of each 3D modelling method applied in a complex interior of a modern building.

  16. Comparison of advanced optical imaging techniques with current otolaryngology diagnostics for improved middle ear assessment (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Ryan M.; Shelton, Ryan L.; Monroy, Guillermo L.; Spillman, Darold R.; Novak, Michael A.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2016-02-01

    Otolaryngologists utilize a variety of diagnostic techniques to assess middle ear health. Tympanometry, audiometry, and otoacoustic emissions examine the mobility of the tympanic membrane (eardrum) and ossicles using ear canal pressure and auditory tone delivery and detection. Laser Doppler vibrometry provides non-contact vibrational measurement, and acoustic reflectometry is used to assess middle ear effusion using sonar. These technologies and techniques have advanced the field beyond the use of the standard otoscope, a simple tissue magnifier, yet the need for direct visualization of middle ear disease for superior detection, assessment, and management remains. In this study, we evaluated the use of portable optical coherence tomography (OCT) and pneumatic low-coherence interferometry (LCI) systems with handheld probe delivery to standard tympanometry, audiometry, otoacoustic emissions, laser Doppler vibrometry, and acoustic reflectometry. Comparison of these advanced optical imaging techniques and current diagnostics was conducted with a case study subject with a history of unilateral eardrum trauma. OCT and pneumatic LCI provide novel dynamic spatiotemporal structural data of the middle ear, such as the thickness of the eardrum and quantitative detection of underlying disease pathology, which could allow for more accurate diagnosis and more appropriate management than currently possible.

  17. Bone micro-damage assessment using non-linear resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (NRUS) techniques: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, M; Tencate, J A; Darling, T W; Sutin, A; Guyer, R A; Talmant, M; Laugier, P; Johnson, P A

    2006-12-22

    Non-linear resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (NRUS) is a technique exploiting the significant non-linear behavior of damaged materials, related to the presence of damage. This study shows for the first time the feasibility of this technique for damage assessment in bone. Two samples of bovine cortical bone were subjected to a progressive damage experiment. Damage accumulation was progressively induced in the samples by mechanical testing. For independent assessment of damage, X-ray CT imaging was performed at each damage step, but only helped in the detection of the prominent cracks. Synchrotron micro-CT imaging and histology using epifluorescence microscopy were performed in one of the two samples at the last damage step and allowed detection of micro-cracks for this step. As the quantity of damage accumulation increased, NRUS revealed a corresponding increase in the non-linear response. The measured change in non-linear response is much more sensitive than the change in elastic modulus. The results suggest that NRUS could be a potential tool for micro-damage assessment in bone. Further work has to be carried out for a better understanding of the physical nature of damaged bone, and for the ultimate goal of in vivo implementation of the technique where bone access will be a challenging problem.

  18. Uncertainties in assessing tillage erosion - How appropriate are our measuring techniques?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiener, P.; Wilken, F.; Aldana-Jague, E.; Deumlich, D.; Gómez, J. A.; Guzmán, G.; Hardy, R. A.; Quinton, J. N.; Sommer, M.; Van Oost, K.; Wexler, R.

    2018-03-01

    Tillage erosion on arable land is a very important process leading to a net downslope movement of soil and soil constitutes. Tillage erosion rates are commonly in the same order of magnitude as water erosion rates and can be even higher, especially under highly mechanized agricultural soil management. Despite its prevalence and magnitude, tillage erosion is still understudied compared to water erosion. The goal of this study was to bring together experts using different techniques to determine tillage erosion and use the different results to discuss and quantify uncertainties associated with tillage erosion measurements. The study was performed in northeastern Germany on a 10 m by 50 m plot with a mean slope of 8%. Tillage erosion was determined after two sequences of seven tillage operations. Two different micro-tracers (magnetic iron oxide mixed with soil and fluorescent sand) and one macro-tracer (passive radio-frequency identification transponders (RFIDs), size: 4 × 22 mm) were used to directly determine soil fluxes. Moreover, tillage induced changes in topography were measured for the entire plot with two different terrestrial laser scanners and an unmanned aerial system for structure from motion topography analysis. Based on these elevation differences, corresponding soil fluxes were calculated. The mean translocation distance of all techniques was 0.57 m per tillage pass, with a relatively wide range of mean soil translocation distances ranging from 0.39 to 0.72 m per pass. A benchmark technique could not be identified as all used techniques have individual error sources, which could not be quantified. However, the translocation distances of the macro-tracers used were consistently smaller than the translocation distances of the micro-tracers (mean difference = - 26 ± 12%), which questions the widely used assumption of non-selective soil transport via tillage operations. This study points out that tillage erosion measurements, carried out under almost

  19. Air Weapon Systems in the Third World: A Combat Potential Assessment Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    factor which measures the deL -ee to which the variable is involved in the factor. In other words, a variable loading represents the correlation...measurement of the contribution of multi- pie variables to the value of a specific attribute. 5.2.4 Summary Each of the data reduction techniques...Illustrated Guide to Modern Airborne Missiles. Arco , New York, 1983 and Mike Spick. Modern Air Combat. Crecent Books, New York, 1983. tlandel, Michael

  20. Skill Assessment of An Hybrid Technique To Estimate Quantitative Precipitation Forecast For Galicia (nw Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, A.; Taboada, J. J.

    Precipitation is the most obvious of the weather elements in its effects on normal life. Numerical weather prediction (NWP) is generally used to produce quantitative precip- itation forecast (QPF) beyond the 1-3 h time frame. These models often fail to predict small-scale variations of rain because of spin-up problems and their coarse spatial and temporal resolution (Antolik, 2000). Moreover, there are some uncertainties about the behaviour of the NWP models in extreme situations (de Bruijn and Brandsma, 2000). Hybrid techniques, combining the benefits of NWP and statistical approaches in a flexible way, are very useful to achieve a good QPF. In this work, a new technique of QPF for Galicia (NW of Spain) is presented. This region has a percentage of rainy days per year greater than 50% with quantities that may cause floods, with human and economical damages. The technique is composed of a NWP model (ARPS) and a statistical downscaling process based on an automated classification scheme of at- mospheric circulation patterns for the Iberian Peninsula (J. Ribalaygua and R. Boren, 1995). Results show that QPF for Galicia is improved using this hybrid technique. [1] Antolik, M.S. 2000 "An Overview of the National Weather Service's centralized statistical quantitative precipitation forecasts". Journal of Hydrology, 239, pp:306- 337. [2] de Bruijn, E.I.F and T. Brandsma "Rainfall prediction for a flooding event in Ireland caused by the remnants of Hurricane Charley". Journal of Hydrology, 239, pp:148-161. [3] Ribalaygua, J. and Boren R. "Clasificación de patrones espaciales de precipitación diaria sobre la España Peninsular". Informes N 3 y 4 del Servicio de Análisis e Investigación del Clima. Instituto Nacional de Meteorología. Madrid. 53 pp.

  1. Assessment of two isolation techniques for bacteria in milk towards their compatibility with Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Susann; Stöckel, Stephan; Elschner, Mandy; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen

    2011-12-07

    The identification of single microorganism in food samples by conventional plating techniques or molecular genetic methods requires a time consuming enrichment step. Raman spectroscopy in combination with a suitable extraction method however offers the possibility to rapidly identify bacteria on a single cell level. Here we evaluate the two well-known bacteria extraction methods from milk: "buoyant density centrifugation" and "enzymatic milk clearing" towards their recovery efficiency and their compatibility with Raman spectroscopy for a rapid identification of microorganisms in milk. The achieved recovery yields are slightly better compared to those which are already applied for food investigations, where a loss of one order of magnitude is usually reached. For example, buoyant density centrifugation allows collecting up to 35% of the milk-spiked microorganisms. To prove the suitability of the isolation techniques for use in combination with the spectroscopic approach, a small Raman database has been created by recording Raman spectra of well-known contaminants in dairy products. Two subspecies of Escherichia coli and three different Pseudomonas species, which were inoculated to UHT (ultra-high-temperature processed) milk and afterwards extracted by the two techniques mentioned above, were analysed. At a first glance, grave spectral artefacts caused by the matrix itself or especially by the extraction techniques were not obvious. But via chemometric analysis, it could be shown that these factors noticeably influence the identification rates: while the samples prepared via milk clearing did not provide sufficient identification results, buoyant density centrifugation allows an identification of the investigated species with an overall accuracy of 91% in combination with linear discriminant analysis.

  2. Environmental Assessment of Textile Material Recovery Techniques : Examining Textile Flows in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Youhanan, Lena

    2013-01-01

    The production of textiles, focusing on cotton and polyester, carries with it major environmental concerns such as significant water and chemical use as well as the use of non-renewable resources. Measures need to be taken to decrease those environmental burdens. The present study investigates four different recovery techniques in terms of specific environmental factors. The investigated recovery methods are the Re:newcell method, polyester recycling, textile to insulation material and biogas...

  3. The impact of molecular biology on assessment of water quality: advantages and limitations of current techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, J R; Saunders, V A

    1997-01-01

    The advent of molecular biology has had a dramatic impact on all aspects of biology, not least applied microbial ecology. Microbiological testing of water has traditionally depended largely on culture techniques. Growing understanding that only a small proportion of microbial species are culturable, and that many microorganisms may attain a viable but non-culturable state, has promoted the development of novel approaches to monitoring pathogens in the environment. This has been paralleled by ...

  4. Deuterium dilution technique for body composition assessment: resolving methodological issues in children with moderate acute malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, Christian; Yaméogo, Charles W; Devi, Sarita

    2017-01-01

    Childhood malnutrition is highly prevalent and associated with high mortality risk. In observational and interventional studies among malnourished children, body composition is increasingly recognised as a key outcome. The deuterium dilution technique has generated high-quality data on body...... composition in studies of infants and young children in several settings, but its feasibility and accuracy in children suffering from moderate acute malnutrition requires further study. Prior to a large nutritional intervention trial among children with moderate acute malnutrition, we conducted pilot work...

  5. In situ assessment of the saliva effect on enamel morphology after microabrasion technique

    OpenAIRE

    Pini,Núbia Inocencya Pavesi; Lima, Débora Alves Nunes Leite; Sundfeld,Renato Herman; Ambrosano,Gláucia Maria Bovi; Aguiar,Flávio Henrique Baggio; Lovadino,José Roberto

    2014-01-01

    AIM: This study evaluated saliva effects on enamel morphology surface after microabrasion technique. METHODS: Enamel blocks (16 mm2) obtained from bovine incisors were divided into 9 groups as follows: one control group (no treatment), four groups with microabrasion treatment using 35% phosphoric acid and pumice (H3PO4+Pum) and other four groups treated with 6.6% hydrochloric acid and silica (HCl+Sil). One group of each treatment was submitted to 4 frames of saliva exposure: without exposure,...

  6. Application of dotmocracy technique in assessment and management of unsafe behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Industrial accident is one of the most minatory elements for worker’s health, productivity and organizational performance. Unsafe behavior is the main reason associated with occurrence of accidents. The main goal of this study was application of participatory techniques to achieve control measures of these behaviors. .Material and Method: Using safety behavior sampling technique in this study, behaviors of staffs were evaluated and then the most risky behaviors were determined by paired comparison method. By application of participatory approach of dotmocracy in six steps, controlling ideas were derived by participation of operators, supervisors, engineers, HSE team and managers. .Result: 48.8% of the behaviors were unsafe. Misuse or notusing of the personal protective equipments with 63.4% was the most frequent unsafe behavior. Awkward postures, aggregation or passing under suspended loads were also followed by the unsafe behaviors. By application of participatory approach of dotmocracy, several applicable ideas in personal protective equipment, education, reinforcementand punishment, aggregation or passing under suspended loads and other ideas were achieved. . Conclusion: Dotmocracy participatory technique is an effective way to achieve various practical solutions in control of worker’s unsafe behaviors.

  7. Description and Evaluation of a Measurement Technique for Assessment of Performing Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Paul J; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2017-06-01

    The influence of masculinity and femininity on behaviors and outcomes has been extensively studied in social science research using various measurement strategies. In the present paper, we describe and evaluate a measurement technique that uses existing survey items to capture the extent to which an individual behaves similarly to their same-gender peers. We use data from the first four waves of The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), a nationally representative sample of adolescents (age 12-18) in the United States who were re-interviewed at ages 13-19, 18-26, and 24-32. We estimate split-half reliability and provide evidence that supports the validity of this measurement technique. We demonstrate that the resulting measure does not perform as a trait measure and is associated with involvement in violent fights, a pattern consistent with theory and empirical findings. This measurement technique represents a novel approach for gender researchers with the potential for expanding our current knowledge base.

  8. Assessment of techniques for characterizing the surface quality of ground silicon nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoria, E. S.; Watkins, T. R.; Breder, K.; Riester, L.; Bashkansky, M.; Reintjes, J.; Sun, J. G.; Ellingson, W. A.; Blau, P. J.

    1998-08-01

    This study evaluates techniques used to detect and quantify the extent of surface and subsurface damage in ground silicon nitride. Specimens of two differently ground surfaces of a hot isostatically pressed (HIP) silicon nitride, commercially designated as GS-44, were subjected to six types of analyses, namely mechanical stylus profiling, atomic force microscopy, point-counting analysis of fragmentation pits, la-ser-light scattering, optical gating, and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXD). The results of these investigations are compared and discussed. The techniques providing the clearest correlations with grinding conditions were mechanical stylus roughness, fragmentation analysis, and GIXD (residual stress conditions). Those that exhibited some correlation but appear to require more work to develop a reliable evaluation method were laser scattering and optical gating. Atomic force microscopy was useful, but not as a routine investigative tool for quality control in ceramic machining. The techniques that appear to have the most near-term potential for routine use are fragmentation analysis and optical gating. Laser-based optical scattering exhibits potential for routine application, but, more development is needed for its commercialization.

  9. Assessment of organ volume with different techniques using a living liver model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luccichenti, Giacomo; Cobelli, Rocco; Pavone, Paolo [Department of Radiology, University of Parma, Via A. Gramsci, 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); Cademartiri, Filippo [Department of Radiology, University of Parma, Via A. Gramsci, 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); Department of Radiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare different techniques for the estimation of liver volume, and to evaluate errors associated with volume estimation techniques based on linear measurements. Fifteen patients with focal liver lesion underwent spiral CTA for preoperative evaluation. The scan protocol was: collimation 3 mm; rotation time 0.75 s; pitch 2; and reconstruction index 1 mm. Reconstructed images were sent to a workstation running on a NT platform equipped with post-processing software allowing 3D reconstructions. Linear measurements and volume estimation through manual segmentation were obtained with preset window and magnification. Volume was calculated from linear measures using different equations. With equations based on linear measurements the right lobe was overestimated (mean=+53%; mean error=14.7%), the second and third segments were underestimated (mean=-47%; mean error=43.3%) and the total volume was underestimated (mean=-86%; mean error=36%). The volume calculated by summing the areas of all the sections and multiplying the result by the increment was not significantly different from the volume estimated using the manual volumetric segmentation technique. Volume estimation obtained through linear measurements is not reliable to appraise the volume of irregular-shaped solids, even assuming the prevalence of a particular morphology. (orig.)

  10. Assessment of talipes equinovarus treated by Ponseti technique: three-year preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapp, L Z; Arnold, G P; Nasir, S; Wang, W; Maclean, J G B; Abboud, R J

    2012-06-01

    The Ponseti method has become increasingly popular in the treatment of congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV). Current methods of assessment focus on clinical, functional and radiological outcomes which are subjective and often difficult to repeat. However, integration of biomechanical evaluation can provide objective and quantifiable analysis. This study aims to evaluate the treatment outcome of CTEV patients on the basis of long-term clinical, functional and biomechanical assessment. Following treatment, five children with CTEV were reviewed annually for the period 2008-2010. Clinical and functional outcomes were graded using parental questionnaires and clinical examination. Biomechanical parameters were evaluated using digital foot pressure studies. The study group recorded good clinical and functional outcomes. However, biomechanical studies have been able to identify subtle abnormalities that would be unapparent otherwise on clinical examination. It is recommended that biomechanical assessment be integrated into the overall evaluation of the outcome of CTEV after treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of hospital processes using a process mining technique: Outpatient process analysis at a tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sooyoung; Cho, Minsu; Kim, Eunhye; Kim, Seok; Sim, Yerim; Yoo, Donghyun; Hwang, Hee; Song, Minseok

    2016-04-01

    Many hospitals are increasing their efforts to improve processes because processes play an important role in enhancing work efficiency and reducing costs. However, to date, a quantitative tool has not been available to examine the before and after effects of processes and environmental changes, other than the use of indirect indicators, such as mortality rate and readmission rate. This study used process mining technology to analyze process changes based on changes in the hospital environment, such as the construction of a new building, and to measure the effects of environmental changes in terms of consultation wait time, time spent per task, and outpatient care processes. Using process mining technology, electronic health record (EHR) log data of outpatient care before and after constructing a new building were analyzed, and the effectiveness of the technology in terms of the process was evaluated. Using the process mining technique, we found that the total time spent in outpatient care did not increase significantly compared to that before the construction of a new building, considering that the number of outpatients increased, and the consultation wait time decreased. These results suggest that the operation of the outpatient clinic was effective after changes were implemented in the hospital environment. We further identified improvements in processes using the process mining technique, thereby demonstrating the usefulness of this technique for analyzing complex hospital processes at a low cost. This study confirmed the effectiveness of process mining technology at an actual hospital site. In future studies, the use of process mining technology will be expanded by applying this approach to a larger variety of process change situations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Assessing grapevine canopy health in the Texas Hill Country with remote sensing and GIS techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Adam J.

    Vineyards are typically managed uniformly over space, although known spatial variation exists in the performance of vines within and across vineyard blocks. Identifying spatial variability in crop performance at a large scale (one or a few vineyard blocks) is useful to vineyard managers wishing to address such variation by enacting separate management plans for differing areas of performance. Zonal management and the institution of precision viticultural practices (i.e. use of GIS and remote sensing techniques to study this spatial variation) has proven profitable for a number of reasons, namely zonal harvesting based on zone performance. This dissertation implements cutting-edge, practical, and low-cost equipment and techniques, specifically an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), digital cameras, and Structure from Motion (SfM), to identify spatial variation in grapevine canopy vigor at a vineyard in the Texas Hill Country American Viticultural Area. Three research objectives were addressed in this dissertation including: (1) the setup and implementation of a practical imaging system and processing methodology (digital cameras and a UAV) to produce very high spatial resolution orthophotomosaics of vineyards with visible and near-infrared bands, (2) observation of spatial and temporal variation in grapevine canopy vigor that can aid in improving vineyard management practice, and (3) development of a three-dimensional method for visualizing and quantifying vineyard canopy density. Results concluded that the low-cost tools and techniques outlined in this study provided a practical means by which to identify spatial variation in canopy vigor at the study vineyard. Of the three methods used to identify this variation, spectrally-based (NDVI), planimetrically-based (canopy extent), and three-dimensionally-derived (SfM point clouds), the latter two were most successful and would be recommended for future use. Most importantly, due to the low cost of the technology used to

  13. Assessment of measurement techniques to determine the interfacial properties of bilayer dental ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anunmana, Chuchai

    The clinical success of all-ceramic dental restorations depends on the quality of interfacial bonding between ceramic layers. In addition, the residual stress in the structure that developed during ceramic processing is one of the important factors that contributes to the quality of the bond. Because all-ceramic restorations are usually fabricated as bilayer or trilayer structures and failures of all-ceramic restorations have been frequently reported as chipping or delamination of the veneer layers, the interfacial quality of bilayer dental ceramic restorations was investigated. However, most of the published bond test data reflect strength values that are inversely related to cross-sectional areas and failure locations are frequently disregarded or bond strength values are misinterpreted. In addition, residual tensile stresses that develop in the structures because of thermal expansion/contraction mismatches may also adversely affect interfacial fracture resistance. The first objective of this study was to determine the interfacial toughness of bonded bilayer ceramics using two different approaches. The results indicate that the short-bar chevron-notch test and a controlled-flaw microtensile test can induce interfacial failure that represents true bonding quality. The second objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that residual stresses estimated from an indentation technique are not significantly different from residual stresses that are calculated based on fractography and flexural strength. The indentation technique may be useful as a simplified method to determine residual stresses in bilayer dental ceramics. The results of this study demonstrate that there is no significant difference in mean residual stresses determined from the two techniques. Because of relationship between residual stresses and apparent interfacial toughness, estimates of residual stresses can now be estimated more rapidly by measuring the apparent interfacial toughness of

  14. Bond strength of composite resin to enamel: assessment of two ethanol wet-bonding techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Khoroushi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol wet-bonding (EWB technique has been stated to decrease degradation of resin-dentin bond. This study evaluated the effect of two EWB techniques on composite resin-to-enamel bond strength.Silicon carbide papers were used to produce flat enamel surfaces on the buccal faces of forty-five molars. OptiBond FL (OFL adhesive was applied on enamel surfaces in three groups of 15 namely: Enamel surface and OFL (control;Protocol 1 of the EWB technique: absolute ethanol was applied to water-saturated acid-etched enamel surfaces for 1 minute before the application of ethanol-solvated hydrophobic adhesive resin of OFL 3 times;Protocol 2: progressive ethanol replacement; water was gradually removed from the enamel matrix using ascending ethanol concentrations before OFL application. Composite build-ups were made and the specimens were stored for 24 hours at 37°C and 100% relative humidity. Shear bond strength test was performed using a universal testing machine at 1 mm/min crosshead speed. Fracture patterns were evaluated microscopically. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Fisher's exact test (α=0.05.There were no significant differences in bond strength between the groups (P=0.73. However, regarding failure patterns, the highest cohesive enamel fractures were recorded in groups 2 and 3.In this study, although both methods of EWB did not influence immediate bond strength of composite resin to enamel, the majority of failure patterns occurred cohesively in enamel.

  15. Thermography and thermometry in the assessment of diabetic neuropathic foot: a case for furthering the role of thermal techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharara, M; Cobb, J E; Claremont, D J

    2006-12-01

    There are currently 3 established techniques employed routinely to determine the risk of foot ulceration in the patient with diabetes mellitus. These are the assessment of circulation, neuropathy, and foot pressure. These assessments are widely used clinically as well as in the research domain with an aim to prevent the onset of foot ulceration. Routine neuropathic evaluation includes the assessment of sensory loss in the plantar skin of the foot using both the Semmes Weinstein monofilament and the biothesiometer. Thermological measurements of the foot to assess responses to thermal stimuli and cutaneous thermal discrimination threshold are relatively uncommon. Indeed, there remains uncertainty regarding the importance of thermal changes in the development of foot ulcers. Applications of thermography and thermometry in lower extremity wounds, vascular complications, and neuropathic complications have progressed as a result of improved imaging software and transducer technology. However, the uncertainty associated with the specific thermal modality, the costs, and processing times render its adaptation to the clinic. Therefore, wider adoption of thermological measurements has been limited. This article reviews thermal measurement techniques specific to diabetic foot such as electrical contact thermometry, cutaneous thermal discrimination thresholds, infrared thermography, and liquid crystal thermography.

  16. Teaching and Assessment of High-Velocity, Low-Amplitude Techniques for the Spine in Predoctoral Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channell, Millicent King

    2016-09-01

    Although national didactic criteria have been set for predoctoral education and assessment in osteopathic manipulative treatment, there is no criterion standard for teaching methods and assessments of osteopathic manipulative treatment competence in colleges of osteopathic medicine. This issue is more pressing with the creation of the single graduate medical education accreditation system by the American Osteopathic Association and Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, which introduced the creation of "osteopathic recognition" for residencies that want to incorporate osteopathic principles and practice into their programs. Residencies with osteopathic recognition may include both osteopathic and allopathic graduates. Increased standardization at the predoctoral level, however, is recommended as osteopathic principles and practice training applications are expanded. The objectives of this article are to review the standards for teaching osteopathic medical students high-velocity, low-amplitude (HVLA) techniques for the spine; to review and discuss the methods used to assess medical students' proficiency in using HVLA; and to propose baseline standards for teaching and assessing HVLA techniques among medical students.

  17. Assessing gas exchange in acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome: diagnostic techniques and prognostic relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattinoni, Luciano; Carlesso, Eleonora; Cressoni, Massimo

    2011-02-01

    To provide the most recent insights on the assessment of gas exchange in acute lung injury. Central venous blood may be used as a surrogate of arterial blood to assess carbon dioxide tension and acid-base status. In contrast arterial oxygenation cannot be estimated with confidence from venous blood. However, the use of venous blood associated with pulse oximetry may provide the SvO2 which is useful for monitoring and targeting the resuscitation therapy. Impaired CO2 clearance and increased dead space have been confirmed as useful prognostic indices of structural lung damage and mortality in acute respiratory failure. A simplified technique based on multiple inert gas technique has been described to assess ventilation-perfusion mismatch while a new analysis of pulse oximetry has been suggested to detect lung opening and closing. Finally, new insight has been provided on the relationship between lung anatomy, as detected by computed tomography, oxygenation and CO2 clearance. Although oxygenation assessment is of primary importance during respiratory lung injury, dead space and CO2 retention are more strictly associated with outcome. The association of central venous blood analysis and pulse oximetry may provide more information than arterial blood alone.

  18. Agricultural Soil Spectral Response and Properties Assessment: Effects of Measurement Protocol and Data Mining Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa Gholizadeh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil spectroscopy has shown to be a fast, cost-effective, environmentally friendly, non-destructive, reproducible and repeatable analytical technique. Soil components, as well as types of instruments, protocols, sampling methods, sample preparation, spectral acquisition techniques and analytical algorithms have a combined influence on the final performance. Therefore, it is important to characterize these differences and to introduce an effective approach in order to minimize the technical factors that alter reflectance spectra and consequent prediction. To quantify this alteration, a joint project between Czech University of Life Sciences Prague (CULS and Tel-Aviv University (TAU was conducted to estimate Cox, pH-H2O, pH-KCl and selected forms of Fe and Mn. Two different soil spectral measurement protocols and two data mining techniques were used to examine seventy-eight soil samples from five agricultural areas in different parts of the Czech Republic. Spectral measurements at both laboratories were made using different ASD spectroradiometers. The CULS protocol was based on employing a contact probe (CP spectral measurement scheme, while the TAU protocol was carried out using a CP measurement method, accompanied with the internal soil standard (ISS procedure. Two spectral datasets, acquired from different protocols, were both analyzed using partial least square regression (PLSR technique as well as the PARACUDA II®, a new data mining engine for optimizing PLSR models. The results showed that spectra based on the CULS setup (non-ISS demonstrated significantly higher albedo intensity and reflectance values relative to the TAU setup with ISS. However, the majority of statistics using the TAU protocol was not noticeably better than the CULS spectra. The paper also highlighted that under both measurement protocols, the PARACUDA II® engine proved to be a powerful tool for providing better results than PLSR. Such initiative is not only a way to

  19. Assessing and mitigating risks of engineering programs with lean management techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritz, A.; Oehmen, Josef; Rebentisch, E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of lean management techniques as a risk mitigation approach for large-scale engineering programs. The key research questions are how lean best practices with the highest risk mitigation potential are identified, how the most relevant lean best practices...... by the Project Management Institute (PMI), that both include Risk Management as a focal activity [MSP 2011, PMI 2013]....... the construction of a new airport, highway or bridge, or combine elements of both technology and infrastructure. The benefits they deliver are therefore immense and sometimes even groundbreaking, defining new levels of capabilities. But their sheer size and the built-in complexity also manifest themselves...

  20. Tomographic Assessment of Bone Formation After the Collares Technique of Gingivoperiosteoplasty in Patients With Cleft Lip and Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovo, Aline H S; Prietsch, José R; Collares, Marcus V M

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study sought to assess bone formation and spontaneous tooth eruption in a cohort of 25 consecutive patients aged 6 to 11 years who underwent primary gingivoperiosteoplasty by the Collares technique. Cross-sectional study assessing bone formation in the cleft area using a within-group time series design. Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA), a tertiary hospital in Brazil. Twenty-five patients with nonsyndromic, complete unilateral cleft lip and palate, no comorbidities, and unerupted permanent canines. Cheiloplasty was performed by means of the Millard II technique, with the addition of a triangle at the mucocutaneous junction, vomer flap nasal floor closure, and wide subperiosteal elevation, followed by gingivoperiosteoplasty by the Collares technique. Cone-beam computed tomography was used to assess treatment effect. In a novel method, software was used to obtain two three-dimensional reconstructions, one each of the cleft and noncleft sides, enabling quantitative comparison of bone presence in the alveolar defect area. Of the 25 patients, 24 achieved bone bridge formation. The cleft side had 75.1% (67.9%-82.3%) of the bone volume, 70.5% (53.1%-87.9%) of the height, and 63.3% (44.1%-82.5%) of the width of the noncleft side. Bone formation was 17.28% lower in patients with lateral incisor agenesis. Collares gingivoperiosteoplasty performed well as a technique for alveolar repair in patients with cleft lip and palate, allowing spontaneous eruption of deciduous and permanent lateral incisors through the bone bridge created.

  1. Assessment of dermal exposure during airless spray painting using a quantitative visualisation technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, D.H.; Lansink, C.M.; Cherrie, J.W.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2000-01-01

    The range of dermal exposure to non-volatile compounds during spray painting was studied in a semi-experimental study involving three enterprises and 12 painters. A fluorescent tracer was added to the paint and deposition of the tracer on clothing and uncovered parts of the skin was assessed using

  2. The Effect of Portfolio Assessment Technique on Writing Performance of EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Omid; Assefi, Farzaneh

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, writing has received a great degree of attention not only because it plays a significant role in transforming knowledge and learning but also in fostering creativity and when acquiring of a special language skill is seen as important, its assessment becomes important as well and writing is no exception. This study intended to investigate…

  3. The use of an acoustic technique to assess wood decay in laboratory soil-bed tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machek, L.; Militz, H.; Sierra-Alvarez, R.

    2001-01-01

    This study assesses the changes in elastic behaviour (i.e. modulus of elasticity - MOE) and mass loss of different hardwood and softwood species exposed to decay in laboratory soil-bed tests. Elasticity moduli were determined using conventional static methods as well as a dynamic method based on

  4. COSVAM : A technique for assessing software variability in software product families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelstra, S; Sinnema, M; Nijhuis, J; Bosch, J

    2004-01-01

    Evolution of variability is a key factor in the successful exploitation of commonalities in software product families. Assessment of variability can be used to determine how the variability provided by a product family should evolve. In this paper, we present COSVAM (COVAMOF Software Variability

  5. Imaging techniques in nuclear cardiology for the assessment of myocardial viability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slart, RHJA; Bax, JJ; van Veldhuisen, DJ; van der Wall, EE; Dierckx, RAJO; Jager, PL

    The assessment of myocardial viability has become an important aspect of the diagnostic and prognostic work-up of patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. Although revascularization may be considered in patients with sufficient viable myocardium, patients with predominantly scar tissue should be

  6. Remote sensing techniques to assess active fire characteristics and post-fire effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh B. Lentile; Zachary A. Holden; Alistair M. S. Smith; Michael J. Falkowski; Andrew T. Hudak; Penelope Morgan; Sarah A. Lewis; Paul E. Gessler; Nate C. Benson

    2006-01-01

    Space and airborne sensors have been used to map area burned, assess characteristics of active fires, and characterize post-fire ecological effects. Confusion about fire intensity, fire severity, burn severity, and related terms can result in the potential misuse of the inferred information by land managers and remote sensing practitioners who require unambiguous...

  7. Fluorescence techniques to detect and to assess viability of plant pathogenic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chitarra, L.G.

    2001-01-01

    Plant pathogenic bacteria cause major economic losses in commercial crop production worldwide every year. The current methods used to detect and to assess the viability of bacterial pathogens and to test seed lots or plants for contamination are usually based on plate assays or on

  8. Assessment of postur in an automotive industry using ISO -11228-3 technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-01-01

    Results: Results shown in 4 workstations include 35 task in an automotive industry. One of them is red and another’s are green.. Conclusion: This method is suitable, quickly and very easy to use for assessment of ergonomics situation in work.

  9. Multidisciplinary approaches and assessment techniques to better understand and enhance zoo nonhuman animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegford, Janice M

    2013-01-01

    Nonhuman animal welfare is a complex concept that encompasses an animal's biological functioning, emotional states, and opportunities to experience a natural life, including the performance of natural behaviors. Further, animal welfare can be viewed as quality of life from the perspective of the animal and thus must consider the animal's subjective experiences. Therefore, assessing and enhancing animal welfare should include multidisciplinary, scientific ventures that strive to create a complete picture of how animals' bodies and minds respond to both aversive and pleasant situations. Practical assessment of animal welfare should include outcome-based measures from the animal that provide information about the individual's welfare as well as resource-based measures that can help identify causes of or risk factors for poor welfare. Increasingly, scientists are examining the emotional states of animals as well as the impact of pain, pleasure, and consciousness on animal welfare. This article discusses approaches such as preference testing, instrumental learning, examination of space and resource use, and qualitative assessments of animal welfare that might be useful and practical for assessing and enhancing welfare in zoo settings.

  10. A Simple Close Range Photogrammetry Technique to Assess Soil Erosion in the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluating the performance of a soil erosion prediction model depends on the ability to accurately measure the gain or loss of sediment in an area. Recent development in acquiring detailed surface elevation data (DEM) makes it feasible to assess soil erosion and deposition spatially. Digital photogr...

  11. LOW-ALTITUDE DIGITAL PHOTOGRAMMETRY TECHNIQUE TO ASSESS EPHEMERAL GULLY EROSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ephemeral gully erosion is the main source of sediment from the agricultural landscape, unfortunately, it has been overlooked in traditional soil erosion assessment. Since an ephemeral gully can be easily alleviated or filled by normal tillage, the difficulty in making the ephemeral gully erosion a...

  12. An assessment of techniques for dehydrating root canals using infrared laser radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyra, T; Walsh, L T; Walsh, L J

    2000-08-01

    Infrared lasers have been used for debridement and sterilisation of both soft and hard tissues, but there have been few studies of such laser applications in endodontics. The present laboratory study was undertaken to examine the feasibility of using pulsed infrared laser radiation to remove moisture from root canals (with an adjunctive sterilising effect). Canals were prepared in extracted teeth and a standardised technique used to fill the apical half of the root canal with saline. Pulses of CO2 or Nd:YAG laser energy were delivered into the root canal system via miniature applicators and residual fluid determined, as well as temperature changes on the root surface. With the CO2 laser, long pulse durations were effective at dehydrating the canals, but elicited deleterious thermal changes both locally within the canal as well as on the root surface. With Nd:YAG laser treatment, large temperature increases on the root surface occurred even with low powers and low pulse frequencies, and extended times were necessary for dehydration. With higher powers and pulse frequencies, complete dehydration could be achieved in less than 60 seconds, however root surface temperatures increased approximately 25 degrees, and the radicular dentine was damaged by the production of plasma. Dehydration of root canals could not be achieved safely with these two infrared lasers, and damage to both radicular dentine and the periodontal ligament would occur if these techniques were to be applied clinically. Alternative methods which do not exert significant thermal effects should be investigated.

  13. Integration of datasets from different analytical techniques to assess the impact of nutrition on human metabolome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela eVernocchi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria colonizing the human intestinal tract exhibit a high phylogenetic diversity that reflects their immense metabolic potentials. The catalytic activity of gut microbes has an important impact on gastrointestinal (GI functions and host health. The microbial conversion of carbohydrates and other food components leads to the formation of a large number of compounds that affect the host metabolome and have beneficial or adverse effects on human health. Meabolomics is a metabolic-biology system approach focused on the metabolic responses understanding of living systems to physio-pathological stimuli by using multivariate statistical data on human body fluids obtained by different instrumental techniques. A metabolomic approach based on an analytical platform could be able to separate, detect, characterize and quantify a wide range of metabolites and its metabolic pathways. This approach has been recently applied to study the metabolic changes triggered in the gut microbiota by specific diet components and diet variations, specific diseases, probiotic and synbiotic food intake.This review describes the metabolomic data obtained by analyzing human fluids by using different techniques and particularly Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Solid-phase Micro Extraction (GC-MS/SPME, Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR Spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR Spectroscopy. This instrumental approach have a good potential in the identification and detection of specific food intake and diseases biomarkers.

  14. Spatial assessment and source identification of heavy metals pollution in surface water using several chemometric techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Azimah; Toriman, Mohd Ekhwan; Juahir, Hafizan; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Habir, Nur Liyana Abdul; Retnam, Ananthy; Kamaruddin, Mohd Khairul Amri; Umar, Roslan; Azid, Azman

    2016-05-15

    This study presents the determination of the spatial variation and source identification of heavy metal pollution in surface water along the Straits of Malacca using several chemometric techniques. Clustering and discrimination of heavy metal compounds in surface water into two groups (northern and southern regions) are observed according to level of concentrations via the application of chemometric techniques. Principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrates that Cu and Cr dominate the source apportionment in northern region with a total variance of 57.62% and is identified with mining and shipping activities. These are the major contamination contributors in the Straits. Land-based pollution originating from vehicular emission with a total variance of 59.43% is attributed to the high level of Pb concentration in the southern region. The results revealed that one state representing each cluster (northern and southern regions) is significant as the main location for investigating heavy metal concentration in the Straits of Malacca which would save monitoring cost and time. The monitoring of spatial variation and source of heavy metals pollution at the northern and southern regions of the Straits of Malacca, Malaysia, using chemometric analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Advanced microscopy techniques to assess solid-state properties of inhalation medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shur, Jagdeep; Price, Robert

    2012-03-30

    Efficient control and characterisation of the physico-chemical properties of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and excipients for orally inhaled drug products (OIDPs) are critical to successful product development. Control and reduction of risk require the introduction of a material science based approach to product development and the use of advanced analytical tools in understanding how the solid-state properties of the input materials influence structure and product functionality. The key issues to be addressed, at a microscopic scale, are understanding how the critical quality attributes of input materials influence surface, interfacial and particulate interactions within OIDPs. This review offers an in-depth discussion on the use of advanced microscopy techniques in characterising of the solid-state properties of particulate materials for OIDPs. The review covers the fundamental principles of the techniques, instrumentation types, data interpretation and specific applications in relation to the product development of OIDPs. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage: assessment of risk factors with special attention to introduction of coblation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, Christian H; Wallén, Mia; Aakesson, Marie; Skov, Peter; Kjeldsen, Anette D; Godballe, Christian

    2009-07-01

    Post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage (PTH) is a relatively common and potentially life-threatening complication. The objective of this study was to examine the rate of PTH and identify risk factors. A retrospective cohort study was carried out including all tonsillectomies (430 patients) performed at Odense University Hospital (OUH) or Svendborg Hospital (SH), Denmark. PTH occurred in 52 patients (12.1%). Of the 180 patients treated with coblation technique, 41 (22.7%) had PTH. There were no fatal bleeding episodes. Multiple regression analysis resulted in three significant covariates: "Coblation as surgical technique" [relative risk (RR) = 5.3], "peritonsillar abscess as indication for surgery" (RR = 0.3) and "age equal to or above 15 years at the time of surgery" (RR = 5.4). It is concluded that patient age, PTA as indication for surgery and the use of coblation significantly affect the occurrence of PTH when coblation procedures are performed by non-experienced surgeons. We advise that implementation of coblation tonsillectomy is thoroughly planned with sufficient training of surgeons and continuous surveillance of results. If PTH rates comparable to "cold dissections tonsillectomy" cannot be reached intervention (learning or closing down of coblation tonsillectomy) has to be done.

  17. Therapeutic efficacy of a hybrid mandibular advancement device in the management of obstructive sleep apnea assessed with acoustic reflection technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Agarwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is one of the most common forms of sleep-disordered breathing. Various treatment modalities include behavior modification therapy, nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP, oral appliance therapy, and various surgical modalities. Oral appliances are noninvasive and recommended treatment modality for snoring, mild to moderate OSA cases and severe OSA cases when patient is not compliant to CPAP therapy and unwilling for surgery. Acoustic reflection technique (ART is a relatively new modality for three-dimensional assessment of airway caliber in various clinical situations. The accuracy and reproducibility of acoustic rhinometry and acoustic pharyngometry assessment are comparable to computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. This case report highlights the therapeutic efficacy of an innovative customized acrylic hybrid mandibular advancement device in the management of polysomnography diagnosed OSA cases, and the treatment results were assessed by ART.

  18. A multi-technique approach to assess chemical speciation of phosphate in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belchior Abdala, Dalton; Rodrigues, Marcos; Herrera, Wilfrand; Pavinato, Paulo Sergio

    2017-04-01

    Soil scientists see chemical characterization of phosphorus (e.g., chemical speciation) as a winning strategy to increase phosphorus use efficiency in agriculture, to understand the fate of applied P fertilizer in soils and to devise strategies to minimize P losses to the environment. Phosphorus (P) is majorly presented in soils as phosphate, bound to mineral components of soils such as Al-, Ca- and Fe-(hydr)oxides or associated with organic molecules, being thus generally referred to as organic phosphates. In addition, because of the turnover of P between plants and microbes, it delivers P back to soils as a mixture of species with high spatial and chemical heterogeneity, adding complexity to the determination of the P species contained in environmental samples. Therefore, due to the variety of forms that phosphate can present in soils, its precise chemical characterization can only be achieved using a set of analytical techniques. Although established methodologies (e. g., soil test P, sequential chemical fractionation, P isotherms) have been useful to subsidize information for the establishment of policies and guidelines for soil management and P fertilizers use, they have failed to provide detailed information on P chemistry and reactivity in soils in a more satisfactory manner, which are critical to predict P bioavailability to plants and loss potential to the environment. More recently, the association of wet chemistry analysis with spectroscopy and microscopy techniques has arguably represented the most successful means to chemically speciate phosphate in soils. This is because using qualitative (chemical speciation), quantitative (chemical fractionation) and spatial (microscopy) data allows for triangulation of information, thereby reducing bias and increasing validity of the results. The analysis framework that we propose in this study includes the use of (i) sequential chemical fractionation of soil P to determine the partitioning of P within the

  19. Development Of Polarimetric Decomposition Techniques For Indian Forest Resource Assessment Using Radar Imaging Satellite (Risat-1) Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, J.

    2015-12-01

    The focus of this work is to examine polarimetric decomposition techniques primarily focussed on Pauli decomposition and Sphere Di-Plane Helix (SDH) decomposition for forest resource assessment. The data processing methods adopted are Pre-processing (Geometric correction and Radiometric calibration), Speckle Reduction, Image Decomposition and Image Classification. Initially to classify forest regions, unsupervised classification was applied to determine different unknown classes. It was observed K-means clustering method gave better results in comparison with ISO Data method.Using the algorithm developed for Radar Tools, the code for decomposition and classification techniques were applied in Interactive Data Language (IDL) and was applied to RISAT-1 image of Mysore-Mandya region of Karnataka, India. This region is chosen for studying forest vegetation and consists of agricultural lands, water and hilly regions. Polarimetric SAR data possess a high potential for classification of earth surface.After applying the decomposition techniques, classification was done by selecting region of interests andpost-classification the over-all accuracy was observed to be higher in the SDH decomposed image, as it operates on individual pixels on a coherent basis and utilises the complete intrinsic coherent nature of polarimetric SAR data. Thereby, making SDH decomposition particularly suited for analysis of high-resolution SAR data. The Pauli Decomposition represents all the polarimetric information in a single SAR image however interpretation of the resulting image is difficult. The SDH decomposition technique seems to produce better results and interpretation as compared to Pauli Decomposition however more quantification and further analysis are being done in this area of research. The comparison of Polarimetric decomposition techniques and evolutionary classification techniques will be the scope of this work.

  20. Ex Vivo Assessment of an Ultrasound-Guided Injection Technique of the Navicular Bursa in the Horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, R; Diguet, A C; Cantet, P; Bailly, C; Brogniez, L; Dugdale, A; Nisolle, J F; Vandeweerd, J M

    2016-12-01

    Synovitis of the navicular bursa is common in performance horses. The objective of this study was to describe an ultrasound-guided technique to inject a distended navicular bursa and to evaluate its feasibility for use by a clinician not trained in the technique. Twenty distal limbs of horses of various breeds and sizes were used. To produce synovial distension, the navicular bursa of each limb was injected with contrast medium using a lateral approach and radiography was performed to confirm that the contrast medium was distending the bursa. The digit was positioned with the distal interphalangeal joint in hyperextension. A microconvex ultrasound probe was placed in the hollow of the pastern, palmar to the middle phalanx and the region was assessed in a transverse plane slightly oblique to the horizontal plane. The ultrasound probe was rotated to visualize both the lateral and medial recesses and to select which side was more distended to inject. A 21G 0.8 × 50 mm needle was inserted abaxially to the probe in the plane of the ultrasound beam into the proximal recess of this navicular bursa and a methylene blue solution was injected. Following injection, dissection was performed to assess whether the navicular bursa had been successfully injected. This ultrasound-guided technique was reliably performed with a success rate of 68%. The success of injection is influenced by hyperextension of the foot, quality of ultrasound images and degree of distension of the bursa. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Assessing the eligibility of a non-invasive continuous blood pressure measurement technique for application during total intravenous anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhle, Robert; Siegert, Joachim; Wonka, Fred; Schindler, Christoph; de Abreu, Marcelo Gama; Koch, Thea; Morgenstern, Ute; Theilen, Herman

    2016-06-01

    To assess the eligibility for replacement of invasive blood pressure as measured "within" the arterial vessel (IBP) with non-invasive continuous arterial blood pressure (cNIP) monitoring during total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA), the ability of cNiP to track fast blood pressure changes needs to be quantified. A new method of statistical data analysis is developed for this purpose. In a pilot study on patients undergoing neurosurgical anaesthesia, mean arterial pressure MAPIBP measured with IBP was compared to MAPCNP measured by the CNAP Monitor 500 in ten patients (age: 63±13 a). Correlation analysis of changes of device differences ΔeMAP=ΔMAPCNP-ΔMAPIBP with changes of MAPIBP (ΔMAPIBP) during intervals of vasoactivity was conducted. An innovative technique, of linear trend analysis (LTA) applied to two signals, is described to perform this analysis without a priori knowledge of intervals of vasoactivity. Analysis of ΔeMAP during vasoactivity revealed that ΔMAPCNP systematically underestimated ΔMAPIBP by 37%. This was confirmed in the complete data set using LTA technique showing a systematic, yet patient specific, underestimation in tracking ΔMAPIBP (16…120%). The proposed LTA technique is able to detect systematic errors in tracking short-term blood pressure changes otherwise masked by established analysis. LTA may thus be a useful tool to assess the eligibility of cNIP to replace IBP during TIVA.

  2. An Investigation of GIS Overlay and PCA Techniques for Urban Environmental Quality Assessment: A Case Study in Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Faisal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations estimates that the global population is going to be double in the coming 40 years, which may cause a negative impact on the environment and human life. Such an impact may instigate increased water demand, overuse of power, anthropogenic noise, etc. Thus, modelling the Urban Environmental Quality (UEQ becomes indispensable for a better city planning and an efficient urban sprawl control. This study aims to investigate the ability of using remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS techniques to model the UEQ with a case study in the city of Toronto via deriving different environmental, urban and socio-economic parameters. Remote sensing, GIS and census data were first obtained to derive environmental, urban and socio-economic parameters. Two techniques, GIS overlay and Principal Component Analysis (PCA, were used to integrate all of these environmental, urban and socio-economic parameters. Socio-economic parameters including family income, higher education and land value were used as a reference to assess the outcomes derived from the two integration methods. The outcomes were assessed through evaluating the relationship between the extracted UEQ results and the reference layers. Preliminary findings showed that the GIS overlay represents a better precision and accuracy (71% and 65%, respectively, comparing to the PCA technique. The outcomes of the research can serve as a generic indicator to help the authority for better city planning with consideration of all possible social, environmental and urban requirements or constraints.

  3. Application of microscopy technique and high performance liquid chromatography for quality assessment of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (Heshouwu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Li; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Kang, Tingguo

    2014-10-01

    The technique of microscopy has been applied for identification of Chinese materia medica (CMM) since decades. However, very few scientific publications report the combination of conventional microscopy and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques for further application to quality assessment of CMM. The objective of this study is to analyze the quality of the dried root tuber of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (Heshouwu) and to establish the relationships between 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-glucoside, combined anthraquinone (CAQ) and quantity of clusters of calcium oxalate. In this study, microscopy and HPLC techniques were applied to assess the quality of P. multiflorum Thunb., and SPSS software was used to establish the relationship between microscopic characteristics and chemical components. The results showed close and direct correlations between the quantity of clusters of calcium oxalate in P. multiflorum Thunb. and the contents of 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-glucoside and CAQ. From these results, it can be deduced that Polygoni Multiflori Radix with a higher quantity of clusters of calcium oxalate should be of better quality. The established method can be helpful for evaluating the quality of CMM based upon the identification and quantitation of chemical and ergastic substance of cells.

  4. Data evaluation techniques used for groundwater quality assessment at the Feed Materials Production Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, J.E.; Longmire, P.K.

    1990-01-01

    The Feed Materials Production Center has implemented a monitoring program which includes over 300 wells and piezometers to assess the impact of its operations on the ground water. Large volumes of monitoring data are being collected in support of a Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study, a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground water quality assessment program, and an underground storage tank investigation. This program aims to establish background or upgradient ground water constituent concentrations, identify the presence and amount of contamination, determine the migration rate and extent of any contamination found, develop and calibrate hydrological and solute transport models, and track the progress of cleanup activities. This paper addresses the methodologies used for evaluation of the data generated by this program. A discussion will be provided on the decision making process utilized for selecting the appropriate statistical procedures, and the progress made in analysis of the ground water data. (MHB)

  5. Combining traditional dietary assessment methods with novel metabolomics techniques: present efforts by the Food Biomarker Alliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M; Brennan, Lorraine; Drevon, Christian A

    2017-01-01

    biomarker quality and validity score aiming to assist the systematic evaluation of novel biomarkers. Moreover, to evaluate the applicability of nutritional biomarkers, studies are presently also focusing on associations between food intake biomarkers and diet-related disease risk. In order to be successful...... in these metabolomics studies, knowledge about available electronic metabolomics resources is necessary and further developments of these resources are essential. Ultimately, present efforts in this research area aim to advance quality control of traditional dietary assessment methods, advance compliance evaluation......FFQ, food diaries and 24 h recall methods represent the most commonly used dietary assessment tools in human studies on nutrition and health, but food intake biomarkers are assumed to provide a more objective reflection of intake. Unfortunately, very few of these biomarkers are sufficiently...

  6. A new method for muscle fatigue assessment: Online model identification techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaiordanidou, Maria; Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro; Varray, Alain; Fattal, Charles; Guiraud, David

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to propose a method that allows extraction of the current muscle state under electrically induced fatigue. The triceps surae muscle of 5 subjects paralyzed by spinal cord injury was fatigued by intermittent electrical stimulation (5 × 5 trains at 30 Hz). Classical fatigue indices representing muscle contractile properties [peak twitch (Pt) and half-relaxation time (HRT)] were assessed before and after each 5-train series and were used to identify 2 relevant parameters (Fm , Ur ) of a previously developed mathematical model using the Sigma-Point Kalman Filter. Pt declined significantly during the protocol, whereas HRT remained unchanged. Identification of the model parameters with experimental data yielded a model-based fatigue assessment that gave a more stable evaluation of fatigue than classical parameters. This work reinforces clinical research by providing a tool that clinicians can use to monitor fatigue development during stimulation. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Soil salinity mapping and hydrological drought indices assessment in arid environments based on remote sensing techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Elhag, Mohamed; Bahrawi, Jarbou A.

    2017-01-01

    Vegetation indices are mostly described as crop water derivatives. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is one of the oldest remote sensing applications that is widely used to evaluate crop vigor directly and crop water relationships indirectly. Recently, several NDVI derivatives were exclusively used to assess crop water relationships. Four hydrological drought indices are examined in the current research study. The water supply vegetation index (WSVI), the soi...

  8. A new technique to assess dermal absorption of chemical vapor in vitro by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)

    OpenAIRE

    Rauma, Matias

    2008-01-01

    There is a huge lack of dermal uptake data for chemicals, and it is frequent with large variations in reported permeability coefficients for chemicals with more than one data set, showing the need for a new and standardized in vitro method. The overall aim of this thesis was to develop the new method of measuring dermal absorption of chemical vapor using the TGA method. Assessment of dermal absorption by TGA (Study I) Round pieces (ø8 mm) of pig epidermis were placed on ...

  9. Spinal and sacroiliac assessment and treatment techniques used by osteopathic physicians in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Fryer, Gary; Morse, Christopher M; Johnson, Jane C

    2009-01-01

    Background Osteopathic manipulative medicine texts and educators advocate a range of approaches for physical assessment and treatment, but little is known about their use by osteopathic physicians in the United States. Methods A web-based survey using a 5-point Likert scale was developed and e-mailed to 777 practicing osteopathic physician members of the American Academy of Osteopathy. Responses in the "frequently" and "always" categories were combined for reporting purposes. Friedman tests w...

  10. Contractors’ Strategic Approaches to Risk Assessment Techniques at Project Planning Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Zaini, Afzan; Endut, Intan Rohani; Takim, Roshana

    2011-01-01

    Abstract — The construction industry is still plagued by poor quality, poor workmanship, poor safety and health environment, and poor practices. The current main problem in the Malaysian Construction Industry is delayed projects under the Ninth Malaysia Plan. The idea of introducing formal risk assessment among Malaysian contractors during the project planning stage is a proactive approach to achieve project objectives. Therefore, this research intends to achieve the following objectives: (1)...

  11. Assessment and Measures of Effectiveness in Stability Ops: Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (Handbook)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    public business as required by law of the Department. Unless otherwise stated, whenever the masculine or feminine gender is used, both are intended...problems can quickly develop. Upon meeting an interpreter, it is important to assess their proficiency in English . An interpreter with a firm grasp of... English and the terminology that may be encountered is necessary. The following are several useful tips for working with an interpreter: • Placement

  12. Assessment and validation of bronchodilation using the interrupter technique in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, Laura; Sly, Peter D; Calogero, Claudia; Bernardini, Roberto; Novembre, Elio; Azzari, Chiara; de Martino, Maurizio; Lombardi, Enrico

    2010-07-01

    To determine and validate a cut-off value for bronchodilation using the interrupter resistance (Rint) in preschool children. Rint was measured in 60 healthy children (age range 2.7-6.4 years) before and after salbutamol inhalation (200 microg). Four potential methods for assessing BDR were evaluated: percent change from baseline, percent change of predicted values, absolute change in Rint, and change in Z-score. These cut-off values, determined as the fifth percentile of the healthy group, were applied to children referred for the assessment of recurrent wheezing, classified on the basis of acute symptoms and/or abnormal chest examination into symptomatic (n = 60, age range 2.9-6.1 years) and asymptomatic (n = 60, age range 2.5-5.7 years) groups. The cut-off values for bronchodilation calculated in healthy children were: -32% baseline; -33% predicted; -0.26 kPa L(-1) sec; and -1.25 Z-scores. Assessing BDR in children with a history of wheezing by either a decrease in absolute Rint or a decrease in Z-score gave sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value all >80% for detecting children with current respiratory symptoms. Both a decrease in Rint > or =0.26 kPa L(-1) sec and a decrease in Z-score of > or =1.25 are appropriate for assessing BDR in preschool children with a history of recurrent wheezing. As Z-score is a more general solution, we recommend using a change in Z-score to determine BDR in preschool children. Further longitudinal studies will be required to determine the clinical utility of measuring BDR in managing lung disease in such children.

  13. The importance of recording and playback technique for assessment of annoyance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celik, Emine; Persson Waye, Kerstin; Møller, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    The study presented here is part of a project with an overall aim to evaluate how different sound properties relate to annoyance. In order to achieve this it is necessary to study methodological aspects of importance for the experimentally evaluated annoyance. In previous studies of perception...... in perception related to annoyance, loudness and unpleasantness between monophonic recordings played back through a loudspeaker and binaural recordings played back via headphones and to evaluate whether a possible difference depends on temporal and frequency characteristics as well as spatial characteristics...... a loudspeaker and the binaural recordings were presented through both closed (circum-aural) and completely open (free of the ear) headphones. The results show that for all judgments (annoyance, loudness and unpleasantness), there was no significant main effect of recording and playback techniques; however...

  14. Assessment of tumor development and wound healing using endoscopic techniques in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neurath, Markus F; Wittkopf, Nadine; Wlodarski, Alexandra; Waldner, Maximilian; Neufert, Clemens; Wirtz, Stefan; Günther, Claudia; Becker, Christoph

    2010-12-01

    Mouse models of intestinal inflammation and colon cancer are valuable tools to gain insights into the pathogenesis of the corresponding human diseases. Recently, in vivo mouse endoscopy has been developed, allowing not only the high-resolution monitoring and scoring of experimental disease development, but also enables the investigator to perform manipulations, including local injection of reagents or the taking of biopsies for molecular and histopathologic analyses. Chromoendoscopic staining with methylene blue enables visualization of the crypt structure and allows discrimination between inflammatory and neoplastic changes. The development of endoscopic techniques in live mice opened new options for the investigation of disease mechanisms in the gut and for the preclinical testing of potential therapeutic effects of drug candidates. Finally, mouse endoscopy can help to reduce animal numbers needed to gain significant experimental data. Copyright © 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Application of multivariate statistical techniques in the water quality assessment of Danube river, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voza Danijela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to evaluate the quality of the Danube River in its course through Serbia as well as to demonstrate the possibilities for using three statistical methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA, Factor Analysis (FA and Cluster Analysis (CA in the surface water quality management. Given that the Danube is an important trans-boundary river, thorough water quality monitoring by sampling at different distances during shorter and longer periods of time is not only ecological, but also a political issue. Monitoring was carried out at monthly intervals from January to December 2011, at 17 sampling sites. The obtained data set was treated by multivariate techniques in order, firstly, to identify the similarities and differences between sampling periods and locations, secondly, to recognize variables that affect the temporal and spatial water quality changes and thirdly, to present the anthropogenic impact on water quality parameters.

  16. Assessment of techniques of massage and pumping in the treatment of breast engorgement by thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberle, Anita Batista dos Santos; de Moura, Marcos Antônio Muniz; de Souza, Mauren Abreu; Nohama, Percy

    2014-01-01

    to evaluate techniques of massage and pumping in the treatment of postpartum breast engorgement through thermography. the study was conducted in the Human Milk Bank of a hospital in Curitiba, Brazil. We randomly selected 16 lactating women with engorgement with the classification lobar, ampullary and glandular, moderate and intense. We compared the differential patterns of temperature, before and after the treatment by means of massage and pumping. we found a negative gradient of 0.3°C of temperature between the pre- and post-treatment in the experimental group. Breasts with intense engorgement were 0.7°C warmer when compared with moderate engorgement. massage and electromechanical pumping were superior to manual methods when evaluated by thermography. U1111-1136-9027.

  17. Assessment of techniques of massage and pumping in the treatment of breast engorgement by thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Batista dos Santos Heberle

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate techniques of massage and pumping in the treatment of postpartum breast engorgement through thermography.METHOD: the study was conducted in the Human Milk Bank of a hospital in Curitiba, Brazil. We randomly selected 16 lactating women with engorgement with the classification lobar, ampullary and glandular, moderate and intense. We compared the differential patterns of temperature, before and after the treatment by means of massage and pumping.RESULTS: we found a negative gradient of 0.3°C of temperature between the pre- and post-treatment in the experimental group. Breasts with intense engorgement were 0.7°C warmer when compared with moderate engorgement.CONCLUSION: massage and electromechanical pumping were superior to manual methods when evaluated by thermography. REBEC: U1111-1136-9027.

  18. Assessment of an alanine EPR dosimetry technique with enhanced precision and accuracy

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, R B; Wieser, A; Romanyukha, A A; Hardy, B L; Barrus, J K

    2000-01-01

    Dose reconstruction in the course of a series of blind tests demonstrated that an accuracy of 10 mGy for low doses and 1% for high doses can be achieved using EPR spectroscopy. This was accomplished using a combination of methodologies including polynomial filtration of the EPR spectrum, dosimeter rotation during scanning, use of an EPR standard fixed into the resonator and subtraction of all nonradiogenic signals. Doses were reconstructed over the range of 0.01-1000 Gy using this compound spectral EPR analysis. This EPR technique, being equally applicable to fractionated doses (such as those delivered during multiple radiotherapy treatments), was verified to exhibit dose reciprocity. Irradiated alanine dosimeters which were stored exhibited compound spectral EPR signal fading of ca 3% over 9 months. All error estimates given in this paper are given at the 1 standard deviation level and unless otherwise specified do not account for uncertainties in source calibration.

  19. Slug tests in unconfined formations: an assessment of the bouwer and rice technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Z.; Butler, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    The slug test is one of the most common techniques for the in situ estimation of hydraulic conductivity in unconfined flow systems. Recently, Bouwer and Rice model describing the flow of ground water in response to a slug test in an unconfirmed flow system has been proposed. For slug tests performed in homogeneous, isotropic formations that would be classified as aquifiers, the Bouwer and Rice model provides estimates within 30% of actual field values. In less-permeable, clay-rich formations, however, estimates may overpredict formation conductivity by more than 100%. The Bouwer and Rice model introduces the largest error in the presence of low permeability skin. Uncertainty about anisotropy can also be the source of considerable error.

  20. Entropy of Masseter Muscle Pain Sensitivity: A New Technique for Pain Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrillon, Eduardo E; Exposto, Fernando G; Sato, Hitoshi; Tanosoto, Tomohiro; Arima, Taro; Baad-Hansen, Lene; Svensson, Peter

    2017-01-01

    To test whether manipulation of mechanical pain sensitivity (MPS) of the masseter muscle is reflected in quantitative measures of entropy. In a randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled design, 20 healthy volunteers had glutamate, lidocaine, and isotonic saline injected into the masseter muscle. Self-assessed pain intensity on a numeric rating scale (NRS) was evaluated up to 10 minutes following the injection, and MPS was evaluated after application (at 5 minutes and 30 minutes) of three different forces (0.5 kg, 1 kg, and 2 kg) to 15 different sites of the masseter muscle. Finally, the entropy and center of gravity (COG) of the pain sensitivity scores were calculated. Analysis of variance was used to test differences in means of tested outcomes and Tukey post hoc tests were used to adjust for multiple comparisons. The main findings were: (1) Compared with both lidocaine and isotonic saline, glutamate injections caused an increase in peak, duration, and area under the NRS pain curve (P entropy values (P entropy values when assessed with 0.5 kg and 1.0 kg but not with 2.0 kg of pressure; and (4) COG coordinates revealed differences between the x coordinates for time (P entropy measures. Entropy allows quantification of the diversity of MPS, which may be important in clinical assessment of pain states such as myofascial temporomandibular disorders.

  1. Development of a technique for quantification of reticulocytes and assessment of erythrocyte regenerative capacity in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Jennifer L; Shooshtari, Mahrokh P; Christopher, Mary M

    2008-08-01

    To develop a reticulocyte classification scheme, optimize an avian reticulocyte staining protocol, and compare the percentages of reticulocyte types with polychromatophil percentage in blood samples from birds. Blood samples from a red-tailed hawk and 31 ill birds. A single blood sample obtained from a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) was used to optimize the staining protocol. For optimization of the staining protocol, 4 dilutions of whole blood with new methylene blue stain and 4 incubation times were evaluated. From samples submitted for avian CBCs, EDTA-anticoagulated whole blood samples from 31 ill birds were randomly selected and examined to compare polychromatophil and reticulocyte percentages. Reticulocyte staining was performed in all samples by use of a 1:3 (whole blood to new methylene blue) dilution with incubation for 10 minutes at room temperature (approx 22 degrees C); reticulocytes were assessed as a percentage of 1,000 RBCs by 2 independent observers. In Wright-Giemsa-stained blood smears, a polychromatophil percentage was similarly determined. 4 avian reticulocyte types were defined: ring-form reticulocytes, aggregate reticulocytes, and 2 subcategories of punctate reticulocytes. A reticulocyte-staining protocol was optimized. Interobserver and intraobserver variations in assessment of reticulocyte and polychromatophil percentages were not significant. A strong positive correlation (Spearman coefficient of rank correlation [rho] = 0.978) was identified between the percentage of polychromatophils and the percentage of ring-form reticulocytes. Results indicated that quantification of ring-form reticulocytes provides an accurate assessment of erythrocyte regenerative capacity in birds.

  2. A P300 event related potential technique for assessment of sexually oriented interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardi, Yoram; Volos, Michal; Sprecher, Elliot; Granovsky, Yelena; Gruenwald, Ilan; Yarnitsky, David

    2006-12-01

    Despite all of the modern, sophisticated tests that exist for diagnosing and assessing male and female sexual disorders, to our knowledge there is no objective psychophysiological test to evaluate sexual arousal and interest. We provide preliminary data showing a decrease in auditory P300 wave amplitude during exposure to sexually explicit video clips and a significant correlation between the auditory P300 amplitude decrease and self-reported scores of sexual arousal and interest in the clips. A total of 30 healthy subjects were exposed to several blocks of auditory stimuli administered using an oddball paradigm. Baseline auditory P300 amplitudes were obtained and auditory stimuli were then delivered while viewing visual clips with 3 types of content, including sport, scenery and sex. Auditory P300 amplitude significantly decreased during viewing clips of all contents. Viewing sexual content clips caused a maximal decrease in P300 amplitude (p P300 amplitude decrease was significantly related to the sexual interest score (r = 0.37, p = 0.042) but not to interest in clips of nonsexual content. The change in auditory P300 amplitude during exposure to visual stimuli with sexual context seems to be an objective measure of subject sexual interest. This method might be applied to assess therapeutic intervention and as a diagnostic tool for assessing disorders of impaired libido or psychogenic sexual dysfunction.

  3. The Application of Vibrational Spectroscopy Techniques in the Qualitative Assessment of Material Traded as Ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxleene Sandasi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The name “ginseng” is collectively used to describe several plant species, including Panax ginseng (Asian/Oriental ginseng, P. quinquefolius (American ginseng, P. pseudoginseng (Pseudoginseng and Eleutherococcus senticosus (Siberian ginseng, each with different applications in traditional medicine practices. The use of a generic name may lead to the interchangeable use or substitution of raw materials which poses quality control challenges. Quality control methods such as vibrational spectroscopy-based techniques are here proposed as fast, non-destructive methods for the distinction of four ginseng species and the identification of raw materials in commercial ginseng products. Certified ginseng reference material and commercial products were analysed using hyperspectral imaging (HSI, mid-infrared (MIR and near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy. Principal component analysis (PCA and (orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis models (OPLS-DA were developed using multivariate analysis software. UHPLC-MS was used to analyse methanol extracts of the reference raw materials and commercial products. The holistic analysis of ginseng raw materials revealed distinct chemical differences using HSI, MIR and NIR. For all methods, Eleutherococcus senticosus displayed the greatest variation from the three Panax species that displayed closer chemical similarity. Good discrimination models with high R2X and Q2 cum vales were developed. These models predicted that the majority of products contained either /P. ginseng or P. quinquefolius. Vibrational spectroscopy and HSI techniques in tandem with multivariate data analysis tools provide useful alternative methods in the authentication of ginseng raw materials and commercial products in a fast, easy, cost-effective and non-destructive manner.

  4. An MRI-based technique for assessment of lower extremity deformities - reproducibility, accuracy, and clinical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinterwimmer, Stefan [University of Frankfurt, Research Group for Kinematics and Biomechanics, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Frankfurt (Germany); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Orthopaedic Sports Medicine, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany); Graichen, Heiko [University of Frankfurt, Research Group for Kinematics and Biomechanics, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Frankfurt (Germany); Asklepios Clinic for Orthopedics and Traumatology Lindenlohe, Schwandorf (Germany); Vogl, Thomas J. [JW Goethe University of Frankfurt, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Abolmaali, Nasreddin [JW Goethe University of Frankfurt, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, OncoRay - Molecular Imaging, Dresden (Germany)

    2008-07-15

    The hypothesis of this study was that length, torsion, and axis of a leg phantom can be measured accurately and reproducibly by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and that this can be applied to patients with leg deformities. Two phantoms and 30 patients (genu varum, n=15; genu valgum, n=15) were investigated using an optimized MRI technique. Reference measurements were performed with a micrometer screw and a goniometer. Patient leg length and axis were compared with long radiographs in bipedal stance. Intra- and interobserver reproducibility and accuracy were calculated using the mean absolute difference (MAD) and the 95% confidence interval. In patients, comparisons were done using a paired Student's t-test. MAD, intraobserver MAD, and interobserver MAD were 0.03, 0.03, 0.04 mm (length); 0.98, 1.2, 0.98 (torsion); and 0.18, 0.23, 0.22 (axis), respectively. In patients, leg length was underestimated by MRI (-2.4 {+-} 0.7%; 1.9{+-}0.7 cm; P<0.001). The hip-knee-ankle angle (HKA) did not show significant differences in varus knees (-0.5 {+-} 1.0 ; P>0.05), while it was significantly underestimated in valgus knees (-3.6 {+-} 2.8 ; P<0.05). The phantom study revealed that leg length, torsion, and axis can be measured accurately and reproducibly by MRI. Although underestimation of leg length and HKA in valgus knees occurred, this optimized MRI technique can be applied to patients with leg deformities. (orig.)

  5. Practical techniques for bovine sperm simultaneous fluorimetric assessment of plasma, acrosomal and mitochondrial membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeghini, E C C; de Arruda, R P; de Andrade, A F C; Nascimento, J; Raphael, C F

    2007-10-01

    This experiment was performed to develop and validate practical techniques for simultaneous evaluation of the integrity of plasma and acrosomal membranes, as well as mitochondrial function in bovine spermatozoa using associations of fluorescent probes. Four protocols of fluorescent probes association were defined: protocol 1: propidium iodide (PI), fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated Pisum sativum agglutinin (FITC-PSA) and rhodamine 123; protocol 2: PI, FITC-PSA and MitoTracker Green FM (MITO); protocol 3: PI, Hoechst 33342 (H342), FITC-PSA and CMXRos; and protocol 4: PI, H342, FITC-PSA and JC-1. Three ejaculates from each of the four bulls (n = 12) were utilized, showing sperm motility >/=80% and abnormal morphology techniques are efficient for the simultaneous integrity evaluation of plasma and acrosomal membranes and mitochondrial function in bovine spermatozoa. However, JC-1 has an advantage over MITO and CMXRos, as it separates two cell populations with high and low mitochondrial membrane potential.

  6. Comparative Evaluation of Two Venous Sampling Techniques for the Assessment of Pancreatic Insulin and Zinc Release upon Glucose Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Pillai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in noninvasive imaging modalities have provided opportunities to study β cell function through imaging zinc release from insulin secreting β cells. Understanding the temporal secretory pattern of insulin and zinc corelease after a glucose challenge is essential for proper timing of administration of zinc sensing probes. Portal venous sampling is an essential part of pharmacological and nutritional studies in animal models. The purpose of this study was to compare two different percutaneous image-guided techniques: transhepatic ultrasound guided portal vein access and transsplenic fluoroscopy guided splenic vein access for ease of access, safety, and evaluation of temporal kinetics of insulin and zinc release into the venous effluent from the pancreas. Both techniques were safe, reproducible, and easy to perform. The mean time required to obtain desired catheter position for venous sampling was 15 minutes shorter using the transsplenic technique. A clear biphasic insulin release profile was observed in both techniques. Statistically higher insulin concentration but similar zinc release after a glucose challenge was observed from splenic vein samples, as compared to the ones from the portal vein. To our knowledge, this is the first report of percutaneous methods to assess zinc release kinetics from the porcine pancreas.

  7. VALIDATING A COMPUTER-BASED TECHNIQUE FOR ASSESSING STABILITY TO FAILURE STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. F. Arshava

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An upsurge of interest in the implicit personality assessment, currently observed both in personality psycho-diagnostics and in experimental studies of social attitudes and prejudices, signals the shifting of researchers’ attention from de?ning between-person personality taxonomy to specifying comprehensive within-person processes, the dynamics of which can be captured at the level of an individual case. This research examines the possibility of the implicit assessment of the individual’s stability vs. susceptibility to failure stress by comparing the degrees of ef?cacy in the voluntary self-regulation of a computer-simulated information-processing activity under different conditions (patent of Ukraine № 91842, issued in 2010. By exposing two groups of participants (university undergraduates to processing the information, the scope of which exceeds the human short-term memory capacity at one of the stages of the modeled activity an unexpected and unavoidable failure is elicited. The participants who retain stability of their self-regulation behavior after having been exposed to failure, i.e. who keep processing information as effectively as they did prior to failure, are claimed to retain homeostasis and thus possess emotional stability. Those, who loose homeostasis after failure and display lower standards of self-regulation behavior, are considered to be susceptible to stress. The validity of the suggested type of the implicit diagnostics was empirically tested by clustering (K-means algorithm two samples of the participants on the  properties of their self-regulation behavior and testing between-cluster differences by a set of the explicitly assessed variables: Action control ef?cacy (Kuhl, 2001, preferred strategies of Coping with Stressful Situations (Endler, Parker, 1990,  Purpose-in-Life orientation (a Russian version of the test by Crumbaugh and Maholick, modi?ed by D.Leontiev, 1992, Psychological Well-being (Ryff, 1989

  8. Efficiency and effectiveness evaluation of three glass fiber post removal techniques using dental structure wear assessment method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Flávia Casale; Bueno, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira; De Martin, Alexandre Sigrist; Davini, Felipe; Cunha, Rodrigo Sanches

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficiency and effectiveness of three glass fiber post removal techniques. Forty-five extracted maxillary teeth were endodontically treated and cross-sectioned in thirds. Presence of cementing agent and dental structure wear were assessed by analyzing images taken before luting of glass fiber post and after removal procedure. Teeth were divided into 3 groups: Group 1 - diamond bur + Largo reamer; Group 2 - ultrasonic insert; Group 3 - carbide bur + ultrasonic insert. Time spent on removal procedures, dental structure wear and amount of remaining cement agent were recorded and results submitted to ANOVA, Kruskal Wallis and Tukey-Kramer tests. Group 1 - 16'46", 33.33% and 6.99%; Group 2 - 12'31", 40% and 7.86%; and Group 3 - 10'24", 80% and 8.14%. Group 3 presented the most effective removal of glass fiber posts. There was no significant difference in efficiency among the evaluated techniques.

  9. The Development and Validation of a Quality Assessment and Rating of Technique for Injections of the Spine (AQUARIUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicket, Mark C; Hurley, Robert W; Moon, Jee Youn; Brummett, Chad M; Hanling, Steve; Huntoon, Marc A; van Zundert, Jan; Cohen, Steven P

    2016-01-01

    Systematic reviews evaluate the utility of procedural interventions of the spine, including epidural steroid injections (ESIs). However, existing quality assessment tools either fail to account for proper technical quality and patient selection or are not validated. We developed and validated a simple scale for ESIs to provide a quality assessment and rating of technique for injections of the spine (AQUARIUS). Seven experts generated items iteratively based on prior ESI technique studies and professional judgment. Following testing for face and content validity, a 17-item instrument was used by 8 raters from 2 different backgrounds to assess 12 randomized controlled trials, selected from 3 different categories. Using frequency of assessment, a 12-item instrument was also generated. Both instruments underwent reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient), validity (ability to distinguish "low," "random," and "high" study categories), and diagnostic accuracy (receiver operating characteristics) testing. Both 17- and 12-item instruments were scored consistently by raters regardless of background, with overall intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.53-0.89) and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.51-0.89), respectively. Both instruments discriminated between clinical trials from all 3 categories. Diagnostic accuracy was similar for the 2 instruments, with areas under receiver operating characteristic curves of 0.89 (95% CI, 0.82-0.96) and 0.90 (95% CI, 0.82-0.97), respectively. The instrument in both 17- and 12-item formats demonstrates good reliability and diagnostic accuracy in rating ESI studies. As a complement to other tools that assess bias, the instrument may improve the ability to evaluate evidence for systematic reviews and improve clinical trial design.

  10. Demonstration-Based Cooperative Testing in General Chemistry: A Broader Assessment-of-Learning Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Craig W.; Phelps, Amy J.

    1997-06-01

    Demonstrations are often used as tools by instructors to help communicate ideas in chemistry. However, demonstrations can also be used as a means of measuring student learning. Understanding and problem solving in chemistry involves representing chemical phenomena at the symbolic, particulate and macroscopic levels. Measuring student learning of macroscopic understanding and its links to the other areas can be accomplished by using demonstrations as testing tools. The paper describes several examples of ways demonstrations are used to measure student learning in chemistry. Data collected as part of a study indicate that use of demonstration-based assessment activities throughout a term can lead to enhanced student conceptual understanding of chemistry.

  11. Cardiac abnormalities assessed by non-invasive techniques in patients with newly diagnosed idiopathic inflammatory myopathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Louise Pyndt; Simonsen, Jane Angel; Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt

    2015-01-01

    , cardiac troponin-I (TnI), electrocardiogram (standard 12-lead and 48-h Holter monitoring), echocardiography with tissue Doppler measures, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging with T2 mapping and semi-quantitative (99m)technetium pyrophosphate ((99m)Tc-PYP) scintigraphy. RESULTS: Dyspnoea was present....... The myocardial (99m)Tc-PYP uptake and CMR results differed between patients and controls, albeit not with statistical significance. Overall, cardiac abnormalities were demonstrated in 9 (64%) of the patients versus 2 (14%) of the controls (p=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac abnormalities assessed by TnI, ECG...

  12. Imaging techniques used for the real-time assessment of angiogenesis in digestive cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Săftoiu, Adrian; Vilmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Angiogenesis has a critical role in primary tumor growth and the development of metastases. Several angiogenesis inhibitors were recently developed, being a very attractive target for digestive tumor therapy. However, individualized therapy should not only be based on the pre-treatment imaging...... of reviews was to analyze and enhance current knowledge and future perspectives about the real-time assessment of angiogenesis in digestive cancers, used for the longitudinal monitoring of the effects of chemo-radiotherapy (including anti-angiogenic therapies), as well as for the precise targeting of drugs...... through molecular-based drug-delivery systems....

  13. Imaging techniques used for the real-time assessment of angiogenesis in digestive cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saftoiu, Adrian; Vilmann, Peter; Săftoiu, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Angiogenesis has a critical role in primary tumor growth and the development of metastases. Several angiogenesis inhibitors were recently developed, being a very attractive target for digestive tumor therapy. However, individualized therapy should not only be based on the pre-treatment imaging...... of reviews was to analyze and enhance current knowledge and future perspectives about the real-time assessment of angiogenesis in digestive cancers, used for the longitudinal monitoring of the effects of chemo-radiotherapy (including anti-angiogenic therapies), as well as for the precise targeting of drugs...

  14. Gastrointestinal parasites of cats in Denmark assessed by necropsy and concentration McMaster technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi-Storm, N; Mejer, H; Al-Sabi, M N S; Olsen, C S; Thamsborg, S M; Enemark, H L

    2015-12-15

    The large population of feral cats in Denmark may potentially transmit pathogens to household cats and zoonotic parasites to humans. A total of 99 euthanized cats; feral cats (n=92) and household cats with outdoor access (n=7), were collected from March to May 2014 from the Zealand region, Denmark. The sedimentation and counting technique (SCT) was used to isolate helminths and coproscopy was done by concentration McMaster technique (c-McMaster). Overall, 90.1% of the cats were infected and a total of 10 species were recorded by SCT: 5 nematode species: Toxocara cati (84.8%), Ollulanus tricuspis (13.1%), Aonchotheca putorii (7.1%), Paersonema spp. (3.0%), Strongyloides spp. (1.0%); 3 cestodes: Hydatigera taeniaeformis (36.4%), Mesocestoides sp. (3.0%), Dipylidium caninum (1.0%); and 2 trematodes: Cryptocotyle spp. (5.1%) and Pseudamphistomum truncatum (1.0%). O. tricuspis was the second most common gastrointestinal nematode of cats but had the highest intensity of infection. For T. cati, prevalence and worm burden were significantly higher in feral than household cats. No juvenile cats were infected with H. taeniaeformis, and age thus had a significant effect on prevalence and worm burdens of this species. Rural cats had a higher prevalence and worm burden of A. putorii than urban cats. By c-McMaster, ascarid, capillarid, strongylid or taeniid type eggs were found in 77.9% of the cats while Cystoisospora felis was found in 2.1%. The sensitivity of the c-McMaster was 82.5% for T. cati but 26.5% for taeniid eggs, using the SCT as gold standard. A positive correlation between faecal egg counts and worm burdens was seen for T. cati, but not for taeniid eggs (assumed to be H. taeniaeformis). Coprological examination also detected the eggs of extraintestinal Capillariidae species including Eucoleus aerophilus and Eucoleus boehmi, but further necropsy studies are needed to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Vertical instability in spondylolisthesis: a traction radiographic assessment technique and the principle of management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Keith D K; Chow, Daniel H K; Holmes, Andrew

    2003-04-15

    correlated with the change in normalized olisthesis and disc area. Erect flexion and prone traction radiographs represent the extremes of subluxation and reduction of the olisthesis, respectively, and the change in olisthesis seen between these extremes is correlated with the change in disc area and the intervertebral slip angle. Vertical laxity of the affected functional spinal unit resulting from disc degeneration produces laxity in the ligaments and disc anulus, allowing olisthetic motion. Restoration of disc height in turn restores tension to the soft tissues around the disc and results in a spontaneous reduction of the subluxation. Restoration and maintenance of disc height with a spacer or interbody fusion therefore is recommended as a goal in the treatment of spondylolisthesis. When spondylolytic spondylolisthesis involves a posterior column deficiency, additional reconstruction of this column with posterior instrumentation is recommended. Application of the traction radiographic technique in planning for spondylolisthesis reduction is discussed along with the technique of stabilization.

  16. Remote and terrestrial ground monitoring techniques integration for hazard assessment in mountain areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinellato, Giulia; Kenner, Robert; Iasio, Christian; Mair, Volkmar; Mosna, David; Mulas, Marco; Phillips, Marcia; Strada, Claudia; Zischg, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    In high mountain regions the choice of appropriate sites for infrastructure such as roads, railways, cable cars or hydropower dams is often very limited. In parallel, the increasing demand for supply infrastructure in the Alps induces a continuous transformation of the territory. The new role played by the precautionary monitoring in the risk governance becomes fundamental and may overcome the modeling of future events, which represented so far the predominant approach to these sort of issues. Furthermore the consequence of considering methodologies alternative to those more exclusive allow to reduce costs and increasing the frequency of measurements, updating continuously the cognitive framework of existing hazard condition in most susceptible territories. The scale factor of the observed area and the multiple purpose of such regional ordinary surveys make it convenient to adopt Radar Satellite-based systems, but they need to be integrated with terrestrial systems for validation and eventual early warning purposes. Significant progress over the past decade in Remote Sensing (RS), Proximal Sensing and integration-based sensor networks systems now provide technologies, that allow to implement monitoring systems for ordinary surveys of extensive areas or regions, which are affected by active natural processes and slope instability. The Interreg project SloMove aims to provide solutions for such challenges and focuses on using remote sensing monitoring techniques for the monitoring of mass movements in two test sites, in South Tyrol (Italy) and in Grisons Canton (Switzerland). The topics faced in this project concern mass movements and slope deformation monitoring techniques, focusing mainly on the integration of multi-temporal interferometry, new generation of terrestrial technologies for differential digital terrain model elaboration provided by laser scanner (TLS), and GNSS-based topographic surveys, which are used not only for validation purpose, but also for

  17. Assessing culture via the Internet: methods and techniques for psychological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, D T

    2001-02-01

    This study examines the acculturation experiences of Arabic immigrants and assesses the utility of the Internet as a data collection tool. Based on in-depth pilot interview data from 10 male Arabic immigrants and items selected from pre-existing measures, the Male Arabic Ethnic Identity Measure (MAEIM) was developed. Male Arab immigrants (115 males) were solicited through traditional methods in addition to the Internet. Satisfactory reliability and validity were reported for the MAEIM. No significant differences emerged between the Internet and Midwestern samples. The Internet proved to be an effective method for soliciting a relatively large, geographically dispersed sample of Arabic immigrants. The use of the Internet as a research tool is examined in the context of anonymity, networking, low-cost, perceived interactive control, methodological rigor, and external validity. The Internet was an effective vehicle for addressing concerns raised by prospective participants. It is suggested that the Internet may be an important method to assess culture-relevant variables in further research on Arab and other immigrant populations.

  18. Assessment of static flood modeling techniques: application to contrasting marshes flooded during Xynthia (western France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Breilh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the performance of raster-based flood modeling methods on a wide diversity of coastal marshes. These methods are applied to the flooding associated with the storm Xynthia, which severely hit the western coast of France in February 2010. Static and semi-dynamic methods are assessed using a combination of LiDAR data, post-storm delineation of flooded areas and sea levels originating from both tide gauge measurements and storm surge modeling. Static methods are applied to 27 marshes showing a wide geomorphological diversity. It appears that these methods are suitable for marshes with a small distance between the coastline and the landward boundary of the marsh, which causes these marshes to flood rapidly. On the contrary, these methods overpredict flooded areas for large marshes where the distance between the coastline and the landward boundary of the marsh is large, because the flooding cannot be considered as instantaneous. In this case, semi-dynamic methods based on surge overflowing volume calculations can improve the flooding prediction significantly. This study suggests that static and semi-dynamic flood modeling methods can be attractive and quickly deployed to rapidly produce predictive flood maps of vulnerable areas under certain conditions, particularly for small distances between the coastline and the landward boundary of the low-lying coastal area.

  19. Fire Risk Assessment of Some Indian Coals Using Radial Basis Function (RBF) Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimaje, Devidas; Tripathy, Debi Prasad

    2017-04-01

    Fires, whether surface or underground, pose serious and environmental problems in the global coal mining industry. It is causing huge loss of coal due to burning and loss of lives, sterilization of coal reserves and environmental pollution. Most of the instances of coal mine fires happening worldwide are mainly due to the spontaneous combustion. Hence, attention must be paid to take appropriate measures to prevent occurrence and spread of fire. In this paper, to evaluate the different properties of coals for fire risk assessment, forty-nine in situ coal samples were collected from major coalfields of India. Intrinsic properties viz. proximate and ultimate analysis; and susceptibility indices like crossing point temperature, flammability temperature, Olpinski index and wet oxidation potential method of Indian coals were carried out to ascertain the liability of coal to spontaneous combustion. Statistical regression analysis showed that the parameters of ultimate analysis provide significant correlation with all investigated susceptibility indices as compared to the parameters of proximate analysis. Best correlated parameters (ultimate analysis) were used as inputs to the radial basis function network model. The model revealed that Olpinski index can be used as a reliable method to assess the liability of Indian coals to spontaneous combustion.

  20. Using the RBFN model and GIS technique to assess wind erosion hazards of Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huading; Liu, Jiyuan; Zhuang, Dafang; Hu, Yunfeng

    2006-08-01

    Soil wind erosion is the primary process and the main driving force for land desertification and sand-dust storms in arid and semi-arid areas of Northern China. Many researchers have paid more attention to this issue. This paper select Inner Mongolia autonomous region as the research area, quantify the various indicators affecting the soil wind erosion, using the GIS technology to extract the spatial data, and construct the RBFN (Radial Basis Function Network) model for assessment of wind erosion hazard. After training the sample data of the different levels of wind erosion hazard, we get the parameters of the model, and then assess the wind erosion hazard. The result shows that in the Southern parts of Inner Mongolia wind erosion hazard are very severe, counties in the middle regions of Inner Mongolia vary from moderate to severe, and in eastern are slight. The comparison of the result with other researches shows that the result is in conformity with actual conditions, proving the reasonability and applicability of the RBFN model.

  1. Autonomic function assessment in Parkinson's disease patients using the kernel method and entrainment techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Ahmed K

    2007-01-01

    The experimental procedure of lowering and raising a leg while the subject is in the supine position is considered to stimulate and entrain the autonomic nervous system of fifteen untreated patients with Parkinson's disease and fifteen age and sex matched control subjects. The assessment of autonomic function for each group is achieved using an algorithm based on Volterra kernel estimation. By applying this algorithm and considering the process of lowering and raising a leg as stimulus input and the Heart Rate Variability signal (HRV) as output for system identification, a mathematical model is expressed as integral equations. The integral equations are considered and fixed for control subjects and Parkinson's disease patients so that the identification method reduced to the determination of the values within the integral called kernels, resulting in an integral equations whose input-output behavior is nearly identical to that of the system in both healthy subjects and Parkinson's disease patients. The model for each group contains the linear part (first order kernel) and quadratic part (second order kernel). A difference equation model was employed to represent the system for both control subjects and patients with Parkinson's disease. The results show significant difference in first order kernel(impulse response) and second order kernel (mesh diagram) for each group. Using first order kernel and second order kernel, it is possible to assess autonomic function qualitatively and quantitatively in both groups.

  2. Assessing soil quality indicator under different land use and soil erosion using multivariate statistical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosrati, Kazem

    2013-04-01

    Soil degradation associated with soil erosion and land use is a critical problem in Iran and there is little or insufficient scientific information in assessing soil quality indicator. In this study, factor analysis (FA) and discriminant analysis (DA) were used to identify the most sensitive indicators of soil quality for evaluating land use and soil erosion within the Hiv catchment in Iran and subsequently compare soil quality assessment using expert opinion based on soil surface factors (SSF) form of Bureau of Land Management (BLM) method. Therefore, 19 soil physical, chemical, and biochemical properties were measured from 56 different sampling sites covering three land use/soil erosion categories (rangeland/surface erosion, orchard/surface erosion, and rangeland/stream bank erosion). FA identified four factors that explained for 82 % of the variation in soil properties. Three factors showed significant differences among the three land use/soil erosion categories. The results indicated that based upon backward-mode DA, dehydrogenase, silt, and manganese allowed more than 80 % of the samples to be correctly assigned to their land use and erosional status. Canonical scores of discriminant functions were significantly correlated to the six soil surface indices derived of BLM method. Stepwise linear regression revealed that soil surface indices: soil movement, surface litter, pedestalling, and sum of SSF were also positively related to the dehydrogenase and silt. This suggests that dehydrogenase and silt are most sensitive to land use and soil erosion.

  3. Correlation of breast tissue histology and optical signatures to improve margin assessment techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Stephanie; Caldwell, Matthew; Bydlon, Torre; Mulvey, Christine; Mueller, Jenna; Wilke, Lee; Barry, William; Ramanujam, Nimmi; Geradts, Joseph

    2016-06-01

    Optical spectroscopy is sensitive to morphological composition and has potential applications in intraoperative margin assessment. Here, we evaluate ex vivo breast tissue and corresponding quantified hematoxylin & eosin images to correlate optical scattering signatures to tissue composition stratified by patient characteristics. Adipose sites (213) were characterized by their cell area and density. All other benign and malignant sites (181) were quantified using a grid method to determine composition. The relationships between mean reduced scattering coefficient (), and % adipose, % collagen, % glands, adipocyte cell area, and adipocyte density were investigated. These relationships were further stratified by age, menopausal status, body mass index (BMI), and breast density. We identified a positive correlation between and % collagen and a negative correlation between and age and BMI. Increased collagen corresponded to increased variability. In postmenopausal women, was similar regardless of fibroglandular content. Contributions from collagen and glands to were independent and equivalent in benign sites; glands showed a stronger positive correlation than collagen to in malignant sites. Our data suggest that scattering could differentiate highly scattering malignant from benign tissues in postmenopausal women. The relationship between scattering and tissue composition will support improved scattering models and technologies to enhance intraoperative optical margin assessment.

  4. Quantitative assessment technique of HyperEye medical system angiography for coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masaki; Nishimori, Hideaki; Handa, Takemi; Fukutomi, Takashi; Kihara, Kazuki; Tashiro, Miwa; Sato, Takayuki; Orihashi, Kazumasa

    2017-02-01

    The HyperEye Medical System (HEMS) uses indocyanine green (ICG) to visualize blood vessels in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We performed quantitative HEMS assessment to detect grafts at risk of occlusion. We assessed the HEMS angiograms of 177 grafts from 69 patients who underwent CABG and compared the results with those of fluoroscopic coronary angiography, by measuring the increasing rate of ICG intensity, average acceleration value, and time to peak luminance intensity. Grafts in the patent and failed groups showed significant differences in their increasing rate of intensity and average acceleration value. The average accelerations value of ICG intensity of internal thoracic artery (ITA) and saphenous vein (SV) grafts were 112.3 and 144.9 intensity/s 2 in the patent group, and 71.0 and 91.8 intensity/s 2 in the failed group. The time to peak luminance intensity was 1.7 and 1.4 s in the patent group and 2.3 and 1.9 s in the failed group; these values were not significantly different. Significant reductions in the ICG intensity rate and average acceleration value can occur in failed grafts. Therefore, quantifiable changes in ICG intensity may help detect minute changes in blood flow.

  5. Review of measurement techniques and methods for assessing personal exposure to airborne nanomaterials in workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbach, Christof; Alexander, Carla; Clavaguera, Simon; Dahmann, Dirk; Dozol, Hélène; Faure, Bertrand; Fierz, Martin; Fontana, Luca; Iavicoli, Ivo; Kaminski, Heinz; MacCalman, Laura; Meyer-Plath, Asmus; Simonow, Barbara; van Tongeren, Martie; Todea, Ana Maria

    2017-12-15

    Exposure to airborne agents needs to be assessed in the personal breathing zone by the use of personal measurement equipment. Specific measurement devices for assessing personal exposure to airborne nanomaterials have only become available in the recent years. They can be differentiated into direct-reading personal monitors and personal samplers that collect the airborne nanomaterials for subsequent analyses. This article presents a review of the available personal monitors and samplers and summarizes the available literature regarding their accuracy, comparability and field applicability. Due to the novelty of the instruments, the number of published studies is still relatively low. Where applicable, literature data is therefore complemented with published and unpublished results from the recently finished nanoIndEx project. The presented data show that the samplers and monitors are robust and ready for field use with sufficient accuracy and comparability. However, several limitations apply, e.g. regarding the particle size range of the personal monitors and their in general lower accuracy and comparability compared with their stationary counterparts. The decision whether a personal monitor or a personal sampler shall be preferred depends strongly on the question to tackle. In many cases, a combination of a personal monitor and a personal sampler may be the best choice to obtain conclusive results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Soil moisture assessed by digital mapping techniques and its field validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Montoani Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Digital techniques and tools can assist not only in the prediction of soil properties, such as soil moisture, but also in planning the use and management of areas for agriculture and, or, environmental purposes. In this sense, this work aimed to study wetness indexes methods, defining the spatial resolution and selecting the estimation method that best correlates with water content data measured in the field, evaluating even moisture at different soil depths and seasons. This study was developed in a landscape with strongly undulated relief and covered with Nitosols at the summit and upper middle third, and Argisols at the low middle third, ranging in altitude from 845 to 890 m, located in the southern state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. It were performed analyses of Pearson linear correlation between soil moisture determined in the field, at depths of 10, 20, 30, 40, 60 and 100 cm and the water storage in 0-100 cm depth, and the topographic and SAGA wetness indexes, TWI and SWI, respectively, obtained from digital elevation models at different spatial resolutions. In most studied conditions, the TWI with resolution of 10 m provided better results, particularly for the dry season. In this study, only the depth of 100 cm resulted in a significant and positive correlation, suggesting that the moisture levels are suitable for water dynamic studies in the subsurface, assisting in studies of hydrological dynamics and planning the soil use and management, especially for perennial plants with deeper root systems.

  7. Practical techniques for assessing body composition in middle-aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D P; Going, S B; Milliken, L A; Hall, M C; Lohman, T G

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the relationships of anthropometric, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and near infrared interactance (NIR) measurements with a multiple-component (MC) criterion estimate of body composition derived from body density (D), body water (W), and bone mineral (B) in 48 white adults aged 49-80 yr. Relative errors of predicting the MC criterion from the practical measurements were determined by simple regressions within gender and calculated as the SEE divided by the criterion mean and expressed as a percentage. Relative errors were lowest for the BIA variable, height2/resistance (4.8-5.0%), higher for body mass index and the sum of 10 skinfold thicknesses (7.0-14.5%), and highest for NIR-derived optical density readings at the biceps and the sum of 10 sites (10.8-15.8%). Due to the low relative prediction error for height2/resistance, sex-specific BIA formulas for estimating fat-free mass from D, W, and B (FFM-DWB) were developed. The SEEs for predicting FFM-DWB from BIA, weight, and age were both 1.5 kg in women and men. Because BIA is not limited to ambulatory subjects, it is concluded that BIA may be a particularly useful, practical technique for estimating body composition in older adults.

  8. Neonatal total liquid ventilation: is low-frequency forced oscillation technique suitable for respiratory mechanics assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossé, Dominick; Beaulieu, Alexandre; Avoine, Olivier; Micheau, Philippe; Praud, Jean-Paul; Walti, Hervé

    2010-08-01

    This study aimed to implement low-frequency forced oscillation technique (LFFOT) in neonatal total liquid ventilation (TLV) and to provide the first insight into respiratory impedance under this new modality of ventilation. Thirteen newborn lambs, weighing 2.5 + or - 0.4 kg (mean + or - SD), were premedicated, intubated, anesthetized, and then placed under TLV using a specially design liquid ventilator and a perfluorocarbon. The respiratory mechanics measurements protocol was started immediately after TLV initiation. Three blocks of measurements were first performed: one during initial respiratory system adaptation to TLV, followed by two other series during steady-state conditions. Lambs were then divided into two groups before undergoing another three blocks of measurements: the first group received a 10-min intravenous infusion of salbutamol (1.5 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) after continuous infusion of methacholine (9 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1)), while the second group of lambs was chest strapped. Respiratory impedance was measured using serial single-frequency tests at frequencies ranging between 0.05 and 2 Hz and then fitted with a constant-phase model. Harmonic test signals of 0.2 Hz were also launched every 10 min throughout the measurement protocol. Airway resistance and inertance were starkly increased in TLV compared with gas ventilation, with a resonant frequency ventilation. We show that LFFOT is an effective tool to track respiratory mechanics under TLV.

  9. Assessment of iodine intake in vegans: weighed dietary record vs duplicate portion technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightowler, H J; Davies, G J

    2002-08-01

    To compare iodine intakes estimated from weighed dietary records with iodine intakes obtained by direct analysis of duplicate diets in a group of vegans. Cross-sectional study. London and the south-east of England. Thirty-three vegans consuming their habitual diet were recruited through the UK Vegan Society; 26 subjects (11 males, 15 females), age 21-84 y, completed the study. Iodine intakes were estimated from 4 day weighed dietary records and compared with iodine intakes obtained by direct analysis of concurrent 4 day duplicate diets. There was wide variation in iodine intakes. Mean daily iodine intake in males was significantly lower (Pvegan consumption, in food composition tables and the variability in iodine content of seaweed. The use of current food tables to estimate iodine intake in vegans is limited. It is not always practical to determine iodine intake using the duplicate portion technique, therefore more reliable information on iodine content of foods, incorporating the variation within foods, is needed.

  10. In vitro techniques to assess the proficiency of skin care cosmetic formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Amit; Sahu, Ram Kumar; Matlam, Munglu; Deshmukh, Vinay Kumar; Dwivedi, Jaya; Jha, Arvind Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Cosmetics comprising either natural or synthetic components are used almost regularly and universally in different forms to enhance the beauty. The utmost disclosure of human membrane to sunlight and environmental pollution results in the exhibition of free radical, that react with deoxyribonucleic acid, proteins and fatty acids, causation oxidative destruction dysfunction of the antioxidant system. In skin, the formation of reactive oxygen species leads to skin diseases, predominantly cutaneous malignancies, immunosuppression, wrinkles, aging, etc., The human organism fosters a barrier practice against the destructive action of free radicals, comprising mostly of vitamins, carotenoids and enzymes. Cosmetic products are the best option to reduce skin disorders such as hyper pigmentation, skin aging, skin wrinkling and rough skin texture, etc., Hence in this review, we conferred various in vitro methods that are used for the development of novel cosmetic formulation. There is an expanding fascinate employing in vitro techniques because they are less time consuming, more cost-effective and lessen the participation of human volunteers.

  11. Comparison of imaging techniques to assess appendage anatomy and measurements for left atrial appendage closure device selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Mínguez, José Ramón; González-Fernández, Reyes; Fernández-Vegas, Concepción; Millán-Nuñez, Victoria; Fuentes-Cañamero, María Eugenia; Nogales-Asensio, Juan Manuel; Doncel-Vecino, Javier; Yuste Domínguez, María; García Serrano, Laura; Sánchez Quintana, Damián

    2014-09-01

    The adequate device size selection for left atrial appendage closure is crucial to ensuring adequate implantation and for avoiding the need for multiple attempts that increase the risk of complications. Our aim was to evaluate the information obtained using different imaging techniques to select the size of the closure device in a clinical environment. Thirty-seven patients who consecutively underwent implantation of Amplatzer cardiac plug (ACP) devices were studied. All patients were examined using computed tomography (CT) prior to intervention. Measurements were compared to those obtained using intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (IOTEE) and angiography. Size was determined by the longest axis of the appendage ostium. The influence of all techniques on the correct selection of final size was assessed. The measurements taken using the three techniques agreed in only 21.6% of the cases, leading to accurate selection of device size. Two techniques coincided as follows: IOTEE-CT in 45.9%, angiography-CT in 35.13%, and angiography-IOTEE in 24.3%. Measurements using CT were definitive for ACP selection in 75.7% of cases, angiography in 48.6%, and echocardiography in 51.4%. Device size was undermeasured with angiography in 35.1% of cases, and with IOTEE in 24.3%; CT overmeasured 21.6% of cases. The combination of angiography-CT was the most accurate for selection of device size. CT most often predicts the appropriate device size. If it fails, it usually overestimates the size. Agreement of measurements with all three techniques is the most accurate situation; when two agree, the most accurate combination is angiography and CT.

  12. Development of Tools and Techniques to Survey, Assess, Stabilise, Monitor and Preserve Underwater Archaeological Sites: SASMAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, D. J.

    2015-08-01

    SASMAP's purpose is to develop new technologies and best practices in order to locate, assess and manage Europe's underwater cultural heritage in a more effective way than is possible today. SASMAP has taken an holistic- and process- based approach to investigating underwater environments and the archaeological sites contained therein. End user of the results of SASMAP are severalfold; i) to benefiet the SMEs involved in the project and development of their products for the offshore industry (not just for archaeological purposes) ii) a better understanding of the marine environment and its effect on archaeological materials iii) the collation of the results from the project into guidelines that can be used by cultural resource managers to better administer and optimise developer lead underwater archaeological project within Europe in accordance with European legislation (Treaty of Valetta (1992). Summarily the project has utilised a down scaling approach to localise archaeological sites at a large scale regional level. This has involved using innovative satellite imagery to obtain seamless topography maps over coastal areas and the seabed (accurate to a depth of 6m) as well as the development of a 3D sub bottom profiler to look within the seabed. Results obtained from the downscaling approach at the study areas in the project (Greece and Denmark) have enabled geological models to be developed inorder to work towards predictive modelling of where submerged prehistoric sites may be encountered. Once sites have been located an upscaling approach has been taken to assessing an individual site and the materials on and within it in order to better understand the state of preservation and dynamic conditions of a site and how it can best be preserved through in situ preservation or excavation. This has involved the development of equipment to monitor the seabed environment (open water and in sediments), equipment for sampling sediments and assessing the state of

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF LAND USE PLANING AROUND THE LEASED LIMESTONE MINE USING REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ranade

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mining activities and the waste products produced can have significant impact on the surrounding environment - ranging from localized surface and ground water contamination to the damaging effects of airborne pollutants on the regional ecosystem. The long term monitoring of environmental impacts requires a cost effective method to characterize land cover and land cover changes over time. As per the guidelines of Ministry of Environment and Forest, Govt. of India, it is mandatory to study and analyze the impacts of mining on its surroundings. The use of remote sensing technology to generate reliable land cover maps is a valuable asset to completing environmental assessments over mining affected areas. In this paper, a case study has been discussed to study the land use – land cover status around 10 Km radius of open cast limestone mine area and the subsequent impacts on environmental as well as social surroundings.

  14. Cardiac abnormalities assessed by non-invasive techniques in patients with newly diagnosed idiopathic inflammatory myopathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Louise Pyndt; Simonsen, Jane Angel; Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Knowledge of cardiac involvement in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) is limited, especially in the early stage of disease. The objective of the present study was to perform a controlled evaluation of cardiac abnormalities in newly diagnosed, untreated patients with idiopathic....... The myocardial (99m)Tc-PYP uptake and CMR results differed between patients and controls, albeit not with statistical significance. Overall, cardiac abnormalities were demonstrated in 9 (64%) of the patients versus 2 (14%) of the controls (p=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac abnormalities assessed by TnI, ECG...... or imaging modalities were significantly more common in newly diagnosed, treatment naïve patients with IIM compared to healthy control subjects. These abnormalities, although subclinical, may indicate that myocardial involvement is common in patients and calls for larger controlled studies and further...

  15. Assessment of morphometric characteristics of Chakrar watershed in Madhya Pradesh India using geospatial technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Sandeep

    2017-09-01

    The quantitative analysis of the watershed is important for the quantification of the channel network and to understand its geo-hydrological behaviour. Assessment of drainage network and their relative parameters have been quantitatively carried out for the Chakrar watershed of Madhya Pradesh, India, to understand the prevailing geological variation, topographic information and structural setup of the watershed and their interrelationship. Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) has been used for the delineation and calculation of the morphometric parameters of the watershed. The Chakrar watershed is sprawled over an area of 415 km2 with dendritic, parallel and trellis drainage pattern. It is sub-divided into nine sub-watersheds. The study area is designated as sixth-order basin and lower and middle order streams mostly dominate the basin with the drainage density value of 2.46 km/km2 which exhibits gentle to steep slope terrain, medium dense vegetation, and less permeable with medium precipitation. The mean bifurcation value of the basin is 4.16 and value of nine sub-watersheds varies from 2.83 to 4.44 which reveals drainage networks formed on homogeneous rocks when the influences of geologic structures on the stream network is negligible. Form factor, circularity ratio and elongation ratio indicate an elongated basin shape having less prone to flood, lower erosion and sediment transport capacities. The results from the morphometric assessment of the watershed are important in water resources evaluation and its management and for the selection of recharge structure in the area for future water management.

  16. Limited impact of free ammonia on Nitrobacter spp. inhibition assessed by chemical and molecular techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Shawn; Robinson, Kevin; Layton, Alice; Sayler, Gary

    2010-06-01

    Free ammonia has long been identified as a nitrite oxidation inhibitor. However, past attempts to use this compound to eliminate nitrite oxidation and thereby promote more efficient nitrogen removal strategies during biological wastewater treatment have often failed. Additionally, contradictory results exist in the literature where direct measurements of free ammonia inhibition of nitrite oxidation have been reported. In this study, suspended biomass samples (nitrifier enriched activated sludge) were collected from a bench scale nitrification reactor with Nitrobacter spp. as the dominant nitrite oxidizer and subjected to batch respirometric experiments designed to quantify free ammonia inhibition of nitrite oxidization. A variety of data including ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate conversion rates, oxygen consumption rates, and Nitrobacter ribosomal RNA transcript abundance, a molecular indicator of growth activity, were used to assess nitrite oxidation and growth activity. Both the traditional and molecular activity assessments indicated that free ammonia had a limited inhibitory effect on Nitrobacter spp. In fact, the pH changes necessary to induce high free ammonia concentrations (>10mg-N/L) had a demonstrably more important inhibiting effect on nitrite oxidation than free ammonia. In contrast, during high ammonia oxidizing activity (5.3mg-N/L/h), low nitrite oxidation rates (0.2mg-N/L/h) and severely impaired Nitrobacter spp. growth activity, indicated by a low abundance of the Nitrobacter spp. ribosomal gene transcript relative to the ribosomal gene (0.08), were measured. The findings suggest that pH changes and ammonia oxidizing bacteria activity are more important factors limiting Nitrobacter spp. mediated nitrite oxidation, rather than the free ammonia concentration. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessing the scholar CanMEDS role in residents using critical appraisal techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliya Kassam

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this brief report, we describe two ways in which we assessed the Scholar CanMEDS role using a method to measure residents’ ability to complete a critical appraisal.  These were incorporated into a modified OSCE format where two stations consisted of 1 critically appraising an article and 2 critiquing an abstract. Method: Residents were invited to participate in the CanMEDS In-Training Exam (CITE through the Office of Postgraduate Medical Education. Mean scores for the two Scholar stations were calculated using the number of correct responses out of 10. The global score represented the examiner’s overall impression of the resident’s knowledge and effort.  Correlations between scores are also presented between the two Scholar stations and a paired sample t-test comparing the global mean scores of the two stations was also performed. Results: Sixty-three of the 64 residents registered to complete the CanMEDS In-Training Exam including the two Scholar stations.  There were no significant differences between the global scores of the Scholar stations showing that the overall knowledge and effort of the residents was similar across both stations (3.8 vs. 3.5, p = 0.13.  The correlation between the total mean scores of both stations (inter-station reliability was also non-significant (r = 0.05, p = 0.67.  No significant differences between senior residents and junior residents were detected or between internal medicine residents and non-internal medicine residents. Conclusion: Further testing of these stations is needed and other novel ways of assessing the Scholar role competencies should also be investigated.

  18. Assessment of phacoaspiration techniques in clear lens extraction for correction of high myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa A El-Helw

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa A El-Helw, Ahmed M EmarahDepartment of Ophthalmology, Cairo University, EgyptPurpose: To evaluate various phacoaspiration techniques in clear lens extraction for the incidence of intraoperative difficulties and complications.Patients and methods: This was a prospective study in which bilateral clear lens extraction was performed on 40 eyes of 20 patients, to correct high myopia. The patients were divided into 2 groups: group A underwent supracapsular phacoaspiration; group B were the contralateral eyes of the same patient. These patients were operated on with endocapsular phacoaspiration with the divide and conquer (D and C technique. Preoperative ocular examination data were recorded and tested for significance. Intraoperative difficulties and complications such as nucleus cracking, capsule rupture and vitreous loss, and repeated chamber collapse were recorded. Postoperative examination data were recorded.Results: Mean age was 35.65 ± 5.85 years. Mean follow-up time was 17.1 ± 8.56 months. In group A mean myopia was -17.3 ± 5.07 diopters; in group B myopia was -17.9 ± 4.20 diopters. Mean preoperative uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA was 0.04 ± 0.0167, while the mean postoperative UCVA was 0.435 ± 0.1442. There was a significant difference in pre and postoperative BCVA within both groups, but not between the two groups. In both groups endothelial cell count (ECC showed a significant difference between pre- and postoperative data; however, there was no statistically significant difference between both groups in postoperative ECC. The effective phacoaspiration time for group A was 4.6 ± 1.6 seconds, and for group B 9.90 ± 2.27 seconds (P < 0.005. No cases of capsule rupture occurred in group A, but 3 cases occurred in group B (15 % (not significant, P = 0.231. Nucleus cracking did not occur in group A, but in group B 13 cases occurred (65%. Chamber collapse occurred in 4 cases (20% in group A and 5 cases (25% in group B (not

  19. Assessment of Heart Rate Variability Thresholds from Incremental Treadmill Tests in Five Cross-Country Skiing Techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibai Mendia-Iztueta

    Full Text Available The assessment of heart rate variability (HRV thresholds (HRVTs as an alternative of Ventilatory thresholds (VTs is a relatively new approach with increasing popularity which has not been conducted in cross-country (XC skiing yet. The main purpose of the present study was to assess HRVTs in the five main XC skiing-related techniques, double poling (DP, diagonal striding (DS, Nordic walking (NW, V1 skating (V1, and V2 skating (V2.Ten competitive skiers completed these incremental treadmill tests until exhaustion with a minimum of one to two recovery days in between each test. Ventilatory gases, HRV and poling frequencies were measured. The first HRV threshold (HRVT1 was assessed using two time-domain analysis methods, and the second HRV threshold (HRVT2 was assessed using two non-time varying frequency-domain analysis methods. HRVT1 was assessed by plotting the mean successive difference (MSD and standard deviation (SD of normalized R-R intervals to workload. HRVT1 was assessed by plotting high frequency power (HFP and the HFP relative to respiratory sinus arrhythmia (HFPRSA with workload. HRVTs were named after their methods (HRVT1-SD; HRVT1-MSD; HRVT2-HFP; HRVT2-HFP-RSA. The results showed that the only cases where the proposed HRVTs were good assessors of VTs were the HRVT1-SD of the DS test, the HRVT1-MSD of the DS and V2 tests, and the HRVT2-HFP-RSA of the NW test. The lack of a wider success of the assessment of HRVTs was reasoned to be mostly due to the high entrainment between the breathing and poling frequencies. As secondary finding, a novel Cardiolocomotor coupling mode was observed in the NW test. This new Cardiolocoomtor coupling mode corresponded to the whole bilateral poling cycle instead of corresponding to each poling action as it was reported to the date by the existing literature.

  20. Radionuclide assessment of peripheral hemodynamics: a new technique for measurement of forearm blood volume and flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todo, Y.; Tanimoto, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Iwasaki, T.

    1986-02-01

    A new peripheral hemodynamic measurement system using /sup 99m/Tc-labeled red blood cells has been developed. This method was carried out on 22 normal subjects, 29 with coronary artery disease, and two with dilated cardiomyopathy. Peripheral hemodynamic indices obtained from this method included forearm blood volume (FBV), venous capacity (FVC), venous capacity index (VCI), blood flow (FBF), and vascular resistance (FVR), and were compared with the central hemodynamic parameters of left ventricular filling pressure (LVFP), cardiac output (CO), and total systemic vascular resistance (TSVR) obtained with an invasive technique. The normal values were FBV 8.54 +/- 2.04 ml/100 ml; FVC 4.54 +/- 1.23 ml/100 ml; VCI 65.5 +/- 3.8%; FBF 4.26 +/- 0.56 ml/100 ml/min; and FVR 20.9 +/- 4.4 mmHg/ml/100 ml/min. These values were in good agreement with the values reported using conventional plethysmography. The 16 patients with congestive heart failure (NYHA Class II or III) showed significantly lower FBV, FVC, and FBF values and significantly higher VCI and FVR values than the healthy subjects. Capacitance vessel parameters (FBV, FVC, and VCI) and LVFP, FBF and CO, and FVR and TSVR each showed significant correlation; reproducibility was also good. The advantages of this method are (a) the detector does not come in contact with the region being measured; (b) it is possible to ascertain the absolute quantity of blood in the tissue; (c) extravasation of the plasma component can be ignored; and (d) data processing is simple.