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Sample records for assessment part iii

  1. Integrated Environmental Assessment Part III: ExposureAssessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Small, Mitchell J.

    2006-06-01

    Human exposure assessment is a key step in estimating the environmental and public health burdens that result chemical emissions in the life cycle of an industrial product or service. This column presents the third in a series of overviews of the state of the art in integrated environmental assessment - earlier columns described emissions estimation (Frey and Small, 2003) and fate and transport modeling (Ramaswami, et al., 2004). When combined, these first two assessment elements provide estimates of ambient concentrations in the environment. Here we discuss how both models and measurements are used to translate ambient concentrations into metrics of human and ecological exposure, the necessary precursors to impact assessment. Exposure assessment is the process of measuring and/or modeling the magnitude, frequency and duration of contact between a potentially harmful agent and a target population, including the size and characteristics of that population (IPCS, 2001; Zartarian, et al., 2005). Ideally the exposure assessment process should characterize the sources, routes, pathways, and uncertainties in the assessment. Route of exposure refers to the way that an agent enters the receptor during an exposure event. Humans contact pollutants through three routes--inhalation, ingestion, and dermal uptake. Inhalation occurs in both outdoor environments and indoor environments where most people spend the majority of their time. Ingestion includes both water and food, as well as soil and dust uptake due to hand-to-mouth activity. Dermal uptake occurs through contacts with consumer products; indoor and outdoor surfaces; the water supply during washing or bathing; ambient surface waters during swimming or boating; soil during activities such as work, gardening, and play; and, to a lesser extent, from the air that surrounds us. An exposure pathway is the course that a pollutant takes from an ambient environmental medium (air, soil, water, biota, etc), to an exposure medium

  2. Workshop 96. Part III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part III of the proceedings contain 155 contributions in various fields of science and technology including nuclear engineering, environmental science, and biomedical engineering. Out of these, 10 were selected to be inputted in INIS. (P.A.)

  3. Google vs. the Library (Part III): Assessing the Quality of Sources Found by Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgas, Helen

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses and compares the quality of sources found by undergraduate students when doing research using both Google and a library (federated) search tool. Thirty undergraduates were asked to find four sources (one book, two articles, and one additional source of their choosing) related to a selected research topic. Students used both…

  4. Environmental assessment of three egg production systems - Part III: Airborne bacteria concentrations and emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y; Zhao, D; Ma, H; Liu, K; Atilgan, A; Xin, H

    2016-07-01

    Airborne microorganism level is an important indoor air quality indicator, yet it has not been well documented for laying-hen houses in the United States. As a part of the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES) environmental monitoring project, this study comparatively monitored the concentrations and emissions of airborne total and Gram-negative (Gram(-)) bacteria in three types of commercial laying-hen houses, i.e., conventional cage (CC), aviary (AV), and enriched colony (EC) houses, over a period of eight months covering the mid and late stages of the flock cycle. It also delineated the relationship between airborne total bacteria and particulate matter smaller than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10). The results showed airborne total bacteria concentrations (log CFU/m(3)) of 4.7 ± 0.3 in CC, 6.0 ± 0.8 in AV, and 4.8 ± 0.3 in EC, all being higher than the level recommended for human environment (3.0 log CFU/m(3)). The much higher concentrations in AV arose from the presence of floor litter and hen activities on it, as evidenced by the higher concentrations in the afternoon (with litter access) than in the morning (without litter access). The overall means and standard deviation of airborne total bacteria emission rates, in log CFU/[h-hen] (or log CFU/[h-AU], AU = animal unit or 500 kg live weight) were 4.8 ± 0.4 (or 7.3 ± 0.4) for CC, 6.1 ± 0.7 (or 8.6 ± 0.7) for AV, and 4.8 ± 0.5 (or 7.3 ± 0.5) for EC. Both concentration and emission rate of airborne total bacteria were positively related to PM10 Gram(-) bacteria were present at low concentrations in all houses; and only 2 samples (6%) in CC, 7 (22%) samples in AV, and 2 (6%) samples in EC out of 32 air samples collected in each house were found positive with Gram(-) bacteria. The concentration of airborne Gram(-) bacteria was estimated to be hen houses, especially in AV houses. PMID:26994201

  5. Drilling miniature holes, Part III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1978-07-01

    Miniature components for precision electromechanical mechanisms such as switches, timers, and actuators typically require a number of small holes. Because of the precision required, the workpiece materials, and the geometry of the parts, most of these holes must be produced by conventional drilling techniques. The use of such techniques is tedious and often requires considerable trial and error to prevent drill breakage, minimize hole mislocation and variations in hole diameter. This study of eight commercial drill designs revealed that printed circuit board drills produced better locational and size repeatability than did other drills when centerdrilling was not used. Boring holes 1 mm in dia, or less, as a general rule did not improve hole location in brass or stainless steel. Hole locations of patterns of 0.66-mm holes can be maintained within 25.4-..mu..m diametral positional tolerance if setup misalignments can be eliminated. Size tolerances of +- 3.8 ..mu..m can be maintained under some conditions when drilling flat plates. While these levels of precision are possible with existing off-the-shelf drills, they may not be practical in many cases.

  6. Nuclear Energy Center: upper St. Lawrence region. Part I. Siting. Part II. Fort Drum surrogate site, description and impact assessment. Part III. Dispersed sites impact assessment and comparison with the NEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merry, P.A.; Luner, C.; Hong, S.W.; Canham, H.O.; Boggs, J.F.; McCool, T.P.

    1976-12-01

    This report is one of many supporting documents used by the Nuclear Regulatory commission in the preparation of the Nuclear Energy Center Site Survey (NECSS) mandated by Congress. While the overall study focuses on the feasibility and practicability of nuclear energy centers (NECs), this report is directed towards choosing a suitable surrogate site in the upper St. Lawrence region of New York State, assessing the probable impacts associated with construction and operation of the NEC, and comparing these impacts with those associated with small dispersed nuclear power stations. The upper St. Lawrence region is surveyed to identify a specific site that might be suitable for a surrogate NEC. Several assumptions about the basic design of an NEC are delineated, and a general overview of the characteristics of the region is given. The Fort Drum Military Reservation is chosen as a suitable surrogate site. Fort Drum and the surrounding area are described in terms of land use and population patterns, terrestrial and aquatic ecology, water use and quality, meteorology, institutional framework, and socioeconomic structure. The impacts associated with NEC development are assessed. Then the impacts associated with smaller dispersed nuclear power stations located throughout New York State are assessed and compared with the impacts associated with the NEC. Finally, the impacts due to development of the transmission line networks associated with the NEC and with the dispersed power stations are assessed and compared.

  7. Warship Radar Signatures (Ship Survivability Part III-A)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galle, L.F.; Heemskerk, H.J.M.; Ewijk, L.J. van

    2000-01-01

    Radar Cross Section (RCS) management is of paramount importance for a warships's survivability. In this first part of the paper (Part III-A), the operational benefits of low RCS will be explained. Basic RCS theory, measurement and simulation techniques will be addressed. The RCS of representative ge

  8. Assessment of Technologies for the Space Shuttle External Tank Thermal Protection System and Recommendations for Technology Improvement - Part III: Material Property Characterization, Analysis, and Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Thomas S.; Johnson, Theodore F.; Whitley, Karen S.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this report is to contribute to the independent assessment of the Space Shuttle External Tank Foam Material. This report specifically addresses material modeling, characterization testing, data reduction methods, and data pedigree. A brief description of the External Tank foam materials, locations, and standard failure modes is provided to develop suitable background information. A review of mechanics based analysis methods from the open literature is used to provide an assessment of the state-of-the-art in material modeling of closed cell foams. Further, this report assesses the existing material property database and investigates sources of material property variability. The report presents identified deficiencies in testing methods and procedures, recommendations for additional testing as required, identification of near-term improvements that should be pursued, and long-term capabilities or enhancements that should be developed.

  9. The Universal Arrow of Time III-IV:(Part III) Nonquantum gravitation theory (Part IV) Quantum gravitation theory

    OpenAIRE

    Kupervasser, Oleg

    2011-01-01

    The paper consists of the two independent papers - the first one about Nonquantum Gravitation theory, the second one about Quantum Gravitation theory (Part III: Nonquantum Gravitation theory) The first paper is dealing with the analysis of general relativity theory (theory of gravitation) from the point of view of thermodynamic time arrow. Within this framework "informational paradox" for black holes and "paradox with the grandfather" for time travel "wormholes" are resolved. (Part IV: Quantu...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 1068 - High-Altitude Counties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-Altitude Counties III Appendix III to Part 1068 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS GENERAL COMPLIANCE PROVISIONS FOR ENGINE PROGRAMS Pt. 1068, App. III Appendix III to Part...

  11. Japanese contributions to IAEA INTOR workshop, phase two A, part 2 chapter III: impurity control (physics)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report corresponds to the first half of Chapter III of Japanese contribution report to IAEA INTOR Workshop, Phase Two A, Part 2. Data base assessments are made for divertor, limiter, ergodic limiter, RF pumpout, fuelling, atomic and molecular processes, surface interaction, and vessel preparation. Divertor and limiter modelling and their validation are discussed, and impurity control performance for INTOR is evaluated with the predictive modelling. (author)

  12. 12 CFR Appendix III to Part 27 - Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet III Appendix III to Part 27 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Inquiry/Application Log Sheet eR20MY94.003...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Label Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Label Calculation...) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. III Appendix III to Part 600—Sample Fuel Economy Label Calculation Suppose that a manufacturer called...

  14. 29 CFR Appendix III to Part 1918 - The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory.... 1918, App. III Appendix III to Part 1918—The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory) Note: This appendix is non-mandatory and provides an explanation of the mechanics in the correct spotting...

  15. The shallow water wave hindcast model: HISWA Part III: user manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, N.; Herbers, T.H.C.; Holthuijsen, L.H.

    1985-01-01

    Development of a two-dimensional model to hindcast spectral wave parameters in an estuary with tidal flats on the basis of bottomtopography, current and wind data. This part III contains the user manual of the HISWA model.

  16. Assessment of hydrogen combustion effects in the BWR/6 - Mark III Standard Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses General Electric's study of potential hydrogen combustion effects on the Standard Mark III containment during postulated severe accidents. This study was performed as part of the Probabilistic Risk Assessment of the BWR/6 - Mark III Standard Plant. The methodology of determining the accident event sequence and modeling of the Boiling Water Reactor core response, including hydrogen generation by metal-water reaction, is described. Combustion of hydrogen released to the containment is analyzed and effects on the Mark III containment system are assessed. It is concluded that even for those cases where containment integrity may be lost, the containment function (i.e., limiting offsite doses) is maintained by the drywell and suppression pool

  17. On the Riemann zeta-function, Part III

    OpenAIRE

    Csizmazia, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    An odd meromorphic function f(s) is constructed from the Riemann zeta-function evaluated at one-half plus s. The partial fraction expansion, p(s), of f(s) is obtained using the conjunction of the Riemann hypothesis and hypotheses advanced by the author. That compound hypothesis and the expansion p(s) are employed in Part IV to derive the two-sided Laplace transform representation of f(s) on the open vertical strip of all s with real part between zero and four.

  18. Stabilisation of the emergency patient Part III: Central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Sigrist, Nadja

    2011-01-01

    The emergency patient with decreased consciousness is identified by clinical examination of pupil size and reaction, additional brain stem reflexes, level of consciousness and motor activity. Priority stabilisation of respiration and perfusion is mandatory in the management of patients with neurological diseases and is part of the strategy aiming at preventing secondary neuronal damage induced by hypoxia, hypercapnia and decreased cerebral perfusion. The goal of the emergency stabilisation is...

  19. Antipsychotics and Sexual Dysfunction: Sexual Dysfunction - Part III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Mysore Nagaraj

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Satisfying sexual experience is an essential part of a healthy and enjoyable life for most people. Antipsychotic drugs are among the various factors that affect optimal sexual functioning. Both conventional and novel antipsychotics are associated with significant sexual side effects. This review has presented various studies comparing different antipsychotic drugs. Dopamine antagonism, increased serum prolactin, serotonergic, adrenergic and cholinergic mechanisms are all proposed to be the mechanisms for sexual dysfunction. Drug treatment for this has not given satisfactory long-term results. Knowledge of the receptor pharmacology of an individual antipsychotic will help to determine whether it is more or less likely to cause sexual side effects and its management.

  20. Aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmospheric environment. Part III: personal monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgen, E.; Levsen, K.; Angerer, J.; Schneider, P.; Heinrich, J.; Wichmann, H.-E.

    As part of a larger study, personal sampling of the aromatic hydrocarbons benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and the isomeric xylenes (BTEX) was carried out by 55 nonsmoking volunteers for a period of 14 days. Thirty-nine persons lived in a rural area near Hannover (Germany) with hardly any traffic at all, while 16 persons lived in a high-traffic city street in Hannover. The personal exposure level of the persons in the rural area (some commuting to Hannover) was: 2.9, 24.8, 2.4 and 7.7 μg m -3 for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and the sum of xylenes, respectively, while the corresponding data for the high traffic city streets were 4.0, 22.2, 2.8 and 9.7 μg m -3 (geometric means). Four microenvironments have been monitored which contribute to the total exposure to BTEX, i.e. the home, the outdoor air, the workplace and the car cabin. The most important microenvironment for non-working persons is the private home. The concentration of most BTEX in the private home is almost equal to the personal exposure level, demonstrating that the indoor pollution in the home makes by far the highest contribution to the total exposure. For working people (mostly office workers), the workplace is the second most important microenvironment contributing to the total BTEX exposure. Taking all working persons into consideration (independent of the location of their private home) the personal exposure level is higher by a factor of 1.2-1.4 than that of the workplace (for toluene this factor is 2.2). As already found by others, very high BTEX concentrations may be found in car cabins, in particular, if the engine is gasoline-driven. In the cabin of 44 cars in the rural/urban area average benzene concentrations (geometric mean) of 12/14 μg m -3 and a maximum value of ˜550 μg m -3 were found. On average, the participating volunteers drove their car for 45 min day -1 (i.e. 3% of the day). Nevertheless, the car cabin constitutes about 10% of the total benzene exposure. Refueling of the

  1. Physiotherapy and low back pain - part iii: outcomes research utilising the biosychosocial model: psychosocial outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Bardin

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive understanding of low back pain (LBPhas evolved that necessitates the use of a biopsychosocial model, focusing on illness rather than disease and incorporating the biological, psychological and social aspects that are important to understand and to study LBP in its chronic form. Traditional outcome measures that measure elements within the biological component are limited to assess the spectrum of impacts caused by chronic low back pain (CLBP and the validity, reliability and sensitivity of some of these measures has been questioned.Few physiologic tests of spine function are clinically meaningful to patients, objective physical findings can be absent, and in CLBP disability and activity intolerance are often disproportional to the original injury. Biological outcomes should be complemented by outcomes of the psychosocial aspects of back pain that measure the considerable functional and emotional impact on the quality of life of patients experiencing low back dysfunction. Outcomes research is an analysis of clinical practice as it actually occurs and can  make a valuable contribution to understanding the multidimensional impact of LBP. Psychosocial aspects of the biopsychosocial model for outcomes research are discussed in part III: functional status/disability, psychological impairment, patient satisfaction, health related quality of life

  2. Sensitivity and specificity of WAIS-III/WMS-III demographically corrected factor scores in neuropsychological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M J; Heaton, R K

    2001-11-01

    This study explored the neurodiagnostic utility of 6 factor scores identified by recent exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the WAIS-III and WMS-III: Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Organization, Processing Speed, Working Memory, Auditory Memory and Visual Memory. Factor scores were corrected for age. education, sex and ethnicity to minimize their influences on diagnostic accuracy. Cut-offs at 1, 1.5 and 2 standard deviations (SDs) below the standardization sample mean were applied to data from the overlapping test normative samples (N = 1073) and 6 clinical samples described in the WAIS-III/WMS-III Technical Manual (N = 126). The analyses suggest that a I SD cut-off yields the most balanced levels of sensitivity and specificity; more strict (1.5 or 2 SD) cut-offs generally result in trading modest gains in specificity for larger losses in sensitivity. Finally, using combinations of WAIS-III/WMS-III factors together as test batteries, we explored the sensitivity and specificity implications of varying diagnostic decision rules (e.g.,1 vs. 2 impaired factors = "impairment"). For most of the disorders considered here, even a small (e.g., 3 factor) WAIS-III/WMS-III battery provides quite good overall diagnostic accuracy.

  3. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 266 - Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride III Appendix III to Part 266 Protection of Environment... to Part 266—Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 268 - List of Halogenated Organic Compounds Regulated Under § 268.32

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false List of Halogenated Organic Compounds Regulated Under § 268.32 III Appendix III to Part 268 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Part 268—List of Halogenated Organic Compounds Regulated Under § 268.32 In determining...

  5. Assessment of Sleep in Children with Mucopolysaccharidosis Type III

    OpenAIRE

    Mahon, Louise Victoria; Lomax, Michelle; Grant, Sheena; Cross, Elaine; Hare, Dougal Julian; Wraith, James Ed; Jones, Simon; Bigger, Brian; Langford-Smith, Kia; Canal, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are prevalent in mucopolysaccharidosis Type III (MPS III), yet there is a lack of objective, ecologically valid evidence detailing sleep quantity, quality or circadian system. Eight children with MPS III and eight age-matched typically developing children wore an actigraph for 7–10 days/nights. Saliva samples were collected at three time-points on two separate days, to permit analysis of endogenous melatonin levels. Parents completed a sleep questionnaire and a daily sleep ...

  6. Assessment of Sleep in Children with Mucopolysaccharidosis Type III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Louise Victoria; Lomax, Michelle; Grant, Sheena; Cross, Elaine; Hare, Dougal Julian; Wraith, James Ed; Jones, Simon; Bigger, Brian; Langford-Smith, Kia; Canal, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are prevalent in mucopolysaccharidosis Type III (MPS III), yet there is a lack of objective, ecologically valid evidence detailing sleep quantity, quality or circadian system. Eight children with MPS III and eight age-matched typically developing children wore an actigraph for 7–10 days/nights. Saliva samples were collected at three time-points on two separate days, to permit analysis of endogenous melatonin levels. Parents completed a sleep questionnaire and a daily sleep diary. Actigraphic data revealed that children with MPS III had significantly longer sleep onset latencies and greater daytime sleep compared to controls, but night-time sleep duration did not differ between groups. In the MPS III group, sleep efficiency declined, and sleep onset latency increased, with age. Questionnaire responses showed that MPS III patients had significantly more sleep difficulties in all domains compared to controls. Melatonin concentrations showed an alteration in the circadian system in MPS III, which suggests that treatment for sleep problems should attempt to synchronise the sleep-wake cycle to a more regular pattern. Actigraphy was tolerated by children and this monitoring device can be recommended as a measure of treatment success in research and clinical practice. PMID:24504123

  7. Assessment of sleep in children with mucopolysaccharidosis type III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Victoria Mahon

    Full Text Available Sleep disturbances are prevalent in mucopolysaccharidosis Type III (MPS III, yet there is a lack of objective, ecologically valid evidence detailing sleep quantity, quality or circadian system. Eight children with MPS III and eight age-matched typically developing children wore an actigraph for 7-10 days/nights. Saliva samples were collected at three time-points on two separate days, to permit analysis of endogenous melatonin levels. Parents completed a sleep questionnaire and a daily sleep diary. Actigraphic data revealed that children with MPS III had significantly longer sleep onset latencies and greater daytime sleep compared to controls, but night-time sleep duration did not differ between groups. In the MPS III group, sleep efficiency declined, and sleep onset latency increased, with age. Questionnaire responses showed that MPS III patients had significantly more sleep difficulties in all domains compared to controls. Melatonin concentrations showed an alteration in the circadian system in MPS III, which suggests that treatment for sleep problems should attempt to synchronise the sleep-wake cycle to a more regular pattern. Actigraphy was tolerated by children and this monitoring device can be recommended as a measure of treatment success in research and clinical practice.

  8. Neuroscience in Nazi Europe Part III: victims of the Third Reich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidman, Lawrence A; Kondziella, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    In Part I, neuroscience collaborators with the Nazis were discussed, and in Part II, neuroscience resistors were discussed. In Part III, we discuss the tragedy regarding european neuroscientists who became victims of the Nazi onslaught on “non-Aryan” doctors. Some of these unfortunate neuroscientists survived Nazi concentration camps, but most were murdered. We discuss the circumstances and environment which stripped these neuroscientists of their profession, then of their personal rights and freedom, and then of their lives. We include a background analysis of anti-Semitism and Nazism in their various countries, then discuss in depth seven exemplary neuroscientist Holocaust victims; including Germans Ludwig Pick, Arthur Simons, and Raphael Weichbrodt, Austrians Alexander Spitzer and Viktor Frankl, and Poles Lucja Frey and Wladyslaw Sterling. by recognizing and remembering these victims of neuroscience, we pay homage and do not allow humanity to forget, lest this dark period in history ever repeat itself.

  9. DECOVALEX III PROJECT. Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical Coupled Processes in Safety Assessments. Report of Task 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A part (Task 4) of the International DECOVALEX III project on coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (T-H-M) processes focuses on T-H-M modelling applications in safety and performance assessment of deep geological nuclear waste repositories. A previous phase, DECOVALEX II, saw a need to improve such modelling. In order to address this need Task 4 of DECOVALEX III has: Analysed two major T-H-M experiments (Task 1 and Task 2) and three different Bench Mark Tests (Task 3) set-up to explore the significance of T-H-M in some potentially important safety assessment applications. Compiled and evaluated the use of T-H-M modelling in safety assessments at the time of the year 2000. Organised a forum a forum of interchange between PA-analysts and THM modelers at each DECOVALEX III workshop. Based on this information the current report discusses the findings and strives for reaching recommendations as regards good practices in addressing coupled T-H-M issues in safety assessments. The full development of T-H-M modelling is still at an early stage and it is not evident whether current codes provide the information that is required. However, although the geosphere is a system of fully coupled processes, this does not directly imply that all existing coupled mechanisms must be represented numerically. Modelling is conducted for specific purposes and the required confidence level should be considered. It is necessary to match the confidence level with the modelling objective. Coupled THM modelling has to incorporate uncertainties. These uncertainties mainly concern uncertainties in the conceptual model and uncertainty in data. Assessing data uncertainty is important when judging the need to model coupled processes. Often data uncertainty is more significant than the coupled effects. The emphasis on the need for THM modelling differs among disciplines. For geological radioactive waste disposal in crystalline and other similar hard rock formations DECOVALEX III shows it is essential to

  10. DECOVALEX III PROJECT. Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical Coupled Processes in Safety Assessments. Report of Task 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden)

    2005-02-15

    A part (Task 4) of the International DECOVALEX III project on coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (T-H-M) processes focuses on T-H-M modelling applications in safety and performance assessment of deep geological nuclear waste repositories. A previous phase, DECOVALEX II, saw a need to improve such modelling. In order to address this need Task 4 of DECOVALEX III has: Analysed two major T-H-M experiments (Task 1 and Task 2) and three different Bench Mark Tests (Task 3) set-up to explore the significance of T-H-M in some potentially important safety assessment applications. Compiled and evaluated the use of T-H-M modelling in safety assessments at the time of the year 2000. Organised a forum a forum of interchange between PA-analysts and THM modelers at each DECOVALEX III workshop. Based on this information the current report discusses the findings and strives for reaching recommendations as regards good practices in addressing coupled T-H-M issues in safety assessments. The full development of T-H-M modelling is still at an early stage and it is not evident whether current codes provide the information that is required. However, although the geosphere is a system of fully coupled processes, this does not directly imply that all existing coupled mechanisms must be represented numerically. Modelling is conducted for specific purposes and the required confidence level should be considered. It is necessary to match the confidence level with the modelling objective. Coupled THM modelling has to incorporate uncertainties. These uncertainties mainly concern uncertainties in the conceptual model and uncertainty in data. Assessing data uncertainty is important when judging the need to model coupled processes. Often data uncertainty is more significant than the coupled effects. The emphasis on the need for THM modelling differs among disciplines. For geological radioactive waste disposal in crystalline and other similar hard rock formations DECOVALEX III shows it is essential to

  11. Social class, political power, and the state: their implications in medicine--part III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, V

    1977-01-01

    This is the third part of an article on the distribution of power and the nature of the state in Western industrialized societies and their implications in medicine. Parts I and II were published in the preceding issue of this Journal. Part I presented a critique of contemporary theories of the Western system of power; discussed the countervailing pluralist and power of elite theories, as well as those of bureaucratic and professional control; and concluded with an examination of the Marxist theories of economic determinism, structural determinism, and corporate statism. Part II presented a Marxist theory of the role, nature, and characteristics of state intervention. Part III focuses on the mode of that intervention and the reasons for its growth, with an added analysis of the attributes of state intervention in the health sector, and of the dialectical relationship between its growth and the current fiscal crisis of the state. In all three parts, the focus is on Western European countries and on North America, with many examples and categories from the area of medicine. PMID:870557

  12. A benefit-risk assessment of class III antiarrhythmic agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elming, Hanne; Brendorp, Bente; Pehrson, Steen;

    2004-01-01

    relief. Since many patients experience a decrease in physical performance as well as a diminished quality of life during arrhythmia there is still a need for antiarrhythmic drug therapy. The development of new antiarrhythmic agents has changed the focus from class I to class III agents since it became...... evident that with class I drug therapy the prevalence of mortality is considerably higher. This review focuses on the benefits and risks of known and newer class III antiarrhythmic agents. The benefits discussed include the ability to maintain sinus rhythm in persistent atrial fibrillation patients, and...... reducing the need for implantable cardioverter defibrillator shock/antitachycardia therapy, since no class III antiarrhythmic agents have proven survival benefit. The risks discussed mainly focus on pro-arrhythmia as torsade de pointes ventricular tachycardia....

  13. A Modified Hybrid III 6-Year-Old Dummy Head Model for Lateral Impact Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Rafukka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid III six-year-old (6YO child dummy head model was developed and validated for frontal impact assessment according to the specifications contained in Code of Federal Regulations, Title 49, Part 572.122, Subpart N by Livermore Software Technology Corporation (LSTC. This work is aimed at improving biofidelity of the head for frontal impact and also extending its application to lateral impact assessment by modifying the head skin viscoelastic properties and validating the head response using the scaled nine-year-old (9YO child cadaver head response recently published in the literature. The modified head model was validated for two drop heights for frontal, right, and left parietal impact locations. Peak resultant acceleration of the modified head model appeared to have good correlation with scaled 9YO child cadaver head response for frontal impact on dropping from 302 mm height and fair correlation with 12.3% difference for 151 mm drop height. Right parietal peak resultant acceleration values correlate well with scaled 9YO head experimental data for 153 mm drop height, while fair correlation with 16.4% difference was noticed for 302 mm drop height. Left parietal, however, shows low biofidelity for the two drop heights as the difference in head acceleration response was within 30%. The modified head model could therefore be used to estimate injuries in vehicle crash for head parietal impact locations which cannot be measured by the current hybrid III dummy head model.

  14. Assessment of technical documentation of Class III medical devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roszek B; de Bruijn ACP; Pot JWGA; van Drongelen AW; BMT; vgc

    2010-01-01

    Europese regelgeving vereist dat fabrikanten van medische hulpmiddelen een dossier opstellen waaruit blijkt dat het hulpmiddel veilig en functioneel is. De kwaliteit van dossiers van de hoogste risicoklasse medische hulpmiddelen, klasse III, laat evenwel te wensen over. Dit blijkt uit onderzoek va

  15. AGGREGATIONS OF LEVEL III ECOREGIONS FOR NATIONAL NUTRIENT ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggregations of level III Ecoregions for the National Nutrient Assessment and Management Strategy: This map of draft aggregation of level III ecoregions of the conterminous United States defines broad areas within which there are general similarities in the quality and types of e...

  16. Life cycle assessment part 2: current impact assessment practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, D W; Potting, J; Finnveden, G; Lindeijer, E; Jolliet, O; Rydberg, T; Rebitzer, G

    2004-07-01

    Providing our society with goods and services contributes to a wide range of environmental impacts. Waste generation, emissions and the consumption of resources occur at many stages in a product's life cycle-from raw material extraction, energy acquisition, production and manufacturing, use, reuse, recycling, through to ultimate disposal. These all contribute to impacts such as climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, photooxidant formation (smog), eutrophication, acidification, toxicological stress on human health and ecosystems, the depletion of resources and noise-among others. The need exists to address these product-related contributions more holistically and in an integrated manner, providing complimentary insights to those of regulatory/process-oriented methodologies. A previous article (Part 1, Rebitzer et al., 2004) outlined how to define and model a product's life cycle in current practice, as well as the methods and tools that are available for compiling the associated waste, emissions and resource consumption data into a life cycle inventory. This article highlights how practitioners and researchers from many domains have come together to provide indicators for the different impacts attributable to products in the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) phase of life cycle assessment (LCA). PMID:15051247

  17. Mumps Virus Induces Protein-Kinase-R-Dependent Stress Granules, Partly Suppressing Type III Interferon Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Shin; Yamamoto, Soh; Ogasawara, Noriko; Sato, Toyotaka; Yamamoto, Keisuke; Katoh, Hiroshi; Kubota, Toru; Shiraishi, Tsukasa; Kojima, Takashi; Himi, Tetsuo; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki; Yokota, Shin-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Stress granules (SGs) are cytoplasmic granular aggregations that are induced by cellular stress, including viral infection. SGs have opposing antiviral and proviral roles, which depend on virus species. The exact function of SGs during viral infection is not fully understood. Here, we showed that mumps virus (MuV) induced SGs depending on activation of protein kinase R (PKR). MuV infection strongly induced interferon (IFN)-λ1, 2 and 3, and IFN-β through activation of IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) via retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I) and the mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) pathway. MuV-induced IFNs were strongly upregulated in PKR-knockdown cells. MuV-induced SG formation was suppressed by knockdown of PKR and SG marker proteins, Ras-GTPase-activating protein SH3-domain-binding protein 1 and T-cell-restricted intracellular antigen-1, and significantly increased the levels of MuV-induced IFN-λ1. However, viral titer was not altered by suppression of SG formation. PKR was required for induction of SGs by MuV infection and regulated type III IFN (IFN-λ1) mRNA stability. MuV-induced SGs partly suppressed type III IFN production by MuV; however, the limited suppression was not sufficient to inhibit MuV replication in cell culture. Our results provide insight into the relationship between SGs and IFN production induced by MuV infection. PMID:27560627

  18. Examination of various WMS-III logical memory scores in the assessment of response bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortnik, Kirsty E; Boone, Kyle B; Marion, Sarah D; Amano, Stacy; Ziegler, Elizabeth; Cottingham, Maria E; Victor, Tara L; Zeller, Michelle A

    2010-02-01

    The assessment of response validity during neuropsychological evaluation is an integral part of the testing process. Research has increasingly focused on the use of "embedded" effort measures (derived from standard neuropsychological tasks) because they do not require additional administration time and are less likely to be identified as effort indicators by test takers because of their primary focus as measures of cognitive function. The current study examined the clinical utility of various WMS-III Logical Memory scores in detecting response bias, as well as the Rarely Missed Index, an embedded effort indicator derived from the WMS-III Logical Memory Delayed Recognition subtest. The Rarely Missed Index cut-off only identified 24.1% of 63 non-credible participants (at >/=90% specificity in 125 credible patients), and cut-offs for other Logical Memory variables were in fact found to be more sensitive to non-credible performance. A new indicator, consisting of the weighted combination of the two most sensitive Logical Memory subtest scores (Logical Memory II raw score and Logical Memory Delayed Recognition raw score), was associated with 53% to 60% sensitivity, and thus may be an effective adjunct when utilized in conjunction with other validated effort indicators and collateral information in identifying non-credible performance.

  19. WISC-III e WAIS-III na avaliação da inteligência de cegos WISC-III/WAIS-III en ciegos WISC-III and WAIS-III in intellectual assessment of blind people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth do Nascimento

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Diante da escassez de pesquisas nacionais e de testes psicológicos destinados a avaliar pessoas cegas, desenvolveu-se um estudo psicométrico com as escalas verbais dos testes WISC-III e WAIS-III. Após as adaptações de alguns estímulos e das instruções, os testes foram aplicados em crianças (N = 120 e adultos (N = 52 residentes em Belo Horizonte. Os resultados indicaram que as escalas verbais modificadas apresentam uma boa consistência interna (alfa> 0,80. Além disso, a investigação da validade fatorial identifica a presença clara de apenas um componente. Este componente explica 81% e 64% para o WISC-III e WAIS-III, respectivamente. Conclui-se que as adaptações a que se procedeu não afetaram a estrutura fatorial das escalas. Deste modo, os profissionais poderão utilizar as escalas modificadas para avaliar a inteligência de pessoas cegas.Frente a la escasez de investigaciones nacionales asi como la ausencia de tests psicológicos que evaluen personas ciegas, se ha desarrollado un estudio psicometrico com la escalas verbales del WISC-III y WAIS-III. Posteriormente a las adaptaciones de algunos estímulos y de las instrucciones, las escalas fueron aplicadas a una muestra de niños (n=120 y de adultos (n=52 residentes en la ciudad de Belo Horizonte-Brasil. Los resultados indican que las escalas verbales modificadas presentan una alta fiabilidad (alpha >0,80 asi como la presencia clara de un unico componente responsable por 81% y 64% de la variancia del WIC-III e WAIS-III respectivamente. Se ha concluido que las modificaciones efectuadas no han comprometido la estructura factorial de las escalas verbales. Por tanto, los profesionales psicólogos pueden utilizar las escalas modificadas para la evaluación de la inteligencia de personas portadoras de ceguera.Owing to the almost lack of a national research on psychological testing for the evaluation of blind people, a psychometric study has been developed with the WISC-III and WAIS-III

  20. Technical and economic assessment of fluidized bed augmented compressed air energy storage system. Volume III. Preconceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giramonti, A.J.; Lessard, R.D.; Merrick, D.; Hobson, M.J.

    1981-09-01

    A technical and economic assessment of fluidized bed combustion augmented compressed air energy storage systems is presented. The results of this assessment effort are presented in three volumes. Volume III - Preconceptual Design contains the system analysis which led to the identification of a preferred component configuration for a fluidized bed combustion augmented compressed air energy storage system, the results of the effort which transformed the preferred configuration into preconceptual power plant design, and an introductory evaluation of the performance of the power plant system during part-load operation and while load following.

  1. Investigational drug tracking: phases I-III and NDA submissions--Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, K L

    1994-10-01

    The author catalogs over 800 investigational drugs/biologicals currently in Phase I, II or III clinical trials or drugs/biologicals submitted to the FDA as new drug applications. Part I of this article appeared in the September issue of Hospital Pharmacy. The list assists in predicting when new drugs will be marketed. The entries include generic/chemical name, investigational drug number, synonyms, trade names, manufacturers, clinical trial status, predicted approval year, indications or drug class, whether the drug has been developed through biotechnology, and references. Entries were gleaned from medical journals, stock market analysis publications, and the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association's Medicines in Development Series. The list is alphabetized by the generic/chemical name or investigational drug number and cross-indexed by the trade name and synonyms. The list reflects those drugs which were not FDA approved as of April 15, 1994. Part I concludes with the remaining alphabetical listing by generic/chemical name or investigational drug number. PMID:10137850

  2. Assessment of the Adoption Rate of Technologies among Fadama III Farmers in Adamawa State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Umar, AdamuMadu

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted in Adamawa State, Nigeria. The major thrust of this study is to assess the adoption rate of technology in Fadama III. In its four years of operation, Fadama III project has realized significant impact on household access to new and proven technologies. Adoption rate of technologies among beneficiaries has increased from 43.75% before the inception of the project to 96.255% after the project intervention. This indicates 50% increase against only 20% increase among the n...

  3. Quadrant III RFI draft report: Appendix J, Baseline risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with the Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (U. S.EPA 1989), which states that background risk should be calculated separately from site-related risk in order to provide important information to the risk manager, this appendix assesses the human health risks associated with background levels of naturally occurring compounds in soil at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). This appendix is organized as follows: Background Conditions, in which the results of Geraghty ampersand Miller's work on characterizing background levels of naturally occurring compounds in soils is summarized; Identification of Exposure Pathways; Estimation of Environmental Concentrations; Estimation of Human Intake; Toxicity Assessment, and Risk Characterization, in which numerical estimates of carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic risk are calculated for each naturally occurring compound and potential exposure pathway

  4. Model assessment of protective barriers: Part 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayer, M.J.; Rockhold, M.L.; Holford, D.J.

    1992-02-01

    Radioactive waste exists at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in a variety of locations, including subsurface grout and tank farms, solid waste burial grounds, and contaminated soil sites. Some of these waste sites may need to be isolated from percolating water to minimize the potential for transport of the waste to the ground water, which eventually discharges to the Columbia River. Multilayer protective barriers have been proposed as a means of limiting the flow of water through the waste sites (DOE 1987). A multiyear research program (managed jointly by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Westinghouse Hanford Company for the DOE) is aimed at assessing the performance of these barriers. One aspect of this program involves the use of computer models to predict barrier performance. Three modeling studies have already been conducted and a test plan was produced. The simulation work reported here was conducted by PNL and extends the previous modeling work. The purpose of this report are to understand phenomena that have been observed in the field and to provide information that can be used to improve hydrologic modeling of the protective barrier. An improved modeling capability results in better estimates of barrier performance. Better estimates can be used to improve the design of barriers and the assessment of their long-term performance.

  5. A Structural Molar Volume Model for Oxide Melts Part III: Fe Oxide-Containing Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Eric; Gheribi, Aimen E.; Jung, In-Ho

    2016-04-01

    As part III of this series, the model is extended to iron oxide-containing melts. All available experimental data in the FeO-Fe2O3-Na2O-K2O-MgO-CaO-MnO-Al2O3-SiO2 system were critically evaluated based on the experimental condition. The variations of FeO and Fe2O3 in the melts were taken into account by using FactSage to calculate the Fe2+/Fe3+ distribution. The molar volume model with unary and binary model parameters can be used to predict the molar volume of the molten oxide of the Li2O-Na2O-K2O-MgO-CaO-MnO-PbO-FeO-Fe2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 system in the entire range of compositions, temperatures, and oxygen partial pressures from Fe saturation to 1 atm pressure.

  6. Attempted suicide in Denmark. III. Assessment of repeated suicidal behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G; Bille-Brahe, U; Hansen, W;

    1985-01-01

    Ninety-nine patients, randomly chosen among hospital admitted suicide attempters, were initially interviewed at the Department of Psychiatry, Odense University Hospital, Denmark, and then followed up for a period of about 3 years. Half of the patients repeated the attempt in the follow-up period,...... poorly due, in particular, to low specificity. Future work will focus on objective risk factors, those indicated here and others, in order to establish an up-to-date background for assessment and management....

  7. EFSUMB Guidelines on Interventional Ultrasound (INVUS), Part III - Abdominal Treatment Procedures (Short Version).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, C F; Lorentzen, T; Appelbaum, L; Buscarini, E; Cantisani, V; Correas, J M; Cui, X W; D'Onofrio, M; Gilja, O H; Hocke, M; Ignee, A; Jenssen, C; Kabaalioğlu, A; Leen, E; Nicolau, C; Nolsøe, C P; Radzina, M; Serra, C; Sidhu, P S; Sparchez, Z; Piscaglia, F

    2016-02-01

    The third part of the European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) Guidelines on Interventional Ultrasound assesses the evidence for ultrasound-guided and assisted interventions in abdominal treatment procedures. Recommendations for clinical practice are presented covering indications, contraindications, safety and efficacy of the broad variety of these techniques. In particular, drainage of abscesses and fluid collections, interventional tumor ablation techniques, interventional treatment of symptomatic cysts and echinococcosis, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography and drainage, percutaneous gastrostomy, urinary bladder drainage, and nephrostomy are addressed (short version; a long version is published online). PMID:26871408

  8. EFSUMB Guidelines on Interventional Ultrasound (INVUS), Part III - Abdominal Treatment Procedures (Long Version).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, C F; Lorentzen, T; Appelbaum, L; Buscarini, E; Cantisani, V; Correas, J M; Cui, X W; D'Onofrio, M; Gilja, O H; Hocke, M; Ignee, A; Jenssen, C; Kabaalioğlu, A; Leen, E; Nicolau, C; Nolsøe, C P; Radzina, M; Serra, C; Sidhu, P S; Sparchez, Z; Piscaglia, F

    2016-02-01

    The third part of the European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) Guidelines on Interventional Ultrasound (INVUS) assesses the evidence for ultrasound-guided and assisted interventions in abdominal treatment procedures. Recommendations for clinical practice are presented covering indications, contraindications, and safe and effective performance of the broad variety of these techniques. In particular, drainage of abscesses and fluid collections, interventional tumor ablation techniques, interventional treatment of symptomatic cysts and echinococcosis, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography and drainage, percutaneous gastrostomy, urinary bladder drainage, and nephrostomy are addressed (long version). PMID:26670019

  9. Assessment and accountability: part 3 - sign-off mentors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Trish

    2016-08-01

    Assessment in clinical practice is a complex role undertaken by mentors and practice teachers. This article is the third of three articles about assessment in practice. Part one focused on the importance of assessment and identified assessment methods used in clinical practice, while part two discussed the importance of feedback and managing failing students. This article examines the concepts of responsibility and accountability as well as ethical issues for mentors and practice teachers in relation to the assessment process. The role of the sign-off mentor, the issue of due regard, and ethical principles are discussed. The meaning of competence and partnership working when making assessment decisions are explored. This article relates to the third domain and outcomes of the Nursing and Midwifery Council's Standards to Support Learning and Assessment in Practice on assessment and accountability. PMID:27484567

  10. MORTALITY RISK ASSESSMENT IN PICU USING PRISM-III-24 SCORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harilal Naik

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Assessment of risk of mortality using PRISM III-24 score in children admitted to PICU of Basaweshwara Teaching and General Hospital, attached to Mahadevappa Rampure Medical College, Gulbarga. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. Setting: PICU of BTGH, Gulbarga. METHODS: 404 patients who had been admitted consecutively to the PICU during a period of 12 months (July 2011 to June 2012 were studied. PRISM III-24 score was calculated. Hospital outcome was recorded as survived/expired. Calibration and discrimination of the model was calculated by Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test and Area under the ROC Curve. The association between r (empirical function and PRISM III-24 score was assessed by Binary Logistic Regression method. RESULTS: Out of 404 patients, 363 (89.85% survived and 41 (10.15% expired. Males formed the majority (227/404. CNS cases (n=118, 29.2% constituted the majority. Mean age, length of hospitalization, and mean PRISM III-24 score were 59.22±51.12 months, 99.84±91.61 hours, and 4.92±7.74 (range 0-36. The test was well designed for the study (goodness-of-fit value P-value 0.186. ROC analysis indicated a strong predictive power for the PRISM III-24 (AUC 0.936. The observed (O mortality rate was 10.15% and the expected (E mortality rate was 10.12% with an O/E ratio of 1.003. CONCLUSION: PRISM III-24 score is a good predictor of mortality in PICU patients under Indian circumstances. The PRISM III-24 scoring system was highly calibrated in our institute.

  11. Atomic Energy Control Board 1992-93 estimates part III expenditure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Expenditure Plan is designed to be used as a reference document. As such, it contains several levels of detail to respond to the various needs of its audience. This Plan is divided into two sections. Section 1 presents an overview of the Program including a description, information on its background, objectives and planning perspective as well as performance information that forms the basis for the resources requested. Section 2 provides further information on costs and resources as well as special analyses that the reader may require to understand the Program more fully. Section 1 is preceded by details of Spending Authorities from Part 2 of the Estimates and Volume 2 of the Public Accounts. This is to provide continuity with other Estimates documents and to help in assessing the Program's financial performance over the past year. 7 refs., 21 figs

  12. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 236 - Risk Assessment Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... results of the application of safety design principles as noted in Appendix C to this part. The MTTHE is... subsystem or component in the risk assessment. (f) How are processor-based subsystems/components assessed? (1) An MTTHE value must be calculated for each processor-based subsystem or component, or...

  13. National Energy Board 1992-93 estimates part III expenditure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Expenditure Plan is designed to be used as a reference document. As such, it contains several levels of detail to respond to the various needs of its audience. This Plan is divided into two sections. Section 1 presents an overview of the Program including a description, information on its background, objectives and planning perspective as well as performance information that forms the basis for the resources requested. Section 2 provides further information on costs and resources as well as special analyses that the reader may require to understand the Program more fully. Section 1 is preceded by details of Spending Authorities from Part 2 of the Estimates and Volume 2 of the Public Accounts. This is to provide continuity with other Estimates documents and to help in assessing the Program's financial performance over the past year. The format and organization of the document should be regarded as transitional. For the most part the document is organized to be consistent with the program structure approved for the National Energy Board. 16 figs

  14. Neuro image in neuroectodermal disorders. Part III: angiomatous and melanotic syndromes. Neuroimagen en los transtornos neuroectodermicos. Parte III: sindromes angiomatosos y melanoticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marti-Bonmati, L.; Menor, F.; Poyatos, C.; Cortina, H.; Esteban, M.J.; Vilar, J. (Hospital La Fe Valencia. (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    Twenty-eight consecutive patients affected by these rare angiomatous melanotic neuroectodermal disorders are assessed. The diagnostics value and clinical correlation of neuroimaging methods, both CT and MR, are established. Patients with Sturge-Weber syndrome (15 cases), Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome (1 case), Rendu-Osler disease (3 cases), multiple hemangiomatosis (4 cases), von Hippel-Lindau syndrome (3 cases), neuro cutaneous melanosis (1 case) and hypo melanosis of Ito (1 case) are included. In vascular phacomatosis, neuroimaging methods usually contribute to the positive diagnosis. In melanotic disorders, the neuroradiological findings most often are unspecific and do not contribute to the diagnosis of the disease.

  15. A Review & Assessment of Current Operating Conditions Allowable Stresses in ASME Section III Subsection NH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. W. Swindeman

    2009-12-14

    The current operating condition allowable stresses provided in ASME Section III, Subsection NH were reviewed for consistency with the criteria used to establish the stress allowables and with the allowable stresses provided in ASME Section II, Part D. It was found that the S{sub o} values in ASME III-NH were consistent with the S values in ASME IID for the five materials of interest. However, it was found that 0.80 S{sub r} was less than S{sub o} for some temperatures for four of the materials. Only values for alloy 800H appeared to be consistent with the criteria on which S{sub o} values are established. With the intent of undertaking a more detailed evaluation of issues related to the allowable stresses in ASME III-NH, the availabilities of databases for the five materials were reviewed and augmented databases were assembled.

  16. Providing for energy efficiency in homes and small buildings. Part III. Determining which practices are most effective and installing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The training program is designed to educate students and individuals in the importance of conserving energy and to provide for developing skills needed in the application of energy-saving techniques that result in energy-efficient buildings. A teacher guide and student workbook are available to supplement the basic manual. Subjects covered in Part III are: determining which practices are most efficient and economical; installing energy-saving materials; and improving efficiency of equipment.

  17. Assessment and accountability: part 2 - managing failing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Trish

    2016-06-01

    Assessment in clinical practice is a complex role undertaken by mentors and practice teachers. This article is the second of three articles about assessment in practice. Part one examined the importance of assessment and identified various assessment methods used in clinical practice. This article considers two main themes in the assessment of practice. First, it outlines the importance of providing feedback, and explores preparation for regular feedback and the documentation used to help mentors and practice teachers undertake this activity. Second, it discusses management of failing students, and reviews the literature relating to the 'failure to fail' phenomenon. This article relates to the third domain and outcomes of the Nursing and Midwifery Council's Standards to Support Learning and Assessment in Practice on assessment and accountability. PMID:27286625

  18. Electre III method in assessment of variants of integrated urban public transport system in Cracow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna SOLECKA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a lot of methods which are currently used for assessment of urban public transport system development and operation e.g. economic analysis, mostly Cost-Benefit Analysis – CBA, Cost-Effectiveness Analysis - CEA, hybrid methods, measurement methods (survey e.g. among passengers and measurement of traffic volume, vehicles capacity etc., and multicriteria decision aiding methods (multicriteria analysis. The main aim of multicriteria analysis is the choice of the most desirable solution from among alternative variants according to different criteria which are difficult to compare against one another. There are several multicriteria methods for assessment of urban public transport system development and operation, e.g. AHP, ANP, Electre, Promethee, Oreste. The paper presents an application of one of the most popular variant ranking methods – Electre III method. The algorithm of Electre III method usage is presented in detail and then its application for assessment of variants of urban public transport system integration in Cracow is shown. The final ranking of eight variants of integration of urban public transport system in Cracow (from the best to the worst variant was drawn up with the application of the Electre III method. For assessment purposes 10 criteria were adopted: economical, technical, environmental, and social; they form a consistent criteria family. The problem was analyzed with taking into account different points of view: city authorities, public transport operators, city units responsible for transport management, passengers and others users. Separate models of preferences for all stakeholders were created.

  19. Circuit modeling of the electrical impedance: part III. Disuse following bone fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multifrequency measurements of the electrical impedance of muscle have been extended to the study of disuse following bone fracture, and analyzed using the five-element circuit model used earlier in the study of the effects of disease. Eighteen subjects recovering from simple fractures on upper or lower limbs were examined (ten males, eight females, aged 18–66). Muscles on uninjured contralateral limbs were used as comparison standards, and results are presented in terms of the ratios p(injured)/p(uninjured), where p stands for the circuit parameter r1, r2, r3, 1/c1 or 1/c2. These are strikingly similar to the diseased-to-healthy ratios for patients with neuromuscular disease, reported in part I of this series. In particular, r1 is virtually unaffected and the ratios for r2, r3, 1/c1 and 1/c2 can be as large as in serious disease. Furthermore, the same pattern of relationships between the parameters is found, suggesting that there is a common underlying mechanism for the impedance changes. Atrophy and fibrosis are examined as candidates for that mechanism, but it is argued that their effects are too small to explain the observed changes. Fundamental considerations aside, the sensitivity, reproducibility and technical simplicity of the technique recommend its use for in-flight assessments of muscles during orbital or interplanetary missions. (paper)

  20. Eighth annual meeting, Vienna, Austria, 15-18 April 1975. Summary report. Part III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Summary Report of the Eighth Annual Meeting of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors contains the minutes of the meeting (Part 1); papers which review the national programmes in the field of LMFBRs (Part 2) and the discussions on the review of national programmes (Part 3). The agenda of the meeting involved design, construction, operating experiences of demonstration fast power reactors, reprocessing of spent fuel from LMFBRs, reliability of decay heat removal systems, fuel failure mechanisms, safety of LMFBRs

  1. Sorption of Eu(III)/Cm(III) on Ca-montmorillonite and Na-illite. Part 1: Batch sorption and time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabung, Th.; Pierret, M. C.; Bauer, A.; Geckeis, H.; Bradbury, M. H.; Baeyens, B.

    2005-12-01

    Sorption of Cm(III) and Eu(III) at trace concentrations onto Ca-montmorillonite (SWy-1) and Na-illite (Illite du Puy) has been studied under anaerobic conditions by batch sorption experiments and time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). Comparison of the results from spectroscopic and batch sorption experiments with Cm and Eu indicates the existence of outer-sphere complexes at pH 5 for both clay minerals. Five H 2O/OH - molecules remain in the first metal ion coordination sphere of the sorbed Eu/Cm. Measured fluorescence lifetimes of sorbed Eu/Cm and peak deconvolution of Cm-spectra are consistent with the formation of surface complexes of the form ≡S-O-Eu/Cm(OH) x(2-x)(H 2O) 5-x. At pH ≥ 12 Cm becomes incorporated into a surface precipitate at the Ca-montmorillonite surface presumably composed of Ca(OH) 2 or calcium silicate hydrate. A dramatic shift of the fluorescence emission band by more than 20 nm and a clear increase in the fluorescence lifetime suggests the almost complete displacement of coordinated H 2O and OH -. The pH dependent Eu sorption data obtained in batch experiments are consistent with spectroscopic data on Eu and Cm within experimental uncertainties thus demonstrating the validity of Eu as a homologue for trivalent actinides. Parameterization of a two-site protolysis nonelectrostatic surface complexation and cation exchange model using the batch sorption data and spectroscopic results is discussed in Part 2 of this work.

  2. Applicability of WaveWatch-III wave model to fatigue assessment of offshore floating structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Tao; Kaminski, Miroslaw Lech

    2016-09-01

    In design and operation of floating offshore structures, one has to avoid fatigue failures caused by action of ocean waves. The aim of this paper is to investigate the applicability of WaveWatch-III wave model to fatigue assessment of offshore floating structures. The applicability was investigated for Bluewaters' FPSO (Floating Production, Storage and Offloading) which had been turret moored at Sable field for half a decade. The waves were predicted as sea-state time series consisting of one wind sea and one swell. The predicted waves were compared with wave data obtained from ERA-interim and buoy measurements. Furthermore, the fatigue calculations were also carried out for main deck and side shell locations. It has been concluded that predicted fatigue damages of main deck using WaveWatch-III are in a very good agreement regardless of differences in predicted wind waves and swells caused by differences in wave system partitioning. When compared to buoy measurements, the model underestimates fatigue damages of side shell by approximately 30 %. The reason for that has been found in wider directional spreading of actual waves. The WaveWatch-III wave model has been found suitable for the fatigue assessment. However, more attention should be paid on relative wave directionality, wave system partitioning and uncertainty analysis in further development.

  3. Preparing Instructional Designers for Game-Based Learning: Part III. Game Design as a Collaborative Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirumi, Atsusi; Appelman, Bob; Rieber, Lloyd; Van Eck, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In this three part series, four professors who teach graduate level courses on the design of instructional video games discuss their perspectives on preparing instructional designers to optimize game-based learning. Part I set the context for the series and one of four panelists discussed what he believes instructional designers should know about…

  4. A Historical Timeline of Doping in the Olympics (Part III 1989--2006)

    OpenAIRE

    Kremenik, Michael; Onodera, Sho; Nagao, Mitsushiro; Yuzuki, Osamu; Yonetani, Shozo

    2007-01-01

    This is the last part of a three part paper on a timeline history of doping in the Olympics. Part three of the timeline focuses on the creation of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), new doping drugs, known drugs that are not detectable to current drug tests, new drug testing procedures and improvements in the sanctioning of athletes. The years 1989-2006 saw a coming together of the world sports community to fight doping. WADA has worked as a powerful umbrella group supporting this fight. It...

  5. Assessing browse trend at the landscape level Part 2: Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keigley, R.B.; Frisina, M.R.; Fager, C.W.

    2002-01-01

    In Part 1, we assessed browse trend across a wide geographic area of Mt. Haggin Wildlife Management Area by conducting surveys of browsing-related architectures. Those data were qualitative. Below we describe the periodic collection of quantitative data from permanently marked locations; we refer to this phase of the trend assessment program as "monitoring." Trend was monitored by three methods: 1 Repeat photography. 2 Comparison of the height of live stems with the height of stems killed by browsing (LD Index). 3 Net annual stem growth rate (NAGRL3). The photography provides an assessment of trend from the comparison of photographs taken at intervals of a few years. The LD Index and NAGRL3 measurements provide an immediate assessment of trend.

  6. The Marine Mollusca of Suriname (Dutch Guiana) Holocene and recent Part III. Gastropoda and Cephalopoda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regteren Altena, van C.O.

    1975-01-01

    CONTENTS 1. Introduction, systematic survey and page references....... 3 2. Gastropoda and Cephalopoda............. 8 3. List of corrections of and additions to Part II......... 89 4. References.................. 92 5. Plates ................... 100 1. INTRODUCTION, SYSTEMATIC SURVEY AND PAGE REFERE

  7. About the International System of Units (SI) Part III. SI Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, Gordon J., II; French, Anthony P.; Iona, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Before discussing more details of SI, we will summarize the essentials in a few tables that can serve as ready references. If a unit isn't listed in Tables I-IV, it is not part of SI or specifically allowed for use with SI. The units and symbols that are sufficient for most everyday applications are given in bold.

  8. LEXICOGRAPHY. HISTORY OF ENGLISH, PART ONE. LANGUAGE CURRICULUM III, STUDENT VERSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KITZHABER, ALBERT R.

    AN OUTLINE OF THE NEED FOR AND USES OF LEXICOGRAPHY AND A HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE, PART 1, WERE COMBINED IN THIS CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR NINTH-GRADE STUDENTS. THE FIRST SECTION, THE OUTLINE ON LEXICOGRAPHY, GAVE A BRIEF HISTORY OF DICTIONARY COMPILATION AND DESCRIBED THE NEED FOR DICTIONARIES AND THEIR USES. WAYS WERE SUGGESTED FOR STUDENTS…

  9. Assessment of the Adoption Rate of Technologies among Fadama III Farmers in Adamawa State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar, AdamuMadu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in Adamawa State, Nigeria. The major thrust of this study is to assess the adoption rate of technology in Fadama III. In its four years of operation, Fadama III project has realized significant impact on household access to new and proven technologies. Adoption rate of technologies among beneficiaries has increased from 43.75% before the inception of the project to 96.255% after the project intervention. This indicates 50% increase against only 20% increase among the non-beneficiaries. Adoption rate of off-farm technologies (agricultural marketing and financial management was also large. The adoption rate for the all the technologies was significant at p = 0.05, except for fish feed formulation, Cold storage, marketing and fish smoking. Yields among respondents have increased significantly due to adoption of proven technologies. The increase was higher among crop farmers (59.38% followed by livestock farmers (48.75%. The increase in yields across all the enterprises has exceeded the set target of 20% increase except for fish production (11.25% and Agro-forestry (6.88%. The increase was more among the beneficiaries compared to non-beneficiaries. It can be concluded that project did not only influence the beneficiaries to adopt technologies for the purpose of improving their socio-economic status but it has also influenced the non-beneficiaries living in Fadama III communities to adopt technologies. Fadama III needs to harmonize existing approaches and need to use complementary systems rather than conflicting ones.

  10. Burnout in boiling heat transfer. Part III. High-quality forced-convection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the final part of a review of burnout during boiling heat transfer. The status of burnout in high-quality forced-convection systems is reviewed, and recent developments are summarized in detail. A general guide to the considerable literature is given. Parametric effects and correlations for water in circular and noncircular ducts are presented. Other topics discussed include transients, steam-generator applications, correlations for other fluids, fouling, and augmentation

  11. PIO I-II tendencies case study. Part 1. Mathematical modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian TOADER

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, a study is performed from the perspective of giving a method to reduce the conservatism of the well known PIO (Pilot-Induced Oscillation criteria in predicting the susceptibility of an aircraft to this very harmful phenomenon. There are three interacting components of a PIO – the pilot, the vehicle, and the trigger (in fact, the hazard. The study, conceived in two parts, aims to underline the importance of human pilot model involved in analysis. In this first part, it is shown, following classical sources, how the LQG theory of control and estimation is used to obtain a complex model of human pilot. The approach is based on the argument, experimentally proved, that the human behaves “optimally” in some sense, subject to his inherent psychophysical limitations. The validation of such model is accomplished based on the experimental model of a VTOL-type aircraft. Then, the procedure of inserting typical saturation nonlinearities in the open loop transfer function is presented. A second part of the paper will illustrate PIO tendencies evaluation by means of a grapho-analytic method.

  12. Summary for Policymakers IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, WorkingGroup III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, Terry; Bashmakov, Igor; Bernstein, Lenny; Bogner,Jean; Bosch, Peter; Dave, Rutu; Davidson, Ogunlade; Fisher, Brian; Grubb,Michael; Gupta, Sujata; Halsnaes, Kirsten; Heij, Bertjan; Kahn Ribeiro,Suzana; Kobayashi, Shigeki; Levine, Mark; Martino, Daniel; MaseraCerutti, Omar; Metz, Bert; Meyer, Leo; Nabuurs, Gert-Jan; Najam, Adil; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Rogner, Hans Holger; Roy, Joyashree; Sathaye,Jayant; Schock, Robert; Shukla, Priyaradshi; Sims, Ralph; Smith, Pete; Swart, Rob; Tirpak, Dennis; Urge-Vorsatz, Diana; Zhou, Dadi

    2007-04-30

    A. Introduction 1. The Working Group III contribution to theIPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) focuses on new literature on thescientific, technological, environmental, economic and social aspects ofmitigation of climate change, published since the IPCC Third AssessmentReport (TAR) and the Special Reports on COB2B Capture and Storage (SRCCS)and on Safeguarding the Ozone Layer and the Global Climate System (SROC).The following summary is organised into six sections after thisintroduction: - Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends, - Mitigation in theshort and medium term, across different economic sectors (until 2030), -Mitigation in the long-term (beyond 2030), - Policies, measures andinstruments to mitigate climate change, - Sustainable development andclimate change mitigation, - Gaps in knowledge. References to thecorresponding chapter sections are indicated at each paragraph in squarebrackets. An explanation of terms, acronyms and chemical symbols used inthis SPM can be found in the glossary to the main report.

  13. The History of Articulators: The Wonderful World of "Grinders," Part III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starcke, Edgar N; Engelmeier, Robert L

    2016-02-01

    This is the third article in a three-part series on the history of denture occlusal grinders. The first article reviewed the earliest attempts to "grind in" denture occlusion by hand manipulating simple articulators with special features to those more complex devices powered by hand cranks. The second article explored devices that were motor driven, either those with cast holders to grind the occlusion of processed dentures or those designed to utilize an articulator's condylar or incisal controls for that purpose. This article examines those articulators that have a rotary occlusal grinder as an essential feature. Additionally, this article reviews those grinding devices produced as attachments for popular contemporary articulators. PMID:25754238

  14. Building Worlds and Learning Astronomy on Facebook Part III: Testing, Launch, and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold, J.; Hines, D.; Vidugiris, E.; Goldman, K. H.

    2015-11-01

    James Harold (SSI), Dean Hines (STScI/SSI) and a team at the National Center for Interactive Learning at the Space Science Institute are developing Starchitect, an end-to-end stellar and planetary evolution game for the Facebook platform. Supported by NSF and NASA, and based in part on a prototype presented at ASP several years ago, Starchitect uses the “sporadic play” model of games such as Farmville, where players might only take actions a few times a day, but may continue playing for months. This paper is an update to a presentation at last year's ASP conference.

  15. Early Pottery Making in Northern Coastal Peru. Part III: Moessbauer Study of Sican Pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sican blackware from a 1000-year old elite tomb at Huaca Loro was characterised by neutron activation analysis, optical thin-section microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Moessbauer spectroscopy. A number of blackware fragments from the later site of Puerto Pobre (ca. AD 1460-1550) were included in the analysis for comparison and found to be of different origin. The black surface of the specimens from Huaca Loro is mostly due to carbon deposition during firing in a reducing environment. Part of the pottery was merely dried at temperatures below 400 deg. C, perhaps because it was made in haste for funeral use.

  16. Models for Quarks and Elementary Particles. Part III: What is the Nature of the Gravitational Field?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neumann U. K. W.

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The first two parts of this article series dealt with the questions: What is a quark? and What is mass? While the present models lead to a physical idea of the mass, the geometrical theory of the general relativity only shows the effect of mass. From the physical idea of mass, from the idea of the resultant vector (EV as electric flux and from the ideas relating to the magnetic monopole (MMP it follows that the gravitational field is an electrical field. The share of the electrical gravitational flux on the entire electrical flux of a quark is determined from Newton’s empirical gravitational constant G . The superposition of the < fluxes of two quark collectives produces the gravitational force effect between two quark collectives. Gravitational fields reach infinitely far according to our current ideas. Connected with the quark oscillations hinted in the Parts I and II this results in the idea of the < - < flux spreading with infinite speed, having enormous consequences.

  17. Managing the multicultural laboratory, Part III: Putting the cross-cultural tools to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketchum, S M

    1993-01-01

    This third article provides two case studies that enable laboratory managers to see how the cross-cultural model postulated by Dr. Geert Hofstede can be practically applied to two important issues--staff training and conflict resolution between employees. In addition, the opinions of several managers from a variety of industries are presented to add realism and perspective. This encourages laboratory managers to step outside the laboratory environment and learn from other managers who have years of experience supervising culturally diverse groups of employees. Part I of this series explained what is meant by "culture" and featured the research-based model set forth by Dutch social psychologist and management consultant, Dr. Geert Hofstede. His four dimensions of culture (Power Distance, Masculinity/Femininity, Individualism/Collectivism, and Uncertainty Avoidance) provide a useful framework for understanding the different values, attitudes, and behaviors exhibited by those of different cultural backgrounds. Part II presented advice in the form of 13 anecdotes from experienced cross-cultural managers. Issues of performance management, interpersonal skills, and language and safety were explored in light of the four dimensions. In this third article, abbreviated reference tables adapted from Hofstede's research are presented that make these cross-cultural data more useful for management decision making. Laboratory managers will receive practical, "real world" advice that will help them to positively resolve conflicts and to take full advantage of staff training opportunities. PMID:10123894

  18. Managing the multicultural laboratory, Part III: Putting the cross-cultural tools to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketchum, S M

    1993-01-01

    This third article provides two case studies that enable laboratory managers to see how the cross-cultural model postulated by Dr. Geert Hofstede can be practically applied to two important issues--staff training and conflict resolution between employees. In addition, the opinions of several managers from a variety of industries are presented to add realism and perspective. This encourages laboratory managers to step outside the laboratory environment and learn from other managers who have years of experience supervising culturally diverse groups of employees. Part I of this series explained what is meant by "culture" and featured the research-based model set forth by Dutch social psychologist and management consultant, Dr. Geert Hofstede. His four dimensions of culture (Power Distance, Masculinity/Femininity, Individualism/Collectivism, and Uncertainty Avoidance) provide a useful framework for understanding the different values, attitudes, and behaviors exhibited by those of different cultural backgrounds. Part II presented advice in the form of 13 anecdotes from experienced cross-cultural managers. Issues of performance management, interpersonal skills, and language and safety were explored in light of the four dimensions. In this third article, abbreviated reference tables adapted from Hofstede's research are presented that make these cross-cultural data more useful for management decision making. Laboratory managers will receive practical, "real world" advice that will help them to positively resolve conflicts and to take full advantage of staff training opportunities.

  19. Implications of the Differential Toxicological Effects of III-V Ionic and Particulate Materials for Hazard Assessment of Semiconductor Slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen; Lin, Sijie; Chang, Chong Hyun; Ji, Zhaoxia; Sun, Bingbing; Wang, Xiang; Li, Ruibin; Pon, Nanetta; Xia, Tian; Nel, André E

    2015-12-22

    Because of tunable band gaps, high carrier mobility, and low-energy consumption rates, III-V materials are attractive for use in semiconductor wafers. However, these wafers require chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) for polishing, which leads to the generation of large quantities of hazardous waste including particulate and ionic III-V debris. Although the toxic effects of micron-sized III-V materials have been studied in vivo, no comprehensive assessment has been undertaken to elucidate the hazardous effects of submicron particulates and released III-V ionic components. Since III-V materials may contribute disproportionately to the hazard of CMP slurries, we obtained GaP, InP, GaAs, and InAs as micron- (0.2-3 μm) and nanoscale (materials that could appear in slurries. This finding is of importance for considering how to deal with the hazard potential of CMP slurries.

  20. Two-loop renormalization in the standard model, part III. Renormalization equations and their solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Actis, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Passarino, G. [Torino Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica Teorica; INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    In part I and II of this series of papers all elements have been introduced to extend, to two loops, the set of renormalization procedures which are needed in describing the properties of a spontaneously broken gauge theory. In this paper, the final step is undertaken and finite renormalization is discussed. Two-loop renormalization equations are introduced and their solutions discussed within the context of the minimal standard model of fundamental interactions. These equations relate renormalized Lagrangian parameters (couplings and masses) to some input parameter set containing physical (pseudo-)observables. Complex poles for unstable gauge and Higgs bosons are used and a consistent setup is constructed for extending the predictivity of the theory from the Lep1 Z-boson scale (or the Lep2 WW scale) to regions of interest for LHC and ILC physics. (orig.)

  1. A review of biomass burning emissions part III: intensive optical properties of biomass burning particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Reid

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of its wide coverage over much of the globe, biomass burning has been widely studied in the context of direct radiative forcing. Such study is warranted as smoke particles scatter and at times absorb solar radiation efficiently. Further, as much of what is known about smoke transport and impacts is based on remote sensing measurements, the optical properties of smoke particles have far reaching effects into numerous aspects of biomass burning studies. Global estimates of direct forcing have been widely varying, ranging from near zero to −1 W m-2. A significant part of this difference can be traced to varying assumptions on the optical properties of smoke. This manuscript is the third part of four examining biomass-burning emissions. Here we review and discuss the literature concerning measurement and modeling of optical properties of biomass-burning particles. These include available data from published sensitivity studies, field campaigns, and inversions from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET of Sun photometer sites. As a whole, optical properties reported in the literature are varied, reflecting both the dynamic nature of fires, variations in smoke aging processes and differences in measurement technique. We find that forward modeling or ''internal closure'' studies ultimately are of little help in resolving outstanding measurement issues due to the high degree of degeneracy in solutions when using ''reasonable'' input parameters. This is particularly notable with respect to index of refraction and the treatment of black carbon. Consequently, previous claims of column closure may in fact be more ambiguous. Differences between in situ and retrieved ωo values have implications for estimates of mass scattering and mass absorption efficiencies. In this manuscript we review and discuss this community dataset. Strengths and lapses are pointed out, future research topics are prioritized, and best estimates and uncertainties of key

  2. A review of biomass burning emissions part III: intensive optical properties of biomass burning particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Reid

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of its wide coverage over much of the globe, biomass burning has been widely studied in the context of direct radiative forcing. Such study is warranted as smoke particles scatter and at times absorb solar radiation efficiently. Further, as much of what is known about smoke transport and impacts is based on remote sensing measurements, the optical properties of smoke particles have far reaching effects into numerous aspects of biomass burning studies. Global estimates of direct forcing have been widely varying, ranging from near zero to −1 Wm−2. A significant part of this difference can be traced to varying assumptions on the optical properties of smoke. This manuscript is the third part of four examining biomass-burning emissions. Here we review and discuss the literature concerning measurement and modeling of optical properties of biomass-burning particles. These include available data from published sensitivity studies, field campaigns, and inversions from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET of Sun photometer sites. As a whole, optical properties reported in the literature are varied, reflecting both the dynamic nature of fires, variations in smoke aging processes and differences in measurement technique. We find that forward modeling or "internal closure" studies ultimately are of little help in resolving outstanding measurement issues due to the high degree of degeneracy in solutions when using "reasonable" input parameters. This is particularly notable with respect to index of refraction and the treatment of black carbon. Consequently, previous claims of column closure may in fact be more ambiguous. Differences between in situ and retrieved ωo values have implications for estimates of mass scattering and mass absorption efficiencies. In this manuscript we review and discuss this community dataset. Strengths and lapses are pointed out, future research topics are prioritized, and best estimates and

  3. Tourette's syndrome, Part II: Contemporary approaches to assessment and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scahill, L; Ort, S I; Hardin, M T

    1993-08-01

    Clinical assessment of a child with Tourette's syndrome (TS) includes a careful review of motor and phonic tics. In addition, commonly associated problems of such as obsessive-compulsive symptoms, or symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (inattention, impulsiveness, and overactivity) should also be evaluated. Treatment almost always includes education of the child, family, and school personnel concerning the natural history and behavioral boundaries of the disorder. Other treatment interventions depend to a great extent on the primary source of impairment. This article, the second of two parts, presents three illustrative cases and reviews current treatment interventions for children and adolescents with TS.

  4. Carbon honeycomb grids for advanced lead-acid batteries. Part III: Technology scale-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchev, A.; Serra, L.; Dumenil, S.; Brichard, G.; Alias, M.; Jammet, B.; Vinit, L.

    2015-12-01

    The carbon honeycomb grid technology employs new carbon/carbon composites with ordered 3D structure instead of the classic lead-acid battery current collectors. The technology is laboratory scaled up from small size grids corresponding to electrodes with a capacity of 3 Ah to current collectors suitable for assembly of lead-acid batteries covering the majority of the typical lead-acid battery applications. Two series of 150 grids each (one positive and one negative) are manufactured using low-cost lab-scale equipment. They are further subjected to pasting with active materials and the resulting battery plates are assembled in 12 V AGM-VLRA battery mono-blocks for laboratory testing and outdoor demonstration in electric scooter replacing its original VRLAB pack. The obtained results demonstrate that the technology can replace successfully the state of the art negative grids with considerable benefits. The use of the carbon honeycomb grids as positive plate current collectors is limited by the anodic corrosion of the entire structure attacking both the carbon/carbon composite part and the electroplated lead-tin alloy coating.

  5. Rich methane laminar flames doped with light unsaturated hydrocarbons. Part III : cyclopentene

    CERN Document Server

    Gueniche, Hadj-Ali; Fournet, René; Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique

    2008-01-01

    In line with the studies presented in the parts I and II of this paper, the structure of a laminar rich premixed methane flame doped with cyclopentene has been investigated. The gases of this flame contains 15.3% (molar) of methane, 26.7% of oxygen and 2.4% cyclopentene corresponding to an equivalence ratio of 1.79 and a ratio C5H8 / CH4 of 16 %. The flame has been stabilized on a burner at a pressure of 6.7 kPa using argon as dilutant, with a gas velocity at the burner of 36 cm/s at 333 K. The temperature ranged from 627 K close to the burner up to 2027 K. Quantified species included usual methane C0-C2 combustion products, but also propyne, allene, propene, propane, 1-butene, 1,3-butadiene, 1,2-butadiene, vinylacetylene, diacetylene, cyclopentadiene, 1,3-pentadiene, benzene and toluene. A new mechanism for the oxidation of cyclopentene has been proposed. The main reaction pathways of consumption of cyclopentene and of formation of benzene and toluene have been derived from flow rate analyses.

  6. Part III: the convenience of, and patient preference for, zolmitriptan orally disintegrating tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowson, Andrew J; Almqvist, Per

    2005-01-01

    As part of an optimal strategy for the management of migraine, the individual needs and preferences of patients need to be considered when of patients need to be considered when prescribing treatments. Zolmitriptan has been available as a conventional oral tablet for more than seven years, and is established as a highly effective, well-tolerated compound for the acute treatment of migraine. A bioequivalent, orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) of zolmitriptan, which dissolves on the tongue without the need for additional fluid intake, has been developed. In a study designed to compare patient preference for zolmitriptan ODT and conventional oral sumatriptan tablets, > 60% of the 186 patients questioned had an overall preference for zolmitriptan ODT, with > 80% of patients reporting that this was the more convenient and less disruptive therapy to take. Approximately 90% of patients agreed that, unlike a conventional tablet, zolmitriptan ODT can be taken wherever and whenever a migraine occurs. When patient preference for zolmitriptan ODT and the ODT formulation of rizatriptan was compared in 171 migraineurs, 70% had an overall preference for zolmitriptan ODT to be superior to rizatriptan ODT with respect to taste and aftertaste, as well as packaging. In summary, not only is zolmitriptan ODT a convenient tablets, such as the sumatriptan oral tablet, but patients generally consider it to be a more attractive option for the acute treatment of migraine than the orally disintegrating version of rizatriptan.

  7. A Study of Future Communications Concepts and Technologies for the National Airspace System-Part III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchak, Denise S.; Apaza, Rafael D.; Wichgersm Joel M.; Haynes, Brian; Roy, Aloke

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) is investigating current and anticipated wireless communications concepts and technologies that the National Airspace System (NAS) may need in the next 50 years. NASA has awarded three NASA Research Announcements (NAR) studies with the objective to determine the most promising candidate technologies for air-to-air and air-to-ground data exchange and analyze their suitability in a post-NextGen NAS environment. This paper will present progress made in the studies and describe the communications challenges and opportunities that have been identified as part of the study. NASA's NextGen Concepts and Technology Development (CTD) Project integrates solutions for a safe, efficient and high-capacity airspace system through joint research efforts and partnerships with other government agencies. The CTD Project is one of two within NASA's Airspace Systems Program and is managed by the NASA Ames Research Center. Research within the CTD Project is in support the 2011 NASA Strategic Plan Sub-Goal 4.1: Develop innovative solutions and advanced technologies, through a balanced research portfolio, to improve current and future air transportation. The focus of CTD is on developing capabilities in traffic flow management, dynamic airspace configuration, separation assurance, super density operations and airport surface operations. Important to its research is the development of human/automation information requirements and decisionmaking guidelines for human-human and human-machine airportal decision-making. Airborne separation, oceanic intrail climb/descent and interval management applications depend on location and intent information of surrounding aircraft. ADS-B has been proposed to provide the information exchange, but other candidates such as satellite-based receivers, broadband or airborne internet, and cellular communications are possible candidate's.

  8. Relationships between God and people in the Bible, part III: When the other is an outsider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Carol; Luborsky, Lester; Descôteaux, Jean; Diguer, Louis; Andrusyna, Tomasz P; Kirk, Dan; Cotsonis, George

    2004-01-01

    This study considers intergroup attitudes in the Bible and compares relationships between God or Jesus and (a) Torah non-Israelites; (b) New Testament people who were not followers of Jesus; and (c) New Testament people who were not Jewish. Torah non-Israelites belonged to an out-group with respect to the Hebrew Torah, New Testament people who were not followers of Jesus belonged to an out-group with respect to the Christian New Testament, and New Testament people who were not Jewish were an in-group with respect to Christians. Results were that God or Jesus' relationships were very negative with people in the Torah who were non-Israelites and with people in the New Testament who were not followers, while relationships were positive with people in the New Testament who were not Jewish. Thus, in conclusion, results indicate that both the New Testament and the Torah portray negative relationships between God or Jesus and members of out-groups. Relationships portrayed in New Testament narratives about God and people who were not followers were sometimes more negative than observed for other groups in the New Testament and the Torah; for people who were viewed as outsiders, the New Testament could sometimes be more negative than the Torah. An aim of this study was to identify patterns of relationships between God or Jesus and different types of people in narratives of the Torah and in the New Testament. One of the characteristics of different types of people, including people described in biblical narratives, is whether they are members of in-groups or out-groups. Our focus in this report is on biblical narratives about people who are members of out-groups. The results contribute a clinical-quantitative assessment of out-groups in the Torah and New Testament that is focused on relationship with God, a central issue in the psychology of religion and the Bible.

  9. Assessment of temporomandibular disorder and occlusion in treated class III malocclusion patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyna Valle-Corotti

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to compare the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD in individuals submitted to either orthodontic or ortho-surgical Class III malocclusion treatment and to assess the influence of occlusal aspects on TMD severity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 50 individuals divided into two groups, according to the type of treatment (orthodontic or orthodontic with orthognathic surgery. The presence of signs and symptoms of TMD was evaluated by an anamnestic questionnaire and a clinical examination, including TMJ and muscle palpation, active mandibular range of motion, joint noises and occlusal examination. RESULTS: Based on the anamnestic questionnaire, 48% had no TMD, 42% had mild TMD and 10% had moderate TMD. The presence and severity of TMD did not show any relationship with the type of orthodontic treatment (p>0.05. The chi-square test showed a positive association (p<0.05 between TMD and non-working side occlusal interferences. CONCLUSION: Based on the methodology used and the results obtained, it may be concluded that Class III orthodontic treatment was not associated with the presence of TMD signs and symptoms and the non-working side contacts can be occlusal factors of risk. There was no significant difference in TMD prevalence between the studied groups (orthodontically treated patients and patients treated with orthodontics followed by orthognathic surgery.

  10. Electronics and telecommunications in Poland, issues and perspectives: Part III. Innovativeness, applications, economy, development scenarios, politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modelski, Józef; Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2010-09-01

    important role of ET is combined with the existence in the society of an adequate infrastructure which recreates the full development cycle of high technology embracing: people, institutions, finances and logistics, in this also science, higher education, education, continuous training, dissemination and outreach, professional social environment, legal basis, political support and lobbying, innovation structures, applications, industry and economy. The digest of chosen development tendencies in ET was made here from the academic perspective, in a wider scale and on this background the national one, trying to situate this branch in the society, determine its changing role to build a new technical infrastructure of a society based on knowledge, a role of builder of many practical gadgets facilitating life, a role of a big future integrator of today's single bricks into certain more useful unity. This digest does not have a character of a systematic analysis of ET. It is a kind of an arbitrary utterance of the authors inside their field of competence. The aim of this paper is to take an active part in the discussion of the academic community in this country on the development strategy of ET, choice of priorities for cyclically rebuilding economy, in competitive environments. The review paper was initiated by the Committee of Electronics and Telecommunications of Polish Academy of Sciences and was published in Polish as introductory chapter of a dedicated expertise, printed in a book format. This version makes the included opinions available for a wider community.

  11. An Independent Scientific Assessment of Well Stimulation in California Volume III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Jane C.S. [California Council on Science and Technology, Sacramento, CA (United States); Feinstein, Laura C. [California Council on Science and Technology, Sacramento, CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [California Council on Science and Technology, Sacramento, CA (United States); Foxall, William [California Council on Science and Technology, Sacramento, CA (United States); Houseworth, James [California Council on Science and Technology, Sacramento, CA (United States); Jordan, Preston [California Council on Science and Technology, Sacramento, CA (United States); Lindsey, Nathaniel [California Council on Science and Technology, Sacramento, CA (United States); Maddalena, Randy [California Council on Science and Technology, Sacramento, CA (United States); McKone, Thomas [California Council on Science and Technology, Sacramento, CA (United States); Stringfellow, William [California Council on Science and Technology, Sacramento, CA (United States); Ulrich, Craig [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Heberger, Matthew [Pacific Inst., Oakland, CA (United States); Shonkoff, Seth [PSE Healthy Energy, Berkeley, CA (United States); Brandt, Adam [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Ferrar, Kyle [The FracTracker Alliance, Oakland, CA (United States); Gautier, Donald [DonGautier LLC., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Phillips, Scott [California State Univ. Stanislaus, Turlock, CA (United States); Greenfield, Ben [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Jerrett, Michael L.B. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This study is issued in three volumes. Volume I, issued in January 2015, describes how well stimulation technologies work, how and where operators deploy these technologies for oil and gas production in California, and where they might enable production in the future. Volume II, issued in July 2015, discusses how well stimulation could affect water, atmosphere, seismic activity, wildlife and vegetation, and human health. Volume II reviews available data, and identifies knowledge gaps and alternative practices that could avoid or mitigate these possible impacts. Volume III, this volume, presents case studies that assess environmental issues and qualitative risks for specific geographic regions. The Summary Report summarizes key findings, conclusions and recommendations of all three volumes.

  12. Long maximal incremental tests accurately assess aerobic fitness in class II and III obese men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Lanzi

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare two different maximal incremental tests with different time durations [a maximal incremental ramp test with a short time duration (8-12 min (STest and a maximal incremental test with a longer time duration (20-25 min (LTest] to investigate whether an LTest accurately assesses aerobic fitness in class II and III obese men. Twenty obese men (BMI≥35 kg.m-2 without secondary pathologies (mean±SE; 36.7±1.9 yr; 41.8±0.7 kg*m-2 completed an STest (warm-up: 40 W; increment: 20 W*min-1 and an LTest [warm-up: 20% of the peak power output (PPO reached during the STest; increment: 10% PPO every 5 min until 70% PPO was reached or until the respiratory exchange ratio reached 1.0, followed by 15 W.min-1 until exhaustion] on a cycle-ergometer to assess the peak oxygen uptake [Formula: see text] and peak heart rate (HRpeak of each test. There were no significant differences in [Formula: see text] (STest: 3.1±0.1 L*min-1; LTest: 3.0±0.1 L*min-1 and HRpeak (STest: 174±4 bpm; LTest: 173±4 bpm between the two tests. Bland-Altman plot analyses showed good agreement and Pearson product-moment and intra-class correlation coefficients showed a strong correlation between [Formula: see text] (r=0.81 for both; p≤0.001 and HRpeak (r=0.95 for both; p≤0.001 during both tests. [Formula: see text] and HRpeak assessments were not compromised by test duration in class II and III obese men. Therefore, we suggest that the LTest is a feasible test that accurately assesses aerobic fitness and may allow for the exercise intensity prescription and individualization that will lead to improved therapeutic approaches in treating obesity and severe obesity.

  13. Management strategies to effect change in intensive care units: lessons from the world of business. Part III. Effectively effecting and sustaining change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershengorn, Hayley B; Kocher, Robert; Factor, Phillip

    2014-03-01

    Reaping the optimal rewards from any quality improvement project mandates sustainability after the initial implementation. In Part III of this three-part ATS Seminars series, we discuss strategies to create a culture for change, improve cooperation and interaction between multidisciplinary teams of clinicians, and position the intensive care unit (ICU) optimally within the hospital environment. Coaches are used throughout other industries to help professionals assess and continually improve upon their practice; use of this strategy is as of yet infrequent in health care, but would be easily transferable and potentially beneficial to ICU managers and clinicians alike. Similarly, activities focused on improving teamwork are commonplace outside of health care. Simulation training and classroom education about key components of successful team functioning are known to result in improvements. In addition to creating an ICU environment in which individuals and teams of clinicians perform well, ICU managers must position the ICU to function well within the hospital system. It is important to move away from the notion of a standalone ("siloed") ICU to one that is well integrated into the rest of the institution. Creating a "pull-system" (in which participants are active in searching out needed resources and admitting patients) can help ICU managers both provide better care for the critically ill and strengthen relationships with non-ICU staff. Although not necessary, there is potential upside to creating a unified critical care service to assist with achieving these ends. PMID:24601653

  14. Management strategies to effect change in intensive care units: lessons from the world of business. Part III. Effectively effecting and sustaining change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershengorn, Hayley B; Kocher, Robert; Factor, Phillip

    2014-03-01

    Reaping the optimal rewards from any quality improvement project mandates sustainability after the initial implementation. In Part III of this three-part ATS Seminars series, we discuss strategies to create a culture for change, improve cooperation and interaction between multidisciplinary teams of clinicians, and position the intensive care unit (ICU) optimally within the hospital environment. Coaches are used throughout other industries to help professionals assess and continually improve upon their practice; use of this strategy is as of yet infrequent in health care, but would be easily transferable and potentially beneficial to ICU managers and clinicians alike. Similarly, activities focused on improving teamwork are commonplace outside of health care. Simulation training and classroom education about key components of successful team functioning are known to result in improvements. In addition to creating an ICU environment in which individuals and teams of clinicians perform well, ICU managers must position the ICU to function well within the hospital system. It is important to move away from the notion of a standalone ("siloed") ICU to one that is well integrated into the rest of the institution. Creating a "pull-system" (in which participants are active in searching out needed resources and admitting patients) can help ICU managers both provide better care for the critically ill and strengthen relationships with non-ICU staff. Although not necessary, there is potential upside to creating a unified critical care service to assist with achieving these ends.

  15. Workshop 95. Part III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Out of 140 short communications presented in the proceedings, 13 have been inputted into INIS. The topics covered include lifetime control in semiconductor devices by ion irradiation, single crystal scintillation detectors, environmental monitoring, diffusion and sorption of radionuclides in soils, accelerator driven reactors, radioactive waste disposal, digital reactor control systems and research reactors. (Z.S.)

  16. Metabolism. Part III: Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, George M.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the metabolic processes of complex lipids, including saponification, activation and transport, and the beta-oxidation spiral. Discusses fatty acid degradation in regard to biochemical energy and ketone bodies. (TW)

  17. Modeling and experimental assessment of a buried Leu-Ile mutation in dengue envelope domain III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Manjiri R; Numoto, Nobutaka; Ito, Nobutoshi; Kuroda, Yutaka

    2016-02-26

    Envelope protein domain III (ED3) of the dengue virus is important for both antibody binding and host cell interaction. Here, we focused on how a L387I mutation in the protein core could take place in DEN4 ED3, but cannot be accommodated in DEN3 ED3 without destabilizing its structure. To this end, we modeled a DEN4_L387I structure using the Penultimate Rotamer Library and taking the DEN4 ED3 main-chain as a fixed template. We found that three out of seven Ile(387) conformers fit in DEN4 ED3 without introducing the severe atomic clashes that are observed when DEN3 serotype's ED3 is used as a template. A more extensive search using 273 side-chain rotamers of the residues surrounding Ile(387) confirmed this prediction. In order to assess the prediction, we determined the crystal structure of DEN4_L387I at 2 Å resolution. Ile(387) indeed adopted one of the three predicted rotamers. Altogether, this study demonstrates that the effects of single mutations are to a large extent successfully predicted by systematically modeling the side-chain structures of the mutated as well as those of its surrounding residues using fixed main-chain structures and assessing inter-atomic steric clashes. More accurate and reliable predictions require considering sub-angstrom main-chain deformation, which remains a challenging task. PMID:26826384

  18. Preparation, spectroscopic and thermal characterization of new La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) complexes of enalapril maleate drug. In vitro antimicrobial assessment studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refat, Moamen S.; Al-Azab, Fathi M.; Al-Maydama, Hussein M. A.; Amin, Ragab R.; Jamil, Yasmin M. S.

    2014-02-01

    The 1:1 M ratio metal complexes of enalapril maleate hypertensive drug with La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) were synthesized. The suggested structures of the resulted complexes based on the results of elemental analyses, molar conductivity, (infrared, UV-visible and fluorescence) spectra, effective magnetic moment, thermal analysis (TG), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were discussed. The infrared spectral data were suggested that enalapril reacts with metal ions as an ionic bidentate ligand through its carboxylate oxygen and the amide carbonyl oxygen, but in case of the Sm(III) complex, it reacted as a monodentate through its amide carbonyl oxygen. Maleate moiety acts with all these metals as bidentate ligand through its carboxylate or carbonyl oxygen. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters such as: Ea, ΔH*, ΔS* and ΔG* were estimated from the DTG curves. The antibacterial evaluation of the enalapril maleate and their complexes were also performed against some gram positive and negative bacteria as well as fungi.

  19. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (83rd, Phoenix, Arizona, August 9-12, 2000). Miscellaneous, Part III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Miscellaneous, part III section of the proceedings contains the following 11 papers: "The Relationship between Health and Fitness Magazine Reading and Eating-Disordered Weight-Loss Methods among High School Girls" (Steven R. Thomsen, Michelle M. Weber, and Lora Beth Brown); "A Practical Exercise for Teaching Ethical Decision Making to…

  20. Initial assessment of the hazards and risks of new chemicals to man and the environment. Part 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulzebos, E.M.; Vermeire, T.G.

    1994-12-01

    This report is the third in a series describing the intitial hazard and risk assessment process for new substances at the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM) in The Netherlands. This third report, Part III, is meant to revisit several hazard identification issues and testing strategies which already have been discussed in Part I and Part II, particularly in relation to this Technical Guidance Document. Secondly it will discuss subjects which were not taken up in Part I and Part II, again using the results of the Technical Guidance Document. This report cannot stand on its own and should be used together with the previous reports in this series. Altogether these reports have primarily been written as a reference guide for those involved in the hazard and risk assessment process at RIVM, but also for risk managers responsible for the regulation and the overall dossier evaluation of new substances. To enhance the accessibility of this report and Parts I and II, an index to the major subjects discussed is included.

  1. The placenta in toxicology. Part III : Pathologic assessment of the placenta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cline, J Mark; Dixon, Darlene; Ernerudh, Jan; Faas, Marijke M; Göhner, Claudia; Häger, Jan-Dirk; Markert, Udo R; Pfarrer, Christiane; Svensson-Arvelund, Judit; Buse, Eberhard

    2014-01-01

    This short review is derived from the peer-reviewed literature and the experience and case materials of the authors. Brief illustrated summaries are presented on the gross and histologic normal anatomy of rodent and macaque placentas, including typical organ weights, with comments on differences fro

  2. Hybrid III Lower Leg Injury Assessment Reference Curves Under Axial Impacts Using Matched-Pair Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank; Banerjee, Anjishnu; Schlick, Michael; Chirvi, Sajal; Uppal, Hermeeth; Merkle, Andrew; Voo, Liming; Kleinberg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to derive injury probability curves applicable to the Hybrid III dummy (also termed the Anthropomorphic Test Device, ATD) lower leg under axial impacts for military applications. A matched-pair approach was used. Axial impacts were delivered to below knee foot-ankle complex preparations of the lower leg of the ATD using pendulum and custom vertical accelerator devices. Military boot was used in some tests. Post mortem human surrogate (PMHS) preparations were used as matched-pair tests for injury outcomes. The alignment was such that the foot-ankle complex was orthogonal to the leg (below knee tibia-fibula complex), termed as the normal 90-90 posture. Injury outcomes from the biological surrogate focused on calcaneus and or distal tibia fractures with or without the involvement of articular surfaces. Peak lower tibia load cell forces were obtained from matched-pair dummy tests. Injury and force data were paired, censoring was assigned based on injury outcomes and survival analysis was done using the Weibull distribution to derive dummy-based probability curves. Mean peak forces were extracted at 5, 10, 20 and 50% probability levels. Normalized confidence interval sizes (NCIS) at ± 95% level were computed to determine the tightness-of-fit of the confidence bands. The NCIS data ranged from 0.34 to 0.78 and a peak force of 8.2 kN was associated at the ten percent injury probability level. Other data and curves are given in the body of the paper. The present Injury Assessment Reference Curves and Values (IARC and IARV) may be used in future tests for advancing safety in military environments. These survival analysis processes and IARC and IARV data may also be used in other applications. PMID:25996722

  3. A Main Steam Safety Valve (MSSV) With Fixed Blowdown According to ASME Section III,Part NC-7512

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1986, the NRC issued the Information Notice (IN) 86-05 'Main Steam Safety Valve test failures and ring setting adjustments'. Shortly after this IN was issued, the Code was revised to require that a full flow test has to be performed on each CL.2 MSSV by the manufacturer to verify that the valve was adjusted so that it would reach full lift and thus full relieving capacity and would re-close at a pressure as specified in the valve Design Specification. In response to the concern discussed in the IN, the Westinghouse Owners Group (WOG) performed extensive full flow testing on PWR MSSVs and found that each valve required a unique setting of a combination of two rings in order to achieve full lift at accumulation of 3% and re-closing at a blowdown of 5%. The Bopp and Reuther MSSV type SiZ 2507 has a 'fixed blowdown' i.e. without any adjusting rings to adjust the 'blowdown' so that the blowdown is 'fixed'. More than 1000 pieces of this type are successfully in nuclear power plants in operation. Many of them since about 25 years. Therefore it can be considered as a proven design. It is new that an optimization of this MSSV type SiZ 2507 fulfill the requirements of part NC-7512 of the ASME Section III although there are still no adjusting rings in the flow part. In 2000, for the Qinshan Candu unit 1 and 2 full flow tests were performed with 32 MSSV type SiZ 2507 size 8'' x 12'' at 51 bar saturated steam in only 6 days. In all tests the functional performance was very stable. It was demonstrated by recording the signals lift and system pressure that all valves had acceptable results to achieve full lift at accumulation of 3% and to re-close at blowdown of 5%. This is an advantage which gives a reduction in cost for flow tests and which gives more reliability after maintenance work during outage compared to the common MSSV design with an individual required setting of the combination of the two rings. The design of the type SiZ 2507 without any adjusting rings in the

  4. [Operative treatment of traumatic fractures of the thoracic and lumbar spinal column: Part III: Follow up data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhold, M; Knop, C; Beisse, R; Audigé, L; Kandziora, F; Pizanis, A; Pranzl, R; Gercek, E; Schultheiss, M; Weckbach, A; Bühren, V; Blauth, M

    2009-03-01

    In this third and final part, the Spine Study Group (AG WS) of the German Trauma Association (DGU) presents the follow-up (NU) data of its second, prospective, internet-based multicenter study (MCS II) for the treatment of thoracic and lumbar spinal injuries including 865 patients from 8 trauma centers. Part I described in detail the epidemiologic data of the patient collective and the subgroups, whereas part II analyzed the different methods of treatment and radiologic findings. The study period covered the years 2002 to 2006 including a 30-month follow-up period from 01.01.2004 until 31.05.2006. Follow-up data of 638 (74%) patients were collected with a new internet-based database system and analyzed. Results in part III will be presented on the basis of the same characteristic treatment subgroups (OP, KONS, PLASTIE) and surgical treatment subgroups (Dorsal, Ventral, Kombi) in consideration of the level of injury (thoracic spine, thoracolumbar junction, lumbar spine). After the initial treatment and discharge from hospital, the average duration of subsequent inpatient rehabilitation was 4 weeks, which lasted significantly longer in patients with persistent neurologic deficits (mean 10.9 weeks) or polytraumatized patients (mean 8.6 weeks). Following rehabilitation on an inpatient basis, subsequent outpatient rehabilitation lasted on average 4 months. Physical therapy was administered significantly longer to patients with neurologic deficits (mean 8.7 months) or type C injuries (mean 8.6 months). The level of injury had no influence of the duration of the inpatient or outpatient rehabilitation. A total of 382 (72.2%) patients who were either operated from posterior approach only or in a combined postero-anterior approach had an implant removal after an average 12 months. During the follow-up period 56 (8.8%) patients with complications were registered and of these 18 (2.8%) had to have surgical revision. The most common complications reported were infection, loss

  5. Model assessment of protective barrier designs: Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protective barriers are being considered for use at the Hanford Site to enhance the isolation of radioactive wastes from water, plant, and animal intrusion. This study assesses the effectiveness of protective barriers for isolation of wastes from water. In this report, barrier designs are reviewed and several barrier modeling assumptions are tested. 20 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs

  6. River Pollution: Part II. Biological Methods for Assessing Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Openshaw, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Discusses methods used in the biological assessment of river quality and such indicators of clean and polluted waters as the Trent Biotic Index, Chandler Score System, and species diversity indexes. Includes a summary of a river classification scheme based on quality criteria related to water use. (JN)

  7. Enhanced FAA-Hybrid III dummy for aircraft occupant safety assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waagmeester, C.D.; Ratingen, M.R. van; Giavotto, V.; Notarnicola, L.; Goldner, S.

    2002-01-01

    Following an integral approach unique in aircraft safety, the European HeliSafe project aims to improve the survivability of helicopter crashes and to reduce the risk at injuries for occupants in cockpit and cabin. In the project, a modified FAA-Hybrid III is used for the baseline-, design- and conc

  8. Delirium: assessment and treatment of patients with cancer. PART 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michelle; Hardy, Kersten

    Delirium at the end of life may present significant ethical dilemmas in clinical practice: whether to simply treat it in order to maximise symptom relief, with the resulting side effect being palliative sedation, or to attempt to reverse delirium and risk prolonging suffering. Determining whether the delirium can be reversed involves comprehensive assessment using established tools, which may or may not provide the answer to the question posed. This article examines the evidence surrounding several assessment tools that have been suggested as effective in identifying delirium, and the consequences of various approaches to the management of delirium in a patient with a cancer diagnosis. It also considers the impact delirium may have on the health professional and those close to the patient.

  9. New perspectives in the use of ink evidence in forensic science: Part III: Operational applications and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Cedric; Margot, Pierre

    2009-11-20

    The research reported in this series of article aimed at (1) automating the search of questioned ink specimens in ink reference collections and (2) at evaluating the strength of ink evidence in a transparent and balanced manner. These aims require that ink samples are analysed in an accurate and reproducible way and that they are compared in an objective and automated way. This latter requirement is due to the large number of comparisons that are necessary in both scenarios. A research programme was designed to (a) develop a standard methodology for analysing ink samples in a reproducible way, (b) comparing automatically and objectively ink samples and (c) evaluate the proposed methodology in forensic contexts. This report focuses on the last of the three stages of the research programme. The calibration and acquisition process and the mathematical comparison algorithms were described in previous papers [C. Neumann, P. Margot, New perspectives in the use of ink evidence in forensic science-Part I: Development of a quality assurance process for forensic ink analysis by HPTLC, Forensic Sci. Int. 185 (2009) 29-37; C. Neumann, P. Margot, New perspectives in the use of ink evidence in forensic science-Part II: Development and testing of mathematical algorithms for the automatic comparison of ink samples analysed by HPTLC, Forensic Sci. Int. 185 (2009) 38-50]. In this paper, the benefits and challenges of the proposed concepts are tested in two forensic contexts: (1) ink identification and (2) ink evidential value assessment. The results show that different algorithms are better suited for different tasks. This research shows that it is possible to build digital ink libraries using the most commonly used ink analytical technique, i.e. high-performance thin layer chromatography, despite its reputation of lacking reproducibility. More importantly, it is possible to assign evidential value to ink evidence in a transparent way using a probabilistic model. It is therefore

  10. New perspectives in the use of ink evidence in forensic science: Part III: Operational applications and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Cedric; Margot, Pierre

    2009-11-20

    The research reported in this series of article aimed at (1) automating the search of questioned ink specimens in ink reference collections and (2) at evaluating the strength of ink evidence in a transparent and balanced manner. These aims require that ink samples are analysed in an accurate and reproducible way and that they are compared in an objective and automated way. This latter requirement is due to the large number of comparisons that are necessary in both scenarios. A research programme was designed to (a) develop a standard methodology for analysing ink samples in a reproducible way, (b) comparing automatically and objectively ink samples and (c) evaluate the proposed methodology in forensic contexts. This report focuses on the last of the three stages of the research programme. The calibration and acquisition process and the mathematical comparison algorithms were described in previous papers [C. Neumann, P. Margot, New perspectives in the use of ink evidence in forensic science-Part I: Development of a quality assurance process for forensic ink analysis by HPTLC, Forensic Sci. Int. 185 (2009) 29-37; C. Neumann, P. Margot, New perspectives in the use of ink evidence in forensic science-Part II: Development and testing of mathematical algorithms for the automatic comparison of ink samples analysed by HPTLC, Forensic Sci. Int. 185 (2009) 38-50]. In this paper, the benefits and challenges of the proposed concepts are tested in two forensic contexts: (1) ink identification and (2) ink evidential value assessment. The results show that different algorithms are better suited for different tasks. This research shows that it is possible to build digital ink libraries using the most commonly used ink analytical technique, i.e. high-performance thin layer chromatography, despite its reputation of lacking reproducibility. More importantly, it is possible to assign evidential value to ink evidence in a transparent way using a probabilistic model. It is therefore

  11. Management options for metastatic melanoma in the era of novel therapies: a primer for the practicing dermatologist: part I: Management of stage III disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Matthew C; Lao, Christopher D; Schwartz, Jennifer L; Frohm, Marcus L; Bichakjian, Christopher K; Johnson, Timothy M

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma has increased for decades, and while surgical treatment of early stage disease is often curative, metastatic disease continues to carry a significantly less promising outlook with high associated health burden and economic cost. An expanding number of dermatologists are playing a key role in coordinating the care of patients with melanoma, including in an increasingly important role among multidisciplinary melanoma clinics, many of which are anchored in dermatology departments. Advances in the understanding of the genetic and immunoregulatory aspects of melanoma development and progression have yielded a wave of novel therapeutics that has made significant impact on the approach to patients with metastatic disease. Frequently updated management guidelines and unfamiliarity with approved adjuvant treatment options, including interferon, clinical trials, or radiation therapy, can pose a challenge for dermatologists seeking to effectively coordinate the care of and establish proper expectations for patients with stage III disease. Moreover, greater awareness of treatment modalities for in-transit disease may allow dermatologists to play a more active role in the treatment of these patients and to expand their ability to explain and coordinate options, such as limb perfusion or infusion. Part I of this continuing medical education article will use clinical scenarios to outline the current management options for patients with stage III melanoma, including both adjuvant treatment options for resected stage III disease and primary treatment options for in-transit metastases. Part II of this series will address stage IV disease. PMID:23244383

  12. Part I. Bacteriorhodopsin-related materials work for molecular electronics. Part II. Volumetric optical memory based on the branched photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin. Part III. The role of calcium in the bacteriorhodopsin binding site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Jeffrey Alan

    Part I. A protocol for the routine isolation and purification of purple membrane sheets containing the integral membrane protein, bacteriorhodopsin, was developed based upon modifications of protocols already in the literature. This simplified protocol is geared toward the facile isolation of protein for use in molecular electronic devices. Methods for the incorporation of bacteriorhodopsin into various polymeric supports were also developed, primarily in the form of dried films and hydrated cubes. This work also represents the first reported production of dried films of the deionized protein, or blue membrane. Part II. An architecture for a volumetric optical memory based on the branched-photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin is presented. The branching reaction circumvents problems associated with destructive reading and writing processes and allows access to a stable, long-lived state, separated both temporally and energetically from the main photocycle, thereby making long-term data storage possible. The state, denoted as Q, can only be accessed by exposing the protein to two different wavelengths of light in the proper sequence, with the appropriate temporal separation (roughly 2 ms between the light pulses). The Q-state (assigned as a binary one) is transparent to both writing and reading processes, making them rigorously non-destructive. Bacteriorhodopsin in its resting state is assigned as a binary zero. A differential absorption reading process is used to determine the state of each volumetric binary element. Preliminary results are reported. Part III. The nature of the chromophore binding site of light-adapted bacteriorhodopsin is analyzed by using all-valence electron MNDO and MNDO-PSDCI molecular orbital theory to interpret previously reported linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopic measurements. It is concluded that the unique two-photon properties of the chromophore are due in part to the electrostatic field associated with a Casp{2+} ion near the

  13. Charleso Dickenso kūrybos recepcija lietuvių literatūros kritikoje (III dalis | The Reception of Charles Dickens in Lithuanian Literary Criticism (Part III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Rudaitytė

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although traditionally Dickens has always been regarded by Lithuanian critics and literary scholars as an emblematic English writer, one of the great­est representatives of the Victorian realist novel in England, his writing, however, has been given only cursory treatment in Lithuania, almost never until recently crossing the boundaries of biographical ar­ticles, reviews and notices with a biographical slant scattered in the press, particularly, but not only, dur­ing the early stages of reception. There is no book specifically dedicated to Dickens’s art by Lithuanian literary scholars, no comprehensive, fundamental and completely scholarly investigation of his writing. The critical assessment of Dickens’s writing has generally been coming in the form of reviews and articles dedicated to Dickens, in the form of prefaces and afterwords accompanying the translations of his books. In the inter-war years, Dickens was perceived as the great humanist, romanticist, and critic of the social evils of the Victorian England; he was glori­fied for his Christian ethics and his ‘Christmas phi­losophy’ with the focus on goodness and ‘religion of the heart’, with his cult of fireside tranquility. In the Soviet period, it is important to stress the tremen­dous influence of Marxist and communist ideology on the reception of Dickens who was favoured by the Marxist critics. In his writing they found the suit­able object to dissect using the tools, whatever blunt, of the Marxist approach, which was the only possi­ble method of literary analysis in Soviet times.Thus, during the period of Soviet occupation, Dickens was perceived as a typical representative of the social novel and of critical realism in English literature. His novels were popular because of political and social implications; he was the most translated and celebrated of English authors as providing a critique of capitalist society. This communist and Marxist bias was a crucial factor

  14. Protocol Outlines for Parts 1 and 2 of the Prospective Endoscopy III Study for the Early Detection of Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Louise; Wilhelmsen, Michael; Christensen, Ib Jarle;

    2016-01-01

    with personal data including co-morbidity will be recorded. Blood samples and data will also be collected from 6000 arbitrarily chosen participants with negative FIT. In Part 2, blood samples and data will be collected from 30,000 FIT-negative participants three times within 4 years. The blood samples...... will be analyzed using various in-house and commercially available manual and automated analysis platforms. RESULTS: We anticipate Part 1 to terminate late August 2016 and Part 2 to terminate late September 2022. The results from Parts 1 and 2 will be presented within 12 to 18 months from termination. CONCLUSIONS...

  15. Agricultural burning smoke in Eastern Washington: Part II. Exposure assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chang-Fu; Jimenez, Jorge; Claiborn, Candis; Gould, Tim; Simpson, Christopher D.; Larson, Tim; Sally Liu, L.-J.

    Several studies have documented potential health effects due to agricultural burning smoke. However, there is a paucity of literature characterizing community residents' exposure to agricultural burning smoke. This study assesses personal exposures to particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameters smoke ( Eb) for 33 asthmatic adults in Pullman, WA. PM 2.5 concentrations were measured on 16 subjects, inside of all but four residences, outside of 6 residences, and at a central site. The mean±standard deviation of personal exposure to PM 2.5 was 13.8±11.1 μg m -3, which was on average 8.0 μg m -3 higher during the agricultural burning episodes (19.0±11.8 μg m -3) than non-episodes (11.0±9.7 μg m -3). The levoglucosan (LG, a unique marker for biomass burning PM) on personal filter samples also was higher during the episodes than non-episodes (0.026±0.030 vs. 0.010±0.012 μg m -3). We applied the random component superposition model on central-site and home indoor PM measurements, and estimated a central-site infiltration factor between 0.21 and 2.05 for residences with good modeling performance. We combined the source apportionment and total exposure modeling results to estimate individual Eb, which ranged from 1.2 to 6.7 μg m -3 and correlated with personal LG with an r of 0.51. The sensitivity analysis of applying the infiltration efficiency estimated from the recursive model showed that the Eb (range: 1.3-4.3 μg m -3) obtained from this approach have a higher correlation with personal LG ( r=0.75). Nevertheless, the small sample size of personal LG measurements prevents a comparative and conclusive assessment of the model performance. We found a significant between-subject variation between episodes and non-episodes in both the Eb estimates and subjects' activity patterns. This suggests that the LG measurements at the central site may not always represent individual exposures to agricultural burning smoke. We recommend collecting more

  16. 18 CFR 410.1 - Basin regulations-Water Code and Administrative Manual-Part III Water Quality Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... part with the approval of the Director of the Federal Register under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Basin regulations-Water... Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS;...

  17. Population-scale assessment endpoints in ecological risk assessment. Part 1: Reflections of stakeholder values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Wayne G

    2006-01-01

    The selection of appropriate assessment endpoints is a basic element of an ecological risk assessment, especially at regional or watershed scales. Because ecological services often are tied to specific species, the risk to populations is a critical endpoint and feature of ecological risk assessments. The first item is a discussion of the replacement of population-level risk assessment with the construct of a population-scale assessment endpoint. Next, the criteria that are currently used for assessment endpoints are reviewed and evaluated for utility in an ecological risk assessment. Following this examination, assessment endpoints from a number of regional-scale ecological risk assessments are compared. The outcome of this evaluation is that population-scale assessment endpoints are important expressions of the valued components of ecological structures. Finally, a few recommendations for the selection of assessment endpoints at a population scale are listed. PMID:16640323

  18. Clinical competency assessment in intravenous therapy and vascular access: part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louise Hulse, Anna

    This article explores and critically evaluates clinical practice competencies as a form of assessment within post-registration nurse education, specifically relating to competence assessment of intravenous (IV) therapy. In the first article in this two-part series, 'Competency assessment in intravenous therapy and vascular access: part 1' (BJN, 22(16)), an in-depth literature review was carried out and applied to current competency assessment design. Clinical staff opinion was sought to evaluate users' opinions of this assessment method against recommended literature. The aim of both articles is to describe critically and analyse existing practice using this form of assessment, and relate other forms of assessment to IV therapy and vascular access clinical competence. A small-scale study was performed to evaluate whether clinical competency assessment is the most appropriate form of assessment of IV therapy and vascular access skills. A questionnaire was designed to assess nurse opinion in relation to advantages (positives) and disadvantages (negatives) of clinical practice competency assessment; 35 randomly selected post-registered nurses were included in the sample. Findings illustrated that clinical competency assessment is the most appropriate form for the assessment of clinical skills in IV therapy. However, recommendations were made for the possible use of Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) assessment. Furthermore, this report recommends the assessment of theory and knowledge through written exams or multiple-choice questions (MCQs) as an addition to clinical practice competence assessment for IV therapy. PMID:24067310

  19. Assessment of the optic nerve head parameters using Heidelberg retinal tomography III in preterm children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Alshaarawi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Variations in optic nerve head morphology and abnormal retinal vascular pattern have been described in preterm children using digital image analysis of fundus photograph, optical coherence tomograph and serial funduscopy. We aimed to compare the optic nerve head parameters in preterm and term Malay children using Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph III. DESIGN: A cross sectional study. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirty-two preterm Malay children who were born at up to 32 weeks postconception, and 32 term Malay children aged 8-16 years old were recruited into this cross sectional study, which was conducted in the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia from January to December 2011. Their optic nerves were scanned and analyzed using a Heidelberg Retinal Tomography (HRT III (Heidelberg Engineering, Germany. Preterm children showed an increased rim volume (SD (0.56 (0.26 vs 0.44 (0.18 mm(3, respectively, smaller cup shape (SD (0.18 (0.07 vs 0.25 (0.06 mm, respectively, increased height variation contour (SD (0.44 (0.14 vs 0.35 (0.08 mm, respectively, and increased cup depth (SD (0.24 (0.11 vs 0.17 (0.05 mm(3, respectively when compared to their normal peers (p0.05 in our study. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Preterm children exhibit different characteristics of optic nerve head parameters with HRT III analysis. Increased cup depth in preterm children suggests a need for close observation and monitoring. It may raise suspicion of pediatric glaucoma when proper documentation of intraocular pressure and clinical funduscopy are unsuccessful in uncooperative children.

  20. Assessing the Vulnerability to Climate Change in the Romanian Part of the Tisza River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRU-IONUŢ PETRIŞOR

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Clime change represents a current and important issue; in addition to the disputed global warming, at local or regional levels, floods could also be a consequence of this phenomenon. If the potential effects are assessed in terms of exposure, sensitivity, and vulnerability, a GIS methodology, based on statistical indicators and GIS modelling was used to assess the overall vulnerability of the Tisza river basin and define the flood-prone area. Even though specific indicators exhibited high values in some NUTS III units, the overall vulnerability of the regions appears to be low.

  1. Your workers may be contingent but your liability for them is certain: Part III: other employment issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koen, Clifford M; Mitchell, Michael S; Crow, Stephen M

    2010-01-01

    Hiring contingent workers can significantly help health care employers reduce labor costs while maintaining the staff required for quality patient care. However, a number of federal laws create legal land mines that await the unsuspecting employer. This article, the concluding part of a 3-part examination of contingent employment, addresses additional issues including benefits, tax implications, workers' compensation, contract considerations, and the screening of potential staffing partners. PMID:20686392

  2. Orthodontic decompensation in skeletal Class III malocclusion: redefining the amount of movement assessed by Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Zuega Cappellozza

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT is essential for tridimensional planning of orthognathic surgery, as it allows visualization and evaluation of bone structures and mineralized tissues. Tomographic slices allow evaluation of tooth inclination and individualization of movement performed during preoperative decompensation. The aim of this paper was to assess maxillary and mandibular incisors inclination pre and post orthodontic decompensation in skeletal Class III malocclusion.Methods:The study was conducted on six individuals with skeletal Class III malocclusion, surgically treated, who had Cone-Beam Computed Tomographic scans obtained before and after orthodontic decompensation. On multiplanar reconstruction view, tomographic slices (axial, coronal and sagittal were obtained on the long axis of each incisor. The sagittal slice was used for measurement taking, whereas the references used to assess tooth inclination were the long axis of maxillary teeth in relation to the palatal plane and the long axis of mandibular teeth in relation to the mandibular plane.Results:There was significant variation in the inclination of incisors before and after orthodontic decompensation. This change was of greater magnitude in the mandibular arch, evidencing that natural compensation is more effective in this arch, thereby requiring more intensive decompensation.Conclusion:When routinely performed, the protocols of decompensation treatment in surgical individuals often result in intensive movements, which should be reevaluated, since the extent of movement predisposes to reduction in bone attachment levels and root length.

  3. 76 FR 77982 - Applications for Eligibility Designation; Programs Under Parts A and F of Title III of the Higher...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... needy student enrollment and to average educational and general (E&G) expenditures for a specified base... have an enrollment of needy students if: (1) At least 50 percent of its degree students received... ``Enrollment of Needy Students.'' Educational and General Expenditures Per FTE Student: Under the Part A...

  4. Fermilab III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total ongoing plans for Fermilab are wrapped up in the Fermilab III scheme, centrepiece of which is the proposal for a new Main Injector. The Laboratory has been awarded a $200,000 Illinois grant which will be used to initiate environmental assessment and engineering design of the Main Injector, while a state review panel recommended that the project should also benefit from $2 million of funding

  5. Assessing Strategy of Power Transformers Insulation State Based on Part-division and Entropy Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Ruijin; LIU Bin; ZHANG Yiyi; YANG Lijun; ZHENG Hanbo

    2013-01-01

    Failure mechanisms of power transformers are complex and uncertain; it is difficult to determine index weights of insulation state.Therefore,it is a challenge to acquire an accurate assessment of insulation state of power transformers.In this paper,an assessing strategy for transformer insulation is proposed base on part-division of transformer and a comprehensive weight determination method.An index system of transformer is established on the basis of part-division of transformer.Each index's weight is consisted of two parts,the constant weight and the variable weight,which are determined by improved analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and entropy method respectively.After categorizing insulation state into four levels and standardizing assessing indexes,a Cauchy membership function is forged,and a fuzzy algorithm is employed to simulate the uncertainty of the insulation state.Finally,a confidence criterion is employed to perform part-division based condition assessment of transformer.Case studies reveal that the proposed assessing strategy method is effective,convenient,and practical; with the new strategy,potential failures of transformers can be forecasted and insulation state of transformer parts can also be assessed.Furthermore,the assessing results can be used to guide condition-based maintenance.

  6. Developmental assessment in cases of PIMD : The opinion of support staff and psychologists about the suitability of the GTI and Bayley-III

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Linda; Oldenburger, M.N.C.; van der Meulen, Bieuwe

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Developmental assessment is important to be able to adjust the support that is offered to a person with PIMD to his/her possibilities and needs. The focus of this poster is the suitability of two developmental assessment instruments: the Bayley-III and the GTI (GedragsTaxatie-Instrumen

  7. Preformulation Considerations for Controlled Release Dosage Forms: Part III. Candidate Form Selection Using Numerical Weighting and Scoring

    OpenAIRE

    Chrzanowski, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Two numerical methods, Decision Analysis (DA) and Potential Problem Analysis (PPA) are presented as alternative selection methods to the logical method presented in Part I. In DA properties are weighted and outcomes are scored. The weighted scores for each candidate are totaled and final selection is based on the totals. Higher scores indicate better candidates. In PPA potential problems are assigned a seriousness factor and test outcomes are used to define the probability of occurrence. The ...

  8. Review article: A primer for clinical researchers in the emergency department: Part III: How to write a scientific paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Andrew; McD Taylor, David; Babl, Franz E

    2012-08-01

    In this series we address key topics for clinicians who conduct research as part of their work in the ED. Analysis of research data does not represent the completion of a project as the findings need to be communicated to clinicians and other researchers in the field. In this section, we describe how to write up clinical research data for publication in a peer-reviewed journal. We also describe the editorial and peer-review process. PMID:22862751

  9. Assessment of Cognitive Ability of Students with Severe and Low-Incidence Disabilities--Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepeau-Hobson, Franci; Vujeva, Hana

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of cognitive ability in students with the most severe disabilities presents a challenge to the clinicians who are charged with this task. This article is the second of a two-part series that summarizes what is currently known about effective assessment of the cognitive ability of students with significant impairments in order to…

  10. Metal-ligand interaction of lanthanides with coumarin derivatives. Part I. Complexation of 3-(1-aminoethylidene)-2H-chromene-2,4(3H)-dione with La(III), Ce(III), Nd(III) and Ho(III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiatek, Mirosława; Kufelnicki, Aleksander

    2012-01-01

    Solutions of lanthanum(III), cerium(III), neodymium(III) and holmium(III) nitrates with 3-(1-aminoethylidene)-2H-chromene-2,4(3H)-dione (1) in 10% v/v dioxane-water medium were used. Coordination modes of 1 with the selected lanthanides have been examined. Hydroxo-complexes with deprotonated water molecules from the inner coordination sphere have been stated in basic medium. Stability constants of the forming complex species were determined by potentiometric titrations using Superquad and Hyperquad2003 programs. The most stable complexes are formed with La(III). The UV-Vis spectra of the Nd(III)-1 system confirmed the L:M = 1:1 stoichiometry evaluated potentiometrically.

  11. Pantoea agglomerans: a mysterious bacterium of evil and good. Part III. Deleterious effects: infections of humans, animals and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Kinga Lemieszek, Marta; Golec, Marcin; Milanowski, Janusz

    2016-06-01

    (Arrhenatherum elatius). Some plant-pathogenic strains of P. agglomerans are tumourigenic, inducing gall formation on table beet, an ornamental plant gypsophila (Gypsophila paniculata), wisteria, Douglas-fir and cranberry. Recently, a Pantoea species closely related to P. agglomerans has been identified as a cause of bacterial blight disease in the edible mushroom Pleurotus eryngii cultivated in China. The genetically governed determinants of plant pathogenicity in Pantoea agglomerans include such mechanisms as the hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (hrp) system, phytohormones, the quorum-sensing (QS) feedback system and type III secretion system (T3SS) injecting the effector proteins into the cytosol of a plant cell. PMID:27294620

  12. New 20-cm radio-continuum study of the small Magellanic cloud - part III: Compact Hii regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong G.F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present and discuss a new catalogue of 48 compact Hii regions in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC and a newly created deep 1420 MHz (λ=20 cm radio-continuum image of the N19 region located in the southwestern part of the SMC. The new images were created by merging 1420 MHz radiocontinuum archival data from the Australian Telescope Compact Array. The majority of these detected radio compact Hii regions have rather flat spectral indices which indicates, as expected, that the dominant emission mechanism is of thermal nature.

  13. Assessment of the Forensic Sciences Profession: A Legal Study Concerning the Forensic Sciences Personnel. Volume III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Oliver, Jr.

    The place and function of forensic sciences personnel in American criminal law and court procedure, and the criteria used by criminal trial judges and lawyers to assess the value of forensic sciences personnel were investigated. Federal, state, Virgin Island, and Puerto Rican laws were examined, and a search of the medical and legal literature…

  14. Quality assessment in in vivo NMR spectroscopy: III. Clinical test objects: design, construction, and solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leach, M.O.; Collins, D.J.; Keevil, S;

    1995-01-01

    Based on the requirements of test protocols developed to evaluate clinical MRS single slice and volume localisation sequences, two clinical test objects, STO1 and STO2 have been developed. The properties of a range of potential construction materials have been assessed, demonstrating that the water...

  15. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report VII, Volume III. Cultural resource assessment socioeconomic background data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macfarlane, Heather; Janzen, Donald E.

    1980-11-26

    This report has been prepared in conjunction with an environmental baseline study for a commercial coal conversion facility being conducted by Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. (ASFI) and Airco Energy Company (AECO). This report represents a cultural resource assessment for the proposed plant site and two potential solid waste disposal areas. This assessment presents data collected by Dames and Moore during a recent archaeological reconnaissance of the unsurveyed southeastern portion of the proposed plant site and two potential solid waste disposal areas. Also, results of two previous surveys on the northern and southwestern portion of the plant site for American Smelting and Refining Company (ASARCO) and Kentucky Utilities are included. The Dames and Moore survey of the southeastern portion of the plant site identified one archaeological site, three standing structures and one historic cemetery. In addition 47 archaeological sites and six standing structures are known from two previous surveys of the remainder of the plant site (Cowan 1975 and Turnbow et al 1980). Eleven of the previously recorded archaeological sites were recommended for further assessment to evaluate their potential for inclusion within the Holt Bottoms Archaeological District currently listed on the National Register of Historic Places. None of the archaeological sites or standing structures located within the plant site during the Dames and Moore survey were recommended for further assessment. A total of eight archaeological sites were located during the Dames and Moore survey of the two potential solid waste disposal areas. Of this total only two sites were recommended for further assessment. Also, one previously unknown historic cemetry was located in the southernmost potential waste disposal area.

  16. Macro-mechanical modeling of blast-wave mitigation in foams. Part III: verification of the models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britan, A.; Shapiro, H.; Liverts, M.; Ben-Dor, G.

    2014-05-01

    Three different approaches to macro-mechanical modeling of blast-wave mitigation in foam namely: the single-phase effective gas flow model, the two-phase mixture model and the single bubble/shock wave interaction model are critically reviewed. The nature and extent of the approximations inherent in the formulation of the first two models were examined in Part I of this study. In this part, the applicability of the aforementioned approaches is verified based on a comparison of experimental pressure records obtained in shock tube tests with the results of numerical predictions that used the models under consideration. Deficiencies and inconsistencies that are found during this comparison are clarified and possible improvements are suggested. It is emphasized that both the single-phase and the two-phase approaches predict well the refraction of the incident shock at the air/foam interface while they do not uniquely determine the relaxation process and the shape of the transmitted shock wave front. Various flexibilities that are exploited to better describe the inter-phase interactions do not improve the results significantly. The single bubble model is examined with particular attention paid to the manner in which it predicts the shape of the shock wave front. Connections between the flow viscosity and the transient dynamics of the bubble compression that occur at scales of the shock wave front thickness are explored.

  17. Pantoea agglomerans: a mysterious bacterium of evil and good. Part III. Deleterious effects: infections of humans, animals and plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dutkiewicz

    2016-06-01

    plant called Chinese taro ([i]Alocasia cucullata[/i], and a grass called onion couch ([i]Arrhenatherum elatius[/i]. Some plant-pathogenic strains of [i]P. agglomerans[/i] are tumourigenic, inducing gall formation on table beet, an ornamental plant gypsophila ([i]Gypsophila paniculata[/i], wisteria, Douglas-fir and cranberry. Recently, a [i]Pantoea[/i] species closely related to [i]P. agglomerans[/i] has been identified as a cause of bacterial blight disease in the edible mushroom [i]Pleurotus eryngii[/i] cultivated in China. The genetically governed determinants of plant pathogenicity in [i]Pantoea agglomerans[/i] include such mechanisms as the hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (hrp system, phytohormones, the quorum-sensing (QS feedback system and type III secretion system (T3SS injecting the effector proteins into the cytosol of a plant cell.

  18. Assessment of Long-Term Research Needs for Shale-Oil Recovery (FERWG-III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, S.S.

    1981-03-01

    The Fossil Energy Research Working Group (FERWG), at the request of E. Frieman (Director, Office of Energy Research) and G. Fumich, Jr. (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Fuels), has reviewed and evaluated the U.S. programs on shale-oil recovery. These studies were performed in order to provide an independent assessment of critical research areas that affect the long-term prospects for shale-oil availability. This report summarizes the findings and research recommendations of FERWG.

  19. Functional role of inorganic trace elements in angiogenesis part III: (Ti, Li, Ce, As, Hg, Va, Nb and Pb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Orangi, Jafar; Asatourian, Armen; Sorenson, Christine M; Sheibani, Nader

    2016-02-01

    Many essential elements exist in nature with significant influence on human health. Angiogenesis is vital in developmental, repair, and regenerative processes, and its aberrant regulation contributes to pathogenesis of many diseases including cancer. Thus, it is of great importance to explore the role of these elements in such a vital process. This is third in a series of reviews that serve as an overview of the role of inorganic elements in regulation of angiogenesis and vascular function. Here we will review the roles of titanium, lithium, cerium, arsenic, mercury, vanadium, niobium, and lead in these processes. The roles of other inorganic elements in angiogenesis were discussed in part I (N, Fe, Se, P, Au, and Ca) and part II (Cr, Si, Zn, Cu, and S) of these series. The methods of exposure, structure, mechanisms, and potential activities of these elements are briefly discussed. An electronic search was performed on the role of these elements in angiogenesis from January 2005 to April 2014. These elements can promote and/or inhibit angiogenesis through different mechanisms. The anti-angiogenic effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles comes from the inhibition of angiogenic processes, and not from its toxicity. Lithium affects vasculogenesis but not angiogenesis. Nanoceria treatment inhibited tumor growth by inhibiting angiogenesis. Vanadium treatment inhibited cell proliferation and induced cytotoxic effects through interactions with DNA. The negative impact of mercury on endothelial cell migration and tube formation activities was dose and time dependent. Lead induced IL-8 production, which is known to promote tumor angiogenesis. Thus, understanding the impact of these elements on angiogenesis will help in development of new modalities to modulate angiogenesis under various conditions. PMID:26638864

  20. Medicina por Imágenes: la visión globalizada. Parte III: la visión desde el Derecho Image Based Medicine: the global vision. Part III: Legal Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Carestia

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available La visión globalizada del diagnóstico por imágenes es una puesta al día, creemos que necesaria, de los caracteres más relevantes de esta bellísima disciplina. Está dirigida a quienes todavía no han decidido su camino y están finalizando sus carreras de grado -médica o técnica-, pero también a aquellos que ya han comenzado la residencia; y quizá también para quienes habiendo recorrido ya un largo trayecto, conservan un espíritu crítico y una mirada joven. A la luz del nuevo milenio, y cuando se han cumplido veinticinco años de su reconocimiento como especialidad por parte de la comunidad médica de nuestro país, los autores examinamos esta visión que no se conforma con la mirada unilateral del radiólogo sino que busca también la proveniente de otros saberes y ciencias. Por ello, se incluye una aproximación desde el derecho -sobre un tema puntual-, se tratan los aspectos educacionales y se incorporan la mirada desde el área técnica, la perspectiva de la filosofía y la bioética y las visiones desde la psicología, desde la gestión de los recursos humanos y los aspectos de ciencia y tecnología, entre otras.The global vision of diagnostic imaging is a necessary update, we think, of the most relevant characters of this beautiful discipline. It is directed to those advanced students of Medicine and Radiology Technique career who have not yet decided their future activity but also to the already graduated who are just beginning their residence training programs; and maybe to those who keep a critical spirit and a young glance, in spite of the chronological age. At daybreak of the millennium and when we are assisting to the twenty five anniversary of its origin and recognition as a new speciality inside the medical community in our country, we the authors, have selected not only the unique vision of the radiologist but also the vision of other fields of knowledge and sciences. So because of this we develop the legal view on

  1. Use of rumination and activity monitoring for the identification of dairy cows with health disorders: Part III. Metritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangaferro, M L; Wijma, R; Caixeta, L S; Al-Abri, M A; Giordano, J O

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate (1) the performance of an automated health-monitoring system (AHMS) to identify cows with metritis based on an alert system (health index score, HIS) that combines rumination time and physical activity; (2) the number of days between the first HIS alert and clinical diagnosis (CD) of metritis by farm personnel; and (3) the daily rumination time, physical activity, and HIS patterns around CD. In this manuscript, the overall performance of HIS to detect cows with all disorders of interest in this study [ketosis, displaced abomasum, indigestion (companion paper, part I), mastitis (companion paper, part II), and metritis] is also reported. Holstein cattle (n=1,121; 451 nulliparous and 670 multiparous) were fitted with a neck-mounted electronic rumination and activity monitoring tag (HR Tags, SCR Dairy, Netanya, Israel) from at least -21 to 80 d in milk (DIM). Raw data collected in 2-h periods were summarized per 24 h as daily rumination and activity. An HIS (0 to 100 arbitrary units) was calculated daily for individual cows with an algorithm that used rumination and activity. A positive HIS outcome was defined as an HIS of rumination, activity, and HIS patterns around CD, alterations of blood markers of metabolic and health status around calving, reduced milk production, and were more likely to exit the herd than cows not flagged based on the HIS and cows without disease, suggesting that cows flagged based on the HIS had a more severe episode of metritis. Including all disorders of interest for this study, the overall sensitivity was 59%, specificity was 98%, positive predictive value was 58%, negative predictive value was 98%, and accuracy was 96%. The AHMS was effective for identifying cows with severe cases of metritis, but less effective for identifying cows with mild cases of metritis. Also, the overall accuracy and timing of the AHMS alerts for cows with health disorders indicated that AHMS that combine rumination and

  2. EPHECT III: Health risk assessment of exposure to household consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trantallidi, M; Dimitroulopoulou, C; Wolkoff, P; Kephalopoulos, S; Carrer, P

    2015-12-01

    In the framework of the EU EPHECT project (Emissions, Exposure Patterns and Health Effects of Consumer Products in the EU), irritative and respiratory effects were assessed in relation to acute (30-min) and long-term (24-h) inhalation exposure to key and emerging indoor air pollutants emitted during household use of selected consumer products. A detailed Health Risk Assessment (HRA) was performed for five selected pollutants of respiratory health relevance, namely acrolein, formaldehyde, naphthalene, d-limonene and α-pinene. For each pollutant, the Critical Exposure Limit (CEL) was compared to indoor air concentrations and exposure estimates for the use of 15 selected consumer products by two population groups (housekeepers and retired people) in the four geographical regions of Europe (North, West, South, East), which were derived previously based on microenvironmental modelling. For the present HRA, health-based CELs were derived for certain compounds in case indoor air quality guidelines were not available by the World Health Organization for end-points relevant to the current study. For each pollutant, the highest indoor air concentrations in each microenvironment and exposure estimates across home microenvironments during the day were lower than the corresponding acute and long-term CELs. However, considerable contributions, especially to acute exposures, were obtained in some cases, such as formaldehyde emissions resulting from single product use of a floor cleaning agent (82% CEL), a candle (10% CEL) and an electric air freshener (17% CEL). Regarding multiple product use, the case of 30-min formaldehyde exposure reaching 34% CEL when eight product classes were used across home microenvironments, i.e. all-purpose/kitchen/floor cleaning agents, furniture/floor polish, combustible/electric air fresheners, and perfume, needs to be highlighted. Such estimated values should be evaluated with caution, as these may be attributed to the exposure scenarios

  3. 现代磷化质量控制%Quality control of modern phosphating Part III-Troubleshooting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐春华

    2014-01-01

    The problems occurred during normal temperature lightweight iron phosphate or iron-zinc phosphate conversion, normal or low temperature zinc phosphate conversion, moderate temperature zinc phosphate conversion, moderate temperature zinc phosphate conversion for shot-blasted fasteners, zinc phosphate conversion for cold-worked parts, moderate and high temperature black Zn-Mn-Ca and Mn-Ca phosphate conversion, and chemical oxidation (chromate or chromate-phosphate conversion) for aluminum and its alloys were analyzed. The corresponding treatment methods were presented.%分析了造成常温轻质磷酸铁或磷酸锌-铁浸渍磷化,常(低)温锌系浸渍磷化,中温锌系浸渍磷化,紧固件抛丸中温锌系浸渍磷化,冷加工件锌系浸渍磷化,中高温黑色Zn-Mn-Ca系、Mn-Ca系浸渍磷化,铝及铝合金化学氧化(铬氧化和铬磷化)等磷化工艺中出现各种质量问题的因素,给出了相应的处理方法。

  4. Biological affinities and adaptations of Bronze Age Bactrians: III. An initial craniometric assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, B E

    1998-07-01

    Discovery of a previously unknown Bronze Age civilization (Oxus Civilization) centered on the oases of Central Asia immediately raised questions concerning the origin and interregional impacts of this civilization. Fifteen craniometric variables from 12 Bronze Age samples--encompassing 544 adults from Central Asia, Iran, the Indus Valley, and Anatolia--are compared to test which, if any, of the current hypotheses offered by archaeologists are best supported by the pattern of phenetic affinities possessed by the Oxus Civilization inhabitants of the north Bactrian oasis. Craniometric differences between samples are compared with Mahalanobis generalized distance, and patterns of phenetic affinity are assessed with two types of cluster analysis (WPGMA, neighbor-joining method), multidimensional scaling, and principal coordinates analysis. Results obtained by this analysis indicate that current hypotheses for both the origin and interregional impacts of Oxus Civilization populations are incomplete. PMID:9696149

  5. Short term administration of glucocorticoids in patients with protracted and chronic gout arthritis. Part III – frequency of adverse events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A A Fedorova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess frequency of adverse events during short term administration of gluco- corticoid (GC in protracted and chronic gout arthritis. Material and methods. 59 pts with tophaceous gout (crystal-verified diagnosis and arthritis of three and more joints lasting more than a months in spite of treatment with sufficient doses of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were included. Median age of pts was 56 [48;63], median disease duration – 15,2 years [7,4;20], median swollen joint count at the examination – 8 [5;11]. The patients were randomized into 2 groups. Methylprednisolone (MP 500 mg/day iv during 2 days and placebo im once was administered in one of them, betamethasone (BM 7 mg im once and placebo iv twice – in the other. Clinical evaluation of inflamed joints was performed every day. Standard laboratory examination and ECG were done before drug administration, at 3rd, 7th, and 14th day of follow up. Immunoreactive insulin level was evaluated before drug administration and at day 14. Blood pressure (BP was measured every day. Results. After first GC administration BP elevated in 28 (47% pts. In pts not having appropriate BP values BP elevated in 73% of cases. Pts with appropriate BP values showed less frequent BP elevation – 38% (p=0,02. In 8 (13% pts at day 3 after GC administration ECG signs of myocardial blood supply deterioration were revealed. Glucose level elevated in 10 (17% pts and after the second BM administration – in 5 (8% pts. Cholesterol level did not significantly change after 14 days of follow up but in 28 (47% pts it increased in comparison with baseline. Trigliceride level significantly decreased at day 14 from 149 [106; 187] to 108 [66,5; 172] mg/dl (p=0,02. 26 (44% pts had face hyperemia, 4 (7% –42 palpitation and 2 (3,4% – bitter taste. Conclusion. Administration of short course of GC in pts with gout requires monitoring of possible adverse events. Antihypertensive therapy providing appropriate BP

  6. [Legal issues of physician-assisted euthanasia. Part III--Passive euthanasia, comparison of international legislation, conclusions for medical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Johannes; Röbel, Andreas; Parzeller, Markus

    2013-01-01

    The generic term "passive euthanasia" includes different issues dealing with the omission, discontinuation or termination of life-sustaining or life-prolonging medical treatments. The debate around passive euthanasia focuses on the constitutional right of self-determination of every human being on the one hand and the constitutional mandate of the State to protect human life on the other. Issues of passive euthanasia always require a differentiated approach. Essentially, it comes down to the following: In Germany, the human right of self-determination includes the right to prohibit the performance of life-sustaining treatments, even if this leads to the death of the patient. A physician who does not take life-sustaining treatment measures because this is the free will expressed by the patient is not subject to prosecution. On the other hand, if the physician treats the patient against his will, this can be deemed a punishable act of bodily injury. The patient's will is decisive even if his concrete state of health does no longer allow him to freely express his will. In the Patient's Living Will Act of 2009, the German legislator clarified the juridical assessment of such constellations being of particular relevance in practice. A written living will of a person in which he requests to take or not to take certain medical treatment measures in case that he is no longer able to make the decision himself shall be binding for the people involved in the process of medical treatment. If there is no living will, the supposed will of the patient shall be relevant. In its judgment in the "Putz case", the German Federal Court of Justice ruled in 2010 that actions terminating a life-sustaining treatment that does not correspond to the patient's will must be limited to letting an already ongoing disease process run its course. In this context it is not important, however, whether treatment is discontinued by an active act or by omission. Under certain circumstances, the

  7. A review of quality of life in Alzheimer's disease. Part 2: Issues in assessing drug effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salek, S S; Walker, M D; Bayer, A J

    1998-12-01

    There are numerous methods available for assessing patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or other forms of dementia. Quality-of-life (QOL) assessment is unique among these methods. The subjective nature of quality of life provides healthcare professionals with the opportunity of incorporating the value systems of patients and their carers into their assessments. A systematic review was carried out to assess the published data (and some unpublished data) on QOL assessment tools and instruments that claim to measure quality of life in dementia. A number of measures or methods used in the literature for assessing the quality of life of patients with dementing illnesses were identified. It was decided to present the resultant review in 2 parts that correspond to the 2 main groups into which the instruments were categorised. The first (part 1), looked at measures used to assess the impact of disease as well as instruments at a developmental or testing stage. The second (part 2), includes instruments that claim to measure quality of life in studies documenting the impact of a drug in this therapeutic area. This second group consists mainly of instruments identified as being used to assess quality of life during clinical trials in dementia/AD. As in part 1, this part of the review was unable to identify any validated methods of assessing the quality of life of both patients with dementia and their carers at the same time. The ideal instrument must show that it can reliably, reproducibly and comprehensively assess quality of life for both patients with dementia and their carers. It should also demonstrate that it can measure quality of life effectively using a practical administration technique that does not place any unnecessary burden on either informal carers, other healthcare workers involved or the patient themselves. In addition, any measure intended for use in assessing the impact of drug treatment on quality of life must demonstrate sensitivity to change, also

  8. Crescimento da base craniana nos diferentes tipos faciais nos relacionamentos maxilomandibulares ortopédicos de Classe I, II e III: parte 3 (Crescimento médio de CF-Po Cranial base growth in different facial types in Class I, II and III orthopedic maxillomandibular relationship: part 3 (Mean growth of CF-Po

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucelma Vilela Pieri

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: este estudo retrospectivo avaliou o crescimento médio de CF-Po nos diferentes tipos faciais nos relacionamentos maxilomandibulares ortopédicos de Classe I, II e III. METODOLOGIA: uma amostra aleatória de 300 pacientes brasileiros leucodermas (131 do gênero masculino, 169 do gênero feminino, com idade média inicial de 10 anos e 2 meses (dentadura mista e final de 14 anos e 8 meses (segundos molares em oclusão e tempo médio de observação de 4 anos e 5 meses, foi selecionada em uma clínica particular, em São Paulo, Brasil. Havia 118 pacientes Classe I, 151 Classe II e 31 Classe III. Todas as 600 radiografias cefalométricas laterais foram obtidas no mesmo aparelho de raios-x. As análises de Ricketts e Schwarz modificadas por Faltin foram usadas. A medida linear CF-Po foi feita manualmente pelo mesmo examinador em T1 e T2. Os relacionamentos foram estudados juntos e separadamente, considerando tipo facial e gênero. A análise de variância de ANOVA foi aplicada. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: o tipo facial retrovertido mostrou-se significativamente desfavorável à correção de Classe III mandibular no gênero masculino; com tendência desfavorável à Classe II mandibular e crescimento ântero-posterior favorável na Classe I. O neutrovertido mostrou-se significativamente favorável à correção de Classe III mandibular em ambos os gêneros; com tendência favorável à correção de Classe II mandibular e ao crescimento ântero-posterior na Classe I. O provertido mostrou-se significativamente desfavorável à correção de Classe III em ambos os gêneros e favorável na Classe II mandibular e com tendência favorável de crescimento ântero-posterior na Classe I, principalmente no gênero masculino.AIM: This retrospective study assessed the cranial base growth and development in different facial types in Class I, II and III orthopedic maxillomandibular relationship. METHODS: A random sample of 300 Brazilian Caucasian patients

  9. An integrated model for the assessment of global water resources – Part 2: Applications and assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hanasaki

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available To assess global water resources from the perspective of subannual variation in water availability and water use, an integrated water resources model was developed. In a companion report, we presented the global meteorological forcing input used to drive the model and six modules, namely, the land surface hydrology module, the river routing module, the crop growth module, the reservoir operation module, the environmental flow requirement module, and the anthropogenic withdrawal module. Here, we present the results of the model application and global water resources assessments. First, the timing and volume of simulated agriculture water use were examined because agricultural use composes approximately 85% of total consumptive water withdrawal in the world. The estimated crop calendar showed good agreement with earlier reports for wheat, maize, and rice in major countries of production. In major countries, the error in the planting date was ±1 mo, but there were some exceptional cases. The estimated irrigation water withdrawal also showed fair agreement with country statistics, but tended to be underestimated in countries in the Asian monsoon region. The results indicate the validity of the model and the input meteorological forcing because site-specific parameter tuning was not used in the series of simulations. Finally, global water resources were assessed on a subannual basis using a newly devised index. This index located water-stressed regions that were undetected in earlier studies. These regions, which are indicated by a gap in the subannual distribution of water availability and water use, include the Sahel, the Asian monsoon region, and southern Africa. The simulation results show that the reservoir operations of major reservoirs (>1 km3 and the allocation of environmental flow requirements can alter the population under high water stress by approximately −11% to +5% globally. The integrated model is applicable to

  10. Extracción de cromo con disolventes orgánicos. III parte. Aplicación al tratamiento de residuos polimetálicos industriales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Juan, D.

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of Primene 81R as extraction agent of chromium present in solid wastes containing nickel, iron and copper has been studied. The waste was leached with a sulphuric acid solution up to pH 3 and oxidation of Cr(III to Cr(VI with Caro acid was also studied. Because of the negative result of oxidation, the treatment was applied on Cr(III directly. Extraction/scrubbing/stripping process was studied in the leach. The composition of organic phase used in the extraction step was 10 % v/v Primene 81R, 10 % isodecanol and kerosene. All the iron, 91 % Cr, 10 % Ni and large part of the copper contained in the initial leach solution are recovered in the organic phase. In the scrubbing stage (with a sulphuric acid solution at pH 1,4, all the copper and nickel and 30 % Cr go to the washing liquor, while all the iron and 70 % Cr remained in the organic phase. In the stripping stage (with a 2N NH4OH or 2N NaOH solution all the iron and chromium are recovered as a precipitate of highly absorbent hydroxides. After the treatment mentioned, 63 % Cr and 100 % Fe are recovered as a mixture of hydroxides, and 28 % of the initial chromium, all the nickel and the copper are found in the washing liquor.

    Se estudia la aplicación del Primene 81R como agente de extracción del cromo presente en residuos sólidos que poseen níquel, hierro y cobre. El residuo se lixivió con disolución de ácido sulfúrico hasta pH 3 y se investigó la oxidación del Cr(III a Cr(VI con ácido de Caro. Ante el nulo resultado en la oxidación, se actuó directamente sobre el Cr(III. Se estudió el proceso de extracción/lavado/reextracción sobre la lejía de lixiviación. La fase orgánica empleada en la extracción estaba constituida por 10 % v/v de Primene 81R, 10 % de isodecanol y queroseno. En la fase orgánica se recupera todo el hierro, el 91 % Cr, el 10 % Ni y gran parte del cobre contenidos en la lejía de partida. En la etapa de lavado (con disolución de

  11. Inventory of LCIA selection methods for assessing toxic releases. Methods and typology report part B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Birkved, Morten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky;

    This report describes an inventory of Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) selection methods for assessing toxic releases. It consists of an inventory of current selection methods and other Chemical Ranking and Scoring (CRS) methods assessed to be relevant for the development of (a) new selection...... characterisation. Selection methods are used within LCIA to select those chemical emissions (mapped in the inventory part of the LCA in question) that are expected to contribute significantly to the characterisation and exclude the insignificant ones. In this way only significant emissions (i.e. the selected ones...

  12. Test-retest reliability of UPDRS-III, dyskinesia scales, and timed motor tests in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease: an argument against multiple baseline assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metman, Leo Verhagen; Myre, Brian; Verwey, Niek; Hassin-Baer, Sharon; Arzbaecher, Jean; Sierens, Diane; Bakay, Roy

    2004-09-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the intra-rater reliability of the motor section of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS-III) in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). The secondary objective was to assess the intra-rater reliability of standard timed motor tests and dyskinesia scales to determine the necessity of multiple baseline core evaluations before surgery for PD. We carried out two standardized preoperative core evaluations of patients with advanced PD scheduled to undergo deep brain stimulation. Patients were examined in the defined off and on conditions by the same rater. UPDRS-III, timed tests, and dyskinesia scores from the two evaluations were compared using Wilcoxon Signed Ranks tests and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Differences in UPDRS-III scores for the two visits were clinically and statistically nonsignificant, and the ICC was 0.9. Similarly, there were no significant differences in timed motor tests or dyskinesia scores, with a median ICC of 0.8. The results indicate that previous findings of high test-retest reliability of UPDRS-III in early untreated PD patients can now be extended to those with advanced disease complicated by motor fluctuations. In addition, test-retest reliability of dyskinesia scales and timed motor tests was high. Taken together, these findings challenge the need for multiple baseline assessments as currently stipulated in core assessment protocols for surgical intervention in PD. PMID:15372601

  13. MATLAB-based Applications for Image Processing and Image Quality AssessmentPart II: Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Krasula

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an overview of some possible usage of the software described in the Part I. It contains the real examples of image quality improvement, distortion simulations, objective and subjective quality assessment and other ways of image processing that can be obtained by the individual applications.

  14. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexavalent Chromium Part 2: Human, Toxicokinetic, and Mechanistic Studies (Preliminary Assessment Materials)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In August 2014, EPA released the second part of draft literature searches and associated search strategies, evidence tables, and exposure response arrays for Cr(VI) to obtain input from stakeholders and the public prior to developing the draft IRIS assessment. Specifically, EPA w...

  15. Nuclear computerized library for assessing reactor reliability (NUCLARR): Part 2, Guide to operations: User's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR) is an automated data base management system for processing and storing human error probability and hardware component failure data. The NUCLARR system software resides on an IBM (or compatible) personal micro-computer. NUCLARR can be used by the end user to furnish data inputs for both human and hardware reliability analysis in support of a variety of risk assessment activities. The NUCLARR system is documented in a five-volume series of reports. Volume IV of this series is the User's Guide for operating the NUCLARR software and is presented in three parts. This volume, Part 2: Guide to Operations, contains the instructions and basic procedures for using the NUCLARR software. Part 2 provides guidance and information for getting started, performing the desired functions, and making the most efficient use of the system's features

  16. MicroVent (part III)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreau, Jerome Le; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    This study aims at using the InVentilate unit in the cooling case, without heat recovery. It results in a relatively low inlet air temperature. Different solutions have been tested to decrease the risk of draught in the occupied zone: ‐ Using a mixer (2 designs) ‐ Using an inlet grille ‐ Using an...

  17. ASIST 2003: Part III: Posters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proceedings of the ASIST Annual Meeting, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Twenty-three posters address topics including access to information; metadata; personal information management; scholarly information communication; online resources; content analysis; interfaces; Web queries; information evaluation; informatics; information needs; search effectiveness; digital libraries; diversity; automated indexing; e-commerce;…

  18. DNA Topoisomerase I Gene Copy Number and mRNA Expression Assessed as Predictive Biomarkers for Adjuvant Irinotecan in Stage II/III Colon Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygård, Sune Boris; Vainer, Ben; Nielsen, Signe L;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Prospective-retrospective assessment of the TOP1 gene copy number and TOP1 mRNA expression as predictive biomarkers for adjuvant irinotecan in stage II/III colon cancer (CC). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue microarrays were obtained from an adjuvant CC trial......RNA data were available from 580 patients with stage III disease. Benefit of irinotecan was restricted to patients characterized by TOP1 mRNA expression ≥ 3rd quartile (RFS: HRadjusted, 0.59; P = .09; OS: HRadjusted, 0.44; P = 0.03). The treatment by TOP1 mRNA interaction was not statistically significant...

  19. Children's exposure to indoor air in urban nurseries-part I: CO2 and comfort assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) in nurseries is an emerging case-study. Thus, this study, as the Part I of the larger study “Children's exposure to indoor air in urban nurseries”, aimed to: i) evaluate nurseries’ indoor concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), a global IAQ indicator, in class and lunch rooms; ii) assess indoor comfort parameters–temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH); and iii) analyse them according to guidelines and references for IAQ, comfort and children's health. Indoor continuous measurements were performed. Non-compliances with guidelines were found in comfort parameters, which could cause discomfort situations and also microbial proliferation. Exceedances in CO2 concentrations were also found and they were caused by poor ventilation and high classroom occupation. More efficient ventilation and control of comfort parameters, as well as to reduce occupation by reviewing Portuguese legislation on that matter, would certainly improve IAQ and comfort in nurseries and consequently safeguard children's health. - Highlights: • High occupation and poor ventilation were main determinants of IAQ in nurseries. • T and RH indoor values found in nurseries are likely to cause thermal discomfort. • Building characteristics and an inadequate ventilation determined T and RH values. • High CO2 concentrations found could indicate accumulation of other air pollutants

  20. Presentation of safety after closure of the repository for spent nuclear fuel. Main report of the project SR-Site. Part III; Redovisning av saekerhet efter foerslutning av slutfoervaret foer anvaent kaernbraensle. Huvudrapport fraan projekt SR-Site. Del III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of the safety assessment SR-Site is to investigate whether a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel by KBS-3 type can be constructed at Forsmark in Oesthammar in Sweden. The location of the Forsmark has been selected based on results of several surveys from surface conditions at depth in Forsmark and in Laxemar in Oskarshamn. The choice of location is not justified in SR-Site Report, but in other attachments to SKB's permit applications. SR-Site Report is an important part of SKB's permit applications to construct and operate a repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark in Oesthammar. The purpose of the report in the applications is to show that a repository at Forsmark is safe after closure

  1. Jポップに見る男と女の言説 : 平成の若者の「こころもとなさ」(PART III)

    OpenAIRE

    難波江, 和英; Kazuhide, NABAE

    2003-01-01

    This is the last part of the present trilogy study on discourses of heterosexual love in J-POP. The opening chapter contains a summary of Part I and Part II, which is devised to help the reader have a quick review of the preceding chapters so that they will readily posit the main body of Part III in a proper and whole contextual perspective. The second chapter titled "Historicizing the Heisei Period" discusses the cultural climate of the Heisei period in which heroines and heroes of J-POP hav...

  2. West Texas geothermal resource assessment. Part II. Preliminary utilization assessment of the Trans-Pecos geothermal resource. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliland, M.W.; Fenner, L.B.

    1980-01-01

    The utilization potential of geothermal resources in Trans-Pecos, Texas was assessed. The potential for both direct use and electric power generation were examined. As with the resource assessment work, the focus was on the Hueco Tanks area in northeastern El Paso County and the Presidio Bolson area in Presidio County. Suitable users of the Hueco Tanks and Presidio Bolson resource areas were identified by matching postulated temperature characteristics of the geothermal resource to the need characteristics of existing users in each resource area. The amount of geothermal energy required and the amount of fossil fuel that geothermal energy would replace were calculated for each of the users identified as suitable. Current data indicate that temperatures in the Hueco Tanks resource area are not high enough for electric power generation, but in at least part of the Presidio Bolson resource area, they may be high enough for electric power generation.

  3. Confirmatory factor analysis of an integrated model of psycopathology assessed with MMPI-2-RF and the MCMI-III

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Rodríguez, José; Fusté Escolano, Adela; Ferrando, P.J.; García Grau, Eugeni

    2013-01-01

    We presented an integrated hierarchical model of psychopathology that more accurately captures empirical patterns of comorbidity between clinical syndromes and personality disorders. In order to verify the structural validity of the model proposed, this study aimed to analyze the convergence between the Restructured Clinical (RC) scales and Personality scales (PSY-5) of the MMPI-2-RF and the Clinical Syndrome and Personality Disorder scales of the MCMI-III. The MMPI-2-RF and MCMI-III we...

  4. How do Banks Manage the Credit Assessment to Small Businesses and What Is the Effect of Basel III? : An implementation of smaller and larger banks in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlberg, Heléne; Andersson, Linn

    2012-01-01

    Background: Small businesses are considered as a valuable source for the society and the economic growth and bank loan is the main source of finance for them. Small businesses are commonly seen as riskier than larger businesses it is thus noteworthy to examine banks’ credit assessment for small businesses. The implementation of the Basel III Accord will start in 2013 with the aim to generate further protection of financial stability and promote sustainable economic growth, and the main idea u...

  5. Spent Fuel Performance Assessment and Research. Final Report of a Coordinated Research Project on Spent Fuel Performance Assessment and Research (SPAR-III) 2009–2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the beginning of 2014, there were 437 nuclear power reactors in operation and 72 reactors under construction. To date, around 370 500 t (HM) (tonnes of heavy metal) of spent fuel have been discharged from reactors, and approximately 253 700 t (HM) are stored at various storage facilities. Although wet storage at reactor sites still dominates, the amount of spent fuel being transferred to dry storage technologies has increased significantly since 2005. For example, around 28% of the total fuel inventory in the United States of America is now in dry storage. Although the licensing for the construction of geological disposal facilities is under way in Finland, France and Sweden, the first facility is not expected to be available until 2025 and for most States with major nuclear programmes not for several decades afterwards. Spent fuel is currently accumulating at around 7000 t (HM) per year worldwide. The net result is that the duration of spent fuel storage has increased beyond what was originally foreseen. In order to demonstrate the safety of both spent fuel and the storage system, a good understanding of the processes that might cause deterioration is required. To address this, the IAEA continued the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Spent Fuel Performance Assessment and Research (SPAR-III) in 2009 to evaluate fuel and materials performance under wet and dry storage and to assess the impact of interim storage on associated spent fuel management activities (such as handling and transport). This has been achieved through: evaluating surveillance and monitoring programmes of spent fuel and storage facilities; collecting and exchanging relevant experience of spent fuel storage and the impact on associated spent fuel management activities; facilitating the transfer of knowledge by documenting the technical basis for spent fuel storage; creating synergy among research projects of the participating Member States; and developing the capability to assess the impact

  6. Comparative assessment of predictions in ungauged basins – Part 3: Runoff signatures in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Blöschl

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In a three-part paper we assess the performance of runoff predictions in ungauged basins in a comparative way. While Parajka et al. (2013 and Salinas et al. (2013 assess the regionalisation of hydrographs and hydrological extremes through a literature review, in this paper we assess prediction of a range of runoff signatures for a consistent dataset. Daily runoff time series are predicted for 213 catchments in Austria by a regionalised rainfall–runoff model and by Top-Kriging, a geostatistical interpolation method that accounts for the river network hierarchy. From the runoff timeseries, six runoff signatures are extracted: annual runoff, seasonal runoff, flow duration curves, low flows, high flows and runoff hydrograph. The predictive performance is assessed by the bias, error spread and proportion of unexplained spatial variance of statistical measures of these signatures in cross-validation mode. Results of the comparative assessment show that the geostatistical approach (Top-Kriging generally outperforms the regionalised rainfall–runoff model. The predictive performance increases with catchment area for both methods and all signatures, while the dependence on climate characteristics is weaker. Annual and seasonal runoff can be predicted more accurately than all other signatures. The spatial variability of high flows is the most difficult to capture followed by the low flows. The relative predictive performance of the signatures depends on the selected performance measures. It is therefore essential to report performance in a consistent way by more than one performance measure.

  7. Serious problems with the Mexican norms for the WAIS-III when assessing mental retardation in capital cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, Hoi K; Greenspan, Stephen

    2009-07-01

    A Spanish-language translation of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III), normed in Mexico, is sometimes used when evaluating Spanish-speaking defendants in capital cases in order to diagnose possible mental retardation (MR). Although the manual for the Mexican test suggests use of the U.S. norms when diagnosing MR, the Mexican norms-which produce full-scale scores on average 12 points higher-are sometimes used for reasons that are similar to those used by proponents for "race-norming" in special education. Such an argument assumes, however, that the Mexican WAIS-III norms are valid. In this paper, we examined the validity of the Mexican WAIS-III norms and found six very serious problems with those norms: (1) extremely poor reliability, (2) lack of a meaningful reference population, (3) lack of score normalization, (4) exclusion of certain groups from the standardization sample, (5) use of incorrect statistics and calculations, and (6) incorrect application of the true score confidence interval method. An additional problem is the apparent absence of any social policy consensus within Mexico as to the definition and boundary parameters of MR. Taken together, these concerns lead one to the inescapable conclusion that the Mexican WAIS-III norms are not interpretable and should not be used for any high-stakes purpose, especially one as serious as whether a defendant should qualify for exemption against imposition of the death penalty.

  8. DECOVALEX III III/BENCHPAR PROJECTS. Approaches to Upscaling Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical Processes in a Fractured Rock. Mass and its Significance for Large-Scale Repository Performance Assessment. Summary of Findings. Report of BMT2/WP3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan (comp.) [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden); Staub, Isabelle (comp.) [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Knight, Les (comp.) [Nirex UK Ltd, Oxon (United Kingdom)

    2005-02-15

    The Benchmark Test 2 of DECOVALEX III and Work Package 3 of BENCHPAR concerns the upscaling Thermal (T), Hydrological (H) and Mechanical (M) processes in a fractured rock mass and its significance for large-scale repository performance assessment. The work is primarily concerned with the extent to which various thermo-hydro-mechanical couplings in a fractured rock mass adjacent to a repository are significant in terms of solute transport typically calculated in large-scale repository performance assessments. Since the presence of even quite small fractures may control the hydraulic, mechanical and coupled hydromechanical behaviour of the rock mass, a key of the work has been to explore the extent to which these can be upscaled and represented by 'equivalent' continuum properties appropriate PA calculations. From these general aims the BMT was set-up as a numerical study of a large scale reference problem. Analysing this reference problem should: help explore how different means of simplifying the geometrical detail of a site, with its implications on model parameters, ('upscaling') impacts model predictions of relevance to repository performance, explore to what extent the THM-coupling needs to be considered in relation to PA-measures, compare the uncertainties in upscaling (both to uncertainty on how to upscale or uncertainty that arises due to the upscaling processes) and consideration of THM couplings with the inherent uncertainty and spatial variability of the site specific data. Furthermore, it has been an essential component of the work that individual teams not only produce numerical results but are forced to make their own judgements and to provide the proper justification for their conclusions based on their analysis. It should also be understood that conclusions drawn will partly be specific to the problem analysed, in particular as it mainly concerns a 2D application. This means that specific conclusions may have limited applicability

  9. The functional architecture of the human body: assessing body representation by sorting body parts and activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bläsing, Bettina; Schack, Thomas; Brugger, Peter

    2010-05-01

    We investigated mental representations of body parts and body-related activities in two subjects with congenitally absent limbs (one with, the other without phantom sensations), a wheelchair sports group of paraplegic participants, and two groups of participants with intact limbs. To analyse mental representation structures, we applied Structure Dimensional Analysis. Verbal labels indicating body parts and related activities were presented in randomized lists that had to be sorted according to a hierarchical splitting paradigm. Participants were required to group the items according to whether or not they were considered related, based on their own body perception. Results of the groups of physically intact and paraplegic participants revealed separate clusters for the lower body, upper body, fingers and head. The participant with congenital phantom limbs also showed a clear separation between upper and lower body (but not between fingers and hands). In the participant without phantom sensations of the absent arms, no such modularity emerged, but the specific practice of his right foot in communication and daily routines was reflected. Sorting verbal labels of body parts and activities appears a useful method to assess body representation in individuals with special body anatomy or function and leads to conclusions largely compatible with other assessment procedures.

  10. Environmental assessment for issuance of 10 CFR Parts 834 and 835

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing that two rules for radiation protection be included in Title 10 of the US Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). These proposed rule are 10 CFR Part 834, ''Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment,'' and 10 CFR Part 835. ''Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers.'' Both would apply to normal operations at all DOE and DOE contractor facilities where ionizing radiation exposure could occur. The proposed rules are based on existing DOE Orders for radiation protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Proposed rule 10 CFR Part 834 essentially incorporates Order DOE 5400.5, ''Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment'' (DOE 1990a), which was issued on February 8, 1990. Proposed rule 10 CFR Part 835 incorporates DOE 5480.11, ''Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers'' (DOE 1988a), which was issued on December 21, 1988. The intent in codifying these Orders is to provide the DOE with regulations for protection of members of the public and radiation workers against ionizing radiation and to enhance enforcement of the requirements under the Price Anderson Amendments Act (PAAA 1988). The proposed rules are designed to preserve the radiation protection provisions of the DOE Orders. The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to provide an analysis that can be used to determine whether the proposed action -- promulgation of proposed 10 CFR Part 834 and 10 CFR Part 835 -- significantly affects the quality of the environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA 1969). This EA identifies alternatives to the proposed action and examines what impact each of the alternatives would have on environmental quality

  11. Proposed changes in personality and personality disorder assessment and diagnosis for DSM-5 part II: clinical application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Skodol; D.S. Bender; J.M. Oldham; L.A. Clark; L.C. Morey; R. Verheul; R.F. Krueger; L.J. Siever

    2011-01-01

    The four-part assessment of personality psychopathology proposed for DSM-5 focuses attention on identifying personality psychopathology with increasing degrees of specificity, based on a clinician's available time, information, and expertise. In Part I of this two-part article, we described the comp

  12. An assessment of BWR [boiling water reactor] Mark III containment challenges, failure modes, and potential improvements in performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes risk-significant challenges posed to Mark III containment systems by severe accidents as identified for Grand Gulf. Design similarities and differences between the Mark III plants that are important to containment performance are summarized. The accident sequences responsible for the challenges and the postulated containment failure modes associated with each challenge are identified and described. Improvements are discussed that have the potential either to prevent or delay containment failure, or to mitigate the offsite consequences of a fission product release. For each of these potential improvements, a qualitative analysis is provided. A limited quantitative risk analysis is provided for selected potential improvements. 21 refs., 5 figs., 46 tabs

  13. Presentation of safety after closure of the repository for spent nuclear fuel. Main report of the project SR-Site. Part III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the safety assessment SR-Site is to investigate whether a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel by KBS-3 type can be constructed at Forsmark in Oesthammar in Sweden. The location of the Forsmark has been selected based on results of several surveys from surface conditions at depth in Forsmark and in Laxemar in Oskarshamn. The choice of location is not justified in SR-Site Report, but in other attachments to SKB's permit applications. SR-Site Report is an important part of SKB's permit applications to construct and operate a repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark in Oesthammar. The purpose of the report in the applications is to show that a repository at Forsmark is safe after closure

  14. Nuclear computerized library for assessing reactor reliability (NUCLARR): Data manual: Part 1, Summary description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume of a five-volume series summarizes those data currently resident in the first release of the Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR) data base. The raw human error probability (HEP) and hardware component failure data (HCFD) contained herein are accompanied by a glossary of terms and the HEP and hardware taxonomies used to structure the data. Instructions are presented on how the user may navigate through the NUCLARR data management system to find anchor values to assist in solving risk-related problems. Volume V: Data Manual will be updated on a periodic basis so that risk analysis without access to a computer may have access to the largest NUCLARR data. This document Part 1 of Volume 5 introduces aspects of the NUCLARR data base management system and prepares the reader for reviewing data in other Parts of Volume 5

  15. Methods for collecting benthic invertebrate samples as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffney, Thomas F.; Gurtz, Martin E.; Meador, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    Benthic invertebrate communities are evaluated as part of the ecological survey component of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. These biological data are collected along with physical and chemical data to assess water-quality conditions and to develop an understanding of the factors that affect water-quality conditions locally, regionally, and nationally. The objectives of benthic invertebrate community characterizations are to (1) develop for each site a list of tax a within the associated stream reach and (2) determine the structure of benthic invertebrate communities within selected habitats of that reach. A nationally consistent approach is used to achieve these objectives. This approach provides guidance on site, reach, and habitat selection and methods and equipment for qualitative multihabitat sampling and semi-quantitative single habitat sampling. Appropriate quality-assurance and quality-control guidelines are used to maximize the ability to analyze data within and among study units.

  16. A global water scarcity assessment under shared socio-economic pathways – Part 1: Water use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Masui

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel global water scarcity assessment for the 21st century is presented in a two-part paper. In this first paper, water use scenarios are presented for the latest global hydrological models. The scenarios are compatible with the socio-economic scenarios of the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs, which are a part of the latest set of scenarios on global change developed by the integrated assessment, IAV (climate change impact, adaptation, and vulnerability assessment, and climate modeling community. The SSPs depict five global situations based on substantially different socio-economic conditions during the 21st century. Water use scenarios were developed to reflect the key concepts underpinning each situation. Each scenario consists of five factors: irrigation area, crop intensity, irrigation efficiency, industrial water withdrawal, and municipal water withdrawal. The first three factors are used to estimate agricultural water withdrawal. All factors were developed using simple models based on a literature review and analysis of historical records. The factors are grid-based at a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5° and cover the whole 21st century at 5-yr intervals. Each factor displays a wide variation among the different global situations depicted: the irrigation area in 2085 varies between 270 and 450 km2, industrial water between 246 and 1714 km3 yr−1, and domestic water withdrawal between 573 and 1280 km3 yr−1. The water use scenarios can be used for global water scarcity assessments by identifying the regions vulnerable to water scarcity and analyzing the timing and magnitude of scarcity conditions.

  17. Preliminary Guideline for the High Temperature Structure Integrity Assessment Procedure Part II. High Temperature Structural Integrity Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Han; Kim, J. B.; Lee, H. Y.; Park, C. G.; Joo, Y. S.; Koo, G. H.; Kim, S. H

    2007-02-15

    A high temperature structural integrity assessment belongs to the Part II of a whole preliminary guideline for the high temperature structure. The main contents of this guideline are the evaluation procedures of the creep-fatigue crack initiation and growth in high temperature condition, the high temperature LBB evaluation procedure, and the inelastic evaluations of the welded joints in SFR structures. The methodologies for the proper inelastic analysis of an SFR structures in high temperatures are explained and the guidelines of inelastic analysis options using ANSYS and ABAQUS are suggested. In addition, user guidelines for the developed NONSTA code are included. This guidelines need to be continuously revised to improve the applicability to the design and analysis of the SFR structures.

  18. Assessment of English- and Spanish-Speaking Students with the WISC-III and Leiter-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathers-Schiffman, Teresa A.; Thompson, Marilyn S.

    2007-01-01

    The Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Leiter-R) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III) scores of 47 English- and 47 Spanish-speaking students were analyzed, and the effects of English language ability on these scores were examined. Leiter-R validity was supported for both language groups. WISC-III…

  19. Human body parts tracking and kinematic features assessment based on RSSI and inertial sensor measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumrosen, Gaddi; Luttwak, Ami

    2013-08-23

    Acquisition of patient kinematics in different environments plays an important role in the detection of risk situations such as fall detection in elderly patients, in rehabilitation of patients with injuries, and in the design of treatment plans for patients with neurological diseases. Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) measurements in a Body Area Network (BAN), capture the signal power on a radio link. The main aim of this paper is to demonstrate the potential of utilizing RSSI measurements in assessment of human kinematic features, and to give methods to determine these features. RSSI measurements can be used for tracking different body parts' displacements on scales of a few centimeters, for classifying motion and gait patterns instead of inertial sensors, and to serve as an additional reference to other sensors, in particular inertial sensors. Criteria and analytical methods for body part tracking, kinematic motion feature extraction, and a Kalman filter model for aggregation of RSSI and inertial sensor were derived. The methods were verified by a set of experiments performed in an indoor environment. In the future, the use of RSSI measurements can help in continuous assessment of various kinematic features of patients during their daily life activities and enhance medical diagnosis accuracy with lower costs.

  20. Assessing the potential hydrological impact of the Gibe III Dam on Lake Turkana water level using multi-source satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Velpuri

    2012-10-01

    dam commencement. Areas along the Lake Turkana shoreline that are vulnerable to fluctuations in lake levels due to the Gibe III dam were also identified. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of using existing multi-source satellite data in a basic modeling framework to assess the potential hydrological impact of an upstream dam on a terminal downstream lake. The results obtained from this study could also be used to evaluate alternative dam-filling scenarios and assess the potential impact of the dam on Lake Turkana under different operational strategies.

  1. Comparative assessment of predictions in ungauged basins - Part 3: Runoff signatures in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viglione, A.; Parajka, J.; Rogger, M.; Salinas, J. L.; Laaha, G.; Sivapalan, M.; Blöschl, G.

    2013-06-01

    This is the third of a three-part paper series through which we assess the performance of runoff predictions in ungauged basins in a comparative way. Whereas the two previous papers by Parajka et al. (2013) and Salinas et al. (2013) assess the regionalisation performance of hydrographs and hydrological extremes on the basis of a comprehensive literature review of thousands of case studies around the world, in this paper we jointly assess prediction performance of a range of runoff signatures for a consistent and rich dataset. Daily runoff time series are predicted for 213 catchments in Austria by a regionalised rainfall-runoff model and by Top-kriging, a geostatistical estimation method that accounts for the river network hierarchy. From the runoff time-series, six runoff signatures are extracted: annual runoff, seasonal runoff, flow duration curves, low flows, high flows and runoff hydrographs. The predictive performance is assessed in terms of the bias, error spread and proportion of unexplained spatial variance of statistical measures of these signatures in cross-validation (blind testing) mode. Results of the comparative assessment show that, in Austria, the predictive performance increases with catchment area for both methods and for most signatures, it tends to increase with elevation for the regionalised rainfall-runoff model, while the dependence on climate characteristics is weaker. Annual and seasonal runoff can be predicted more accurately than all other signatures. The spatial variability of high flows in ungauged basins is the most difficult to estimate followed by the low flows. It also turns out that in this data-rich study in Austria, the geostatistical approach (Top-kriging) generally outperforms the regionalised rainfall-runoff model.

  2. Comparative assessment of predictions in ungauged basins – Part 3: Runoff signatures in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Viglione

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This is the third of a three-part paper series through which we assess the performance of runoff predictions in ungauged basins in a comparative way. Whereas the two previous papers by Parajka et al. (2013 and Salinas et al. (2013 assess the regionalisation performance of hydrographs and hydrological extremes on the basis of a comprehensive literature review of thousands of case studies around the world, in this paper we jointly assess prediction performance of a range of runoff signatures for a consistent and rich dataset. Daily runoff time series are predicted for 213 catchments in Austria by a regionalised rainfall–runoff model and by Top-kriging, a geostatistical estimation method that accounts for the river network hierarchy. From the runoff time-series, six runoff signatures are extracted: annual runoff, seasonal runoff, flow duration curves, low flows, high flows and runoff hydrographs. The predictive performance is assessed in terms of the bias, error spread and proportion of unexplained spatial variance of statistical measures of these signatures in cross-validation (blind testing mode. Results of the comparative assessment show that, in Austria, the predictive performance increases with catchment area for both methods and for most signatures, it tends to increase with elevation for the regionalised rainfall–runoff model, while the dependence on climate characteristics is weaker. Annual and seasonal runoff can be predicted more accurately than all other signatures. The spatial variability of high flows in ungauged basins is the most difficult to estimate followed by the low flows. It also turns out that in this data-rich study in Austria, the geostatistical approach (Top-kriging generally outperforms the regionalised rainfall–runoff model.

  3. The Design of Research Laboratories. Part I: A General Assessment. Part II: Air Conditioning and Conditioned Rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legget, R. F.; Hutcheon, N. B.

    Design factors in the planning of research laboratories are described which include--(1) location, (2) future expansion, (3) internal flexibility, (4) provision of services, (5) laboratory furnishing, (6) internal traffic, (7) space requirements, and (8) building costs. A second part discusses air-conditioning and conditioned rooms--(1)…

  4. Biochemical parameters in Tubifex tubifex as an integral part of complex sediment toxicity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smutna, M.; Hilscherova, K.; Paskova, V. [Masaryk Univ., Brno (CZ). RECETOX (Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology); Marsalek, B [Czech Academy of Science, Brno (Czech Republic). Centre for Cyanobacteria and their Toxins

    2008-06-15

    Background, aim, and scope Restoration of lakes and reservoirs with extensive cyanobacterial water bloom often requires evaluation of the sediment quality. Next to the chemical analysis of known pollutants, sediment bioassays should be employed to assess toxicity of the present contaminants and to make predictions of associated risk. Brno reservoir in the Czech Republic is a typical example of water bodies with long-term problems concerning cyanobacterial water blooms. Comprehensive assessment of reservoir sediment quality was conducted since successful reservoir restoration might require sediment removal. An important part of this survey focused on an examination of the utility of Tubifex tubifex and its sublethal biochemical markers for the assessment of direct sediment toxicity. Materials and methods This complex study included chemical analysis of contaminants (heavy metals, organic pollutants), ecotoxicity testing of sediment elutriates (tests with Daphnia magna, Pseudomonas putida, Sinapis alba, Scenedesmus subspicatus), and other parameters. We have tested in more detail the applicability of T. tubifex as a test organism for direct evaluation of contact sediment toxicity. Survival tests after 14 days of exposure were complemented by an assessment of parameters serving as biomarkers for sublethal effects [such as total glutathione content (GSH), activities of the enzymes glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR)]. The data matrix was subjected to multivariate analysis to interpret relationships between different parameters and possible differences among locations. Results The multivariate statistical techniques helped to clearly identify the more contaminated upstream sites and separate them from the less contaminated and reference samples. The data document closer relationships of the detected sediment contamination with results of direct sediment exposure in the T. tubifex test regarding mortality but namely

  5. Geology of quadrangles H-12, H-13, and parts of I-12 and I-13, (zone III) in northeastern Santander Department, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Dwight Edward; Goldsmith, Richard; Cruz, Jaime B.; Restrepo, Hernan A.

    1974-01-01

    A program of geologic mapping and mineral investigation in Colombia was undertaken cooperatively by the Colombian Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Geologico-Mineras (formerly known as the Inventario Minero Nacional), and the U. S. Geological Survey; by the Government of Colombia and the Agency for International Development, U. S. Department of State. The purpose was to study, and evaluate mineral resources (excluding of petroleum, coal, emeralds, and alluvial gold) of four selected areas, designated Zones I to IV, that total about 70,000 km2. The work in Zone III, in the Cordillera Oriental, was done from 1965 to 1968. The northeast trend of the Cordillera Oriental of Colombia swings abruptly to north-northwest in the area of this report, and divides around the southern end of the Maracaibo Basin. This section of the Cordillera Oriental is referred to as the Santander Massif. Radiometric age determinations indicate that the oldest rocks of the Santander massif are Precambrian and include high-grade gneiss, schist, and migmatite of the Bucaramanga Formation. These rocks were probably part of the Precambrian Guayana Shield. Low- to medium-grade metamorphic rocks of late Precambrian to Ordovician age .include phyllite, schist, metasiltstone, metasandstone, and marble of the Silgara Formation, a geosynclinal series of considerable extent in the Cordillera Oriental and possibly the Cordillera de Merida of Venezuela. Orthogneiss ranging from granite to tonalite is widely distributed in the high- and medium-grade metamorphic rocks of the central core of the massif and probably represents rocks of two ages, Precambrian and Ordovician to Early Devonian. Younger orthogneiss and the Silgara are overlain by Middle Devonian beds of the Floresta Formation which show a generally low but varying degree of metamorphism. Phyllite and argillite are common, and infrequent marble and other calcareous beds are fossiliferous. Except for recrystallization in limestones of !the

  6. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. Part 3. Safety assessment for geological disposal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan. The present document, the part 3 of the progress report, concerns safety assessment for geological disposal systems definitely introduced in part 1 and 2 of this series and consists of 9 chapters. Chapter I concerns the methodology for safety assessment while Chapter II deals with diversity and uncertainty about the scenario, the adequate model and the required data of the systems above. Chapter III summarizes the components of the geological disposal system. Chapter IV refers to the relationship between radioactive wastes and human life through groundwater, i.e. nuclide migration. In Chapter V is made a reference case which characterizes the geological environmental data using artificial barrier specifications. (Ohno. S.)

  7. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. Part 3. Safety assessment for geological disposal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan. The present document, the part 3 of the progress report, concerns safety assessment for geological disposal systems definitely introduced in part 1 and 2 of this series and consists of 9 chapters. Chapter I concerns the methodology for safety assessment while Chapter II deals with diversity and uncertainty about the scenario, the adequate model and the required data of the systems above. Chapter III summarizes the components of the geological disposal system. Chapter IV refers to the relationship between radioactive wastes and human life through groundwater, i.e. nuclide migration. In Chapter V is made a reference case which characterizes the geological environmental data using artificial barrier specifications. (Ohno. S.)

  8. Assessing browse trend at the landscape level Part 1: Preliminary steps and field survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keigley, R.B.; Frisina, M.R.; Fager, C.W.

    2002-01-01

    Woody plants are an important component of rangeland habitat, providing food and shelter for animals that range in size from moose to warblers to insects. Because of this importance, land managers are paying increased attention to browse trends. In this two-part article, we describe how browse trend is assessed at the Mt. Haggin Wildlife Management Area in southwestern Montana. Willows are currently heavily browsed, but there is evidence that browsing pressure was lower in the past. Heavily-browsed 14-inch-tall plants grow in close proximity to 16-foot-tall plants, the tallest stems of which are unbrowsed. The 16-foot-tall stems are older than the 14-inch-tall stems, and apparently grew through the browse zone when browsing pressure was lower than its current level. An increase in browsing pressure would be consistent with the increase in the moose population that occurred over the past 3 decades.

  9. Assessment of the effects of As(III) treatment on cyanobacteria lipidomic profiles by LC-MS and MCR-ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Aline S; Bedia, Carmen; Lima, Kássio M G; Tauler, Romà

    2016-08-01

    Cyanobacteria are a group of photosynthetic, nitrogen-fixing bacteria present in a wide variety of habitats such as freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems. In this work, the effects of As(III), a major toxic environmental pollutant, on the lipidomic profiles of two cyanobacteria species (Anabaena and Planktothrix agardhii) were assessed by means of a recently proposed method based on the concept of regions of interest (ROI) in liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) together with multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares (MCR-ALS). Cyanobacteria were exposed to two concentrations of As(III) for a week, and lipid extracts were analyzed by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry in full scan mode. The data obtained were compressed by means of the ROI strategy, and the resulting LC-MS data sets were analyzed by the MCR-ALS method. Comparison of profile peak areas resolved by MCR-ALS in control and exposed samples allowed the discrimination of lipids whose concentrations were changed due to As(III) treatment. The tentative identification of these lipids revealed an important reduction of the levels of some galactolipids such as monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, the pigment chlorophyll a and its degradation product, pheophytin a, as well as carotene compounds such as 3-hydroxycarotene and carotene-3,3'-dione, all of these compounds being essential in the photosynthetic process. These results suggested that As(III) induced important changes in the composition of lipids of cyanobacteria, which were able to compromise their energy production processes. Graphical abstract Steps of the proposed LC-MS + MCR-ALS procedure. PMID:27311955

  10. Environmental impact assessment of STORA SKOG:s forest fertilizing program. Part 1: Basic facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen fertilization of forest soils has been used for several decades to improve productivity. STORA plans to fertilize 10 to 15 thousand hectares forests with nitrogen annually, over an area of 1 545 000 hectares productive forest land. The ecological effects of this forest fertilization plan have been studied in the form of an environmental impact assessment (EIA). The first part of this EIA, presented in this report by the Swedish Environmental Research Institute (IVL), include the present and possible future state of the forest environment in Sweden, in relation to STORA owned forests and the fertilization programme and present knowledge about nitrogen cycling and forest fertilization. The second part, presented in a separate report contains information about the ecological effects of implementation of STORA fertilization plans, identification of shortcomings in knowledge to date, and recommendations for evasion of possible negative effects of implementation. Environmental effects of nitrogen fertilization are described in contrast to the possible environmental effects of acidification of soil and surface water, build-up of nitrogen pool in soils, leakage of nitrogen to surface waters from soils, changes in forest soil fertility, uptake and loss of climate affecting gases, and the biological diversity of the forest ecosystem. 193 refs, 4 figs, 7 tabs

  11. Methods for collecting algal samples as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen D.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Gurtz, Martin E.; Meador, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    Benthic algae (periphyton) and phytoplankton communities are characterized in the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program as part of an integrated physical, chemical, and biological assessment of the Nation's water quality. This multidisciplinary approach provides multiple lines of evidence for evaluating water-quality status and trends, and for refining an understanding of the factors that affect water-quality conditions locally, regionally, and nationally. Water quality can be characterized by evaluating the results of qualitative and quantitative measurements of the algal community. Qualitative periphyton samples are collected to develop of list of taxa present in the sampling reach. Quantitative periphyton samples are collected to measure algal community structure within selected habitats. These samples of benthic algal communities are collected from natural substrates, using the sampling methods that are most appropriate for the habitat conditions. Phytoplankton samples may be collected in large nonwadeable streams and rivers to meet specific program objectives. Estimates of algal biomass (chlorophyll content and ash-free dry mass) also are optional measures that may be useful for interpreting water-quality conditions. A nationally consistent approach provides guidance on site, reach, and habitat selection, as well as information on methods and equipment for qualitative and quantitative sampling. Appropriate quality-assurance and quality-control guidelines are used to maximize the ability to analyze data locally, regionally, and nationally.

  12. Human Body Parts Tracking and Kinematic Features Assessment Based on RSSI and Inertial Sensor Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaddi Blumrosen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Acquisition of patient kinematics in different environments plays an important role in the detection of risk situations such as fall detection in elderly patients, in rehabilitation of patients with injuries, and in the design of treatment plans for patients with neurological diseases. Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI measurements in a Body Area Network (BAN, capture the signal power on a radio link. The main aim of this paper is to demonstrate the potential of utilizing RSSI measurements in assessment of human kinematic features, and to give methods to determine these features. RSSI measurements can be used for tracking different body parts’ displacements on scales of a few centimeters, for classifying motion and gait patterns instead of inertial sensors, and to serve as an additional reference to other sensors, in particular inertial sensors. Criteria and analytical methods for body part tracking, kinematic motion feature extraction, and a Kalman filter model for aggregation of RSSI and inertial sensor were derived. The methods were verified by a set of experiments performed in an indoor environment. In the future, the use of RSSI measurements can help in continuous assessment of various kinematic features of patients during their daily life activities and enhance medical diagnosis accuracy with lower costs.

  13. Petroleum resources assessment on the western part of the Kunsan Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K.S.; Park, K.P.; Sunwoo, D.; Yoo, D.G.; Cheong, T.J.; Oh, J.H.; Bong, P.Y.; Son, J.D.; Lee, H.Y.; Ryu, B.J.; Son, B.K.; Hwang, I.G.; Kwon, Y.I.; Lee, Y.J.; Kim, H.J. [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    Palynomorphs including spores, pollen and organic-walled microfossils and calcareous microfossils such as ostracods, charophytes and gastropods were studied for the biostratigraphic work of Kachi-1 and IIH-1Xa wells. All the microfossils yielded from two wells indicate nonmarine environment ranging from shallow lacustrine to fluvial one. The paleoclimates have been fluctuated between subtropical and cool temperate with arid/humid alternating conditions. The fluvial sandstone of the interval between 2017 m and 2021 m could be a potential reservoir rock in the well Kachi-1. The sandstone from 1587 m to 1592 could be also a potential reservoir rock even if further study is necessary for the cap rock. Content of organic matter is very low and the type is compared to III in the section penetrated by the above two wells. Thermal maturity might reach top of oil window at depth about 1200 m by Tmax and about 1300 m by biomarker analysis in the Kachi-1 well. On the basis of illite crystallinity, the top of oil generation zone could be located at the depth 1600 m. The thermal maturity could not be determined in the IIH-1Xa well, because of the extremely low organic matter content or bad state of samples. Hydrocarbon genetic potential is almost null in the both well except for a few sample in the thermally immature interval. Analysis of approximately 3,300 Line-km of multichannel seismic data integrated with 3 well data provides an insight of structural evolution of the western part of the Yellow Sea Basin. Tectonics of the rifting phase have been established on the basis of structural and stratigraphic analyses of depositional sequences and their seismic expressions. Based on available well data, the rifting probably began in the Cretaceous time had continued until Paleocene. It is considered that compressional force immediately after rifting event deformed sedimentary sections. During the period of Paleocene to middle Miocene, the sediments were deposited in stable

  14. Life cycle assessment part 1: framework, goal and scope definition, inventory analysis, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebitzer, G; Ekvall, T; Frischknecht, R; Hunkeler, D; Norris, G; Rydberg, T; Schmidt, W-P; Suh, S; Weidema, B P; Pennington, D W

    2004-07-01

    Sustainable development requires methods and tools to measure and compare the environmental impacts of human activities for the provision of goods and services (both of which are summarized under the term "products"). Environmental impacts include those from emissions into the environment and through the consumption of resources, as well as other interventions (e.g., land use) associated with providing products that occur when extracting resources, producing materials, manufacturing the products, during consumption/use, and at the products' end-of-life (collection/sorting, reuse, recycling, waste disposal). These emissions and consumptions contribute to a wide range of impacts, such as climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, tropospheric ozone (smog) creation, eutrophication, acidification, toxicological stress on human health and ecosystems, the depletion of resources, water use, land use, and noise-among others. A clear need, therefore, exists to be proactive and to provide complimentary insights, apart from current regulatory practices, to help reduce such impacts. Practitioners and researchers from many domains come together in life cycle assessment (LCA) to calculate indicators of the aforementioned potential environmental impacts that are linked to products-supporting the identification of opportunities for pollution prevention and reductions in resource consumption while taking the entire product life cycle into consideration. This paper, part 1 in a series of two, introduces the LCA framework and procedure, outlines how to define and model a product's life cycle, and provides an overview of available methods and tools for tabulating and compiling associated emissions and resource consumption data in a life cycle inventory (LCI). It also discusses the application of LCA in industry and policy making. The second paper, by Pennington et al. (Environ. Int. 2003, in press), highlights the key features, summarises available approaches, and outlines the key

  15. Comparison of in-person and digital photograph assessment of stage III and IV pressure ulcers among veterans with spinal cord injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcey D. Terris, PhD

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Digital photographs are often used in treatment monitoring for home care of less advanced pressure ulcers. We investigated assessment agreement when stage III and IV pressure ulcers in individuals with spinal cord injury were evaluated in person and with the use of digital photographs. Two wound-care nurses assessed 31 wounds among 15 participants. One nurse assessed all wounds in person, while the other used digital photographs. Twenty-four wound description categories were applied in the nurses' assessments. Kappa statistics were calculated to investigate agreement beyond chance (p < or = 0.05. For 10 randomly selected "double-rated wounds," both nurses applied both assessment methods. Fewer categories were evaluated for the double-rated wounds, because some categories were chosen infrequently and agreement could not be measured. Interrater agreement with the two methods was observed for 12 of the 24 categories (50.0%. However, of the 12 categories with agreement beyond chance, agreement was only "slight" (kappa = 0-0.20 or "fair" (kappa = 0.21-0.40 for 6 categories. The highest agreement was found for the presence of undermining (kappa = 0.853, p < 0.001. Interrater agreement was similar to intramethod agreement (41.2% of the categories demonstrated agreement beyond chance for the nurses' in-person assessment of the double-rated wounds. The moderate agreement observed may be attributed to variation in subjective perception of qualitative wound characteristics.

  16. The KULTURisk Regional Risk Assessment methodology for water-related natural hazards - Part 1: Physical-environmental assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, P.; Gallina, V.; Torresan, S.; Zabeo, A.; Semenzin, E.; Critto, A.; Marcomini, A.

    2014-12-01

    , exposure and vulnerability. It integrates the outputs of various hydrodynamic models with site-specific bio-geophysical and socio-economic indicators (e.g. slope, land cover, population density, economic activities etc.) to develop tailored risk indexes and GIS-based maps for each of the selected receptors (i.e. people, buildings, infrastructure, agriculture, natural and semi-natural systems, cultural heritage) in the considered region. It further compares the baseline scenario with alternative scenarios, where different structural and/or non-structural mitigation measures are planned and eventually implemented. As demonstrated in the companion paper (Part 2, Ronco et al., 2014), risk maps, along with related statistics, allow one to identify and classify, on a relative scale, areas at risk which are more likely to be affected by floods and support the development of strategic adaptation and prevention measures to minimizing flood impacts. In addition, the outcomes of the RRA can be eventually used for a further socio-economic assessment, considering the tangible and intangible costs as well as the human dimension of vulnerability.

  17. Electrical insulating materials - Determination of the effects of ionizing radiation - Part 5: Procedures for assessment of ageing in service

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    Covers ageing assessment methods which can be applied to components based on polymeric materials (for example, cable insulation and jackets, elastomeric seals, polymeric coatings, gaiters) which are used in environments where they are exposed to radiation. The object of this part of IEC 60544 is to provide guidelines on the assessment of ageing in service. The approaches discussed cover ageing assessment programmes based on condition monitoring (CM), the use of equipment deposits in severe environments and sampling of real-time aged components.

  18. AMEE Guide 32: e-Learning in medical education Part 1: Learning, teaching and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellaway, Rachel; Masters, Ken

    2008-06-01

    In just a few years, e-learning has become part of the mainstream in medical education. While e-learning means many things to many people, at its heart it is concerned with the educational uses of technology. For the purposes of this guide, we consider the many ways that the information revolution has affected and remediated the practice of healthcare teaching and learning. Deploying new technologies usually introduces tensions, and e-learning is no exception. Some wish to use it merely to perform pre-existing activities more efficiently or faster. Others pursue new ways of thinking and working that the use of such technology affords them. Simultaneously, while education, not technology, is the prime goal (and for healthcare, better patient outcomes), we are also aware that we cannot always predict outcomes. Sometimes, we have to take risks, and 'see what happens.' Serendipity often adds to the excitement of teaching. It certainly adds to the excitement of learning. The use of technology in support of education is not, therefore, a causal or engineered set of practices; rather, it requires creativity and adaptability in response to the specific and changing contexts in which it is used. Medical Education, as with most fields, is grappling with these tensions; the AMEE Guide to e-Learning in Medical Education hopes to help the reader, whether novice or expert, navigate them. This Guide is presented both as an introduction to the novice, and as a resource to more experienced practitioners. It covers a wide range of topics, some in broad outline, and others in more detail. Each section is concluded with a brief 'Take Home Message' which serves as a short summary of the section. The Guide is divided into two parts. The first part introduces the basic concepts of e-learning, e-teaching, and e-assessment, and then focuses on the day-to-day issues of e-learning, looking both at theoretical concepts and practical implementation issues. The second part examines technical

  19. Orthopedic treatment of Class III malocclusion with rapid maxillary expansion combined with a face mask: a cephalometric assessment of craniofacial growth patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Torres Tagawa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this prospective study was to assess potential changes in the cephalometric craniofacial growth pattern of 17 children presenting Angle Class III malocclusion treated with a Haas-type expander combined with a face mask. METHODS: Lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken at beginning (T1 and immediately after removal of the appliances (T2, average of 11 months of treatment. Linear and angular measurements were used to evaluate the cranial base, dentoskeletal changes and facial growth pattern. RESULTS: The length of the anterior cranial base experienced a reduction while the posterior cranial base assumed a more vertical position at T1. Some maxillary movement occurred, there was no rotation of the palatal plane, there was a slight clockwise rotation of the mandible, although not significant. The ANB angle increased, thereby improving the relationship between the jaws; dentoalveolar compensation was more evident in the lower incisors. Five out of 12 cases (29.41% showed the following changes: In one case the pattern became more horizontal and in four cases more vertical. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded after a short-term assessment that treatment with rapid maxillary expansion (RME associated with a face mask was effective in the correction of Class III malocclusion despite the changes in facial growth pattern observed in a few cases.

  20. Development and application of a risk assessment method for radioactive waste management. Volume III. Economic analysis; description and implementation of AMRAW-B model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Radioactive Waste Management Systems Model, is presented. The systems model and associated computer code called AMRAW (Assessment Method for Radioactive Waste), has two parts. The first part, AMRAW-A, consists of the Source Term (radioactive inventory versus time), the Release Model, and the Environmental Model. The second part of the systems model, AMRAW-B, is the Economic Model which calculates health effects corresponding to the various organ dose rates from AMRAW-A, collects these health effects in terms of economic costs and attributes these costs to radionuclides, decay groups, and elements initially in the waste inventory. This volume describes AMRAW-B, the Economics Model, and is in two parts: Part 1 presents a generic description of the AMRAW-B model, background economic theory and a description of the AMRAW-B computer code, and Part 2 presents implementation of the model with an application to terminal storage in a bedded salt reference repository

  1. USE OF THE PERFORMANCE APPROACH FOR EVERGLADES REGIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM (R-EMAP) PHASE III

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) occasionally performs environmental monitoring/assessment studies such as the Everglades Regional Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (R-EMAP). In-situ data were documented in the field, and eight analytical labs were contr...

  2. Structural systematics of rare earth complexes. Part 8. The rare earth (III) nitrate/dimethyl sulfoxide adducts [(dmso)n Ln(O2NO)3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adducts [(dmso)nLn(O2NO)3], obtained by the crystallization of lanthanoid (III) nitrate (Ln(NO3)3.-xH2O) with excess dimethyl sulfoxide ('dmso') in methanol or ethanol, have been the subject of a series of room-temperature single-crystal X-ray studies. The manner in which stoichiometry and structure systematically vary with change in metal ion radius was clearly defined. All complexes studies are mononuclear, the metal ion being complexed by three bidentate nitrate ligands and a number of dmso ligands, four for La-Sm and three beyond. 8 refs., 8 tabs., 2 figs

  3. Reactor safety study. An assessment of accident risks in U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Appendices III and IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The items listed below summarize the detail sections which follow: a listing of definitions and a discussion of the general treatment of data within the random variable approach as utilized by the study; a tabulation of the assessed data base containing failure classifications, final assessed ranges utilized in quantification and reference source values considered in determining the ranges; a discussion of nuclear power plant experience that was used to validate the data assessment by testing its applicability as well as to check on the adequacy of the model to incorporate typical real incidents; an expanded presentation of the data assessment giving information on applicability considerations; a discussion of test and maintenance data including comparisons of models with experience data; and special topics, including assessments required for the initiating event probabilities and human error data and modeling

  4. A chronic plant test for the assessment of contaminated soils. Part 2. Testing of contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junker, T.; Roembke, J. [ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH, Floersheim (Germany); Kalsch, W.

    2006-06-15

    Background and scope. A new chronic plant test system which is based on experiences with various acute plant tests (e.g. published by OECD or ISO) and existing north American plant-life-cycle bioassays was standardised in a project sponsored by the German government. Characteristic properties of the test system, which can be performed either with Brassica rapa (turnip rape) or Avena sativa (oat), are described in part 1 of this mini-series. Methods. This new test was used to assess the effects of natural soil samples contaminated with TNT (2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene) or PAHs (poly-aromatic hydrocarbons). The soils were tested after taken from the field as well as after being remediated. Different control and reference soils were used to evaluate the test results. In addition, they were compared with the results of tests in which either TNT or Pyrene were spiked to field and standard soils (see part 1 of this mini-series). Results. All contaminated soils showed clear effects in the chronic plant test (usually B. rapa was more sensitive than A. sativa). LUFA 2.2 standard soil and OECD artificial soil are well-suited as control and mixture substrates, while reference soils collected at uncontaminated sites were several times as phytotoxic. In most of the latter cases, soil properties could be identified as the main cause of these effects (e.g. the pH value). While the sensitivity of the reproduction and biomass endpoints did not differ much in general, it is recommended to measure different endpoints (i.e. biomass and reproduction) due to the different mode-of-action of contaminants. In the case of TNT, a good agreement between the results of single chemical tests and tests with TNT-contaminated soils was found (due to the minimal effects of Pyrene, the same statement is not possible for PAHs). (orig.)

  5. Environmental impact assessment of STORA SKOG:s forest fertilizing program. Part 2: Judgement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ecological effects of forest fertilization have been studied in the form of an environmental impact assessment (EIA). The first part of this EIA, presented in an earlier report by the Swedish Environmental Research Institute (IVL), included the present and possible future state of the forest environment in Sweden, in relation to STORA owned forests and the fertilization programme and present knowledge about nitrogen cycling and forest fertilization. The second part is presented here, and contains information about the ecological effects of implementation of STORA fertilization plans, identification of shortcomings in knowledge to date, and recommendations for evasion of possible negative effects of implementation. The general consensus of this EIA is that the forest fertilization plans drawn up by STORA will not negatively affect the use of the forest as a natural resource in an ecologically sound way, taken into account that the guidelines included in the EIA are followed. The possible environmental effects of a 10 to 20 year period from onset of the plan were studied in contrast to the possible environmental effects of acidification of soil and surface water, build-up of nitrogen pool in soils, leakage of nitrogen to surface waters from soils, changes in forest soil fertility, uptake and loss of climate affecting gases, and the biological diversity of the forest ecosystem. The recommendations given in this EIA include the choice of forest stands for fertilization, environmental awareness, amount of fertilizer applied, frequency of applications, application procedures and effects follow up, communications, and documentation of the events. 69 refs, 14 tabs

  6. Assessment of the occupational exposure at a fertiliser industry in the northern part of Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the northern part of Greece, close to the city of Kavala, a phosphoric acid production industry has operated since 1965. The raw material used is the phosphate rock imported from the foreign countries. During industrial processes, naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) deposits exist in many facilities in the industry, causing increased levels of radiation exposure. Additionally, increased levels of NORM concentrations are also detected in the waste material of the production process, the phosphogypsum. According to the Greek Regulations for Radiation Protection (no. 216B, 5/3/2001), which is in accordance with the 96/29/EURATOM 31/5/1996, the action levels concerning the effective dose to workers at workplaces due to natural radiation sources are 1 mSv y-1. Work activities where the corresponding doses exceed 6 mSv y-1 are under the control of the Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC). The mean yearly radon concentration action level at workplaces is 400 Bq m-3, while the corresponding concentration limit is 3000 Bq m-3, respectively. GAEC, according to its constitutional law, is the responsible organisation to enforce and to implement the law by means of in situ surveys and laboratory measurements. The first inspection of the area was performed in 2002 and the first measures were proposed. Periodic inspections were performed every 2 y in order to extend the operation licensing of the industry. In this work a dose assessment of the workers based on in situ and laboratory measurements is presented. In order to assess the doses to the workers the external and the internal doses are estimated. (authors)

  7. Assessment of the occupational exposure at a fertiliser industry in the northern part of Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potiriadis, C; Koukouliou, V; Seferlis, S; Kehagia, K

    2011-03-01

    In the northern part of Greece, close to the city of Kavala, a phosphoric acid production industry has operated since 1965. The raw material used is the phosphate rock imported from the foreign countries. During industrial processes, naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) deposits exist in many facilities in the industry, causing increased levels of radiation exposure. Additionally, increased levels of NORM concentrations are also detected in the waste material of the production process, the phosphogypsum. According to the Greek Regulations for Radiation Protection (no. 216B, 5/3/2001), which is in accordance with the 96/29/EURATOM 31/5/1996, the action levels concerning the effective dose to workers at workplaces due to natural radiation sources are 1 mSv y(-1). Work activities where the corresponding doses exceed 6 mSv y(-1) are under the control of the Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC). The mean yearly radon concentration action level at workplaces is 400 Bq m(-3), while the corresponding concentration limit is 3000 Bq m(-3), respectively. GAEC, according to its constitutional law, is the responsible organisation to enforce and to implement the law by means of in situ surveys and laboratory measurements. The first inspection of the area was performed in 2002 and the first measures were proposed. Periodic inspections were performed every 2 y in order to extend the operation licensing of the industry. In this work a dose assessment of the workers based on in situ and laboratory measurements is presented. In order to assess the doses to the workers the external and the internal doses are estimated. PMID:21051434

  8. Bibliographical database of radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment: Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is part 11 of a database constructed to support research in radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment. Relevant publications were identified through detailed searches of national and international electronic databases and through our personal knowledge of the subject. Publications were numbered and key worded, and referenced in an electronic data-retrieval system that permits quick access through computerized searches on authors, key words, title, year, journal name, or publication number. Photocopies of the publications contained in the database are maintained in a file that is numerically arranged by our publication acquisition numbers. This volume contains 1048 additional entries, which are listed in alphabetical order by author. The computer software used for the database is a simple but sophisticated relational database program that permits quick information access, high flexibility, and the creation of customized reports. This program is inexpensive and is commercially available for the Macintosh and the IBM PC. Although the database entries were made using a Macintosh computer, we have the capability to convert the files into the IBM PC version. As of this date, the database cites 2260 publications. Citations in the database are from 200 different scientific journals. There are also references to 80 books and published symposia, and 158 reports. Information relevant to radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment is widely distributed within the scientific literature, although a few journals clearly predominate. The journals publishing the largest number of relevant papers are Health Physics, with a total of 242 citations in the database, and Mutation Research, with 185 citations. Other journals with over 100 citations in the database, are Radiation Research, with 136, and International Journal of Radiation Biology, with 132

  9. An Approach for Assessing Ecosystem Services with Application in Albanian Part of Prespa Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DORINA GRAZHDANI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nature provides us with the very essentials of life. It gives us clean air and water; enables us to produce and gather food, fuel and raw materials from the land and sea; regulates our climate; stems flood waters and it filters pollution. It also gives us personal benefits from enjoying it that increases our health and happiness. Collectively, these benefits are known as ecosystem services. A study to obtain information concerning ecosystem services issues in the Albanian part of Prespa Park (AL-Prespa basin, south-eastern Albania, was conducted from 2010-2012. The main aim of the study was providing an assessment of services coming from a range of AL-Prespa ecosystems, and benefits of the services under different management scenarios. In this study, the problem of how to address and solve the complex issues of assessing ecosystem services is addressed, using a deliberative process based on citizens’ juries aided by multi-criteria evaluation method of analysis. The main elements of the approach presented in this paper are: an inventory process to focus on sets of ecosystem services in AL-Prespa, and a number of future management scenarios are developed in conjunction with an expert panel of stakeholder and scientific representatives. This approach presents an important tool in an analysis of ecosystem services and is essential for identifying and prioritizing the relative importance of the services produced by ecosystems in a protected area. The approach described in this study may be applied to larger ecosystems with a broader range of the ecosystem services to be valued.

  10. Assessing the potential hydrological impact of the Gibe III Dam on Lake Turkana water level using multi-source satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velpuri, N. M.; Senay, G. B.

    2012-03-01

    Lake Turkana, the largest desert lake in the world, is fed by ungauged or poorly gauged river systems. To meet the demand of electricity in the East African region, Ethiopia is currently building the Gibe III hydroelectric dam on the Omo River, which supplies more than 80% of the inflows to Lake Turkana. On completion, the Gibe III dam will be the tallest dam in Africa with a height of 241 m. However, the nature of interactions and potential impacts of regulated inflows to Lake Turkana are not well understood due to its remote location and unavailability of reliable in-situ datasets. In this study, we used 12 years (1998-2009) of existing multi-source satellite and model-assimilated global weather data. We use calibrated multi-source satellite data-driven water balance model for Lake Turkana that takes into account model routed runoff, lake/reservoir evapotranspiration, direct rain on lakes/reservoirs and releases from the dam to compute lake water levels. The model evaluates the impact of Gibe III dam using three different approaches such as (a historical approach, a knowledge-based approach, and a nonparametric bootstrap resampling approach) to generate rainfall-runoff scenarios. All the approaches provided comparable and consistent results. Model results indicated that the hydrological impact of the dam on Lake Turkana would vary with the magnitude and distribution of rainfall post-dam commencement. On average, the reservoir would take up to 8-10 months, after commencement, to reach a minimum operation level of 201 m depth of water. During the dam filling period, the lake level would drop up to 2 m (95% confidence) compared to the lake level modelled without the dam. The lake level variability caused by regulated inflows after the dam commissioning were found to be within the natural variability of the lake of 4.8 m. Moreover, modelling results indicated that the hydrological impact of the Gibe III dam would depend on the initial lake level at the time of dam

  11. Assessing the potential hydrological impact of the Gibe III Dam on Lake Turkana water level using multi-source satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Velpuri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Lake Turkana, the largest desert lake in the world, is fed by ungauged or poorly gauged river systems. To meet the demand of electricity in the East African region, Ethiopia is currently building the Gibe III hydroelectric dam on the Omo River, which supplies more than 80% of the inflows to Lake Turkana. On completion, the Gibe III dam will be the tallest dam in Africa with a height of 241 m. However, the nature of interactions and potential impacts of regulated inflows to Lake Turkana are not well understood due to its remote location and unavailability of reliable in-situ datasets. In this study, we used 12 years (1998–2009 of existing multi-source satellite and model-assimilated global weather data. We use calibrated multi-source satellite data-driven water balance model for Lake Turkana that takes into account model routed runoff, lake/reservoir evapotranspiration, direct rain on lakes/reservoirs and releases from the dam to compute lake water levels. The model evaluates the impact of Gibe III dam using three different approaches such as (a historical approach, a knowledge-based approach, and a nonparametric bootstrap resampling approach to generate rainfall-runoff scenarios. All the approaches provided comparable and consistent results. Model results indicated that the hydrological impact of the dam on Lake Turkana would vary with the magnitude and distribution of rainfall post-dam commencement. On average, the reservoir would take up to 8–10 months, after commencement, to reach a minimum operation level of 201 m depth of water. During the dam filling period, the lake level would drop up to 2 m (95% confidence compared to the lake level modelled without the dam. The lake level variability caused by regulated inflows after the dam commissioning were found to be within the natural variability of the lake of 4.8 m. Moreover, modelling results indicated that the hydrological impact of the Gibe III dam would depend on the initial lake level

  12. The Effect of early physiotherapy on the recovery of mandibular function after orthognathic surgery for Class III correction: part I--jaw-motion analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Terry Te-Yi; Ko, Ellen Wen-Ching; Huang, Chiung Shing; Chen, Yu-Ray

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to compare the mandibular range of motion in Class III patients with and without early physiotherapy after orthognathic surgery (OGS). This study consisted of 63 Class III patients who underwent 2-jaw OGS. The experimental group comprised 31 patients who received early systematic physical rehabilitation. The control group consisted of 32 patients who did not have physical rehabilitation. Twelve variables of 3-dimensional (3D) jaw-motion analysis (JMA) were recorded before surgery (T1) and 6 weeks (T2) and 6 months (T3) after surgery. A 2-sample t test was conducted to compare the JMA results between the two groups at different time points. At T2, the JMA data were measured to be 77.5%-145.7% of presurgical values in the experimental group, and 60.3%-90.6% in the control group. At T3, the measurements were 112.2%-179.2% of presurgical values in the experimental group, and 77.6%-157.2% in the control group. The patients in the experimental group exhibited more favorable recovery than did those in the control group, from T1 to T2 and T1 to T3. However, after termination of physiotherapy, no significant difference in the extent of recovery was observed between groups up to 6 months after OGS.

  13. Economic Assessment of Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Waxes as Part of a Maize Stover Biorefinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Attard

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To date limited work has focused on assessing the economic viability of scCO2 extraction to obtain waxes as part of a biorefinery. This work estimates the economic costs for wax extraction from maize stover. The cost of manufacture (COM for maize stover wax extraction was found to be €88.89 per kg of wax, with the fixed capital investment (FCI and utility costs (CUT contributing significantly to the COM. However, this value is based solely on scCO2 extraction of waxes and does not take into account the downstream processing of the biomass following extraction. The cost of extracting wax from maize stover can be reduced by utilizing pelletized leaves and combusting the residual biomass to generate electricity. This would lead to an overall cost of €10.87 per kg of wax (based on 27% combustion efficiency for electricity generation and €4.56 per kg of wax (based on 43% combustion efficiency for electricity generation. A sensitivity analysis study showed that utility costs (cost of electricity had the greatest effect on the COM.

  14. Environmental impact of pyrolysis of mixed WEEE plastics part 2: Life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Sue M; Arnold, J Cris

    2011-11-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) contains up to 25% plastics. Extraction of higher quality fractions for recycling leaves a mix of plastic types contaminated with other materials, requiring the least environmentally harmful disposal route. Data from trials of pyrolysis, described in part 1 of this paper set, were used in a life cycle assessment of the treatment of WEEE plastics. Various levels of recycling of the sorted fraction were considered, and pyrolysis was compared with incineration (with energy recovery) and landfill for disposal of the remainder. Increased recycling gave reduced environmental impact in almost all categories considered, although inefficient recycling decreased that benefit. Significant differences between pyrolysis, incineration and landfill were seen in climate change impacts, carbon sent to landfill, resources saved, and radiation. There was no overall "best" option. Landfill had the least short-term impact on climate change so could be a temporary means of sequestering carbon. Incineration left almost no carbon to landfill, but produced the most greenhouse gases. Pyrolysis or incineration saved most resources, with the balance depending on the source of electricity replaced by incineration. Pyrolysis emerged as a strong compromise candidate since the gases and oils produced could be used as fuels and so provided significant resource saving without high impact on climate change or landfill space. PMID:21939231

  15. DETERMINING UNDISTURBED GROUND TEMPERATURE AS PART OF SHALLOW GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Kurevija

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The undisturbed ground temperature is one of the key thermogeological parameters for the assessment and utilization of shallow geothermal resources. Geothermal energy is the type of energy which is stored in the ground where solar radiation has no effect. The depth at which the undisturbed ground temperature occurs, independent of seasonal changes in the surface air temperature, is functionally determined by climate parameters and thermogeological properties. In deeper layers, the increase of ground temperature depends solely on geothermal gradient. Determining accurate values of undisturbed ground temperature and depth of occurrence is crucial for the correct sizing of a borehole heat exchanger as part of the ground-source heat pump system, which is considered the most efficient technology for utilising shallow geothermal resources. The purpose of this paper is to define three specific temperature regions, based on the measured ground temperature data collected from the main meteorological stations in Croatia. The three regions are: Northern Croatia, Adriatic region, and the regions of Lika and Gorski Kotar.

  16. Assessment of soil erodibility and aggregate stability for different parts of a forest road

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aidin Parsakhoo; Majid Lotfalian; Ataollah Kavian; Seyed Ataollah Hosseini

    2014-01-01

    We measured erodibility and mean weight diameter (MWD) of soil aggregates in different parts of a forest road. Samples of topsoil were collected from cutslope, fillslope, road surface and forest ground to assess the texture, bulk density, moisture, CaCO3 and organic matter. Soil aggregate stability was determined by wet sieving. Soil erodibility on the road surface was 2.3 and 1.3 times higher than on the fillslope and cutslope, respectively. The forest soil had the lowest erodibility. Aggregate stability of cutslope and road surface were low and very low, respectively. There was a significant negative relationship between cutslope erodibility with CaCO3 and sand content. Cutslope erodibility increased with increasing silt, clay and moisture content. On fillslopes, MWD increased with in-creasing rock fragment cover, plant cover, litter cover, organic matter and sand. There was a strong negative correlation between fillslope erodibility and organic matter, sand and MWD. There was no significant difference between erodibility of bare soil and soils beneathRubus hyrcanusL. and Philonotis marchica (Hedw.) Brid.

  17. Assessment of the greenhouse gas emissions from cogeneration and trigeneration systems. Part I: Models and indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chicco, Gianfranco; Mancarella, Pierluigi [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129, Torino (Italy)

    2008-03-15

    The diffusion of cogeneration and trigeneration plants as local generation sources could bring significant energy saving and emission reduction of various types of pollutants with respect to the separate production of electricity, heat and cooling power. The advantages in terms of primary energy saving are well established. However, the potential of combined heat and power (CHP) and combined cooling heat and power (CCHP) systems for reducing the emission of hazardous greenhouse gases (GHG) needs to be further investigated. This paper presents and discusses a novel approach, based upon an original indicator called trigeneration CO{sub 2} emission reduction (TCO{sub 2}ER), to assess the emission reduction of CO{sub 2} and other GHGs from CHP and CCHP systems with respect to the separate production. The indicator is defined in function of the performance characteristics of the CHP and CCHP systems, represented with black-box models, and of the GHG emission characteristics from conventional sources. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is shown in the companion paper (Part II: Analysis techniques and application cases) with application to various cogeneration and trigeneration solutions. (author)

  18. Scientific and regulatory policy committee (SRPC) paper: Assessment of Circulating Hormones in Nonclinical Toxicity Studies. III Female Reproductive Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormonally mediated effects on the female reproductive system may manifest in pathologic changes of endocrine-responsive organs and altered reproductive function. Identification of these effects requires proper assessment, which may include investigative studies of female reprod...

  19. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Assessment of Lower Facial Asymmetry in Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate and Non-Cleft Patients with Class III Skeletal Relationship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifan Lin

    Full Text Available To evaluate, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT, both the condylar-fossa relationships and the mandibular and condylar asymmetries between unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP patients and non-cleft patients with class III skeletal relationship, and to investigate the factors of asymmetry contributing to chin deviation.The UCLP and non-cleft groups consisted of 30 and 40 subjects, respectively, in mixed dentition with class III skeletal relationships. Condylar-fossa relationships and the dimensional and positional asymmetries of the condyles and mandibles were examined using CBCT. Intra-group differences were compared between two sides in both groups using a paired t-test. Furthermore, correlations between each measurement and chin deviation were assessed.It was observed that 90% of UCLP and 67.5% of non-cleft subjects had both condyles centered, and no significant asymmetry was found. The axial angle and the condylar center distances to the midsagittal plane were significantly greater on the cleft side than on the non-cleft side (P=0.001 and P=0.028, respectively and were positively correlated with chin deviation in the UCLP group. Except for a larger gonial angle on the cleft side, the two groups presented with consistent asymmetries showing shorter mandibular bodies and total mandibular lengths on the cleft (deviated side. The average chin deviation was 1.63 mm to the cleft side, and the average absolute chin deviation was significantly greater in the UCLP group than in the non-cleft group (P=0.037.Compared with non-cleft subjects with similar class III skeletal relationships, the subjects with UCLP showed more severe lower facial asymmetry. The subjects with UCLP presented with more asymmetrical positions and rotations of the condyles on axial slices, which were positively correlated with chin deviation.

  20. A Review of Quality of Life in Alzheimer's Disease: Part 2: Issues in Assessing Drug Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Sam S. Salek; Melvyn D. Walker; Antony J. Bayer

    1998-01-01

    There are numerous methods available for assessing patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or other forms of dementia. Quality-of-life (QOL) assessment is unique among these methods. The subjective nature of quality of life provides healthcare professionals with the opportunity of incorporating the value systems of patients and their carers into their assessments. A systematic review was carried out to assess the published data (and some unpublished data) on QOL assessment tools and instrument...

  1. Chemical equilibria of lanthanides(Ln(III)=Pr, Sm, Gd, Dy)-macro-cyclic complexes with monodentate ligands in CH3OH(Part I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ln-macrocyclic((20)DOTA) complexes, (Ln((20)DOTA)NO3)(H2O))(NO3)2·xH2O(Ln(III)=Pr, Sm, Gd, Dy), which had been synthesized from 2, 6-diformyl-p-cresol(DFPC), was placed in methanol for 2 days, and (Ln((20)DOTA)(NO3)(CH3OH))2+ was formed. The equilibrium constants(K) for the substitution of coordinated CH3OH in the Ln-(20)DOTA complexes by various auxiliary ligands, La(=monodentate ligands; pyridine, imidazole, triethylamine, diethylamine, piperidine) were determined spectroscopically at 25. deg. C and 0.1 M. The pKa of auxiliary ligand is in the order of pyridine < imidazole< triethylamine< diethylamine< piperidine, however the K has shown the trend of pyridine< imidazole< diethylamine< piperidine< triethylamine

  2. Assessment and mapping of water pollution indices in zone-III of municipal corporation of hyderabad using remote sensing and geographic information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, S S; Vuppala, Padmaja; Reddy, M Anji

    2005-01-01

    A preliminary survey of area under Zone-III of MCH was undertaken to assess the ground water quality, demonstrate its spatial distribution and correlate with the land use patterns using advance techniques of remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS). Twenty-seven ground water samples were collected and their chemical analysis was done to form the attribute database. Water quality index was calculated from the measured parameters, based on which the study area was classified into five groups with respect to suitability of water for drinking purpose. Thematic maps viz., base map, road network, drainage and land use/land cover were prepared from IRS ID PAN + LISS III merged satellite imagery forming the spatial database. Attribute database was integrated with spatial sampling locations map in Arc/Info and maps showing spatial distribution of water quality parameters were prepared in Arc View. Results indicated that high concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS), nitrates, fluorides and total hardness were observed in few industrial and densely populated areas indicating deteriorated water quality while the other areas exhibited moderate to good water quality. PMID:16669329

  3. Image quality assessment in digital mammography: part I. Technical characterization of the systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, N W; Monnin, P; Bosmans, H; Bochud, F O; Verdun, F R

    2011-07-21

    In many European countries, image quality for digital x-ray systems used in screening mammography is currently specified using a threshold-detail detectability method. This is a two-part study that proposes an alternative method based on calculated detectability for a model observer: the first part of the work presents a characterization of the systems. Eleven digital mammography systems were included in the study; four computed radiography (CR) systems, and a group of seven digital radiography (DR) detectors, composed of three amorphous selenium-based detectors, three caesium iodide scintillator systems and a silicon wafer-based photon counting system. The technical parameters assessed included the system response curve, detector uniformity error, pre-sampling modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Approximate quantum noise limited exposure range was examined using a separation of noise sources based upon standard deviation. Noise separation showed that electronic noise was the dominant noise at low detector air kerma for three systems; the remaining systems showed quantum noise limited behaviour between 12.5 and 380 µGy. Greater variation in detector MTF was found for the DR group compared to the CR systems; MTF at 5 mm(-1) varied from 0.08 to 0.23 for the CR detectors against a range of 0.16-0.64 for the DR units. The needle CR detector had a higher MTF, lower NNPS and higher DQE at 5 mm(-1) than the powder CR phosphors. DQE at 5 mm(-1) ranged from 0.02 to 0.20 for the CR systems, while DQE at 5 mm(-1) for the DR group ranged from 0.04 to 0.41, indicating higher DQE for the DR detectors and needle CR system than for the powder CR phosphor systems. The technical evaluation section of the study showed that the digital mammography systems were well set up and exhibiting typical performance for the detector technology employed in the respective systems.

  4. National Water Infrastructure Adaptation Assessment, Part I: Climate Change Adaptation Readiness Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report “National Water Infrastructure Adaptation Assessment” is comprised of four parts (Part I to IV), each in an independent volume. The Part I report presented herein describes a preliminary regulatory and technical analysis of water infrastructure and regulations in the ...

  5. Assessing End-Of-Supply Risk of Spare Parts Using the Proportional Hazard Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X. Li (Xishu); R. Dekker (Rommert); C. Heij (Christiaan); M. Hekimoğlu (Mustafa)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractOperators of long field-life systems like airplanes are faced with hazards in the supply of spare parts. If the original manufacturers or suppliers of parts end their supply, this may have large impacts on operating costs of firms needing these parts. Existing end-of-supply evaluation me

  6. Flood Risk Assessment as a Part of Integrated Flood and Drought Analysis. Case Study: Southern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabnakorn, Saowanit; Suryadi, Fransiscus X.; de Fraiture, Charlotte

    2015-04-01

    Flood and drought are two main meteorological catastrophes that have created adverse consequences to more than 80% of total casualties universally, 50% by flood and 31% by drought. Those natural hazards have the tendency of increasing frequency and degree of severity and it is expected that climate change will exacerbate their occurrences and impacts. In addition, growing population and society interference are the other key factors that pressure on and exacerbate the adverse impacts. Consequently, nowadays, the loss from any disasters becomes less and less acceptable bringing about more people's consciousness on mitigation measures and management strategies and policies. In general, due to the difference in their inherent characteristics and time occurrences flood and drought mitigation and protection have been separately implemented, managed, and supervised by different group of authorities. Therefore, the objective of this research is to develop an integrated mitigation measure or a management policy able to surmount both problems to acceptable levels and is conveniently monitored by the same group of civil servants which will be economical in both short- and long-term. As aforementioned of the distinction of fundamental peculiarities and occurrence, the assessment processes of floods and droughts are separately performed using their own specific techniques. In the first part of the research flood risk assessment is focused in order to delineate the flood prone area. The study area is a river plain in southern Thailand where flooding is influenced by monsoon and depression. The work is mainly concentrated on physically-based computational modeling and an assortment of tools was applied for: data completion, areal rainfall interpolation, statistical distribution, rainfall-runoff analysis and flow model simulation. The outcome from the simulation can be concluded that the flood prone areas susceptible to inundation are along the riparian areas, particularly at the

  7. Assessment of flares in lupus patients enrolled in a phase II/III study of rituximab (EXPLORER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Jt; Buyon, Jp; Furie, Ra; Latinis, Km; Gordon, C; Hsieh, H-J; Brunetta, P

    2011-06-01

    The EXPLORER study was designed to assess the response to rituximab versus placebo in patients with moderate to severe extrarenal systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) receiving background immunosuppression. The definition of response required reduced clinical activity without subsequent flares over 52 weeks, and the study did not meet its efficacy endpoint. The current exploratory analysis assessed flare rates in patients who achieved initial low disease activity response (British Isles Lupus Assessment Group [BILAG] C or better in all organs) during the study. Exploratory reanalysis of data from the EXPLORER trial was conducted, considering alternative definitions for flare. No difference was found between rituximab and placebo in preventing or delaying moderate to severe flares. However, when severe (BILAG A) flares alone were examined, rituximab reduced the risk of a subsequent first A flare (hazard ratio = 0.61; p = 0.052) and lowered mean ± SD annualized A flare rates (0.86 ± 1.47 vs. 1.41 ± 2.14; p = 0.038). Eighty-four (49.7%) rituximab-treated patients achieved low disease activity without subsequent A flares versus 31 (35.2%) placebo-treated patients (p = 0.027). Prednisone rescue for A flares was similar in rituximab- (24%) and placebo-treated (14%) patients (p = 0.204). This post hoc analysis evaluates the hypothesis that assessment of BILAG A flares may distinguish potential treatment effects with greater sensitivity than assessment of BILAG B flares. PMID:21478286

  8. AMEE Guide No. 14. Outcome-Based Education: Part 3--Assessment in Outcome-Based Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-David, Miriam Friedman

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the role of performance assessment in outcome-based education. Compares the relationship and interplay between the two related paradigms and presents guidelines of assessment programs in outcome-based education. (Author/CCM)

  9. ROSA-III system description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ROSA-III system and its instrumentations are described. The informations are necessary to understand and analyze the experimental data obtained from loss-of-coolant experiments (LOCEs) conducted in the ROSA (Rig of Safety Assessment)-III facility. (author)

  10. Strain Measurements within Fibreboard. Part III: Analyzing the Process Zone at the Crack Tip of Medium Density Fiberboards (MDF Double Cantilever I-Beam Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Sinn

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the third part of a study dealing with the mechanical and fracture mechanical characterization of Medium Density Fiberboards (MDF. In the first part, an analysis of internal bond strength testing was performed and in the second part MDF was analyzed by means of the wedge splitting experiment; this part deals with the double cantilever I beam test, which is designed for measuring the fracture energy as well as stress intensity factor in Mode I. For a comparison of isotropic and orthotropic material behavior, finite element modeling was performed. In addition to the calculation of fracture energy the stress intensity factor was analyzed by means of finite elements simulation and calculation. In order to analyze strain deformations and the process zone, electronic speckle pattern interferometry measurements were performed. The results revealed an elongated process zone and lower results for KIC if compared to the wedge splitting experiment. The Gf numbers are higher compared to the wedge splitting results and can be explained by the thicker process zone formed during the crack propagation. The process zone width on its part is influenced by the stiff reinforcements and yields a similar crack surface as with the internal bond test.

  11. Risk assessment methodologies for Critical Infrastructure Protection. Part I: A state of the art

    OpenAIRE

    Giannopoulos, Georgios; FILIPPINI ROBERTO; SCHIMMER Muriel

    2012-01-01

    Effective risk assessment methodologies are the cornerstone of a successful Critical Infrastructure Protection program. The extensive number of risk assessment methodologies for critical infrastructures clearly supports this argument. Risk assessment is indispensable in order to identify threats, assess vulnerabilities and evaluate the impact on assets, infrastructures or systems taking into account the probability of the occurrence of these threats. This is a critical element that differenti...

  12. Risk assessment, session 1-4. International conference 1992. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international conference on Risk Assessment, 5-9 October 1992, London was organised by the Health and Safety Commission of the UK and co-sponsored by a number of regional and international organizations namely: the European Commission, the ILO, the OECD and WHO. The main sessions of the conference cover what risk assessment means, the role of risk assessment in devising policies and regulations; and risk assessment in practice

  13. Music Education for Life: Music Assessment, Part 1--What and Why

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Assessment is both essential and a potentially powerful positive force. Music teachers need to provide assessment evidence to survive in today's data-driven school environment. However, the more important reasons they must assess are to improve their professional effectiveness as teachers, to improve student learning, and to help them advocate for…

  14. Assessment of pulmonary antibodies with induced sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage induced by nasal vaccination against Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a clinical phase I/II study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freihorst Joachim

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccination against Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a desirable albeit challenging strategy for prevention of airway infection in patients with cystic fibrosis. We assessed the immunogenicity of a nasal vaccine based on the outer membrane proteins F and I from Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the lower airways in a phase I/II clinical trial. Methods N = 12 healthy volunteers received 2 nasal vaccinations with an OprF-OprI gel as a primary and a systemic (n = 6 or a nasal booster vaccination (n = 6. Antibodies were assessed in induced sputum (IS, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL, and in serum. Results OprF-OprI-specific IgG and IgA antibodies were found in both BAL and IS at comparable rates, but differed in the predominant isotype. IgA antibodies in IS did not correlate to the respective serum levels. Pulmonary antibodies were detectable in all vaccinees even 1 year after the vaccination. The systemic booster group had higher IgG levels in serum. However, the nasal booster group had the better long-term response with bronchial antibodies of both isotypes. Conclusion The nasal OprF-OprI-vaccine induces a lasting antibody response at both, systemic and airway mucosal site. IS is a feasible method to non-invasively assess bronchial antibodies. A further optimization of the vaccination schedule is warranted.

  15. The physician/hospital joint venture: developing a win/win strategy for success. Part III: Structuring and negotiating the deal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorr, A S

    1987-08-01

    This four part series, "The Physician/Hospital Joint Venture: Developing a Win/Win Strategy," examines the philosophical basis of marketing to physicians, the options for the organization in formulating a strategy for joint venture development, structuring and negotiating the deal, and finally how to build the physician loyalty and commitment essential for the joint venture's continued success. In this third part of the series, the author examines the elements essential to structure a successful joint venture and key issues that need to be addressed during the negotiation process.

  16. Support of the Ukrainean Supervisory Authority during the extension of the improved operational NCP monitoring. Final report part III; Unterstuetzung der ukrainischen Aufsichtsbehoerde beim Ausbau der verbesserten betrieblichen KKW-Ueberwachung. Abschlussbericht Teil III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, M.; Carl, H.

    2005-05-01

    Technical systems to improve the operational monitoring for the three units of the South Ukraine NPP and for the 1{sup st} unit of the Chmelnitzky NPP were put up by analogy with the systems for the Zaporoshye NPP and the Rovno NPP. For that up to 51 safety-relevant technological and 16 radiological parameters from every unit are available to the supervisory authority on-site and in the crisis centre in Kiev for collection and assessment. These parameters are transferred on-line by modern technical equipment once a minute. The developed evaluation software enables the visualisation of the monitoring results in form of diagrams, charts and graphs. By means of an archive modus the trends of all parameters can be analysed. With the integration of the technical equipment delivered for the sheltered room of the Zaporoshye NPP into the on-site existing remote monitoring system is it now possible to record and to evaluate essential safety-relevant parameters of the whole NPP also during severe accidents by means of modern technical equipment. (orig.)

  17. Adamantyl-group containing mixed-mode acrylamide-based continuous beds for capillary electrochromatography. Part III. Optimization of the chromatographic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Massaedh, Ayat Allah; Pyell, Ute

    2014-01-17

    In a previous article we described the synthesis of amphiphilic monolithic stationary phases by in situ free radical copolymerization of cyclodextrin-solubilized N-adamantyl acrylamide, piperazinediacrylamide, methacrylamide and vinylsulfonic acid in aqueous medium in pre-treated fused silica capillaries of 100μ.m I.D. In this work, a series of N-adamantyl-group containing acrylamide-based continuous beds is synthesized under variation of different synthesis parameters. The studied synthesis parameters are (i) concentration of the lyotropic salt ammonium sulfate, (ii) concentration of the initiator ammonium persulfate, and (iii) concentration of the negatively charged monomer vinylsulfonic acid in the polymerization mixture. The influence of the synthesis parameters on the chromatographic efficiency is studied under isocratic conditions for a homologues series of alkylphenones in the reversed-phase mode at constant composition of the mobile phase via capillary electrochromatography with varied electric field strength. With varied concentration of the lyotropic salt ammonium sulfate or varied concentration of the initiator ammonium persulfate in the polymerization mixture, a strong impact on the chromatographic efficiency is observed, while there is only a minor influence when varying the molar fraction of the charged monomer VSA. The absence of a significant influence of extra-column band broadening effects on the determined efficiency is confirmed. There is a good repeatability (with respect to capillary-to-capillary variation and run-to-run variation) reached for the theoretical plate heights obtained for DMF and selected alkylphenones in the reversed-phase mode. PMID:24296296

  18. The effect of early physiotherapy on the recovery of mandibular function after orthognathic surgery for class III correction. Part II: electromyographic activity of masticatory muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ellen Wen-Ching; Teng, Terry Te-Yi; Huang, Chiung Shing; Chen, Yu-Ray

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of early physical rehabilitation by comparing the differences of surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity in the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles after surgical correction of skeletal class III malocclusion. The prospective study included 63 patients; the experimental groups contained 31 patients who received early systematic physical rehabilitation; the control group (32 patients) did not receive physiotherapy. The amplitude of sEMG in the masticatory muscles reached 72.6-121.3% and 37.5-64.6% of pre-surgical values in the experimental and control groups respectively at 6 weeks after orthognathic surgery (OGS). At 6 months after OGS, the sEMG reached 135.1-233.4% and 89.6-122.5% of pre-surgical values in the experimental and control groups respectively. Most variables in the sEMG examination indicated that recovery of the masticatory muscles in the experimental group was better than the control group as estimated in the early phase (T1 to T2) and the total phase (T1 to T3); there were no significant differences between the mean recovery percentages in the later phase (T2 to T3). Early physical rehabilitative therapy is helpful for early recovery of muscle activity in masticatory muscles after OGS. After termination of physical therapy, no significant difference in recovery was indicated in patients with or without early physiotherapy.

  19. Semiconducting III-V compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Hilsum, C; Henisch, Heinz R

    1961-01-01

    Semiconducting III-V Compounds deals with the properties of III-V compounds as a family of semiconducting crystals and relates these compounds to the monatomic semiconductors silicon and germanium. Emphasis is placed on physical processes that are peculiar to III-V compounds, particularly those that combine boron, aluminum, gallium, and indium with phosphorus, arsenic, and antimony (for example, indium antimonide, indium arsenide, gallium antimonide, and gallium arsenide).Comprised of eight chapters, this book begins with an assessment of the crystal structure and binding of III-V compounds, f

  20. Job-Linked Literacy: Innovative Strategies at Work. Part III. Moving Ahead: Basic Skills for Career Advancement. A Work in America Policy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosow, Jerome M.; Zager, Robert

    This volume, Interim Report No. 3 in a 3-year study, considers literacy programs designed to qualify employees for promotions or professional advancement. It adopts a multidimensional definition of moving ahead, one that extends to monetary rewards, career development, and employment security. The volume is divided into two parts: report and case…

  1. Simulación de la fluencia en caliente de un acero microaleado con un contenido medio de carbono. III parte. Ecuaciones constitutivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera, J. M.

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the part 1 of this work the constitutive equations of the hot flow behaviour of a commercial microalloyed steel have been obtained. For this purpose, the uniaxial hot compression tests described in the part 2 were employed. Tests were carried out over a range of 5 orders of magnitude in strain rate and 300 °C of temperature. Experimental results are compared with the theoretical model introduced in the first part of this study. It is concluded that deviations between experimental and theoretical curves are lower than 10 %. It is shown that the classical hiperbolic sine constitutive equation described accurately the experimental behaviour provided that stresses are normalized by the Young's modulus and strain rates by the self-diffusion coefficient. An internal stress must also be introduced in the latter equation when the initial grain size is fine enough.

    Siguiendo el planteamiento teórico efectuado en la I parte de este trabajo, se determinaron las ecuaciones constitutivas del comportamiento a la deformación en caliente de un acero comercial microaleado con un contenido medio de carbono. Para este objetivo se emplearon los ensayos de compresión uniaxial en caliente ya descritos en la II parte, los cuales se efectuaron en un rango de cinco órdenes de magnitud en velocidad de deformación y 300 °C de temperatura. Se comparan los resultados experimentales con el modelo teórico introducido en la I parte y se verifica que el error es inferior al 10 %. Se comprobó que la clásica ecuación del seno hiperbólico podía describir con precisión el comportamiento observado siempre y cuando las tensiones se normalicen por el módulo de Young, las velocidades de deformación por el coeficiente de autodifusión de la austenita, y se considere un efecto adicional sobre la tensión cuando el tamaño de grano inicial sea suficientemente fino.

  2. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: implementing inherent safety perspective. Part 1 - guideword applicability and method description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-12-15

    Layout planning plays a key role in the inherent safety performance of process plants since this design feature controls the possibility of accidental chain-events and the magnitude of possible consequences. A lack of suitable methods to promote the effective implementation of inherent safety in layout design calls for the development of new techniques and methods. In the present paper, a safety assessment approach suitable for layout design in the critical early phase is proposed. The concept of inherent safety is implemented within this safety assessment; the approach is based on an integrated assessment of inherent safety guideword applicability within the constraints typically present in layout design. Application of these guidewords is evaluated along with unit hazards and control devices to quantitatively map the safety performance of different layout options. Moreover, the economic aspects related to safety and inherent safety are evaluated by the method. Specific sub-indices are developed within the integrated safety assessment system to analyze and quantify the hazard related to domino effects. The proposed approach is quick in application, auditable and shares a common framework applicable in other phases of the design lifecycle (e.g. process design). The present work is divided in two parts: Part 1 (current paper) presents the application of inherent safety guidelines in layout design and the index method for safety assessment; Part 2 (accompanying paper) describes the domino hazard sub-index and demonstrates the proposed approach with a case study, thus evidencing the introduction of inherent safety features in layout design. PMID:18406519

  3. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: implementing inherent safety perspective. Part 1 - guideword applicability and method description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-12-15

    Layout planning plays a key role in the inherent safety performance of process plants since this design feature controls the possibility of accidental chain-events and the magnitude of possible consequences. A lack of suitable methods to promote the effective implementation of inherent safety in layout design calls for the development of new techniques and methods. In the present paper, a safety assessment approach suitable for layout design in the critical early phase is proposed. The concept of inherent safety is implemented within this safety assessment; the approach is based on an integrated assessment of inherent safety guideword applicability within the constraints typically present in layout design. Application of these guidewords is evaluated along with unit hazards and control devices to quantitatively map the safety performance of different layout options. Moreover, the economic aspects related to safety and inherent safety are evaluated by the method. Specific sub-indices are developed within the integrated safety assessment system to analyze and quantify the hazard related to domino effects. The proposed approach is quick in application, auditable and shares a common framework applicable in other phases of the design lifecycle (e.g. process design). The present work is divided in two parts: Part 1 (current paper) presents the application of inherent safety guidelines in layout design and the index method for safety assessment; Part 2 (accompanying paper) describes the domino hazard sub-index and demonstrates the proposed approach with a case study, thus evidencing the introduction of inherent safety features in layout design.

  4. Quality control and process capability assessment for injection-moulded micro mechanical parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasparin, Stefania; Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard;

    2013-01-01

    Quality control of micro components is an increasing challenge. Smaller mechanical parts are characterized by smaller tolerance to be verified. This paper focuses on the dimensional verification of micro injection-moulded components selected from an industrial application. These parts are measure...

  5. Standing on shaky ground- US patent-eligibility of isolated DNA and genetic diagnostics after AMP v. USPTO - Part III (unsolved questions & subsequent case law)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo; Nilsson, David

    2012-01-01

    -claims directed to personalized medicine, biological correlations and compounds containing biological information. As far as possible, this part also incorporates new developments that can be expected in the coming months, such as the pending certiorari decision in AMP v. USPTO and the pending Supreme Court......-eligibility of biological correlations and software-related "inventions" (6). These subsequent decisions indicate a serious split at the Federal Circuit with potentially broad implications not only for the patent eligibility of software-related patent applications and so-called "Beauregard"- claims, but also for biotech...... decision in Prometheus v. Mayo. Part IV, which is to be published in issue 4, will finally offer a broader discussion of the recent US patent-eligibility developments from an innovation policy perspective including brief references to recent European developments (7). This will provide the basis...

  6. The seismogenic area in the lithosphere considered as an "Open Physical System". Its implications on some seismological aspects. Part - III. Seismic Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Thanassoulas, C

    2008-01-01

    The seismic potential of any regional seismogenic area is analyzed in terms of the "open physical system" inflow - outflow energy balance model (Thanassoulas, 2008, Part - I). Following the magnitude determination method presented by Thanassoulas, (2008, Part - II) any region of any arbitrary area extent is assumed as being a potential seismogenic region. Consequently, the capability for the generation of a maximum magnitude future EQ at each virtual seismogenic region is investigated all over Greece at certain times. The later results are used to compile maps of the seismic potential / maximum expected EQ magnitude for Greece at 5 year's intervals ranging from 1970 to 2000. The comparison of these seismic potential maps / maximum expected EQ magnitude to the corresponding seismicity (M>6R) for each corresponding 5 years period reveals their tight interrelation. Therefore, the calculated seismic potential / maximum expected EQ magnitude, due to its drastic change in time in any seismogenic region, is a dynami...

  7. Preliminary Guideline for the High Temperature Structure Integrity Assessment Procedure Part I. High Temperature Structure Design Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Han; Kim, J. B.; Lee, H. Y.; Park, C. G.; Joo, Y. S.; Koo, G. H.; Kim, S. H

    2007-02-15

    A preliminary guideline for the design and evaluation of LMR high temperature structure is presented based upon ASME B and PV Code, Section III, Subsection NH. The main contents of this guideline are the materials, general design, vessel, piping, core support structure, pumps, valves, fabrication, examination, and testing for the class 1 components. The ratcheting evaluation, enhanced creep assessment, welds design and evaluation, inelastic analysis approach, piping design alternatives, and bellows design method are described in appendices. A user of this guideline should follow the essential procedures and may refer to other pertinent codes, standards, laws, regulations, or other pertinent documents when this guideline does not lead to proper design of the structure. While this guideline adopts major procedures of Subsection NH, it refers to the RCC-MR and/or DDS in some amount for the items where these codes have excellency to improve this guideline.

  8. Mathematical Model of a pH-gradient Creation at Isoelectrofocusing. Part III: Numerical Solution of the Non-stationary Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Shiryaeva, E V; Zhukov, M Yu

    2013-01-01

    The mathematical model describing the non-stationary natural pH-gradient arising under the action of an electric field in an aqueous solution of ampholytes (amino acids) is constructed and investigated. The model is part of a more general model of the isoelectrofocusing (IEF) process. To numerical study of the model we use the finite elements method that allows to significantly reduce the computation time. We also examine the influence of the different effects (taking into account the water ions, the various forms of Ohm's law, the difference between isoelectric and isoionic points of the substances) on the process IEF.

  9. Children's exposure to indoor air in urban nurseries-part I: CO{sub 2} and comfort assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branco, P.T.B.S.; Alvim-Ferraz, M.C.M.; Martins, F.G.; Sousa, S.I.V., E-mail: sofia.sousa@fe.up.pt

    2015-07-15

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) in nurseries is an emerging case-study. Thus, this study, as the Part I of the larger study “Children's exposure to indoor air in urban nurseries”, aimed to: i) evaluate nurseries’ indoor concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), a global IAQ indicator, in class and lunch rooms; ii) assess indoor comfort parameters–temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH); and iii) analyse them according to guidelines and references for IAQ, comfort and children's health. Indoor continuous measurements were performed. Non-compliances with guidelines were found in comfort parameters, which could cause discomfort situations and also microbial proliferation. Exceedances in CO{sub 2} concentrations were also found and they were caused by poor ventilation and high classroom occupation. More efficient ventilation and control of comfort parameters, as well as to reduce occupation by reviewing Portuguese legislation on that matter, would certainly improve IAQ and comfort in nurseries and consequently safeguard children's health. - Highlights: • High occupation and poor ventilation were main determinants of IAQ in nurseries. • T and RH indoor values found in nurseries are likely to cause thermal discomfort. • Building characteristics and an inadequate ventilation determined T and RH values. • High CO{sub 2} concentrations found could indicate accumulation of other air pollutants.

  10. Nutritional Status Assessment During the Phase IIA and Phase III Lunar/Mars Life Support Test Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Block, Gladys; Davis-Street, Janis E.; DeKerlegand, Diane E.; Fanselow, Stephanie A.; Fesperman, J. Vernell; Gillman, Patricia L.; Nillen, Jeannie I.; Rice, Barbara L.; Smith, Myra D.

    2000-01-01

    Nutrition is a critical concern for extended-duration space missions (Smith and Lane, 1999). Loss of body weight is a primary consequence of altered nutrition, and is frequently observed during space flight (Smith and Lane; 1999). Other existing dietary concerns for space flight include excessive intakes of sodium and iron, and insufficient intakes of water and vitamin D (Smith and Lane, 1999). Furthermore, dependence on closed or semi-closed food systems increases the likelihood of inadequate intakes of key nutrients. This is a significant concern for extended-duration space missions. Space nutrition research often necessitates detailed recording of all food consumption. While this yields extremely accurate data, it requires considerable time and effort, and thus is not suitable for routine medical monitoring during space flight. To alleviate this problem, a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was designed to provide a quick and easy, yet reasonably accurate, method for crewmembers to provide dietary intake information to the ground. We report here a study which was designed to assess nutritional status before, during, and after the 60-d and 91-d chamber stays. An additional goal of the study was to validate a food frequency questionnaire designed specifically for use with space flight food systems.

  11. Landslide Susceptibility Assessment in the Central Part of Republic of Moldova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercanoglu, Murat; Boboc, Nicolae; Sirodoev, Igor; Ahmet Temiz, F.; Sirodoev, Ghenadi

    2010-05-01

    There has been an increasing interest in natural hazard assessments within the scientific community, particularly in the last two decades. In other respect, there is also a dramatically rising trend in the number of natural hazards. Growing population and expansion of settlements and lifelines over hazardous areas have largely increased the impact of natural disasters both in industrialized and developing countries. Furthermore, natural disasters such as earthquakes, landslides, floods have dramatic effects on human life, infrastructures, environment, and so on. Landslides, one of the most destructive natural hazards, constitute a major geological hazard throughout the world, like in Turkey and Moldova. There are a lot of regions affected by landslides in Turkey (particularly the West, Middle and East Black Sea Region) and Moldova (e.g.: area between Nisporeni, Calarasi, Balti, Western Rezina District, Codri Hills in Central Moldova etc.), and consequences of landslides are of great importance in the two countries. In the last 50 years' period, only the economic loss due to landslides in Turkey is estimated about 5 billion , and 12.5 % of the whole settlement areas, including big and populated cities, are facing landslide threat. Similar to Turkey, there are about 16000 areas affected by landslides in Moldova. In February-March, 1998 the intensity of landslides in the central part of Moldova, including Chisinau, considerably increased. In total, 357 private households involving 1400 people were affected, 214 houses were destroyed, and 137 were damaged. The total national damage accounted for 44.3 million Lei. At present on Moldavian territory, there are more than 17000 landslides of various types. These landslides are mostly located within Central Moldavian heights, one of the most complicated geomorphologic structure and territory's fragmentation. Among major landslide triggering factors, in addition to natural ones, one should also consider the anthropogenic

  12. Environmental assessment of three egg production systems--Part I: Monitoring system and indoor air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y; Shepherd, T A; Li, H; Xin, H

    2015-03-01

    To comprehensively assess conventional vs. some alternative laying-hen housing systems under U.S. production conditions, a multi-institute and multi-disciplinary project, known as the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES) study, was carried out at a commercial egg production farm in the Midwestern United States over two single-cycle production flocks. The housing systems studied include a conventional cage house (200,000 hen capacity), an aviary house (50,000 hen capacity), and an enriched colony house (50,000 hen capacity). As an integral part of the CSES project, continual environmental monitoring over a 27-month period described in this paper quantifies indoor gaseous and particulate matter concentrations, thermal environment, and building ventilation rate of each house. Results showed that similar indoor thermal environments in all three houses were maintained through ventilation management and environmental control. Gaseous and particulate matter concentrations of the enriched colony house were comparable with those of the conventional cage house. In comparison, the aviary house had poorer indoor air quality, especially in wintertime, resulting from the presence of floor litter (higher ammonia levels) and hens' activities (higher particulate matter levels) in it. Specifically, daily mean indoor ammonia concentrations had the 95% confidence interval values of 3.8 to 4.2 (overall mean of 4.0) ppm for the conventional cage house; 6.2 to 7.2 (overall mean of 6.7) ppm for the aviary house; and 2.7 to 3.0 (overall mean of 2.8) ppm for the enriched colony house. The 95% confidence interval (overall mean) values of daily mean indoor carbon dioxide concentrations were 1997 to 2170 (2083) ppm for the conventional cage house, 2367 to 2582 (2475) ppm for the aviary house, and 2124 to 2309 (2216) ppm for the enriched colony house. Daily mean indoor methane concentrations were similar for all three houses, with 95% confidence interval values of 11.1 to 11.9 (overall

  13. Characteristics and quality assessment of groundwater in parts of Akure, South-Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.O Nwankwoala

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater samples were collected from different parts of Akure town and analysed for various physico-chemical parameters using conventional field and laboratory techniques. The essence of the study is to evaluate the characteristics and quality assessment of groundwater in the area. The pH values falls between 7.1 to 7.7, indicating that the ground water is neutral. The range of conductivity for the area is between 116 to 1000µS/cm with an average of 365µS/cm which met the WHO (2006 standard of 1000µS/cm for drinking water. The low levels of turbidity ranging from 1 to 2 NTU were obtained. The TDS concentrations range between 81 to 700 mg/l. The total hardness of water sampled range from 20.2 to 345.6mg/l. Sulphate ion concentration is between 2.5 to 23.2mg/l. Phosphate values ranges from 0.05 to 0.07mg/l in all locations, and average value of 0.12mg/l which are within the WHO (2006 standards for drinking water. Nitrate levels ranged from 1.13 to 2.91mg/l. The values of bicarbonates range from 28 to 88mg/l with a mean value of 43.9mg/l, as all locations are far below the W.H.O (2006 limit of 600mg/l. The concentration of calcium ranged from 12.3 to 92.2mg/l while the concentrations of magnesium ion ranged from 0.9 to 32.6mg/l with an average of 7.3gm/l and this is below the WHO limit for drinking water (150mg/l. The concentration of sodium ion (Na+ ranged from 1.067 to 8.696mg/l. The concentration of potassium also ranged from 7.537 to 51.881mg/l with a mean value of 19.098mg/l. Although there is no reference to WHO standards for the parameter, the relatively low values of potassium suggest the suitability of the analysed groundwater samples for drinking. The common form of iron in groundwater is the soluble ferrous ion Fe2+. The concentration of iron in the water samples ranged from <0.001 to 0.001mg/l showing a very low value of iron in all boreholes. Generally, results compare favourably with the WHO (2006 standards for drinking water

  14. [Parte III. Ethical and juridical aspects in end-stage chronic organ failures. A position paper on a shared care planning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbisan, Camillo; Casonato, Carlo; Palermo Fabris, Elisabetta; Piccinni, Mariassunta; Zatti, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The specific target of an experts panel was to assess in terms of law and ethics the compliance of a new specific decision making algorithm described in the position paper proposed by the Gruppo di Lavoro Insufficienze Croniche d'Organo, with the main goal of the position paper consisting in the shared care planning process. The following specific aspects were assessed by the experts: a) the impact on case law and statute law of a new clinical pathway shared by scientific societies in light of good clinical practice and scientific evidence; b) the relevance of all tools useful to identify the appropriateness of care pathways, recognizing responsibilities and decision-making skills related to the end of life choices made by all stakeholders involved (healthcare professionals, patients and their beloved ones); c) the consistency of the healthcare professionals duties proposed in the position paper with the Italian legal order; d) the opportunity to take into account the role of all healthcare providers involved in care relationship; e) the consistency of the definition of patient rights at the end of life as proposed in the position paper with the Italian legal order and the relevance in this context of simultaneous palliative care; f) the relevance of shared care planning and its consistency with the proposed operative tools; g) the relevance of the conscientious objection issue and the compliance of management tools proposed in the position paper with the results of ethical and legal considerations; h) considerations about available resources allocation.

  15. [Parte III. Ethical and juridical aspects in end-stage chronic organ failures. A position paper on a shared care planning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbisan, Camillo; Casonato, Carlo; Palermo Fabris, Elisabetta; Piccinni, Mariassunta; Zatti, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The specific target of an experts panel was to assess in terms of law and ethics the compliance of a new specific decision making algorithm described in the position paper proposed by the Gruppo di Lavoro Insufficienze Croniche d'Organo, with the main goal of the position paper consisting in the shared care planning process. The following specific aspects were assessed by the experts: a) the impact on case law and statute law of a new clinical pathway shared by scientific societies in light of good clinical practice and scientific evidence; b) the relevance of all tools useful to identify the appropriateness of care pathways, recognizing responsibilities and decision-making skills related to the end of life choices made by all stakeholders involved (healthcare professionals, patients and their beloved ones); c) the consistency of the healthcare professionals duties proposed in the position paper with the Italian legal order; d) the opportunity to take into account the role of all healthcare providers involved in care relationship; e) the consistency of the definition of patient rights at the end of life as proposed in the position paper with the Italian legal order and the relevance in this context of simultaneous palliative care; f) the relevance of shared care planning and its consistency with the proposed operative tools; g) the relevance of the conscientious objection issue and the compliance of management tools proposed in the position paper with the results of ethical and legal considerations; h) considerations about available resources allocation. PMID:24553594

  16. A Fully Nonmetallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing of Ceramic Composites. Part III; Additive Manufacturing and Characterization of Ceramic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbig, Michael C.; Grady, Joseph E.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Ramsey, Jack; Patterson, Clark; Santelle, Tom

    2015-01-01

    This publication is the third part of a three part report of the project entitled "A Fully Nonmetallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing" funded by NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI). The objective of this project was to conduct additive manufacturing to produce ceramic matrix composite materials and aircraft engine components by the binder jet process. Different SiC powders with median sizes ranging from 9.3 to 53.0 microns were investigated solely and in powder blends in order to maximize powder packing. Various infiltration approaches were investigated to include polycarbosilane (SMP-10), phenolic, and liquid silicon. Single infiltrations of SMP-10 and phenolic only slightly filled in the interior. When the SMP-10 was loaded with sub-micron sized SiC powders, the infiltrant gave a much better result of filling in the interior. Silicon carbide fibers were added to the powder bed to make ceramic matrix composite materials. Microscopy showed that the fibers were well distributed with no preferred orientation on the horizontal plane and fibers in the vertical plane were at angles as much as 45deg. Secondary infiltration steps were necessary to further densify the material. Two to three extra infiltration steps of SMP-10 increased the density by 0.20 to 0.55 g/cc. However, the highest densities achieved were 2.10 to 2.15 g/cc. Mechanical tests consisting of 4 point bend tests were conducted. Samples from the two CMC panels had higher strengths and strains to failure than the samples from the two nonfiber reinforced panels. The highest strengths were from Set N with 65 vol% fiber loading which had an average strength of 66 MPa. Analysis of the fracture surfaces did not reveal pullout of the reinforcing fibers. Blunt fiber failure suggested that there was not composite behavior. The binder jet additive manufacturing method was used to also demonstrate the fabrication of turbine engine vane components of two different designs and sizes. The

  17. Ex ante impact assessment of policies affecting land use, Part B: application of the analytical framework

    OpenAIRE

    Grzegorz Siebielec; Tomasz Stuczynski; Paul Zagame; Pierre LeMouël; John Farrington; Zuzana Drillet; Jake Breton. Morris; Paul Tabbush; Pieter Johannes. Verkerk; Laurence Jones; Martha Bakker; Marta Perez-Soba; Peter H. Verburg; Torbjörn Jansson; Tom Kuhlman

    2011-01-01

    The use of science-based tools for impact assessment has increasingly gained focus in addressing the complexity of interactions between environment, society, and economy. For integrated assessment of policies affecting land use, an analytical framework was developed. The aim of our work was to apply the analytical framework for specific scenario cases and in combination with quantitative and qualitative application methods. The analytical framework was tested for two cases involving the ex an...

  18. Ex Ante Impact Assessment of Policies Affecting Land Use, Part B: Application of the Analytical Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Helming, K.; K. Diehl; Kuhlman, J.W.; Bakker, M.M.; Perez-Soba, M.

    2011-01-01

    The use of science-based tools for impact assessment has increasingly gained focus in addressing the complexity of interactions between environment, society, and economy. For integrated assessment of policies affecting land use, an analytical framework was developed. The aim of our work was to apply the analytical framework for specific scenario cases and in combination with quantitative and qualitative application methods. The analytical framework was tested for two cases involving the ex an...

  19. Reactor oscillator - I - III, Part III - Electronic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes functioning of the reactor oscillator electronic system. Two methods of oscillator operation were discussed. The first method is so called method of amplitude modulation of the reactor power, and the second newer method is phase method. Both methods are planned for the present reactor oscillator

  20. Assessment and recommendations for fissile-material packaging exemptions and general licenses within 10 CFR Part 71

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks, C.V.; Hopper, C.M.; Lichtenwalter, J.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This report provides a technical and regulatory assessment of the fissile material general licenses and fissile material exemptions within Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 71. The assessment included literature studies and calculational analyses to evaluate the technical criteria; review of current industry practice and concerns; and a detailed evaluation of the regulatory text for clarity, consistency and relevance. Recommendations for potential consideration by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff are provided. The recommendations call for a simplification and consolidation of the general licenses and a change in the technical criteria for the first fissile material exemptions.

  1. TRIGA Mark-III reactor dismantling program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activation assessment of the main parts of the TRIGA Mark-III (KRR-2) was estimated to effectively dismantle the activated and contaminated areas. All of the method and the order for decommissioning the KRR-2 have been chosen as a result of the examination of the physical structure and radiological conditions of the reactor component. These decommissioning methods and orders were reviewed as part of the Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) studies for the project. Radiological assessment is also done to protect the workers and the environment from the dismantling work. License documents were submitted to the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) at the end of 1998. Practical work of the D and D will start at the end of 1999 once the government issues the license. Radiation protection plan was also set up to control the workers and environment. This paper summarized the main lines of those studies. (author)

  2. Demand study for advanced dental hygiene educational degrees: part 2: assessing educational demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Annelise Ydstebo; Fottler, Myron; Liberman, Aaron; Pitts, Louise; Wan, Thomas T H

    2011-01-01

    Currently, the debate over the addition of the midlevel provider position for dental hygienists rages on. The midlevel provider (similar to the physician's assistant) in dentistry exists in a handful of states in various forms, but is hotly contested in many other states. This is the second half of a 2-part study undertaken to add to the current body of knowledge by addressing the clinical needs changing in our population and the associated demand study for additional educational degrees for dental hygienists to address these changing needs. Part 1 addressed a literature update on oral health and systemic correlations contributing to our populations' declining health conditions, whereas part 2 illustrates the results of the demand study. It attempts to benchmark "adequate demand" and applies the stakeholder theory as its theoretical framework.

  3. Collision Avoidance Short Course: Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis - NASA Robotic CARA. Part I: ; Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejduk, M. D.; Frigm, Ryan C.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite conjunction assessment is perhaps the fastest growing area in space situational awareness and protection with military, civil and commercial satellite owner-operators embracing more and more sophisticated processes to avoid the avoidable - namely collisions between high value space assets and orbital debris. NASA and Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) have collaborated to offer an introductory short course on all the major aspects of the conjunctions assessment problem. This half-day course will cover satellite conjunction dynamics and theory. Joint Space Operations Center (JsPOC) conjunction data products, major risk assessment parameters and plots, conjunction remediation decision support, and present and future challenges. This briefing represents the NASA portion of the course.

  4. Formation and modelling assessment perculiarities of the Quaternary aquifer system groundwater resources in the Southeastern part of Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Štuopis, Anicetas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the research was accomplish an assessment of the groundwater resources (budget, distribution and formation) and reveal their formation peculiarities in the Quaternary aquifer system of the southeaster part of Lithuania. Substantiation and formulation of schematization principles of the Quaternary multi-aquifer system for conceptualization of groundwater flow model based on the complex of lithologic, hydrogeochemistry, isotopic and hydraulic data have been developed by this disserta...

  5. Structural and functional biological assessment of aggregate dredging intensity on the Belgian part of the North Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Backer, A De; Hillewaert, H.; Van Hoey, G; Wittoeck, J.; Hostens, K.

    2014-01-01

    Marine aggregate dredging in the Belgian part of the North Sea (BPNS) is restricted to four dedicated concession zones. Within these zones, there are areas under different dredging pressure, but with the advantage that these are situated within a similar habitat (cfr. similar sediment characteristics) . As such, this study assessed how different degrees of dredging pressure executed on a similar sandy habitat affect the benthic ecosystem. Possible responses of the macrobenthos on the dredging...

  6. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel 4-alkapolyenylpyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxalines as antileishmanial agents--part III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronga, Luisa; Del Favero, Marco; Cohen, Anita; Soum, Claire; Le Pape, Patrice; Savrimoutou, Solène; Pinaud, Noël; Mullié, Catherine; Daulouede, Sylvie; Vincendeau, Philippe; Farvacques, Natacha; Agnamey, Patrice; Pagniez, Fabrice; Hutter, Sébastien; Azas, Nadine; Sonnet, Pascal; Guillon, Jean

    2014-06-23

    A series of new 4-alkapolyenylpyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxaline derivatives, original and structural analogues of alkaloid chimanine B and of previously described 4-alkenylpyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxalines, was synthesized in good yields using efficient palladium-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions. These new compounds were tested for in vitro antiparasitic activity upon three Leishmania spp. strains. Biological results showed activity against the promastigote forms of L. major, L. mexicana and L. donovani with IC50 ranging from 1.2 to 14.7 μM. In attempting to investigate if our pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxaline derivatives are broad-spectrum antiprotozoal compounds activities toward one Trypanosoma brucei brucei strain and the W2 and 3D7 Plasmodium falciparum strains were also investigated. In parallel, the in vitro cytotoxicity of these molecules was assessed on the murine J774 and human HepG2 cell lines. Structure-activity relationships of these new synthetic compounds are here discussed.

  7. EURADOS intercomparison exercise on MC modelling for the in-vivo monitoring of AM-241 in skull phantoms (Part II and III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrba, Tomas; Broggio, David; Caldeira, Margarida; Capello, Kevin; Fantínová, Karin; Franck, Didier; Gómez-Ros, Jose Maria; Hunt, John; Kinase, Sakae; Leone, Debora; Lombardo, Pasquale Alessandro; Manohari, Murugan; Marzocchi, Olaf; Moraleda, Montserrat; Nogueira, Pedro; Ośko, Jakub; Arron, Shutt; Suhl, Soheigh; Takahashi, Masa; Teles, Pedro; Tremblay, Marilyn; Tymińska, Katarzyna; Lopez, Maria Antonia; Tanner, Rick

    2015-08-01

    An intercomparison on in-vivo monitoring for determination of Am-241 in three skull phantoms was launched by EURADOS in 2011. The project focused on measurement and estimation of the activity of Am-241 in the human skull. Three human skull phantoms of different complexity were used. A Monte Carlo (MC) intercomparison exercise with the voxel representations of the physical phantom was launched additionally in September of 2012. The main goals of the action were (1) to investigate the different methodologies for developing MC calibrations that might arise from a complex radiological assessment and (2) to compare individual approaches of the participating laboratories in order to determine international guidance for best practice. The MC exercise consisted of three tasks with increasing difficulty, in order to test the extent of skills needed by the participating laboratory. The first task was to simulate a given detector and a well-defined semi-skull phantom. The second and third tasks presented in this paper-introduced more complex simulations with individual geometry and real detector modelling. The paper provides an overview of the participant's results, analyses of the observed issues concerning tasks two and three, and a general evaluation of the whole project.

  8. Part III: Comparing observed growth of selected test organisms in food irradiation studies with growth predictions calculated by ComBase softwares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of intensive predictive microbiological modelling activities, several computer programs and softwares became available recently for facilitating microbiological risk assessment. Among these tools, the establishment of the ComBase, an international database and its predictive modelling softwares of the Pathogen Modelling Program (PMP) set up by the USDA Eastern Regional Research Center, Wyndmore, PA, and the Food Micromodel/Growth Predictor by the United Kingdom's Institute of Food Research, Norwich, are most important. The authors have used the PMP 6.1 software version of ComBase as a preliminary trial to compare observed growth of selected test organisms in relation to their food irradiation work during recent years within the FAO/IAEA Coordinated Food Irradiation Research Projects (D6.10.23 and D6.20.07) with the predicted growth on the basis of growth models available in ComBase for the same species as those of the authors' test organisms. The results of challenge tests with Listeria monocytogenes inoculum in untreated or irradiated experimental batches of semi-prepared breaded turkey meat steaks (cordon bleu), sliced tomato, sliced watermelon, sliced cantaloupe and sous vide processed mixed vegetables, as well as Staphylococcus aureus inoculum of a pasta product, tortellini, were compared with their respective growth models under relevant environmental conditions. This comparison showed good fits in the case of non-irradiated and high moisture food samples, but growth of radiation survivors lagged behind the predicted values. (author)

  9. Assessment of annual balances of mining enterprises by ratio analysis. Part I: Discussion of basic ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurdziak, L.

    1992-08-01

    Discusses the basic financial ratios used to assess the financial standing of a mining enterprise: liquidity, leverage/gearing, activity and profitability ratios, cash flow to the current portion of long-term-debt ratio, etc. It is recommended that for mining enterprises, being high risk firms, the latter ratio be over 0.33:1 (the produced cash flow should cover the total debts in less than three years). The method described makes use of the ratio of various items of an annual balance in order to assess the value and credit worthiness of a mining enterprise. The possibility of a take-over, and investment risk are also evaluated. 11 refs.

  10. Crescimento da base craniana nos diferentes tipos faciais nos relacionamentos maxilomandibulares ortopédicos de Classe I, II e III: parte 1 Cranial base growth in different facial types in Class I, II and III orthopedic maxillomandibular relationship: part 1

    OpenAIRE

    Lucelma Vilela Pieri; Kurt Faltin Junior; Cristina Lúcia Feijó Ortolani; Rolf Marçon Faltin; Márcia Aparecida Alves de Almeida

    2007-01-01

    OBJETIVO: este estudo retrospectivo avaliou o crescimento médio anual da base craniana nos diferentes tipos faciais nos relacionamentos maxilomandibulares ortopédicos de Classe I, II e III. METODOLOGIA: uma amostra aleatória de 300 pacientes brasileiros leucodermas (131 do gênero masculino, 169 do gênero feminino), com idade média inicial de 10 anos e 2 meses (dentadura mista) e final de 14 anos e 8 meses (segundos molares em oclusão) e tempo médio de observação de 4 anos e 5 meses, foi selec...

  11. Crescimento da base craniana nos diferentes tipos faciais nos relacionamentos maxilomandibulares ortopédicos de Classe I, II e III: parte 3 (Crescimento médio de CF-Po) Cranial base growth in different facial types in Class I, II and III orthopedic maxillomandibular relationship: part 3 (Mean growth of CF-Po)

    OpenAIRE

    Lucelma Vilela Pieri; Kurt Faltin Junior; Cristina Lúcia Feijó Ortolani; Rolf Marçon Faltin; Márcia Aparecida Alves de Almeida

    2007-01-01

    OBJETIVO: este estudo retrospectivo avaliou o crescimento médio de CF-Po nos diferentes tipos faciais nos relacionamentos maxilomandibulares ortopédicos de Classe I, II e III. METODOLOGIA: uma amostra aleatória de 300 pacientes brasileiros leucodermas (131 do gênero masculino, 169 do gênero feminino), com idade média inicial de 10 anos e 2 meses (dentadura mista) e final de 14 anos e 8 meses (segundos molares em oclusão) e tempo médio de observação de 4 anos e 5 meses, foi selecionada em uma ...

  12. ILLUMINATION RESEARCH AS PART OF A VISUAL ASSESSMENT OF VISUALLY-IMPAIRED INDIVIDUALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CORNELISSEN, FW; KOOIJMAN, AC; DUMBAR, G; VANDERWILDT, G

    1991-01-01

    In this paper we describe a method for the preliminary assessment of the illumination needs of partially sighted individuals. The method is based on determining the smallest readable lettersize under different levels of illumination. Half of the partially sighted in our population had a performance

  13. Assessment of Cognitive Ability of Students with Severe and Low-Incidence Disabilities--Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepeau-Hobson, Franci; Vujeva, Hana

    2012-01-01

    Students with severe and low-incidence disabilities comprise a heterogeneous population that often presents a challenge to the professionals charged with evaluating their skills and abilities. This is especially true in conducting a valid assessment of the cognitive ability of these children. Often, school psychologists are limited to the use of…

  14. Assessment and Accountability in Reference Work. Part I: Requirements and Methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlatch, Jo Bell; Walsh, Anthony

    1992-01-01

    Includes three articles: the first presents rules and regulations from the "Federal Register" that focus on educational effectiveness in postsecondary institutions; the second discusses the appropriateness of various research methodologies for assessment and accountability of reference services; and the third examines data collection techniques…

  15. The release of genetically modified crops into the environment - Part II. Overview of ecological risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conner, A.J.; Glare, T.R.; Nap, J.P.H.

    2003-01-01

    Despite numerous future promises, there is a multitude of concerns about the impact of GM crops on the environment. Key issues in the environmental assessment of GM crops are putative invasiveness, vertical or horizontal gene flow, other ecological impacts, effects on biodiversity and the impact of

  16. Performance Assessment Design Principles Gleaned from Constructivist Learning Theory (Part 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zane, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    Just as objectivist theories have provided foundations for traditional tests, constructivist theories can offer foundations for performance assessment design and development methods. The tenets and principles embedded in various learning theories provide a solid foundation that can be combined with psychometric principles to help assessment…

  17. Performance Assessment Design Principles Gleaned from Constructivist Learning Theory (Part 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zane, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    Just as objectivist theories have provided foundations for traditional tests, constructivist theories can offer foundations for performance assessment design and development methods. The tenets and principles embedded in various learning theories provide a solid foundation that can be combined with psychometric principles to help assessment…

  18. Comparative assessment of predictions in ungauged basins – Part 2: Flood and low flow studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sivapalan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to assess the performance of methods that predict low flows and flood runoff in ungauged catchments. The aim is to learn from the similarities and differences between catchments in different places, and to interpret the differences in performance in terms of the underlying climate-landscape controls. The assessment is performed at two levels. The Level 1 assessment is a meta-analysis of 14 low flow prediction studies reported in the literature involving 3112 catchments, and 20 flood prediction studies involving 3023 catchments. The Level 2 assessment consists of a more focused and detailed analysis of individual basins from selected studies from Level 1 in terms of how the leave-one-out cross-validation performance depends on climate and catchment characteristics as well as on the regionalisation method. The results indicate that both flood and low flow predictions in ungauged catchments tend to be less accurate in arid than in humid climates and more accurate in large than in small catchments. There is also a tendency towards a somewhat lower performance of regressions than other methods in those studies that apply different methods in the same region, while geostatistical methods tend to perform better than other methods. Of the various flood regionalisation approaches, index methods show significantly lower performances in arid catchments than regression methods or geostatistical methods. For low flow regionalisation, regional regressions are generally better than global regressions.

  19. Comparative assessment of predictions in ungauged basins – Part 2: Flood and low flow studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Salinas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to assess the performance of methods that predict low flows and flood runoff in ungauged catchments. The aim is to learn from the similarities and differences between catchments in different places, and to interpret the differences in performance in terms of the underlying climate-landscape controls. The assessment is performed at two levels. The Level 1 assessment is a meta-analysis of 14 low flow prediction studies reported in the literature involving 3112 catchments, and 20 flood prediction studies involving 3023 catchments. The Level 2 assessment consists of a more focused and detailed analysis of individual basins from selected studies from Level 1 in terms of how the leave-one-out cross-validation performance depends on climate and catchment characteristics as well as on the regionalisation method. The results indicate that both flood and low flow predictions in ungauged catchments tend to be less accurate in arid than in humid climates and more accurate in large than in small catchments. There is also a tendency towards a somewhat lower performance of regressions than other methods in those studies that apply different methods in the same region, while geostatistical methods tend to perform better than other methods. Of the various flood regionalisation approaches, index methods show significantly lower performance in arid catchments than regression methods or geostatistical methods. For low flow regionalisation, regional regressions are generally better than global regressions.

  20. Empowering or Disabling? Emotional Reactions to Assessment amongst Part-Time Adult Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramp, Andy; Lamond, Catherine; Coleyshaw, Liz; Beck, Sue

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on emotional reactions to learning and assessment. It draws on a qualitative research project involving first-generation adult students on a foundation degree programme. Endorsing the notion of emotional reactions as situated in participants' lived power relations, we map out emotional patterns to Semester 1 and then explore…

  1. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexavalent Chromium Part 1: Experimental Animal Studies (Preliminary Assessment Materials)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In April 2014, EPA released the draft literature searches and associated search strategies, evidence tables, and exposure response arrays for Cr(VI) to obtain input from stakeholders and the public prior to developing the draft IRIS assessment. Specifically, EPA was interested in...

  2. Environmental Risk Assessment for Veterinary Medicinal Products Part 3. Validation of environmental exposure models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montforts MHMM; Verschoor AJ; SEC

    2003-01-01

    This report investigates the validity of exposure and distribution models for soil, groundwater and surface water for the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) at registration. The functional validations with (oxy)tetracycline and sulphonamides indicate that it

  3. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 806b - Privacy Impact Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 806b National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION...—Introduction and Overview The Privacy Act Assessment. The Air Force recognizes the importance of protecting the... system? a. What Air Force files and databases are used? b. What Federal Agencies are providing data...

  4. European clinical guidelines for Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders. Part I: assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cath, Danielle C; Hedderly, Tammy; Ludolph, Andrea G;

    2011-01-01

    A working group of the European Society for the Study of Tourette Syndrome (ESSTS) has developed the first European assessment guidelines of Tourette Syndrome (TS). The available literature including national guidelines was thoroughly screened and extensively discussed in the expert group of ESST...

  5. Outcome Assessments in Children with Cerebral Palsy, Part II: Discriminatory Ability of Outcome Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Anita M; Gorton, George; Oeffinger, Donna; Barnes, Douglas; Calmes, Janine; Nicholson, Diane; Damiano, Diane; Abel, Mark; Kryscio, Richard; Rogers, Sarah; Tylkowski, Chester

    2007-01-01

    Discriminatory ability of several pediatric outcome tools was assessed relative to Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level in patients with cerebral palsy. Five hundred and sixty-two patients (400 with diplegia, 162 with hemiplegia; 339 males, 223 females; age range 4-18y, mean 11y 1mo [SD 3y 7mo]), classified as GMFCS Levels I to…

  6. Assessment of Ecological Factors as an Integral Part of Academic and Mental Health Consultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ysseldyke, Jim; Lekwa, Adam J.; Klingbeil, David A.; Cormier, Damien C.

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of ecological factors that affect individual mental health or academic functioning is an important component of educational and psychological consultation. Researchers and practitioners have conceptualized such ecological or environmental factors in a variety of ways and from a broad range of perspectives. In this article we…

  7. The european flood alert system EFAS – Part 2: Statistical skill assessment of probabilistic and deterministic operational forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Bartholmes

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Since 2005 the European Flood Alert System (EFAS has been producing probabilistic hydrological forecasts in pre-operational mode at the Joint Research Centre (JRC of the European Commission. EFAS aims at increasing preparedness for floods in trans-national European river basins by providing medium-range deterministic and probabilistic flood forecasting information, from 3 to 10 days in advance, to national hydro-meteorological services.

    This paper is Part 2 of a study presenting the development and skill assessment of EFAS. In Part 1, the scientific approach adopted in the development of the system has been presented, as well as its basic principles and forecast products. In the present article, two years of existing operational EFAS forecasts are statistically assessed and the skill of EFAS forecasts is analysed with several skill scores. The analysis is based on the comparison of threshold exceedances between proxy-observed and forecasted discharges. Skill is assessed both with and without taking into account the persistence of the forecasted signal during consecutive forecasts.

    Skill assessment approaches are mostly adopted from meteorology and the analysis also compares probabilistic and deterministic aspects of EFAS. Furthermore, the utility of different skill scores is discussed and their strengths and shortcomings illustrated. The analysis shows the benefit of incorporating past forecasts in the probability analysis, for medium-range forecasts, which effectively increases the skill of the forecasts.

  8. Methodologies of health impact assessment as part of an integrated approach to reduce effects of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aunan, K.; Seip, H.M.

    1995-12-01

    Quantification of average frequencies of health effects on a population level is an essential part of an integrated assessment of pollution effects. Epidemiological studies seem to provide the best basis for such estimates. This paper gives an introduction to a methodology for health impact assessment and also the results from selected parts of a case study in Hungary. This case study is aimed at testing and improving the methodology for integrated assessment and focuses on energy production and consumption and implications for air pollution. Using monitoring data from Budapest, the paper gives estimates of excess frequencies of respiratory illness, mortality and other health end-points. For a number of health end-points, particles probably may serve as a good indicator component. Stochastic simulation is used to illustrate the uncertainties imbedded in the exposure-response function applied. The paper uses the ``bottom up approach`` to find cost-effective abatement strategies against pollution damages, where specific abatement measures such as emission standards for vehicles are explored in detail. It is concluded that in spite of large uncertainties in every step of the analysis, an integrated assessment of costs and benefits of different abatement measures is valuable as it clarifies the main objectives of an abatement policy and explicitly describes the adverse impacts of different activities and their relative importance. 46 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. A comparative assessment of non-laboratory-based versus commonly used laboratory-based cardiovascular disease risk scores in the NHANES III population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Pandya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: National and international primary CVD risk screening guidelines focus on using total CVD risk scores. Recently, we developed a non-laboratory-based CVD risk score (inputs: age, sex, smoking, diabetes, systolic blood pressure, treatment of hypertension, body-mass index, which can assess risk faster and at lower costs compared to laboratory-based scores (inputs include cholesterol values. We aimed to assess the exchangeability of the non-laboratory-based risk score to four commonly used laboratory-based scores (Framingham CVD [2008, 1991 versions], and Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation [SCORE] for low and high risk settings in an external validation population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Analyses were based on individual-level, score-specific rankings of risk for adults in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III aged 25-74 years, without history of CVD or cancer (n = 5,999. Risk characterization agreement was based on overlap in dichotomous risk characterization (thresholds of 10-year risk >10-20% and Spearman rank correlation. Risk discrimination was assessed using receiver operator characteristic curve analysis (10-year CVD death outcome. Risk characterization agreement ranged from 91.9-95.7% and 94.2-95.1% with Spearman correlation ranges of 0.957-0.980 and 0.946-0.970 for men and women, respectively. In men, c-statistics for the non-laboratory-based, Framingham (2008, 1991, and SCORE (high, low functions were 0.782, 0.776, 0.781, 0.785, and 0.785, with p-values for differences relative to the non-laboratory-based score of 0.44, 0.89, 0.68 and 0.65, respectively. In women, the corresponding c-statistics were 0.809, 0.834, 0.821, 0.792, and 0.792, with corresponding p-values of 0.04, 0.34, 0.11 and 0.09, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Every score discriminated risk of CVD death well, and there was high agreement in risk characterization between non-laboratory-based and laboratory-based risk scores, which

  10. Methods for assessing quality characteristics of non-grain starch staples. (Part 4. Advanced methods.)

    OpenAIRE

    Bainbridge, Z.; Tomlins, K.; Wellings, K; Westby, A.

    1996-01-01

    This manual sets out in a four-part publication the main methods necessary to evaluate the quality characteristics of nongrain starch staple (NGSS) food crops (cassava, sweet potato, banana, plantain, yam and cocoyam) and their processed products. It is designed to be a reference source and laboratory guide for food analysis laboratories and those concerned with the quality of NGSS. It is hoped that the provision of this manual and its active promotion through workshops will assist in the upt...

  11. Methods for assessing quality characteristics of non-grain starch staples. (Part 3. Laboratory methods.)

    OpenAIRE

    Bainbridge, Z.; Tomlins, K.; Wellings, K; Westby, A.

    1996-01-01

    This manual sets out in a four-part publication the main methods necessary to evaluate the quality characteristics of nongrain starch staple (NGSS) food crops (cassava, sweet potato, banana, plantain, yam and cocoyam) and their processed products. It is designed to be a reference source and laboratory guide for food analysis laboratories and those concerned with the quality of NGSS. It is hoped that the provision of this manual and its active promotion through workshops will assist in the upt...

  12. Methods for assessing quality characteristics of non-grain starch staples. (Part 1. Introduction.)

    OpenAIRE

    Bainbridge, Z.; Tomlins, K.; Wellings, K; Westby, A.

    1996-01-01

    This manual sets out in a four-part publication the main methods necessary to evaluate the quality characteristics of nongrain starch staple (NGSS) food crops (cassava, sweet potato, banana, plantain, yam and cocoyam) and their processed products. It is designed to be a reference source and laboratory guide for food analysis laboratories and those concerned with the quality of NGSS. It is hoped that the provision of this manual and its active promotion through workshops will assist in the upt...

  13. Methods for assessing quality characteristics of non-grain starch staples. (Part 2. Field Methods.)

    OpenAIRE

    Bainbridge, Z.; Tomlins, K.; Wellings, K; Westby, A.

    1996-01-01

    This manual sets out in a four-part publication the main methods necessary to evaluate the quality characteristics of nongrain starch staple (NGSS) food crops (cassava, sweet potato, banana, plantain, yam and cocoyam) and their processed products. It is designed to be a reference source and laboratory guide for food analysis laboratories and those concerned with the quality of NGSS. It is hoped that the provision of this manual and its active promotion through workshops will assist in the upt...

  14. An occupational therapy approach to persons with chronic fatigue syndrome: part two, assessment and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Renee R; Kielhofner, Gary W

    2003-01-01

    Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is a highly disabling condition that significantly interferes with occupational life. Occupational therapy services are very relevant for this population. Yet, information about the assessment and treatment of CFS is almost absent from occupational therapy literature. As a result, few occupational therapists possess expertise in evaluating and providing therapy for this complex condition. This paper describes an approach to evaluating and providing services for individuals with CFS according to the Model of Human Occupation. This model offers an integrative means of understanding the synergistic and evolving relationships between motivation, values, roles, habits, functional capabilities, and the environment as they influence individuals with CFS, and it provides a framework for the types of changes required in these different domains during the rehabilitation process. A case study illustrates recommended assessment and intervention approaches. PMID:23944638

  15. Minimal intervention dentistry and older patients. Part 1: Risk assessment and caries prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Martina; Allen, Edith; da Mata, Cristiane; McKenna, Gerald; Burke, Francis

    2014-06-01

    Ten million people in the UK today are aged over 65. The latest projections estimate that there will be 5 1/2 million more people aged 65 and older in the next 20 years. This projected pattern of population ageing will have profound consequences for dentistry. Minimal intervention dentistry (MID) is a modern evidence-based approach to caries management in dentate patients that uses the 'medical model' whereby disease is controlled by the 'oral physician'. This approach offers considerable benefits over conventional dentistry for older patients. It encourages patients to be responsible for their oral health through the provision of both knowledge and motivation. MID encompasses risk assessment for dental disease, early detection and control of disease processes, and minimally invasive treatment. Clinical Relevance: Risk assessment tools can aid the general dental practitioner and the patient to develop a suitable caries prevention programme for that individual and reduce the need for future operative intervention.

  16. Comparative assessment of predictions in ungauged basins – Part 1: Runoff-hydrograph studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Parajka

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this assessment is to compare studies predicting runoff hydrographs in ungauged catchments. The aim is to learn from the differences and similarities between catchments in different locations, and to interpret the differences in performance in terms of the underlying climate and landscape controls. The assessment is performed at two levels. The Level 1 assessment is a meta-analysis of 34 studies reported in the literature involving 3874 catchments. The Level 2 assessment consists of a more focused and detailed analysis of individual basins from selected studies from Level 1 in terms of how the leave-one-out cross-validation performance depends on climate and catchment characteristics as well as on the chosen regionalisation method. The results indicate that runoff-hydrograph predictions in ungauged catchments tend to be more accurate in humid than in arid catchments and more accurate in large than in small catchments. The dependence of performance on elevation differs by regions and depends on how aridity varies with elevation and air temperature. The effect of the parameter regionalisation method on model performance differs between studies. However, there is a tendency towards a somewhat lower performance of regressions than other methods in those studies that apply different methods in the same region. In humid catchments spatial proximity and similarity methods perform best while in arid catchments similarity and parameter regression methods perform slightly better. For studies with a large number of catchments (dense stream gauge network there is a tendency for spatial proximity and geostatistics to perform better than regression or regionalisation based on simple averaging of model parameters from gauged catchments. There was no clear relationship between predictive performance and the number of regionalised model parameters. The implications of the findings are discussed in the context of model building.

  17. Comparative assessment of predictions in ungauged basins – Part 1: Runoff hydrograph studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sivapalan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this assessment is to compare studies predicting runoff hydrographs in ungauged catchments. The aim is to learn from the differences and similarities between catchments in different locations, and to interpret the differences in performance in terms of the underlying climate and landscape controls. The assessment is performed at two levels. The Level 1 assessment is a meta-analysis of 34 studies reported in the literature involving 3874 catchments. The Level 2 assessment consists of a more focused and detailed analysis of individual basins from selected studies from Level 1 in terms of how the leave-one-out cross-validation performance depends on climate and catchment characteristics as well as on the chosen regionalisation method. The results indicate that runoff hydrograph predictions in ungauged catchments tend to be more accurate in humid than in arid catchments and more accurate in large than in small catchments. The dependence of performance on elevation differs by regions and depends on how aridity varies with elevation and air temperature. The effect of parameter regionalisation method on model performance differs between studies. However, there is a tendency towards a somewhat lower performance of regressions than other methods in those studies that apply different methods in the same region. In humid catchments spatial proximity and similarity methods perform best while in arid catchments similarity and parameter regression methods perform slightly better. For studies with a large number of catchments (dense stream gauge network there is a tendency for spatial proximity and geostatistics to perform better than regression or regionalisation based on simple averaging of model parameters from gauged catchments. There was no clear relationship between predictive performance and the number of regionalised model parameters. The implications of the findings are discussed in the context of model building.

  18. Haloacetic acids in the aquatic environment. Part II: ecological risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Mark L.; Solomon, Keith R

    2004-08-01

    Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are environmental contaminants found in aquatic ecosystems throughout the world as a result of both anthropogenic and natural production. The ecological risk posed by these compounds to organisms in freshwater environments, with a specific focus on aquatic macrophytes, was characterized. The plants evaluated were Lemna gibba, Myriophyllum spicatum and M. sibiricum and the HAAs screened were monochloroacetic acid (MCA), dichloroacetic acid (DCA), trichloroacetic acid (TCA), trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and chlorodifluoroacetic acid (CDFA). Laboratory toxicity data formed the basis of the risk assessment, but field studies were also utilized. The estimated risk was calculated using hazard quotients (HQ), as well as effect measure distributions (EMD) in a modified probabilistic ecological risk assessment. EMDs were used to estimate HAA thresholds of toxicity for use in HQ assessments. This threshold was found to be a more sensitive measure of low toxicity than the no observed effect concentrations (NOEC) or the effective concentration (EC{sub 10}). Using both deterministic and probabilistic methods, it was found that HAAs do not pose a significant risk to freshwater macrophytes at current environmental concentrations in Canada, Europe or Africa for both single compound and mixture exposures. Still, HAAs are generally found as mixtures and their potential interactions are not fully understood, rendering this phase of the assessment uncertain and justifying further effects characterization. TCA in some environments poses a slight risk to phytoplankton and future concentrations of TFA and CDFA are likely to increase due to their recalcitrant nature, warranting continued environmental surveillance of HAAs. - Current environmental concentrations of haloacetic acids do not pose a risk to aquatic macrophytes, but could impact plankton.

  19. A quantitative assessment of safety culture as part of the national programme on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper seeks to give practical value to the concept of Safety Culture, proposing a method that may be used to judge the effectiveness of Safety Culture in all phases of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. The paper describes the quantification of the Safety Culture assessment on statistical basis. The safety culture assessment is based on the IAEA ASCOT (Assessment of Safety Culture in Organizing Team) Guidelines. This Procedural Guide, used as an instrumental tool in addition to 'ASCOT Guidelines', could improve the ASCOT reviews and permit to give more accurate and objective conclusions at the end of these reviews. It would also reveal areas needing improvements, giving an overall rating of the Safety Culture level, which could be compared with a new result after implementing some corrective measures. This method could be applied in all phases of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (mining, fuel fabrication, spent fuel storage, conditioning of spent fuel, final disposal of spent fuel, heavy water production, transport, etc.) and should be an all embracing characteristics which, when prevailing in a satisfactory measure, would eliminate accidents and reduce incidents to insignificant levels. Included as an Annex to the National Program on Nuclear Energy, the proposed method could contribute to the improvement of Safety Culture in all phases of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and at all levels. (author)

  20. Development of remote sensing technology in New Zealand, part 1. Mapping land use and environmental studies in New Zealand, part 2. Indigenous forest assessment, part 3. Seismotectonic, structural, volcanologic and geomorphic study of New Zealand, part 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probine, M. C.; Suggate, R. P.; Stirling, I. F.; Mcgreevy, M. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. As part of the tape reformatting process, a simple coded picture output program was developed. This represents Pixel's radiance level by one of a 47 character set on a nonoverprinting line printer. It not only has aided in locating areas for the reformatting process, but has also formed the foundation for a supervised clustering package. This in turn has led to a simplistic but effective thematic mapping package.

  1. Post-war Kosovo: Part 2. Assessment of emergency medicine leadership development strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliades, M J; Lis, J; Barbosa, J; VanRooyen, M J

    2001-01-01

    Since the return of the refugee population to Kosovo, attempts at development of an emergency medical system in Kosovo have met with varied success, and have been hampered by unforeseen barriers. These barriers have been exacerbated by the lack of detailed health system assessments. A multimodal approach of data collection and analysis was used to identify potential barriers, and determine the appropriate level of intervention for emergency medicine (EM) development in Kosovo. The four step, multi-modal, data collection tool utilized: 1) demographic and health systems data; 2) focus group discussions with health-care workers; 3) individual interviews with key individuals in EM development; and 4) Q-Analysis of the attitudes and opinions of EM leaders. Results indicated that Emergency Medicine in Kosovo is under-developed. This method of combined quantitative and qualitative analysis identified a number of developmental needs in the Kosovar health system. There has been little formal training, the EMS system lacks organization, equipment, and a reliable communication system, and centralized emergency centers, other than the center at Prishtina Hospital, are inadequate. Group discussions and interviews support the desire by Kosovar health-care workers to establish EM, and highlight a number of concerns. A Q-methodology analysis of the attitudes of potential leaders in the field, supported these concerns and identified two attitudinal groups with deeper insights into their opinions on the development of such a system. This study suggests that a multi-modal assessment of health systems can provide important information about the need for emergency health system improvements in Kosovo. This methodology may serve as a model for future, system-wide assessments in post-conflict health system reconstruction. PMID:12090209

  2. Potential radionuclide emissions from stacks on the Hanford site, Part 1: Dose assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, W.E.; Barnett, J.M. [Westinghouse Hanford Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    On February 3, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10. The Compliance Order requires RL to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site to determine which are subject to continuous emission monitoring requirements in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, and to continuously monitor radionuclide emissions in accordance with requirements in 40 CFR 61.93. The Information Request required RL to provide a written Compliance Plan to meet the requirements of the Compliance Order. A Compliance Plan was submitted to EPA, Region 10, on April 30, 1993. The Compliance Plan specified that a dose assessment would be performed for 84 Westinghouse Hanford Company stacks registered with the Washington State Department of Health on the Hanford Site. Stacks that have the potential emissions to cause an effective dose equivalent to a maximum exposed individual greater than 0.1 mrem/y must be monitored continuously for radionuclide emissions. Five methods were approved by EPA, Region 10 for performing the assessments: Release Fractions from Appendix D of 40 CFR 61, Back Calculations Using A HEPA Filtration Factor, Nondestructive Assay of HEPA Filters, A Spill Release Fraction, and Upstream of HEPA Filter Air Concentrations. The first two methods were extremely conservative for estimating releases. The third method, which used a state-of-the-art portable gamma spectrometer, yielded surprising results from the distribution of radionuclides on the HEPA filters. All five methods are described. Assessments using a HEPA Filtration Factor for back calculations identified 32 stacks that would have emissions that would cause an EDE to the MEI greater than 0.1 mrem y{sup {minus}1}. The number was reduced to 15 stacks when the other methods were applied. The paper discusses reasons for the overestimates.

  3. ASSESSMENT OF ISSUES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR SUSTAINABLE SOCIAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN ALBANIAN PART OF PRESPA PARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doriana Grazhdani

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The Albanian part of Prespa Lakes Basin includes part of Macro Prespa and Micro Prespa Lakes, and the surrounding forested mountainous slopes, covering a total area of 27750 ha. Despite the contribution of a range of services to human wellbeing, these ecosystems are facing numerous challenges, stemming for the existing practices in many areas that directly or indirectly affect the lakes. An important dilemma encountered in the present situation is the need to sustain growth while preventing damage to environment through the degradation of natural resource. Current resource management practices including water and land-use planning, agriculture, forestry, fisheries and tourism are failing to maintain and restore the health of ecosystems within the Albanian Prespa Lakes area. This paper is focused on issues and opportunities arising from linkages between social economic development and environment. First a summary information on trends and constrains of social economic indicators are provided. Then, associations of environmental issues with social economic activities are analyzed using SWOT analysis method. Finally, some remedies and possible ways for sustainable development are presented in the present paper.

  4. Plants and parts of plants used in food supplements: an approach to their safety assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunella Carratù

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Italy most herbal products are sold as food supplements and are subject only to food law. A list of about 1200 plants authorised for use in food supplements has been compiled by the Italian ministry of Health. In order to review and possibly improve the ministry's list an ad hoc working group of Istituto Superiore di Sanità was requested to provide a technical and scientific opinion on plant safety. The listed plants were evaluated on the basis of their use in food, therapeutic activity, human toxicity and in no-alimentary fields. Toxicity was also assessed and plant limitations to use in food supplements were defined.

  5. Model assessment of protective barriers: Part 3. Status of FY 1990 work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayer, M.J.; Rockhold, M.L.; Holford, D.J.

    1992-02-01

    Radioactive waste exists at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site in a variety of locations, including subsurface grout and tank farms, solid waste burial grounds, and contaminated soil sites. Some of these waste sites may need to be isolated from percolating water to minimize the potential for transport of the waste to the ground water, which eventually discharges to the Columbia River. Multilayer protective barriers have been proposed as a means of limiting the flow of water through the waste sites (DOE 1987). A multiyear research program [managed jointly by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Westinghouse Hanford Company for the DOE] is aimed at assessing the performance of these barriers. One aspect of this program involves the use of computer models to predict barrier performance. Three modeling studies have already been conducted and a test plan was produced. The simulation work reported here was conducted by PNL and extends the previous modeling work. The purpose of this report are to understand phenomena that have been observed in the field and to provide information that can be used to improve hydrologic modeling of the protective barrier. An improved modeling capability results in better estimates of barrier performance. Better estimates can be used to improve the design of barriers and the assessment of their long-term performance.

  6. Bibliographical database of radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment: Part 1, through June 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straume, T.; Ricker, Y.; Thut, M.

    1988-08-29

    This database was constructed to support research in radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment. Relevant publications were identified through detailed searches of national and international electronic databases and through our personal knowledge of the subject. Publications were numbered and key worded, and referenced in an electronic data-retrieval system that permits quick access through computerized searches on publication number, authors, key words, title, year, and journal name. Photocopies of all publications contained in the database are maintained in a file that is numerically arranged by citation number. This report of the database is provided as a useful reference and overview. It should be emphasized that the database will grow as new citations are added to it. With that in mind, we arranged this report in order of ascending citation number so that follow-up reports will simply extend this document. The database cite 1212 publications. Publications are from 119 different scientific journals, 27 of these journals are cited at least 5 times. It also contains reference to 42 books and published symposia, and 129 reports. Information relevant to radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment is widely distributed among the scientific literature, although a few journals clearly dominate. The four journals publishing the largest number of relevant papers are Health Physics, Mutation Research, Radiation Research, and International Journal of Radiation Biology. Publications in Health Physics make up almost 10% of the current database.

  7. Accounting for ecosystem services in life cycle assessment, Part I: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Singh, Shweta; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2010-04-01

    If life cycle oriented methods are to encourage sustainable development, they must account for the role of ecosystem goods and services, since these form the basis of planetary activities and human well-being. This article reviews methods that are relevant to accounting for the role of nature and that could be integrated into life cycle oriented approaches. These include methods developed by ecologists for quantifying ecosystem services, by ecological economists for monetary valuation, and life cycle methods such as conventional life cycle assessment, thermodynamic methods for resource accounting such as exergy and emergy analysis, variations of the ecological footprint approach, and human appropriation of net primary productivity. Each approach has its strengths: economic methods are able to quantify the value of cultural services; LCA considers emissions and assesses their impact; emergy accounts for supporting services in terms of cumulative exergy; and ecological footprint is intuitively appealing and considers biocapacity. However, no method is able to consider all the ecosystem services, often due to the desire to aggregate all resources in terms of a single unit. This review shows that comprehensive accounting for ecosystem services in LCA requires greater integration among existing methods, hierarchical schemes for interpreting results via multiple levels of aggregation, and greater understanding of the role of ecosystems in supporting human activities. These present many research opportunities that must be addressed to meet the challenges of sustainability. PMID:20178382

  8. Optimization of municipal solid waste leaching test procedure: assessment of the part of hydrosoluble organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, A; Feuillade-Cathalifaud, G; Pallier, V; Mansour, A A

    2011-02-28

    Despite national recycling campaigns, the amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) to be treated remains very important in France with almost 39% of the waste produced going to landfills. Therefore with the increasing concern over sustainable development and energy valorization, it seems essential to optimize current treatment methods and develop new preparation techniques of the waste. Nevertheless an important first step to take into account is to evaluate the waste using a different method than biogas production. In this perspective, the leaching test (LT) could be used as a tool to evaluate the ability of a waste to mobilize organic and mineral compounds. This research aims at optimizing a leaching test protocol mainly adapted to organic waste in order to be used on MSW to assess the fractions of both fast and slow mobilized organic matter. Several leaching tests have thus been implemented, optimized and compared in terms of accessible organic matter in the waste. Results have shown that the test conditions have a great influence on the mobilization of pollutants. The duration of the test affects mainly the quantity and quality of organic molecules extracted. The renewal of the eluent does not properly simulate the conditions of a landfill. The results would be used to assess the performance and the efficiency of new ways of waste pretreatment. PMID:21156339

  9. Bibliographical database of radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment: Part 1, through June 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This database was constructed to support research in radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment. Relevant publications were identified through detailed searches of national and international electronic databases and through our personal knowledge of the subject. Publications were numbered and key worded, and referenced in an electronic data-retrieval system that permits quick access through computerized searches on publication number, authors, key words, title, year, and journal name. Photocopies of all publications contained in the database are maintained in a file that is numerically arranged by citation number. This report of the database is provided as a useful reference and overview. It should be emphasized that the database will grow as new citations are added to it. With that in mind, we arranged this report in order of ascending citation number so that follow-up reports will simply extend this document. The database cite 1212 publications. Publications are from 119 different scientific journals, 27 of these journals are cited at least 5 times. It also contains reference to 42 books and published symposia, and 129 reports. Information relevant to radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment is widely distributed among the scientific literature, although a few journals clearly dominate. The four journals publishing the largest number of relevant papers are Health Physics, Mutation Research, Radiation Research, and International Journal of Radiation Biology. Publications in Health Physics make up almost 10% of the current database

  10. Drifting buoy and other data as part of the Outer Continental Drifting buoy and other data as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 04 June 1976 to 01 October 1976 (NODC Accession 7700020)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Drifting buoy and other data was collected by the University of Washington (UW) as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP)....

  11. Epistemic uncertainties and natural hazard risk assessment - Part 1: A review of the issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beven, K. J.; Aspinall, W. P.; Bates, P. D.; Borgomeo, E.; Goda, K.; Hall, J. W.; Page, T.; Phillips, J. C.; Rougier, J. T.; Simpson, M.; Stephenson, D. B.; Smith, P. J.; Wagener, T.; Watson, M.

    2015-12-01

    Uncertainties in natural hazard risk assessment are generally dominated by the sources arising from lack of knowledge or understanding of the processes involved. There is a lack of knowledge about frequencies, process representations, parameters, present and future boundary conditions, consequences and impacts, and the meaning of observations in evaluating simulation models. These are the epistemic uncertainties that can be difficult to constrain, especially in terms of event or scenario probabilities, even as elicited probabilities rationalized on the basis of expert judgements. This paper reviews the issues raised by trying to quantify the effects of epistemic uncertainties. Such scientific uncertainties might have significant influence on decisions that are made for risk management, so it is important to communicate the meaning of an uncertainty estimate and to provide an audit trail of the assumptions on which it is based. Some suggestions for good practice in doing so are made.

  12. Epistemic uncertainties and natural hazard risk assessmentPart 1: A review of the issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Beven

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainties in natural hazard risk assessment are generally dominated by the sources arising from lack of knowledge or understanding of the processes involved. There is a lack of knowledge about frequencies, process representations, parameters, present and future boundary conditions, consequences and impacts, and the meaning of observations in evaluating simulation models. These are the epistemic uncertainties that can be difficult to constrain, especially in terms of event or scenario probabilities, even as elicited probabilities rationalized on the basis of expert judgements. This paper reviews the issues raised by trying to quantify the effects of epistemic uncertainties. Such scientific uncertainties might have significant influence on decisions that are made for risk management, so it is important to communicate the meaning of an uncertainty estimate and to provide an audit trail of the assumptions on which it is based. Some suggestions for good practice in doing so are made.

  13. Oral diagnosis and treatment planning: part 2. Dental caries and assessment of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, K; Smales, R

    2012-07-27

    Dental caries or tooth decay may be defined as a dynamic process causing progressive destruction of hard tooth substance (enamel, dentine and cementum) involving demineralisation of the inorganic portion of the tooth, and dissolution of the organic portion. The onset and progression of carious lesions involves multiple host, micro-organism and substrate factors interacting in a continuous flux. The diagnosis of initial lesions remains a challenge for practitioners and, despite numerous studies, the assessment of future caries risk is still based largely on a patient's past caries experience. If caries is allowed to progress then pulpitis will occur, which may result in subsequent pulpal necrosis and lead to a local periapical and perhaps a systemic infection.

  14. Seismic performance assessment based on damage of structures, Part 1: Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lađinović Đorđe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents methodology for safety assessment and design of earthquake resistant structures based on application of damage spectra. The damage spectrum can be used for seismic evaluation of vulnerability of structures with given properties and can provide information of damage potential of the recorded ground motions. Damage spectrum represents a variation of a damage index versus structural period for a single-degree-of-freedom system subjected to an earthquake ground motion. The improved damage index, based on plastic deformation and hysteretic energy dissipation, is applied. It depends on maximal plastic deformation, ductility capacity and function including cumulative damage effects. This function, besides the parameter including influence of deterioration, depends on the history of cyclic deformations and on both cyclic and accumulative ductility.

  15. A National Study Assessing the Teaching and Learning of Introductory Astronomy; Part I: The Effect of Interactive Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Alexander; Prather, E. E.; Brissenden, G.; Schlingman, W. M.; CATS

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of a national study on the teaching and learning of astronomy taught in general education, non-science major, introductory astronomy courses (Astro 101). Nearly 4000 students enrolled in 69 sections of Astro 101 taught at 30 institutions around the United States completed (pre- and post-instruction) the Light and Spectroscopy Concept Inventory (LSCI) from Fall 2006 to Fall 2007. The classes varied in size from very small (Naffected student learning, we developed and administered an Interactivity Assessment Instrument (IAI). This short survey, completed by instructors, allowed us to estimate the fraction of total classroom time that was dedicated to the use of interactive learning strategies. Pre-instruction LSCI scores were clustered around 25% (24±2%), independent of class size and institution type; however, the normalized gains for these classes varied from about (-)0.07-0.50. These two results suggest that the differences in gain were due to instruction in the classroom, not the size of class or type of institution. Interactivity Assessment Scores (IAS's) ranged from 0%-50%, showing that our IAI was able to distinguish between classes with higher and lower levels of interactive instruction. A comparison of class-averaged gain score to IAS showed that higher interactivity classes (IAS > 25%) were the only instructional environments capable of reaching the highest gains ( > 0.30). However, the range of gains seen for the higher interactivity classes was quite wide, suggesting that the use of interactive learning strategies is not sufficient by itself to achieve high student gains. We acknowledge the NSF for funding under Award No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program.

  16. Assessment of mental health in adults of the northern part of the city of Kosovska Mitrovica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirković Momčilo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Mental health disorders lead to disorder of effective functioning of people and deterioration of quality of life. Early detection of individuals at risk of mental health disorders is extremely important from the aspect of mental health disorders prevention. The aim of the research was to determine the frequency of mental health problems among adult residents of northern Kosovska Mitrovica and to examine the association between frequency of mental health problems and socio-demographic and other characteristics of the population obtained by the questionnaire. Methods. The cross-sectional study on the representative sample of adult residents of northern Kosovska Mitrovica was performed in October 2009. To obtain information about the characteristics of mental health the Goldberg’s General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28 was used. For performing survey at site the method of rapid epidemiological assessment was chosen. Statistical analysis included the methods of descriptive statistics, multivariate regression analysis and calculation of the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of internal consistency of the questionnaire. Results. Mental health problems (total score were present in almost half of the respondents (49.2%. Psychosomatic problems were present in more than half of the respondents (55.4%, while anxiety and insomnia were present in almost half of the respondents (49.2%. Social dysfunction had more than three fifths of the respondents (63.1% and depression more than a quarter of the respondents (28.5%. More positive responses in the questionnaire were statistically significantly associated with older age, poor financial situation, abuse and assessing of the current political-security situation as high risk. The value of Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.705. Conclusions. Almost half of the respondents (49.2% of North Kosovska Mitrovica had mental health problems. Mental health problems were associated with older age, poor

  17. Topics in Finance Part III--Leverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Judy

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates operating and financial leverage from the perspective of the financial manager, accenting the relationships to stockholder wealth maximization (SWM), risk and return, and potential agency problems. It also covers some of the pertinent literature related specifically to the implications of operating and financial risk and…

  18. Essential Oils, Part III: Chemical Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Anton C; Schmidt, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Data on the chemistry of essential oils which have caused contact allergy are provided. The largest group of chemicals found in essential oils consists of terpenes. The number of identified components usually ranges from 100 to 250, but in some oils (lavender, geranium, rosemary) 450 to 500 chemicals have been found. Many chemicals are present in a large number of oils, up to 98% for β-caryophyllene and 97% for limonene. Chemicals that are important constituents of >20 oils are limonene, linalool, and α-pinene. In many essential oils, there are 2 to 5 components which together constitute over 50% to 60% of the oil. In some oils, however, there is one dominant ingredient, making up more than 50% of the oil, including (E)-anethole in aniseed and star anise oil, carvone in spearmint oil, 1,8-cineole (eucalyptol) in Eucalyptus globulus oil, and (E)-cinnamaldehyde in cassia oil. The most important chemicals in 93 individual oils are specified. PMID:27427817

  19. KURDISH READERS. PART III, KURDISH SHORT STORIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABDULLA, JAMAL JALAL; MCCARUS, ERNEST N.

    THE SIX STORIES IN THIS COLLECTION ARE WRITTEN IN THE KURDISH DIALECT OF SULAIMANIA, THE LANGUAGE OF OFFICIAL PUBLICATIONS AND TEXTBOOKS IN IRAQI KURDISTAN. THE VARIOUS THEMES INCLUDED ARE REPRESENTATIVE OF KURDISH CULTURE AND TRADITION. EACH SELECTION (WRITTEN IN KURDISH SCRIPT) IS FOLLOWED BY VOCABULARY AND EXPLANATORY NOTES IN ORDER OF…

  20. Neuroscience in Nazi Europe Part III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeidman, Lawrence A; Kondziella, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    in their various countries, then discuss in depth seven exemplary neuroscientist Holocaust victims; including Germans Ludwig Pick, Arthur Simons, and Raphael Weichbrodt, Austrians Alexander Spitzer and Viktor Frankl, and Poles Lucja Frey and Wladyslaw Sterling. by recognizing and remembering these victims...

  1. Part III: Total Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    OLIVIER Jos; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet

    2014-01-01

    CO2 emissions from fuel combustion represent the majority of anthropogenic GHG emissions. However, comprehensive analysis of emission trends considers other sources of CO2 as well as other gases, knowing that data on gases and sources other than CO2 from fuel combustion are much more uncertain. Country- specific estimates of CO2 from biomass burning and F-gas emissions are particularly difficult to ascertain. To complement work regarding the emissions of CO2 from fuel combustion, the IEA elec...

  2. PBL On Line: A proposal for the organization, part-time monitoring and assessment of PBL group activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enric Marti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the organisation of PBL (Project Based Learning for a subject included in the IT engineering degree course. It is the result of 10 years of experience of the implantation and continuous improvement of the PBL class structure. The latest innovations include the experience of part-time monitoring with PBL groups using the OpenMeetings tool in Moodle 2.0, the adoption of activities that improve learning and interdependence such as the jigsaw classroom, the clear definition of deliverables that students should present along the semester and the assessment criteria, both on groups and individuals. As a result of this experience, we present PBL student enrolment indexes, student assessment surveys and lecturers’ opinions. We conclude with some topics for discussion about the PBL methodology.

  3. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products, Part 3: LED Environmental Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuenge, Jason R.; Hollomon, Brad; Dillon, Heather E.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.

    2013-03-01

    This report covers the third part of a larger U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project to assess the life-cycle environmental and resource impacts in the manufacturing, transport, use, and disposal of light-emitting diode (LED) lighting products in relation to incumbent lighting technologies. All three reports are available on the DOE website (www.ssl.energy.gov/tech_reports.html). • Part 1: Review of the Life-Cycle Energy Consumption of Incandescent, Compact Fluorescent and LED Lamps; • Part 2: LED Manufacturing and Performance; • Part 3: LED Environmental Testing. Parts 1 and 2 were published in February and June 2012, respectively. The Part 1 report included a summary of the life-cycle assessment (LCA) process and methodology, provided a literature review of more than 25 existing LCA studies of various lamp types, and performed a meta-analysis comparing LED lamps with incandescent and compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs). Drawing from the Part 1 findings, Part 2 performed a more detailed assessment of the LED manufacturing process and used these findings to provide a comparative LCA taking into consideration a wider range of environmental impacts. Both reports concluded that the life-cycle environmental impact of a given lamp is dominated by the energy used during lamp operation—the upstream generation of electricity drives the total environmental footprint of the product. However, a more detailed understanding of end-of-life disposal considerations for LED products has become increasingly important as their installation base has grown. The Part 3 study (reported herein) was undertaken to augment the LCA findings with chemical analysis of a variety of LED, CFL, and incandescent lamps using standard testing procedures. A total of 22 samples, representing 11 different models, were tested to determine whether any of 17 elements were present at levels exceeding California or Federal regulatory thresholds for hazardous waste. Key findings include: • The selected

  4. Forest fire risk assessment in parts of Northeast India using geospatial tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kanchan Puri; G. Areendran; Krishna Raj; Sraboni Mazumdar; P.K. Joshi

    2011-01-01

    Forest fire is a major cause of changes in forest structure and function.Among various floristic regions,the northeast region of India suffers maximum from the fires due to age-old practice of shifting cultivation and spread of fires from jhum fields.For proper mitigation and management,an early warning of forest fires through risk modeling is required.The study results demonstrate the potential use of remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) in identifying forest fire prone areas in Manipur,southeastern part of Northeast India.Land use land cover (LULC),vegetation type,Digital elevation model (DEM),slope,aspect and proximity to roads and settlements,factors that influence the behavior of fire,were used to model the forest fire risk zones.Each class of the layers was given weight according to their fire inducing capability and their sensitivity to fire.Weighted sum modeling and ISODATA clustering was used to classify the fire zones.To validate the results,Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR),the historical fire hotspots data was used to check the occurrence points and modeled forest fire locations.The forest risk zone map has 55-63% of agreement with ATSR datsset.

  5. Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers, part 2: nEUROPt protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabnitz, Heidrun; Jelzow, Alexander; Mazurenka, Mikhail; Steinkellner, Oliver; Macdonald, Rainer; Milej, Daniel; Żołek, Norbert; Kacprzak, Michal; Sawosz, Piotr; Maniewski, Roman; Liebert, Adam; Magazov, Salavat; Hebden, Jeremy; Martelli, Fabrizio; Di Ninni, Paola; Zaccanti, Giovanni; Torricelli, Alessandro; Contini, Davide; Re, Rebecca; Zucchelli, Lucia; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Pifferi, Antonio

    2014-08-01

    The nEUROPt protocol is one of two new protocols developed within the European project nEUROPt to characterize the performances of time-domain systems for optical imaging of the brain. It was applied in joint measurement campaigns to compare the various instruments and to assess the impact of technical improvements. This protocol addresses the characteristic of optical brain imaging to detect, localize, and quantify absorption changes in the brain. It was implemented with two types of inhomogeneous liquid phantoms based on Intralipid and India ink with well-defined optical properties. First, small black inclusions were used to mimic localized changes of the absorption coefficient. The position of the inclusions was varied in depth and lateral direction to investigate contrast and spatial resolution. Second, two-layered liquid phantoms with variable absorption coefficients were employed to study the quantification of layer-wide changes and, in particular, to determine depth selectivity, i.e., the ratio of sensitivities for deep and superficial absorption changes. We introduce the tests of the nEUROPt protocol and present examples of results obtained with different instruments and methods of data analysis. This protocol could be a useful step toward performance tests for future standards in diffuse optical imaging. PMID:25121480

  6. Finding evidences on oncohematological patients (3rd part: nutrition assessment, nauseas and vomiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Lorenzo García

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It would be advisable to change cares based in tradition for evidence-based ones. So diffusion of investigation result should be the first step to get this change. Frequently oncologic patients suffer from nauseas and vomiting due to chemotherapy. These symptoms are frequently underestimated by health professionals. Another significant problem is under nourishment, because the relationship between that and worse prognosis is well known. Consequently, our objective has been: to find and summarize the evidences about nauseas and vomiting and the nutrition assessment. Method: Databases as CINAHL, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Pascal Biomed, LILACS, CUIDEN, CUIDEN qualitative y CUIDATGE were revised in Spanish, French and English. No time restrictions were applied.Results: The main findings and recommendations were synthesised on a poster, next to suggestions for practical changes to implement, evidence levels used, and the clinic problem significance. The suggested changes arose from nursing staff based on evidences found that includes behaviours and attitudes changes, which should facilitate more rapid innovations diffusion.

  7. Assessing and helping challenging students: Part One, Why do some students have difficulty learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricson, William D; Kleffner, John H

    2002-01-01

    When students struggle with routine assignments and fall behind classmates, a busy teacher may pigeonhole them as slow, give up on them, or become frustrated from failed efforts to bring them up to speed. Well-intentioned efforts to help struggling students by providing repetitions of the same experiences may fail because the specific cause of the sub-par performance was not identified. Six potential causes of inadequate student performance can serve as a diagnostic framework to help teachers pinpoint why a student is struggling academically: 1) cognitive factors, including poorly integrated, compartmentalized information, poor metacognition that hinders the student's ability to monitor and self-correct performance, bona fide learning disabilities that require professional assessment and treatment, and sensory-perceptual difficulties that may hinder performance in certain health care disciplines; 2) ineffective study habits, which are more common among professional students than faculty realize; 3) an inadequate educational experience (unclear objectives, poorly organized instruction, absence of coaching and timely feedback) or a punitive environment in which students avoid approaching instructors for assistance; 4) distraction due to nonacademic issues such as social relationships, health of a spouse, or employment; 5) dysfunctional levels of defensiveness that hinder student-teacher communication; and 6) underlying medical conditions that may affect student attentiveness, motivation, energy, and emotional balance. The objective of this article is to help faculty recognize potential underlying causes of a student's learning problems. Strategies for helping the academically struggling student are also introduced for several of these etiologies. PMID:12358100

  8. Risk assessment of desertification using GIS in parts of Mond Basin, Southern Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper attempts to evolve a new model by considering various indicators of different types of land degradation desertification, namely water erosion, soil salinity, vegetation degradation, and lowering of ground water table. the Mond river basin, located centrally to this zone, has been selected as a test area to assess the risk and kind of desertification. For this purpose two sub basins of the Payab and Quareh Aghaj have been chosen for detailed study. The thresholds for the severity classes of indicators have been established and then the hazards map for each indicator of types of desertification has been prepared in a GIS. The risk maps of water erosion, soil salinization, lowering of water table, vegetation degradation have been produced for each of the two sub basins. It was possible to distinguish the areas under actual risk from areas under potential risk of desertification types. Also areas under potential risk are classified to subclasses with different probability level to show a statistical picture of risk in future. (Author) 3 refs.

  9. Toxicological assessment of kretek cigarettes Part 5: mechanistic investigations, inhalation toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, E; Dempsey, R; Van Overveld, F J; Berges, A; Pype, J; Weiler, H; Vanscheeuwijck, P; Schorp, M K

    2014-12-01

    The biological effects of mainstream smoke (MS) from Indonesian-blended cigarettes with and without added cloves, cloves extracted with hot ethanol, and extracted cloves replenished with eugenol or clove oil were assessed in a 90-day inhalation study in rats. A separate 35-day inhalation study in rats was performed with MS from American-blended cigarettes with 0%, 2.5%, 5% or 10% added eugenol. Effects commonly seen in inhalation studies with MS were observed. These included histopathological changes indicative of irritation in the entire respiratory tract and inflammatory responses in the lung. Adding cloves to American- or Indonesian-blended cigarettes reduced the inflammatory response in the lung but with no difference between the two blend types. When the clove oil was extracted (∼ 75% reduction of eugenol achieved) from cloves, the inflammatory response in the lung was still reduced similarly to whole cloves but the severity of histopathological changes in the upper respiratory tract was less reduced. Add back of clove oil or pure eugenol reduced this response to a level similar to what was seen with whole cloves. When eugenol was added to American-blended cigarettes, similar findings of reduced lung inflammation and severity of histopathological changes in respiratory the tract was confirmed. These studies demonstrate a clear effect of cloves, and in particular eugenol, in explaining these findings.

  10. Assessment of Nano Cellulose from Peach Palm Residue as Potential Food Additive: Part II: Preliminary Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Dayanne Regina Mendes; Mendonça, Márcia Helena; Helm, Cristiane Vieira; Magalhães, Washington L E; de Muniz, Graciela Ines Bonzon; Kestur, Satyanarayana G

    2015-09-01

    High consumption of dietary fibers in the diet is related to the reduction of the risk of non-transmitting of chronic diseases, prevention of the constipation etc. Rich diets in dietary fibers promote beneficial effects for the metabolism. Considering the above and recognizing the multifaceted advantages of nano materials, there have been many attempts in recent times to use the nano materials in the food sector including as food additive. However, whenever new product for human and animal consumption is developed, it has to be tested for their effectiveness regarding improvement in the health of consumers, safety aspects and side effects. However, before it is tried with human beings, normally such materials would be assessed through biological tests on a living organism to understand its effect on health condition of the consumer. Accordingly, based on the authors' finding reported in a previous paper, this paper presents body weight, biochemical (glucose, cholesterol and lipid profile in blood, analysis of feces) and histological tests carried out with biomass based cellulose nano fibrils prepared by the authors for its possible use as food additive. Preliminary results of the study with mice have clearly brought out potential of these fibers for the said purpose. PMID:26344977

  11. Toxicological assessment of kretek cigarettes Part 4: mechanistic investigations, smoke chemistry and in vitro toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, E; Dempsey, R; Lawless-Pyne, J; Lukman, S; Evans, A Deger; Trelles-Sticken, E; Wittke, S; Schorp, M K

    2014-12-01

    The smoke chemistry and in vitro toxicity of mainstream smoke (MS) was investigated in American-blended cigarettes with or without the addition of 2.5%, 5% or 10% eugenol to the tobacco and in Indonesian-blended cigarettes with and without the addition of cloves, cloves extracted with hot ethanol, and extracted cloves replenished with eugenol or clove oil. The addition of eugenol reduced the concentration of nearly all toxicants measured in MS as well as the in vitro cytotoxicity of the gas/vapor phase. Reductions were also seen in bacterial mutagenicity of the total particulate matter (TPM) assessed by the Ames Assay. The addition of extracted cloves led to increases and decreases of toxicant concentrations in MS. Replenishment with eugenol or clove oil decreased the toxicant concentrations; with most smoke constituent concentrations reduced below the concentration found in tobacco-only cigarettes. Cytotoxicity of the TPM was not affected by the clove preparations. However, GVP cytotoxicity was reduced (untreated cloves showing the highest reductions). Mutagenicity of TPM was decreased by the clove preparations. Mechanisms for the reductions, (up to 40%), are most likely due to dilution effects by eugenol, changed burning characteristics of the tobacco, and free radical scavenging by eugenol. PMID:25455230

  12. Toxicological assessment of kretek cigarettes Part 5: mechanistic investigations, inhalation toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, E; Dempsey, R; Van Overveld, F J; Berges, A; Pype, J; Weiler, H; Vanscheeuwijck, P; Schorp, M K

    2014-12-01

    The biological effects of mainstream smoke (MS) from Indonesian-blended cigarettes with and without added cloves, cloves extracted with hot ethanol, and extracted cloves replenished with eugenol or clove oil were assessed in a 90-day inhalation study in rats. A separate 35-day inhalation study in rats was performed with MS from American-blended cigarettes with 0%, 2.5%, 5% or 10% added eugenol. Effects commonly seen in inhalation studies with MS were observed. These included histopathological changes indicative of irritation in the entire respiratory tract and inflammatory responses in the lung. Adding cloves to American- or Indonesian-blended cigarettes reduced the inflammatory response in the lung but with no difference between the two blend types. When the clove oil was extracted (∼ 75% reduction of eugenol achieved) from cloves, the inflammatory response in the lung was still reduced similarly to whole cloves but the severity of histopathological changes in the upper respiratory tract was less reduced. Add back of clove oil or pure eugenol reduced this response to a level similar to what was seen with whole cloves. When eugenol was added to American-blended cigarettes, similar findings of reduced lung inflammation and severity of histopathological changes in respiratory the tract was confirmed. These studies demonstrate a clear effect of cloves, and in particular eugenol, in explaining these findings. PMID:25455231

  13. Assessing Climate Information Use in Agribusiness. Part I: Actual and Potential Use and Impediments to Usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changnon, Stanley A.; Sonka, Steven T.; Hofing, Steven

    1988-08-01

    A project for the development of methodology to enable agribusiness decision makers to utilize more effectively climate information involved investigation of three agribusiness firms, as well as measurement of their actual and potential use. The firms investigated included a food processing firm, a seed corn producing company, and an agri-chemical producing firm. Climate information is currently being used to some extent by each firm. This information, generally historical in nature, is often collected by the firms. Corporate officials make many decisions using data on conditions influenced by past climatic events, e.g., averages of past yields, but the role of climate information is not explicitly identified. The decision makers interviewed expressed considerable interest in making fuller use of this information. However, they considered climate predictions and year-to-date assessments of conditions as having potentially greater. value than historical data, although these two desired data type currently were not being used to any great extent. Lack of procedures to integrate climate information within the decision processes of these large, complex firms was a major impediment to greater utilization of climate information. A scarcity of information about climate data was another major impediment.

  14. Ambient Air Quality Assessment With Particular Reference to Particulates in Western Part of Jharia Coalfield, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurdeep Singh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available India is in the list of fastest growing countries of the world. India's energy needs are also increasing due to population and industrial growth for improving quality of living style. In India, coal is major input infrastructure industries for example Power plants, Steel plants and Cement industries. India’s 52% of primary energy is coal dependent1. 66% of India's power generation depends upon coal production1. Jharia Coalfield (JCF is falling in the Lower Gondwana Coalfields of India. The area of the JCF is about 450 km2. It is important for the major supply of precious coking coal required for steel plants in India. It is located in Dhanbad district of Jharkhand state of India, The latitude is 23° 39' to 23° 48' N and longitude is 86° 11' to 86° 27' E for the Jharia coalfield. Based on environmental parameters, all the 103 mines of BCCL have been grouped under 17 Clusters. A cluster consists of a group of mines with mine lease boundary lying in close vicinity and includes-Operating mines, Abandoned/ closed mines and proposed projects.The focused study area is in the western part of the Jharia coalfield is named as Cluster XV group of mines of BCCL consists of four mines, Kharkharee Colliery (UG, Dharmaband Colliery (UG, Madhuband Colliery (UG and Phularitand Colliery (UG .The present study was carried out with the objective to measure the ambient air quality of the study area with reference to particulate matter (SPM, PM10 & PM2.5. Ambient air monitoring results have shown that the observe air quality were found within the limit prescribed by MoEF / CPCB. It may due to Underground mines as there are pollution causing lesser activities involved in the UG mining process compared to opencast mining. Implementation of Master plan for Jharia coalfields for environmental management has also improve the air quality in the area10,11.

  15. Assessment of surface and groundwater quality for use in aquaculture in parts of northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Arabi,

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, fish farming (aquaculture has become a major source of income and a substitute for beef in many homes all over Nigeria because a kilogram of fish is cheaper especially the so call ice-fish compare to same kilogram of beef. As a result, many people have embraced fish farming and while some aquaculturist have recorded loss, only few got it right especially at the initial stage of the fish farming business. Some fish farm had average fish weighing a kilogram while others have average weighing less than half a kilogram due to many factors ranging from contamination of pond water from pile up of feeding stuff at bottom of the pond to the use of ground or surface water whose constituents or chemically controlled parameters have adverse effects on harvest in aquaculture. This study was carried out to ascertain the worth or not of surface and groundwater from parts of northern Nigeria for fish farming. Thirty seven surface and groundwater samples were collected during the peak of dry season and analyzed for physicochemical parameter, major and minor elements that can have adverse effects on fish farming using model V-2000 multi-analyte photometer, atomic absorption spectrophotometer, pH and conductivity meter. Some of the measurements were carried out in-situ, while others were carried out in the laboratory. Most of the samples (92% analyzed indicate that they can be used efficiently for aquaculture, only few were observed to have some adverse effects on the intended use and these include pH, salinity, sodium contents and residual sodium carbonate which are closely related to the pH of water samples analyzed. It can be summarized that the studied water samples are generally good for aquaculture.

  16. Portugal and United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 3. Reference reports, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-09-01

    Statistical data on energy production and consumption and supporting information were obtained from US Bureau of Mines records supplemented by additional data obtained in Portugal. Geologic descriptions and analysis of known areas and of areas having possible future potential have been prepared by the US Geological Survey. Portugal lacks sufficient indigenous supplies of organic fuels to meet its energy demands, and so must import large quantities of petroleum and coal. Approximately 80% of Portugal's electric energy is produced by hydroelectric stations; thermal stations produce the other 20%. Portugal has produced no crude oil, natural gas, or condensate; no resources or reserves in these categories are listed for Portugal in the 1976 World Energy Conference report. Until the last year or so (1980), no significant onshore petroleum exploration had been done in Portugal since 1963. Production of coal in Portugal has declined steadily to the present annual yield of about 200,000 metric tons. On the basis of estimates in only three coal fields, resources of coal of all ranks in Portugal total at least 76 million (10/sup 6/) metric tons. Uranium is mined near Viseu and Guarda in the northern part of Portugal; the Nisa mine in east-central Portugal will begin producing uranium ore in 1985 after installation of a processing plant. Portugal produced 95 metric tons of uranium oxide (U/sub 3/O/sub 8/) from ore stocks in each year from 1972 through 1974; production is assumed to have continued at the same rate since then. Geothermal energy has not been developed in mainland Portugal; however, hot springs that may have geothermal energy potential are known in the Minho district in the northwest. Geothermal energy resources exist in the Azores and a program of evaluation and exploration with technical assistance from the USGS is presently in progress there.

  17. High temperature abatement of acid gases from waste incineration. Part II: Comparative life cycle assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biganzoli, Laura; Racanella, Gaia; Marras, Roberto; Rigamonti, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The performances of a new dolomitic sorbent, named Depurcal®MG, to be directly injected at high temperature in the combustion chamber of Waste-To-Energy (WTE) plants as a preliminary stage of deacidification, were experimentally tested during full-scale commercial operation. Results of the experimentations were promising, and have been extensively described in Biganzoli et al. (2014). This paper reports the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study performed to compare the traditional operation of the plants, based on the sole sodium bicarbonate feeding at low temperature, with the new one, where the dolomitic sorbent is injected at high temperature. In the latter the sodium bicarbonate is still used, but at lower rate because of the decreased load of acid gases entering the flue gas treatment line. The major goal of the LCA was to make sure that a burden shifting was not taking place somewhere in the life cycle stages, as it might be the case when a new material is used in substitution of another one. According to the comparative approach, only the processes which differ between the two operational modes were included in the system boundaries. They are the production of the two reactants and the treatment of the corresponding solid residues arising from the neutralisation of acid gases. The additional CO2 emission at the stack of the WTE plant due to the activation of the sodium bicarbonate was also included in the calculation. Data used in the modelling of the foreground system are primary, derived from the experimental tests described in Biganzoli et al. (2014) and from the dolomitic sorbent production plant. The results of the LCA show minor changes in the potential impacts between the two operational modes of the plants. These differences are for 8 impact categories in favour of the new operational mode based on the addition of the dolomitic sorbent, and for 7 impact categories in favour of the traditional operation. A final evaluation was conducted on the potential

  18. Cetuximab in combination with irinotecan/5-fluorouracil/folinic acid (FOLFIRI in the initial treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer: a multicentre two-part phase I/II study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cals Laurent

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was designed to investigate the efficacy and safety of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR inhibitor cetuximab combined with irinotecan, folinic acid (FA and two different doses of infusional 5-fluorouracil (5-FU in the first-line treatment of EGFR-detectable metastatic colorectal cancer. Methods The 5-FU dose was selected on the basis of dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs during part I of the study. Patients received cetuximab (400 mg/m2 initial dose and 250 mg/m2/week thereafter and every 2 weeks irinotecan (180 mg/m2, FA (400 mg/m2 and 5-FU (either low dose [LD], 300 mg/m2 bolus plus 2,000 mg/m2 46-hour infusion, n = 7; or, high-dose [HD], 400 mg/m2 bolus plus 2,400 mg/m2; n = 45. Results Only two DLTs occurred in the HD group, and HD 5-FU was selected for use in part II. Apart from rash, commonly observed grade 3/4 adverse events such as leucopenia, diarrhoea, vomiting and asthenia occurred within the expected range for FOLFIRI. Among 52 patients, the overall response rate was 48%. Median progression-free survival (PFS was 8.6 months (counting all reported progressions and the median overall survival was 22.4 months. Treatment facilitated the resection of initially unresectable metastases in fourteen patients (27%: of these, 10 patients (71% had no residual tumour after surgery, and these resections hindered the estimation of PFS. Conclusion The combination of cetuximab and FOLFIRI was active and well tolerated in this setting. Initially unresectable metastases became resectable in one-quarter of patients, with a high number of complete resections, and these promising results formed the basis for the investigation of FOLFIRI with and without cetuximab in the phase III CRYSTAL trial.

  19. High temperature abatement of acid gases from waste incineration. Part II: Comparative life cycle assessment study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biganzoli, Laura, E-mail: laura.biganzoli@mail.polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Racanella, Gaia [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Marras, Roberto [Unicalce S.p.A., R and D Department, Via Tonio da Belledo 30, 23900 Lecco (Italy); Rigamonti, Lucia [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Two scenarios of acid gases removal in WTE plants were compared in an LCA study. • A detailed inventory based on primary data has been reported for the production of the new dolomitic sorbent. • Results show that the comparison between the two scenarios does not show systematic differences. • The potential impacts are reduced only if there is an increase in the energy efficiency of the WTE plant. - Abstract: The performances of a new dolomitic sorbent, named Depurcal®MG, to be directly injected at high temperature in the combustion chamber of Waste-To-Energy (WTE) plants as a preliminary stage of deacidification, were experimentally tested during full-scale commercial operation. Results of the experimentations were promising, and have been extensively described in Biganzoli et al. (2014). This paper reports the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study performed to compare the traditional operation of the plants, based on the sole sodium bicarbonate feeding at low temperature, with the new one, where the dolomitic sorbent is injected at high temperature. In the latter the sodium bicarbonate is still used, but at lower rate because of the decreased load of acid gases entering the flue gas treatment line. The major goal of the LCA was to make sure that a burden shifting was not taking place somewhere in the life cycle stages, as it might be the case when a new material is used in substitution of another one. According to the comparative approach, only the processes which differ between the two operational modes were included in the system boundaries. They are the production of the two reactants and the treatment of the corresponding solid residues arising from the neutralisation of acid gases. The additional CO{sub 2} emission at the stack of the WTE plant due to the activation of the sodium bicarbonate was also included in the calculation. Data used in the modelling of the foreground system are primary, derived from the experimental tests described in

  20. High temperature abatement of acid gases from waste incineration. Part II: Comparative life cycle assessment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Two scenarios of acid gases removal in WTE plants were compared in an LCA study. • A detailed inventory based on primary data has been reported for the production of the new dolomitic sorbent. • Results show that the comparison between the two scenarios does not show systematic differences. • The potential impacts are reduced only if there is an increase in the energy efficiency of the WTE plant. - Abstract: The performances of a new dolomitic sorbent, named Depurcal®MG, to be directly injected at high temperature in the combustion chamber of Waste-To-Energy (WTE) plants as a preliminary stage of deacidification, were experimentally tested during full-scale commercial operation. Results of the experimentations were promising, and have been extensively described in Biganzoli et al. (2014). This paper reports the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study performed to compare the traditional operation of the plants, based on the sole sodium bicarbonate feeding at low temperature, with the new one, where the dolomitic sorbent is injected at high temperature. In the latter the sodium bicarbonate is still used, but at lower rate because of the decreased load of acid gases entering the flue gas treatment line. The major goal of the LCA was to make sure that a burden shifting was not taking place somewhere in the life cycle stages, as it might be the case when a new material is used in substitution of another one. According to the comparative approach, only the processes which differ between the two operational modes were included in the system boundaries. They are the production of the two reactants and the treatment of the corresponding solid residues arising from the neutralisation of acid gases. The additional CO2 emission at the stack of the WTE plant due to the activation of the sodium bicarbonate was also included in the calculation. Data used in the modelling of the foreground system are primary, derived from the experimental tests described in

  1. Assessment of radiation risk as a part of ecological risk in the Republic of Belarus after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    -effect' can be used for correction of chemical substance limitations in the environment in case of increased radioactive background. It is first shown that mono-factor risk assessment can be used, when negative environmental factors act on the human body at a one time, only. The results (in its part dedicated to radioactive risks) were recommended by the IAEA courses committee (Course Code C7-RER9062-017 'Regional Post Graduate Training Course on Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources') as an introduction course for IAEA program participants, preliminary to their field experience in the Gomel region. Theoretical and experimental foundation for the necessity of integral ecological risk assessment is suggested. (author)

  2. Drifting buoy and other data as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 17 May 1976 to 23 December 1976 (NODC Accession 7800105)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Drifting buoy data was collected by the Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment...

  3. A Hybrid Multi-Criteria Decision Model for Technological Innovation Capability Assessment: Research on Thai Automotive Parts Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumrit Detcharat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficient appraisal of technological innovation capabilities (TICs of enterprises is an important factor to enhance competitiveness. This study aims to evaluate and rank TICs evaluation criteria in order to provide a practical insight of systematic analysis by gathering the qualified experts’ opinions combined with three methods of multi-criteria decision making approach. Firstly, Fuzzy Delphi method is used to screen TICs evaluation criteria from the recent published researches. Secondly, the Analytic Hierarchy Process is utilized to compute the relative important weights. Lastly, the VIKOR method is used to rank the enterprises based on TICs evaluation criteria. An empirical study is applied for Thai automotive parts firms to illustrate the proposed methods. This study found that the interaction between criteria is essential and influences TICs; furthermore, this ranking development of TICs assessment is also one of key management tools to simply facilitate and offer a new mindset for managements of other related industries.

  4. Integrated laboratory coagulation tests in hypercoagulation diagnosis and thrombosis risk assessment. Part I. The pathophysiology of thrombosis and hypercoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Lipets

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thrombosis is a fatal hemostatic disorders occurring in various conditions ranging from pregnancy and surgery to cancer, sepsis and heart attack. Despite the availability of different anticoagulants and accumulated clinical experience, proving their effectiveness, thrombosis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality. This is largely due to the fact that conventional laboratory coagulation tests are not sufficiently sensitive to the hypercoagulable state, and they are difficult to use for assessing the risk of thrombosis. Specific molecular markers (D-dimers, fibrinopeptide, thrombin-antithrombin complex are more effective, but also have a large number of disadvantages. A possible solution is the use of integrated test, which simulate in vitro the majority of the physiological coagulation processes. In the first part of this paper the biochemical processes that cause the risk of thrombosis were discussed.

  5. Aspectos da Reologia e da Estabilidade de Suspensões Cerâmicas. Parte III: Mecanismo de Estabilização Eletroestérica de Suspensões com Alumina Aspects of Rheology and Stability of Ceramic Suspensions. Part III: Electrosteric Stabilization Mechanism of Alumina Suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Ortega

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Esta terceira e última parte da revisão sobre os aspectos reológicos e de estabilização de suspensões com pós cerâmicos vem reunir a aplicação dos conhecimentos adquiridos nas primeiras duas partes publicadas anteriormente. Aqui, os fenômenos eletrostático devido à dupla camada elétrica, e estérico, relacionado à adsorção de moléculas poliméricas, são combinados para explicar o mecanismo eletroestérico de estabilização de suspensões cerâmicas. Os defloculantes que atuam através desse mecanismo abrangem uma classe específica de polímero denominada polieletrólitos, a qual é constituída por macromoléculas ionizáveis quando em solução. O estudo da forma com que os polieletrólitos atuam justifica-se devido à larga utilização desta classe de polímeros na indústria cerâmica. Os ácidos poliacrílico (PAA e polimetacrílico (PMAA são exemplos de polieletrólitos amplamente utilizados no processo de materiais à base de alumina. Dá-se destaque à influência do pH do meio e da presença de íons, sendo novamente aqui importante o conceito de força iônica da suspensão. Como aplicação prática, apresenta-se a estabilidade do sistema alumina-PMAA, reportando-se sobre o comportamento da viscosidade e da efetiva defloculação da suspensão. Este estudo é concluído apresentando resultados do efeito do peso molecular sobre a viscosidade, chamando atenção para o fato de que não basta definir apenas a classe de polímero a ser usada, sendo também fundamental especificar o peso molecular médio do polímero selecionado.The third and last part of this review about stabilization and rheological aspects of ceramic suspension gathers the knowledge in the two parts previously published. Here, the electrostatic and steric phenomena, related to the electrical double layer and polymeric molecules adsorption, respectively, are combined to explain the electrosteric stabilization mechanism of ceramic suspensions. The

  6. Viability testing of material derived from Mycobacterium tuberculosis prior to removal from a Containment Level-III Laboratory as part of a Laboratory Risk Assessment Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabani Amin M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the field of clinical mycobacteriology, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB can be a difficult organism to manipulate due to the restrictive environment of a containment level 3 (CL3 laboratory. Tests for rapid diagnostic work involving smears and molecular methods do not require CL3 practices after the organism has been rendered non-viable. While it has been assumed that after organism deactivation these techniques can be performed outside of a CL3, no conclusive study has consistently confirmed that the organisms are noninfectious after the theoretical 'deactivation' steps. Previous studies have shown that initial steps (such as heating /chemical fixation may not consistently kill MTB organisms. Methods An inclusive viability study (n = 226 was undertaken to determine at which point handling of culture extraction materials does not necessitate a CL3 environment. Four different laboratory protocols tested for viability included: standard DNA extractions for IS6110 fingerprinting, crude DNA preparations for PCR by boiling and mechanical lysis, protein extractions, and smear preparations. For each protocol, laboratory staff planted a proportion of the resulting material to Bactec 12B medium that was observed for growth for 8 weeks. Results Of the 208 isolates initially tested, 21 samples grew within the 8-week period. Sixteen (7.7% of these yielded positive results for MTB that included samples of: deactivated culture resuspensions exposed to 80°C for 20 minutes, smear preparations and protein extractions. Test procedures were consequently modified and tested again (n = 18, resulting in 0% viability. Conclusions This study demonstrates that it cannot be assumed that conventional practices (i.e. smear preparation or extraction techniques render the organism non-viable. All methodologies, new and existing, should be examined by individual laboratories to validate the safe removal of material derived from MTB to the outside of a CL3 laboratory. This process is vital to establish in house biosafety-validated practices with the aim of protecting laboratory workers conducting these procedures.

  7. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products Part 2: LED Manufacturing and Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholand, Michael; Dillon, Heather E.

    2012-05-01

    Part 2 of the project (this report) uses the conclusions from Part 1 as a point of departure to focus on two objectives: producing a more detailed and conservative assessment of the manufacturing process and providing a comparative LCA with other lighting products based on the improved manufacturing analysis and taking into consideration a wider range of environmental impacts. In this study, we first analyzed the manufacturing process for a white-light LED (based on a sapphire-substrate, blue-light, gallium-nitride LED pumping a yellow phosphor), to understand the impacts of the manufacturing process. We then conducted a comparative LCA, looking at the impacts associated with the Philips Master LEDbulb and comparing those to a CFL and an incandescent lamp. The comparison took into account the Philips Master LEDbulb as it is now in 2012 and then projected forward what it might be in 2017, accounting for some of the anticipated improvements in LED manufacturing, performance and driver electronics.

  8. Integrated assessment modeling of atmospheric pollutants in the Southern Appalachian Mountains. Part I: hourly and seasonal ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, James W; Odman, Mehmet T; Wilkinson, James G; Russell, Armistead G; Doty, Kevin G; Norris, William B; McNider, Richard T

    2005-07-01

    Recently, a comprehensive air quality modeling system was developed as part of the Southern Appalachians Mountains Initiative (SAMI) with the ability to simulate meteorology, emissions, ozone, size- and composition-resolved particulate matter, and pollutant deposition fluxes. As part of SAMI, the RAMS/EMS-95/URM-1ATM modeling system was used to evaluate potential emission control strategies to reduce atmospheric pollutant levels at Class I areas located in the Southern Appalachians Mountains. This article discusses the details of the ozone model performance and the methodology that was used to scale discrete episodic pollutant levels to seasonal and annual averages. The daily mean normalized bias and error for 1-hr and 8-hr ozone were within U.S. Environment Protection Agency guidance criteria for urban-scale modeling. The model typically showed a systematic overestimation for low ozone levels and an underestimation for high levels. Because SAMI was primarily interested in simulating the growing season ozone levels in Class I areas, daily and seasonal cumulative ozone exposure, as characterized by the W126 index, were also evaluated. The daily ozone W126 performance was not as good as the hourly ozone performance; however, the seasonal ozone W126 scaled up from daily values was within 17% of the observations at two typical Class I areas of the SAMI region. The overall ozone performance of the model was deemed acceptable for the purposes of SAMI's assessment. PMID:16111143

  9. A criterion for assessing homogeneity distribution in hyperspectral images. Part 1: homogeneity index bases and blending processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Juan G; Blanco, Marcelo

    2012-11-01

    The Process Analytical Technologies (PAT) initiative of the US Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) has established a framework for the development of imaging techniques to determine the real-time distribution of mixture components during the production of solid dosage forms. This study, which is the first in a series of two parts, uses existing mixing indices and a new criterion called the "percentage of homogeneity" (H%) to assess image homogeneity. Image analysis techniques use feature extraction procedures to extract information from images subjected to treatments including colour segmentation and binarization. The surface distribution of components was determined by macropixel analysis, which splits an image into non-overlapping blocks of a preset size and calculates several statistical parameters for the resulting divisional structure. Such parameters were used to compute mixing indices. In this work, we explored the potential of image processing in combination with mixing indices and H% for assessing blending end-point and component distribution on images. As a simplified test, an arrangement of binary and ternary systems of coloured particles was mixed collecting at-line multispectral (MSI) and non-invasive RGB pictures at preset intervals.

  10. A criterion for assessing homogeneity distribution in hyperspectral images. Part 1: homogeneity index bases and blending processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Juan G; Blanco, Marcelo

    2012-11-01

    The Process Analytical Technologies (PAT) initiative of the US Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) has established a framework for the development of imaging techniques to determine the real-time distribution of mixture components during the production of solid dosage forms. This study, which is the first in a series of two parts, uses existing mixing indices and a new criterion called the "percentage of homogeneity" (H%) to assess image homogeneity. Image analysis techniques use feature extraction procedures to extract information from images subjected to treatments including colour segmentation and binarization. The surface distribution of components was determined by macropixel analysis, which splits an image into non-overlapping blocks of a preset size and calculates several statistical parameters for the resulting divisional structure. Such parameters were used to compute mixing indices. In this work, we explored the potential of image processing in combination with mixing indices and H% for assessing blending end-point and component distribution on images. As a simplified test, an arrangement of binary and ternary systems of coloured particles was mixed collecting at-line multispectral (MSI) and non-invasive RGB pictures at preset intervals. PMID:22818029

  11. Detection of radioactive particles offshore by γ-ray spectrometry Part II: Monte Carlo assessment of acquisition times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper represents a supplementary study to Part I: Monte Carlo assessment of detection depth limits, aimed at estimating the acquisition times, required to detect radioactive particles offshore by towed γ-ray spectrometry. Using Monte Carlo simulations, sets of measuring conditions were covered, addressing different types and sizes of scintillation detectors as well as variations in source strength, source-detector geometry and intensity of the natural gamma background. The performance of a large-volume BGO detector (12.7 cm diameter, 15 cm length) was assessed, to further enhance the sensitivity of simulated towed measurements. The simulations indicate that this detector represent a major step forward in detecting the radioactive particles offshore by gamma-ray spectrometry, particularly in a variable naturally radioactive background. With this detector, particles with an activity as low as 105 Bq should be detectable, at a towing speed of 2 knots (1 m/s), with an acquisition time of 2 s. However, detection of such particles is limited to relatively shallow burial depths (∼10 cm) and small detector-particle distances (6 Bq source and 80 cm for 108 Bq at the same burial depth

  12. Input parameters for the statistical seismic hazard assessment in central part of Romania territory using crustal earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seismic hazard assessment in dense-populated geographical regions and subsequently the design of the strategic objectives (dams, nuclear power plants, etc.) are based on the knowledge of the seismicity parameters of the seismic sources which can generate ground motion amplitudes above the minimum level considered risky at the specific site and the way the seismic waves propagate between the focus and the site. The purpose of this paper is to provide a set of information required for a probabilistic assessment of the seismic hazard in the central Romanian territory relative to the following seismic sources: Fagaras zone (FC), Campulung zone (CP), and Transilvania zone (TD) all of them in the crust domain. Extremely vulnerable objectives are present in the central part of Romania, including cities of Pitesti and Sibiu and the 'Vidraru' dam. The analysis that we propose implies: (1) geometrical definition of the seismic sources, (2) estimation of the maximum possible magnitude, (3) estimation of the frequency - magnitude relationship and (4) estimation of the attenuation laws. As an example, the obtained input parameters are used to evaluate the seismic hazard distribution due to the crustal earthquakes applying the McGuire's procedure (1976). These preliminary results are in good agreement with the previous research based on deterministic approach (Radulian et al., 2000). (authors)

  13. Common Occupational Disability Tests and Case Law References: An Ontario MVA perspective on interpretation and best practice methodology supporting a holistic model, Part I of III (Pre-104 IRB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, J Douglas; Gouws, Jacques J; Bachmann, Corina Anghel

    2016-05-01

    This three-part paper presents practical holistic models of determining impairment and occupational disability with respect to common "own occupation" and "any occupation" definitions. The models consider physical, emotional and cognitive impairments in unison, and draw upon case law support for empirically based functional assessment of secondary cognitive symptoms arising from psychological conditions, including chronic pain disorders. Case law is presented, primarily in the context of Ontario motor vehicle accident legislation, to demonstrate how triers of fact have addressed occupational disability in the context of chronic pain; and interpreted the "own occupation" and "any occupation" definitions. In interpreting the definitions of "own occupation" and "any occupation", courts have considered various concepts, such as: work as an integrated whole, competitive productivity, demonstrated job performance vs. employment, work adaptation relative to impairment stability, suitable work, retraining considerations, self-employment, and remuneration/socio-economic status. The first segment of the paper reviews the above concepts largely in the context of pre-104 Income Replacement Benefit (IRB) entitlement, while the second segment focuses on post-104 IRB entitlement. In the final segment, the paper presents a critical evaluation of computerized transferable skills analysis (TSAs) in the occupational disability context. By contrast, support is offered for the notion that (neuro) psychovocational assessments and situational work assessments should play a key role in "own occupation" disability determination, even where specific vocational rehabilitation/retraining recommendations are not requested by the referral source (e.g., insurer disability examination). PMID:27476246

  14. Common Occupational Disability Tests and Case Law References: An Ontario MVA perspective on interpretation and best practice methodology supporting a holistic model, Part I of III (Pre-104 IRB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, J Douglas; Gouws, Jacques J; Bachmann, Corina Anghel

    2016-05-01

    This three-part paper presents practical holistic models of determining impairment and occupational disability with respect to common "own occupation" and "any occupation" definitions. The models consider physical, emotional and cognitive impairments in unison, and draw upon case law support for empirically based functional assessment of secondary cognitive symptoms arising from psychological conditions, including chronic pain disorders. Case law is presented, primarily in the context of Ontario motor vehicle accident legislation, to demonstrate how triers of fact have addressed occupational disability in the context of chronic pain; and interpreted the "own occupation" and "any occupation" definitions. In interpreting the definitions of "own occupation" and "any occupation", courts have considered various concepts, such as: work as an integrated whole, competitive productivity, demonstrated job performance vs. employment, work adaptation relative to impairment stability, suitable work, retraining considerations, self-employment, and remuneration/socio-economic status. The first segment of the paper reviews the above concepts largely in the context of pre-104 Income Replacement Benefit (IRB) entitlement, while the second segment focuses on post-104 IRB entitlement. In the final segment, the paper presents a critical evaluation of computerized transferable skills analysis (TSAs) in the occupational disability context. By contrast, support is offered for the notion that (neuro) psychovocational assessments and situational work assessments should play a key role in "own occupation" disability determination, even where specific vocational rehabilitation/retraining recommendations are not requested by the referral source (e.g., insurer disability examination).

  15. Using magnetic levitation for non-destructive quality control of plastic parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennek, Jonathan W; Nemiroski, Alex; Subramaniam, Anand Bala; Bwambok, David K; Yang, Dian; Harburg, Daniel V; Tricard, Simon; Ellerbee, Audrey K; Whitesides, George M

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic levitation (MagLev) enables rapid and non-destructive quality control of plastic parts. The feasibility of MagLev as a method to: i) rapidly assess injection-molded plastic parts for defects during process optimization, ii) monitor the degradation of plastics after exposure to harsh environmental conditions, and iii) detect counterfeit polymers by density is demonstrated. PMID:25589230

  16. Plutonium working group report on environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities associated with the department's plutonium storage. Volume II, part 4: Savannah River Site working group assessment team report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of a plutonium ES ampersand H vulnerability assessment at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The assessment at SRS is part of a broader plutonium ES ampersand H vulnerability assessment being made by the DOE, encompassing all DOE sites with plutonium holdings. Vulnerabilities across all the sites will be identified and prioritized as a basis for determining the necessity and schedule for taking corrective action

  17. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume III. Resources and fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume III explores resources and fuel cycle facilities. Chapters are devoted to: estimates of US uranium resources and supply; comparison of US uranium demands with US production capability forecasts; estimates of foreign uranium resources and supply; comparison of foreign uranium demands with foreign production capability forecasts; and world supply and demand for other resources and fuel cycle services. An appendix gives uranium, fissile material, and separative work requirements for selected reactors and fuel cycles

  18. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume III. Resources and fuel cycle facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    Volume III explores resources and fuel cycle facilities. Chapters are devoted to: estimates of US uranium resources and supply; comparison of US uranium demands with US production capability forecasts; estimates of foreign uranium resources and supply; comparison of foreign uranium demands with foreign production capability forecasts; and world supply and demand for other resources and fuel cycle services. An appendix gives uranium, fissile material, and separative work requirements for selected reactors and fuel cycles.

  19. A prática clínica baseada em evidências: parte III - avaliação crítica das informações de pesquisas clínicas Evidence based clinical practice: part III - critical appraisal of clinical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacyr Roberto Cuce Nobre

    2004-12-01

    consistente quanto à adequação do desenho de estudo e ao controle dos vícios. Concluímos que se deve oferecer atualização metodológica aos profissionais interessados, e colocar a informação já avaliada à disposição de todos, elaborando e divulgando diretrizes baseadas em evidências.Evidence based health care begins with a clinical question and the search on data bases to retrieve the relevant information, that was the issue of two preceding articles of this series. At present it will be discussed how to critically appraise the medical literature using the clinical epidemiological methodology. Clinical research aims to develop diagnostic and therapeutic procedures measuring association and causality between the exposure and outcome. In this case the exposures are signs, symptoms, laboratorial or image exam, and therapy intervention. It is a mistake to take surrogate end-points instead of clinical outcomes. The main types of clinical study design are diagnostic, prognostic, therapeutic and harm/etiology. Experimental, physiologic and animal studies are useful for the medical undergraduate education, but do not contribute with clinical decisions. The study designs are classified according with the presence of a control group, patient's follow-up, and therapy interventions. The evidence hierarchy was done by the previous characteristics and the presence of systematic bias. Systematic reviews are stronger than the primary observational studies and are on the top when they revised randomized clinical trial. Since 1998 the proportion of evidence based practice guidelines was increasing compared with systematic reviews or other types of practice guidelines, although the former still are in a few numbers. The article critical appraisal must answer the clinical question, and need to have consistent study design and bias under control. In conclusion we ought to offer methodological actualization to interested physicians and put the information already critically assessed

  20. A prática clínica baseada em evidências: Parte III Avaliação crítica das informações de pesquisas clínicas Evidence based clinical practice: Part III - Critical appraisal of clinical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacyr Roberto Cuce Nobre

    2004-04-01

    consistente quanto à adequação do desenho de estudo e ao controle dos vícios. Concluímos que se deve oferecer atualização metodológica aos profissionais interessados, e colocar a informação já avaliada à disposição de todos, elaborando e divulgando diretrizes baseadas em evidências.Evidence based health care begins with a clinical question and the search on data bases to retrieve the relevant information, that was the issue of two preceding articles of this series. At present it will be discussed how to critically appraise the medical literature using the clinical epidemiological methodology. Clinical research aims to develop diagnostic and therapeutic procedures measuring association and causality between the exposure and outcome. In this case the exposures are signs, symptoms, laboratorial or image exam, and therapy intervention. It is a mistake to take surrogate end-points instead of clinical outcomes. The main types of clinical study design are diagnostic, prognostic, therapeutic and harm/etiology. Experimental, physiologic and animal studies are useful for the medical undergraduate education, but do not contribute with clinical decisions. The study designs are classified according with the presence of a control group, patient's follow-up, and therapy interventions. The evidence hierarchy was done by the previous characteristics and the presence of systematic bias. Systematic reviews are stronger than the primary observational studies and are on the top when they revised randomized clinical trial. Since 1998 the proportion of evidence based practice guidelines was increasing compared with systematic reviews or other types of practice guidelines, although the former still are in a few numbers. The article critical appraisal must answer the clinical question, and need to have consistent study design and bias under control. In conclusion we ought to offer methodological actualization to interested physicians and put the information already critically assessed

  1. A global water scarcity assessment under shared socio-economic pathways – Part 2: Water availability and scarcity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Masui

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A global water scarcity assessment for the 21st century was conducted under the latest socio-economic scenario for global change studies, namely Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs. SSPs depict five global situations with substantially different socio-economic conditions. In the accompanying paper, a water use scenario compatible with the SSPs was developed. This scenario considers not only quantitative socio-economic factors such as population and electricity production but also qualitative ones such as the degree of technological change and overall environmental consciousness. In this paper, water availability and water scarcity were assessed using a global hydrological model called H08. H08 simulates both the natural water cycle and major human activities such as water withdrawal and reservoir operation. It simulates water availability and use at daily time intervals at a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5°. A series of global hydrological simulations were conducted under the SSPs, taking into account different climate policy options and the results of climate models. Water scarcity was assessed using an index termed the Cumulative Withdrawal to Demand ratio, which is expressed as the accumulation of daily water withdrawal from a river over the potential daily water consumption demand. This index can be used to express whether renewable water resources are available from rivers when required. The results suggested that by 2071–2100 the population living under severely water stressed conditions for SSP1-5 will reach 2588–2793 × 106 (39–42% of total population, 3966–4298 × 106 (46–50%, 5334–5643 × 106 (52–55%, 3427–3786 × 106 (40–45%, 3164–3379 × 106 (46–49%, respectively, if climate policies are not adopted. Even in SSP1 (the scenario with least change in water use and climate global water scarcity increases considerably, as compared to the present day. This is mainly due to the growth in population and economic

  2. Assessment of the English literacy level of patients in primary health care services in Tshwane, Gauteng province: Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd M. Maja

    2010-03-01

    ,naamlik die Learning Ability Battery (LAB en die aangepasde Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy, Revised(REALM-R te assesseer. Daar is voorts ook bepaal hoe die resultate van die aangepaste REALM-R met die LAB korreleer. Data is deur self-rapportering ingesamel, waar die deelnemers vrae uit die LAB-instrument moes beantwoord en spesifieke woorde vir die aangepaste REALM-R hardop te lees. Die data is ontleed deur gebruik te maak van beskrywende en inferensiële statistiek, met inbegrip van ’n chikwadraat-toets en Spearman se rho. Die resultate dui daarop dat die skoolgraad bereik en die leesgeletterdheid van die deelnemers in Suid-Afrika met vier grade verskil. Die korrelasie tussen die resultate van die LAB en die aangepaste REALM-R was r = 0.43 (p < 0.001.Na gelang van die afsnypunt wat vir die aangepaste REALM-R gebruik word, dui die resultate daarop dat 67% van die deelnemers lae geletterdheidsvlakke het. Die studie toon die belang van ’n geldige, vinnige instrument vir geletterdheidsifting. Die doeltreffende assessering van pasiënte se geletterdheidsvlakke kan geregistreerde verpleegkundiges help om gesondheidsonderrig op ’n toepaslike vlak aan te bied ten einde pasiënte se gesondheidsgeletterdheid te verbeter.

    How to cite this article: Wasserman,Z.,Wright,S.C.D. & Maja,T.M.,2010, ‘Assessment of the English literacy level of patients in primary health care services in Tshwane,Gauteng Province: Part 2’,Health SA Gesondheid 15(1,Art. #469, 6 pages. DOI:10.4102/hsag.v15i1.469

  3. Plutonium working group report on environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities associated with the Department's plutonium storage. Volume II, part 7: Mound working group assessment team report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the report of a visit to the Mound site by the Working Group Assessment Team (WGAT) to assess plutonium vulnerabilities. Purposes of the visit were: to review results of the site's self assessment of current practices for handling and storing plutonium; to conduct an independent assessment of these practices; to reconcile differences and assemble a final list of vulnerabilities; to calculate consequences and probability for each vulnerability; and to issue a report to the Working Group. This report, representing completion of the Mound visit, will be compiled along with those from all other sites with plutonium inventories as part of a final report to the Secretary of Energy

  4. Assessment of color quality and energy effciency : new insights for modern lighting. Part I : color quality in general lighting applications. Part II : mesopic photometry and street lighting

    OpenAIRE

    Quintero, Jesús M.

    2015-01-01

    Cotutela Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya i Institut de Recerca en Energia de Catalunya. La consulta íntegra de la tesi, inclosos els articles no comunicats públicament per drets d'autor, es pot realitzar, prèvia petició, a l'Arxiu de la UPC This dissertation is divided in two parts: The first one deal with two main characteristics of the light sources for general lighting: Color quality and luminous efficacy. The second one deals with technical aspects of the mesopic photometry appli...

  5. 17 CFR Table III to Subpart E of... - Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments III Table III to Subpart E of Part 201 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES..., Table III Table III to Subpart E of Part 201—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments U.S....

  6. Perfis cognitivos de crianças e adolescentes com dislexia na WISC-III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Cruz-Rodrigues

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive assessment in Development Dyslexia is of paramount important because it is a part of the diagnostic criteria and it can assist in the planning of effective interventions allowing to identify a profile of difficulties and facilities on the specific tasks. This aim of this study was to investigate the profile on the WISC-III. For such, 123 participants with developmental dyslexia were assessment. The age ranges from 8 to 14 years old, with 83 (67,5% boys and 40 (52,5% girls, belonging to private (52,8% and public (47,% schools. Clusters analysis showed 3 profiles according to WISC-III measures. ANOVA showed differences between all groups in the IQ measures and in majority of the subtests. No differences were found between groups in age and grade. Furthermore, there was a higher number of subjects in public schools in the group with lower performance in the WISC-III subtests.

  7. 40 CFR 300.220 - Related Title III issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PLAN Planning and Preparedness § 300.220 Related Title III issues. Other related Title III requirements are found in 40 CFR part 355. ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Related Title III issues....

  8. The KULTURisk Regional Risk Assessment methodology for water-related natural hazards - Part 2: Application to the Zurich case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, P.; Bullo, M.; Torresan, S.; Critto, A.; Olschewski, R.; Zappa, M.; Marcomini, A.

    2014-07-01

    The main objective of the paper is the application of the KULTURisk Regional Risk Assessment (KR-RRA) methodology, presented in the companion paper (Part 1, Ronco et al., 2014), to the Sihl River valley, in Switzerland. Through a tuning process of the methodology to the site-specific context and features, flood related risks have been assessed for different receptors lying on the Sihl River valley including the city of Zurich, which represents a typical case of river flooding in urban area. After characterizing the peculiarities of the specific case study, risk maps have been developed under a 300 years return period scenario (selected as baseline) for six identified relevant targets, exposed to flood risk in the Sihl valley, namely: people, economic activities (including buildings, infrastructures and agriculture), natural and semi-natural systems and cultural heritage. Finally, the total risk index map, which allows to identify and rank areas and hotspots at risk by means of Multi Criteria Decision Analysis tools, has been produced to visualize the spatial pattern of flood risk within the area of study. By means of a tailored participative approach, the total risk maps supplement the consideration of technical experts with the (essential) point of view of the relevant stakeholders for the appraisal of the specific scores and weights related to the receptor-relative risks. The total risk maps obtained for the Sihl River case study are associated with the lower classes of risk. In general, higher relative risks are concentrated in the deeply urbanized area within and around the Zurich city centre and areas that rely just behind to the Sihl River course. Here, forecasted injuries and potential fatalities are mainly due to high population density and high presence of old (vulnerable) people; inundated buildings are mainly classified as continuous and discontinuous urban fabric; flooded roads, pathways and railways, the majority of them referring to the Zurich main

  9. KULTURisk regional risk assessment methodology for water-related natural hazards - Part 2: Application to the Zurich case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, P.; Bullo, M.; Torresan, S.; Critto, A.; Olschewski, R.; Zappa, M.; Marcomini, A.

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this paper is the application of the KULTURisk regional risk assessment (KR-RRA) methodology, presented in the companion paper (Part 1, Ronco et al., 2014), to the Sihl River basin, in northern Switzerland. Flood-related risks have been assessed for different receptors lying on the Sihl River valley including Zurich, which represents a typical case of river flooding in an urban area, by calibrating the methodology to the site-specific context and features. Risk maps and statistics have been developed using a 300-year return period scenario for six relevant targets exposed to flood risk: people; economic activities: buildings, infrastructure and agriculture; natural and semi-natural systems; and cultural heritage. Finally, the total risk index map has been produced to visualize the spatial pattern of flood risk within the target area and, therefore, to identify and rank areas and hotspots at risk by means of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) tools. Through a tailored participatory approach, risk maps supplement the consideration of technical experts with the (essential) point of view of relevant stakeholders for the appraisal of the specific scores weighting for the different receptor-relative risks. The total risk maps obtained for the Sihl River case study are associated with the lower classes of risk. In general, higher (relative) risk scores are spatially concentrated in the deeply urbanized city centre and areas that lie just above to river course. Here, predicted injuries and potential fatalities are mainly due to high population density and to the presence of vulnerable people; flooded buildings are mainly classified as continuous and discontinuous urban fabric; flooded roads, pathways and railways, most of them in regards to the Zurich central station (Hauptbahnhof) are at high risk of inundation, causing severe indirect damage. Moreover, the risk pattern for agriculture, natural and semi-natural systems and cultural heritage is relatively

  10. An integrated model for the assessment of global water resources – Part 1: Model description and input meteorological forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hanasaki

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available To assess global water availability and use at a subannual timescale, an integrated global water resources model was developed consisting of six modules: land surface hydrology, river routing, crop growth, reservoir operation, environmental flow requirement estimation, and anthropogenic water withdrawal. The model simulates both natural and anthropogenic water flow globally (excluding Antarctica on a daily basis at a spatial resolution of 1°×1° (longitude and latitude. This first part of the two-feature report describes the six modules and the input meteorological forcing. The input meteorological forcing was provided by the second Global Soil Wetness Project (GSWP2, an international land surface modeling project. Several reported shortcomings of the forcing component were improved. The land surface hydrology module was developed based on a bucket type model that simulates energy and water balance on land surfaces. The crop growth module is a relatively simple model based on concepts of heat unit theory, potential biomass, and a harvest index. In the reservoir operation module, 452 major reservoirs with >1 km3 each of storage capacity store and release water according to their own rules of operation. Operating rules were determined for each reservoir by an algorithm that used currently available global data such as reservoir storage capacity, intended purposes, simulated inflow, and water demand in the lower reaches. The environmental flow requirement module was newly developed based on case studies from around the world. Simulated runoff was compared and validated with observation-based global runoff data sets and observed streamflow records at 32 major river gauging stations around the world. Mean annual runoff agreed well with earlier studies at global and continental scales, and in individual basins, the mean bias was less than ±20% in 14 of the 32 river basins and less than ±50% in 24 basins. The error in the peak was less

  11. Development of a guidance manual for the identification and assessment of interactions as part of Environmental Impact Assessment; Entwicklung einer Arbeitsanleitung zur Beruecksichtigung der Wechselwirkungen in der Umweltvertraeglichkeitspruefung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rassmus, J.; Bruening, H.; Kleinschmidt, V.; Reck, H.; Dierssen, K.; Bonk, A. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Oekologie-Zentrum

    2001-03-01

    The objective of the project was the development of a practice-oriented guidance manual for the identification and assessment of interactions as part of EIA. The guidance manual is to assist developers and their consultants in identifying the effects of a project on interactions and adequately describing them in the application dossier and to support the authorities in subsequent assessment. Based inter alia on a review of relevant literature and through the performance of workshops, relevant legal principles and scientific knowledge (notably current knowledge from ecosystem research), guidelines, procedural instructions and similar documents from Germany and elsewhere as well as the approaches applied in EIA practice were evaluated and further developed. On this basis, a definition of 'interactions' was in the project, which defines interactions within the meaning of the Eu's EIA Directive and Art. 2 of the German Environmental Impact Assessment Act as processes which occur in the environment. The analysis of effect chains and webs, as often carried out in EIA practice to date, already enables an extensive identification and characterisation of processes/interactions, since the elements of the chains and webs are interlinked by processes. Here, the guidance manual developed in the project goes one step farther in that it recommends a procedure for the systematic analysis of effect chains and webs, with defined interfaces for data delivery from one specialist to another which are situated at the points where these chains or webs meet. The effects of a project on interactions, as identified using the above procedure, are described in chapters specific to individual protected assets and subsequently evaluated using the conventional approach which involves the application of assessment standards (e.g., limit values laid down in the various specialised laws, precautionary guide and threshold values) according to current knowledge. As an additional module

  12. Reactor safety study. An assessment of accident risks in U. S. commercial nuclear power plants. Appendices III and IV. [PWR and BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-10-01

    The items listed below summarize the detail sections which follow: a listing of definitions and a discussion of the general treatment of data within the random variable approach as utilized by the study; a tabulation of the assessed data base containing failure classifications, final assessed ranges utilized in quantification and reference source values considered in determining the ranges; a discussion of nuclear power plant experience that was used to validate the data assessment by testing its applicability as well as to check on the adequacy of the model to incorporate typical real incidents; an expanded presentation of the data assessment giving information on applicability considerations; a discussion of test and maintenance data including comparisons of models with experience data; and special topics, including assessments required for the initiating event probabilities and human error data and modeling.

  13. Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR): Data manual. Part 2: Human error probability (HEP) data; Volume 5, Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reece, W.J.; Gilbert, B.G.; Richards, R.E. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1994-09-01

    This data manual contains a hard copy of the information in the Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR) Version 3.5 database, which is sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NUCLARR was designed as a tool for risk analysis. Many of the nuclear reactors in the US and several outside the US are represented in the NUCLARR database. NUCLARR includes both human error probability estimates for workers at the plants and hardware failure data for nuclear reactor equipment. Aggregations of these data yield valuable reliability estimates for probabilistic risk assessments and human reliability analyses. The data manual is organized to permit manual searches of the information if the computerized version is not available. Originally, the manual was published in three parts. In this revision the introductory material located in the original Part 1 has been incorporated into the text of Parts 2 and 3. The user can now find introductory material either in the original Part 1, or in Parts 2 and 3 as revised. Part 2 contains the human error probability data, and Part 3, the hardware component reliability data.

  14. Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR): Data manual, Part 2: Human Error Probability (HEP) Data. Volume 5, Revision 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This data manual contains a hard copy of the information in the Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR) Version 3.5 database, which is sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NUCLARR was designed as a tool for risk analysis. Many of the nuclear reactors in the US and several outside the US are represented in the NUCLARR database. NUCLARR includes both human error probability estimates for workers at the plants and hardware failure data for nuclear reactor equipment. Aggregations of these data yield valuable reliability estimates for probabilistic risk assessments and human reliability analyses. The data manual is organized to permit manual searches of the information if the computerized version is not available. Originally, the manual was published in three parts. In this revision the introductory material located in the original Part 1 has been incorporated into the text of Parts 2 and 3. The user can now find introductory material either in the original Part 1, or in Parts 2 and 3 as revised. Part 2 contains the human error probability data, and Part 3, the hardware component reliability data

  15. Columnar modelling of nucleation burst evolution in the convective boundary layer – first results from a feasibility study Part III: Preliminary results on physicochemical model performance using two "clean air mass" reference scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Hellmuth

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In Paper I of four papers, a revised columnar high-order model to investigate gas-aerosol-turbulence interactions in the convective boundary layer (CBL was proposed. In Paper II, the model capability to predict first-, second- and third-order moments of meteorological variables in the CBL was demonstrated using available observational data. In the present Paper III, the high-order modelling concept is extended to sulphur and ammonia chemistry as well as to aerosol dynamics. Based on the previous CBL simulation, a feasibility study is performed using two "clean air mass" scenarios with an emission source at the ground but low aerosol background concentration. Such scenarios synoptically correspond to the advection of fresh post-frontal air in an anthropogenically influenced region. The aim is to evaluate the time-height evolution of ultrafine condensation nuclei (UCNs and to elucidate the interactions between meteorological and physicochemical variables in a CBL column. The scenarios differ in the treatment of new particle formation (NPF, whereas homogeneous nucleation according to the classical nucleation theory (CNT is considered. The first scenario considers nucleation of a binary system consisting of water vapour and sulphuric acid (H2SO4 vapour, the second one nucleation of a ternary system additionally involving ammonia (NH3. Here, the two synthetic scenarios are discussed in detail, whereas special attention is payed to the role of turbulence in the formation of the typical UCN burst behaviour, that can often be observed in the surface layer. The intercomparison of the two scenarios reveals large differences in the evolution of the UCN number concentration in the surface layer as well as in the time-height cross-sections of first-order moments and double correlation terms. Although in both cases the occurrence of NPF bursts could be simulated, the burst characteristics and genesis of the bursts are completely different. It is demonstrated

  16. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 748 - Guidance on Response Programs for Unauthorized Access to Member Information and Member Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... See 12 CFR Part 748, appendix A, Paragraph III.B. 2. Following the assessment of these risks, appendix... Safeguards Rule promulgated by the Federal Trade Commission (“FTC”), 12 CFR Part 314. II. Response Program i... containing nonpublic personal information about a member, whether in paper, electronic, or other...

  17. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: implementing inherent safety perspective. Part 2-Domino Hazard Index and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-12-15

    The design of layout plans requires adequate assessment tools for the quantification of safety performance. The general focus of the present work is to introduce an inherent safety perspective at different points of the layout design process. In particular, index approaches for safety assessment and decision-making in the early stages of layout design are developed and discussed in this two-part contribution. Part 1 (accompanying paper) of the current work presents an integrated index approach for safety assessment of early plant layout. In the present paper (Part 2), an index for evaluation of the hazard related to the potential of domino effects is developed. The index considers the actual consequences of possible escalation scenarios and scores or ranks the subsequent accident propagation potential. The effects of inherent and passive protection measures are also assessed. The result is a rapid quantification of domino hazard potential that can provide substantial support for choices in the early stages of layout design. Additionally, a case study concerning selection among various layout options is presented and analyzed. The case study demonstrates the use and applicability of the indices developed in both parts of the current work and highlights the value of introducing inherent safety features early in layout design. PMID:18406517

  18. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: implementing inherent safety perspective. Part 2-Domino Hazard Index and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-12-15

    The design of layout plans requires adequate assessment tools for the quantification of safety performance. The general focus of the present work is to introduce an inherent safety perspective at different points of the layout design process. In particular, index approaches for safety assessment and decision-making in the early stages of layout design are developed and discussed in this two-part contribution. Part 1 (accompanying paper) of the current work presents an integrated index approach for safety assessment of early plant layout. In the present paper (Part 2), an index for evaluation of the hazard related to the potential of domino effects is developed. The index considers the actual consequences of possible escalation scenarios and scores or ranks the subsequent accident propagation potential. The effects of inherent and passive protection measures are also assessed. The result is a rapid quantification of domino hazard potential that can provide substantial support for choices in the early stages of layout design. Additionally, a case study concerning selection among various layout options is presented and analyzed. The case study demonstrates the use and applicability of the indices developed in both parts of the current work and highlights the value of introducing inherent safety features early in layout design.

  19. Numerical study of the thm effects on the near-field safety of a hypothetical nuclear waste repository - bmt1 of the decovalex iii project. part 1: conceptualization and characterization of the problems and summary of results

    OpenAIRE

    Chijimatsu, M.; Nguyen, T.S.; Jing, L.; de Jonge, J; Kohlmeier, M.; Millard, A.; Rejeb, A.; J. Rutqvist; Souley, M.; Sugita, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Geological disposal of the spent nuclear fuel uses often the concept of multiple barrier systems. In order to predict the performance of these barriers, mathematical models have been developed, verified and validated against analytical solutions, laboratory tests and field experiments within the international DECOVALEX III project. These models in general consider the full coupling of thermal (T), hydraulic (H) and mechanical (M) processes that would prevail in the geological media aroun...

  20. Comparison of Provider-Assessed and Patient-Reported Outcome Measures of Acute Skin Toxicity During a Phase III Trial of Mometasone Cream Versus Placebo During Breast Radiotherapy: The North Central Cancer Treatment Group (N06C4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Considerable interobserver variability exists among providers and between providers and patients when measuring subjective symptoms. In the recently published Phase III N06C4 trial of mometasone cream vs. placebo to prevent radiation dermatitis, the primary provider-assessed (PA) endpoint, using the Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), was negative. However, prospectively planned secondary analyses of patient-reported outcomes (PROs), using the Skindex-16 and Skin Toxicity Assessment Tool (STAT), were positive. This study assesses the relationship between PA outcomes and PROs. Methods and Materials: Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to compare the three tools. Statistical correlations were defined as follows: 0.7, strong. Results: CTCAE dermatitis moderately correlated with STAT erythema, and CTCAE pruritus strongly correlated with STAT itching. CTCAE pruritus had a moderate correlation with Skindex-16 itching. Comparing the 2 PRO tools, Skindex-16 itching correlated moderately with STAT itching. Skindex-16 burning, hurting, irritation, and persistence all showed the strongest correlation with STAT burning; they showed moderate correlations with STAT itching and tenderness. Conclusions: The PRO Skindex-16 correlated well with the PRO portions of STAT, but neither tool correlated well with CTCAE. PROs delineated a wider spectrum of toxicity than PA measures and provided more information on rash, redness, pruritus, and annoyance measures compared with CTCAE findings of rash and pruritus. PROs may provide a more complete measure of patient experience than single-symptom, PA endpoints in clinical trials assessing radiation skin toxicity.

  1. Sintassi e Tassonomia: Teoria della valenza e lessico-grammatica in tedesco e in italiano (III) (Syntax and Taxonomy: Theory of Valence and Lexical Grammar in German and Italian, Part 3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Maria Teresa

    1987-01-01

    In this article, the author concludes a three-part series in which she analyzes verb complements in German and Italian. Parts 1 and 2 of the series appear in volume 18, numbers 2 and 3, respectively. (CFM)

  2. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 553 - Statement of Policy: Rulemakings Involving the Assessment of the Functional Equivalence of Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... conditions, driver demographics, driver behavior, occupant behavior (e.g., level of safety belt use), road... connection with a petition for rulemaking by any interested party under 49 CFR Part 552. Such determinations... will consider the merits of the petition in accordance with 49 CFR Part 552, Petitions for...

  3. The new EU regulatory framework for GM food (Part I). Procedural aspects: safety assessment, authorisation and administrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2005-01-01

    This article is of a descriptive nature. It goes into the new framework as far as food is concerned. Feed will not be discussed. This article is published in 2 parts. Part 1 deals mainly with the new authorisation procedure. In this context some attention will first be given to the developments that

  4. McKenzie River Subbasin Assessment, Technical Report 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsea Geospatial, Inc.

    2000-02-01

    This document details the findings of the McKenzie River Subbasin Assessment team. The goal of the subbasin assessment is to provide an ecological assessment of the McKenzie River Floodplain, identification of conservation and restoration opportunities, and discussion of the influence of some upstream actions and processes. This Technical Report can be viewed in conjunction with the McKenzie River Subbasin Summary or as a stand-alone document. The purpose of the technical report is to detail the methodology and findings of the consulting team that the observations and recommendations in the summary document are based on. This part, Part I, provides an introduction to the subbasin and a general overview. Part II details the specific findings of the science team. Part III provides an explanation and examples of how to use the data that has been developed through this assessment to aid in prioritizing restoration activities. Part III also includes the literature cited and appendices.

  5. Understanding Vietnam in the 21st Century: Political, Economic, and Security Issues in the Asia/Pacific Region. Part III, U.S. and Japanese Relations with Vietnam: Liberalization and Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Gary; Chenette, Sara; Cheng, Amy; Cheng, Yu Wen; Fairbrother, Greg; Midling, Michael; Nordquist, Silvy; Tan, Kwee Foon

    This curriculum unit is part three of a three-part series. Each of the three parts can be taught independently. The lessons include perspectives from each of the countries under study. This unit introduces students to policy options for U.S. and Japanese relations with Vietnam at the turn of the century. By identifying and examining these options…

  6. Assessing the robustness of passive scattering proton therapy with regard to local recurrence in stage III non-small cell lung cancer: a secondary analysis of a phase II trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We assessed the robustness of passive scattering proton therapy (PSPT) plans for patients in a phase II trial of PSPT for stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by using the worst-case scenario method, and compared the worst-case dose distributions with the appearance of locally recurrent lesions. Worst-case dose distributions were generated for each of 9 patients who experienced recurrence after concurrent chemotherapy and PSPT to 74 Gy(RBE) for stage III NSCLC by simulating and incorporating uncertainties associated with set-up, respiration-induced organ motion, and proton range in the planning process. The worst-case CT scans were then fused with the positron emission tomography (PET) scans to locate the recurrence. Although the volumes enclosed by the prescription isodose lines in the worst-case dose distributions were consistently smaller than enclosed volumes in the nominal plans, the target dose coverage was not significantly affected: only one patient had a recurrence outside the prescription isodose lines in the worst-case plan. PSPT is a relatively robust technique. Local recurrence was not associated with target underdosage resulting from estimated uncertainties in 8 of 9 cases

  7. Crescimento da base craniana nos diferentes tipos faciais nos relacionamentos maxilomandibulares ortopédicos de Classe I, II e III: Parte 2 (Crescimento médio de Ba-Na, CC-Na e CC-Ba Cranial base growth in different facial types in Class I, II and III orthopedic maxillomandibular relationship: Part 2 (Mean growth of Ba-Na, CC-Na and CC-Ba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucelma Vilela Pieri

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: este estudo retrospectivo avaliou o crescimento médio da base craniana nos diferentes tipos faciais e de relacionamentos maxilomandibulares ortopédicos.METODOLOGIA: uma amostra aleatória de 300 pacientes brasileiros leucodermas (131 do gênero masculino, 169 do gênero feminino, com idade média inicial de 10 anos e 2 meses (dentadura mista e final de 14 anos e 8 meses (segundos molares em oclusão e tempo médio de observação de 4 anos e 5 meses, foi selecionada em uma clínica particular, em São Paulo, Brasil. Havia 118 Classe I, 151 Classe II e 31 Classe III. Todas as 600 radiografias cefalométricas laterais foram obtidas no mesmo aparelho de raios-x. As análises de Ricketts e Schwarz modificadas por Faltin foram usadas. As medidas lineares (Ba-Na, CC-Na e CC-Ba foram feitas manualmente pelo mesmo examinador em T1 e T2. Os relacionamentos foram estudados juntos e separadamente, considerando tipo facial e gênero. O teste t-pareado e ANOVA foram aplicados. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: o tipo facial retrovertido cresceu significantemente mais em CC-Na na Classe II, sendo a sua correção desfavorável no gênero feminino; com tendência favorável na Classe III e crescimento dentro do esperado na Classe I. O neutrovertido cresceu significantemente mais em CC-Na nas Classes I e II, sendo desfavorável na Classe II; com crescimento eqüitativo de CC-Na e CC-Ba na Classe III e levemente acima do esperado na Classe I. O provertido teve crescimento eqüitativo em todas as Classes, sendo significantemente favorável na Classe II mandibular; com tendência favorável na Classe III e crescimento médio acima do esperado na Classe I.AIM: This retrospective study evaluated the cranial base mean growth in different facial types and orthopedic maxillomandibular relationship. METHODS: A random sample of 300 Brazilian Caucasian patients (131 males, 169 females, initial and final mean age (10 years 2 months-mixed dentition; 14 years 8 months

  8. Plutonium working group report on environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities associated with the department's plutonium storage. Volume II, part 11: Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory working group assessment team report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    President Clinton has directed an Interagency Working Group to initiate a comprehensive review of long-term options for the disposition of surplus plutonium. As part of this initiative, Secretary of Energy, Hazel O'Leary, has directed that a Department of Energy project be initiated to develop options and recommendations for the safe storage of these materials in the interim. A step in the process is a plutonium vulnerability assessment of facilities throughout the Department. The Plutonium Vulnerability Working Group was formed to produce the Project and Assessment Plans, to manage the assessments and to produce a final report for the Secretary by September 30, 1994. The plans established the approach and methodology for the assessment. The Project Plan specifies a Working Group Assessment Team (WGAT) to examine each of the twelve DOE sites with significant holdings of plutonium. The Assessment Plan describes the methodology that the Site Assessment Team (SAT) used to report on the plutonium holdings for each specific site.This report provides results of the assessment of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

  9. Bayesian networks in educational assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Almond, Russell G; Steinberg, Linda S; Yan, Duanli; Williamson, David M

    2015-01-01

    Bayesian inference networks, a synthesis of statistics and expert systems, have advanced reasoning under uncertainty in medicine, business, and social sciences. This innovative volume is the first comprehensive treatment exploring how they can be applied to design and analyze innovative educational assessments. Part I develops Bayes nets’ foundations in assessment, statistics, and graph theory, and works through the real-time updating algorithm. Part II addresses parametric forms for use with assessment, model-checking techniques, and estimation with the EM algorithm and Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). A unique feature is the volume’s grounding in Evidence-Centered Design (ECD) framework for assessment design. This “design forward” approach enables designers to take full advantage of Bayes nets’ modularity and ability to model complex evidentiary relationships that arise from performance in interactive, technology-rich assessments such as simulations. Part III describes ECD, situates Bayes nets as ...

  10. Proposed changes in personality and personality disorder assessment and diagnosis for DSM-5 part I: description and rationale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Skodol; L.A. Clark; D.S. Bender; R.F. Krueger; L.C. Morey; R. Verheul; R.D. Alarcon; C.C. Bell; L.J. Siever; J.M. Oldham

    2011-01-01

    A major reconceptualization of personality psychopathology has been proposed for DSM-5 that identifies core impairments in personality functioning, pathological personality traits, and prominent pathological personality types. A comprehensive personality assessment consists of four components: level

  11. Procedures for Collecting and Processing Aquatic Invertebrates and Fish for Analysis of Mercury as Part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudder, Barbara C.; Chasar, Lia C.; DeWeese, L. Rod; Brigham, Mark E.; Wentz, Dennis A.; Brumbaugh, William G.

    2008-01-01

    Mercury studies conducted as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program have included nationwide reconnaissance samplings of hundreds of stream sites, as well as detailed, process-oriented research at selected sites. These reconnaissance and detailed studies are intended to provide a better understanding of methylmercury bioaccumulation in stream ecosystems over a range of environmental settings. This publication describes trace-element-clean techniques used for collection and processing of aquatic invertebrates and fish to be analyzed for total mercury, methylmercury, and stable isotopes as part of NAWQA studies.

  12. Distribution of cadmium, mercury, and lead in different body parts of Baltic herring (Clupea harengus) and perch (Perca fluviatilis): Implications for environmental status assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Good Environmental Status (GES) is assessed based on whole fish body concentrations. • Heavy metals were analyzed in different parts of herring and perch body. • Conversion factors between these tissues were calculated and applied to assess GES. • GES in herring improved compared to assessments using muscle/liver concentrations. • Status assessments must reflect whole fish concentrations, not only sampled tissues. -- Abstract: For heavy metals, quality standards indicating good environmental status are designed to evaluate concentrations in the whole fish body, whereas monitoring of metals is often conducted using muscle or liver tissue. As most metals accumulate at different rates in different parts of fish, data should be adjusted to reflect whole fish body concentrations; however, this requires knowledge on distribution of metal concentrations within fish. Here, concentrations of cadmium, mercury, and lead were analyzed in the liver, muscle and whole fish of herring and perch to create conversion factors for transformation of heavy metal concentrations between these tissues. Species-specific accumulation of metals between muscle, liver, and whole fish were observed. Relationships between different tissues were used to recalculate data from monitoring programs in the Baltic Sea region. Based on whole fish concentrations, environmental status for cadmium and mercury in herring improved compared to assessments based on muscle or liver concentrations alone

  13. 2007 status of climate change: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Summary for Policy-makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Working Group III contribution to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) focuses on new literature on the scientific, technological, environmental, economic and social aspects of mitigation of climate change, published since the IPCC Third Assessment Report (TAR) and the Special Reports on CO2 Capture and Storage (SRCCS) and on Safeguarding the Ozone Layer and the Global Climate System (SROC).The main aim of this summary report is to assess options for mitigating climate change. Several aspects link climate change with development issues. This report explores these links in detail, and illustrates where climate change and sustainable development are mutually reinforcing. Economic development needs, resource endowments and mitigative and adaptive capacities differ across regions. There is no one-size-fits-all approach to the climate change problem, and solutions need to be regionally differentiated to reflect different socio-economic conditions and, to a lesser extent, geographical differences. Although this report has a global focus, an attempt is made to differentiate the assessment of scientific and technical findings for the various regions. Given that mitigation options vary significantly between economic sectors, it was decided to use the economic sectors to organize the material on short- to medium-term mitigation options. Contrary to what was done in the Third Assessment Report, all relevant aspects of sectoral mitigation options, such as technology, cost, policies etc., are discussed together, to provide the user with a comprehensive discussion of the sectoral mitigation options. The report is organised into six sections after the introduction: - Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends; - Mitigation in the short and medium term, across different economic sectors (until 2030); - Mitigation in the long-term (beyond 2030); - Policies, measures and instruments to mitigate climate change; - Sustainable development and climate change mitigation; - Gaps in

  14. Transition metal complexes with thiosemicarbazide-based ligands. Part46. Synthesis and physico-chemical characterization of mixed ligand cobalt(III-complexes with salicylaldehyde semi-, thiosemi- and isothiosemicarbazone and pyridine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VUKADIN M. LEOVAC

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Mixed ligand octahedral cobalt(III complexes with the tridentate salicylaldehyde semi-, thiosemi- and isothiosemicarbazone and pyridine of general formula [CoIII(L11-3(py3]X (H2L1 = salicylaldehyde semicarbazone, X = [CoIICl3(py]-, ClO4- . H2O, I- . 0.5 I2; H2L2 = salicylaldehyde thiosemicarbazone, X = [CoIICl3(py]-, [CoIIBr3(py]-, ClO4- . H2O, I3-; H2L3 = salicylaldehyde S-methylisothiosemicarbazone, X = [ CoIIBr3(py ]-, ClO4- . H2O, BF4- were synthesized. The tridentate coordination of all the three dianionic forms of the ligands involves the phenol oxygen, hydrazine nitrogen and the chalcogen (O or S in case of salicylaldehyde semi-, thiosemicarbazone and the terminal nitrogen atom in the case of isothiosemicarbazone. For all the complexes, a meridial octahedral arrangement is proposed, which is a consequence of the planarity of the chelate ligand. The compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivity, magnetic susceptibility, IR and electronic absorption spectra. The thermal decomposition of the complexes was investigated by thermogravimetry, coupled TG-MS measurements and DSC.

  15. Free Radicals and Reactive Intermediates for the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James G.

    2001-01-01

    This grant provided partial support for participation in the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment. The NASA-sponsored SOLVE mission was conducted Jointly with the European Commission-sponsored Third European Stratospheric Experiment on Ozone (THESEO 2000). Researchers examined processes that control ozone amounts at mid to high latitudes during the arctic winter and acquired correlative data needed to validate the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) III satellite measurements that are used to quantitatively assess high-latitude ozone loss. The campaign began in September 1999 with intercomparison flights out of NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in Edwards. CA. and continued through March 2000. with midwinter deployments out of Kiruna. Sweden. SOLVE was co-sponsored by the Upper Atmosphere Research Program (UARP). Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP). Atmospheric Chemistry Modeling and Analysis Program (ACMAP). and Earth Observing System (EOS) of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) as part of the validation program for the SAGE III instrument.

  16. Safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. Data basis for the Biosphere Assessment BSA-2012. Part 1-2, Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the report is to document and justify the input data used in the models of the biosphere assessment. Methodology similar to that presented in the Models and Data for the Repository System report has been followed. After more introductory parts, chapter 3 lays the foundation of data selection by describing typical properties of the soil and sediment types and biotopes, and summarises the representative plants and animals selected in the Biosphere Description report. The conceptual models on pools and fluxes of elements in the ecosystems are presented in chapter 4. These, together with the more qualitative descriptions of the succession lines in the Biosphere Description report, are simplified into the actual assessment models (summarised in chapter 5) in an iterative manner. Chapter 6 briefly presents the scenarios and calculation cases of the biosphere assessment, detailed in the Formulation of Radionuclide Releases Scenarios report. The account of the actual input data to the assessment models begins in chapter 7 with the data needed to identify the biotopes and compartments common to all assessment models. Chapters 8 to 13, grouped by the sub-models, address the input data to the terrain and ecosystems development modelling (detailed in the Terrain and Ecosystems Development Modelling report), and chapter 14 those to the surface and near-surface hydrological model (the Surface and Near-Surface Hydrological Modelling report). Chapters 15 to 18 address the data to the radionuclide transport modelling in the biosphere, and chapter 19 those needed for the dose assessment for humans (the Biosphere Radionuclide Transport and Dose Assessment report). Finally, before conclusions in chapter 21, the input data specific to the dose assessment for plants and animals (the Dose Assessment for the Plants and Animals report) are addressed in chapter 20. However, several parameters are common to the assessment models and are presented in connection to the model

  17. Does part-time work make employees more efficient? Importance of context in assessing flexible work arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Þóra Þorgeirsdóttir 1979

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine employee perceptions of flexible work arrangements with special emphasis on part-­time work, in light of the different contexts they find themselves in. It further seeks to understand the effects of part-­time work on employees' way of working.  The literature review discusses various contextual factors that impact employee perceptions, such as public and organisational context and management and colleague support. It further explores outcomes such as wo...

  18. Remediation strategies after nuclear or radiological accidents: part 2 - accident scenarios for assessing effectiveness of cleanup procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Instalacoes Nucleares], e-mail: erochedo@cnen.gov.br; Silva, Diogo N.G.; Wasserman, Maria A.V.; Conti, Luiz F.C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: dneves@ird.gov.br, e-mail: angelica@ird.gov.br, e-mail: lfcconti@ird.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    The selection of protective measures and remediation strategies after an accident needs to be based on previously established criteria, to minimize unnecessary stress and the exposures involved in cleanup operations that are not effective in reducing doses to the public. In a first stage, a database describing the countermeasures has been developed including their efficiency on removing contamination from surfaces. However, to assess the effectiveness of cleanup procedures in reducing doses to members of the public, it was necessary to derive specific scenarios in order to simulate the long term behavior of the material in the environment, since the contribution of different surfaces to doses changes with time after contamination. A basic release and exposure scenario was developed to assess the dose reduction due to the mostly used procedures. Exposure scenarios were selected to fit the surroundings of the Brazilian nuclear power plants in Angra dos Reis. Simulations were performed using SIEM, the integrated system for dose assessment after contamination events, developed at IRD. The contamination of urban environments was assessed for Cs-137, as this was found to be the most relevant long term radionuclide to contribute to doses to member of the public. The effects on reducing external exposures were assessed for periods up to 50 years after the contamination. For agricultural areas, the focus was on ingestion doses from contamination with I-131 for periods up to 1 year after contamination. Results will be complemented on the database in order to support multi-criteria decision making processes after accidents. (author)

  19. Ultrasound evaluation of liver disease in cystic fibrosis as part of an annual assessment clinic: A 9-year review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To review 9 years of annual assessment data in cystic fibrosis (CF) and evaluate the frequency of hepatobiliary abnormalities and the correlation between ultrasound and biochemical findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over a 9-year period (1990-99), 168 children (age range 1-18 years) with CF have undergone an annual assessment which has included clinical, biochemical and ultrasonographic evaluation of the hepatobiliary system. We have retrospectively reviewed the sequential ultrasound reports and correlated them with the contemporaneous biochemical results. RESULTS: A total of 725 ultrasound examinations were performed over the review period. Sixty patients had at least one examination showing an abnormality of liver echo texture and in 39 patients this was a persisting finding. Seven patients (4.2%) developed frank cirrhotic change on ultrasound criteria, while 15 patients (8.9%) had evidence of persistent splenomegaly. Gall-bladder calculi were present in 4.8%. In 176 examinations (24%) there was disparity between the ultrasound findings and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels. In 3.0% of cases (five patients) there were persisting abnormalities of liver echo texure and persisting splenomegaly with a normal range AST value. CONCLUSION: No perfect method of assessing hepatobiliary involvement in CF is currently available. Ultrasonographic and biochemical assessment may reflect different aspects of disease progression. Routine use of ultrasound in annual assessment allows identification of a minority of patients with liver changes but with normal biochemistry. Williams, S.M. et al. (2002)

  20. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume III. Resources and fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of uranium supply and the rest of the nuclear fuel cycle to meet the demand for nuclear power is an important consideration in future domestic and international planning. Accordingly, the purpose of this assessment is to evaluate the adequacy of potential supply for various nuclear resources and fuel cycle facilities in the United States and in the world outside centrally planned economy areas (WOCA). Although major emphasis was placed on uranium supply and demand, material resources (thorium and heavy water) and facility resources (separative work, spent fuel storage, and reprocessing) were also considered

  1. The use and abuse of attachment theory in clinical practice with maltreated children, part I: diagnosis and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Debate has ensued regarding the appropriate assessment and diagnosis for school-age children who display severe behavioral problems as a result of previous abuse and neglect within the primary attachment relationship. The current nomenclature recognizes reactive attachment disorder and some clinicians have suggested broader categories of attachment disorder. These attempts at classification are often criticized on empirical grounds; however, often lost in these criticisms is the fact that that these diagnostic approaches often misapply attachment theory and research. This article summarizes the original contributions of John Bowlby and other attachment researchers to our understanding of child development, examines misguided attempts to apply attachment theory to the diagnosis and assessment of maltreated children, and offers a diagnostic conceptualization and assessment recommendations consistent with the available attachment research. PMID:21288931

  2. Hydrogeochemistry and quality assessment of shallow groundwater in the southern part of the yellow river alluvial plain (zhongwei section), northwest china

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Peiyue; Wu, Jianhua; Qian, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Statistical analyses, a Piper diagram, the saturation index and the correlations of chemical parameters were used to reveal the hydrogeochemistry and hydrogeochemical evolution of shallow groundwater in the southern part of the Zhongwei section of the Yellow River alluvial plain. The water quality for agricultural and domestic uses was also assessed in the study. The results suggest that the shallow groundwater in the study area is fresh to moderately mineralized water. Higher Ca2+ and HCO3- ...

  3. A Three-Attribute Transfer Skills Framework--Part II: Applying and Assessing the Model in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Irit; Dori, Yehudit Judy

    2015-01-01

    In an era in which information is rapidly growing and changing, it is very important to teach with the goal of students' engagement in life-long learning in mind. This can partially be achieved by developing transferable thinking skills. In our previous paper--Part I, we conducted a review of the transfer literature and suggested a…

  4. The development of Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society classification criteria for axial spondyloarthritis (part II)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudwaleit, M; van der Heijde, D; Landewé, R;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate and refine two sets of candidate criteria for the classification/diagnosis of axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). METHODS: All Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) members were invited to include consecutively new patients with chronic (> or =3 months) ba...

  5. Benzothiophene inhibitors of MK2. Part 1: structure-activity relationships, assessments of selectivity and cellular potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David R; Meyers, Marvin J; Kurumbail, Ravi G; Caspers, Nicole; Poda, Gennadiy I; Long, Scott A; Pierce, Betsy S; Mahoney, Matthew W; Mourey, Robert J

    2009-08-15

    Identification of potent benzothiophene inhibitors of mitogen activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2), structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies, selectivity assessments against CDK2, cellular potency and mechanism of action are presented. Crystallographic data provide a rationale for the observed MK2 potency as well as selectivity over CDK2 for this class of inhibitors.

  6. Development of the AGREE II, part 2: assessment of validity of items and tools to support application.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, M.C.; Kho, M.E.; Browman, G.P.; Burgers, J.S.; Cluzeau, F.; Feder, G.; Fervers, B.; Graham, I.D.; Hanna, S.E.; Makarski, J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We established a program of research to improve the development, reporting and evaluation of practice guidelines. We assessed the construct validity of the items and user's manual in the beta version of the AGREE II. METHODS: We designed guideline excerpts reflecting high-and low-quality

  7. Aggregation of measures to produce an overall assessment of animal welfare. Part 1: a review of existing methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boteau, R.; Bonde, Marianne; Butterworth, A.;

    2007-01-01

    multidimensional nature of welfare and the relative importance of various welfare measures. It is concluded that different methods may be used at different stages of the construction of an overall assessment of animal welfare, depending on the constraints imposed on the aggregation process....

  8. Examination of Assessment Practices for Engineering Design Projects in Secondary Technology Education (Second Article in 3-Part Series)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Todd R.; Wicklein, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    Based on the efforts to infuse engineering practices within the technology education curriculum it is appropriate to now investigate how technology education teachers are assessing engineering design activities within their classrooms. This descriptive study drew a full sample of high school technology teachers from the current International…

  9. Revised assessment of cancer risk to dichloromethane: part I Bayesian PBPK and dose-response modeling in mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Marino, Dale J.; Clewell, Harvey J.; Gentry, P. Robinan; Covington, Tammie R.; Hack, C. Eric; David, Raymond M.; Morgott, David A.

    2006-01-01

    KEYWORDS - CLASSIFICATION: analysis;Animals;Bayes Theorem;chemically induced;Carcinogens;Dose-Response Relationship,Drug;Environment;Inhalation Exposure;metabolism;methods;Markov Chains;mechanisms of carcinogenesis;Methylene Chloride;Mice;Models,Biological;Monte Carlo Method;Neoplasms;pharmacokinetics;Risk Assessment;Safety.

  10. Which part of a short, global risk assessment, the Risk Instrument for Screening in the Community, predicts adverse healthcare outcomes?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Caoimh, Rónán

    2015-01-01

    The Risk Instrument for Screening in the Community (RISC) is a short, global risk assessment to identify community-dwelling older adults’ one-year risk of institutionalisation, hospitalisation, and death. We investigated the contribution that the three components of the RISC (\

  11. Assessment of the potential allergenicity of ice structuring protein type III HPLC 12 using the FAO/WHO 2001 decision tree for novel foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindslev-Jensen, C; Sten, E; Earl, L K;

    2003-01-01

    modern biotechnology and derived from fish are being considered for use in food and other applications, and since allergy to fish is well established, a potential risk from such proteins to susceptible human beings exists. The overall aim of the study was to investigate the potential allergenicity......, methods for assessing degradability under standardised conditions, assays for detection of specific IgE against the protein (Maxisorb RAST) and histamine release from human basophils. In the present paper we describe the serum screening phase of the study and discuss the overall application...... no sequence similarity to known allergens nor was it stable to proteolytic degradation using standardised methods. Using sera from 20 patients with a well-documented clinical history of fish allergy, positive in skin prick tests to ocean pout, eel pout and eel were used, positive IgE-binding in vitro...

  12. Pain management in children: Part 1 — Pain assessment tools and a brief review of nonpharmacological and pharmacological treatment options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Cecile; Lau, Elaine; Palozzi, Lori; Campbell, Fiona

    2012-01-01

    If pain is not treated quickly and effectively in children, it can cause long-term physical and psychological sequelae. Therefore, it is important for all health care providers to understand the importance of effective pain control in children. This article is divided into 2 parts: Part 1 reviews the pharmacotherapy of pain management in children and Part 2 will review the problems relating to the use of codeine in children, and the rationale for recommending morphine as the opioid of choice in the treatment of moderate to severe pain. There has been growing concern about codeine's lack of efficacy and increased safety concerns in its use in children. Due to the variability of codeine metabolism and unpredictable effects on efficacy and safety, The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Ontario, no longer includes codeine or codeine-containing products on the regular hospital formulary and now recommends oral morphine as the agent of choice for the treatment of moderate to severe pain in children. A knowledge translation (KT) strategy was developed and implemented by the hospital's Pain Task Force to support this practice change. PMID:23509570

  13. 'Reference Biospheres' for solid radioactive waste disposal. Report of BIOMASS Theme 1 of the BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment (BIOMASS) Programme. Part of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project on Biosphere Modelling and Assessment (BIOMASS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Programme on BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment (BIOMASS) was launched in Vienna in October 1996. The programme was concerned with developing and improving capabilities to predict the transfer of radionuclides in the environment. The programme had three themes: Theme 1: Radioactive Waste Disposal. The objective was to develop the concept of a standard or reference biosphere for application to the assessment of the long-term safety of repositories for radioactive waste. Under the general heading of 'Reference Biospheres', six Task Groups were established: Task Group 1: Principles for the Definition of Critical and Other Exposure Groups. Task Group 2: Principles for the Application of Data to Assessment Models. Task Group 3: Consideration of Alternative Assessment Contexts. Task Group 4: Biosphere System Identification and Justification. Task Group 5: Biosphere System Descriptions. Task Group 6: Model Development. Theme 2: Environmental Releases. BIOMASS provided an international forum for activities aimed at increasing the confidence in methods and models for the assessment of radiation exposure related to environmental releases. Two Working Groups addressed issues concerned with the reconstruction of radiation doses received by people from past releases of radionuclides to the environment and the evaluation of the efficacy of remedial measures. Theme 3: Biosphere Processes. The aim of this Theme was to improve capabilities for modelling the transfer of radionuclides in particular parts of the biosphere identified as being of potential radiological significance and where there were gaps in modelling approaches. This topic was explored using a range of methods including reviews of the literature, model inter-comparison exercises and, where possible, model testing against independent sources of data. Three Working Groups were established to examine the modelling of: (1) long term tritium dispersion in the environment; (2) radionuclide uptake by fruits; and (3

  14. Passive air sampler as a tool for long-term air pollution monitoring: Part 2. Air genotoxic potency screening assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The capability of passive air sampling to be employed in the evaluation of direct genotoxicity of ambient air samples was assessed. Genotoxic effects of the total extracts from the polyurethane foam filters exposed for 28 days during a regional passive air sampling campaign were investigated. Twenty sampling sites were selected in Brno city on the area of approximately 20 x 20 km in October and November 2004. Brno is the second largest city of the Czech Republic, highly industrialized with approximately 370,000 of permanent inhabitants. The levels of PAHs, PCBs, and chlorinated pesticides were determined in all samples. Fraction of each extract was also assayed in the bacterial genotoxicity test using Escherichia coli sulA::lacZ. Complete dose-response relationships of the air extracts were determined. The statistical analysis showed significant correlation between observed biological effects and PAHs concentrations in samples. - Extracts from passive air samples can be used to assess genotoxic potency

  15. Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR): Guide to data processing and revision: Part 1, Technical overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR) is an automated data base management system for processing and storing human error probability (HEP) and hardware component failure data (HCFD). The NUCLARR system software resides on an IBM (or compatible) personal micro-computer. Users can perform data base searches to furnish HEP estimates and HCFD rates. In this manner, the NUCLARR system can be used to support a variety of risk assessment activities. This volume, Volume 3 of a 5-volume series, presents the procedures used to process HEP and HCFD for entry in NUCLARR and describes how to modify the existing NUCLARR taxonomy in order to add either equipment types or action verbs. Volume 3 also specifies the various roles of the administrative staff on assignment to the NUCLARR Clearinghouse who are tasked with maintaining the data base, dealing with user requests, and processing NUCLARR data. 5 refs., 2 figs

  16. A global water scarcity assessment under Shared Socio-economic Pathways – Part 2: Water availability and scarcity

    OpenAIRE

    Hanasaki, N.; Fujimori, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yoshikawa, S.; Masaki, Y; Hijioka, Y.; M. Kainuma; Kanamori, Y; T. Masui; Takahashi, K; Kanae, S.

    2013-01-01

    A global water scarcity assessment for the 21st century was conducted under the latest socio-economic scenario for global change studies, namely Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs). SSPs depict five global situations with substantially different socio-economic conditions. In the accompanying paper, a water use scenario compatible with the SSPs was developed. This scenario considers not only quantitative socio-economic factors such as population and electricity production but also qualitativ...

  17. The assessment of crowding without the need to record arch perimeter. Part I: Arches with acceptable alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battagel, J M

    1996-05-01

    A simplified, mathematically determined technique for calculating arch perimeter (the overlap method) is described and its validity in determining an accurate assessment of crowding is tested. Indices, expressed in millimetres of crowding or spacing, were computed for both the whole arch and the labial segment alone. Study casts of 36 individuals with clinically acceptable lower arches were used to validate the method. The degree of crowding or spacing calculated was compared with a "clinical' assessment of each arch, in which the irregularity was measured directly using a steel ruler. Various calculation schemes were tested. Depending on exactly how the overlap was determined, the results varied slightly. Although the arches showed acceptable alignment, it was preferable to include a strategy for normalizing the positions of any rotated teeth before the overlaps were calculated. Repositioning any bucco-lingually displaced teeth into the line of the arch, however, was not useful. For the complete arch good agreement with the clinical assessment was reached on 31 occasions and for the labial segment, all but one appraisals were within 0.5 mm of each other. In the remaining instances (five complete arches and one labial segment), the degree of crowding or spacing was between 0.5 and 1 mm of the clinical assessment. Considering that clinical measurement of minor degrees of crowding and spacing cannot be precise, these results were considered acceptable. The method was easy to use, relying only on the recording of mesio-distal tooth widths and was acceptably reproducible. The technique would therefore appear to provide a valid yet simple research tool with which to record the degree of crowding. Its ability to cope with irregular and crowded arches will be the subject of a subsequent review.

  18. Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR): Data manual: Part 3, Hardware Component Failure Data (HCFD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume of a five-volume series summarizes those data currently resident in the first release of the Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR) data base. The hardware component failure data (HCFD) contained herein are accompanied by a glossary of terms and the HEP and hardware taxonomies used to structure the data. Instructions are presented on how the user may navigate through the NUCLARR data management system to find anchor values to assist in solving risk-related problems

  19. Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR): Part 2, Human Error Probability (HEP) estimates: Data manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume of a five-volume series summarizes those data currently resident in the first releases of the Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR) data base. The raw human error probability (HEP) contained herein is accompanied by a glossary of terms and the HEP and hardware taxonomies used to structure the data. Instructions are presented on how the user may navigate through the NUCLARR data management system to find anchor values to assist in solving risk-related problems

  20. Occupational dermal exposure to nanoparticles and nano-enabled products: Part 2, exploration of exposure processes and methods of assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Derk H; Spaan, Suzanne; Roff, Martin; Sleeuwenhoek, Anne; Tuinman, Ilse; Goede, Henk; van Duuren-Stuurman, Birgit; Filon, Francesca Larese; Bello, Dhimiter; Cherrie, John W

    2016-08-01

    Over the past decade, the primary focus of nanotoxicology and nanoenvironmental health and safety efforts has been largely on inhalation exposure to engineered nanomaterials, at the production stage, and much less on considering risks along the life cycle of nano-enabled products. Dermal exposure to nanomaterials and its health impact has been studied to a much lesser extent, and mostly in the context of intentional exposure to nano-enabled products such as in nanomedicine, cosmetics and personal care products. How concerning is dermal exposure to such nanoparticles in the context of occupational exposures? When and how should we measure it? In the first of a series of two papers (Larese Filon et al., 2016), we focused our attention on identifying conditions or situations, i.e. a combination of nanoparticle physico-chemical properties, skin barrier integrity, and occupations with high prevalence of skin disease, which deserve further investigation. This second paper focuses on the broad question of dermal exposure assessment to nanoparticles and attempts to give an overview of the mechanisms of occupational dermal exposure to nanoparticles and nano-enabled products and explores feasibility and adequacy of various methods of quantifying dermal exposure to NOAA. We provide here a conceptual framework for screening, prioritization, and assessment of dermal exposure to NOAA in occupational settings, and integrate it into a proposed framework for risk assessment. PMID:27283207

  1. Pesticide exposure assessment for surface waters in the EU. Part 1: Some comments on the current procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Martin; Diesner, Mirjam; Großmann, Dietlinde; Guerniche, Djamal; Hommen, Udo; Klein, Michael; Kubiak, Roland; Müller, Alexandra; Priegnitz, Jan; Reichenberger, Stefan; Thomas, Kai; Trapp, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    In 2001, the European Commission introduced a risk assessment project known as FOCUS (FOrum for the Coordination of pesticide fate models and their USe) for the surface water risk assessment of active substances in the European Union. Even for the national authorisation of plant protection products (PPPs), the vast majority of EU member states still refer to the four runoff and six drainage scenarios selected by the FOCUS Surface Water Workgroup. However, our study, as well as the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), has stated the need for various improvements. Current developments in pesticide exposure assessment mainly relate to two processes. Firstly, predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) of pesticides are calculated by introducing model input variables such as weather conditions, soil properties and substance fate parameters that have a probabilistic nature. Secondly, spatially distributed PECs for soil-climate scenarios are derived on the basis of an analysis of geodata. Such approaches facilitate the calculation of a spatiotemporal cumulative distribution function (CDF) of PECs for a given area of interest and are subsequently used to determine an exposure concentration endpoint as a given percentile of the CDF. For national PPP authorisation, we propose that, in the future, exposure endpoints should be determined from the overall known statistical PEC population for an area of interest, and derived for soil and climate conditions specific to the particular member state. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:27059427

  2. Uncertainty in runoff based on Global Climate Model precipitation and temperature data – Part 1: Assessment of Global Climate Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. McMahon

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Two key sources of uncertainty in projections of future runoff for climate change impact assessments are uncertainty between Global Climate Models (GCMs and within a GCM. Uncertainty between GCM projections of future climate can be assessed through analysis of runs of a given scenario from a wide range of GCMs. Within GCM uncertainty is the variability in GCM output that occurs when running a scenario multiple times but each run has slightly different, but equally plausible, initial conditions. The objective of this, the first of two complementary papers, is to reduce between-GCM uncertainty by identifying and removing poorly performing GCMs prior to the analysis presented in the second paper. Here we assess how well 46 runs from 22 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3 GCMs are able to reproduce observed precipitation and temperature climatological statistics. The performance of each GCM in reproducing these statistics was ranked and better performing GCMs identified for later analyses. Observed global land surface precipitation and temperature data were drawn from the CRU 3.10 gridded dataset and re-sampled to the resolution of each GCM for comparison. Observed and GCM based estimates of mean and standard deviation of annual precipitation, mean annual temperature, mean monthly precipitation and temperature and Köppen climate type were compared. The main metrics for assessing GCM performance were the Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency index and RMSE between modelled and observed long-term statistics. This information combined with a literature review of the performance of the CMIP3 models identified the following five models as the better performing models for the next phase of our analysis in assessing the uncertainty in runoff estimated from GCM projections of precipitation and temperature: HadCM3 (Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, MIROCM (Center for Climate System Research (The University of Tokyo, National

  3. Use of the food-chain model FOOD III and the soil model SCEMR to assess irrigation as a biosphere pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irrigation of contaminated water onto crop land is a relatively direct pathway for radionuclides to deliver a radiation dose to man. Irrigation was not originally included in the SYVAC assessment model for the Precambrian Shield because no irrigation is currently practised in the region. This report re-evaluates this decision. An analysis of meteorological data shows that crop yield in northern Ontario would benefit from irrigation. Thus, incentives are present for subsistence-scale, and perhaps commercial-scale, irrigation of surface or well water. A food-chain analysis indicated that irrigation with contaminated water could deliver a dose comparable to direct consumption (drinking) of the same water, for some radionuclides. Long-term contamination of soil through irrigation was predicted to be a substantial hazard, even when soil leaching was incorporated into the food-chain model. This report presents parameter estimates that could be used to incorporate irrigation as a pathway in the SYVAC code and will constitute the basis for further decisions concerning this pathway

  4. The type III manufactory

    CERN Document Server

    Palcoux, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    Using unusual objects in the theory of von Neumann algebra, as the chinese game Go or the Conway game of life (generalized on finitely presented groups), we are able to build, by hands, many type III factors.

  5. Thermophysical properties of alkali metal vapours. Part II - assessment of experimental data on thermal conductivity and viscosity

    OpenAIRE

    Fialho, Paulo; Ramires, Maria de Lurdes V.; Nieto de Castro, Carlos A.; João M. N. A. Fareleira; Mardolcar, Umesh V.

    1994-01-01

    Copyright © 1994 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Article first published online: 8 MAY 2010. An analysis of the available data on the viscosity and thermal conductivity coefficients of the alkali metal vapours is presented. The analysis is based upon theoretical calculations of the properties of the monatomic systems, described in the preceding parts I and I.A of the present paper, and making use of the kinetic theory of a binary gas reacting mixture. A summary of the measur...

  6. Development of a site-specific Ecological Risk Assessment for contaminated sites: part II. A multi-criteria based system for the selection of bioavailability assessment tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenzin, Elena; Critto, Andrea; Carlon, Claudio; Rutgers, Michiel; Marcomini, Antonio

    2007-06-15

    A comparison procedure based on Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) and expert judgment was developed in order to allow the comparison of bioavailability tests to implement the chemical Line of Evidence (LoE) within a TRIAD based site-specific Ecological Risk Assessment framework including three tires of investigation. The proposed methodology was included in the Module 1 of the Decision Support System DSS-ERAMANIA and the obtained rank supported the selection of a suitable set of available tests to be applied to the case study. A simplified application of the proposed procedure is described and results obtained by the system software are discussed. PMID:17434575

  7. Integrated assessment of global water scarcity over the 21st century - Part 2: Climate change mitigation policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazi, M. I.; Edmonds, J.; Clarke, L.; Kyle, P.; Davies, E.; Chaturvedi, V.; Eom, J.; Wise, M.; Patel, P.; Calvin, K.

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the effects of emission mitigation policies on water scarcity both globally and regionally using the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a leading community integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, climate, and water. Three climate policy scenarios with increasing mitigation stringency of 7.7, 5.5, and 4.2 W m-2 in year 2095 (equivalent to the SRES A2, B2, and B1 emission scenarios, respectively), under two carbon tax regimes (a universal carbon tax (UCT) which includes land use change emissions, and a fossil fuel and industrial emissions carbon tax (FFICT) which excludes land use change emissions) are analyzed. The results are compared to a baseline scenario (i.e. no climate change mitigation policy) with radiative forcing reaching 8.8 W m-2 (equivalent to the SRES A1Fi emission scenario) by 2095. When compared to the baseline scenario and maintaining the same baseline socioeconomic assumptions, water scarcity declines under a UCT mitigation policy but increases with a FFICT mitigation scenario by the year 2095 particularly with more stringent climate mitigation targets. The decreasing trend with UCT policy stringency is due to substitution from more water-intensive to less water-intensive choices in food and energy production, and in land use. Under the FFICT scenario, water scarcity is projected to increase driven by higher water demands for bio-energy crops. This study implies an increasingly prominent role for water availability in future human decisions, and highlights the importance of including water in integrated assessment of global change. Future research will be directed at incorporating water shortage feedbacks in GCAM to better understand how such stresses will propagate across the various human and natural systems in GCAM.

  8. Integrated assessment of global water scarcity over the 21st century – Part 2: Climate change mitigation policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Hejazi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effects of emission mitigation policies on water scarcity both globally and regionally using the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM, a leading community integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, climate, and water. Three climate policy scenarios with increasing mitigation stringency of 7.7, 5.5, and 4.2 W m−2 in year 2095 (equivalent to the SRES A2, B2, and B1 emission scenarios, respectively, under two carbon tax regimes (a universal carbon tax (UCT which includes land use change emissions, and a fossil fuel and industrial emissions carbon tax (FFICT which excludes land use change emissions are analyzed. The results are compared to a baseline scenario (i.e. no climate change mitigation policy with radiative forcing reaching 8.8 W m−2 (equivalent to the SRES A1Fi emission scenario by 2095. When compared to the baseline scenario and maintaining the same baseline socioeconomic assumptions, water scarcity declines under a UCT mitigation policy but increases with a FFICT mitigation scenario by the year 2095 particularly with more stringent climate mitigation targets. The decreasing trend with UCT policy stringency is due to substitution from more water-intensive to less water-intensive choices in food and energy production, and in land use. Under the FFICT scenario, water scarcity is projected to increase driven by higher water demands for bio-energy crops. This study implies an increasingly prominent role for water availability in future human decisions, and highlights the importance of including water in integrated assessment of global change. Future research will be directed at incorporating water shortage feedbacks in GCAM to better understand how such stresses will propagate across the various human and natural systems in GCAM.

  9. Sierra cooperative ozone impact assessment study: Year 4. Volume 2, Part B. 1994 hourly data tabulations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, J.J.; Dixon, A.J.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of the Sierra Cooperative Ozone Impact Assessment Study (SCOIAS) was to characterize ozone concentration and meteorological conditions in mixed conifer forests on the western slope of the Sierra Nevada. The report summarizes the data collected in 1994. The major tasks were to continue aerometric monitoring at six stations in five national forests, and to measure leaf water potential as a factor influencing ozone uptake by pine trees growing near the monitoring stations. The six stations were located at Mountain Home in the Sequoia, Shaver Lake and Jerseydale in the Sierra, Five-Mile in the Stanislaus, Sly Park in the El Dorado, and White Cloud in the Tahoe National Forests.

  10. Reactive polymers: part I - Novel polystyrene-anchored copper (II), nickel (II), cobalt (II), iron (III), zinc (II), cadmium (II), molybdenum (VI) and uranium (VI) complexes of the chelating resin containing thiosemicarbazone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new chelating resin containing thiosemicarbazone has been synthesized by the reaction of aldehydopolystyrene and thiosemicarbazide. The polystyrene bound thiosemicarbazone reacts with salicylaldehyde leading to the formation of a new Schiff base chelating resin which reacts with sodium monochloroacetate and gives the polymer bound S-acetatothiosemicarbazone. The new chelating resin forms complexes of the types PS-LCuX·S, PS-LNiX·3S, PS-LHNi(acac)2, PS-LCoX·3S, PS-LFeX2·2S, PS-LZnX·S, PS-LCdX·S, PS-LMoO2(acac) and PS-LUO2X·S (where PS-LH = polymeranchored ligand; S = DMF or CH3OH; X=Cl or CH3COO- and acacH = acetylacetone). The chelating resins and complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, IR and electronic spectra and magnetic measurements. The Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), and Fe(III) complexes are paramagnetic while the Zn(II), Cd(II), Mo(VI) and U(VI) complexes are diamagnetic. The IR data indicate the thioenolization of the ligand in the complexes (except in PS-LHNi(acac)2 where it behaves as a neutral bidentate ligand). (author). 24 refs., 2 tabs

  11. Final Environmental Assessment for the construction and operation of an office building at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-1107, analyzing the environmental effects relating to the construction and operation of an office building at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). SLAC is a national facility operated by Stanford University, California, under contract with DOE. The center is dedicated to research in elementary particle physics and in those fields that make use of its synchrotron facilities. The objective for the construction and operation of an office building is to provide adequate office space for existing SLAC Waste Management (WM) personnel, so as to centralize WM personnel and to make WM operations more efficient and effective. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

  12. A National Study Assessing the Teaching and Learning of Introductory Astronomy; Part I: The Effect of Interactive Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, E. E.; Rudolph, A. L.; Brissenden, G.; Schlingman, W. M.

    2011-09-01

    We present the results of a national study on the teaching and learning of astronomy taught in general education, non-science major, introductory astronomy courses (Astro 101). Nearly 4000 students enrolled in 69 sections of Astro 101 taught at 31 institutions completed (pre- and post- instruction) the Light and Spectroscopy Concept Inventory (LSCI) from Fall 2006 to Fall 2007. The classes varied in size from very small (N different classrooms affected student learning, we developed and administered an Interactivity Assessment Instrument (IAI). This short survey, completed by instructors, allowed us to estimate the fraction of classroom time spent on learner- centered, active-engagement instruction such as Peer Instruction and collaborative tutorials. Pre-instruction LSCI scores were clustered around ˜25% (24 ± 2%), independent of class size and institution type; however, the gains measured varied from about (-)0.07-0.50. The distribution of gain scores indicates that differences were due to instruction in the classroom, not the type of class or institution. Interactivity Assessment Scores (IAS's) ranged from 0%-50%, showing that our IAI was able to distinguish between classes with higher and lower levels of interactivity. A comparison of class-averaged gain score to IAS showed that higher interactivity classes (IAS > 25%) were the only instructional environments capable of reaching the highest gains ( > 0.30). However, the range of gains seen for both groups of classes was quite wide, suggesting that the use of interactive learning strategies is not sufficient by itself to achieve high student gain.

  13. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana—Part 2: Natural Sciences Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgon Rajaee

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is one of three synthesis documents produced via an integrated assessment (IA that aims to increase understanding of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM in Ghana. Given the complexities surrounding ASGM, an integrated assessment (IA framework was utilized to analyze socio-economic, health, and environmental data, and co-develop evidence-based responses with stakeholders. This paper focuses on the causes, status, trends, and consequences of ecological issues related to ASGM activity in Ghana. It reviews dozens of studies and thousands of samples to document evidence of heavy metals contamination in ecological media across Ghana. Soil and water mercury concentrations were generally lower than guideline values, but sediment mercury concentrations surpassed guideline values in 64% of samples. Arsenic, cadmium, and lead exceeded guideline values in 67%, 17%, and 24% of water samples, respectively. Other water quality parameters near ASGM sites show impairment, with some samples exceeding guidelines for acidity, turbidity, and nitrates. Additional ASGM-related stressors on environmental quality and ecosystem services include deforestation, land degradation, biodiversity loss, legacy contamination, and potential linkages to climate change. Though more research is needed to further elucidate the long-term impacts of ASGM on the environment, the plausible consequences of ecological damages should guide policies and actions to address the unique challenges posed by ASGM.

  14. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana-Part 2: Natural Sciences Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaee, Mozhgon; Obiri, Samuel; Green, Allyson; Long, Rachel; Cobbina, Samuel J; Nartey, Vincent; Buck, David; Antwi, Edward; Basu, Niladri

    2015-08-01

    This paper is one of three synthesis documents produced via an integrated assessment (IA) that aims to increase understanding of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. Given the complexities surrounding ASGM, an integrated assessment (IA) framework was utilized to analyze socio-economic, health, and environmental data, and co-develop evidence-based responses with stakeholders. This paper focuses on the causes, status, trends, and consequences of ecological issues related to ASGM activity in Ghana. It reviews dozens of studies and thousands of samples to document evidence of heavy metals contamination in ecological media across Ghana. Soil and water mercury concentrations were generally lower than guideline values, but sediment mercury concentrations surpassed guideline values in 64% of samples. Arsenic, cadmium, and lead exceeded guideline values in 67%, 17%, and 24% of water samples, respectively. Other water quality parameters near ASGM sites show impairment, with some samples exceeding guidelines for acidity, turbidity, and nitrates. Additional ASGM-related stressors on environmental quality and ecosystem services include deforestation, land degradation, biodiversity loss, legacy contamination, and potential linkages to climate change. Though more research is needed to further elucidate the long-term impacts of ASGM on the environment, the plausible consequences of ecological damages should guide policies and actions to address the unique challenges posed by ASGM. PMID:26264012

  15. Field and laboratory investigations to assess impacts to fish health from oil sands wastewater releases (Part 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A combined field and laboratory investigation was conducted during 1995 to evaluate the health of fish which were exposed to wastewaters from Suncor Inc., Oil Sands Group's operation. This investigation was designed to: assess effects on major trophic components of aquatic ecosystems; assess effects on the general condition and health of fish; and relate chemical characteristics to measured responses. A suite of indicators was examined at several levels of biological organization: biochemical, physiological, whole-organisms, population and community. This comprehensive approach was followed because stress effects on fish cannot be adequately evaluated by measuring a single indicator at a single level of organization. Fish health data for walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), goldeye (Hiodon alosoides) and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus) showed that there were no adverse effects on fish health at any level of organization. The laboratory investigations comprised 7 and 28 exposures to wastewater and showed that no observed effect levels (NOELs) and lowest observed effect levels (LOELs) were greater than 10% for biochemical and physiological and whole-organism endpoints

  16. HISTORY OF EMPLOYMENT AND MANPOWER POLICY IN THE UNITED STATES. PARTS III AND IV, LOOKING AHEAD TO THE POSTWAR ECONOMY AND THE CONCEPT OF FULL EMPLOYMENT IN CONGRESS. SELECTED READINGS IN EMPLOYMENT AND MANPOWER, VOLUME 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.

    THE SELECTED READINGS WERE COMPILED TO PROVIDE SUBCOMMITTEE MEMBERS WITH A BROAD BACKGROUND OF DEVELOPMENTS LEADING TO THE EMPLOYMENT ACT OF 1946 AND ARE CONCERNED WITH THE FORMULATION OF U.S. EMPLOYMENT POLICIES FOLLOWING WORLD WAR II. PARTS I AND II (VT 004 819) PROVIDE THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND FROM THE LATE 1920'S THROUGH THE GREAT DEPRESSION.…

  17. Assessment of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation purposes using hydrochemical studies in Malwa region, southwestern part of Punjab, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Tajinder; Bhardwaj, Renu; Arora, Saroj

    2016-10-01

    Deterioration of groundwater quality due to anthropogenic activities is increasing at an alarming rate in most parts of the Punjab, but limited work has been carried out on groundwater quality and monitoring. This paper highlights the groundwater quality and compares its suitability for drinking and irrigation purpose in Malwa region, a southwestern part of Punjab. The Malwa region makes up the most cultivated area of Punjab with high consumption of pesticides and fertilizers. Twenty-four water samples representing groundwater sources were collected and analyzed for almost all major cations, anions and other physicochemical parameters. Analytical results of physicochemical analysis showed majority of the samples above the permissible limits of the Indian standards. The groundwater of the study area was very hard and the relative abundance of major cations and anions was Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+ and HCO3 - > SO4 2- > Cl-. Fluoride content was higher than permissible limit in 75 % of the samples. The mean concentration of arsenic in groundwater was 9.37 and 11.01µg/L during summer and winter season, respectively. The parameters like sodium adsorption ratio and sodium percentage (Na%) revealed good quality of groundwater for irrigation purposes, whereas magnesium ratio and corrosivity ratio values showed that water is not suitable for agriculture and domestic use. The dominant hydrochemical facies of groundwater was Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-SO4-Cl. Chloro alkaline indices 1 and 2 indicated that reverse ion exchange is dominant in the region. The samples fall in rock dominance and evaporation dominance fields as indicated by Gibbs diagram. The saturation index shows that all the water samples were supersaturated with respect to carbonate minerals. This work thus concludes that groundwater in the study area is chemically unsuitable for domestic and agricultural uses. It is recommended to carry out a continuous water quality monitoring program and development of effective

  18. An Assessment of the Academic Achievement of Students in Two Modes of Part-time Programme in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kola Adeyemi

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the academic achievement of students enrolled in part-times studies at on-campus and outreach centres at three dual-mode Nigerian universities, during the 1996/97 to 1998/ 99 academic years. Research subjects in this study were examination and record officers employed by on-campus and outreach institutions. A checklist was prepared to collect students’ grades; these checklists were then transcribed into grade points (GPAs for data collection purposes. Simple percentage mean (x and t-test statistic were used for data analysis. Interviews were also conducted with key stakeholders to add qualitative context to the quantitative data collected. This study shows that there was significant difference in the academic performance of students enrolled in the on-campus versus outreach-based, part-time programmes in selected disciplines. Also the average mean (x performance of students enrolled in the on-campus programme was higher than those students enrolled in the outreach centres. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that the government provide adequate funding to increase access individuals seeking higher education in Nigeria. The establishment of functional Open University system is also recommended to provide students with distant learning opportunities and likewise increase access. Several quality improvements are likewise recommended: the use of modern information technology for instructional delivery, recruitment of skilled teachers, improved teaching/ learning facilities, and strict adherence to standardized student admission requirements as specified by the National Universities Commission (NUC. We wrap up with practical suggestions, such as providing orientation sessions for outreach students to learn practical skills such as how to access library materials.

  19. Contamination of Japanese foodstuffs of terrestrial origin after the Fukushima nuclear accident and related dose assessment - Part 2: ingestion dose assessments for the first year after the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article proposes an assessment of the ingestion doses potentially received by people living in the Japanese areas most severely affected by the radioactive deposits due to the Fukushima nuclear accident. The assessment distinguishes two consecutive periods: the first 2 months (March 15 to May 15 2011) and the rest of the year 2011, according to the two main foodstuff contamination periods identified (Renaud et al., 2013). On the basis of the worst- case hypothesis that can reasonably be made, the estimated doses are much lower than they might have been in other circumstances, on account of generally moderate levels of contamination for most foods, early evacuation of the most severely affected areas and the consumption bans ordered by the Japanese authorities. Thus, a single ingestion of 100 g of leafy vegetables in the early days by a one-year-old child living in non-evacuated localities near Iitate and Kawamata could have led to an equivalent dose to the thyroid of about 25 mSv; and to a thyroid dose of about 140 mSv for the rather unrealistic scenario of a daily consumption. Because of the rapid decrease in the contamination of vegetables and a much weaker contamination of other crops, and thanks to measures taken by the authorities (prohibition of consumption, use of certain fodder, etc.), the ingestion doses potentially received during the remainder of the year 2011 are estimated to be below 1 mSv. In the event that sales limits would have been ignored, only repeated consumption of mushrooms would have led to doses above that level. Even with the worst-case hypotheses, the doses potentially caused by ingestion are much lower than those resulting from outdoor exposure to radioactive deposits: approximately several milli-sieverts in a year for the population living in the non-evacuated localities near Iitate and Kawamata. (authors)

  20. Mitigation of global greenhouse gas emissions from waste: conclusions and strategies from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report. Working Group III (Mitigation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogner, Jean; Pipatti, Riitta; Hashimoto, Seiji; Diaz, Cristobal; Mareckova, Katarina; Diaz, Luis; Kjeldsen, Peter; Monni, Suvi; Faaij, Andre; Gao, Qingxian; Zhang, Tianzhu; Ahmed, Mohammed Abdelrafie; Sutamihardja, R T M; Gregory, Robert

    2008-02-01

    . Existing studies on mitigation potentials and costs for the waste sector tend to focus on landfill CH4 as the baseline. The commercial recovery of landfill CH4 as a source of renewable energy has been practised at full scale since 1975 and currently exceeds 105 Mt CO2-eq year(-1). Although landfill CH4 emissions from developed countries have been largely stabilized, emissions from developing countries are increasing as more controlled (anaerobic) landfilling practices are implemented; these emissions could be reduced by accelerating the introduction of engineered gas recovery, increasing rates of waste minimization and recycling, and implementing alternative waste management strategies provided they are affordable, effective, and sustainable. Aided by Kyoto mechanisms such as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint Implementation (JI), the total global economic mitigation potential for reducing waste sector emissions in 2030 is estimated to be > 1000 Mt CO2-eq (or 70% of estimated emissions) at costs below 100 US$ t(-1) CO2-eq year(-1). An estimated 20-30% of projected emissions for 2030 can be reduced at negative cost and 30-50% at costs 130 Mt waste year(-1) incinerated at more than 600 plants. Current uncertainties with respect to emissions and mitigation potentials could be reduced by more consistent national definitions, coordinated international data collection, standardized data analysis, field validation of models, and consistent application of life-cycle assessment tools inclusive of fossil fuel offsets.

  1. Mitigation of global greenhouse gas emissions from waste: conclusions and strategies from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report. Working Group III (Mitigation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogner, Jean; Pipatti, Riitta; Hashimoto, Seiji; Diaz, Cristobal; Mareckova, Katarina; Diaz, Luis; Kjeldsen, Peter; Monni, Suvi; Faaij, Andre; Gao, Qingxian; Zhang, Tianzhu; Ahmed, Mohammed Abdelrafie; Sutamihardja, R T M; Gregory, Robert

    2008-02-01

    . Existing studies on mitigation potentials and costs for the waste sector tend to focus on landfill CH4 as the baseline. The commercial recovery of landfill CH4 as a source of renewable energy has been practised at full scale since 1975 and currently exceeds 105 Mt CO2-eq year(-1). Although landfill CH4 emissions from developed countries have been largely stabilized, emissions from developing countries are increasing as more controlled (anaerobic) landfilling practices are implemented; these emissions could be reduced by accelerating the introduction of engineered gas recovery, increasing rates of waste minimization and recycling, and implementing alternative waste management strategies provided they are affordable, effective, and sustainable. Aided by Kyoto mechanisms such as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint Implementation (JI), the total global economic mitigation potential for reducing waste sector emissions in 2030 is estimated to be > 1000 Mt CO2-eq (or 70% of estimated emissions) at costs below 100 US$ t(-1) CO2-eq year(-1). An estimated 20-30% of projected emissions for 2030 can be reduced at negative cost and 30-50% at costs 130 Mt waste year(-1) incinerated at more than 600 plants. Current uncertainties with respect to emissions and mitigation potentials could be reduced by more consistent national definitions, coordinated international data collection, standardized data analysis, field validation of models, and consistent application of life-cycle assessment tools inclusive of fossil fuel offsets. PMID:18338699

  2. An integrated ecosystem approach for assessing the potential role of cultivated bivalve shells as part of the carbon trading system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filgueira, Ramón; Byron, C.J.; Comeau, L.A.;

    2015-01-01

    , is needed to provide a rigorous assessment of the role of bivalve mariculture in the CO2 cycle. On the other hand, the discussion about the inclusion of shells of cultured bivalves into the carbon trading system should be framed in the context of ecosystem goods and services. Humans culture bivalves...... and shell when constructing a specific CO2 budget for shells for evaluating the potential of including bivalve shells, and not the whole organism, in the carbon trading system. Concluding, an integrated ecosystem approach as well as an understanding of the ecosystems goods and services of bivalve......The role of bivalve mariculture in the CO2 cycle has been commonly evaluated as the balance between respiration, shell calcium carbonate sequestration and CO2 release during biogenic calcification. However, this approach neglects the ecosystem implications of cultivating bivalves at high densities...

  3. SABRE: a computer-based system for the assessment of body radioactivity by photon spectrometry. Part 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A PDP-11/10 computer system is described for the acquisition and processing of pulse height spectra from detectors used for the measurement of body radioactivity. Version 4 of SABRE (System for the Assessment of Body Radioactivity) provides control of multiple detection systems from visual display consoles by means of a command language. A wide range of facilities is available for the display, processing and storage of acquired spectra and complex operations may be pre-programmed by means of the SABRE MACRO language. The hardware includes a CAMAC interface to the detection systems, disc cartridge drives for mass storage of data and programs, and data-links to other computers. The software is written in assembler language and includes special features for the dynamic allocation of computer memory and for safeguarding acquired data. (author)

  4. Comparative study of eddy current and Barkhausen noise methods in microstructural assessment of heat treated steel parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahebalam, Alireza; Kashefi, Mehrdad; Kahrobaee, Saeed

    2014-07-01

    The present paper describes details of the comparison on the capability of eddy current (EC) and magnetic Barkhausen noise (MBN) techniques in the assessment of different microstructures in mild steel. To produce various microstructures, AISI 1045 steel samples were subjected to different heat treatment processes including annealing, normalising, quenching and tempering. EC outputs (induced voltage, normalised impedance and phase angle) as well as MBN outputs (peak width, position and amplitude) were evaluated. Comparing the EC/MBN outputs for the microstructures, the MBN peak characteristics show better agreement with changes in the microstructures. Besides, using regression analysis, peak width has been proved to be the optimum output to separate the microstructures with high accuracy.

  5. Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program: Atmospheric Remote Sensing and Assessment Program -- Final Report. Part 1: The lower atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tooman, T.P. [ed.] [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Exploratory Systems Technology Dept.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents work done between FY91 and FY95 for the lower atmospheric portion of the joint Department of Defense (DoD) and Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Remote Sensing and Assessment Program (ARSAP) within the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP). The work focused on (1) developing new measurement capabilities and (2) measuring atmospheric heating in a well-defined layer and then relating it to cloud properties an water vapor content. Seven new instruments were develop3ed for use with Unmanned Aerospace Vehicles (UAVs) as the host platform for flux, radiance, cloud, and water vapor measurements. Four major field campaigns were undertaken to use these new as well as existing instruments to make critically needed atmospheric measurements. Scientific results include the profiling of clear sky fluxes from near surface to 14 km and the strong indication of cloudy atmosphere absorption of solar radiation considerably greater than predicted by extant models.

  6. Comparative assessment of characteristic part-load performances of screw compressors and turbo-compressors; Vergleich der charakteristischen Teillastwirkungsgrade von Schrauben- und Turboverdichtern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasz, J.J.; Hartmann, K. [Carrier Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States)]|[Carrier Corp., Muenchen (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The relative part-load performance of screw compressors and radial compressors is compared. Compressor part load is represented by a 2D characteristic field with the pressure on the vertical axis as a function of mass flow on the horizontal axis, with efficiencies given for any possible combination of pressure and mass flow. While this manner of representation is common for radial compressors, it is new for screw compressors. In the comparison of compression efficiencies, the focus is on vapour compression. For a valid comparative assessment of total compression, also the mechanical and/or electric loss through bearings, transmission, drive and (in case of variable-speed drives) frequency converters must be taken into account. (orig.)

  7. 78 FR 62417 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... Part 324 RIN 3064-AD95 Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy, Transition Provisions, Prompt Corrective Action, Standardized Approach for Risk-Weighted... Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy, Transition...

  8. Arsenic(III Immobilization on Rice Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malay Chaudhuri

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of large aquifers in various parts of the world have been identified with contamination by arsenic. Long-term exposure to arsenic in drinking water causes cancer of the skin, lungs, urinary bladder and kidney, as well as skin pigmentation and hyperkeratosis. Arsenic occurs in groundwater in two valence states, as trivalent arsenite [As(III] and pentavalent arsenate [As(V]. As(III is more toxic and more difficult to remove from water by adsorption on activated alumina. In this study, immobilization (adsorption of As(III by quaternized rice husk was examined. Batch adsorption test showed that extent of adsorption was dependent on pH, As (III concentration, contact time and rice husk dose. Maximum adsorption occurred at pH 7-8, and equilibrium adsorption was attained in 2 h. Equilibrium adsorption data were described by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. According to the Langmuir isotherm, adsorption capacity of quaternized rice husk is 0.775 mg As(III/g, which is 4.3x higher than that (0.180 mg As(III/g of activated alumina. Quaternized rice husk is a potentially useful adsorbent for removing arsenic from groundwater.

  9. Climate change impact assessment on Veneto and Friuli plain groundwater. Part I: An integrated modeling approach for hazard scenario construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baruffi, F. [Autorita di Bacino dei Fiumi dell' Alto Adriatico, Cannaregio 4314, 30121 Venice (Italy); Cisotto, A., E-mail: segreteria@adbve.it [Autorita di Bacino dei Fiumi dell' Alto Adriatico, Cannaregio 4314, 30121 Venice (Italy); Cimolino, A.; Ferri, M.; Monego, M.; Norbiato, D.; Cappelletto, M.; Bisaglia, M. [Autorita di Bacino dei Fiumi dell' Alto Adriatico, Cannaregio 4314, 30121 Venice (Italy); Pretner, A.; Galli, A. [SGI Studio Galli Ingegneria, via della Provvidenza 13, 35030 Sarmeola di Rubano (PD) (Italy); Scarinci, A., E-mail: andrea.scarinci@sgi-spa.it [SGI Studio Galli Ingegneria, via della Provvidenza 13, 35030 Sarmeola di Rubano (PD) (Italy); Marsala, V.; Panelli, C. [SGI Studio Galli Ingegneria, via della Provvidenza 13, 35030 Sarmeola di Rubano (PD) (Italy); Gualdi, S., E-mail: silvio.gualdi@bo.ingv.it [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), via Augusto Imperatore 16, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Bucchignani, E., E-mail: e.bucchignani@cira.it [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), via Augusto Imperatore 16, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Torresan, S., E-mail: torresan@cmcc.it [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), via Augusto Imperatore 16, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Pasini, S., E-mail: sara.pasini@stud.unive.it [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), via Augusto Imperatore 16, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Department of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics, University Ca' Foscari Venice, Calle Larga S. Marta 2137, 30123 Venice (Italy); Critto, A., E-mail: critto@unive.it [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), via Augusto Imperatore 16, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Department of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics, University Ca' Foscari Venice, Calle Larga S. Marta 2137, 30123 Venice (Italy); and others

    2012-12-01

    Climate change impacts on water resources, particularly groundwater, is a highly debated topic worldwide, triggering international attention and interest from both researchers and policy makers due to its relevant link with European water policy directives (e.g. 2000/60/EC and 2007/118/EC) and related environmental objectives. The understanding of long-term impacts of climate variability and change is therefore a key challenge in order to address effective protection measures and to implement sustainable management of water resources. This paper presents the modeling approach adopted within the Life + project TRUST (Tool for Regional-scale assessment of groUndwater Storage improvement in adaptation to climaTe change) in order to provide climate change hazard scenarios for the shallow groundwater of high Veneto and Friuli Plain, Northern Italy. Given the aim to evaluate potential impacts on water quantity and quality (e.g. groundwater level variation, decrease of water availability for irrigation, variations of nitrate infiltration processes), the modeling approach integrated an ensemble of climate, hydrologic and hydrogeologic models running from the global to the regional scale. Global and regional climate models and downscaling techniques were used to make climate simulations for the reference period 1961-1990 and the projection period 2010-2100. The simulation of the recent climate was performed using observed radiative forcings, whereas the projections have been done prescribing the radiative forcings according to the IPCC A1B emission scenario. The climate simulations and the downscaling, then, provided the precipitation, temperatures and evapo-transpiration fields used for the impact analysis. Based on downscaled climate projections, 3 reference scenarios for the period 2071-2100 (i.e. the driest, the wettest and the mild year) were selected and used to run a regional geomorphoclimatic and hydrogeological model. The final output of the model ensemble produced

  10. Climate change impact assessment on Veneto and Friuli plain groundwater. Part I: An integrated modeling approach for hazard scenario construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change impacts on water resources, particularly groundwater, is a highly debated topic worldwide, triggering international attention and interest from both researchers and policy makers due to its relevant link with European water policy directives (e.g. 2000/60/EC and 2007/118/EC) and related environmental objectives. The understanding of long-term impacts of climate variability and change is therefore a key challenge in order to address effective protection measures and to implement sustainable management of water resources. This paper presents the modeling approach adopted within the Life + project TRUST (Tool for Regional-scale assessment of groUndwater Storage improvement in adaptation to climaTe change) in order to provide climate change hazard scenarios for the shallow groundwater of high Veneto and Friuli Plain, Northern Italy. Given the aim to evaluate potential impacts on water quantity and quality (e.g. groundwater level variation, decrease of water availability for irrigation, variations of nitrate infiltration processes), the modeling approach integrated an ensemble of climate, hydrologic and hydrogeologic models running from the global to the regional scale. Global and regional climate models and downscaling techniques were used to make climate simulations for the reference period 1961–1990 and the projection period 2010–2100. The simulation of the recent climate was performed using observed radiative forcings, whereas the projections have been done prescribing the radiative forcings according to the IPCC A1B emission scenario. The climate simulations and the downscaling, then, provided the precipitation, temperatures and evapo-transpiration fields used for the impact analysis. Based on downscaled climate projections, 3 reference scenarios for the period 2071–2100 (i.e. the driest, the wettest and the mild year) were selected and used to run a regional geomorphoclimatic and hydrogeological model. The final output of the model ensemble

  11. Cognitive development in patients with Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (Sanfilippo syndrome)

    OpenAIRE

    Colland Vivian; Grootenhuis Martha; Marchal Jan; Valstar Marlies J; Wijburg Frits A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III, Sanfilippo syndrome) is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of one of the enzymes involved in the degradation of heparan sulfate. MPS III is characterized by progressive mental deterioration resulting in severe dementia. A number of potentially disease-modifying therapies are studied. As preservation of cognitive function is the ultimate goal of treatment, assessment of cognitive development will be essential in orde...

  12. Suitability Assessment of Deep Groundwater for Drinking and Irrigation Use in the Parts of Hoskote and Malur Taluks, Karnataka (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Ravikumar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater samples from thirty four bore wells used for drinking and irrigation in parts of Hoskote and Malur taluks, Karnataka State (India, were collected and geochemically analysed during December 2014. The hydrochemical characteristics was dominated by Ca2+-Mg2+ -Cl--SO42- (58.82% and Ca2+-Mg2+-HCO3- (38.24%, with alkaline earth (Ca+Mg exceeding alkalies (Na+K and strong acidic anions dominating weak acidic anions. Weathering of rock-forming minerals regulated chemistry of the groundwater in the study area as indicated by Gibbs plot. The groundwater chemistry in the study area is influenced by silicate dissolution of host rock with contribution from weathering of carbonate rocks while positive CAI values indicated exchange of Na and K from the water with Mg and Ca of the rocks in the study area. The Ca2+/Mg2+ molar ratio plot further supported the fact that dissolution of calcite with effect of silicate minerals contributes calcium and magnesium to 97.06% of the groundwater. SAR, percent sodium, WQI and permeability index values demonstrated the suitability of a majority of the samples for irrigation.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.71.1.9809

  13. Life time assessment and repair of dissimilar metal welds. Part 1; Livslaengdsbedoemning och reparation av blandsvetsskarvar. Etapp 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storesund, Jan; Borggreen, Kjeld

    2005-04-01

    Research on the performance of dissimilar metal welds in high temperature plant has been performed for many years. Nevertheless damages are frequent in such welds. In order to decrease the damage problems and make it possible to estimate residual lifetimes of dissimilar metal welds in our Nordic countries it is first essential to i) collect the knowledge in the literature and ii) map current dissimilar metal welds and their condition in Swedish and Danish plants. The present report describes this first part of the work. There is a comprehensive literature of she subject. Most work has been performed on ferritic/austenitic dissimilar welds. In Swedish and Danish plants the dominating type is ferritic/martensitic dissimilar welds. The damage mechanisms are about the same in the two types, creep is the dominating mechanism, but plant experience indicates that the ferritic/austenitic combination is more prone to damage than the ferritic/martensitic one. An important difference between the two types is that Ni-base weld metal generally prolongs the lifetime for ferritic/austenitic dissimilar welds whereas it shows an opposite effect in ferritic/martensitic ones. In the latter case use of a 5 % Cr weld metal seems to be the best choice but the experiences of such welds are limited. The mapping of dissimilar welds indicates that there are predominantly special kinds of welds which fail whereas ordinary butt welds and branch welds are relatively free from damage.

  14. Hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality assessment of lower part of the Ponnaiyar River Basin, Cuddalore district, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevanandam, M; Kannan, R; Srinivasalu, S; Rammohan, V

    2007-09-01

    The Lower Ponnaiyar River Basin forms an important groundwater province in South India constituted by Tertiary formations dominated by sandstones and overlain by alluvium. The region enjoyed artesian conditions 50 years back but at present frequent failure of monsoon and over exploitation is threatening the aquifer. Further, extensive agricultural and industrial activities and urbanization has resulted in the increase in demand and contamination of the aquifer. To identify the sources and quality of groundwater, water samples from 47 bore wells were collected in an area of 154 km2 and were analysed for major ions and trace metals. The results reveal that the groundwater in many places is contaminated by higher concentrations of NO3, Cl, PO4 and Fe. Four major hydrochemical facies Ca-Mg-Cl, Na-Cl, Ca-HCO3 and Na-HCO3 were identified using Piper trilinear diagram. Salinity, sodium adsorption ratio, and sodium percentage indicate that most of the groundwater samples are not suitable for irrigation as well as for domestic purposes and far from drinking water standards. The most serious pollution threat to groundwater is from nitrate ions, which are associated with sewage and fertilizers application. The present state of the quality of the lower part of Ponnaiyar River Basin is of great concern and the higher concentration of toxic metals (Fe and Ni) may entail various health hazards. PMID:17180415

  15. Assessment of trace metal contamination level and toxicity in sediments from coastal regions of West Bengal, eastern part of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antizar-Ladislao, Blanca; Mondal, Priyanka; Mitra, Soumita; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar

    2015-12-30

    The work investigated concentration of trace metals in surface sediments (0-10 cm; Mangrove Wetland (SMW), eastern coastal part of India. The trace metal concentrations in sediments exhibited an overall decreasing trend as follows: Cr (21.2-60.9)>Cu (11.60-102.47)>Ni (19.10-52.60)>Pb (7.09-183.88)>As (4.41-11.46)>Cd (0.02-4.4)>Ag (0.02-0.87). Both the geo-accumulation index (Igeo) and contamination factor (CF) values revealed significant pollution by Ag, Cd and Pb at Nurpur of HRE. Potential Ecological Risk Index (RI) (61.21 ± 112.40) showed wide range of variations from low (19.76) to serious (463.20) ecological risk. A positive significant correlation was found between metals and organic carbon in sediments. The ecological risk associated with the trace metals in sediment was considered on the consensus based Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs). The work suggests that the trace metals present in sediments posed adverse effects on the sediment-dwelling organisms. PMID:26581818

  16. Development and implementation of a music/activity therapy intake assessment for psychiatric patients. Part I: initial standardization procedures on data from university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braswell, C; Brooks, D M; Decuir, A; Humphrey, T; Jacobs, K W; Sutton, K

    1983-01-01

    The stimulus for the Music/Activity Therapy Intake Assessment was a recent publication by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals requiring for activity services, "assessment of the patient's needs, interests, life experiences, capacities, and deficiencies" (1981, p. 126). The Assessment was written in the spring of 1982 and contains four sections: Activity Preference, Organizational involvement, Attitude Survey, and Post-Interview Observations. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Attitude Survey. The Attitude Survey was administered to 214 university students enrolled in three areas of study: human science, performance, and liberal arts. Results show that each of the three scales in the Survey is internally consistent (.63 to .74), that each scale measures a single large dimension, and that two of the three scales significantly discriminate between groups of students (p less than .05). The authors conclude that the Attitude Survey possesses adequate psychometric properties to justify its continued use as part of the Music/Activity Intake Assessment. PMID:10262389

  17. Potential radionuclide emissions from stacks on the Hanford site, Part 2: Dose assessment methodology using portable low-resolution gamma spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, J.M. [Westinghouse Hanford Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    In September 1992, the Westinghouse Hanford Company began developing an in situ measurement method to assess gamma radiation emanating from high-efficiency particulate air filters using portable low-resolution gamma spectroscopy. The purpose of the new method was to assess radioactive exhaust stack air emissions from empirical data rather than from theoretical models and to determine the potential unabated dose to an offsite theoretical maximally exposed individual. In accordance with Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 61, Subpart H, {open_quotes}National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants{close_quotes}, stacks that have the potential to emit {ge} 1 {mu}Sv y{sup {minus}1} (0.1 mrem y{sup {minus}1}) to the maximally exposed individual are considered {open_quotes}major{close_quotes} and must meet the continuous monitoring requirements. After the method was tested and verified, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10, approved its use in June 1993. Of the 125 stacks operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company, 22 were targeted for evaluation by this method, and 15 were assessed. (The method could not be applied at seven stacks because of excessive background radiation or because no gamma emitting particles appear in the emission stream.) The most significant result from this study was the redesignation of the T Plant main stack. The stack was assessed as being {open_quotes}minor{close_quotes}, and it now only requires periodic confirmatory measurements and meets federally imposed sampling requirements.

  18. Accelerometry-based gait analysis and its application to Parkinson's disease assessment--part 1: detection of stride event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Mitsuru; Kurihara, Yosuke; Watanabe, Kajiro; Mitoma, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    Gait analysis is widely recognized as a promising tool for obtaining objective information on the walking behavior of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. It is especially useful in clinical practices if gait properties can be captured with minimal instrumentation that does not interfere with the subject's usual behavioral pattern under ambulatory conditions. In this study, we propose a new gait analysis system based on a trunk-mounted acceleration sensor and automatic gait detection algorithm. The algorithm identifies the acceleration signal with high intensity, periodicity, and biphasicity as a possible gait sequence, from which gait peaks due to stride events are extracted by utilizing the cross-correlation and anisotropy properties of the signal. A total of 11 healthy subjects and 12 PD patients were tested to evaluate the performance of the algorithm. The result indicates that gait peaks can be detected with an accuracy of more than 94%. The proposed method may serve as a practical component in the accelerometry-based assessment of daily gait characteristics.

  19. Assessing subaqueous mudslide hazard on the Mississippi River delta front, Part 2: Insights revealed through high-resolution geophysical surveying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obelcz, J.; Xu, K.; Bentley, S. J.; Georgiou, I. Y.; Maloney, J. M.; Miner, M. D.; Hanegan, K.; Keller, G.

    2014-12-01

    The northern Gulf of Mexico, including the subaqueous Mississippi River delta front (MRDF), has been productive for oil and gas development since the early 1900s. In 1969 cyclic seafloor wave loading associated with the passage of Hurricane Camille triggered subaqueous mudflows across the MRDF, destroying several offshore oil platforms. This incident spurred geophysical and geotechnical studies of the MRDF, which found that the delta front is prone to mass failures on gentle gradients (survey area can be classified into four primary sedimentary facies: mudflow gullies, mudflow lobes, undisturbed prodelta, and undisturbed delta front. Subbottom profiles reveal extensive biogenic gas from 20 to about 80 m water depths on the delta front; sidescan data show a variety of bottleneck slides, mudflow gullies and mudflow noses. Previous studies have attempted to constrain the periodicity and magnitude of subaqueous mudslides on the MRDF. However, large age gaps and varied resolution between datasets result in ambiguity regarding the cause and magnitude of observed bathymetric changes. We present high-temporal resolution MRDF bathymetric variations from 2005 (post Hurricane Katrina), 2009 (relatively quiescent storm period), and 2014 (post 2011 Mississippi River flood). These data yield better magnitude and timing estimates of mass movements. This exercise represents a first step towards (1) assembling a comprehensive geologic dataset upon which future MRDF geohazard assessments can be founded, and (2) understanding the dynamics of a massive passive margin deltaic lobe entering a phase of decline.

  20. AN ATTEMPT TO DETERMINE THE RELATION BETWEEN HUCUL HORSES CONFORMATION ASSESSMENT, MOVEMENT AND COURAGE TEST RESULTS PART II. MARE FAMILIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga TOPCZEWSKA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to determine the relationship between evaluation of conformation and motion indicators and results of the Huculs’ path and also to ascertain the courage (basic and elimination of Hucul horses with their classification into mare families being taken account of. The scores of 116 horses presented for the evaluation of their exterior (championship breeding were analyzed. The assessment covered the type, body conformation, movement in walk and trot as well as overall impression and preparedness for the exhibition. Measurements of length of steps, frequency and rate of the walk and trot were performed during the tests for courage. The estimated correlation coefficients exhibited the existence of some interesting trends i.e., there was positive correlation between values for type, body conformation, movement in walk and trot and the length of steps in walk and trot in individuals representing most of mare families. The reverse was the case with horses from the Sroczka and Wyderka families. Amongst the Wrona, however, negative correlations between the grade for walk and frequency of steps in walk was observed while that of between the result of path and utility tests was positive.

  1. A National Study Assessing the Teaching and Learning of Introductory Astronomy Part I: The Effect of Interactive Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, A. L.; Prather, E. E.; Brissenden, G.; Schlingman, W. M.

    2010-08-01

    We present the results of a national study on the teaching and learning of astronomy as taught in general education, non-science major, and introductory astronomy courses (commonly referred to as Astro 101). Nearly 4000 students enrolled in 69 sections of courses taught by 36 different instructors at 31 institutions completed (pre- and post-instruction) the Light and Spectroscopy Concept Inventory (LSCI) from Fall 2006 to Fall 2007. The classes varied in size and were from all types of institutions, including two- and four-year colleges and universities. Normalized gain scores for each class were calculated. Pre-instruction LSCI scores were clustered around 25%, independent of class size and institution type, and normalized gain scores varied from about -0.07 to 0.50. To estimate the fraction of classroom time spent on learner-centered, active-engagement instruction we developed and administered an Interactivity Assessment Instrument (IAI). Our results suggest that the differences in gains were due to instruction in the classroom, not the type of class or institution. We also found that higher interactivity classes had the highest gains, confirming that interactive learning strategies are capable of increasing student conceptual understanding. However, the wide range of gains scores seen for both lower and higher interactivity classes suggests that the use of interactive learning strategies is not sufficient by itself to achieve high student gain.

  2. Ion Mobility Spectrometry-Hydrogen Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry of Anions: Part 2. Assessing Charge Site Location and Isotope Scrambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakinejad, Mahdiar; Ghassabi Kondalaji, Samaneh; Donohoe, Gregory C.; Valentine, Stephen J.

    2016-03-01

    Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) coupled with gas-phase hydrogen deuterium exchange (HDX)-mass spectrometry (MS) and molecular dynamic simulations (MDS) has been used for structural investigation of anions produced by electrospraying a sample containing a synthetic peptide having the sequence KKDDDDDIIKIIK. In these experiments the potential of the analytical method for locating charge sites on ions as well as for utilizing collision-induced dissociation (CID) to reveal the degree of deuterium uptake within specific amino acid residues has been assessed. For diffuse (i.e., more elongated) [M - 2H]2- ions, decreased deuterium content along with MDS data suggest that the D4 and D6 residues are charge sites, whereas for the more diffuse [M - 3H]3- ions, the data suggest that the D4, D7, and the C-terminus are deprotonated. Fragmentation of mobility-selected, diffuse [M - 2H]2- ions to determine deuterium uptake at individual amino acid residues reveals a degree of deuterium retention at incorporation sites. Although the diffuse [M - 3H]3- ions may show more HD scrambling, it is not possible to clearly distinguish HD scrambling from the expected deuterium uptake based on a hydrogen accessibility model. The capability of the IMS-HDX-MS/MS approach to provide relevant details about ion structure is discussed. Additionally, the ability to extend the approach for locating protonation sites on positively-charged ions is presented.

  3. Topographic and radiographic profile assessment of dental erosion. Part II: effect of citrus fruit juices on human dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiouny, Mohamed A; Yang, Jie; Kuroda, Shuntaro

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to monitor changes in the topography, morphology, and radiographic profiles of human permanent teeth that had been exposed to citrus fruit juices. The effect of long-term exposure was monitored for a prolonged duration of 20 weeks according to set criteria. Topographic and morphologic changes were observed at weekly intervals following challenge by test fluids (orange, lemon, and grapefruit juices) and compared with control fluids (acetic acid and water). The qualitative changes in the specimens' topography and the morphology of citrus fruit juices and control fluids are described as a function of time, in specific details. The digitized radiographic images obtained at four-week intervals were analyzed and the changes were assessed. The results indicated that orange juice specimens demonstrated the mildest changes, while lemon juice specimens displayed the most severe damage to the coronal segments of the teeth. This damage manifested as loss of cusp height, cervical enamel, and coronal radius, as well as reduction of enamel cap height. Of the tested and control fluids, lemon juice displayed the most eros ion, followed by acetic acid, grapefruit juice, orange juice, and water, which had no effect. Continued immersion in the four acidic fluids led to varying degrees of enamel loss progression.

  4. 20 CFR Appendix III to Subpart C... - Benefit Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Pt. 404, Subpt. C, App. III Appendix III to Subpart C of Part 404—Benefit Table This benefit table shows primary insurance amounts and maximum family... insurance amounts for an individual whose entitlement began in the period June 1977 through May 1978....

  5. SAGE III aerosol extinction validation in the Arctic winter: comparisons with SAGE II and POAM III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. W. Thomason

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of SAGE III multiwavelength aerosol extinction coefficient measurements to infer PSC type is contingent on the robustness of both the extinction magnitude and its spectral variation. Past validation with SAGE II and other similar measurements has shown that the SAGE III extinction coefficient measurements are reliable though the comparisons have been greatly weighted toward measurements made at mid-latitudes. Some aerosol comparisons made in the Arctic winter as a part of SOLVE II suggested that SAGE III values, particularly at longer wavelengths, are too small with the implication that both the magnitude and the wavelength dependence are not reliable. Comparisons with POAM III have also suggested a similar discrepancy. Herein, we use SAGE II data as a common standard for comparison of SAGE III and POAM III measurements in the Arctic winters of 2002/2003 through 2004/2005. During the winter, SAGE II measurements are made infrequently at the same latitudes as these instruments. We have mitigated this problem through the use potential vorticity as a spatial coordinate and thus greatly increased the number of coincident events. We find that SAGE II and III extinction coefficient measurements show a high degree of compatibility at both 1020 nm and 450 nm except a 10–20% bias at both wavelengths. In addition, the 452 to 1020 nm extinction ratio shows a consistent bias of ~30% throughout the lower stratosphere. We also find that SAGE II and POAM III are on average consistent though the comparisons show a much higher variability and larger bias than SAGE II/III comparisons. In addition, we find that the two data sets are not well correlated below 18 km. Overall, we find both the extinction values and the spectral dependence from SAGE III are robust and we find no evidence of a significant defect within the Arctic vortex.

  6. SAGE III Aerosol Extinction Validation in the Arctic Winter: Comparisons with SAGE II and POAM III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, L. W.; Poole, L. R.; Randall, C. E.

    2007-01-01

    The use of SAGE III multiwavelength aerosol extinction coefficient measurements to infer PSC type is contingent on the robustness of both the extinction magnitude and its spectral variation. Past validation with SAGE II and other similar measurements has shown that the SAGE III extinction coefficient measurements are reliable though the comparisons have been greatly weighted toward measurements made at mid-latitudes. Some aerosol comparisons made in the Arctic winter as a part of SOLVE II suggested that SAGE III values, particularly at longer wavelengths, are too small with the implication that both the magnitude and the wavelength dependence are not reliable. Comparisons with POAM III have also suggested a similar discrepancy. Herein, we use SAGE II data as a common standard for comparison of SAGE III and POAM III measurements in the Arctic winters of 2002/2003 through 2004/2005. During the winter, SAGE II measurements are made infrequently at the same latitudes as these instruments. We have mitigated this problem through the use potential vorticity as a spatial coordinate and thus greatly increased the number of coincident events. We find that SAGE II and III extinction coefficient measurements show a high degree of compatibility at both 1020 nm and 450 nm except a 10-20% bias at both wavelengths. In addition, the 452 to 1020-nm extinction ratio shows a consistent bias of approx. 30% throughout the lower stratosphere. We also find that SAGE II and POAM III are on average consistent though the comparisons show a much higher variability and larger bias than SAGE II/III comparisons. In addition, we find that the two data sets are not well correlated below 18 km. Overall, we find both the extinction values and the spectral dependence from SAGE III are robust and we find no evidence of a significant defect within the Arctic vortex.

  7. Lutetium(III cyclotetraphosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aïcha Mbarek

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of the title compound, tetralutetium(III tris(cyclotetraphosphate, Lu4(P4O123, were obtained by solid-state reaction. The cubic structure is isotypic with its AlIII and ScIII analogues and is built up from four-membered (P4O124− phosphate ring anions (overline{4} symmetry, isolated from each other and further linked through isolated LuO6 octahedra (.3. symmetry via corner sharing. Each LuO6 octahedron is linked to six (P4O124− rings, while each (P4O124− ring is linked to eight LuO6 octahedra.

  8. Fusion Power Demonstration III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the third in the series of reports covering the Fusion Power Demonstration (FPD) design study. This volume considers the FPD-III configuration that incorporates an octopole end plug. As compared with the quadrupole end-plugged designs of FPD-I and FPD-II, this octopole configuration reduces the number of end cell magnets and shortens the minimum ignition length of the central cell. The end-cell plasma length is also reduced, which in turn reduces the size and cost of the end cell magnets and shielding. As a contiuation in the series of documents covering the FPD, this report does not stand alone as a design description of FPD-III. Design details of FPD-III subsystems that do not differ significantly from those of the FPD-II configuration are not duplicated in this report

  9. Improving and Assessing Aircraft-based Greenhouse Gas Emission Rate Measurements at Indianapolis as part of the INFLUX project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimburger, A. M. F.; Shepson, P. B.; Stirm, B. H.; Susdorf, C.; Cambaliza, M. O. L.

    2015-12-01

    Since the Copenhagen accord in 2009, several countries have affirmed their commitment to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. The United States and Canada committed to reduce their emissions by 17% below 2005 levels, by 2020, Europe by 14% and China by ~40%. To achieve such targets, coherent and effective strategies in mitigating atmospheric carbon emissions must be implemented in the next decades. Whether such goals are actually achieved, they require that reductions are "measurable", "reportable", and "verifiable". Management of greenhouse gas emissions must focus on urban environments since ~74% of CO2 emissions worldwide will be from cities, while measurement approaches are highly uncertain (~50% to >100%). The Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) was established to develop, assess and improve top-down and bottom-up quantifications of urban greenhouse gas emissions. Based on an aircraft mass balance approach, we performed a series of experiments focused on the improvement of CO2, CH4 and CO emission rates quantification from Indianapolis, our final objective being to drastically improve the method overall uncertainty from the previous estimate of 50%. In November-December 2014, we conducted nine methodologically identical mass balance experiments in a short period of time (24 days, one downwind distance) for assumed constant total emission rate conditions, as a means to obtain an improved standard deviation of the mean determination. By averaging the individual emission rate determinations, we were able to obtain a method precision of 17% and 16% for CO2 and CO, respectively, at the 95%C.L. CH4 emission rates are highly variable day to day, leading to precision of 60%. Our results show that repetitive sampling can enable improvement in precision of the aircraft top-down methods through averaging.

  10. Assessing subaqueous mudslide hazard on the Mississippi River delta front, Part 2: Insights revealed through high-resolution geophysical surveying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obelcz, J.; Xu, K.; Bentley, S. J.; Georgiou, I. Y.; Maloney, J. M.; Miner, M. D.; Hanegan, K.; Keller, G.

    2014-12-01

    ) assembling a comprehensive geologic dataset upon which future MRDF geohazard assessments can be founded, and (2) understanding the dynamics of a massive passive margin deltaic lobe entering a phase of decline.

  11. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana — Part 3: Social Sciences and Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L. Wilson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is one of three synthesis reports resulting from an integrated assessment (IA of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM in Ghana. Given the complexities that involve multiple drivers and diverse disciplines influencing ASGM, an IA framework was used to analyze economic, social, health, and environmental data and to co-develop evidence-based responses in collaboration with pertinent stakeholders. We look at both micro- and macro-economic processes surrounding ASGM, including causes, challenges, and consequences. At the micro-level, social and economic evidence suggests that the principal reasons whereby most people engage in ASGM involve “push” factors aimed at meeting livelihood goals. ASGM provides an important source of income for both proximate and distant communities, representing a means of survival for impoverished farmers as well as an engine for small business growth. However, miners and their families often end up in a “poverty trap” of low productivity and indebtedness, which reduce even further their economic options. At a macro level, Ghana’s ASGM activities contribute significantly to the national economy even though they are sometimes operating illegally and at a disadvantage compared to large-scale industrial mining companies. Nevertheless, complex issues of land tenure, social stability, mining regulation and taxation, and environmental degradation undermine the viability and sustainability of ASGM as a livelihood strategy. Although more research is needed to understand these complex relationships, we point to key findings and insights from social science and economics research that can guide policies and actions aimed to address the unique challenges of ASGM in Ghana and elsewhere.

  12. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana - Part 3: Social Sciences and Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark L; Renne, Elisha; Roncoli, Carla; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Tenkorang, Emmanuel Yamoah

    2015-07-01

    This article is one of three synthesis reports resulting from an integrated assessment (IA) of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. Given the complexities that involve multiple drivers and diverse disciplines influencing ASGM, an IA framework was used to analyze economic, social, health, and environmental data and to co-develop evidence-based responses in collaboration with pertinent stakeholders. We look at both micro- and macro-economic processes surrounding ASGM, including causes, challenges, and consequences. At the micro-level, social and economic evidence suggests that the principal reasons whereby most people engage in ASGM involve "push" factors aimed at meeting livelihood goals. ASGM provides an important source of income for both proximate and distant communities, representing a means of survival for impoverished farmers as well as an engine for small business growth. However, miners and their families often end up in a "poverty trap" of low productivity and indebtedness, which reduce even further their economic options. At a macro level, Ghana's ASGM activities contribute significantly to the national economy even though they are sometimes operating illegally and at a disadvantage compared to large-scale industrial mining companies. Nevertheless, complex issues of land tenure, social stability, mining regulation and taxation, and environmental degradation undermine the viability and sustainability of ASGM as a livelihood strategy. Although more research is needed to understand these complex relationships, we point to key findings and insights from social science and economics research that can guide policies and actions aimed to address the unique challenges of ASGM in Ghana and elsewhere. PMID:26184277

  13. Randomized phase II/III trial assessing gemcitabine/carboplatin and methotrexate/carboplatin/vinblastine in patients with advanced urothelial cancer who are unfit for cisplatin-based chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Santis, Maria; Bellmunt, Joaquim; Mead, Graham;

    2012-01-01

    This is the first randomized phase II/III trial comparing two carboplatin-based chemotherapy regimens in patients with urothelial cancer who are ineligible ("unfit") for cisplatin chemotherapy.......This is the first randomized phase II/III trial comparing two carboplatin-based chemotherapy regimens in patients with urothelial cancer who are ineligible ("unfit") for cisplatin chemotherapy....

  14. Expression of EGFRvIII in Glioblastoma: Prognostic Significance Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Montano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII is associated with increased proliferation of glioma cells. However, the impact of EGFRvIII on survival of patients with glioblastoma (GBM has not been definitively established. In the present study, we prospectively evaluated 73 patients with primary GBM treated with surgical resection and standard radio/chemotherapy. The EGFRvIII was assessed by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (PCR, O6-methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT promoter methylation was assessed by methylation-specific PCR, and phosphatase and tension homolog (PTEN expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. In 14 patients of this series, who presented with tumor recurrence, EGFRvIII was determined by real-time PCR. Sensitivity to temozolomide (TMZ was assessed in vitro on GBM neurosphere cell cultures with different patterns of EGFRvIII expression. Age 60 years or younger, preoperative Karnofsky Performance Status score of 70 or higher, recursive partitioning analysis score III and IV, methylated MGMT, and Ki67 index of 20% or less were significantly associated with longer overall survival (OS; P = .0069, P =.0035, P = .0007, P = .0437, and P = .0286, respectively. EGFRvIII identified patients with significantly longer OS (P = .0023 and the association of EGFRvIII/Ki67 of 20% or less, EGFRvIII/normal PTEN, EGFRvIII/methylated MGMT, and EGFRvIII/normal PTEN/methylated MGMT identified subgroups of GBM patients with better prognosis. In recurred GBMs, EGFRvIII expression was approximately two-fold lower than in primary tumors. In vitro, the EGFRvIII-negative GBM neurosphere cells were more resistant to TMZ than the positive ones. In conclusion, in contrast with previous studies, we found that EGFRvIII is associated with prolonged survival of GBM patients treated with surgery and radio/chemotherapy. Depletion of EGFRvIII in recurrent GBMs as well as differential sensitivity to TMZ in vitro indicates that

  15. Environmental assessment of three egg production systems--Part II. Ammonia, greenhouse gas, and particulate matter emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, T A; Zhao, Y; Li, H; Stinn, J P; Hayes, M D; Xin, H

    2015-03-01

    As an integral part of the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES) Project, this study simultaneously monitored air emissions of 3 commercially operated egg production systems at the house level and associated manure storage over 2 single-cycle flocks (18 to 78 wk of age). The 3 housing systems were 1) a conventional cage house (CC) with a 200,000-hen capacity (6 hens in a cage at a stocking density of 516 cm2/hen), 2) an enriched colony house (EC) with a 50,000-hen capacity (60 hens per colony at a stocking density of 752 cm2/hen), and 3) an aviary house (AV) with a 50,000-hen capacity (at a stocking density of 1253 to 1257 cm2/hen). The 3 hen houses were located on the same farm and were populated with Lohmann white hens of the same age. Indoor environment and house-level gaseous (ammonia [NH3] and greenhouse gasses [GHG], including carbon dioxide [CO2], methane [CH4], and nitrous oxide [N2O]) and particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5) emissions were monitored continually. Gaseous emissions from the respective manure storage of each housing system were also monitored. Emission rates (ERs) are expressed as emission quantities per hen, per animal unit (AU, 500 kg live BW), and per kilogram of egg output. House-level NH3 ER (g/hen/d) of EC (0.054) was significantly lower than that of CC (0.082) or AV (0.112) (Phen/d) was lower for CC (68.3) than for EC and AV (74.4 and 74.0, respectively), and the CH4 ER (g/hen/d) was similar for all 3 houses (0.07 to 0.08). The house-level PM ER (mg/hen/d), essentially representing the farm-level PM ER, was significantly higher for AV (PM10 100.3 and PM2.5 8.8) than for CC (PM10 15.7 and PM2.5 0.9) or EC (PM10 15.6 and PM2.5 1.7) (Phen/d) was significantly lower for EC (0.16) than for CC (0.29) or AV (0.30) (Phen housing systems regarding air emissions and enhance the U.S. national air emissions inventory for farm animal operations. PMID:25737568

  16. III-V microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Nougier, JP

    1991-01-01

    As is well known, Silicon widely dominates the market of semiconductor devices and circuits, and in particular is well suited for Ultra Large Scale Integration processes. However, a number of III-V compound semiconductor devices and circuits have recently been built, and the contributions in this volume are devoted to those types of materials, which offer a number of interesting properties. Taking into account the great variety of problems encountered and of their mutual correlations when fabricating a circuit or even a device, most of the aspects of III-V microelectronics, from fundamental p

  17. Evaluation of swimming capability and potential velocity barrier problems for fish. Part B: New telemetric approaches to the assessment of fish swimming performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report represents the second part of a study undertaken to develop information related to swimming capability of several important fish species. The study will provide biological design criteria to mitigate potential velocity barrier problems associated with hydroelectric power plants. This part of the report focuses on the development and evaluation of approaches to assessing locomotory activity, swimming performance and energy load costs to fish under naturally occurring conditions and in relation to potential barriers. The study involved implantation of a bio-sensitive radio transmitter (electromyogram (EMG)) tag in the swimming muscle of fish, calibration of locomotory ability and energetic scope, and subsequent use of EMG signals to assess swimming performance and metabolic costs in situ. Digital signal processing (DSP) with antennae switching was also used to study high speed swimming performance, behaviour, and migratory strategy in relation to ascent of an experimental flume. The techniques and technologies developed indicate the complexity of factors that regulate fish swimming energy expenditure that need to be considered in the design and operation of fish passage facilities. 84 refs., 6 tabs., figs., 2 appendices

  18. Sedimentation studies relevant to low-level radioactive effluent dispersal in the Irish Sea. Part III. An evaluation of possible mechanisms for the incorporation of radionuclides into marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on circumstantial evidence the Cumbrian mud area was previously interpreted as accretionary. There are no measurements confirming that riverborne sediment reaches the mud area and the postulated subtidal sources appear to be sealed by a lag gravel. In contrast, fine sediment deposited in Liverpool Bay is known to return to the Ribble, Mersey and Dee. Similarly 'hot' particles originating in the Sellafield outfall are implied to travel, perhaps accompanied by natural fine sediment, into the Ravenglass Estuary and elsewhere. The likely interpretation is that fine sediment accumulating in the coastal zone of the eastern Irish Sea is partly derived from seawards. Possible sources are coast erosion and the unconsolidated mud areas themselves. Radionuclide profiles from the Cumbrian mud area have previously been interpreted as confirming the accretionary hypothesis. In fact three principal types of radionuclide profiles occur, which are interpreted here to indicate progressively more efficient bioturbation. Burrowing animals may also supply uncontaminated sediment to the bed, where it absorbs radionuclides before, in part, being redeposited locally. This implies that no large external sediment source is necessary to explain the radionuclide profiles encountered. We thus interpret the area as a relatively stable sedimentary regime dominated by biological processes. (author)

  19. Phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Artemisia marschalliana Sprengel aerial part extract and assessment of their antioxidant, anticancer, and antibacterial properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salehi S

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Soheil Salehi,1 Seyed Ataollah Sadat Shandiz,2 Farinaz Ghanbar,3 Mohammad Raouf Darvish,4 Mehdi Shafiee Ardestani,5 Amir Mirzaie,2 Mohsen Jafari6 1Department of Phytochemistry and Essential Oils Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (IAUPS, 2Young Researchers and Elite Club, East Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, 3Department of Biology, Tehran North Branch, 4Department of Chemistry, Shahre-Rey Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, 5Department of Radiopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 6Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran Abstract: A rapid phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using an extract from the aerial parts of Artemisia marschalliana Sprengel was investigated in this study. The synthesized AgNPs using A. marschalliana extract was analyzed by UV–visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and further characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, zeta potential, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Characteristic absorption bands of AgNPs were found near 430 nm in the UV–vis spectrum. Energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis of AgNPs in the energy range 2–4 keV confirmed the silver signal due to surface plasmon resonance. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy results revealed that the AgNPs were mostly spherical with an average size ranging from 5 nm to 50 nm. The zeta potential value of -31 mV confirmed the stability of the AgNPs. AgNPs produced using the aqueous A. marschalliana extract might serve as a potent in vitro antioxidant, as revealed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl assay. The present study demonstrates the anticancer properties of phytosynthesized AgNPs against human gastric carcinoma AGS cells. AgNPs exerted a dose

  20. Limit analysis and homogenization of porous materials with Mohr-Coulomb matrix. Part II: Numerical bounds and assessment of the theoretical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, F.; Anoukou, K.; Pastor, J.; Kondo, D.

    2016-06-01

    This second part of the two-part study is devoted to the numerical Limit Analysis of a hollow sphere model with a Mohr-Coulomb matrix and its use for the assessment of theoretical results. Brief background and fundamental of the static and kinematic approaches in the context of numerical limit analysis are first recalled. We then present the hollow sphere model, together with its axisymmetric FEM discretization and its mechanical position. A conic programming adaptation of a previous iterative static approach, based on a piecewise linearization (PWL) of the plasticity criterion, was first realized. Unfortunately, the resulting code, no more than the PWL one, did not allow sufficiently refined meshes for loss of convergence of the conic optimizer. This problem was solved by using the projection algorithm of Ben Tal and Nemriovski (BTN) and the (interior point) linear programming code XA. For the kinematic approach, a first conic adaptation appeared also inefficient. Then, an original mixed (but fully kinematic) approach dedicated to the general Mohr-Coulomb axisymmetric problem was elaborated. The final conic mixed code appears much more robust than the classic one when using the conic code MOSEK, allowing us to take into account refined numerical meshes. After a fine validation in the case of spherical cavities and isotropic loadings (for which the exact solution is known) and comparison to previous (partial) results, numerical lower and upper bounds (a posteriori verified) of the macroscopic strength are provided. These bounds are used to assess and validate the theoretical results of the companion (part I) paper. Effects of the friction angle as well as that of the porosity are illustrated.

  1. El Patronato «Juan de la Cierva» (1939-1960. III Parte: La investigación científica y tecnológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López García, Santiago

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Not available.El presente artículo es el último de una trilogía cuyas partes precedentes han sido publicadas en los números anteriores de Arbor. Ya hemos tratado los orígenes, la organización y la financiación del Patronato. Ahora, nos fijaremos en la investigación científica y tecnológica que se llevó a cabo en el periodo de la «autarquía económica» (epígrafe 5. Al final, exponemos las conclusiones y los apéndices y bibliografía comunes a los tres escritos.

  2. Summary of Session III

    OpenAIRE

    Furman, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    This is a summary of the talks presented in Session III "Simulations of Electron-Cloud Build Up" of the Mini-Workshop on Electron-Cloud Simulations for Proton and Positron Beams ECLOUD-02, held at CERN, 15-18 April 2002.

  3. Metallothionein (MT)-III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrasco, J; Giralt, M; Molinero, A;

    1999-01-01

    Metallothionein-III is a low molecular weight, heavy-metal binding protein expressed mainly in the central nervous system. First identified as a growth inhibitory factor (GIF) of rat cortical neurons in vitro, it has subsequently been shown to be a member of the metallothionein (MT) gene family...

  4. Environmental Assessment for a Marine Geophysical Survey of Parts of the Arctic Ocean, August-September 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Beth; Ireland, Darren; Childs, Jonathan R.

    2010-01-01

    According to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), individual nations? sovereign rights extend to 200 nautical miles (n.mi.) (370 km) offshore or to a maritime boundary in an area called the continental shelf. These rights include jurisdiction over all resources in the water column and on and beneath the seabed. Article 76 of UNCLOS also establishes the criteria to determine areas beyond the 200 n.mi. (370 km) limit that could be defined as ?extended continental shelf,? where a nation could extend its sovereign rights over the seafloor and sub-seafloor (As used in UNCLOS, ?continental shelf? refers to a legally defined region of the sea floor rather than a morphological shallow-water area adjacent to continents commonly used by geologists and hydrographers.). This jurisdiction provided in Article 76 includes resources on and below the seafloor but not in the water column. The United States has been acquiring data to determine the outer limits of its extended continental shelf in the Arctic and has a vested interest in declaring and receiving international recognition of the reach of its extended continental shelf. The U.S. collaborated with Canada in 2008 and 2009 on extended continental shelf studies in the Arctic Ocean. The U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) Cutter Healy worked with the Canadian Coast Guard ship Louis S. St. Laurent to map the continental shelf beyond 200 n.mi. (370 km) in the Arctic. Each icebreaking vessel contributed different capabilities in order to collect data needed by both nations more efficiently in order to save money, avoid redundancy, and foster cooperation. Generally, the Healy collects bathymetric (sea-floor topography) data and the Louis S. St. Laurent collects seismic reflection profile data. The vessels work in concert when ice conditions are heavy, with one vessel breaking ice for the ship collecting data. The Canadian Environmental Assessments for these projects are available on line at http://www.ceaa.gc.ca/052

  5. Uranium (III) precipitation in molten chloride by wet argon sparging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigier, Jean-François; Laplace, Annabelle; Renard, Catherine; Miguirditchian, Manuel; Abraham, Francis

    2016-06-01

    In the context of pyrochemical processes for nuclear fuel treatment, the precipitation of uranium (III) in molten salt LiCl-CaCl2 (30-70 mol%) at 705 °C is studied. First, this molten chloride is characterized with the determination of the water dissociation constant. With a value of 10-4.0, the salt has oxoacid properties. Then, the uranium (III) precipitation using wet argon sparging is studied. The salt is prepared using UCl3 precursor. At the end of the precipitation, the salt is totally free of solubilized uranium. The main part is converted into UO2 powder but some uranium is lost during the process due to the volatility of uranium chloride. The main impurity of the resulting powder is calcium. The consequences of oxidative and reductive conditions on precipitation are studied. Finally, coprecipitation of uranium (III) and neodymium (III) is studied, showing a higher sensitivity of uranium (III) than neodymium (III) to precipitation.

  6. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1981 to the DOE Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety and Emergency Preparedness. Part 5. Environmental and occupational protection, assessment, and engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes research in environment, health, and safety conducted during fiscal year 1981. The five parts of the report are oriented to particular segments of the program. Parts 1 to 4 report on research performed for the DOE Office of Health and Environmental Research in the Office of Energy Research. Part 5 reports progress on all research performed for the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety and Emergency Preparedness. The parts are: Part 1: Biomedical Sciences under Program Manager, H. Drucker; Part 2: Ecological Sciences, under Program Manager, B.E. Vaughan; Part 3: Atmospheric Sciences under Program Manager, C.E. Elderkin; Part 4: Physical Sciences under Program Manager, J.M. Nielsen; and Part 5: Environmental and Occupational Protection, Assessment, and Engineering under Program Managers, D.L. Hessel, S. Marks, and W.A. Glass

  7. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1981 to the DOE Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety and Emergency Preparedness. Part 5. Environmental and occupational protection, assessment, and engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, W.A.

    1982-02-01

    This report describes research in environment, health, and safety conducted during fiscal year 1981. The five parts of the report are oriented to particular segments of the program. Parts 1 to 4 report on research performed for the DOE Office of Health and Environmental Research in the Office of Energy Research. Part 5 reports progress on all research performed for the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety and Emergency Preparedness. The parts are: Part 1: Biomedical Sciences under Program Manager, H. Drucker; Part 2: Ecological Sciences, under Program Manager, B.E. Vaughan; Part 3: Atmospheric Sciences under Program Manager, C.E. Elderkin; Part 4: Physical Sciences under Program Manager, J.M. Nielsen; and Part 5: Environmental and Occupational Protection, Assessment, and Engineering under Program Managers, D.L. Hessel, S. Marks, and W.A. Glass.

  8. Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geoff Brindley

    2005-01-01

    @@ Introduction TERMINOLOGY AND KEY CONCEPTS The term assessment refers to a variety of ways of collecting information on a learner's language ability or achievement. Although testing and assessment are often used interchangeably, the latter is an umbrella term encompassing measurement instruments administered on a ‘one-off’ basis such as tests, as well as qualitative methods of monitoring and recording student learning such as observation, simulations of project work. Assessment is also distinguished from evaluation which is concerned with the overall language programme and not just with what individual students have learnt. Proficiency assessment refers to the assessment of general language abilities acquired by the learner independent of a course of study.This kind of assessment is often done through the administration of standardised commercial language-proficency tests. On the other hand, assessment of achievement aims to establish what a student had learned in relation to a particular course or curriculum (thus frequently carried out by the teacher) .Achievement assesssment may be based either on the specific content of the course or on the course objectives (Hughes 1989).

  9. The SINTRAN III NODAL system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NODAL is a high level programming language based on FOCAL and SNOBOL4, with some influence from BASIC. The language was developed to operate on the computer network controlling the SPS accelerator at CERN. NODAL is an interpretive language designed for interactive use. This is the most important aspect of the language, and is reflected in its structure. The interactive facilities make it possible to write, debug and modify programs much faster than with compiler based languages like FORTRAN and ALGOL. Apart from a few minor modifications, the basic part of the Oslo University NODAL system does not differ from the CERN version. However, the Oslo University implementation has been expanded with new functions which enable the user to execute many of the SINTRAN III monitor calls from the NODAL level. In particular the most important RT monitor calls have been implemented in this way, a property which renders possible the use of NODAL as a RT program administrator. (JIW)

  10. Assessment of potential health risk for inhabitants living near a former lead smelter. Part 2: site-specific human health risk assessment of Cd and Pb contamination in kitchen gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelfrêne, Aurélie; Douay, Francis; Richard, Antoine; Roussel, Hélène; Girondelot, Bertrand

    2013-04-01

    Metal contamination of urban soils and homegrown products has caused major concern. In Part 1, we investigated the long-term effects of a former smelter on the degree of kitchen garden-soil contamination and the quality of the homegrown vegetables from these gardens. The results showed that the soils retained a high level of contamination and that a large proportion of the vegetables produced did not comply with the legislation on the levels of metals allowed for human consumption. The present study aims to assess the associated potential health risk to local inhabitants through consumption of homegrown vegetables and ingestion of soil particles using a land use-based approach. For lead (Pb), the standard hazard quotient (HQ)-based risk assessment method was used to determine the HQ. For cadmium (Cd), the approach consisted of calculating the HQs and then deriving site-specific assessment criteria (SSAC) using the SNIFFER method. The results suggested that the exposure pathways considered should not engender any form of deleterious health effects for adults. For children, Pb was the main concern and induced a relatively high health risk through soil particle ingestion, and most total soil Cd concentrations exceeded the derived SSAC, in particular, through consumption of vegetables. The metal bioaccessibility in soils was incorporated into the methods to establish more realistic risk assessment measures. This study proposes an approach to integrate different human health risk assessment methods. Further investigations should complete the assessment to improve risk determination, e.g., the determination of metal bioaccessibility in vegetables. PMID:22791114

  11. Avaliação do neurodesenvolvimento de prematuros de muito baixo peso ao nascer entre 18 e 24 meses de idade corrigida pelas escalas Bayley III Neurodevelopmental assessment of very low birth weight preterm infants at corrected age of 18-24 months by Bayley III scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Volpiano Fernandes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência de atraso e fatores associados aos escores de desenvolvimento em crianças nascidas prematuras. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal para avaliar o desenvolvimento por escalas Bayley III, incluindo-se prematuros de muito baixo peso de 18 a 24 meses de idade corrigida, acompanhados no Ambulatório de Prematuros da instituição. Excluíram-se: malformação congênita, síndrome genética, infecção congênita sintomática ao nascimento, surdez e cegueira. As variáveis numéricas foram comparadas por teste t de Student ou Mann-Whitney, e as categóricas, por qui-quadrado ou teste exato de Fisher. Para análise dos fatores associados aos escores de desenvolvimento, utilizou-se a regressão linear, considerando-se significante p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of delay and factors associated with neurodevelopmental scores in premature infants. METHODS: Cross-sectional study to assess the development by Bayley Scales III, including very low birth weight preterm infants aged 18 to 24 months who were under follow-up at the outpatient clinic for preterm infants. Congenital malformation, genetic syndrome, symptomatic congenital infection at birth, deafness, and blindness were excluded. Numerical variables were compared by Mann-Whitney or Student t test and categorical variables by chi-square or Fisher's exact test. Factors associated with developmental scores were analyzed by linear regression, and statistical significance level was established at p < 0.05. RESULTS: Out of the 58 children included, four (6.9% presented cognitive delay, four (6.9% motor, 17 (29.3% language, 16 (27.6% social-emotional and 22 (37.0% adaptive-behavior delay. By multiple linear regression, the variables: social classes CDE (-13.27; 95%CI: -21.23 to -5.31, oxygen dependency at 36 weeks of corrected age (-8.75; 95%CI: -17.10 to -0.39 decreased the cognitive developmental score. Periventricular leukomalacia decreased the cognitive (-15.21; 95%CI

  12. The dynamics of questing ticks collected for 164 consecutive months off the vegetation of two landscape zones in the Kruger National Park (1988-2002). Part III. The less commonly collected species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallivan, Gordon J; Spickett, Andrea; Heyne, Heloise; Spickett, Arthur M; Horak, Ivan G

    2011-04-19

    Despite many studies regarding tick ecology, limited information on long-term changes in tick populations exist. This study assessed the long-term population dynamics of the less frequently collected questing ixodid ticks in the Kruger National Park (KNP). From 1988 to 2002, monthly dragging of the vegetation was performed in three habitats (grassland, woodland and gully) at two sites in the KNP (Nhlowa Road, Landscape Zone 17, and Skukuza, Landscape Zone 4). Amblyomma marmoreum and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi were collected as larvae most commonly. Most A. marmoreum larvae were collected at Skukuza and numbers peaked from March to July. More R. evertsi evertsi larvae were collected at Nhlowa Road and numbers peaked in summer and in winter, while at Skukuza there was a single peak in spring. Haemaphysalis elliptica, Rhipicephalus simus and Rhipicephalus turanicus were collected as adults most commonly. More Ha. elliptica and R. turanicus were collected at Nhlowa Road than at Skukuza, while R. simus numbers from the two sites were approximately equal. Ha. elliptica were collected most often between February and June, and R. simus and R. turanicus during February and March. All three species were collected more frequently in gullies than in grassland or woodland. Their numbers increased in 1994/1995 following an eruption of rodents, the preferred hosts of the immature stages. The different host-seeking strategies of ticks largely determine the development stage at which they are likely to be collected during vegetation dragging and reflect a complex interaction between ticks, their hosts and the environment.

  13. BALTICA III. Plant condition and life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BALTICA III, International Conference on Plant Condition and Life Management was held on June 6 - 8, 1995 on board Silja Serenade on its cruise between Helsinki - Stockholm and at the Forest Lake Hotel Korpilampi in Espoo. BALTICA III provides forum for the transfer of technology from applied research to practise. This is the second volume of the publications, which contain the presentations given at the BALTICA III, Plant Condition and Life Management. A total of 45 articles report recent experience in plant condition and life management. The conference focuses on recent applications that have been demonstrated for the benefit of safe and economical operation of power plants. Practical approach is emphasised, including the presentations that aim to provide insight into new techniques, improvements in assessment methodologies as well as maintenance strategies. Compared to earlier occasions in the BALTICA series, a new aspect is in the applications of knowledge-based systems in the service of power plant life management. (orig.)

  14. Drifting buoy and other data from the Gulf of Alaska as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 26 October 1980 to 27 March 1981 (NODC Accession 8200115)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Drifting buoy data was collected from the Gulf of Alaska by the Science Application INC (SAI) as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment...

  15. Drifting buoy and other data from the Chukchi Sea as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 27 June 1977 to 07 November 1977 (NODC Accession 7800005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Drifting buoy data was collected from the Chukchi Sea by the University of Washington (UW) as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program...

  16. Marine bird sighting and other data from the SURVEYOR as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 01 September 1976 to 02 September 1976 (NODC Accession 7800704)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine bird sighting and other data were collected from the SURVEYOR as part of Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP). Data were...

  17. Drifting buoy and other data from the Beaufort Sea and other locations as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 04 April 1977 to 03 July 1977 (NODC Accession 7700780)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Drifting buoy data was collected from the Beaufort Sea by the University of Washington (UW) as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program...

  18. Drifting buoy and other data from the Arctic Ocean and other locations as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 02 November 1975 to 03 June 1976 (NODC Accession 7601626)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Drifting buoy data was collected by the University of Washington - Seattle (UW) as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP)....

  19. Intertidal organism and other data from the MONTAGUE in the Gulf of Alaska as part of Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 12 September 1974 to 15 October 1974 (NODC Accession 7600105)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Intertidal organism and other data were collected in the Gulf of Alaska from the MONTAGUE as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program...

  20. Herring spawning and other data from aircraft as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 12 April 1976 to 12 July 1976 (NODC Accession 7601911)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Herring spawning and other data were collected from aircraft as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP). Data were collected...