WorldWideScience

Sample records for assessment part ii

  1. River Pollution: Part II. Biological Methods for Assessing Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Openshaw, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Discusses methods used in the biological assessment of river quality and such indicators of clean and polluted waters as the Trent Biotic Index, Chandler Score System, and species diversity indexes. Includes a summary of a river classification scheme based on quality criteria related to water use. (JN)

  2. Is extreme learning machine feasible? A theoretical assessment (part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shaobo; Liu, Xia; Fang, Jian; Xu, Zongben

    2015-01-01

    An extreme learning machine (ELM) can be regarded as a two-stage feed-forward neural network (FNN) learning system that randomly assigns the connections with and within hidden neurons in the first stage and tunes the connections with output neurons in the second stage. Therefore, ELM training is essentially a linear learning problem, which significantly reduces the computational burden. Numerous applications show that such a computation burden reduction does not degrade the generalization capability. It has, however, been open that whether this is true in theory. The aim of this paper is to study the theoretical feasibility of ELM by analyzing the pros and cons of ELM. In the previous part of this topic, we pointed out that via appropriately selected activation functions, ELM does not degrade the generalization capability in the sense of expectation. In this paper, we launch the study in a different direction and show that the randomness of ELM also leads to certain negative consequences. On one hand, we find that the randomness causes an additional uncertainty problem of ELM, both in approximation and learning. On the other hand, we theoretically justify that there also exist activation functions such that the corresponding ELM degrades the generalization capability. In particular, we prove that the generalization capability of ELM with Gaussian kernel is essentially worse than that of FNN with Gaussian kernel. To facilitate the use of ELM, we also provide a remedy to such a degradation. We find that the well-developed coefficient regularization technique can essentially improve the generalization capability. The obtained results reveal the essential characteristic of ELM in a certain sense and give theoretical guidance concerning how to use ELM.

  3. Children's exposure to indoor air in urban nurseries--Part II: Gaseous pollutants' assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, P T B S; Nunes, R A O; Alvim-Ferraz, M C M; Martins, F G; Sousa, S I V

    2015-10-01

    This study, Part II of the larger study "Children's exposure to indoor air in urban nurseries", aimed to: (i) evaluate nursery schools' indoor concentrations of several air pollutants in class and lunch rooms; and (ii) analyse them according to guidelines and references. Indoor continuous measurements were performed, and outdoor concentrations were obtained to determine indoor/outdoor ratios. The influence of outdoor air seemed to be determinant on carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) indoor concentrations. The peak concentrations of formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds (VOC) registered (highest concentrations of 204 and 2320 µg m(-3) respectively), indicated the presence of specific indoor sources of these pollutants, namely materials emitting formaldehyde and products emitting VOC associated to cleaning and children's specific activities (like paints and glues). For formaldehyde, baseline constant concentrations along the day were also found in some of the studied rooms, which enhances the importance of detailing the study of children's short and long-term exposure to this indoor air pollutant. While CO, NO2 and O3 never exceeded the national and international reference values for IAQ and health protection, exceedances were found for formaldehyde and VOC. For this reason, a health risk assessment approach could be interesting for future research to assess children's health risks of exposure to formaldehyde and to VOC concentrations in nursery schools. Changing cleaning schedules and materials emitting formaldehyde, and more efficient ventilation while using products emitting VOC, with the correct amount and distribution of fresh air, would decrease children's exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. MATLAB-based Applications for Image Processing and Image Quality AssessmentPart II: Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Krasula

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an overview of some possible usage of the software described in the Part I. It contains the real examples of image quality improvement, distortion simulations, objective and subjective quality assessment and other ways of image processing that can be obtained by the individual applications.

  5. Assessing the Relevancy of "Citation Classics" in Neurosurgery. Part II: Foundational Papers in Neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, Michael A; Turner, Jay D; Little, Andrew S; Nakaji, Peter; Ponce, Francisco A

    2017-08-01

    The second part of this study reanalyzes Ponce and Lozano's (2010) list of classics to create a new list of "foundational" articles in neurosurgery. Ponce and Lozano (2010) previously published a list of 106 neurosurgery classics, as defined by Garfield and his 400 citation criterion. We used the Web of Science citation reports to create graphs for each study showing the total citations it received as a function of time. Each graph was subjectively analyzed independently and scored as "foundational" or "classic only," based on whether the trend of citations received per year was uptrending, neutral, or downtrending. Of the 101 evaluated classics, 53 qualified as foundational. Over half of these studies were published in Journal of Neurosurgery (13), New England Journal of Medicine (12), or Lancet (5). Grading systems, randomized trials, and prospective studies were most likely to achieve foundational status. Only 30% of functional and 17% of endovascular classics qualified as foundational (compared with 100% of spine classics), suggesting that these fields are rapidly changing or less mature subspecialties still developing a foundational literature base. By assessing citation counts as a function of time, we are able to differentiate classic neurosurgical studies that are critical to modern-day practice from those that are primarily of historic interest. Given the exponential growth of literature in our field, analyses such as these will become increasingly important to both trainees and senior neurosurgeons who strive to educate themselves on the data that drive modern-day clinical decision making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Design of Research Laboratories. Part I: A General Assessment. Part II: Air Conditioning and Conditioned Rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legget, R. F.; Hutcheon, N. B.

    Design factors in the planning of research laboratories are described which include--(1) location, (2) future expansion, (3) internal flexibility, (4) provision of services, (5) laboratory furnishing, (6) internal traffic, (7) space requirements, and (8) building costs. A second part discusses air-conditioning and conditioned rooms--(1)…

  7. Risk Assessment of Bioaccumulation Substances. Part II: Description of a Model Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamis, J.E.; Vries, de P.; Karman, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    This report provides a proposal for a framework for risk assessment of bioaccumulative substances, either from produced water discharges or present as background contamination. The proposed framework is such that it is compatible to the current EIF risk assessment models that are used in the

  8. Probabilistic evidential assessment of gunshot residue particle evidence (Part II): Bayesian parameter estimation for experimental count data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, A; Bozza, S; Taroni, F

    2011-03-20

    Part I of this series of articles focused on the construction of graphical probabilistic inference procedures, at various levels of detail, for assessing the evidential value of gunshot residue (GSR) particle evidence. The proposed models--in the form of Bayesian networks--address the issues of background presence of GSR particles, analytical performance (i.e., the efficiency of evidence searching and analysis procedures) and contamination. The use and practical implementation of Bayesian networks for case pre-assessment is also discussed. This paper, Part II, concentrates on Bayesian parameter estimation. This topic complements Part I in that it offers means for producing estimates usable for the numerical specification of the proposed probabilistic graphical models. Bayesian estimation procedures are given a primary focus of attention because they allow the scientist to combine (his/her) prior knowledge about the problem of interest with newly acquired experimental data. The present paper also considers further topics such as the sensitivity of the likelihood ratio due to uncertainty in parameters and the study of likelihood ratio values obtained for members of particular populations (e.g., individuals with or without exposure to GSR). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. West Texas geothermal resource assessment. Part II. Preliminary utilization assessment of the Trans-Pecos geothermal resource. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliland, M.W.; Fenner, L.B.

    1980-01-01

    The utilization potential of geothermal resources in Trans-Pecos, Texas was assessed. The potential for both direct use and electric power generation were examined. As with the resource assessment work, the focus was on the Hueco Tanks area in northeastern El Paso County and the Presidio Bolson area in Presidio County. Suitable users of the Hueco Tanks and Presidio Bolson resource areas were identified by matching postulated temperature characteristics of the geothermal resource to the need characteristics of existing users in each resource area. The amount of geothermal energy required and the amount of fossil fuel that geothermal energy would replace were calculated for each of the users identified as suitable. Current data indicate that temperatures in the Hueco Tanks resource area are not high enough for electric power generation, but in at least part of the Presidio Bolson resource area, they may be high enough for electric power generation.

  10. Expanding the neurological examination using functional neurologic assessment: part II neurologic basis of applied kinesiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, W H; Yanuck, S F

    1999-03-01

    Functional Neurologic Assessment and treatment methods common to the practice of applied kinesiology are presented. These methods are proposed to enhance neurological examination and treatment procedures toward more effective assessment and care of functional impairment. A neurologic model for these procedures is proposed. Manual assessment of muscular function is used to identify changes associated with facilitation and inhibition, in response to the introduction of sensory receptor-based stimuli. Muscle testing responses to sensory stimulation of known value are compared with usually predictable patterns based on known neuroanatomy and neurophysiology, guiding the clinician to an understanding of the functional status of the patient's nervous system. These assessment procedures are used in addition to other standard diagnostic measures to augment rather than replace the existing diagnostic armamentarium. The proper understanding of the neurophysiologic basis of muscle testing procedures will assist in the design of further investigations into applied kinesiology. Accordingly, the neurophysiologic basis and proposed mechanisms of these methods are reviewed.

  11. Stiffnites. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Pareschi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The dynamics of a stiffnite are here inferred. A stiffnite is a sheet-shaped, gravity-driven submarine sediment flow, with a fabric made up of marine ooze. To infer stiffnite dynamics, order of magnitude estimations are used. Field deposits and experiments on materials taken from the literature are also used. Stiffnites can be tens or hundreds of kilometers wide, and a few centimeters/ meters thick. They move on the sea slopes over hundreds of kilometers, reaching submarine velocities as high as 100 m/s. Hard grain friction favors grain fragmentation and formation of triboelectrically electrified particles and triboplasma (i.e., ions + electrons. Marine lipids favor isolation of electrical charges. At first, two basic assumptions are introduced, and checked a posteriori: (a in a flowing stiffnite, magnetic dipole moments develop, with the magnetization proportional to the shear rate. I have named those dipoles as Ambigua. (b Ambigua are ‘vertically frozen’ along stiffnite streamlines. From (a and (b, it follows that: (i Ambigua create a magnetic field (at peak, >1 T. (ii Lorentz forces sort stiffnite particles into two superimposed sheets. The lower sheet, L+, has a sandy granulometry and a net positive electrical charge density. The upper sheet, L–, has a silty muddy granulometry and a net negative electrical charge density; the grains of sheet L– become finer upwards. (iii Faraday forces push ferromagnetic grains towards the base of a stiffnite, so that a peak of magnetic susceptibility characterizes a stiffnite deposit. (iv Stiffnites harden considerably during their motion, due to magnetic confinement. Stiffnite deposits and inferred stiffnite characteristics are compatible with a stable flow behavior against bending, pinch, or other macro instabilities. In the present report, a consistent hypothesis about the nature of Ambigua is provided.

  12. The release of genetically modified crops into the environment - Part II. Overview of ecological risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conner, A.J.; Glare, T.R.; Nap, J.P.H.

    2003-01-01

    Despite numerous future promises, there is a multitude of concerns about the impact of GM crops on the environment. Key issues in the environmental assessment of GM crops are putative invasiveness, vertical or horizontal gene flow, other ecological impacts, effects on biodiversity and the impact of

  13. Outcome Assessments in Children with Cerebral Palsy, Part II: Discriminatory Ability of Outcome Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Anita M; Gorton, George; Oeffinger, Donna; Barnes, Douglas; Calmes, Janine; Nicholson, Diane; Damiano, Diane; Abel, Mark; Kryscio, Richard; Rogers, Sarah; Tylkowski, Chester

    2007-01-01

    Discriminatory ability of several pediatric outcome tools was assessed relative to Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level in patients with cerebral palsy. Five hundred and sixty-two patients (400 with diplegia, 162 with hemiplegia; 339 males, 223 females; age range 4-18y, mean 11y 1mo [SD 3y 7mo]), classified as GMFCS Levels I to…

  14. Model-Based Assessment of Alternative Study Designs in Pediatric Trials. Part II: Bayesian Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smania, G; Baiardi, P; Ceci, A; Cella, M; Magni, P

    2016-08-01

    This study presents a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic based clinical trial simulation framework for evaluating the performance of a fixed-sample Bayesian design (BD) and two alternative Bayesian sequential designs (BSDs) (i.e., a non-hierarchical (NON-H) and a semi-hierarchical (SEMI-H) one). Prior information was elicited from adult trials and weighted based on the expected similarity of response to treatment between the pediatric and adult populations. Study designs were evaluated in terms of: type I and II errors, sample size per arm (SS), trial duration (TD), and estimate precision. No substantial differences were observed between NON-H and SEMI-H. BSDs require, on average, smaller SS and TD compared to the BD, which, on the other hand, guarantees higher estimate precision. When large differences between children and adults are expected, BSDs can return very large SS. Bayesian approaches appear to outperform their frequentist counterparts in the design of pediatric trials even when little weight is given to prior information from adults. © 2016 The Authors CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  15. PART II. HYDRATED CEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Drabik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Essential focus of the study has been to acquire thermoanalytical events, incl. enthalpies of decompositions - ΔH, of technological materials based on two types of Portland cements. The values of thermoanalytical events and also ΔH of probes of technological compositions, if related with the data of a choice of minerals of calcium-silicate-sulfate-aluminate hydrates, served as a valued input for the assessment of phases present and phase changes due to the topical hydraulic processes. The results indicate mainly the effects of "standard humidity" or "wet storage" of the entire hydration/hydraulic treatment, but also the presence of cement residues alongside calcium-silicate-sulfate-aluminate hydrates (during the tested period of treatment. "A diluting" effect of unhydrated cement residues upon the values of decomposition enthalpies in the studied multiphase system is postulated and discussed

  16. Designing screened enclosures: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearpark, J

    2006-03-01

    Techniques to achieve cost-effective emissions and immunity screening solutions that meet electromagnetic compatibility requirements were provided in Part I of this article, which covered design options for seams and gaskets. Part II continues with a discussion of materials compatibility, corrosion and apertures.

  17. Evaluation of triclosan in Minnesota lakes and rivers: Part II - human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Lisa J; Barber, Timothy R; Gentry, P Robinan; Bock, Michael J; Lyndall, Jennifer L; Capdevielle, Marie C; Slezak, Brian P

    2017-08-01

    Triclosan, an antimicrobial compound found in consumer products, has been detected in low concentrations in Minnesota municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent. This assessment evaluates potential health risks for exposure of adults and children to triclosan in Minnesota surface water, sediments, and fish. Potential exposures via fish consumption are considered for recreational or subsistence-level consumers. This assessment uses two chronic oral toxicity benchmarks, which bracket other available toxicity values. The first benchmark is a lower bound on a benchmark dose associated with a 10% risk (BMDL10) of 47mg per kilogram per day (mg/kg-day) for kidney effects in hamsters. This value was identified as the most sensitive endpoint and species in a review by Rodricks et al. (2010) and is used herein to derive an estimated reference dose (RfD(Rodricks)) of 0.47mg/kg-day. The second benchmark is a reference dose (RfD) of 0.047mg/kg-day derived from a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 10mg/kg-day for hepatic and hematopoietic effects in mice (Minnesota Department of Health [MDH] 2014). Based on conservative assumptions regarding human exposures to triclosan, calculated risk estimates are far below levels of concern. These estimates are likely to overestimate risks for potential receptors, particularly because sample locations were generally biased towards known discharges (i.e., WWTP effluent). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. ARFI ultrasound for in vivo hemostasis assessment postcardiac catheterization, part II: pilot clinical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behler, Russell H; Scola, Mallory R; Nichols, Timothy C; Caughey, Melissa C; Fisher, Melrose W; Zhu, Hongtu; Gallippi, Caterina M

    2009-07-01

    In this second of a two part series, we present pilot clinical data demonstrating Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) ultrasound for monitoring the onset of subcutaneous hemostasis at femoral artery puncture sites (arteriotomies), in vivo. We conducted a randomized, reader-blinded investigation of 20 patient volunteers who underwent diagnostic percutaneous coronary catheterization. After sheath removal (6 French), patients were randomized to treatment with either standard of care manual compression alone or, to expedite hemostasis, manual compression augmented with a p-GlcNAc fiber-based hemostatic dressing (Marine Polymer Technologies, Danvers MA). Concurrent with manual compression, serial ARFI imaging began at the time of sheath removal and continued every minute for 15 min. Serial data sets were processed with custom software to (1) estimate the time of hemostasis onset, and (2) render hybrid ARFI/B-Mode images to highlight displacements considered to correspond to extravasted blood. Images were read by an observer blinded to the treatment groups. Average estimated times to hemostasis in patient volunteers treated with manual compression alone (n = 10) and manual compression augmented by hemostatic dressing (n = 9) were, respectively, 13.00 +/- 1.56 and 9.44 +/- 3.09 min, which are statistically significantly different (p = 0.0065, Wilcoxon two-sample test). Example images are shown for three selected patient volunteers. These pilot data suggest that ARFI ultrasound is relevant to monitoring subcutaneous bleeding from femoral arteriotomies clinically and that time to hemostasis was significantly reduced by use of the hemostatic dressing.

  19. Accounting for ecosystem services in Life Cycle Assessment, Part II: toward an ecologically based LCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Baral, Anil; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2010-04-01

    Despite the essential role of ecosystem goods and services in sustaining all human activities, they are often ignored in engineering decision making, even in methods that are meant to encourage sustainability. For example, conventional Life Cycle Assessment focuses on the impact of emissions and consumption of some resources. While aggregation and interpretation methods are quite advanced for emissions, similar methods for resources have been lagging, and most ignore the role of nature. Such oversight may even result in perverse decisions that encourage reliance on deteriorating ecosystem services. This article presents a step toward including the direct and indirect role of ecosystems in LCA, and a hierarchical scheme to interpret their contribution. The resulting Ecologically Based LCA (Eco-LCA) includes a large number of provisioning, regulating, and supporting ecosystem services as inputs to a life cycle model at the process or economy scale. These resources are represented in diverse physical units and may be compared via their mass, fuel value, industrial cumulative exergy consumption, or ecological cumulative exergy consumption or by normalization with total consumption of each resource or their availability. Such results at a fine scale provide insight about relative resource use and the risk and vulnerability to the loss of specific resources. Aggregate indicators are also defined to obtain indices such as renewability, efficiency, and return on investment. An Eco-LCA model of the 1997 economy is developed and made available via the web (www.resilience.osu.edu/ecolca). An illustrative example comparing paper and plastic cups provides insight into the features of the proposed approach. The need for further work in bridging the gap between knowledge about ecosystem services and their direct and indirect role in supporting human activities is discussed as an important area for future work.

  20. Proposed changes in personality and personality disorder assessment and diagnosis for DSM-5 part II: clinical application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skodol, A.E.; Bender, D.S.; Oldham, J.M.; Clark, L.A.; Morey, L.C.; Verheul, R.; Krueger, R.F.; Siever, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    The four-part assessment of personality psychopathology proposed for DSM-5 focuses attention on identifying personality psychopathology with increasing degrees of specificity, based on a clinician's available time, information, and expertise. In Part I of this two-part article, we described the

  1. Climate change impact assessment in Veneto and Friuli Plain groundwater. Part II: a spatially resolved regional risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasini, S; Torresan, S; Rizzi, J; Zabeo, A; Critto, A; Marcomini, A

    2012-12-01

    Climate change impact assessment on water resources has received high international attention over the last two decades, due to the observed global warming and its consequences at the global to local scale. In particular, climate-related risks for groundwater and related ecosystems pose a great concern to scientists and water authorities involved in the protection of these valuable resources. The close link of global warming with water cycle alterations encourages research to deepen current knowledge on relationships between climate trends and status of water systems, and to develop predictive tools for their sustainable management, copying with key principles of EU water policy. Within the European project Life+ TRUST (Tool for Regional-scale assessment of groundwater Storage improvement in adaptation to climaTe change), a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology was developed in order to identify impacts from climate change on groundwater and associated ecosystems (e.g. surface waters, agricultural areas, natural environments) and to rank areas and receptors at risk in the high and middle Veneto and Friuli Plain (Italy). Based on an integrated analysis of impacts, vulnerability and risks linked to climate change at the regional scale, a RRA framework complying with the Sources-Pathway-Receptor-Consequence (SPRC) approach was defined. Relevant impacts on groundwater and surface waters (i.e. groundwater level variations, changes in nitrate infiltration processes, changes in water availability for irrigation) were selected and analyzed through hazard scenario, exposure, susceptibility and risk assessment. The RRA methodology used hazard scenarios constructed through global and high resolution model simulations for the 2071-2100 period, according to IPCC A1B emission scenario in order to produce useful indications for future risk prioritization and to support the addressing of adaptation measures, primarily Managed Artificial Recharge (MAR) techniques. Relevant

  2. Conscious worst case definition for risk assessment, part II: a methodological case study for pesticide risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Peter B; Giralt, Francesc; Rallo, Robert; Espinosa, Gabriela; Münier, Bernd; Gyldenkaerne, Steen; Thomsen, Marianne

    2010-08-15

    This paper illustrates, by a case study, how to apply the conceptual Worst-Case Definition (WCD) model, developed in the methodological paper in the current journal, by Sørensen et al. (2010-this issue). The case is about eco-toxicological risk assessment of pesticides under Danish conditions. Cumulative aspects are included on a conceptual basis as elements of the worst-case conditions. This defines factors that govern the risk assessment, including location in time and space of risk "hotspots". Two pillars of concern drive the conceptual modelling: (1) What to protect (denoted Protected Units (PUs)) and (2) the reason for increased risk level (denoted Causes of Risks (CRs)). Both PUs and CRs are analysed using hierarchical procedures that facilitate a complete listing of concrete factors governing increased risk for adverse effect due to agricultural usage of pesticide. The factors governing pesticide risk are combined in a context that combines the protection of relevant groupings of organisms with the factors for increased risk level for each of these. Identification of the most important relations between defined types of PUs and CRs is illustrated using expert knowledge. Existing databases are used to form spatial distributed risk indicators as estimators for a selection of important relations between PUs and CRs. This paper illustrates how the WCD model can break down the complex issue of uncertainty into fractions that are more open for evaluations. Finally, it shows application of risk indicators in a multi-criterion analysis using respectively self organizing mapping and partial order technique in a comparative analysis that highlights critical aspects of uncertainty, due to the ambiguity between single risk indicator rankings. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Solar/hydrogen systems technologies. Volume II (Part 2 of 2). Solar/hydrogen systems assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, W. J.D.; Foster, R. W.; Tison, R. R.; Hanson, J. A.

    1980-06-02

    Volume II of the Solar/Hydrogen Systems Assessment contract report (2 volumes) is basically a technological source book. Relying heavily on expert contributions, it comprehensively reviews constituent technologies from which can be assembled a wide range of specific solar/hydrogen systems. Covered here are both direct and indirect solar energy conversion technologies; respectively, those that utilize solar radiant energy input directly and immediately, and those that absorb energy from a physical intermediary, previously energized by the sun. Solar-operated hydrogen energy production technologies are also covered in the report. The single most prominent of these is water electrolysis. Utilization of solar-produced hydrogen is outside the scope of the volume. However, the important hydrogen delivery step is treated under the delivery sub-steps of hydrogen transmission, distribution and storage. An exemplary use of the presented information is in the synthesis and analysis of those solar/hydrogen system candidates documented in the report's Volume I. Moreover, it is intended that broad use be made of this technology information in the implementation of future solar/hydrogen systems. Such systems, configured on either a distributed or a central-plant basis, or both, may well be a major significance in effecting an ultimate transition to renewable energy systems.

  4. Exploring Water Pollution. Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1975-01-01

    This is part two of a three part article related to the science activity of exploring environmental problems. Part one dealt with background information for the classroom teacher. Presented here is a suggested lesson plan on water pollution. Objectives, important concepts and instructional procedures are suggested. (EB)

  5. Topaz II preliminary safety assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Albert C.; Standley, Vaughn; Voss, Susan S.; Haskin, Eric

    1993-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the U.S. with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

  6. SIMONI (Smart Integrated Monitoring) as a novel bioanalytical strategy for water quality assessment: Part II-field feasibility survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Oost, Ron; Sileno, Giulia; Janse, Theo; Nguyen, Mai Thao; Besselink, Harrie; Brouwer, Abraham

    2017-09-01

    Because it is impossible to chemically analyze all relevant micropollutants, the implementation of bioanalytical tools is essential to estimate ecological risks of chemical mixtures in regular water-monitoring programs. The first tier of the Smart Integrated Monitoring (SIMONI) strategy, which was described in part I, is based on the combination of passive sampling and bioanalytical measurements. Bioassay responses are compared with effect-based trigger values (EBT), and an overall SIMONI score on all bioassay data was designed to indicate environmental risks. The present study is focused on analyzing the feasibility of the hazard identification tier by evaluating results of 45 field campaigns at sites with different pollution profiles near the city of Amsterdam. A Daphnia assay was performed in situ, while silicon rubber or polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) extracts were tested with 4 nonspecific (daphnids, algae, bacteria, and cell culture) and 10 specific (9 Chemical Activated Luciferase Gene Expression [CALUX] assays and antibiotics scan) bioassays. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated the relevance of 2 classification variables in the SIMONI score formula on all bioanalytical data. The model indicated increased risks for the ecosystem at surface waters in greenhouse areas and undiluted wastewater-treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. The choice of testing specific bioassays on either polar or nonpolar passive sampling extracts is cost-effective and still provided meaningful insights on micropollutant risks. Statistical analyses revealed that the model provides a relevant overall impact assessment based on bioassay responses. Data analyses on the chemically determined mixture toxic pressure and bioanalytical methods provided similar insights in relative risk ranking of water bodies. The SIMONI combination of passive sampling and bioanalytical testing appears to be a feasible strategy to identify chemical hazards. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017

  7. X-pinch. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pikuz, S. A., E-mail: pikuz@mail.ru; Shelkovenko, T. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Hammer, D. A. [Cornell University (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Results of experimental studies of the X-pinch since its invention and implementation in 1982 at the Lebedev Physical Institute are presented. The review consists of two parts. The first part briefly outlines the history of creation and studies of X-pinches, describes the diagnostic techniques and devices developed during these studies, and presents the main results obtained in studying the physical processes occurring in the X-pinch. The second part is devoted to the results of detailed studies of the spatial, temporal, and spectral characteristics of the X-pinch hot spot—the region where the highest plasma parameters are achieved and which is a source of X-ray emission with extreme parameters. Some results of X-pinch simulations are also presented.

  8. Observational Assessment of Preschool Disruptive Behavior, Part II: Validity of the Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Hill, Carri; Danis, Barbara; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Keenan, Kate; Egger, Helen L.; Cicchetti, Domenic; Burns, James; Carter, Alice S.

    2008-01-01

    A study is conducted to determine whether the multidomain, multicontext Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS) is a valid observational method for assessing disruptive behavior of preschool children. It is concluded that the DB-DOS is a valid method for a direct observational assessment of clinically significant disruptive…

  9. The assessment of function. Part II: clinical perspective of a javelin thrower with low back and groin pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiman, Michael P; Manske, Robert C

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of an individual’s functional ability can be complex. This assessment should also be individualized and adaptable to changes in functional status. In the first article of this series, we operationally defined function, discussed the construct of function, examined the evidence as it relates to assessment methods of various aspects of function, and explored the multi-dimensional nature of the concept of function. In this case report, we aim to demonstrate the utilization of a multi-dimensional assessment method (functional performance testing) as it relates to a high-level athlete presenting with pain in the low back and groin. It is our intent to demonstrate how the clinician should continually adapt their assessment dependent on the current functional abilities of the patients. PMID:23633887

  10. Small Bowel Review: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABR Thomson

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past year there have been many advances in the area of small bowel physiology and pathology. In preparation for this review, over 500 papers were assessed; some have been selected and reviewed, with a particular focus on presenting clinically useful information for the practising gastroenterologist.

  11. Implementation of evidence-based humanitarian programs in military-led missions: part II. The impact assessment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaves, Erik J; Schor, Kenneth W; Burkle, Frederick M

    2008-12-01

    The Department of Defense does not implement health-sector humanitarian assistance impact assessments to complement those of the international humanitarian aid community. This oversight fails to meet the recent Department of Defense Directive 3000.05 mandate calling for the application of measures of effectiveness. The decision by the Department of Defense to incorporate humanitarian assistance in stability operations should be supported by evidence-based impact assessments. This article proposes implementation of an impact assessment model in Department of Defense humanitarian assistance operations. The use of an impact assessment model will refocus previously identified information gaps from traditional military input-output management toward a greater emphasis on outcomes. This will help answer which humanitarian activities are successful, which are not, and why. Over time, the use of an impact assessment model will ensure that the Department of Defense and its operational units are learning as an organization while applying evidence-based lessons learned to future stability operations. Most important, the use of this model will both provide better understanding of the role that the Department of Defense has in humanitarian activities and help interpret and transfer these activities to the host nation and international aid community in a timely and efficient manner.

  12. Revenue cycle management, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crew, Matt

    2007-01-01

    The proper management of your revenue cycle requires the application of "best practices" and the continual monitoring and measuring of the entire cycle. The correct technology will enable you to gain the insight and efficiencies needed in the ever-changing healthcare economy. The revenue cycle is a process that begins when you negotiate payor contracts, set fees, and schedule appointments and continues until claims are paid in full. Every single step in the cycle carries equal importance. Monitoring all phases and a commitment to continually communicating the results will allow you to achieve unparalleled success. In part I of this article, we explored the importance of contracting, scheduling, and case management as well as coding and clinical documentation. We will now take a closer look at the benefits charge capture, claim submission, payment posting, accounts receivable follow-up, and reporting can mean to your practice.

  13. The MDS-UPDRS Part II (motor experiences of daily living) resulted useful for assessment of disability in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Blazquez, Carmen; Rojo-Abuin, Jose Manuel; Alvarez-Sanchez, Mario; Arakaki, Tomoko; Bergareche-Yarza, Alberto; Chade, Anabel; Garretto, Nelida; Gershanik, Oscar; Kurtis, Monica M; Martinez-Castrillo, Juan Carlos; Mendoza-Rodriguez, Amelia; Moore, Henry P; Rodriguez-Violante, Mayela; Singer, Carlos; Tilley, Barbara C; Huang, Jing; Stebbins, Glenn T; Goetz, Christopher G; Martinez-Martin, Pablo

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the motor experiences of daily living section of the Movement Disorders Society-Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS M-EDL) for assessing disability in PD patients; to determine the association between disability and quality of life; and to identify cut-off score ranges for no, mild, moderate and severe disability with this measure. International, observational, cross-sectional study of 435 PD patients, assessed with: MDS-UPDRS, Hoehn and Yahr staging, Rapid Assessment of Disability Scale, Clinical Impression of Severity Index for PD, Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-8 and EQ-5D. Descriptive statistics, Spearman's rank correlation coefficients, Kruskal-Wallis test for group comparisons, ordinal logistic regression analysis for setting cut-off values and a step-wise multiple linear regression model were calculated. MDS-UPDRS M-EDL correlated 0.70-0.80 with other disability measures, and -0.46 to 0.74 with quality of life scales. Scores significantly increased with higher disease duration and severity (p MDS-UPDRS nM-EDL section as the main determinant of M-EDL, followed by the rest of MDS-UPDRS sections (explained variance: 59%). MDS-UPDRS M-EDL proved to be useful for assessing disability in PD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The development of Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society classification criteria for axial spondyloarthritis (part II)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudwaleit, M; van der Heijde, D; Landewé, R

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate and refine two sets of candidate criteria for the classification/diagnosis of axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). METHODS: All Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) members were invited to include consecutively new patients with chronic (> or =3 months) ba...

  15. Unlearning Established Organizational Routines--Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiol, C. Marlena; O'Connor, Edward J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of Part II of this two-part paper is to uncover important differences in the nature of the three unlearning subprocesses, which call for different leadership interventions to motivate people to move through them. Design/methodology/approach: The paper draws on research in behavioral medicine and psychology to demonstrate that…

  16. AN ATTEMPT TO DETERMINE THE RELATION BETWEEN HUCUL HORSES CONFORMATION ASSESSMENT, MOVEMENT AND COURAGE TEST RESULTS PART II. MARE FAMILIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga TOPCZEWSKA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to determine the relationship between evaluation of conformation and motion indicators and results of the Huculs’ path and also to ascertain the courage (basic and elimination of Hucul horses with their classification into mare families being taken account of. The scores of 116 horses presented for the evaluation of their exterior (championship breeding were analyzed. The assessment covered the type, body conformation, movement in walk and trot as well as overall impression and preparedness for the exhibition. Measurements of length of steps, frequency and rate of the walk and trot were performed during the tests for courage. The estimated correlation coefficients exhibited the existence of some interesting trends i.e., there was positive correlation between values for type, body conformation, movement in walk and trot and the length of steps in walk and trot in individuals representing most of mare families. The reverse was the case with horses from the Sroczka and Wyderka families. Amongst the Wrona, however, negative correlations between the grade for walk and frequency of steps in walk was observed while that of between the result of path and utility tests was positive.

  17. Nuclear Energy Center: upper St. Lawrence region. Part I. Siting. Part II. Fort Drum surrogate site, description and impact assessment. Part III. Dispersed sites impact assessment and comparison with the NEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merry, P.A.; Luner, C.; Hong, S.W.; Canham, H.O.; Boggs, J.F.; McCool, T.P.

    1976-12-01

    This report is one of many supporting documents used by the Nuclear Regulatory commission in the preparation of the Nuclear Energy Center Site Survey (NECSS) mandated by Congress. While the overall study focuses on the feasibility and practicability of nuclear energy centers (NECs), this report is directed towards choosing a suitable surrogate site in the upper St. Lawrence region of New York State, assessing the probable impacts associated with construction and operation of the NEC, and comparing these impacts with those associated with small dispersed nuclear power stations. The upper St. Lawrence region is surveyed to identify a specific site that might be suitable for a surrogate NEC. Several assumptions about the basic design of an NEC are delineated, and a general overview of the characteristics of the region is given. The Fort Drum Military Reservation is chosen as a suitable surrogate site. Fort Drum and the surrounding area are described in terms of land use and population patterns, terrestrial and aquatic ecology, water use and quality, meteorology, institutional framework, and socioeconomic structure. The impacts associated with NEC development are assessed. Then the impacts associated with smaller dispersed nuclear power stations located throughout New York State are assessed and compared with the impacts associated with the NEC. Finally, the impacts due to development of the transmission line networks associated with the NEC and with the dispersed power stations are assessed and compared.

  18. Update on a Pharmacokinetic-Centric Alternative Tier II Program for MMT—Part II: Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling and Manganese Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Taylor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a variety of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK models have been developed for the essential element manganese. This paper reviews the development of PBPK models (e.g., adult, pregnant, lactating, and neonatal rats, nonhuman primates, and adult, pregnant, lactating, and neonatal humans and relevant risk assessment applications. Each PBPK model incorporates critical features including dose-dependent saturable tissue capacities and asymmetrical diffusional flux of manganese into brain and other tissues. Varied influx and efflux diffusion rate and binding constants for different brain regions account for the differential increases in regional brain manganese concentrations observed experimentally. We also present novel PBPK simulations to predict manganese tissue concentrations in fetal, neonatal, pregnant, or aged individuals, as well as individuals with liver disease or chronic manganese inhalation. The results of these simulations could help guide risk assessors in the application of uncertainty factors as they establish exposure guidelines for the general public or workers.

  19. The Conception of Photons–Part II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 1. The Conception of Photons – Part II: Bose's Derivation, and the Complete Quantum Description of Light. Urjit A Yajnik. General Article Volume 21 Issue 1 January 2016 pp 49-69 ...

  20. Assessing and reporting uncertainties in dietary exposure analysis - Part II: Application of the uncertainty template to a practical example of exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, David; Bánáti, Diána; Kennedy, Marc; König, Jürgen; O'Mahony, Cian; Kettler, Susanne

    2017-11-01

    A previous publication described methods for assessing and reporting uncertainty in dietary exposure assessments. This follow-up publication uses a case study to develop proposals for representing and communicating uncertainty to risk managers. The food ingredient aspartame is used as the case study in a simple deterministic model (the EFSA FAIM template) and with more sophisticated probabilistic exposure assessment software (FACET). Parameter and model uncertainties are identified for each modelling approach and tabulated. The relative importance of each source of uncertainty is then evaluated using a semi-quantitative scale and the results expressed using two different forms of graphical summary. The value of this approach in expressing uncertainties in a manner that is relevant to the exposure assessment and useful to risk managers is then discussed. It was observed that the majority of uncertainties are often associated with data sources rather than the model itself. However, differences in modelling methods can have the greatest impact on uncertainties overall, particularly when the underlying data are the same. It was concluded that improved methods for communicating uncertainties for risk management is the research area where the greatest amount of effort is suggested to be placed in future. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Perceptual Objective Listening Quality Assessment (POLQA), The Third Generation ITU-T Standard for End-to-End Speech Quality Measurement : Part II – Perceptual Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerends, J.G.; Schmidmer, C.; Berger, J.; Obermann, M.; Ullman, R.; Pomy, J.; Keyhl, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this and the companion paper Part I, the authors present the Perceptual Objective Listening Quality Assessment (POLQA), the third-generation speech quality measurement algorithm, standardized by the International Telecommunication Union in 2011 as Recommendation P.863. This paper describes the

  2. Thyroid disorders. Part II: hypothyroidism and thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, James W

    2006-08-01

    Part II of the series on thyroid disorders discusses hypothyroidism and thyroiditis that may be found in dental patients. An overview of the conditions is presented. Presenting signs and symptoms, laboratory tests used to diagnose hypothyroidism and thyroiditis, and their medical management is discussed. The dental management of patients with hypothyroidism is discussed in detail. The dentist by detecting the early signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism and thyroiditis can refer the patient for medical diagnosis and treatment and avoid potential complications of treating patients with uncontrolled disease. Patients with thyroiditis may have a short period of being hyperthyroid and it may be best to avoid routine dental treatment during that period. Patients with suppurative thyroiditis should not receive routine dental treatment during the acute stage of the disease. The end stage of Hashimoto's thyroiditis results in hypothyroidism. Central nervous system depressants, sedatives, or narcotic analgesics must be avoided in patients with severe hypothyroidism because significant respiratory depression may occur. In addition, myxedematous coma, particularly in elderly hypothyroid patients, can be precipitated by central nervous system depressants, infection, and possibly stressful dental procedures. In medically well-controlled patients the dental treatment plan is not affected and most dental procedures can be offered to these patients.

  3. 46 CFR Appendix II to Part 153 - Metric Units Used in Part 153

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Metric Units Used in Part 153 II Appendix II to Part 153 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Pt. 153, App. II Appendix II to...

  4. Integrated laboratory coagulation tests in hypercoagulation diagnosis and thrombosis risk assessment. Part II. The sensitivity of integral tests to hypercoagulable states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Lipets

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the second part we present a review of the existing data about ability of integrated tests, as already introduced in clinical practice, and the new (test of thrombin generation, thromboelastography, thrombodynamics, perfusion chamber to assess the risk of thrombosis in different pathologies. We can conclude that the existing integrated tests can be an important tool in the diagnosis of hypercoagulation. However, lack of standardization prevents their use: various tests and modifications of each test are different in sensitivity and specificity for each pathological condition. Furthermore, even in situations where the tests can reliably identify a group of patients with different degrees of thrombosis risk, their use in clinical practice is often difficult, since the differences between these groups were statistically significant, but the normal range and patients significantly overlap.

  5. The use of ultrasound in the assessment of the glenoid labrum of the glenohumeral joint. Part II: Examples of labral pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Krzyżanowski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Labral pathologies of the glenohumeral joint are most commonly caused by trauma. The majority of lesions affect the anterior part of labrum, resulting from much higher frequency of anterior shoulder dislocations over posterior ones. Another subgroup of labral lesions, not directly related to joint instability, are SLAP tears. Other findings include degenerative changes of labrum and paralabral cysts. Diagnostic imaging is crucial for making a decision regarding operative treatment. Apart from a standard X-ray examination, the imaging mainly relies on magnetic resonance or computed tomography arthrography. Based on their own experience, the authors propose the use of ultrasound in the assessment of labral tears of the glenohumeral joint. Different signs indicating labral pathology may be discovered and assessed during ultrasound examination. They include permanent displacement of the labrum onto the glenoid, labral instability during dynamic examination, lack of the labrum in the anatomical position, hypoechoic zone at the base of the labrum >2 mm in width, residual or swollen labrum as well as paralabral cyst(s. The most frequent appearance of labral pathology is displacement of the anteroinferior labrum onto the external aspect of the glenoid typically seen after anterior shoulder dislocation. The another most important US feature is labral instability while dynamically examined. The swelling or reduced size of the labrum usually indicates degeneration. This article presents sonographic images of selected labral pathologies.

  6. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 86 - Temperature Schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temperature Schedules II Appendix II... Appendix II to Part 86—Temperature Schedules (a) Ambient temperature cycle for the diurnal emission portion of the evaporative emission test (see § 86.133). Table I—Temperature Versus Time Sequence Use linear...

  7. TEXTILE STRUCTURES FOR AERONAUTICS (PART II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOLER Miquel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D textile structures with better delamination resistance and damage impact tolerance to be applied in composites for structural components is one of the main goals of the aeronautical industry. Textile Research Centre in Canet de Mar has been working since 2008 in this field. Our staff has been designing, developing and producing different textile structures using different production methods and machinery to improve three-dimensional textile structures as fiber reinforcement for composites. This paper describes different tests done in our textile labs from unidirectional structures to woven, knitted or braided 3 D textile structures. Advantages and disadvantages of each textile structure are summarized. The second part of this paper deals with our know-how in the manufacturing and assessing of three-dimensional textile structures during this last five years in the field of textile structures for composites but also in the development of structures for other applications. In the field of composites for aeronautic sector we have developed textile structures using the main methods of textile production, that is to say, weaving, warp knitting, weft knitting and braiding. Comparing the advantages and disadvantages it could be said that braided fabrics, with a structure in the three space axes are the most suitable for fittings and frames.

  8. Stark broadening parameter tables for in II: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević M.S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Electron-, proton-, and ionized helium-impact broadening parameter tables for 101 In II multiplets, are presented as a function of temperature for the perturber density of 1016cm-3. Calculations have been performed within the semiclassical perturbation approach.

  9. Reproduce and die! Why aging? Part II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, GA

    Whilst in part I of this diptych on aging the question why aging exists at all is discussed; this part deals with the question which mechanisms underly aging and, ultimately, dying. It appears that aging is not just an active process as such - although all kinds of internal (e.g., oxigen-free

  10. Factsheets for the (eco)toxicological risk assessment strategy of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Part II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttik R; Pelgrom SMGJ; CSR

    2002-01-01

    Five factsheets describing risk assessment methods used at the Centre of Substances and Risk assessment (CSR) of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) are presented here with the main aim of promoting greater transparency in the risk assessment methods used at

  11. The Conception of Photons – Part II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    theory of relativity and cosmology. Part 1: Planck .... Newton with his formu- lation in 1915 of the general theory of relativity. But .... ship of Bose. It appears that he himself did not grasp the novel assumption he had inadvertently made in his derivation. While the discrete partitioning of the phase space is an important step, the ...

  12. Searching LEXIS and WESTLAW: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Carl

    1986-01-01

    This second of a three-part series compares search features (i.e., truncation symbols, boolean operators, proximity operators, phrase searching, save searches) of two databases providing legal information. Search tips concerning charges and effective searching and tables listing functions of commands and proximity operators for both databases are…

  13. Plasma Astrophysics, Part II Reconnection and Flares

    CERN Document Server

    Somov, Boris V

    2013-01-01

    This two-part book is devoted to classic fundamentals and current practices and perspectives of modern plasma astrophysics. This second part discusses the physics of magnetic reconnection and flares of electromagnetic origin in space plasmas in the solar system, single and double stars, relativistic objects, accretion disks and their coronae. More than 25% of the text is updated from the first edition, including the additions of new figures, equations and entire sections on topics such as topological triggers for solar flares and the magnetospheric physics problem. This book is aimed at professional researchers in astrophysics, but it will also be useful to graduate students in space sciences, geophysics, applied physics and mathematics, especially those seeking a unified view of plasma physics and fluid mechanics.

  14. Plasma Astrophysics, part II Reconnection and Flares

    CERN Document Server

    Somov, Boris V

    2007-01-01

    This well-illustrated monograph is devoted to classic fundamentals, current practice, and perspectives of modern plasma astrophysics. The first part is unique in covering all the basic principles and practical tools required for understanding and working in plasma astrophysics. The second part presents the physics of magnetic reconnection and flares of electromagnetic origin in space plasmas within the solar system; single and double stars, relativistic objects, accretion disks, and their coronae are also covered. This book is designed mainly for professional researchers in astrophysics. However, it will also be interesting and useful to graduate students in space sciences, geophysics, as well as advanced students in applied physics and mathematics seeking a unified view of plasma physics and fluid mechanics.

  15. Shalom Sefarad: Una "erensya" envenenada (Parte II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARINA VARGAS GÓMEZ-URRUTIA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focus the regulation established in the Law 12/2015, June 24 for granting the Spanish nationality to the Sephardic originating from Spain. The second part analyzes the amendments made to the bill during the parliamentary process and critically examines the most important aspects of the final text of the law. En este trabajo se da cuenta de la regulación establecida en la Ley 12/2015, de 24 de junio para la concesión de la nacionalidad española a los sefardíes originarios de España. Esta segunda parte analiza las enmiendas introducidas al Proyecto de Ley durante el proceso parlamentario y examina críticamente los aspectos más relevantes del texto final de la ley.

  16. Vapor phase transformer drying – Part II

    OpenAIRE

    Steeves, Gregory R.

    2016-01-01

    Vapor phase drying is the most effective method for drying transformer insulation in a manufacturing setting. The process does not lend itself well to transformer drying in the field for a variety of reasons, including the difficulty of removing residual kerosene which can cause a potential change in transformer oil flash point. Several techniques are available for transformer insulation drying in both the field and in manufacturing. Vapor phase drying as part of transformer manufacturing is ...

  17. Treatment of superficial mycoses: review - part II

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni; Bernardes-Filho,Fred; Quaresma-Santos,Maria Victória Pinto; Amorim, Adriana Gutstein da Fonseca; Schechtman, Regina Casz; Azulay, David Rubem

    2013-01-01

    Superficial fungal infections of the hair, skin and nails are a major cause of morbidity in the world. Choosing the right treatment is not always simple because of the possibility of drug interactions and side effects. The first part of the article discusses the main treatments for superficial mycoses - keratophytoses, dermatophytosis, candidiasis, with a practical approach to the most commonly-used topical and systemic drugs , referring also to their dosage and duration of use. Promising new...

  18. Implantable microsystems for monitoring and neural rehabilitation, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieglitz, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Miniaturised implantable biomedical microsystems are opening up completely new markets for diagnosis and therapy products. Part II of this article discusses recent work on distributed intelligent implants and biohybrid systems, which combine microsystems with cells and tissues.

  19. Curriculum content, structure and ECTS for European dental schools. Part II: methods of learning and teaching, assessment procedures and performance criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasschaert, A J M; Manogue, M; Lindh, C; McLoughlin, J; Murtomaa, H; Nattestad, A; Sanz, M

    2007-08-01

    This paper presents a brief context of dental undergraduate curricular structure and content and lays out the Association for Dental Education in Europe's views on requirements and recommendations for learning, teaching and assessment procedures/performance.

  20. Curriculum content, structure and ECTS for European dental schools. Part II: methods of learning and teaching, assessment procedures and performance criteria.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plasschaert, A.J.M.; Manogue, M.; Lindh, C.; McLoughlin, J.; Murtomaa, H.; Nattestad, A.; Sanz, M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a brief context of dental undergraduate curricular structure and content and lays out the Association for Dental Education in Europe's views on requirements and recommendations for learning, teaching and assessment procedures/performance.

  1. Blade System Design Study. Part II, final project report (GEC).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Dayton A. (DNV Global Energy Concepts Inc., Seattle, WA)

    2009-05-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Low Wind Speed Turbine program, Global Energy Concepts LLC (GEC)1 has studied alternative composite materials for wind turbine blades in the multi-megawatt size range. This work in one of the Blade System Design Studies (BSDS) funded through Sandia National Laboratories. The BSDS program was conducted in two phases. In the Part I BSDS, GEC assessed candidate innovations in composite materials, manufacturing processes, and structural configurations. GEC also made recommendations for testing composite coupons, details, assemblies, and blade substructures to be carried out in the Part II study (BSDS-II). The BSDS-II contract period began in May 2003, and testing was initiated in June 2004. The current report summarizes the results from the BSDS-II test program. Composite materials evaluated include carbon fiber in both pre-impregnated and vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) forms. Initial thin-coupon static testing included a wide range of parameters, including variation in manufacturer, fiber tow size, fabric architecture, and resin type. A smaller set of these materials and process types was also evaluated in thin-coupon fatigue testing, and in ply-drop and ply-transition panels. The majority of materials used epoxy resin, with vinyl ester (VE) resin also used for selected cases. Late in the project, testing of unidirectional fiberglass was added to provide an updated baseline against which to evaluate the carbon material performance. Numerous unidirectional carbon fabrics were considered for evaluation with VARTM infusion. All but one fabric style considered suffered either from poor infusibility or waviness of fibers combined with poor compaction. The exception was a triaxial carbon-fiberglass fabric produced by SAERTEX. This fabric became the primary choice for infused articles throughout the test program. The generally positive results obtained in this program for the SAERTEX material have led to its

  2. Treatment of superficial mycoses: review - part II*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni; Bernardes-Filho, Fred; Quaresma-Santos, Maria Victória Pinto; Amorim, Adriana Gutstein da Fonseca; Schechtman, Regina Casz; Azulay, David Rubem

    2013-01-01

    Superficial fungal infections of the hair, skin and nails are a major cause of morbidity in the world. Choosing the right treatment is not always simple because of the possibility of drug interactions and side effects. The first part of the article discusses the main treatments for superficial mycoses - keratophytoses, dermatophytosis, candidiasis, with a practical approach to the most commonly-used topical and systemic drugs , referring also to their dosage and duration of use. Promising new, antifungal therapeutic alternatives are also highlighted, as well as available options on the Brazilian and world markets. PMID:24474103

  3. Ayurvedic literature in Urdu (Part-II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, S A; Kumar Bhatnagar, V; Ali, M

    1999-07-01

    This article is a second part of previous work published with the same title in this Bulletin Vol. 28, 1998, P. nos. 151-158. It contains brief notes on six rare Ayurvedic books in Urdu. It provides two types of information, i.e. (i) Introduction to the books studied and (2) Literary history of Ayurveda of that period in which Urdu language had a prominent role in propagation of Arts and Science. It gives an idea for seeking information on these lines regarding the Ayurvedic works in Arabic and Persian also.

  4. Treatment of superficial mycoses: review. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni; Bernardes-Filho, Fred; Quaresma-Santos, Maria Victória Pinto; Amorim, Adriana Gutstein da Fonseca; Schechtman, Regina Casz; Azulay, David Rubem

    2013-01-01

    Superficial fungal infections of the hair, skin and nails are a major cause of morbidity in the world. Choosing the right treatment is not always simple because of the possibility of drug interactions and side effects. The first part of the article discusses the main treatments for superficial mycoses - keratophytoses, dermatophytosis, candidiasis, with a practical approach to the most commonly-used topical and systemic drugs , referring also to their dosage and duration of use. Promising new, antifungal therapeutic alternatives are also highlighted, as well as available options on the Brazilian and world markets.

  5. New particle searches in ALEPH (part II)

    CERN Document Server

    Roussarie, A

    1991-01-01

    This report is the second part of the ALEPH search report . I t covers the search for super - symmetric particles (Higgs , chargino s an d neutralinos ) withi n th e framewor k o f th e Minima l Supersymmmetri c Standar d Mode l an d th e searc h fo r composi t charge d lepton s an d neutrinos . Lowe r limit s o f masse s o f suc h ne w particle s ar e given . Mos t o f the m ar e ver y clos e t o th e LE P I kenematica l limit .

  6. Use of a Text Message Program to Raise Type 2 Diabetes Risk Awareness and Promote Health Behavior Change (Part II): Assessment of Participants' Perceptions on Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Buis, Lorraine R; Hirzel, Lindsey; Turske, Scott A; Des Jardins, Terrisca R.; Yarandi, Hossein; Bondurant, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Background Although there is great enthusiasm in both the public and private sector for the further development and use of large-scale consumer-facing public health applications for mobile platforms, little is known about user experience and satisfaction with this type of approach. As a part of the Beacon Community Cooperative Agreement Program, txt4health, a public-facing, mobile phone-based health information service targeting type 2 diabetes, was launched in 3 Beacon Communities: the South...

  7. Curriculum Redesign in Veterinary Medicine: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macik, Maria L; Chaney, Kristin P; Turner, Jacqueline S; Rogers, Kenita S; Scallan, Elizabeth M; Korich, Jodi A; Fowler, Debra; Keefe, Lisa M

    Curricular review is considered a necessary component for growth and enhancement of academic programs and requires time, energy, creativity, and persistence from both faculty and administration. On a larger scale, a comprehensive redesign effort involves forming a dedicated faculty redesign team, developing program learning outcomes, mapping the existing curriculum, and reviewing the curriculum in light of collected stakeholder data. The faculty of the Texas A&M University College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences (TAMU) recently embarked on a comprehensive curriculum redesign effort through partnership with the university's Center for Teaching Excellence. Using a previously developed evidence-based model of program redesign, TAMU created a process for use in veterinary medical education, which is described in detail in the first part of this article series. An additional component of the redesign process that is understated, yet vital for success, is faculty buy-in and support. Without faculty engagement, implementation of data-driven curricular changes stemming from program evaluation may be challenging. This second part of the article series describes the methodology for encouraging faculty engagement through the final steps of the redesign initiative and the lessons learned by TAMU through the redesign process.

  8. Body fluids and salt metabolism - Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettinelli Alberto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is a high frequency of diarrhea and vomiting in childhood. As a consequence the focus of the present review is to recognize the different body fluid compartments, to clinically assess the degree of dehydration, to know how the equilibrium between extracellular fluid and intracellular fluid is maintained, to calculate the effective blood osmolality and discuss both parenteral fluid maintenance and replacement.

  9. DNA from keratinous tissue. Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Maia E.; Bengtsson, Camilla Friis; Bertelsen, Mads Frost

    2012-01-01

    Although good quality DNA can be recovered from the base of the calamus of freshly sampled feathers, as from other fully keratinized tissues such as nail or hair shaft, the quality and quantity of DNA in the majority of feather structures is much poorer. Little research has been performed...... to characterize the quality of this DNA is, and thus what a researcher might be able to achieve when using feathers as a source of DNA. In this review, we expand on our companion article detailing the quality of DNA in nail and hair, by synthesizing published, and new preliminary genetic data obtained from...... feathers. As with nail and hair, we demonstrate that although DNA can, in general, be recovered from all parts of the feather, the quality of such DNA varies. As such, although one can expect a priori that genetic analyses are possible on the feather, for PCR based analyses, it is extremely difficult...

  10. [Seafood poisonings. Part II. Fish poisonings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciszowski, Krzysztof; Mietka-Ciszowska, Aneta

    2012-01-01

    Fish plays a significant role in human life, mainly as part of a balanced healthy diet and a good source of many of nutrients. However, contact with fish may be harmful or even life-threatening to man. Toxic effects, that fish exerts toward men (ichthyotoxism), result from envenomations by poison. ous fish equipped in venom apparatus (ichthyoacanthotoxism), direct contact with venom produced by skin glandules (ichthyocrinotoxism), or consuming fish containing toxins for nutritional purposes (ichthyosarcotoxism). In the present review, different fish-borne food poisonings are presented including their etiology, pathogenesis, symptomatology and treatment. In fact, the majority of fish poisonings are intoxications with toxins primary produced by bacteria, cyanobacteria and algae. These are consumed and accumulated in the food chain by herbivorous and predatory fish, that in turn may be a cause of poisonings in humans.

  11. The sociogeometry of inequality: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2015-05-01

    The study of socioeconomic inequality is of prime economic and social importance, and the key quantitative gauges of socioeconomic inequality are Lorenz curves and inequality indices - the most notable of the latter being the popular Gini index. In this series of papers we present a sociogeometric framework to the study of socioeconomic inequality. In this part we focus on the gap between the rich and the poor, which is quantified by gauges termed disparity curves. We shift from disparity curves to disparity sets, define inequality indices in terms of disparity sets, and introduce and explore a collection of distance-based and width-based inequality indices stemming from the geometry of disparity sets. We conclude with mean-absolute-deviation (MAD) representations of the inequality indices established in this series of papers, and with a comparison of these indices to the popular Gini index.

  12. Diabetic foot ulcers: Part II. Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Afsaneh; Sibbald, R Gary; Mayer, Dieter; Goodman, Laurie; Botros, Mariam; Armstrong, David G; Woo, Kevin; Boeni, Thomas; Ayello, Elizabeth A; Kirsner, Robert S

    2014-01-01

    The management of diabetic foot ulcers can be optimized by using an interdisciplinary team approach addressing the correctable risk factors (ie, poor vascular supply, infection control and treatment, and plantar pressure redistribution) along with optimizing local wound care. Dermatologists can initiate diabetic foot care. The first step is recognizing that a loss of skin integrity (ie, a callus, blister, or ulcer) considerably increases the risk of preventable amputations. A holistic approach to wound assessment is required. Early detection and effective management of these ulcers can reduce complications, including preventable amputations and possible mortality. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Generic drugs in dermatology: part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payette, Michael; Grant-Kels, Jane M

    2012-03-01

    In part I, we discussed new drug development, reviewed the history of the generic drug industry, described how generic drugs are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, and defined the concepts of bioequivalence and therapeutic equivalence. Herein, we explore various factors impacting generic drug use across the different parties involved: the prescriber, the pharmacist, the patient, and the payer. We also include original cost analysis of dermatologic brand name and generic drugs and show the potential cost savings that can be achieved through generic substitution. We conclude with a review of the data addressing potential differences in the effectiveness of brand name versus generic drugs in dermatology. The cost of brand name and generic medications is highly variable by pharmacy, state, and payer. We used one source (www.drugstore.com) as an example and for consistency across all medications discussed herein. Prices included here may not reflect actual retail prices across the United States. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Society. Part II: moderate to severe psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Szepietowski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease affecting about 1–3% of the general population. Recent years have seen great development in the treatment of this dermatosis, especially regarding moderate to severe psoriasis. More numerous and more widely available systemic therapies raise new challenges for all physicians treating patients with psoriasis. New questions arise about patients’ follow-up and long-term safety of such therapies. To meet the expectations of Polish dermatologists, we have prepared a second part of guidelines on the treatment of psoriasis, particularly concentrated on the therapy of severe forms of this disease. We hope that our suggestions will be valuable for physicians in their daily clinical practice. However, we would like to underline that every guideline is characterized by some vagueness, and the final decision about diagnosis and therapy should always be made individually for every patient based on the patient’s current clinical status and the most up-to-date scientific literature data.

  15. [Conceptual Development in Cognitive Science. Part II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, Marco

    2012-03-01

    Cognitive science has become the most influential paradigm on mental health in the late 20(th) and the early 21(st) centuries. In few years, the concepts, problem approaches and solutions proper to this science have significantly changed. Introduction and discussion of the fundamental concepts of cognitive science divided in four stages: Start, Classic Cognitivism, Connectionism, and Embodying / Enacting. The 2(nd) Part of the paper discusses the above mentioned fourth stage and explores the clinical setting, especially in terms of cognitive psychotherapy. The embodying/enacting stage highlights the role of the body including a set of determined evolutionary movements which provide a way of thinking and exploring the world. The performance of cognitive tasks is considered as a process that uses environmental resources that enhances mental skills and deploys them beyond the domestic sphere of the brain. On the other hand, body and mind are embedded in the world, thus giving rise to cognition when interacting, a process known as enacting. There is a close connection between perception and action, hence the interest in real-time interactions with the world rather than abstract reasoning. Regarding clinics, specifically the cognitive therapy, there is little conceptual discussion maybe due to good results from practice that may led us to consider that theoretical foundations are firm and not problem-raising. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Aspects of tests and assessment of filtering materials used for respiratory protection against bioaerosols. Part II: sweat in the environment, microorganisms in the form of a bioaerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majchrzycka, Katarzyna; Gutarowska, Beata; Brochocka, Agnieszka

    2010-01-01

    The second part of the article presents the results of a study of antimicrobial activity of filter nonwovens with an addition of biocides, as a function of the presence of sweat in the environment and the method of microbe deposition on a nonwoven in the form of a liquid and a bioaerosol. At the same time, the filtration efficiency of nonwovens against microorganisms in the form of a bioaerosol was tested with the dynamic method. The results showed that the addition of sweat on the surface of a nonwoven resulted in an insignificant decrease of biological activity that still remained high. Moreover, an active nonwoven showed biostatic and biocidal activity only when microbes were deposited on the surface in the form of a solution. The nonwoven did not show any biological activity after deposition of microorganisms with the dynamical method in the form of a bioaerosol.

  17. Electroconvulsive therapy: Part II: a biopsychosocial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Nancy A; Prudic, Joan

    2009-09-01

    The myths surrounding electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and the misconceptions held by the general public, clinicians, and patients have interfered with acceptance of this treatment throughout its history. Misunderstandings surrounding ECT, and its consequent stigmatization, are reviewed, including negative depictions of ECT in film, print media, and on the Internet. Clinicians involved in the delivery of ECT benefit from gaining an understanding of how ECT may be perceived by patients and other mental health professionals; they can play a vital role in educating patients and helping ensure the delivery of a successful course of ECT. Guidance is provided for clinicians on how to support patients and families through the ECT process using a model team approach. Anxiety reduction, meeting individual needs, patient and family psychoeducation, assessment of psychosocial supports, and discharge planning are discussed.

  18. Development of aero-engines, part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehn, K.

    1943-01-01

    In the second part of his paper, Mr. Dehn enters into the area of problems in engine construction and design. The main question was, how can more power be coaxed from an engine without increasing its stroke displacement and weight. To begin with, a change in combustion-chamber configuration was made. A hemispheric chamber appeared to be the best design. Into this new design was incorporated a system to swirl the fuel-air mixture for better combustion and more power. Also needed was relocation of the spark plug. Since there was better combustion, valves had to be improved. These were hollowed, filled with sodium and finished with chromium or stellite for more hardness. However, the temperature created by these improvements proved to be a serious problem in engine durability. Heat corrosion destroyed pistons and rings, causing the engine not just to seize-up, but to come apart. This resulted in the loss of aircraft. Finally, a system of cooling the pistons from beneath by an oil spray increased both performance and piston life. Dehn summarizes his paper by comparing two cylinder units from Curtis-Wright radial engines, one old, the other new. He claims that these represented advances in engine technology in all areas he discussed. First, the size had not been increased, but the newer one developed more power. This had been accomplished, he reports, by fuel development reducing pre-detonation. The super-charging, and most important, the re-design of the cooling fins on the cylinder head exterior, provided greater thermal capacity for the engine. In this way, power had been increased more than 100 percent. The author concludes his paper by stating that this type of development is possible only through advances in, and use of, materials technology. That would involve intensive co-operation between the scientists and engineers working in fuels development and aviation engineering.

  19. Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun (Part II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duoos, Bridget A.

    2012-01-01

    Part I of Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun, which was published in last issue, discussed how to select cross-country ski equipment, dress for the activity and the biomechanics of the diagonal stride. Part II focuses on teaching the diagonal stride technique and begins with a progression of indoor activities. Incorporating this fun,…

  20. Photoprotection: part II. Sunscreen: development, efficacy, and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Rebecca; Osterwalder, Uli; Wang, Steven Q; Burnett, Mark; Lim, Henry W

    2013-12-01

    In addition to the naturally occurring, physical, and systemic photoprotective agents reviewed in part I, topical ultraviolet radiation filters are an important cornerstone of photoprotection. Sunscreen development, efficacy, testing, and controversies are reviewed in part II of this continuing medical education article. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Decontamination of radioactive materials (part II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akashi, Makoto; Shimomura, Satoshi; Hachiya, Misao [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1998-06-01

    Drifting agents accelerate the exchange process and thus promote to eliminate radioactive materials from human body. The earlier is the administration of the agent, the more effective is the elimination. Against the uptake of radioiodine by thyroid, anti-thyroid drug like NaI, Lugol`s iodine solution, propylthiouracil and methimazole are recommended. Ammonium chloride can be a solubilizer of radioactive strontium. Diuretics may be useful for excretion of radioisotopes of sodium, chlorine, potassium and hydrogen through diuresis. Efficacy of expectorants and inhalants is not established. Parathyroid extract induces decalcification and thus is useful for elimination of 32P. Steroids are used for compensating adrenal function and for treatment of inflammation and related symptoms. Chelating agents are useful for removing cations and effective when given early after contamination. EDTA and, particularly, DTPA are useful for elimination of heavy metals. For BAL (dimercaprol), its toxicity should be taken into consideration. Penicillamine is effective for removing copper and deferoxamine, for iron. Drugs for following radioisotopes are summarized: Am, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cf, C, Ce, Cs, Cr, Co, Cm, Eu, fission products, F, Ga, Au, H, In, I, Fe, Kr, La, PB, Mn, Hg, Np, P, Pu, Po, K, Pm, Ra, Rb, Ru, Sc, Ag, Na, Sr, S, Tc, Th, U, Y, Zn and Zr. Lung and bronchia washing are effective for treatment of patients who inhaled insoluble radioactive particles although their risk-benefit should be carefully assessed. The present review is essentially based of NCRP Report No.65. (K.H.) 128 refs.

  2. Minimizing Glovebox Glove Breaches: PART II.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cournoyer, M. E. (Cournoyer, Michael E.); Andrade, R.M. (Rose M.); Taylor, D. J. (David J.); Stimmel, J. J. (Jay J.); Zaelke, R. L. (Robyn L.); Balkey, J. J. (James J.)

    2005-01-01

    As a matter of good business practices, a team of glovebox experts from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been assembled to proactively investigate processes and procedures that minimize unplanned breaches in the glovebox, e.g., glove failures. A major part of this effort involves the review of glovebox glove failures that have occurred at the Plutonium Facility and at the Chemical and Metallurgy Research Facility. Information dating back to 1993 has been compiled from formal records. This data has been combined with information obtained from a baseline inventory of about 9,000 glovebox gloves. The key attributes tracked include those related to location, the glovebox glove, type and location of breaches, the worker, and the consequences resulting from breaches. This glovebox glove failure analysis yielded results in the areas of the ease of collecting this type of data, the causes of most glove failures that have occurred, the effectiveness of current controls, and recommendations to improve hazard control systems. As expected, a significant number of breaches involve high-risk operations such as grinding, hammering, using sharps (especially screwdrivers), and assembling equipment. Surprisingly, tasks such as the movement of equipment and material between gloveboxes and the opening of cans are also major contributions of breaches. Almost half the gloves fail within a year of their install date. The greatest consequence for over 90% of glovebox glove failures is alpha contamination of protective clothing. Personnel self-monitoring at the gloveboxes continues to be the most effective way of detecting glovebox glove failures. Glove failures from these tasks can be reduced through changes in procedures and the design of remote-handling apparatus. The Nuclear Materials Technology Division management uses this information to improve hazard control systems to reduce the number of unplanned breaches in the glovebox further. As a result, excursions of contaminants

  3. Use of Transportable Radiation Detection Instruments to Assess Internal Contamination from Intakes of Radionuclides Part II: Calibration Factors and ICAT Computer Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anigstein, Robert; Olsher, Richard H; Loomis, Donald A; Ansari, Armin

    2016-12-01

    The detonation of a radiological dispersion device or other radiological incidents could result in widespread releases of radioactive materials and intakes of radionuclides by affected individuals. Transportable radiation monitoring instruments could be used to measure radiation from gamma-emitting radionuclides in the body for triaging individuals and assigning priorities to their bioassay samples for in vitro assessments. The present study derived sets of calibration factors for four instruments: the Ludlum Model 44-2 gamma scintillator, a survey meter containing a 2.54 × 2.54-cm NaI(Tl) crystal; the Captus 3000 thyroid uptake probe, which contains a 5.08 × 5.08-cm NaI(Tl) crystal; the Transportable Portal Monitor Model TPM-903B, which contains two 3.81 × 7.62 × 182.9-cm polyvinyltoluene plastic scintillators; and a generic instrument, such as an ionization chamber, that measures exposure rates. The calibration factors enable these instruments to be used for assessing inhaled or ingested intakes of any of four radionuclides: Co, I, Cs, and Ir. The derivations used biokinetic models embodied in the DCAL computer software system developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNPX radiation transport code. The three physical instruments were represented by MCNP models that were developed previously. The affected individuals comprised children of five ages who were represented by the revised Oak Ridge National Laboratory pediatric phantoms, and adult men and adult women represented by the Adult Reference Computational Phantoms described in Publication 110 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. These calibration factors can be used to calculate intakes; the intakes can be converted to committed doses by the use of tabulated dose coefficients. These calibration factors also constitute input data to the ICAT computer program, an interactive Microsoft Windows-based software package that estimates intakes of

  4. Technology management and participatory approach with agroecological rice for local scale. Part II - Impacts assessment of the strategy and action plan in Madruga municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah González Viera

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Land policies to increase the rice production have as purpose to promote the mechanization, to increase the yield for farm area, to enlarge the crop area and to achieve the self-sufficiency in the production or to reduce the imports of this cereal. Other important aspects are the costs of rice crop and their impact in the productive revenues besides the great dependence of the grain on the part of the poor countries; where their potentiality resides in the production to small scale in irrigated ecosystem like a sustainable base for the diversification of the rural economy. For such a reason, this work was developed with the objective of establishing a strategy of sustainable development for the popular rice crop that was based on the technological management with focus agroecologic and participatory focus. Their application conceived on-farm research by means of variety trials simultaneously to a costs studies of three technologies adopted by the producers and during the process, three qualification cycles were made being achieved increasing of rice crop yield in 14 %.

  5. Assessing Student Expertise in Introductory Physics with Isomorphic Problems, Part II: Effect of Some Potential Factors on Problem Solving and Transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    In this companion paper, we explore the use of isomorphic problem pairs (IPPs) to assess introductory physics students' ability to solve and successfully transfer problem-solving knowledge from one context to another in mechanics. We call the paired problems "isomorphic" because they require the same physics principle to solve them. We analyze written responses and individual discussions to a range of isomorphic problems. We examine potential factors that may help or hinder transfer of problem-solving skills from one problem in a pair to the other. For some paired isomorphic problems, one context often turned out to be easier for students in that it was more often correctly solved than the other. When quantitative and conceptual questions were paired and given back to back, students who answered both questions in the IPP often performed better on the conceptual questions than those who answered the corresponding conceptual questions only. Although students often took advantage of the quantitative counterpart ...

  6. Vascular dementia Cognitive, functional and behavioral assessment Recommendations of the Scientific Department of Cognitive Neurology and Aging of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology. Part II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasz Engelhardt

    Full Text Available Abstract Vascular dementia (VaD is the most prevalent form of secondary dementia and the second most common of all dementias. The present paper aims to define guidelines on the basic principles for treating patients with suspected VaD (and vascular cognitive impairment - no dementia using an evidence-based approach. The material was retrieved and selected from searches of databases (Medline, Scielo, Lilacs, preferentially from the last 15 years, to propose a systematic way to assess cognition, function and behavior, and disease severity staging, with instruments adapted for our milieu, and diagnosis disclosure. The present proposal contributes to the definition of standard diagnostic criteria for VaD based on various levels of evidence. It is noteworthy that only around half of the population of patients with vascular cognitive impairment present with dementia, which calls for future proposals defining diagnostic criteria and procedures for this condition.

  7. Creating a Cadre of Fellowship-Trained Medical Educators, Part II: A Formal Needs Assessment to Structure Postgraduate Fellowships in Medical Education Scholarship and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jaime; Yarris, Lalena M; Santen, Sally A; Guth, Todd A; Rougas, Steven; Runde, Daniel P; Coates, Wendy C

    2017-08-01

    Education leaders at the 2012 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference on education research proposed that dedicated postgraduate education scholarship fellowships (ESFs) might provide an effective model for developing future faculty as scholars. A formal needs assessment was performed to understand the training gap and inform the development of ESFs. A mixed-methods needs assessment was conducted of four emergency medicine national stakeholder groups in 2013: department chairs; faculty education/research leaders; existing education fellowship directors; and current education fellows/graduates. Descriptive statistics were reported for quantitative data. Qualitative data from semistructured interviews and free-text responses were analyzed using a thematic approach. Participants were 11/15 (73%) education fellowship directors, 13/20 (65%) fellows/graduates, 106/239 (44%) faculty education/research leaders, and a convenience sample of 26 department chairs. Department chairs expected new education faculty to design didactics (85%) and teach clinically (96%). Faculty education/research leaders thought new faculty were inadequately prepared for job tasks (83.7%) and that ESFs would improve the overall quality of education research (91.1%). Fellowship directors noted that ESFs provide skills, mentorship, and protected time for graduates to become productive academicians. Current fellows/graduates reported pursing an ESF to develop skills in teaching and research methodology. Stakeholder groups uniformly perceived a need for training in education theory, clinical teaching, and education research. These findings support dedicated, deliberate training in these areas. Establishment of a structure for scholarly pursuits prior to assuming a full-time position will effectively prepare new faculty. These findings may inform the development, implementation, and curricula of ESFs.

  8. Apudomas Pancreáticos (Parte II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo L. Jácome

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Aspectos Clínicos

    I. Diagnóstico de los Apudomas
    En este apartado describiremos algunos de los aspectos más relevantes en cuanto al diagnóstico clínico, paraclínico y anatomopatológico de los apudomas conocidos en el páncreas, basándonos en algunas casuísticas nacionales y extranjeras.

    A. Insulinoma
    En 1927 se informó el primer caso en la Clínica Mayo. Esta misma institución posee una de las series más grandes sobre el tema con 200 casos reportados; sin embargo, su incidencia global es del orden de menos de I caso por 100.000 habitantes. En una serie de 1.067 pacientes realizada en Italia, el tumor se presentó aproximadamente en un 60% en mujeres y un 40% en hombres, siendo el rango de edad entre los 30 y 60 años (21.

    l. Manifestaciones clínicas
    Las manifestaciones son debidas a la hipoglicemia secundaria al hiperinsulinismo circulante.

    Los síntomas neurosiquiátricos incluyen: pérdida de conciencia, confusión, vértigo, alteraciones visuales, astenia, coma profundo y epilepsia; se han reportado casos con daño del sistema nervioso central irreversible y parálisis temporal; además también puede haber somnolencia, amnesia, ataxia, cefalea, parestesias, signo de Babinski, agitación e irritabilidad.

    Estos se explican, en gran parte, debido a que elcerebro depende casi exclusivamente de la oxidación de la glucosa para proveer sus necesidades energéticas. En estos pacientes también son frecuentes síntomas de tipo adrenérgico tales como sudoración, temblor, empalidecimiento y síntomas cardiovasculares como palpitaciones, taquicardia, dolor precordial e hipertensión arterial. También se presentan síntomas gastrointestinales como sensación de hambre, vómito y, ocasionalmente, dolor epigástrico.

    A diferencia de los gastrinomas, estos tumores rara vez se asocian con la adenomatosis múltiple endocrina (MEA: probablemente est

  9. Empirical analysis of BMD metrics in genetic toxicology part II: in vivo potency comparisons to promote reductions in the use of experimental animals for genetic toxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, John W; Long, Alexandra S; Johnson, George E; Bemis, Jeffrey C; Dertinger, Stephen D; Slob, Wout; White, Paul A

    2016-05-01

    Genotoxicity tests have traditionally been used only for hazard identification, with qualitative dichotomous groupings being used to identify compounds that have the capacity to induce mutations and/or cytogenetic alterations. However, there is an increasing interest in employing quantitative analysis of in vivo dose-response data to derive point of departure (PoD) metrics that can be used to establish human exposure limits or margins of exposure (MOEs), thereby supporting human health risk assessments and regulatory decisions. This work is an extension of our companion article on in vitro dose-response analyses and outlines how the combined benchmark dose (BMD) approach across included covariates can be used to improve the analyses and interpretation of in vivo genetic toxicity dose-response data. Using the BMD-covariate approach, we show that empirical comparisons of micronucleus frequency dose-response data across multiple studies justifies dataset merging, with subsequent analyses improving the precision of BMD estimates and permitting attendant potency ranking of seven clastogens. Similarly, empirical comparisons of Pig-a mutant phenotype frequency data collected in males and females justified dataset merging across sex. This permitted more effective scrutiny regarding the effect of post-exposure sampling time on the mutagenicity of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea observed in reticulocytes and erythrocytes in the Pig-a assay. The BMD-covariate approach revealed tissue-specific differences in the induction of lacZ transgene mutations in Muta™Mouse specimens exposed to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), with the results permitting the formulation of mechanistic hypotheses regarding the observed potency ranking. Lastly, we illustrate how historical dose-response data for assessments that examined numerous doses (i.e. induced lacZ mutant frequency (MF) across 10 doses of BaP) can be used to improve the precision of BMDs derived from datasets with far fewer doses (i.e. lacZ MF for 3

  10. Assessing the risk to green sturgeon from application of imidacloprid to control burrowing shrimp in Willapa Bay, Washington--Part II: controlled exposure studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, John A; Grue, Christian E

    2015-11-01

    The activities of 2 species of burrowing shrimp have a negative impact on the growth and survival of oysters reared on intertidal mudflats in Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor, Washington (USA). To maintain viable harvests, oyster growers proposed the application of the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid onto harvested beds for the control of burrowing shrimp. In test applications, water column concentrations of imidacloprid were relatively low and dissipated rapidly. The foraging activities of the green sturgeon (listed in the US Endangered Species Act) could result in exposure to higher, more sustained imidacloprid concentrations within sediment porewater and from the consumption of contaminated shrimp. Controlled experiments were conducted using surrogate white sturgeon to determine acute and chronic effect concentrations, to examine overt effects at more environmentally realistic concentrations and durations of exposure, and to assess chemical depuration. The 96-h median lethal concentration was 124 mg L(-1) , and the predicted 35-d no-observed-adverse-effect concentration was 0.7 mg L(-1) . No overt effects were observed following environmentally relevant exposures. Imidacloprid half-life in plasma was greater than 32 h. Measured concentrations of imidacloprid in porewater were significantly lower than the derived acute and chronic effect concentrations for white sturgeon. Exposure risk quotients were calculated using the effect concentrations and estimated environmental exposure. The resulting values were considerably below the level of concern for direct effects from either acute or chronic exposure to an endangered species. © 2015 SETAC.

  11. Mathematical modeling and simulation in animal health - Part II: principles, methods, applications, and value of physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling in veterinary medicine and food safety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Z; Gehring, R; Mochel, J P; Lavé, T; Riviere, J E

    2016-10-01

    This review provides a tutorial for individuals interested in quantitative veterinary pharmacology and toxicology and offers a basis for establishing guidelines for physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model development and application in veterinary medicine. This is important as the application of PBPK modeling in veterinary medicine has evolved over the past two decades. PBPK models can be used to predict drug tissue residues and withdrawal times in food-producing animals, to estimate chemical concentrations at the site of action and target organ toxicity to aid risk assessment of environmental contaminants and/or drugs in both domestic animals and wildlife, as well as to help design therapeutic regimens for veterinary drugs. This review provides a comprehensive summary of PBPK modeling principles, model development methodology, and the current applications in veterinary medicine, with a focus on predictions of drug tissue residues and withdrawal times in food-producing animals. The advantages and disadvantages of PBPK modeling compared to other pharmacokinetic modeling approaches (i.e., classical compartmental/noncompartmental modeling, nonlinear mixed-effects modeling, and interspecies allometric scaling) are further presented. The review finally discusses contemporary challenges and our perspectives on model documentation, evaluation criteria, quality improvement, and offers solutions to increase model acceptance and applications in veterinary pharmacology and toxicology. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. EMC of Electrical Systems - Electromagnetic Coupling ( Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOVACOVA, I.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the general analysis of one part of the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC problem - the electromagnetic coupling applied in the field of power electrical systems. The verification simulation analyses and practical measurements of the electromagnetic coupling, which are confirming the correctness of results obtained from theoretical analyses (part I., are presented in part II. So they can be used for predictive stating of EMC quality of individual new electrotechnical products.

  13. Use of a text message program to raise type 2 diabetes risk awareness and promote health behavior change (part II): assessment of participants' perceptions on efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buis, Lorraine R; Hirzel, Lindsey; Turske, Scott A; Des Jardins, Terrisca R; Yarandi, Hossein; Bondurant, Patricia

    2013-12-19

    Although there is great enthusiasm in both the public and private sector for the further development and use of large-scale consumer-facing public health applications for mobile platforms, little is known about user experience and satisfaction with this type of approach. As a part of the Beacon Community Cooperative Agreement Program, txt4health, a public-facing, mobile phone-based health information service targeting type 2 diabetes, was launched in 3 Beacon Communities: the Southeast Michigan Beacon Community in Detroit, MI, the Greater Cincinnati Beacon Community in Cincinnati, OH, and the Crescent City Beacon Community in New Orleans, LA. This program was marketed via large public health campaigns and drew many users within the respective communities. The purpose of this investigation was to use the RE-AIM framework to document txt4health efficacy by focusing on perceptions of satisfaction, usage, and behavior change among individuals who used txt4health in pilot studies in Southeast Michigan and Greater Cincinnati. We conducted a multimodal user survey with txt4health users recruited via text message through the program to understand participant perceptions of program use and satisfaction, as well as self-reported perceptions of behavior change as a result of using txt4health. Txt4health users reported very high levels of program satisfaction, with 67.1% (108/161) reporting satisfaction scores of ≥8 on a 10-point scale, with 10 equivalent to most satisfied (mean 8.2, SD 1.6). All survey participants agreed/strongly agreed that the messages included in txt4health were clear and easy to understand (100.0%, 160/160), and most found txt4health made them knowledgeable about their risk for type 2 diabetes (88.1%, 140/159) and made them conscious of their diet and physical activity (88.8%, 142/160). Most participants reported that txt4health helped them to make behavior changes related to diet; after having completed txt4health, most agreed/strongly agreed that

  14. Use of a Text Message Program to Raise Type 2 Diabetes Risk Awareness and Promote Health Behavior Change (Part II): Assessment of Participants' Perceptions on Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirzel, Lindsey; Turske, Scott A; Des Jardins, Terrisca R; Yarandi, Hossein; Bondurant, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Background Although there is great enthusiasm in both the public and private sector for the further development and use of large-scale consumer-facing public health applications for mobile platforms, little is known about user experience and satisfaction with this type of approach. As a part of the Beacon Community Cooperative Agreement Program, txt4health, a public-facing, mobile phone-based health information service targeting type 2 diabetes, was launched in 3 Beacon Communities: the Southeast Michigan Beacon Community in Detroit, MI, the Greater Cincinnati Beacon Community in Cincinnati, OH, and the Crescent City Beacon Community in New Orleans, LA. This program was marketed via large public health campaigns and drew many users within the respective communities. Objective The purpose of this investigation was to use the RE-AIM framework to document txt4health efficacy by focusing on perceptions of satisfaction, usage, and behavior change among individuals who used txt4health in pilot studies in Southeast Michigan and Greater Cincinnati. Methods We conducted a multimodal user survey with txt4health users recruited via text message through the program to understand participant perceptions of program use and satisfaction, as well as self-reported perceptions of behavior change as a result of using txt4health. Results Txt4health users reported very high levels of program satisfaction, with 67.1% (108/161) reporting satisfaction scores of ≥8 on a 10-point scale, with 10 equivalent to most satisfied (mean 8.2, SD 1.6). All survey participants agreed/strongly agreed that the messages included in txt4health were clear and easy to understand (100.0%, 160/160), and most found txt4health made them knowledgeable about their risk for type 2 diabetes (88.1%, 140/159) and made them conscious of their diet and physical activity (88.8%, 142/160). Most participants reported that txt4health helped them to make behavior changes related to diet; after having completed txt4health

  15. Impact assessment of biomass-based district heating systems in densely populated communities. Part II: Would the replacement of fossil fuels improve ambient air quality and human health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Olga; Bi, Xiaotao; Lau, Anthony

    2017-07-01

    To determine if replacing fossil fuel combustion with biomass gasification would impact air quality, we evaluated the impact of a small-scale biomass gasification plant (BRDF) at a university campus over 5 scenarios. The overall incremental contribution of fine particles (PM2.5) is found to be at least one order of magnitude lower than the provincial air quality objectives. The maximum PM2.5 emission from the natural gas fueled power house (PH) could adversely add to the already high background concentration levels. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions from the BRDF with no engineered pollution controls for NOx in place exceeded the provincial objective in all seasons except during summer. The impact score, IS, was the highest for NO2 (677 Disability Adjusted Life Years, DALY) when biomass entirely replaced fossil fuels, and the highest for PM2.5 (64 DALY) and CO (3 DALY) if all energy was produced by natural gas at PH. Complete replacement of fossil fuels by one biomass plant can result in almost 28% higher health impacts (708 DALY) compared to 513 DALY when both the current BRDF and the PH are operational mostly due to uncontrolled NO2 emissions. Observations from this study inform academic community, city planners, policy makers and technology developers on the impacts of community district heating systems and possible mitigation strategies: a) community energy demand could be met either by splitting emissions into more than one source at different locations and different fuel types or by a single source with the least-impact-based location selection criteria with biomass as a fuel; b) advanced high-efficiency pollution control devices are essential to lower emissions for emission sources located in a densely populated community; c) a spatial and temporal impact assessment should be performed in developing bioenergy-based district heating systems, in which the capital and operational costs should be balanced with not only the benefit to greenhouse gas emission

  16. Determination of barium in natural waters by ICP-OES technique. Part II: Assessment of human exposure to barium in bottled mineral and spring waters produced in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garboś, Sławomir; Swiecicka, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    A method of the classification of natural mineral and spring waters and maximum admissible concentration (MAC) levels of metals present in such types of waters are regulated by Commission Directive 2003/40/EC, Directive 2009/54/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council and Ordinance of Minister of Health of 30 March 2011 on the natural mineral waters, spring waters and potable waters. MAC of barium in natural mineral and spring waters was set at 1.0 mg/l, while World Health Organization determined the Ba guideline value in water intended for human consumption at the level of 0.7 mg/l. The aims of the study were: the determination of barium in natural mineral and spring waters (carbonated, non-carbonated and medium-carbonated waters) produced and bottled on the area of Poland, and assessment of human exposure to this metal presents in the above-mentioned types of waters. The study concerning barium determinations in 23 types of bottled natural mineral waters and 15 types of bottled spring waters (bought in Polish retail outlets) was conducted in 2010. The analyses were performed by validated method of determination of barium in water based on inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, using modern internal quality control scheme. Concentrations of barium determined in natural mineral and spring waters were in the ranges from 0.0136 mg/l to 1.12 mg/l and from 0.0044 mg/l to 0.43 mg/l, respectively. Only in the single case of natural mineral water the concentration of barium (1.12 mg/l), exceeded above-mentioned MAC for this metal, which is obligatory in Poland and the European Union - 1.0 mg/l. The long-term monitoring of barium concentration in another natural mineral water (2006 - 2010), in which incidental exceeding MAC was observed in 2006, was conducted. All measured barium concentrations in this water were lower than 1.0 mg/l and therefore, it is possible to state that the proper method of mixing waters taken from six independent

  17. Toxicology of wear particles of cobalt-chromium alloy metal-on-metal hip implants Part II: Importance of physicochemical properties and dose in animal and in vitro studies as a basis for risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madl, Amy K; Kovochich, Michael; Liong, Monty; Finley, Brent L; Paustenbach, Dennis J; Oberdörster, Günter

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the Part II analysis was to evaluate animal and in vitro toxicology studies of CoCr particles with respect to their physicochemistry and dose relevance to metal-on-metal (MoM) implant patients as derived from Part I. In the various toxicology studies, physicochemical characteristics were infrequently considered and administered doses were orders of magnitude higher than what occurs in patients. Co was consistently shown to rapidly release from CoCr particles for distribution and elimination from the body. CoCr micron sized particles appear more biopersistent in vivo resulting in inflammatory responses that are not seen with similar mass concentrations of nanoparticles. We conclude, that in an attempt to obtain data for a complete risk assessment, future studies need to focus on physicochemical characteristics of nano and micron sized particles and on doses and dose metrics relevant to those generated in patients or in properly conducted hip simulator studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Recent Economic Perspectives on Political Economy, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Torun; Shepsle, Kenneth A

    2008-07-01

    In recent years some of the best theoretical work on the political economy of political institutions and processes has begun surfacing outside the political science mainstream in high quality economics journals. This two-part paper surveys these contributions from a recent five-year period. In Part I, the focus is on elections, voting and information aggregation, followed by treatments of parties, candidates, and coalitions. In Part II, papers on economic performance and redistribution, constitutional design, and incentives, institutions, and the quality of political elites are discussed. Part II concludes with a discussion of the methodological bases common to economics and political science, the way economists have used political science research, and some new themes and arbitrage opportunities.

  19. Recent Economic Perspectives on Political Economy, Part II*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Torun; Shepsle, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years some of the best theoretical work on the political economy of political institutions and processes has begun surfacing outside the political science mainstream in high quality economics journals. This two-part paper surveys these contributions from a recent five-year period. In Part I, the focus is on elections, voting and information aggregation, followed by treatments of parties, candidates, and coalitions. In Part II, papers on economic performance and redistribution, constitutional design, and incentives, institutions, and the quality of political elites are discussed. Part II concludes with a discussion of the methodological bases common to economics and political science, the way economists have used political science research, and some new themes and arbitrage opportunities. PMID:23606754

  20. Acute dental pain, Part II: Diagnosis and emergency treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, J R

    1990-09-01

    Part II of this two-part series differentiates and explores endodontic-related emergencies with reversible and irreversible pulpitis. Indications and contra-indications for vital pulp therapy are explained, and treatment is outlined. The inflammatory process involved in irreversible pulpal disease is summarized, and the clinical signs, symptoms, and treatment of irreversible pulpitis (with and without acute periradicular involvement, with pulp necrosis, and acute periradicular abscess with and without cellulitis) are discussed.

  1. Performing arts medicine--instrumentalist musicians, Part II--examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommerholt, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Part I of this article's series included background information on performing arts medicine with a special focus on musicians. It covered in detail what questions need to be included in the history, when healthcare providers first examine musicians. In part II of the series, the emphasis is on the physical examination, including posture, range of motion and hypermobility, ergonomics, and instrument-specific examination procedures. The final article in the series will describe three case histories of musicians with hand pain.

  2. Methods of humidity determination Part II: Determination of material humidity

    OpenAIRE

    Rübner, Katrin; Balköse, Devrim; Robens, E.

    2008-01-01

    Part II covers the most common methods of measuring the humidity of solid material. State of water near solid surfaces, gravimetric measurement of material humidity, measurement of water sorption isotherms, chemical methods for determination of water content, measurement of material humidity via the gas phase, standardisation, cosmonautical observations are reviewed.

  3. HERBICIDAS INIBIDORES DO FOTOSSISTEMA IIPARTE I /\tPHOTOSYSTEM II INHIBITOR HERBICIDES - PART I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILCA P. DE F. E SILVA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available O controle químico tem sido o mais utilizado em grandes áreas de plantio, principalmente por ser um método rápido e eficiente. Os herbicidas inibidores do fotossistema II (PSII são fundamentais para o manejo integrado de plantas daninhas e práticas conservacionista de solo. A aplicação é realizada em pré-emergência ou pós-emergência inicial das plantas daninhas. A absorção é pelas raízes, tendo como barreira as estrias de Caspari, sendo a translocação realizada pelo xilema. O processo de absorção e translocação também são dependentes das próprias características do produto, como as propriedades lipofílicas e hidrofílicas, as quais podem ser medidas através do coeficiente de partição octanol-água (Kow. A inibição da fotossíntese acontece pela ligação dos herbicidas deste grupo ao sítio de ligação da QB, na proteína D1 do fotossistema II, o qual se localiza na membrana dos tilacóides dos cloroplastos, causando, o bloqueia do transporte de elétrons da QA para QB, interrompendo a fixação do CO2 e a produção de ATP e NAPH2.

  4. A part-time Level II fieldwork program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelstein, L A; Cohn, E S; Baker, R C; Barnes, M A

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes an alternative to the traditional Level II fieldwork program for master's degree students in occupational therapy. In this part-time 9-month program, students complete the fieldwork requirement while simultaneously balancing academic responsibilities. One advantage of this program over the traditional 3-month program is that the extended length of time offers students the opportunity to develop clinical skills beyond the technical level.

  5. Treatment of cellulite: Part II. Advances and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Misbah H; Victor, Frank; Rao, Babar; Sadick, Neil S

    2010-03-01

    Treatments for localized adiposities range from topical creams to liposuction. Most treatments lack a substantial proof of efficacy. The unpredictable treatment outcome can be related to the fact that cellulite adipose tissue is physiologically and biochemically different from subcutaneous tissue found elsewhere in the body. Part II of this two-part series on cellulite reviews the various treatment options that are currently available for human adipose tissue including, but not limited to, cellulite. It also focuses on newer techniques that can be potentially useful in the future for the treatment of cellulite. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Forced Marriage-Culture or Crime? Part II

    OpenAIRE

    TAPP, David; JENKINSON, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This is Part II of the series.\\ud \\ud ‘Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses .’ \\ud \\ud It is important to begin by acknowledging the above statement, which is part of Article 16(2) of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and also to distinguish between an arranged marriage and a forced marriage. \\ud \\ud An arranged marriage is ‘a marriage planned and agreed by the families or guardians of the couple concerned ’, while a forced marria...

  7. Predicting performance on the Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Exam Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woloschuk, Wayne; McLaughlin, Kevin; Wright, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Being able to predict which residents will likely be unsuccessful on high-stakes exams would allow residency programs to provide early intervention. To determine whether measures of clinical performance in clerkship (in-training evaluation reports) and first year of residency (program director ratings) predict pass-fail performance on the Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Exam Part II (MCCQE Part II). Residency program directors assessed the performance of our medical school graduates (Classes 2004-2007) at the end of the 1st postgraduate year. We subsequently collected clerkship in-training evaluation reports for these graduates. Using a neutral third party and unique codes, an anonymous dataset containing clerkship, residency, and MCCQE Part II performance scores was created for our use. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlations, receiver operating characteristics, and the Youdin index. Regression was also performed to further study the relationship among the variables. Complete data were available for 78.6% of the graduates. Of these participants, 94% passed the licensing exam on their first attempt. Receiver operating characteristics revealed that the area under the curve for clerkship in-training evaluation reports was 0.67 (ptraining evaluation reports and residency program director assessments were 0.30 and 0.23, respectively. Although clerkship in-training evaluation reports and residency program director ratings are significant predictors of pass-fail performance on the MCCQE Part II, the effectiveness of each one to predict pass-fail performance was relatively small. Reasons for these findings are discussed.

  8. Structure Learning and Statistical Estimation in Distribution Networks - Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deka, Deepjyoti [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Backhaus, Scott N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-13

    Limited placement of real-time monitoring devices in the distribution grid, recent trends notwithstanding, has prevented the easy implementation of demand-response and other smart grid applications. Part I of this paper discusses the problem of learning the operational structure of the grid from nodal voltage measurements. In this work (Part II), the learning of the operational radial structure is coupled with the problem of estimating nodal consumption statistics and inferring the line parameters in the grid. Based on a Linear-Coupled(LC) approximation of AC power flows equations, polynomial time algorithms are designed to identify the structure and estimate nodal load characteristics and/or line parameters in the grid using the available nodal voltage measurements. Then the structure learning algorithm is extended to cases with missing data, where available observations are limited to a fraction of the grid nodes. The efficacy of the presented algorithms are demonstrated through simulations on several distribution test cases.

  9. [The Mexican consensus on gastroesophageal reflux disease. Part II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-Iga, F; Tamayo-de la Cuesta, J L; Noble-Lugo, A; Hernández-Guerrero, A; Torres-Villalobos, G; Ramos-de la Medina, A; Pantoja-Millán, J P

    2013-01-01

    To update the themes of endoscopic and surgical treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) from the Mexican Consensus published in 2002. Part I of the 2011 Consensus dealt with the general concepts, diagnosis, and medical treatment of this disease. Part II covers the topics of the endoscopic and surgical treatment of GERD. In this second part, an expert in endoscopy and an expert in GERD surgery, along with the three general coordinators of the consensus, carried out an extensive bibliographic review using the Embase, Cochrane, and Medline databases. Statements referring to the main aspects of endoscopic and surgical treatment of this disease were elaborated and submitted to specialists for their consideration and vote, utilizing the modified Delphi method. The statements were accepted into the consensus if the level of agreement was 67% or higher. Twenty-five statements corresponding to the endoscopic and surgical treatment of GERD resulted from the voting process, and they are presented herein as Part II of the consensus. The majority of the statements had an average level of agreement approaching 90%. Currently, endoscopic treatment of GERD should not be regarded as an option, given that the clinical results at 3 and 5 years have not demonstrated durability or sustained symptom remission. The surgical indications for GERD are well established; only those patients meeting the full criteria should be candidates and their surgery should be performed by experts. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  10. PREREM: an interactive data preprocessing code for INREM II. Part I: user's manual. Part II: code structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, M.T.; Fields, D.E.

    1981-05-01

    PREREM is an interactive computer code developed as a data preprocessor for the INREM-II (Killough, Dunning, and Pleasant, 1978a) internal dose program. PREREM is intended to provide easy access to current and self-consistent nuclear decay and radionuclide-specific metabolic data sets. Provision is made for revision of metabolic data, and the code is intended for both production and research applications. Documentation for the code is in two parts. Part I is a user's manual which emphasizes interpretation of program prompts and choice of user input. Part II stresses internal structure and flow of program control and is intended to assist the researcher who wishes to revise or modify the code or add to its capabilities. PREREM is written for execution on a Digital Equipment Corporation PDP-10 System and much of the code will require revision before it can be run on other machines. The source program length is 950 lines (116 blocks) and computer core required for execution is 212 K bytes. The user must also have sufficient file space for metabolic and S-factor data sets. Further, 64 100 K byte blocks of computer storage space are required for the nuclear decay data file. Computer storage space must also be available for any output files produced during the PREREM execution. 9 refs., 8 tabs.

  11. Nuclear cardiology, Part II: Scintigraphic evaluation of cardiac function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambÿe, A S; Everaert, H; Maes, A; Mesotten, L; Vandevivere, J; Mortelmans, L; Franken, P R

    1998-06-01

    Different methods are currently available to assess cardiac function, especially left ventricular ejection fraction, using either planar or tomographic imaging, first-pass or equilibrium techniques, and blood-pool or myocardial perfusion agents. This is the second article of a four-part series on nuclear cardiology. In this article the authors review the most widely used radiopharmaceuticals and methodologies.

  12. 46 CFR Appendix II to Part 150 - Explanation of Figure 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Explanation of Figure 1 II Appendix II to Part 150... COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, App. II Appendix II to Part 150—Explanation of Figure 1 Definition of a... referenced by a footnote which indicates that exceptions exist and are listed in Appendix I. Unless the...

  13. 29 CFR Appendix II to Part 1918 - Tables for Selected Miscellaneous Auxiliary Gear (Mandatory)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tables for Selected Miscellaneous Auxiliary Gear (Mandatory) II Appendix II to Part 1918 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND.... 1918, App. II Appendix II to Part 1918—Tables for Selected Miscellaneous Auxiliary Gear (Mandatory...

  14. Hysterosalpingographic Appearances of Female Genital Tract Tuberculosis: Part II: Uterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Ahmadi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Female genital tuberculosis remains as a major cause of tubal obstruction leading to infertility, especially in developing countries. The global prevalence of genital tuberculosis has increased during the past two decades due to increasing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Genital tuberculosis (TB is commonly asymptomatic and it is diagnosed during infertility investigations. Despite of recent advances in imaging tools such as computed tomography (CT scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and ultrasongraphy, hysterosalpingography has been considered as the standard screening test for evaluation of tubal infertility and as a valuable tool for diagnosis of female genital tuberculosis. Tuberculosis gives rise to various appearances on hysterosalpingography (HSG from non-specific changes to specific findings. The present pictorial review illustrates and describes specific and non-specific radiographic features of female genital tuberculosis in two parts. Part I presents specific findings of tuberculosis related to tubes such as "beaded tube", "golf club tube", "pipestem tube", "cobble stone tube" and the "leopard skin tube". Part II will describe adverse effects of tuberculosis on structure of endometrium and radiological specific findings, such as "T-shaped" tuberculosis uterus, "pseudo-unicornuate "uterus, "collar-stud abscess" and "dwarfed" uterus with lymphatic intravasation and occluded tubes which have not been encountered in the majority of non-tuberculosis cases.

  15. Stabilized finite elements for Bingham and Herschel-Bulkley confined flows Part II: Numerical simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, E.; Cervera, M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work is to model computationally Bingham and Herschel-Bulkley viscoplastic fluids using stabilized mixed velocity/pressure finite elements. Numerical solutions for these viscoplastic flows are presented and assessed. The regularized viscoplastic models due to Papanastasiou is used. In the discrete model, the Orthogonal Subgrid scale (OSS) method is used. In this part II , numerical solutions for two problems of Bingham and Herschel-Bulkley confined flows are presente...

  16. Impedance-Source Networks for Electric Power Conversion Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwakoti, Yam P.; Peng, Fang Zheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    -based power converters has been covered in a previous paper and main topologies were discussed from an application point of view. Now Part II provides a comprehensive review of the most popular control and modulation strategies for impedance-source network-based power converters/inverters. These methods...... are compared in terms of theoretical complexity and performance, when applied to the respective switching topologies. Further, this paper provides as a guide and quick reference for researchers and practicing engineers in deciding which control and modulation method to consider for an application in a given......Impedance-source networks cover the entire spectrum of electric power conversion applications (dc-dc, dc-ac, ac-dc, ac-ac) controlled and modulated by different modulation strategies to generate the desired dc or ac voltage and current at the output. A comprehensive review of various impedance-source-network...

  17. Sexuality and Personal Relationships for People with an Intellectual Disability. Part II: Staff and Family Carer Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D. S.; McGuire, B. E.; Healy, E.; Carley, S. N.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recent ideological shifts in service provision promote appropriate sexual expression for people with an intellectual disability (ID), although there is little evidence that such advances in ideology are matched by current service provision. Part II of the current two-part study assessed the attitudes of staff and family carers to the…

  18. Digital Assays Part II: Digital Protein and Cell Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Amar S

    2017-08-01

    A digital assay is one in which the sample is partitioned into many containers such that each partition contains a discrete number of biological entities (0, 1, 2, 3, . . .). A powerful technique in the biologist's toolkit, digital assays bring a new level of precision in quantifying nucleic acids, measuring proteins and their enzymatic activity, and probing single-cell genotype and phenotype. Where part I of this review focused on the fundamentals of partitioning and digital PCR, part II turns its attention to digital protein and cell assays. Digital enzyme assays measure the kinetics of single proteins with enzymatic activity. Digital enzyme-linked immunoassays (ELISAs) quantify antigenic proteins with 2 to 3 log lower detection limit than conventional ELISA, making them well suited for low-abundance biomarkers. Digital cell assays probe single-cell genotype and phenotype, including gene expression, intracellular and surface proteins, metabolic activity, cytotoxicity, and transcriptomes (scRNA-seq). These methods exploit partitioning to 1) isolate single cells or proteins, 2) detect their activity via enzymatic amplification, and 3) tag them individually by coencapsulating them with molecular barcodes. When scaled, digital assays reveal stochastic differences between proteins or cells within a population, a key to understanding biological heterogeneity. This review is intended to give a broad perspective to scientists interested in adopting digital assays into their workflows.

  19. Reforming Science Education: Part II. Utilizing Kieran Egan's Educational Metatheory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Roland M.

    2009-04-01

    This paper is the second of two parts and continues the conversation which had called for a shift in the conceptual focus of science education towards philosophy of education, with the requirement to develop a discipline-specific “philosophy” of science education. In Part I, conflicting conceptions of science literacy were identified with disparate “visions” tied to competing research programs as well as school-based curricular paradigms. The impasse in the goals of science education and thereto, the contending views of science literacy, were themselves associated with three underlying fundamental aims of education (knowledge-itself; personal development; socialization) which, it was argued, usually undercut the potential of each other. During periods of “crisis-talk” and throughout science educational history these three aims have repeatedly attempted to assert themselves. The inability of science education research to affect long-term change in classrooms was correlated not only to the failure to reach a consensus on the aims (due to competing programs and to the educational ideologies of their social groups), but especially to the failure of developing true educational theories (largely neglected since Hirst). Such theories, especially metatheories, could serve to reinforce science education’s growing sense of academic autonomy and independence from socio-economic demands. In Part II, I offer as a suggestion Egan’s cultural-linguistic theory as a metatheory to help resolve the impasse. I hope to make reformers familiar with his important ideas in general, and more specifically, to show how they can complement HPS rationales and reinforce the work of those researchers who have emphasized the value of narrative in learning science.

  20. Recovery in soccer : part ii-recovery strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nédélec, Mathieu; McCall, Alan; Carling, Chris; Legall, Franck; Berthoin, Serge; Dupont, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    In the formerly published part I of this two-part review, we examined fatigue after soccer matchplay and recovery kinetics of physical performance, and cognitive, subjective and biological markers. To reduce the magnitude of fatigue and to accelerate the time to fully recover after completion, several recovery strategies are now used in professional soccer teams. During congested fixture schedules, recovery strategies are highly required to alleviate post-match fatigue, and then to regain performance faster and reduce the risk of injury. Fatigue following competition is multifactorial and mainly related to dehydration, glycogen depletion, muscle damage and mental fatigue. Recovery strategies should consequently be targeted against the major causes of fatigue. Strategies reviewed in part II of this article were nutritional intake, cold water immersion, sleeping, active recovery, stretching, compression garments, massage and electrical stimulation. Some strategies such as hydration, diet and sleep are effective in their ability to counteract the fatigue mechanisms. Providing milk drinks to players at the end of competition and a meal containing high-glycaemic index carbohydrate and protein within the hour following the match are effective in replenishing substrate stores and optimizing muscle-damage repair. Sleep is an essential part of recovery management. Sleep disturbance after a match is common and can negatively impact on the recovery process. Cold water immersion is effective during acute periods of match congestion in order to regain performance levels faster and repress the acute inflammatory process. Scientific evidence for other strategies reviewed in their ability to accelerate the return to the initial level of performance is still lacking. These include active recovery, stretching, compression garments, massage and electrical stimulation. While this does not mean that these strategies do not aid the recovery process, the protocols implemented up until

  1. Part II--Management of pediatric post-traumatic headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchefsky, Elana; Dubrovsky, Alexander Sasha; Friedman, Debbie; Shevell, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Post-traumatic headache is one of the most common symptoms occurring after mild traumatic brain injury in children. This is an expert opinion-based two-part review on pediatric post-traumatic headaches. In part II, we focus on the medical management of post-traumatic headaches. There are no randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of therapies specifically for pediatric post-traumatic headaches. Thus, the algorithm we propose has been extrapolated from the primary headache literature and small noncontrolled trials of post-traumatic headache. Most post-traumatic headaches are migraine or tension type, and standard medications for these headache types are used. A multifaceted approach is needed to address all the possible causes of headache and any comorbid conditions that may delay recovery or alter treatment choices. For acute treatment, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories can be used. If the headaches have migrainous features and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories are not effective, triptans may be beneficial. Opioids are not indicated. Medication overuse should be avoided. For preventive treatments, some reports indicate that amitriptyline, gabapentin, or topiramate may be beneficial. Amitriptyline is a good choice because it can be used to treat both migraine and tension-type headaches. Nerve blocks, nutraceuticals (e.g. melatonin), and behavioral therapies may also be useful, and lifestyle factors, especially adequate sleep hygiene and strategies to cope with anxiety, should be emphasized. Improved treatment of acute post-traumatic headache may reduce the likelihood of developing chronic headaches, which can be especially problematic to effectively manage and can be functionally debilitating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Using a source-receptor approach to characterise VOC behaviour in a French urban area influenced by industrial emissions. Part II: source contribution assessment using the Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badol, Caroline; Locoge, Nadine; Galloo, Jean-Claude

    2008-01-25

    In Part I of this study (Badol C, Locoge N, Leonardis T, Gallo JC. Using a source-receptor approach to characterise VOC behaviour in a French urban area influenced by industrial emissions, Part I: Study area description, data set acquisition and qualitative data analysis of the data set. Sci Total Environ 2007; submitted as companion manuscript.) the study area, acquisition of the one-year data set and qualitative analysis of the data set have been described. In Part II a source profile has been established for each activity present in the study area: 6 profiles (urban heating, solvent use, natural gas leakage, biogenic emissions, gasoline evaporation and vehicle exhaust) have been extracted from literature to characterise urban sources, 7 industrial profiles have been established via canister sampling around industrial plants (hydrocarbon cracking, oil refinery, hydrocarbon storage, lubricant storage, lubricant refinery, surface treatment and metallurgy). The CMB model is briefly described and its implementation is discussed through the selection of source profiles and fitting species. Main results of CMB modellings for the Dunkerque area are presented. (1) The daily evolution of source contributions for the urban wind sector shows that the vehicle exhaust source contribution varies between 40 and 55% and its relative increase at traffic rush hours is hardly perceptible. (2) The relative contribution of vehicle exhaust varies from 55% in winter down to 30% in summer. This decrease is due to the increase of the relative contribution of hydrocarbon storage source reaching up to 20% in summer. (3) The evolution of source contributions with wind directions has confirmed that in urban wind sectors the contribution of vehicle exhaust dominate with around 45-55%. For the other wind sectors that include some industrial plants, the contribution of industrial sources is around 60% and could reach 80% for the sector 280-310 degrees , which corresponds to the most dense

  3. Autism and EMF? Plausibility of a pathophysiological link part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Martha R; Sage, Cindy

    2013-06-01

    Autism spectrum conditions (ASCs) are defined behaviorally, but they also involve multileveled disturbances of underlying biology that find striking parallels in the physiological impacts of electromagnetic frequency and radiofrequency radiation exposures (EMF/RFR). Part I (Vol 776) of this paper reviewed the critical contributions pathophysiology may make to the etiology, pathogenesis and ongoing generation of behaviors currently defined as being core features of ASCs. We reviewed pathophysiological damage to core cellular processes that are associated both with ASCs and with biological effects of EMF/RFR exposures that contribute to chronically disrupted homeostasis. Many studies of people with ASCs have identified oxidative stress and evidence of free radical damage, cellular stress proteins, and deficiencies of antioxidants such as glutathione. Elevated intracellular calcium in ASCs may be due to genetics or may be downstream of inflammation or environmental exposures. Cell membrane lipids may be peroxidized, mitochondria may be dysfunctional, and various kinds of immune system disturbances are common. Brain oxidative stress and inflammation as well as measures consistent with blood-brain barrier and brain perfusion compromise have been documented. Part II of this paper documents how behaviors in ASCs may emerge from alterations of electrophysiological oscillatory synchronization, how EMF/RFR could contribute to these by de-tuning the organism, and policy implications of these vulnerabilities. It details evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction, immune system dysregulation, neuroinflammation and brain blood flow alterations, altered electrophysiology, disruption of electromagnetic signaling, synchrony, and sensory processing, de-tuning of the brain and organism, with autistic behaviors as emergent properties emanating from this pathophysiology. Changes in brain and autonomic nervous system electrophysiological function and sensory processing predominate, seizures

  4. Nanoparticles and the blood coagulation system. Part II: safety concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilinskaya, Anna N; Dobrovolskaia, Marina A

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticle interactions with the blood coagulation system can be beneficial or adverse depending on the intended use of a nanomaterial. Nanoparticles can be engineered to be procoagulant or to carry coagulation-initiating factors to treat certain disorders. Likewise, they can be designed to be anticoagulant or to carry anticoagulant drugs to intervene in other pathological conditions in which coagulation is a concern. An overview of the coagulation system was given and a discussion of a desirable interface between this system and engineered nanomaterials was assessed in part I, which was published in the May 2013 issue of Nanomedicine. Unwanted pro- and anti-coagulant properties of nanoparticles represent significant concerns in the field of nanomedicine, and often hamper the development and transition into the clinic of many promising engineered nanocarriers. This part will focus on the undesirable effects of engineered nanomaterials on the blood coagulation system. We will discuss the relationship between the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles (e.g., size, charge and hydrophobicity) that determine their negative effects on the blood coagulation system in order to understand how manipulation of these properties can help to overcome unwanted side effects. PMID:23730696

  5. Discovery of Quantum structure and A Theory of Everything Part I and Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meggie

    2012-10-01

    (Part I) During my research I discovered logical errors in the logic of science and in mathematics. These errors caused scientists missed out important information when interpreting data. This led me to revisit the method of science and the existing results and able to find new information, which lead to the discovery of photon's structure. A ``particle collision illumination'' experiment then provided direct evidence supported the structure. Analysis of the properties of the structure suggested an organized but not-continuous multi-dimension (n-D) space within. Therefore I formed a hypothesis of a not-continuous n-D space structure. In search for evidence, I turned into crystal technology, and found direct evidence supported the hypotesis, then further particle collision found more evidence support this finding. (Part II) Analysis of single electron buildup revealed star and galaxy formation is from a single particle following a predictable pattern. This pattern is also common in matter formation. Analysis of the quantum structure suggested the formation of a larger structure through the space expansion within the structure. Further experiment results support the finding and result revealed the expansion is through space folding. Result also suggested a violation of energy conservation law that energy is created during the formation of matter, and matter itself is moving from a lower energy state to a higher energy state. When putting all information together, I arrived to a theory of everything which gives explanations to all existing phenomenon in the universe including black hole, dark energy, star formation, consciousness.

  6. PGE Production in Southern Africa, Part II: Environmental Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Buchspies

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Platinum group elements (PGEs, 6E PGE = Pt + Pd + Rh + Ru + Ir + Au are used in numerous applications that seek to reduce environmental impacts of mobility and energy generation. Consequently, the future demand for PGEs is predicted to increase. Previous studies indicate that environmental impacts of PGE production change over time emphasizing the need of up-to-date data and assessments. In this context, an analysis of environmental aspects of PGE production is needed to support the environmental assessment of technologies using PGEs, to reveal environmental hotspots within the production chain and to identify optimization potential. Therefore, this paper assesses greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, cumulative fossil energy demand (CEDfossil, sulfur dioxide (SO2 emissions and water use of primary PGE production in Southern Africa, where most of today’s supply originates from. The analysis shows that in 2015, emissions amounted to 45 t CO2-eq. and 502 kg SO2 per kg 6E PGE in the case GHG and SO2 emissions, respectively. GHG emissions are dominated by emissions from electricity provision contributing more than 90% to the overall GHG emissions. The CEDfossil amounted to 0.60 TJ per kg 6E PGE. A detailed analysis of the CEDfossil reveals that electricity provision based on coal power consumes the most fossil energy carriers among all energy forms. Results show that the emissions are directly related to the electricity demand. Thus, the reduction in the electricity demand presents the major lever to reduce the consumption of fossil energy resources and the emission of GHGs and SO2. In 2015, the water withdrawal amounted to 0.272 million L per kg 6E PGE. Additionally, 0.402 million L of recycled water were used per kg 6E PGE. All assessed indicators except ore grades and production volumes reveal increasing trends in the period from 2010 to 2015. It can be concluded that difficult market conditions (see part I of this paper series and increasing

  7. Psychiatric emergencies (part II): psychiatric disorders coexisting with organic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, A; Giannuzzi, R; Sollazzo, F; Petrongolo, L; Bernardini, L; Dain, S

    2013-02-01

    In this Part II psychiatric disorders coexisting with organic diseases are discussed. "Comorbidity phenomenon" defines the not univocal interrelation between medical illnesses and psychiatric disorders, each other negatively influencing morbidity and mortality. Most severe psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression, show increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease, related to poverty, use of psychotropic medication, and higher rate of preventable risk factors such as smoking, addiction, poor diet and lack of exercise. Moreover, psychiatric and organic disorders can develop together in different conditions of toxic substance and prescription drug use or abuse, especially in the emergency setting population. Different combinations with mutual interaction of psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders are defined by the so called "dual diagnosis". The hypotheses that attempt to explain the psychiatric disorders and substance abuse relationship are examined: (1) common risk factors; (2) psychiatric disorders precipitated by substance use; (3) psychiatric disorders precipitating substance use (self-medication hypothesis); and (4) synergistic interaction. Diagnostic and therapeutic difficulty concerning the problem of dual diagnosis, and legal implications, are also discussed. Substance induced psychiatric and organic symptoms can occur both in the intoxication and withdrawal state. Since ancient history, humans selected indigene psychotropic plants for recreational, medicinal, doping or spiritual purpose. After the isolation of active principles or their chemical synthesis, higher blood concentrations reached predispose to substance use, abuse and dependence. Abuse substances have specific molecular targets and very different acute mechanisms of action, mainly involving dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems, but finally converging on the brain's reward pathways, increasing dopamine in nucleus accumbens. The most common

  8. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Calculations II... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. II Appendix II to Part 600—Sample Fuel Economy Calculations (a) This sample fuel economy calculation is applicable to...

  9. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the CARIBOU REEFER II as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1981-08-22 to 1981-08-23 (NODC Accession 8100650)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the CARIBOU REEFER II from 22 August 1981 to 23 August 1981. Data were collected by the National Marine...

  10. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the CARIBOU REEFER II and other platforms as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1979-08-28 to 1979-11-22 (NODC Accession 7900342)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the CARIBOU REEFER II and other platforms from 28 August 1979 to 22 November 1979. Data were collected by the...

  11. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the CARIBOU REEFER II as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1980-11-11 (NODC Accession 8000591)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the CARIBOU REEFER II from 11 November 1980. Data were collected by the National Marine Fisheries Service...

  12. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the CARIBOU REEFER II as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1981-06-10 to 1981-06-11 (NODC Accession 8100563)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the CARIBOU REEFER II from 10 June 1981 to 11 June 1981. Data were collected by the National Marine Fisheries...

  13. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the CARIBOU REEFER II as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1981-04-08 to 1981-04-09 (NODC Accession 8100553)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the CARIBOU REEFER II from 08 April 1981 to 09 April 1981. Data were collected by the National Marine...

  14. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the CARIBOU REEFER II as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1981-03-09 to 1981-03-10 (NODC Accession 8100487)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the CARIBOU REEFER II from 09 March 1981 to 10 March 1981. Data were collected by the National Marine...

  15. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the CARIBOU REEFER II as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1981-02-24 to 1981-02-25 (NODC Accession 8100489)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the CARIBOU REEFER II from 24 February 1981 to 25 February 1981. Data were collected by the National Marine...

  16. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the CARIBOU REEFER II as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1979-08-03 (NODC Accession 7900261)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the CARIBOU REEFER II from 03 August 1979. Data were collected by the National Marine Fisheries Service...

  17. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the CARIBOU REEFER II and other platforms as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1980-06-05 to 1980-06-26 (NODC Accession 8000459)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the CARIBOU REEFER II and other platforms from 05 June 1980 to 26 June 1980. Data were collected by the...

  18. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the CARIBOU REEFER II as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1980-10-20 to 1980-10-21 (NODC Accession 8100556)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the CARIBOU REEFER II from 20 October 1980 to 21 October 1980. Data were collected by the National Marine...

  19. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the CARIBOU REEFER II as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1980-12-14 to 1980-12-15 (NODC Accession 8000623)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the CARIBOU REEFER II from 14 December 1980 to 15 December 1980. Data were collected by the National Marine...

  20. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the CARIBOU REEFER II as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1981-07-22 to 1981-07-23 (NODC Accession 8100604)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the CARIBOU REEFER II from 22 July 1981 to 23 July 1981. Data were collected by the National Marine Fisheries...

  1. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the CARIBOU REEFER II as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1981-05-30 to 1981-05-31 (NODC Accession 8100564)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the CARIBOU REEFER II from 30 May 1981 to 31 May 1981. Data were collected by the National Marine Fisheries...

  2. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the CARIBOU REEFER II as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1981-09-06 to 1981-09-07 (NODC Accession 8100654)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the CARIBOU REEFER II from 06 September 1981 to 07 September 1981. Data were collected by the National Marine...

  3. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the CARIBOU REEFER II and other platforms as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1979-05-19 to 1980-01-02 (NODC Accession 8000020)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the CARIBOU REEFER II and other platforms from 19 May 1979 to 02 January 1980. Data were collected by the...

  4. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the CARIBOU REEFER II as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1980-11-13 to 1980-11-14 (NODC Accession 8000611)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the CARIBOU REEFER II from 13 November 1980 to 14 November 1980. Data were collected by the National Marine...

  5. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the CARIBOU REEFER II as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1980-07-21 to 1980-09-03 (NODC Accession 8000469)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the CARIBOU REEFER II from 21 July 1980 to 03 September 1980. Data were collected by the National Marine...

  6. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the CARIBOU REEFER II and other platforms as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1980-04-17 to 1980-05-06 (NODC Accession 8000328)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the CARIBOU REEFER II and other platforms from 17 April 1980 to 06 May 1980. Data were collected by the...

  7. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the CARIBOU REEFER II and other platforms as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1981-08-05 to 1982-03-18 (NODC Accession 8200052)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the CARIBOU REEFER II and other platforms from 05 August 1981 to 18 March 1982. Data were collected by the...

  8. Polymers Based on Renewable Raw Materials – Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović, S.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A short review of biopolymers based on starch (starch derivatives, thermoplastic starch, lignin and hemicelluloses, chitin (chitosan and products obtained by degradation of starch and other polysaccharides and sugars (poly(lactic acid, poly(hydroxyalkanoates, as well as some of their basic properties and application area, are given in this part. The problem of environmental and economic feasibility of biopolymers based on renewable raw materials and their competitiveness with polymers based on fossil raw materials is discussed. Also pointed out are the problems that appear due to the increasing use of agricultural land for the production of raw materials for the chemical industry and energy, instead for the production of food for humans and animals. The optimistic assessments of experts considering the development perspectives of biopolymers based on renewable raw materials in the next ten years have also been pointed out.At the end of the paper, the success of a team of researchers gathered around the experts from the company Bayer is indicated. They were the first in the world to develop a catalyst by which they managed to effectively activate CO - and incorporate it into polyols, used for the synthesis of polyurethanes in semi-industrial scale. By applying this process, for the first time a pollutant will be used as a basic raw material for the synthesis of organic compounds, which will have significant consequences on the development of the chemical industry, and therefore the production of polymers.

  9. Thinking in Nursing Education. Part I: A Student's Experience in Learning To Think. Part II: A Teacher's Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ironside, Pamela Magnussen

    1999-01-01

    Part I describes a nursing student's experience learning to think in clinical practice, illustrating the need for a variety of approaches to critical thinking. Part II shows how nursing teachers and students are challenging conventional approaches and creating more responsive pedagogies. (SK)

  10. Processo de adaptação de próteses auditivas em usuários atendidos em uma instituição pública federal: parte II: resultados dos questionários de auto-avaliação Hearing aid fitting process in users fitted in a federal public institution: part II - self-assessment questionnaire results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Dias de Freitas

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Uma reabilitação eficiente deve reduzir os efeitos da deficiência sobre as habilidades auditivas e comunicativas do indivíduo e aumentar o bem-estar psicossocial. OBJETIVOS:Verificar a viabilidade do uso de questionários de auto-avaliação e comparar os resultados da protetização em usuários de uma instituição pública federal, com e sem queixas relacionadas às características da amplificação. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS:25 indivíduos, de 13 a 77 anos de idade, usuários de próteses auditivas. Foram aplicados os questionários de auto-avaliação HHIE-S/HHIA (Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly Screening Version ou for Adult e APHAB (Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit, nos indivíduos sem (Grupo 1 e com queixas relacionados às características da amplificação (Grupo 2. RESULTADOS: Diferenças significantes não foram encontradas entre os grupos nos protocolos HHIE-S/HHIA e APHAB, exceto na subescala facilidade de comunicação do APHAB, onde o Grupo 1 obteve melhor benefício. Também evidenciou-se redução significativa da incapacidade auditiva com o uso das próteses em situações favoráveis de comunicação, ambientes reverberantes e na presença de ruído ambiental para ambos os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: Os questionários revelaram ser excelentes preditores das dificuldades enfrentadas pelos usuários, e diferenças significantes foram encontradas em situações favoráveis de comunicação, onde o grupo sem queixas obteve melhor benefício.An efficient rehabilitation must be able to reduce impairment effects over the auditory and communication skills of individuals and promote psychosocial well being. AIMS: check the feasibility of using self-assessment questionnaires and compare the results achieved by hearing aid fitting in users from a federal public institution, with and without complaints related to hearing amplification characteristics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 25 individuals, from 13 to 77 years of age, users of

  11. Stress analysis in oral obturator prostheses, part II: photoelastic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; da Silva, Emily Vivianne Freitas; Haddad, Marcela Filié; Moreno, Amália; Zahoui, Abbas; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline

    2014-06-01

    In part I of the study, two attachment systems [O-ring; bar-clip (BC)] were used, and the system with three individualized O-rings provided the lowest stress on the implants and the support tissues. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the stress distribution, through the photoelastic method, on implant-retained palatal obturator prostheses associated with different attachment systems: BOC--splinted implants with a bar connected to two centrally placed O-rings, and BOD--splinted implants with a BC connected to two distally placed O-rings (cantilever). One photoelastic model of the maxilla with oral-sinus-nasal communication with three parallel implants was fabricated. Afterward, two implant-retained palatal obturator prostheses with the two attachment systems described above were constructed. Each assembly was positioned in a circular polariscope and a 100-N axial load was applied in three different regions with implants by using a universal testing machine. The results were obtained through photograph record analysis of stress. The BOD system exhibited the highest stress concentration, followed by the BOC system. The O-ring, centrally placed on the bar, allows higher mobility of the prostheses and homogeneously distributes the stress to the region of the alveolar ridge and implants. It can be concluded that the use of implants with O-rings, isolated or connected with a bar, to rehabilitate maxillectomized patients allows higher prosthesis mobility and homogeneously distributes the stress to the alveolar ridge region, which may result in greater chewing stress distribution to implants and bone tissue. The clinical implication of the augmented bone support loss after maxillectomy is the increase of stress in the attachment systems and, consequently, a higher tendency for displacement of the prosthesis.

  12. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 504 - Fuel Price Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... index for each fuel in year i. Pi=Price of fuel in year i. Po=Price of fuel in base year. EQ II-2 is..., and coal. It also contains annual inflation indices. These values were computed from information... delivered market price of the proposed fuel. PXi=The fuel price index value in year i, computed with...

  13. Complexometric determination, Part II: Complexometric determination of Cu2+-ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A copper-selective electrode of the coated wire type based on sulphidized copper wire was applied successfully for determining Cu(II ions by complexometric titration with the disodium salt of EDTA (complexon III. By the formation of internal complex compounds with the Cu(II ion, the copper concentration in the solution decreases, and all this is followed by a change of potential of the indicator system Cu-DWISE (or Cu-EDWISE/SCE. At the terminal point of titration, when all the Cu(II ions are already utilized for the formation of the complex with EDTA, there occurs a steep rise of potential, thus enabling us, through the first or second derivative to note the quantity of copper that is present in the solution. Copper-selective electrode showed a responsivity towards titration with EDTA as a complexing agent, with the absence of "fatigue" due to a great number of repeated measurings. Errors occurring during quantitative measurements were more a characteristic of the overall procedure which involve, because of the impossibility of the complete absence of subjectivity, a constant error, and the reproducibility of the results confirmed this fact. The disodium salt of EDTA appeared as a very efficient titrant in all titrations and with various concentrations ot Cu(II ions in the solution, with somewhat weaker response at lower concentrations in the solution.

  14. Inteligencia Artificial y Neurología: II Parte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Camacho Pinto

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Algunos comentarios sobre la primera parte me han inducido a ampliar las bases de este trabajo mediante la presentación de aspectos comunes y conceptos disímiles sobre la hipotética relación entre inteligencia artificial (lA e inteligencia humana(IH. El tema es tan complejo que un intento por resumirlo de por sí ya es atrayente además de necesario.

    Microhistoria de la lA. Ciñéndome a una cruda realidad la lA nació en la Conferencia de Darmouth, año 1956, cuando John McCarthy, profesor de ciencia de computador en Stanford Un. acuñó el término de lA. Sin embargo, especulando un poco podemos decir que cierta inquietud existió desde la antigüedad, mucho antes de los computadores y aún de la electrónica (1 cuando el ser humano irresistiblemente mostraba inquietud por crear I fuera del cerebro humano. Se encuentran algunos ejemplos en la Mitología griega: Hefestos. dios del fuego y de los metales, confeccionaba creaciones semihumanas en su forja. Pigmalión desencantado de las mujeres modeló su propia ninfa en mármol y para poder casarse con ella imploró suplicante hasta conseguir que Afrodita le diera vida.

    En la Europa medioeval al papa Silvestre II (apodado el hechicero por su sabiduría, año 909 D.C. se le atribuye que construía cabezas parlantes. En el siglo XVI Para celso clamó haber inventado un homúnculo. Y el rabino checo Jundo ben Loew esculpió un hombre en arcilla, José Golem, y lo constituyó espía en Praga. En 1854 el matemático británico George Boole propuso un sistema para describir lógica (2 -las leyes del pensamiento en términos matemáticos: “álgebra booliana”, “mathematical logics” que representa procesos lógicos con dos dígitos, 9 y 1.

    En 1937 Alan Turing demostró que una máquina binaria podía ser programada para realizar cualquier tarea algorítmica. Esta máquina de Turing sólo podía ejecutar dos acciones: dibujar y borrar. En el mismo año Claude

  15. Reforming Science Education: Part II. Utilizing Kieran Egan's Educational Metatheory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Roland M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is the second of two parts and continues the conversation which had called for a shift in the conceptual focus of science education towards philosophy of education, with the requirement to develop a discipline-specific "philosophy" of science education. In Part I, conflicting conceptions of science literacy were identified with…

  16. Mesenchymal tumours of the mediastinum—part II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. den Bakker (Michael); A. Marx (Alexander); K. Mukai (Kiyoshi); P. Ströbel (Philipp)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis is the second part of a two-part review on soft tissue tumours which may be encountered in the mediastinum. This review is based on the 2013 WHO classification of soft tissue tumours and the 2015 WHO classification of tumours of the lung, pleura, thymus and heart and provides an

  17. Flow resistance of textile materials. Part II: Multifilament Fabrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooijer, H.; Gooijer, H.; Warmoeskerken, Marinus; Groot Wassink, J.

    2003-01-01

    Part I of this series presented a new model for predicting the flow resistance of monofilament fabrics. In this part, the model is applied to the flow resistance of multi filament fabrics. Experiments show that flow resistance in multifilament fabrics can be modeled in general, but it appears that

  18. PROBABILITY BASED CORROSION CONTROL FOR WASTE TANKS - PART II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, E.; Edwards, T.

    2010-12-09

    As part of an ongoing study to evaluate the discontinuity in the corrosion controls at the SRS tank farm, a study was conducted this year to assess the minimum concentrations below 1 molar nitrate, see Figure 1. Current controls on the tank farm solution chemistry are in place to prevent the initiation and propagation of pitting and stress corrosion cracking in the primary steel waste tanks. The controls are based upon a series of experiments performed with simulated solutions on materials used for construction of the tanks, namely ASTM A537 carbon steel (A537). During FY09, an experimental program was undertaken to investigate the risk associated with reducing the minimum molar nitrite concentration required to confidently inhibit pitting in dilute solutions (i.e., less than 1 molar nitrate). The experimental results and conclusions herein provide a statistical basis to quantify the probability of pitting for the tank wall exposed to various solutions with dilute concentrations of nitrate and nitrite. Understanding the probability for pitting will allow the facility to make tank-specific risk-based decisions for chemistry control. Based on previous electrochemical testing, a statistical test matrix was developed to refine and solidify the application of the statistical mixture/amount model to corrosion of A537 steel. A mixture/amount model was identified based on statistical analysis of recent and historically collected electrochemical data. This model provides a more complex relationship between the nitrate and nitrite concentrations and the probability of pitting than is represented by the model underlying the current chemistry control program, and its use may provide a technical basis for the utilization of less nitrite to inhibit pitting at concentrations below 1 molar nitrate. FY09 results fit within the mixture/amount model, and further refine the nitrate regime in which the model is applicable. The combination of visual observations and cyclic

  19. Management Plan Parts I & II : Muscatatuck National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is Parts 1 and 2 of the Muscatatuck NWR Management Plan. Background information about the Refuge is provided, followed by Refuge objectives and management...

  20. Dissolution Enhancement of Drugs. Part II: Effect of Carriers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... surfactants, in dissolution enhancement. This part describes the use of cyclodextrin, carbohydrates, hydrotropes, polyglocolized glycerides, dendrimers, acids and miscellaneous carriers in enhancing dissolution of drugs. Keywords: Dissolution enhancement; aqueous solubility, water soluble carriers; lipophilic, excipients.

  1. Guidelines for acute ischemic stroke treatment: part II: stroke treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Cristina Ouriques Martins

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The second part of these Guidelines covers the topics of antiplatelet, anticoagulant, and statin therapy in acute ischemic stroke, reperfusion therapy, and classification of Stroke Centers. Information on the classes and levels of evidence used in this guideline is provided in Part I. A translated version of the Guidelines is available from the Brazilian Stroke Society website (www.sbdcv.com.br.

  2. EL español andino. II parte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Arboleda Toro

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En el número 13 de esta revista (nov. del 2000 se publicó una primera parte del estudio sobre el español andino. Presentamos ahora una segunda parte que comprende aspectos histórico-geográficos de Nariño y Putumayo andinos, región de Colombia donde se habla esa variedad, y una descripción general de su realidad lingüística. Esperamos que sean objeto de otra publicación la descripción de los rasgos dialectales del español andino, parte nuclear del trabajo, y la presentación de la metodología y el corpus. En esto nos encontramos trabajando. Incluimos no obstante un inventario de rasgos más amplio que el presentado en la primera parte. Pero por ahora se trata de eso, de un inventario ilustrativo, no del análisis en el que estamos empeñados, en el marco del contacto de lenguas, el cambio lingüístico y la relación entre la norma y las posibilidades del sistema. Para contextualizar esta segunda parte, incluimos, a manera de introducción, un resumen de la primera.

  3. Supraventricular tachycardia-Part II: History, presentation, mechanism, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ken W; Badhwar, Nitish; Scheinman, Melvin M

    2008-10-01

    Supraventricular tachycardias (SVTs) affect all age groups and are a source of significant morbidity. They are frequently encountered in otherwise healthy individuals without structural heart disease. Advances in the understanding of their mechanisms and anatomical locations have led to highly effective pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatment strategies. Recognition, identification, and differentiation of the various SVTs are of great importance in formulating an effective treatment strategy. Developments over the past four decades have made possible the accurate diagnosis of SVTs, and technological advances have led to ablative cures of most of these arrhythmias. This monograph provides an in-depth discussion of the history, presentation, mechanism, and treatment strategies of the most commonly encountered SVTs. The monograph is divided in two parts. Arrhythmias and related syndromes that are covered in detail in the first part include atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia, Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome, and atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia. The remaining SVTs are covered in the second part, which is presented here.

  4. Conformational behavior of insect pheromones and analogues. Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koča, Jaroslav; Carlsen, Per H. J.

    1992-04-01

    The conformational potential energy surface paths of the sex pheromone, Ipsenol, to the Bark Beetle, Ips typographus, and of a series of analogues have been elucidated using the program DAISY. The following structures were calculated: 2-methyl-6-methylene-7-octen-4-ol (Ipsenol, ( II)), 2-methyl-6-methylene-2,7-octadiene-4-ol acetate ( III), 2-methyl-6-methylene-3,7-octadien-2-ol ( IV), 2-methyl-6-methylene-1,7-octadien-3-ol ( V), 5-(3-furanyl)-2-methyl-1-penten-3-ol ( VI) and 1-(3-furanyl)-4-methyl-3-penten-2-ol ( VII). As a measure of the conformational flexibility of the molecules the flexibility coefficients, f, were determined. The f values for the molecules were determined to be: II, 0.145; III, 0.144; IV, 1.240; V, 0.133; VI, 0.825; and VII, 0.451. The molecular mechanics method was used for energy calculations in conjunction with DAISY. Low-energy conformations (conformational channels) together with energy barriers for conformational changes are presented.

  5. Compassionate care: enhancing physician-patient communication and education in dermatology: Part II: Patient education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Judith; Nguyen, Tien V; Prose, Neil S

    2013-03-01

    Patient education is a fundamental part of caring for patients. A practice gap exists, where patients want more information, while health care providers are limited by time constraints or difficulty helping patients understand or remember. To provide patient-centered care, it is important to assess the needs and goals, health beliefs, and health literacy of each patient. This allows health care providers to individualize education for patients. The use of techniques, such as gaining attention, providing clear and memorable explanations, and assessing understanding through "teach-back," can improve patient education. Verbal education during the office visit is considered the criterion standard. However, handouts, visual aids, audiovisual media, and Internet websites are examples of teaching aids that can be used as an adjunct to verbal instruction. Part II of this 2-part series on patient-physician interaction reviews the importance and need for patient education along with specific guidelines and techniques that can be used. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Collective action in labour conflicts under the Rome II regulation (part I)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorssemont, F.; van Hoek, A.

    2011-01-01

    In this first part of our two-part study (the second part will be published in the next issue of the ELLJ), the authors discuss the background and the scope of application of Article 9 of the Rome II Regulation. This Article contains a special rule for the law applying to non-contractual obligations

  7. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    Magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy are presented. The booklet prepared is the second of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. Excerpts from the magazines include the history of solar energy, mythology and tales, and selected poetry on the sun. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  8. Curriculum Guide for Hospitality Education. Part II. Exemplary Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalani, Henry

    This second of a two-part study designed to develop a hospitality education program model for Hawaii's community colleges is based on the primary data gathered in a survey of the hospitality industry characteristics, manpower requirements, and employment demands. (Survey data is reported in volume 1 of the study.) The introductory section of this…

  9. DIY Soundcard Based Temperature Logging System. Part II: Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates some simple applications of how temperature logging systems may be used to monitor simple heat experiments, and how the data obtained can be analysed to get some additional insight into the physical processes. [For "DIY Soundcard Based Temperature Logging System. Part I: Design," see EJ1114124.

  10. Topics in Finance: Part II--Financial Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Judy

    2010-01-01

    The second article in a series designed to supplement the introductory financial management course, this essay addresses financial statement analysis, including its impact on stock valuation, disclosure, and managerial behavior. [For "Topics in Finance Part I--Introduction and Stockholder Wealth Maximization," see EJ1060345.

  11. Vint Cerf on the World Wide Web. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educom Review, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Presents the second part of an interview with Vinton Cerf on issues of information technology. Discusses reading with laptop computers; the "extinction" of books; technological experiments by publishers; copyrights, intellectual property, and ownership; cable companies; the impact of the Internet on education; and the future of the…

  12. Identifying Causes (Not Symptoms) of Writing Problems, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, Dorothy Flanders; Kebbel, Gary W.

    1979-01-01

    Points out that writing errors of journalism students can result from faulty thought patterns involving thinking in sentence fragments, personifying objects, using bureaucratic abstractions, and condensing complex ideas; examines ways of dealing with bureaucratic coding and compressed sentences. (Conclusion of a two-part article.) (GT)

  13. Cogeneration from Poultry Industry Wastes -- Part II: Economic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, M.; Cherubini, F.; Pascale, A. D.

    2003-01-01

    of a Indirectly Fired Gas Turbine (Part I). Moreover a Steam Turbine Plant or a simplified system for the supply of the only technological steam are investigated and compared. Thermodynamic and economic analysis have been carried out for the examined configurations in order to outline the basic differences...

  14. Lagrangian intersection Floer theory anomaly and obstruction, part II

    CERN Document Server

    Fukaya, Kenji; Ohta, Hiroshi; Ono, Kaoru

    2009-01-01

    This is a two-volume series research monograph on the general Lagrangian Floer theory and on the accompanying homological algebra of filtered A_\\infty-algebras. This book provides the most important step towards a rigorous foundation of the Fukaya category in general context. In Volume I, general deformation theory of the Floer cohomology is developed in both algebraic and geometric contexts. An essentially self-contained homotopy theory of filtered A_\\infty algebras and A_\\infty bimodules and applications of their obstruction-deformation theory to the Lagrangian Floer theory are presented. Volume II contains detailed studies of two of the main points of the foundation of the theory: transversality and orientation. The study of transversality is based on the virtual fundamental chain techniques (the theory of Kuranishi structures and their multisections) and chain level intersection theories. A detailed analysis comparing the orientations of the moduli spaces and their fiber products is carried out. A self-co...

  15. Part I. Mechanisms of injury associated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy; Part II. Exsolution of volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Danny Dwayne

    Part I - Shock waves are focused in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) machines to strengths sufficient to fracture kidney stones. Substantial side effects-most of them acute-have resulted from this procedure, including injury to soft tissue. The focusing of shock waves through various layers of tissue is a complex process which stimulates many bio-mechano-chemical responses.This thesis presents results of an in vitro study of the initial mechanical stimulus. Planar nitrocellulose membranes of order 10 um thick were used as models of thin tissue structures. Two modes of failure were recorded: Failure due to cavitation collapsing on or near the membranes, and failure induced by altering the structure of shock waves. Tests were done in water at and around F2 to characterize the extent of cavitation damage, and was found to be confined within the focal region, 1.2 cm along the axis of focus.Scattering media were used to simulate the effects of acoustic nonuniformity of tissue and to alter the structure of focusing shock waves. 40 um diameter (average) hollow glass spheres were added to ethylene glycol, glycerine and castor oil to vary the properties of the scattering media. Multiple layer samples of various types of phantom tissue were tested in degassed castor oil to gauge the validity of the scattering media. The scattering media and tissue samples increased the rise time decreased strain rate in a similar fashion. Membranes were damaged by the decreased strain rate and accumulated effects of the altered structure: After about 20 or so shocks immersed in the scattering media and after about 100 shocks behind the tissue samples. The mode of failure was tearing with multiple tears in some cases from about .1 cm to about 3 cm depending of the number of shocks and membrane thickness.Part II - This work examines the exsolution of volatiles-carbon dioxide from water-in a cylindrical test cell under different pressure conditions. Water was supersaturated with

  16. The Mechanism of Graviton Exchange between Bodies, Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Hossein; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid

    2016-01-01

    Gravitational Law by space-time curvature. Quantum gravity is a part of quantum mechanics which is expected to combine these two theories, and it describes gravity force according to the principles of quantum mechanics which has not got the desired result, yet. In CPH theory, after reconsidering and analyzing...... the behavior of photon in the gravitational field, a new definition of graviton based on carrying the gravity force is given. By using this definition, graviton exchange mechanism between bodies/objects is described. As the purpose of quantum gravity is describing the force of gravity by using the principles...... given in which the relation between gravity (graviton) and electromagnetic (photon) have been described. In this part, the graviton exchange mechanism in the beneath of layer have studied and analyzed and it finally has been tried to generalize and extend the graviton exchange mechanism from between...

  17. GSTARS computer models and their applications, Part II: Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes, F.J.M.; Yang, C.T.

    2008-01-01

    In part 1 of this two-paper series, a brief summary of the basic concepts and theories used in developing the Generalized Stream Tube model for Alluvial River Simulation (GSTARS) computer models was presented. Part 2 provides examples that illustrate some of the capabilities of the GSTARS models and how they can be applied to solve a wide range of river and reservoir sedimentation problems. Laboratory and field case studies are used and the examples show representative applications of the earlier and of the more recent versions of GSTARS. Some of the more recent capabilities implemented in GSTARS3, one of the latest versions of the series, are also discussed here with more detail. ?? 2008 International Research and Training Centre on Erosion and Sedimentation and the World Association for Sedimentation and Erosion Research.

  18. Design of multiphysics actuators using topology optimization - Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole

    2001-01-01

    of the topology optimization method in this part include design descriptions for two-material structures, constitutive modelling of elements with mixtures of two materials, formulation of optimization problems with multiple constraints and multiple materials and a mesh-independency scheme for two......This is the second part of a two-paper description of the topology optimization method applied to the design of multiphysics actuators and electrothermomechanical systems in particular. The first paper is focussed on one-material structures, the second on two-material structures. The extensions......-material structures. The application in mind is the design of thermally and electro thermally driven micro actuators for use in MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS). MEMS are microscopic mechanical systems coupled with electrical circuits. MEMS are fabricated using techniques known from the semi-conductor industry...

  19. Operation of industrial electrical substations. Part II: practical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Jimenez, Juan J; Zerquera Izquierdo, Mariano D; Beltran Leon, Jose S; Garcia Martinez, Juan M; Alvarez Urena, Maria V; Meza Diaz, Guillermo [Universidad de Guadalajara (Mexico)]. E-mails: cheosj@yahoo.com; mdzi@hotmail.com; beltran5601@yahoo.com.mx; jmargarmtz@yahoo.com; victory_alvarez@telmexmail.com; depmec@cucei.udg.mx

    2013-03-15

    The practical application of the methodology explained in Part 1 in a Cuban industry is the principal objective of this paper. The calculus of the economical operation of the principal transformers of the industrial plant is shown of the one very easy form, as well as the determination of the equations of the losses when the transformers operate under a given load diagram. It is calculated the state load which will be passed to the operation in parallel. [Spanish] El objetivo principal de este trabajo es la aplicacion practica de la metodologia, en una industria cubana, que se explico en la Parte 1. El calculo de la operacion economica de los principales transformadores de la planta industrial se muestra de una forma muy facil, asi como la determinacion de las ecuaciones de las perdidas cuando los transformadores operan bajo un diagrama de carga dado. Se calcula la carga de estado que se pasa a la operacion en paralelo.

  20. Prevention of Dealloying in Manganese Aluminium Bronze Propeller: Part II

    OpenAIRE

    Napachat Tareelap; Kaysinee Sriraksasin; Nakorn Srisukhumbowornchai; Swieng Thuanboon; Choochat Nitipanyawong

    2014-01-01

    Due to the failure of manganese aluminium bronze (MAB) propeller caused by dealloying corrosion as described in Part I [1], this work aims to study the prevention of dealloying corrosion using aluminium and zinc sacrificial anodes. The results indicated that both of the sacrificial anodes could prevent the propeller from dealloying. Moreover, the dealloying in seawater was less than that found in brackish water. It was possible that hydroxide ions, from cathodic reaction, reacted with calcium...

  1. Neutron detection with imaging plates Part II. Detector characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    Thoms, M

    1999-01-01

    On the basis of the physical processes described in Neutron detection with imaging plates - part I: image storage and readout [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 424 (1999) 26-33] detector characteristics, such as quantum efficiency, detective quantum efficiency, sensitivity to neutron- and gamma-radiation, readout time and dynamic range are predicted. It is estimated that quantum efficiencies and detective quantum efficiencies close to 100% can be reached making these kind of detectors interesting for a wide range of applications.

  2. The equivalence myth of quantum mechanics-part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, F. A.

    The author endeavours to show two things: first, that Schrödingers (and Eckarts) demonstration in March (September) 1926 of the equivalence of matrix mechanics, as created by Heisenberg, Born, Jordan and Dirac in 1925, and wave mechanics, as created by Schrödinger in 1926, is not foolproof; and second, that it could not have been foolproof, because at the time matrix mechanics and wave mechanics were neither mathematically nor empirically equivalent. That they were is the Equivalence Myth. In order to make the theories equivalent and to prove this, one has to leave the historical scene of 1926 and wait until 1932, when von Neumann finished his magisterial edifice. During the period 1926-1932 the original families of mathematical structures of matrix mechanics and of wave mechanics were stretched, parts were chopped off and novel structures were added. To Procrustean places we go, where we can demonstrate the mathematical, empirical and ontological equivalence of 'the final versions of' matrix mechanics and wave mechanics. The present paper claims to be a comprehensive analysis of one of the pivotal papers in the history of quantum mechanics: Schrödingers equivalence paper. Since the analysis is performed from the perspective of Suppes structural view ('semantic view') of physical theories, the present paper can be regarded not only as a morsel of the internal history of quantum mechanics, but also as a morsel of applied philosophy of science. The paper is self-contained and presupposes only basic knowledge of quantum mechanics. For reasons of length, the paper is published in two parts; Part I appeared in the previous issue of this journal. Section 1 contains, besides an introduction, also the papers five claims and a preview of the arguments supporting these claims; so Part I, Section 1 may serve as a summary of the paper for those readers who are not interested in the detailed arguments.

  3. Escapes in Hamiltonian systems with multiple exit channels: Part II

    OpenAIRE

    Zotos, Euaggelos E.

    2015-01-01

    We explore the escape dynamics in open Hamiltonian systems with multiple channels of escape continuing the work initiated in Part I. A thorough numerical investigation is conducted distinguishing between trapped (ordered and chaotic) and escaping orbits. The determination of the location of the basins of escape towards the different escape channels and their correlations with the corresponding escape periods of the orbits is undoubtedly an issue of paramount importance. We consider four diffe...

  4. Slag Behavior in Gasifiers. Part II: Constitutive Modeling of Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Massoudi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The viscosity of slag and the thermal conductivity of ash deposits are among two of the most important constitutive parameters that need to be studied. The accurate formulation or representations of the (transport properties of coal present a special challenge of modeling efforts in computational fluid dynamics applications. Studies have indicated that slag viscosity must be within a certain range of temperatures for tapping and the membrane wall to be accessible, for example, between 1,300 °C and 1,500 °C, the viscosity is approximately 25 Pa·s. As the operating temperature decreases, the slag cools and solid crystals begin to form. Since slag behaves as a non-linear fluid, we discuss the constitutive modeling of slag and the important parameters that must be studied. We propose a new constitutive model, where the stress tensor not only has a yield stress part, but it also has a viscous part with a shear rate dependency of the viscosity, along with temperature and concentration dependency, while allowing for the possibility of the normal stress effects. In Part I, we reviewed, identify and discuss the key coal ash properties and the operating conditions impacting slag behavior.

  5. Parallel data access to regular nonorthogonal grid patterns. Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutzburg, Reiner

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this paper that is organized in three parts is to introduce the concept of parallel access of data in regular but not orthogonal grids. Although the orthogonal grid and the corresponding sampling methods are well-known for many years and well established in science and technology, there is a certain interest in 2- and 3-dimensional imaging to study trigonal and hexagonal grids. In the 2-dimensional case these grids are generated by tesellation of the plane using triangles and hexagons, respectively. They form very regular patterns and they have very nice properties according to the number of neighborhood pixels and distance values in electronic imaging. Moreover, it is known for a long time that the retina part of the human visual system can be modeled by a hexagonal packing structure of rods and cones. In this paper we study the connection and the influence of the necessary data structures, access patterns, and system architecture to model imaging algorithms with trigonal and hexagonal grids. In particular, we study the parallel access to straight lines and hexagonal "circles". We show a possible parallel memory architecture for the parallel conflict-free access to rows, straight lines and hexagonal "circles". The necessary fundamental notions are given in this part.

  6. Slag Behavior in Gasifiers. Part II: Constitutive Modeling of Slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massoudi, Mehrdad [National Energy Technology Laboratory; Wang, Ping

    2013-02-07

    The viscosity of slag and the thermal conductivity of ash deposits are among two of the most important constitutive parameters that need to be studied. The accurate formulation or representations of the (transport) properties of coal present a special challenge of modeling efforts in computational fluid dynamics applications. Studies have indicated that slag viscosity must be within a certain range of temperatures for tapping and the membrane wall to be accessible, for example, between 1,300 °C and 1,500 °C, the viscosity is approximately 25 Pa·s. As the operating temperature decreases, the slag cools and solid crystals begin to form. Since slag behaves as a non-linear fluid, we discuss the constitutive modeling of slag and the important parameters that must be studied. We propose a new constitutive model, where the stress tensor not only has a yield stress part, but it also has a viscous part with a shear rate dependency of the viscosity, along with temperature and concentration dependency, while allowing for the possibility of the normal stress effects. In Part I, we reviewed, identify and discuss the key coal ash properties and the operating conditions impacting slag behavior.

  7. Hermeneutics as an approach to science: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eger, Martin

    1993-12-01

    This paper continues the hermeneutic-phenomenological investigation of natural science, in which understanding plays a role comparable to creative construction (see ‘Hermeneutics as an Approach to Science: Part I’ in Science & Education 2(1)). The first issue treated is that of language: Is the language of science part of the equipment of the scientist, the subject, or part of the object itself — nature already linguistically encased? This issue, arising from the so-called argument of ‘the double hermeneutic’, relates the general question of the role of the subject in natural science to the role of interpretation. Examples of major interpretative developments in physics are discussed. The inquiry suggests that the role of interpretation and hermeneutics is tied to the educative or ‘study-mode’ of science; and that this mode can, apparently, be found at all levels and stages of science. The nature of this interpretive mode, and its relation to the creative mode, is then analyzed on the model of Gadamer's description of the interpretation of art.

  8. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: Part II. Advantages of FT-IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    This is Part II in a series on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Described are various advantages of FT-IR spectroscopy including energy advantages, wavenumber accuracy, constant resolution, polarization effects, and stepping at grating changes. (RH)

  9. The year 2012 in the European Heart Journal-Cardiovascular Imaging. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plein, Sven; Knuuti, Juhani; Edvardsen, Thor; Saraste, Antti; Piérard, Luc A; Maurer, Gerald; Lancellotti, Patrizio

    2013-07-01

    The part II of the best of the European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging in 2012 specifically focuses on studies of valvular heart diseases, heart failure, cardiomyopathies, and congenital heart diseases.

  10. Premios nobel de quimica y filatelia. Parte II: Quimica analitica, quimica organica, productos naturales y bioquimica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martinez-Reina, Marlon; Amado-Gonzalez, Eliseo

    2013-01-01

    En Premios Nobel de Quimica y Filatelia, Parte II, se hace una revision de los sellos postales emitidos en diferentes paises para conmemorar los Premios Nobel en quimica analitica, quimica organica...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 266 - Tier I Feed Rate Screening Limits for Total Chlorine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tier I Feed Rate Screening Limits for Total Chlorine II Appendix II to Part 266 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Screening Limits for Total Chlorine Terrain-adjusted effective stack height (m) Noncomplex Terrain Urban (g...

  12. Biomechanics of the spine. Part II: spinal instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, Roberto; Guarnieri, Gianluigi; Guglielmi, Giuseppe; Muto, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Spine stability is the basic requirement to protect nervous structures and prevent the early deterioration of spinal components. All bony and soft spinal components contribute to stability, so any degenerative, traumatic or destructive lesion to any spinal structure gives rise to some degree of instability. Degenerative instability is considered a major cause of axial and radicular pain and is a frequent indication for surgery. Nevertheless the assessment of instability remains difficult in both clinical and imaging settings. All static imaging modalities, even conventional MR, the most accurate technique, are unreliable in assessing instability and chronic pain due to degenerative spine. Dynamic-positional MR is considered the most sophisticated imaging modality to evaluate abnormal spinal motion and instability. In spinal traumas, as multi-detector CT yields high-resolution reconstructions in every spatial plane, it will detect even the tiniest fractures revealing potentially unstable lesions, often avoid the routine use of MR. Nevertheless, MR remains the only modality that will directly and routinely assess soft tissue changes. Unfortunately the objectivity of MR in assessing the integrity of ligaments is not rigorously defined and its use in routine protocols to clear blunt spinal injuries remains controversial. There are no evidence-based guidelines currently available to assess the risk of spinal instability in the setting of neoplastic spinal disease, so predicting the risk of a pathological fracture or the timing of a collapse remains challenging even when the lesions are well-characterized by neuroimaging. Diagnostic difficulties lead to controversy in the choice of the best treatment in all forms of spinal instability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Biomechanics of the spine. Part II: Spinal instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izzo, Roberto, E-mail: roberto1766@interfree.it [Neuroradiology Department, “A.Cardarelli” Hospital, Napoli (Italy); Guarnieri, Gianluigi, E-mail: gianluigiguarnieri@hotmail.it [Neuroradiology Department, “A.Cardarelli” Hospital, Napoli (Italy); Guglielmi, Giuseppe, E-mail: g.gugliemi@unifg.it [Department of Radiology, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Muto, Mario, E-mail: mutomar@tiscali.it [Neuroradiology Department, “A.Cardarelli” Hospital, Napoli (Italy)

    2013-01-15

    Spine stability is the basic requirement to protect nervous structures and prevent the early deterioration of spinal components. All bony and soft spinal components contribute to stability, so any degenerative, traumatic or destructive lesion to any spinal structure gives rise to some degree of instability. Degenerative instability is considered a major cause of axial and radicular pain and is a frequent indication for surgery. Nevertheless the assessment of instability remains difficult in both clinical and imaging settings. All static imaging modalities, even conventional MR, the most accurate technique, are unreliable in assessing instability and chronic pain due to degenerative spine. Dynamic-positional MR is considered the most sophisticated imaging modality to evaluate abnormal spinal motion and instability. In spinal traumas, as multi-detector CT yields high-resolution reconstructions in every spatial plane, it will detect even the tiniest fractures revealing potentially unstable lesions, often avoid the routine use of MR. Nevertheless, MR remains the only modality that will directly and routinely assess soft tissue changes. Unfortunately the objectivity of MR in assessing the integrity of ligaments is not rigorously defined and its use in routine protocols to clear blunt spinal injuries remains controversial. There are no evidence-based guidelines currently available to assess the risk of spinal instability in the setting of neoplastic spinal disease, so predicting the risk of a pathological fracture or the timing of a collapse remains challenging even when the lesions are well-characterized by neuroimaging. Diagnostic difficulties lead to controversy in the choice of the best treatment in all forms of spinal instability.

  14. Prevention of Dealloying in Manganese Aluminium Bronze Propeller: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napachat Tareelap

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the failure of manganese aluminium bronze (MAB propeller caused by dealloying corrosion as described in Part I [1], this work aims to study the prevention of dealloying corrosion using aluminium and zinc sacrificial anodes. The results indicated that both of the sacrificial anodes could prevent the propeller from dealloying. Moreover, the dealloying in seawater was less than that found in brackish water. It was possible that hydroxide ions, from cathodic reaction, reacted with calcium in seawater to form calcium carbonate film protecting the propeller from corrosion.

  15. Designing carbon markets, Part II: Carbon markets in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fankhauser, Samuel, E-mail: s.fankhauser@lse.ac.u [Grantham Research Institute and Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy, London School of Economics, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE (United Kingdom); Hepburn, Cameron, E-mail: cameron.hepburn@economics.ox.ac.u [Grantham Research Institute, London School of Economics, and Smith School for Enterprise and the Environment, Oxford University, 75 George Street, Oxford OX1 2BQ (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    This paper analyses the design of carbon markets in space (i.e., geographically). It is part of a twin set of papers that, starting from first principles, ask what an optimal global carbon market would look like by around 2030. Our focus is on firm-level cap-and-trade systems, although much of what we say would also apply to government-level trading and carbon offset schemes. We examine the 'first principles' of spatial design to maximise flexibility and to minimise costs, including key design issues in linking national and regional carbon markets together to create a global carbon market.

  16. The museum maze in oral pathology demystifed: part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S; Ganavi, Bs

    2013-09-01

    Museum technology is perpetually changing due to current requirements and added inventions for our comfort and furbished display of specimens. Hence numerous methods of specimen preservation have been put on trial by diverse people in the medical feld as are the inventions. But only few have caught people's interest and are popularized today. This part provides unique insights into specialized custom-made techniques, evolution of recent advances like plastination and virtual museum that have popularized as visual delights. Plastination gives handy, perennial life-like acrylic specimens, whereas virtual museum takes museum feld to the electronic era making use of computers and virtual environment.

  17. Microgrids in Active Network Management-Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palizban, Omid; Kauhaniemi, Kimmo; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    The development of distribution networks for participation in active network management (ANM) and smart grids is introduced using the microgrid concept. In recent years, this issue has been researched and implemented by many experts. The second part of this paper describes those developed......, following planned or unplanned transitions to island mode, microgrids may develop instability. For this reason, the paper addresses the principles behind island-detection methods, black-start operation, fault management, and protection systems, along with a comprehensive review of power quality. Finally...

  18. Mechanical performance of carbon-epoxy laminates. Part II: quasi-static and fatigue tensile properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Tarpani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In Part II of this work, quasi-static tensile properties of four aeronautical grade carbon-epoxy composite laminates, in both the as-received and pre-fatigued states, have been determined and compared. Quasi-static mechanical properties assessed were tensile strength and stiffness, tenacity (toughness at the maximum load and for a 50% load drop-off. In general, as-molded unidirectional cross-ply carbon fiber (tape reinforcements impregnated with either standard or rubber-toughened epoxy resin exhibited the maximum performance. The materials also displayed a significant tenacification (toughening after exposed to cyclic loading, resulting from the increased stress (the so-called wear-in phenomenon and/or strain at the maximum load capacity of the specimens. With no exceptions, two-dimensional woven textile (fabric pre-forms fractured catastrophically under identical cyclic loading conditions imposed to the fiber tape architecture, thus preventing their residual properties from being determined.

  19. Biomedical informatics publications: a global perspective. Part II: Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maojo, V; Garcia-Remesal, M; Bielza, C; Crespo, J; Perez-Rey, D; Kulikowski, C

    2012-01-01

    Biomedical Informatics (BMI) is a broad discipline, having evolved from both Medical Informatics (MI) and Bioinformatics (BI). An analysis of publications in the fieldshould provide an indication about the geographic distribution of BMI research contributions and possible lessons for the future, both for research and professional practice. In part I of our analysis of biomedical informatics publications we presented results from BMI conferences. In this second part, we analyse BMI journals, which provide a broader perspective and comparison between data from conferences and journals that ought to confirm or suggest alternatives to the original distributional findings from the conferences. We manually collected data about authors and their geographical origin from various MI journals: the International Journal of Medical Informatics (IJMI), the Journal of Biomedical Informatics (JBI), Methods of In formation in Medicine (MIM) and The Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association (JAMIA). Focusing on first authors, we also compared these findings with data from the journal Bioinformatics. Our results confirm those obtained in our analysis of BMI conferences - that local and regional authors favor their corresponding MI journals just as they do their conferences. Consideration of other factors, such as the increasingly open source nature of data and software tools, is consistent with these findings. Our analysis suggests various indicators that could lead to further, deeper analyses, and could provide additional insights for future BMI research and professional activities.

  20. Histologic features of alopecias: part II: scarring alopecias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernárdez, C; Molina-Ruiz, A M; Requena, L

    2015-05-01

    The diagnosis of disorders of the hair and scalp can generally be made on clinical grounds, but clinical signs are not always diagnostic and in some cases more invasive techniques, such as a biopsy, may be necessary. This 2-part article is a detailed review of the histologic features of the main types of alopecia based on the traditional classification of these disorders into 2 major groups: scarring and nonscarring alopecias. Scarring alopecias are disorders in which the hair follicle is replaced by fibrous scar tissue, a process that leads to permanent hair loss. In nonscarring alopecias, the follicles are preserved and hair growth can resume when the cause of the problem is eliminated. In the second part of this review, we describe the histologic features of the main forms of scarring alopecia. Since a close clinical-pathological correlation is essential for making a correct histopathologic diagnosis of alopecia, we also include a brief description of the clinical features of the principal forms of this disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessing emergency situations and their aftermath in urban areas: The EMRAS II Urban Areas Working Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiessen, K.M.; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Berkovskyy, V.

    2011-01-01

    The Urban Areas Working Group is part of the International Atomic Energy Agency’s EMRAS II (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) Programme. The goal of this Working Group is to test and improve the capabilities of models used in assessment of radioactive contamination in urban settings...

  2. Surface grafted chitosan gels. Part II. Gel formation and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Chao; Thormann, Esben; Claesson, Per M.

    2014-01-01

    cross-linking the chitosan present in the polyelectrolyte multilayer, poly(acrylic acid) is partly removed by exposing the multilayer structure to a concentrated carbonate buffer solution at a high pH, leaving a surface-grafted cross-linked gel. Chemical cross-linking enhances the gel stability against......Responsive biomaterial hydrogels attract significant attention due to their biocompatibility and degradability. In order to make chitosan based gels, we first graft one layer of chitosan to silica, and then build a chitosan/poly(acrylic acid) multilayer using the layer-by-layer approach. After......-linking density. The amount of poly(acrylic acid) trapped inside the surface grafted films was found to decrease with decreasing cross-linking density, as confirmed in situ using TIRR, and ex situ by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) measurements on dried films. The responsiveness of the chitosan-based gels...

  3. PERICARDITIS: ETIOLOGY, CLASSIFICATION, CLINIC, DIAGNOSTICS, TREATMENT. PART II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Sugak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pericarditis maybe caused by different agents: viruses, bacteria, tuberculosis, and it may be autoimmune. All these types of diseases have similar clinical signs, but differ by prevalence, prognosis and medical tactics. Due to achievements of radial methods of visualization, molecular biology, and immunology, we have an opportunity to provide early specific diagnostics and etiological treatment of inflammatory diseases of pericardium. The second part of lecture presents main principles of differential diagnostics of specific types of pericarditis, gives characteristics of several often accruing types of disease, and describes treatment and tactics of management of patients with pericarditis.Key words: children, pericarditis.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(3:76-81

  4. Pulmonary Surfactants for Acute and Chronic Lung Diseases (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Rozenberg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Part 2 of the review considers the problem of surfactant therapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS in adults and young and old children. It gives information on the results of surfactant therapy and prevention of ARDS in patients with severe concurrent trauma, inhalation injuries, complications due to complex expanded chest surgery, or severe pneumonias, including bilateral pneumonia in the presence of A/H1N1 influenza. There are data on the use of a surfactant in obstetric care and prevention of primary graft dysfunction during lung transplantation. The results of longterm use of surfactant therapy in Russia, suggesting that death rates from ARDS may be substantially reduced (to 20% are discussed. Examples of surfactant therapy for other noncritical lung diseases, such as permanent athelectasis, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and asthma, as well tuberculosis, are also considered.

  5. FSW Numerical Simulation of Aluminium Plates by SYSWELD - Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jančo Roland

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Friction Stir Welding (FSW is one of the most effective solid state joining processes and has numerous potential applications in many industries. The simulation process can provide the evolution of physicals quantities such as temperature, metallurgical phase proportions, stress and strain which can be easily measured during welding. The numerical modelling requires the modelling of the complex interaction between thermal, metallurgical and mechanical phenomena. The aim of this paper is to describe the thermal-fluid simulation of FSW using the finite element method. In the theoretical part of paper heating is provided by the material flow and contact condition between the tool and the welded material. Thermal-mechanical results from the numerical simulation using SYSWELD are also presented for aluminium alloy.

  6. On the problem of ethnophyletism: a historical study. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venediktov Vadim Yuriyevich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Holy and Great Council on Crete, 2016 has risen an important issue of Ethnophyletism. Russian, Georgian, Bulgarian, and Antiochian Orthodox Churches delegations were not present at the Great Council and were criticized for Ethnophyletism at the plenary session. The heresy of ethnophyletism was announced by the Council of Constantinople in 1872. Now we can see that it became essential nowadays. The article tells about the origin of this heresy and whether the Ethnophyletism may be decided to be the heresy. The second part of the paper deals with the events on the eve of the Pan-Orthodox Synod in 1872 (since the manifestation of the famous Abdülaziz Sultan's Firman 1870.

  7. Interacting quintessence from a variational approach Part II: derivative couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Boehmer, Christian G; Wright, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    We consider an original variational approach for building new models of quintessence interacting with dark or baryonic matter. The coupling is introduced at the Lagrangian level using a variational formulation for relativistic fluids, where the interacting term generally depends on both the dynamical degrees of freedom of the theory and their spacetime derivatives. After deriving the field equations from the action, we consider applications in the context of cosmology. Two simple models are studied using dynamical system techniques showing the interesting phenomenology arising in this framework. We find that these models contain dark energy dominated late time attractors with early time matter dominated epochs and also obtain a possible dynamical crossing of the phantom barrier. The formulation and results presented here complete and expand the analysis exposed in the first part of this work, where only algebraic couplings, without spacetime derivatives, were considered.

  8. Planar LTCC transformers for high voltage flyback converters: Part II.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schofield, Daryl (NASCENTechnology, Inc., Watertown, SD); Schare, Joshua M., Ph.D.; Slama, George (NASCENTechnology, Inc., Watertown, SD); Abel, David (NASCENTechnology, Inc., Watertown, SD)

    2009-02-01

    This paper is a continuation of the work presented in SAND2007-2591 'Planar LTCC Transformers for High Voltage Flyback Converters'. The designs in that SAND report were all based on a ferrite tape/dielectric paste system originally developed by NASCENTechnoloy, Inc, who collaborated in the design and manufacturing of the planar LTCC flyback converters. The output/volume requirements were targeted to DoD application for hard target/mini fuzing at around 1500 V for reasonable primary peak currents. High voltages could be obtained but with considerable higher current. Work had begun on higher voltage systems and is where this report begins. Limits in material properties and processing capabilities show that the state-of-the-art has limited our practical output voltage from such a small part volume. In other words, the technology is currently limited within the allowable funding and interest.

  9. Sequencing of contents and learning objects - part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Zapata Ros

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta es la segunda parte del artículo del mismo nombre publicado en el número anterior de RED. En él planteamos una visión de la selección y de la secuenciación de contenidos de enseñanza, en el contexto de la planificación curricular, desde la perspectiva de las corrientes del pensamiento constructivista. Señalamos la importancia de contar, en el campo de la formación apoyada en redes, con herramientas y criterios autónomos que guíen este proceso desde unas bases propias, externas y con preeminencia sobre las que derivan de la configuración de las herramientas tecnológicas, y desde la necesidad de contar con estándares de formato de intercambio de datos Si en general este planteamiento es importante adquiere especial relevancia en el contexto del e-learning de propósito general, tanto en el de formación como en el e-learning empresarial o en el universitario. Y por supuesto en el contexto de la formación reglada y de formación informal, o de la no reglada. También señalamos las necesidades que plantea la industria del e-learning en la actualidad en relación con el diseño instruccional de objetos de aprendizaje, necesidades que constituyen una prioridad y un desafío. En la primera parte desarrollamos la perspectiva constructivista y la conceptualización de servicios y herramientas tecnológicas como recursos educativos, así como una revisión de los conceptos vinculados con el e-learning, objetos de aprendizaje, OAR y reusabilidad. En esta parte abordaremos la fundamentación de las teorías que rigen los procedimientos de selección de contenidos, los presupuestos básicos y la descripción de las técnicas de secuenciación. En particular nos centraremos en tres de ellas: La técnica de análisis de contenidos, la técnica de análisis de la tarea y la Teoría de la Elaboración. Por último como conclusión, en la tercera parte, intentaremos abordar, no en su resolución sino solo en su propuesta como enunciado

  10. Noncardiac findings on cardiac CT. Part II: spectrum of imaging findings.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Killeen, Ronan P

    2012-02-01

    Cardiac computed tomography (CT) has evolved into an effective imaging technique for the evaluation of coronary artery disease in selected patients. Two distinct advantages over other noninvasive cardiac imaging methods include its ability to directly evaluate the coronary arteries and to provide a unique opportunity to evaluate for alternative diagnoses by assessing the extracardiac structures, such as the lungs and mediastinum, particularly in patients presenting with the chief symptom of acute chest pain. Some centers reconstruct a small field of view (FOV) cropped around the heart but a full FOV (from skin to skin in the area irradiated) is obtainable in the raw data of every scan so that clinically relevant noncardiac findings are identifiable. Debate in the scientific community has centered on the necessity for this large FOV. A review of noncardiac structures provides the opportunity to make alternative diagnoses that may account for the patient\\'s presentation or to detect important but clinically silent problems such as lung cancer. Critics argue that the yield of biopsy-proven cancers is low and that the follow-up of incidental noncardiac findings is expensive, resulting in increased radiation exposure and possibly unnecessary further testing. In this 2-part review we outline the issues surrounding the concept of the noncardiac read, looking for noncardiac findings on cardiac CT. Part I focused on the pros and cons for and against the practice of identifying noncardiac findings on cardiac CT. Part II illustrates the imaging spectrum of cardiac CT appearances of benign and malignant noncardiac pathology.

  11. Assessment of Integrated Information System (IIS) in organization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The assessment of Integrated Information System (IIS) in organisation is an important initiative to enable the Information System (IS) managers, as well as top management to understand the success status of their investment in IS integration efforts. However, without a proper assessment, an organisation will not know its IIS ...

  12. Eponyms in cardiothoracic radiology--part II: vascular.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Tan-Lucien H; Saettele, Megan R; Saettele, Timothy; Patel, Vikas; Kanne, Jeffrey P

    2014-01-01

    Eponyms serve the purpose of honoring individuals who have made important observations and discoveries. As with other fields of medicine, eponyms are frequently encountered in radiology, particularly in chest radiology. However, inappropriate use of an eponym may lead to potentially dangerous miscommunication. Moreover, an eponym may honor the incorrect person or a person who falls into disrepute. Despite their limitations, eponyms are still widespread in the medical literature. Furthermore, in some circumstances, more than one individual may have contributed to the description or discovery of a particular anatomical structure or disease, whereas in others, an eponym may have been incorrectly applied initially and propagated for years in the medical literature. Nevertheless, radiologic eponyms are a means of honoring those who have made lasting contributions to the field of radiology, and familiarity with these eponyms is critical for proper reporting and accurate communication. In addition, the acquisition of some historical knowledge about those whose names are associated with various structures or pathologic conditions conveys a sense of humanity in the science of medicine. In this second part of a multipart series, the authors discuss a number of chest radiology eponyms as they relate to the pulmonary vasculature, including relevant clinical and imaging features, as well biographic information of the respective eponym׳s namesake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Stochastic dynamics of Arctic sea ice Part II: Multiplicative noise

    CERN Document Server

    Moon, Woosok

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the numerical solutions of a stochastic Arctic sea ice model with multiplicative noise over a wide range of external heat-fluxes, $\\Delta F_0$, which correspond to greenhouse gas forcing. When the noise is multiplicative, the noise-magnitude depends on the state-variable, and this will influence the statistical moments in a manner that differs from the additive case, which we analyzed in Part I of this study. The state variable describing the deterministic backbone of our model is the energy, $E(t)$, contained in the ice or the ocean and for a thorough comparison and contrast we choose the simplest form of multiplicative noise $\\sigma E(t) \\xi(t)$, where $\\sigma$ is the noise amplitude and $\\xi(t)$ is the noise process. The case of constant additive noise (CA) we write as $\\sigma\\overline{E_S}\\xi(t)$, in which $\\overline{E_S}$ is the seasonally averaged value of the periodic deterministic steady-state solution $E_S(t)$, or the deterministic seasonal cycle. We then treat the case of seasonally-varyi...

  14. Practice improvement, part II: update on patient communication technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roett, Michelle A; Coleman, Mary Thoesen

    2013-11-01

    Patient portals (ie, secure web-based services for patient health record access) and secure messaging to health care professionals are gaining popularity slowly. Advantages of web portals include timely communication and instruction, access to appointments and other services, and high patient satisfaction. Limitations include inappropriate use, security considerations, organizational costs, and exclusion of patients who are uncomfortable with or unable to use computers. Attention to the organization's strategic plan and office policies, patient and staff expectations, workflow and communication integration, training, marketing, and enrollment can facilitate optimal use of this technology. Other communication technologies that can enhance patient care include automated voice or text reminders and brief electronic communications. Social media provide another method of patient outreach, but privacy and access are concerns. Incorporating telehealthcare (health care provided via telephone or Internet), providing health coaching, and using interactive health communication applications can improve patient knowledge and clinical outcomes and provide social support. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  15. Recent applications of nuclear medicine in diagnostics: II part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Treglia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Positron-emission tomography (PET and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT are effective diagnostic imaging tools in several clinical settings. The aim of this article (the second of a 2-part series is to examine some of the more recent applications of nuclear medicine imaging techniques, particularly in the fields of neurology, cardiology, and infection/inflammation. Discussion: A review of the literature reveals that in the field of neurology nuclear medicine techniques are most widely used to investigate cognitive deficits and dementia (particularly those associated with Alzheimer disease, epilepsy, and movement disorders. In cardiology, SPECT and PET also play important roles in the work-up of patients with coronary artery disease, providing accurate information on the state of the myocardium (perfusion, metabolism, and innervation. White blood cell scintigraphy and FDG-PET are widely used to investigate many infectious/inflammatory processes. In each of these areas, the review discusses the use of recently developed radiopharmaceuticals, the growth of tomographic nuclear medicine techniques, and the ways in which these advances are improving molecular imaging of biologic processes at the cellular level.

  16. Advanced statistics: linear regression, part II: multiple linear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marill, Keith A

    2004-01-01

    The applications of simple linear regression in medical research are limited, because in most situations, there are multiple relevant predictor variables. Univariate statistical techniques such as simple linear regression use a single predictor variable, and they often may be mathematically correct but clinically misleading. Multiple linear regression is a mathematical technique used to model the relationship between multiple independent predictor variables and a single dependent outcome variable. It is used in medical research to model observational data, as well as in diagnostic and therapeutic studies in which the outcome is dependent on more than one factor. Although the technique generally is limited to data that can be expressed with a linear function, it benefits from a well-developed mathematical framework that yields unique solutions and exact confidence intervals for regression coefficients. Building on Part I of this series, this article acquaints the reader with some of the important concepts in multiple regression analysis. These include multicollinearity, interaction effects, and an expansion of the discussion of inference testing, leverage, and variable transformations to multivariate models. Examples from the first article in this series are expanded on using a primarily graphic, rather than mathematical, approach. The importance of the relationships among the predictor variables and the dependence of the multivariate model coefficients on the choice of these variables are stressed. Finally, concepts in regression model building are discussed.

  17. Institutional Approach in Economics and to Economics. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yefimov Vladimir, M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to justify an alternative to conventional methodology of economics, as well as make a corresponding revision of the history of this discipline. It explains why the discipline in its orthodox version, and for the most unorthodox directions, is cognitively sterile and socio-economico-politically very harmful. The paper can be seen as a manifesto which calls for a radical change in the discipline. As a manifesto, it probably could be called "Economics: from repentance and resurrection", that is, I suggest to economists to repent of the harm that this discipline has brought and on the basis of this reflection to revive it in the different methodological framework that is able to make economics socially useful. The second part of the paper, which is published in this issue, consists of two sections. In the first one (section number 4 economics is regarded as an institution and discusses its origin and evolution, as well as its current operation. On the basis of the analysis made in this section we can conclude that this institution has a very high degree of stability and because of that it cannot be reformed without an active external intervention. The fifth section of the paper is devoted to the link of the social role of economics with its methodology. It argues that the social function of economic science is the study of reality as it is, and underlines that economic education must be oriented in this direction.

  18. Cyclopentane combustion. Part II. Ignition delay measurements and mechanism validation

    KAUST Repository

    Rachidi, Mariam El

    2017-06-12

    This study reports cyclopentane ignition delay measurements over a wide range of conditions. The measurements were obtained using two shock tubes and a rapid compression machine, and were used to test a detailed low- and high-temperature mechanism of cyclopentane oxidation that was presented in part I of this study (Al Rashidi et al., 2017). The ignition delay times of cyclopentane/air mixtures were measured over the temperature range of 650–1350K at pressures of 20 and 40atm and equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0. The ignition delay times simulated using the detailed chemical kinetic model of cyclopentane oxidation show very good agreement with the experimental measurements, as well as with the cyclopentane ignition and flame speed data available in the literature. The agreement is significantly improved compared to previous models developed and investigated at higher temperatures. Reaction path and sensitivity analyses were performed to provide insights into the ignition-controlling chemistry at low, intermediate and high temperatures. The results obtained in this study confirm that cycloalkanes are less reactive than their non-cyclic counterparts. Moreover, cyclopentane, a high octane number and high octane sensitivity fuel, exhibits minimal low-temperature chemistry and is considerably less reactive than cyclohexane. This study presents the first experimental low-temperature ignition delay data of cyclopentane, a potential fuel-blending component of particular interest due to its desirable antiknock characteristics.

  19. Medicine at the crossroads. Part II. Summary of completed project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Medicine at the crossroads (a.k.a. The Future of Medicine) is an 8-part series of one-hour documentaries which examines the scientific and social forces that have shaped the practice of medicine around the world. The series was developed and produced over a five-year period and in eleven countries. Among the major issues examined in the series are the education of medical practitioners and the communication of medical issues. The series also considers the dilemmas of modern medicine, including the treatment of the elderly and the dying, the myth of the quick fix in the face of chronic and incurable diseases such as HIV, and the far-reaching implications of genetic treatments. Finally, the series examines the global progress made in medical research and application, as well as the questions remaining to be answered. These include not only scientific treatment, but accessibility and other critical topics affecting the overall success of medical advances. Medicine at the crossroads is a co-production of Thirteen/WNET and BBC-TV in association with Television Espafiola SA (RTVE) and the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Stefan Moore of Thirteen/WNET and Martin Freeth of BBC-TV are series producers. George Page is executive in charge of medicine at the crossroads. A list of scholarly advisors and a program synopses is attached.

  20. Oral health in Brazil - Part II: Dental Specialty Centers (CEOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Pedrazzi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of health promotion, self-care and community participation emerged during the 1970s and, since then, their application has grown rapidly in the developed world, showing evidence of effectiveness. In spite of this, a major part of the population in the developing countries still has no access to specialized dental care such as endodontic treatment, dental care for patients with special needs, minor oral surgery, periodontal treatment and oral diagnosis. This review focuses on a program of the Brazilian Federal Government named CEOs (Dental Specialty Centers, which is an attempt to solve the dental care deficit of a population that is suffering from oral diseases and whose oral health care needs have not been addressed by the regular programs offered by the SUS (Unified National Health System. Literature published from 2000 to the present day, using electronic searches by Medline, Scielo, Google and hand-searching was considered. The descriptors used were Brazil, Oral health, Health policy, Health programs, and Dental Specialty Centers. There are currently 640 CEOs in Brazil, distributed in 545 municipal districts, carrying out dental procedures with major complexity. Based on this data, it was possible to conclude that public actions on oral health must involve both preventive and curative procedures aiming to minimize the oral health distortions still prevailing in developing countries like Brazil.

  1. Collective action in labour conflicts under the Rome II regulation (part II)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorssemont, F.; van Hoek, A.

    2011-01-01

    In this second part of our two-part contribution, we focus on the content of the choice of law rule of Article 9 and its relation to the other provisions of the Regulation. The application of the rule to some (in)famous cases - Tor Caledonia, Viking, Laval - demonstrates the difficulty in applying

  2. Assessment of the antioxidant/prooxidant status of murine skin following topical treatment with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and throughout the ontogeny of skin cancer. Part II: Quantitation of glutathione and glutathione disulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiners, J J; Kodari, E; Cappel, R E; Gilbert, H F

    1991-12-01

    in murine epidermis, it cannot be detected by measurements of GSH/GSSG; (ii) the antioxidant capacity of epidermal cells prepared by the trypsin-flotation procedure is severely compromised; and (iii) GSHt contents progressively increase during skin tumor ontogeny.

  3. Why does Bangladesh remain so poor? Part II: eight answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, C

    1985-01-01

    Bangladeshis of varying background all over the country were asked why they think poverty persists to such an extent in Bangladesh. Their answers provide a new perspective on the situation. The initial response often blames outside and natural causes -- floods, droughts, lack of resources, low demand for the country's exports, or historic exploitation. It is true that Bangladesh has virtually no mineral resources except gas. Yet, the soil, water, and human labor add up to a huge potential. The Third Five Year Plan emphasizes use of the soil, irrigation, tanks, rivers, and human labor. These provide the only hope for reducing poverty a little during the next 5 years. Bangladeshis as well as foreign observers most commonly cite overpopulation as the cause of poverty. Population growth is a cause of present poverty in Bangladesh but is not the only cause of poverty. The Third Five Year Plan goal to reduce annual growth to 1.8% is ambitious, but even if it is achieved the population will double in a few decades. As it would most likely be impossible for Bangladesh to support such numbers and maintain political and economic stability, such growth will have to be prevented. Poverty in Bangladesh is party a result of the long history of low urbanization, weak institutions, spotty and inadequate physical infrastructure, and insufficient entrapreneurship. Other reasons cited as causes of persisting poverty include illiteracy, idleness, class exploitation, the selfishness of individuals, and a lack of trust among people. All of the efforts of the poor themselves, various agencies, and the government, as examined in the 1st part of this discussion, fail to indicate any reason to hope that poverty in Bangladesh can be dramatically reduced any time soon. The Third Five Year Plan foresees a possible reduction of the number of those in poverty by 10%. According to the Plan itself, those in or near poverty comprise 85% of the people. The conditions under which the people of some

  4. Neuromorphic meets neuromechanics, part II: the role of fusimotor drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalaleddini, Kian; Minos Niu, Chuanxin; Chakravarthi Raja, Suraj; Sohn, Won Joon; Loeb, Gerald E.; Sanger, Terence D.; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J.

    2017-04-01

    Objective. We studied the fundamentals of muscle afferentation by building a Neuro-mechano-morphic system actuating a cadaveric finger. This system is a faithful implementation of the stretch reflex circuitry. It allowed the systematic exploration of the effects of different fusimotor drives to the muscle spindle on the closed-loop stretch reflex response. Approach. As in Part I of this work, sensory neurons conveyed proprioceptive information from muscle spindles (with static and dynamic fusimotor drive) to populations of α-motor neurons (with recruitment and rate coding properties). The motor commands were transformed into tendon forces by a Hill-type muscle model (with activation-contraction dynamics) via brushless DC motors. Two independent afferented muscles emulated the forces of flexor digitorum profundus and the extensor indicis proprius muscles, forming an antagonist pair at the metacarpophalangeal joint of a cadaveric index finger. We measured the physical response to repetitions of bi-directional ramp-and-hold rotational perturbations for 81 combinations of static and dynamic fusimotor drives, across four ramp velocities, and three levels of constant cortical drive to the α-motor neuron pool. Main results. We found that this system produced responses compatible with the physiological literature. Fusimotor and cortical drives had nonlinear effects on the reflex forces. In particular, only cortical drive affected the sensitivity of reflex forces to static fusimotor drive. In contrast, both static fusimotor and cortical drives reduced the sensitivity to dynamic fusimotor drive. Interestingly, realistic signal-dependent motor noise emerged naturally in our system without having been explicitly modeled. Significance. We demonstrate that these fundamental features of spinal afferentation sufficed to produce muscle function. As such, our Neuro-mechano-morphic system is a viable platform to study the spinal mechanisms for healthy muscle function—and its

  5. Neuromorphic meets neuromechanics, part II: the role of fusimotor drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalaleddini, Kian; Minos Niu, Chuanxin; Chakravarthi Raja, Suraj; Joon Sohn, Won; Loeb, Gerald E; Sanger, Terence D; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J

    2017-04-01

    We studied the fundamentals of muscle afferentation by building a Neuro-mechano-morphic system actuating a cadaveric finger. This system is a faithful implementation of the stretch reflex circuitry. It allowed the systematic exploration of the effects of different fusimotor drives to the muscle spindle on the closed-loop stretch reflex response. As in Part I of this work, sensory neurons conveyed proprioceptive information from muscle spindles (with static and dynamic fusimotor drive) to populations of α-motor neurons (with recruitment and rate coding properties). The motor commands were transformed into tendon forces by a Hill-type muscle model (with activation-contraction dynamics) via brushless DC motors. Two independent afferented muscles emulated the forces of flexor digitorum profundus and the extensor indicis proprius muscles, forming an antagonist pair at the metacarpophalangeal joint of a cadaveric index finger. We measured the physical response to repetitions of bi-directional ramp-and-hold rotational perturbations for 81 combinations of static and dynamic fusimotor drives, across four ramp velocities, and three levels of constant cortical drive to the α-motor neuron pool. We found that this system produced responses compatible with the physiological literature. Fusimotor and cortical drives had nonlinear effects on the reflex forces. In particular, only cortical drive affected the sensitivity of reflex forces to static fusimotor drive. In contrast, both static fusimotor and cortical drives reduced the sensitivity to dynamic fusimotor drive. Interestingly, realistic signal-dependent motor noise emerged naturally in our system without having been explicitly modeled. We demonstrate that these fundamental features of spinal afferentation sufficed to produce muscle function. As such, our Neuro-mechano-morphic system is a viable platform to study the spinal mechanisms for healthy muscle function-and its pathologies such as dystonia and spasticity. In

  6. An Occupation and Participation Approach to Reading Intervention (OPARI) Part II: Pilot Clinical Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajo, Lenin C.; Candler, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The Occupation and Participation Approach to Reading Intervention (OPARI) is an intervention approach for children with reading difficulties that emphasizes reading as an important occupation of children. Part I presented the theoretical basis of the OPARI. Part II describes a pilot clinical application of the OPARI. Guided by Schkade and…

  7. Literacy and Deaf Students in Taiwan: Issues, Practices and Directions for Future Research--Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsiu Tan; Andrews, Jean F.; Liu, Chun Jung

    2014-01-01

    In Part I, we underscore the issues surrounding young deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) learners of literacy in Taiwan who use sign to support their learning of Chinese literacy. We also described the linguistic features of Chinese writing and the visual codes used by DHH children. In Part II, we describe the reading and writing practices used with…

  8. Age estimation of unaccompanied minors. Part II. Dental aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olze, A; Reisinger, W; Geserick, G; Schmeling, A

    2006-05-15

    Recent years have brought a worldwide increase in cross-border migration due to a globalized economy and ongoing belligerent conflicts. As a result, the percentage of foreigners among the general population has steadily increased not only in Germany, but also in other countries. This trend has triggered a growing demand for forensic medicine to assess the age of adolescents and young adults. The individuals examined here are unaccompanied minors without valid identification documents who do not know their age or else are suspected of not giving their correct age. The mineralization of third molars is the main criterion for dental age estimation of living subjects in the relevant age group. To date insufficient knowledge has been obtained about how ethnic origin can influence tooth mineralization. This, however, constitutes a restraint on the reliability of age estimates and hence on the forensic value of information essential to legal security. A comparative study was conducted to present comparative data on third molar mineralization in a Caucasoid, Mongoloid and African sample. In conclusion, forensic age estimates of living subjects would be more powerful tools if population-specific standards were applied to evaluations of wisdom tooth mineralization. Since the mineralization of third molars is usually completed by the age of 19 or 20 years, this feature cannot be used to ascertain whether a person has attained the forensically relevant age of 21 years. The question was whether determination based on an orthopantomogram of a combination of features relevant to dental age estimation of adults supplies forensically useful information for ascertaining whether a person has attained 21 years of age. The features considered include the DMFT index of all permanent teeth, the DMFT index of all permanent teeth excluding third molars and the DFT index of third molars projecting beyond the occlusal plane. It can be concluded that an evaluation of the variations of the

  9. A study of the circulation in Bay of Ilha Grande and Bay of Sepetiba: part II: an assessment to the tidally and wind-driven circulation using a finite element numerical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Romano Signorini

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available A finite element, two-dimensional hydrodynamical numerical model developed by Wang & White (1976 was applied to study the tidal and wind-driven rculations in the coastal domain formed by Bay of Ilha Grande and Bay of Sepetiba. The tidal circulation was modeled by imposing a co-oscillating tidal signal at the open boundaries of the domain. The amplitude and phase of the tidal constipants adopted to run the numerical experiment were based on harmonic analysis of previous investigations in the region, plus data obtained from two tide gauges ins tailed near the open boundaries of the modeled domain. The numerical simulation of the wind-driven circulation was based on wind data statistics covering 16 months of data. The effect of the wind in the local circulation was weighted by the frequency distribution of wind directions as well as the associated most probable wind forces. The numerical model was also used to simulate seiche oscillations in the coupled system formed by Bay of Ilha Grande and Bay of Sepetiba. The model results are in agreement with the results derived in Part I of this paper, where field data was analysed and discussed.

  10. Part II of the Landlord and Tenant Act 1954: Repeal of further reform? Part 1

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlowski, Mark; Brown, James

    2015-01-01

    It has been over 60 years since the enactment of Pt II of the Landlord and Tenant Act 1954. Since then, there have been two revisions of the legislation – one in 1969, which made limited amendments including the introduction of interim rents (see, the Law of Property Act 1969) and, more recently, under the Regulatory Reform (Business Tenancies) (England and Wales) Order 2003, which introduced more radical changes, particularly in relation to contracting out, notices and interim rents. To what...

  11. Record linkage strategies: Part II. Portable software and deterministic matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajda, A; Roos, L L; Layefsky, M; Singleton, J A

    1991-08-01

    Software to perform record linkage should have several characteristics: (1) portability in being able to function with researchers' current arrangement of computer systems and languages, (2) flexibility in handling different linkage strategies, and (3) low cost in both computer time and researchers' efforts. A linkage package (LINKS) is described which satisfies these criteria; LINKS provides tools for both deterministic and probabilistic linkage as well as test modules for assessing data quality and structure. Because each linkage project is different, the modular nature of the software allows for better control of the programming process and development of unique strategies. Since the user provides the weights and decision rules, he may modify data between steps and/or develop extra steps to supplement the basic modules. In two information-rich linkage projects involving California AIDS data, LINKS identified mortality using deterministic approaches and permitted comparisons with other software and strategies. Flexible software and a deterministic approach would have eliminated the expensive key entry used to add full names and social security numbers as additional identifiers to one of the California data files.

  12. Expert Recommendations on Treating Psoriasis in Special Circumstances (Part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascosa, J M; Galán, M; de Lucas, R; Pérez-Ferriols, A; Ribera, M; Yanguas, I

    2016-11-01

    There is insufficient information on how best to treat moderate to severe psoriasis in difficult clinical circumstances. We considered 5 areas where there is conflicting or insufficient evidence: pediatric psoriasis, risk of infection in patients being treated with biologics, psoriasis in difficult locations, biologic drug survival, and impact of disease on quality of life. Following discussion of the issues by an expert panel of dermatologists specialized in the management of psoriasis, participants answered a questionnaire survey according to the Delphi method. Consensus was reached on 66 (70.9%) of the 93 items analyzed; the experts agreed with 49 statements and disagreed with 17. It was agreed that body mass index, metabolic comorbidities, and quality of life should be monitored in children with psoriasis. The experts also agreed that the most appropriate systemic treatment for this age group was methotrexate, while the most appropriate biologic treatment was etanercept. Although it was recognized that the available evidence was inconsistent and difficult to extrapolate, the panel agreed that biologic drug survival could be increased by flexible, individualized dosing regimens, continuous treatment, and combination therapies. Finally, consensus was reached on using the Dermatology Quality of Life Index to assess treatment effectiveness and aid decision-making in clinical practice. The structured opinion of experts guides decision-making regarding aspects of clinical practice for which there is incomplete or conflicting information. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Reliability of anxiety assessment. II. Symptom agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyer, A J; Mannuzza, S; Martin, L Y; Gallops, M S; Endicott, J; Schleyer, B; Gorman, J M; Liebowitz, M R; Klein, D F

    1989-12-01

    Accurate assessment of "subdisorder" anxiety symptoms, ie, anxiety symptoms central to DSM-III-R-diagnosed anxiety disorders but not meeting disorder criteria because of insufficient frequency, duration, or accompanying subjective distress or impairment, may be critical to case identification in genetic, epidemiologic, and high-risk studies. However, concerns that the mild and often transient nature of these phenomena will foster unreliability have discouraged their use. We assessed the test-retest reliability of "subdisorder" anxiety symptoms in 104 outpatients with anxiety. Good to excellent agreement was found for lifetime occurrence of any panic attack, the spontaneous and situationally predisposed subtypes of panic, and five nonsocial irrational fears (public transportation, driving oneself, crowds, situations associated with death [eg, dead bodies and funerals], and cats and dogs). Four social and three additional nonsocial fears were considered to have adequate reliability. However, agreement on stimulus-bound panic, "near" panic attacks, persistent generalized anxiety, and the remaining nine nonsocial and six social irrational fears was only fair to poor. The major source of unreliability was variation in information reported by the subject to the rater.

  14. Interobserver reliability and diagnostic performance of Chiari II malformation measures in MR imaging-part 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, Niels; van der Vliet, Ton; Rotteveel, Jan J.; Feuth, Ton; Roeleveld, Nel; Mullaart, Reinier A.

    Brain MR imaging is essential in the assessment of Chiari II malformation in clinical and research settings concerning spina bifida. However, the interpretation of MR images of the malformation is not always straightforward. Morphometric analyses of the extent of Chiari II malformation may improve

  15. Interobserver reliability and diagnostic performance of Chiari II malformation measures in MR imaging--part 2.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, N.; Vliet, T. van der; Rotteveel, J.J.; Feuth, T.; Roeleveld, N.; Mullaart, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Brain MR imaging is essential in the assessment of Chiari II malformation in clinical and research settings concerning spina bifida. However, the interpretation of MR images of the malformation is not always straightforward. Morphometric analyses of the extent of Chiari II malformation may

  16. PIO I-II tendencies. Part 2. Improving the pilot modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan URSU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study is conceived in two parts and aims to get some contributions to the problem ofPIO aircraft susceptibility analysis. Part I, previously published in this journal, highlighted the mainsteps of deriving a complex model of human pilot. The current Part II of the paper considers a properprocedure of the human pilot mathematical model synthesis in order to analyze PIO II typesusceptibility of a VTOL-type aircraft, related to the presence of position and rate-limited actuator.The mathematical tools are those of semi global stability theory developed in recent works.

  17. Model assessment of protective barriers: Part 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayer, M.J.; Rockhold, M.L.; Holford, D.J.

    1992-02-01

    Radioactive waste exists at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in a variety of locations, including subsurface grout and tank farms, solid waste burial grounds, and contaminated soil sites. Some of these waste sites may need to be isolated from percolating water to minimize the potential for transport of the waste to the ground water, which eventually discharges to the Columbia River. Multilayer protective barriers have been proposed as a means of limiting the flow of water through the waste sites (DOE 1987). A multiyear research program (managed jointly by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Westinghouse Hanford Company for the DOE) is aimed at assessing the performance of these barriers. One aspect of this program involves the use of computer models to predict barrier performance. Three modeling studies have already been conducted and a test plan was produced. The simulation work reported here was conducted by PNL and extends the previous modeling work. The purpose of this report are to understand phenomena that have been observed in the field and to provide information that can be used to improve hydrologic modeling of the protective barrier. An improved modeling capability results in better estimates of barrier performance. Better estimates can be used to improve the design of barriers and the assessment of their long-term performance.

  18. Factores de riesgo de preeclampsia: enfoque inmunoendocrino. Parte II Risk factors for preeclampsia: immunoendocrine approach. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeddú Cruz Hernández

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Esta segunda parte de la revisión trata sobre los nuevos factores de riesgo de la preeclampsia, también conocidos como emergentes, entre los cuales se incluyen fenómenos biológicos de tipo endocrino, inmunológico y relacionados con la disfunción endotelial, como el aumento del estrés oxidativo, la disminución de las vitaminas antioxidantes y otros. Se augura que estos factores de riesgo de reciente descripción tendrán que ser tenidos muy en cuenta en un futuro no lejano, si se quiere predecir eficazmente la aparición de la preeclampsia para poder actuar así de forma precoz durante el desarrollo de la enfermedad, y evitar al máximo sus consecuencias obstétricas adversas, y en algunos casos, hasta para prevenir el surgimiento de esta enfermedad.This second part of the review deals with the new risk factors for preeclampsia, which are also known as emergent, among which the biological phenomena of endocrine and immunological type and related to endothelial dysfunction, such as the increase of oxidative stress, the reduction of antioxidant vitamins and others, are included. It is said that these recently described risk factors will have to be taken into account in a near future to efficiently predict the appearance of preeclampsia to act early during the development of the disease and to prevent as much as possible its adverse obstetric consequences and, in some cases, to avoid the appearance of this disease.

  19. International Literature Review on WHODAS II (World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federici, Stefano

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This review is a critical analysis regarding the study and utilization of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS II as a basis for establishing specific criteria for evaluating relevant international scientific literature.The WHODAS II is an instrument developed by the World Health Organisation in order to assess behavioural limitations and restrictions related to an individual’s participation, independent from a medical diagnosis. This instrument was developed by the WHO’s Assessment, Classification and Epidemiology Group within the framework of the WHO/NIH Joint Project on Assessment and Classification of Disablements. To ascertain the international dissemination level of for WHODAS II’s utilization and, at the same time, analyse the studies regarding the psychometric validation of the WHODAS II translation and adaptation in other languages and geographical contests. Particularly, our goal is to highlight which psychometric features have been investigated, focusing on the factorial structure, the reliability, and the validity of this instrument. International literature was researched through the main data bases of indexed scientific production: the Cambridge Scientific Abstracts – CSA, PubMed, and Google Scholar, from 1990 through to December 2008.The following search terms were used:“whodas”, in the field query, plus “title” and “abstract”.The WHODAS II has been used in 54 studies, of which 51 articles are published in international journals, 2 conference abstracts, and one dissertation abstract. Nevertheless, only 7 articles are published in journals and conference proceedings regarding disability and rehabilitation. Others have been published in medical and psychiatric journals, with the aim of indentifying comorbidity correlations in clinical diagnosis concerning patients with mental illness. Just 8 out of 51 articles have studied the psychometric properties of the WHODAS II. The

  20. Zn(II, Mn(II and Sr(II Behavior in a Natural Carbonate Reservoir System. Part II: Impact of Geological CO2 Storage Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auffray B.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Some key points still prevent the full development of geological carbon sequestration in underground formations, especially concerning the assessment of the integrity of such storage. Indeed, the consequences of gas injection on chemistry and petrophysical properties are still much discussed in the scientific community, and are still not well known at either laboratory or field scale. In this article, the results of an experimental study about the mobilization of Trace Elements (TE during CO2 injection in a reservoir are presented. The experimental conditions range from typical storage formation conditions (90 bar, supercritical CO2 to shallower conditions (60 and 30 bar, CO2 as gas phase, and consider the dissolution of the two carbonates, coupled with the sorption of an initial concentration of 10−5 M of Zn(II, and the consequent release in solution of Mn(II and Sr(II. The investigation goes beyond the sole behavior of TE in the storage conditions: it presents the specific behavior of each element with respect to the pressure and the natural carbonate considered, showing that different equilibrium concentrations are to be expected if a fluid with a given concentration of TE leaks to an upper formation. Even though sorption is evidenced, it does not balance the amount of TE released by the dissolution process. The increase in porosity is clearly evidenced as a linear function of the CO2 pressure imposed for the St-Emilion carbonate. For the Lavoux carbonate, this trend is not confirmed by the 90 bar experiment. A preferential dissolution of the bigger family of pores from the preexisting porosity is observed in one of the samples (Lavoux carbonate while the second one (St-Emilion carbonate presents a newly-formed family of pores. Both reacted samples evidence that the pore network evolves toward a tubular network type.

  1. MRI-based assessment of the pineal gland in a large population of children aged 0-5 years and comparison with pineoblastoma: part II, the cystic gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirin, Selma; de Jong, Marcus C; Galluzzi, Paolo; Maeder, Philippe; Brisse, Hervé J; Castelijns, Jonas A; de Graaf, Pim; Goericke, Sophia L

    2016-07-01

    Pineal cysts are a common incidental finding on brain MRI with resulting difficulties in differentiation between normal glands and pineal pathologies. The aim of this study was to assess the size and morphology of the cystic pineal gland in children (0-5 years) and compare the findings with published pineoblastoma cases. In this retrospective multicenter study, 257 MR examinations (232 children, 0-5 years) were evaluated regarding pineal gland size (width, height, planimetric area, maximal cyst(s) size) and morphology. We performed linear regression analysis with 99 % prediction intervals of gland size versus age for the size parameters. Results were compared with a recent meta-analysis of pineoblastoma by de Jong et al. Follow-up was available in 25 children showing stable cystic findings in 48 %, cyst size increase in 36 %, and decrease in 16 %. Linear regression analysis gave 99 % upper prediction bounds of 10.8 mm, 10.9 mm, 7.7 mm and 66.9 mm(2), respectively, for cyst size, width, height, and area. The slopes (size increase per month) of each parameter were 0.030, 0.046, 0.021, and 0.25, respectively. Most of the pineoblastomas showed a size larger than the 99 % upper prediction margin, but with considerable overlap between the groups. We presented age-adapted normal values for size and morphology of the cystic pineal gland in children aged 0 to 5 years. Analysis of size is helpful in discriminating normal glands from cystic pineal pathologies such as pineoblastoma. We also presented guidelines for the approach of a solid or cystic pineal gland in hereditary retinoblastoma patients.

  2. Introduction to economic assessment - part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Ann; Sin, Chih Hoong

    2014-07-01

    This is the second in a series of four continuing professional development articles that explain some of the principles of economic assessment (EA) and describe how they may be applied in practice by front line practitioners leading service innovations. It introduces a methodology, with associated tools and templates, that has been used by practising nurses to conduct EAs. Our purpose is to equip readers with the knowledge to develop a technically competent, pragmatic EA that will contribute towards evidence-informed decision making and assure the best use of limited resources. If you have not already read the first article in this series ( McMahon and Sin 2013), we strongly advise you to do so as each article purposefully draws and builds on those that have gone before. The time out exercises in the first article required you to access source material located on the RCN website and identify a service innovation in your workplace. The time out exercises in this article draw in these same sources. We begin this article by recapping on the points covered in the first article before exploring the implications of the principles of EA and how to apply them in practice. In this article, we refer to and draw on a companion article published in this edition of Nursing Management ( pages 38-41) that sets out the most commonly cited approaches to EA in health and social care. We aim to enable readers, along with those they seek to influence, to make an informed decision as to what may be an appropriate EA approach in any specific context.

  3. Fall prevention in frail elderly nursing home residents: a challenge to case management: part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodos, Phyllis

    2004-01-01

    Parts I and II of this article examine the impact of a falls prevention program on the fall incidents among the residents in a nursing home. It was hypothesized that a diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventive approach should be used for nursing home residents identified as being at high risk for falls in order to reduce the number of fall incidents and to improve quality of life for this vulnerable population. The program effectively targeted both intrinsic and extrinsic factors to reduce risks facing the residents. The effectiveness of the program was evaluated by examining changes in the rate of falls after the program was implemented. The results identified that a multifaceted program, one that utilized multiple personalized interventions, was effective in reducing the falls rate of frail (those with complex medical and psychosocial problems) nursing home residents, and that muscle-strengthening interventions may be beneficial for this vulnerable population. Program outcomes verified that case managers can impact quality of life for frail elderly nursing home residents by promoting their independence and safety, and postponing problems resulting from inactivity. Part I (LCM, Nov-Dec 2001) discussed the background and process of a falls program and factors contributing to the occurrence of falls. This month we examine the interdisciplinary team approach to assessment, method, and implementing strategies for an effective fall prevention program. Tools used for prevention, monitoring, and investigation of falls are also detailed.

  4. 30 CFR Appendix II to Subpart D of... - Appendix II to Subpart D of Part 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Part 18 LIST OF FIGURES Figure No. Title 1 Typical layout drawing of a machine. 2 Sample bill of material (to accompany layout drawing shown on figure 1) 3 Material to be included with the operating... the cable to guard against mechanical injury and wear. Splices in portable cables shall be made in a...

  5. Helping Children Cope with Fears and Stress. Part I: Discussion and Activities. Part II: Facilitator's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Edward H.; And Others

    How fears, phobias, anxiety and stress develop in elementary school students and how these students can be assisted in coping with fears and stress are discussed in this book. Part 1, "Discussion and Activities," contains six sections. Section 1 presents an overview of fears, and stress in children. Section 2 presents 12 fear-specific activities…

  6. The Didactics of Biology. A Selected Bibliography for 1979. Part I [and] Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Antonin, Ed.; Lipertova, Pavla, Ed.

    Selected articles on various aspects of biology teaching published in 1979 have been annotated in this two-part bibliography. Entries from 18 journals representing 11 different countries are presented according to a topic area classification scheme listed in the table of contents. Countries represented include: Australia; Bulgaria; Czechoslovakia;…

  7. Didactics of Biology. Selective Bibliography, 1981. Part I [and] Part II. Information Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Antonin, Ed.; Lipertova, Pavla, Ed.

    Selected articles on various aspects of biology teaching published in 1980 have been annotated in this two-part bibliography. Entries from 19 journals representing 11 different countries are presented according to a topic area classification scheme listed in the table of contents. Countries represented include: Australia; Bulgaria; Czechoslovakia;…

  8. The Didactics of Biology. Selected Bibliography for 1980. Part I [and] Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Antonin, Ed.; Lipertova, Pavla, Ed.

    Selected articles on various aspects of biology teaching published in 1979 have been annotated in this two-part bibliography. Entries from 19 journals representing 11 different countres are presented according to a topic area classification scheme listed in the table of contents. Countries represented include: Australia; Bulgaria; Czechoslovakia;…

  9. Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Song; Vollesen, Anne Luise Haulund; Hansen, Young Bae Lee

    2017-01-01

    the start of the infusion. A control group of six healthy volunteers received intravenous saline. Results PACAP38 infusion caused significant changes in plasma concentrations of VIP ( p = 0.026), prolactin ( p = 0.011), S100B ( p thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH; p = 0.015), but not CGRP ( p...... with and without the MEF2D-associated gene variant ( p > 0.05). Conclusion PACAP38 infusion elevated the plasma levels of VIP, prolactin, S100B and TSH, but not CGRP and TNFα. Development of delayed migraine-like attacks or the presence of the MEF2D gene variant was not associated with pre-ictal changes in plasma...... levels of neuropeptides, TNFα and pituitary hormones....

  10. ICDAS II CRITERIA (INTERNATIONAL CARIES DETECTION AND ASSESSMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benin DİKMEN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS is a clinical scoring system which allows detection and assessment of caries activity. ICDAS was developed for use in clinical research, clinical practice and for epidemiological purposes. A recent review of caries detection criteria systems found that there were inconsistencies among the research criteria for caries measuring systems. There is a need to an uniform system which allows comparison of data collected in different researches. ICDAS allows detection of caries process at every stage and characterization of the caries activity status of lesion. Later, the criteria were modified and ICDAS II created. The aim of this review is to inform about the ICDAS II and make a comparison between ICDAS II criteria and other caries detection systems.

  11. Psychological Assessment of Aviators Captured in World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutker, Patricia B.; Allain, Albert N.

    1995-01-01

    Psychological assessments were administered to 33 World War II aviators who had been prisoners of war (POWs). Aviators showed fewer effects of captivity than age-similar, generally less well-educated, nonaviator POWs, but appeared less psychologically robust than Vietnam War POWs. Implications for the measurement of psychopathology are discussed.…

  12. Quality assessment of drinking water in Temeke District (part II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... parameters of drinking water samples from different drinking water sources. The drinking water sources examined included tap water, river water and well water (deep and shallow wells). Water quality studied includes pH, chloride, nitrate and total hardness levels. The concentrations of total hardness in mg CaCO3/L and ...

  13. A micromachined capacitive incremental position sensor: part 2. experimental assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, A.A.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2006-01-01

    Part 2 of this two-part paper presents the experimental assessment of a micromachined capacitive incremental position sensor for nanopositioning of microactuator systems with a displacement range of 100 μm or more. Incremental sensing in combination with quadrature detection reduces the requirements

  14. INFORMATION SHARING IN OLIGOPOLY: OVERVIEW AND EVALUATION PART II. PRIVATE RISKS AND OLIGOPOLY MODELS

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, Yasuhiro

    1991-01-01

    Part I of this paper has first discussed the dual relationship between the Cournot and Bertrand duopoly models in the absence of uncertainty, and has then proceeded to focus on various types of duopoly models facing a common risk of demand or cost. It has been shown that the welfare consequences of an information transmission agreement between the firms are clasified under four headings: own and cross variation effects, and own and cross efficiency effects. Part II of the paper will now turn ...

  15. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) test facilities study program. Final report. Volume II. Part A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-17

    Results are presented of an 8-month study to develop alternative non-site-specific OTEC facilities/platform requirements for an integrated OTEC Test Program which may include land and floating test facilities. The document, Volume II - Appendixes is bound in three parts (A, B, and C) which together comprise a compendium of the most significant detailed data developed during the study. Part A contains definitions, baseline revisions, test plans, and energy utilization sections.

  16. A History of Instructional Design and Technology: Part II: A History of Instructional Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    This second of a two-part article focuses on the history of instructional design in the United States. Starting with its origins during World War II, major events in the development of instructional design are described. Factors affecting the field over the last two decades, including increasing interest in cognitive psychology, microcomputers,…

  17. Title II, Part A: Don't Scrap It, Don't Dilute It, Fix It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggshall, Jane G.

    2015-01-01

    The Issue: Washington is taking a close look at Title II, Part A (Title IIA) of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) as Congress debates reauthorization. The program sends roughly $2.5 billion a year to all states and nearly all districts to "(1) increase student academic achievement through strategies such as improving teacher…

  18. 7 squadron in World War II (Part 2: 1943-1945) | Robinson | Scientia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 3 (1975) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. 7 squadron in World War II (Part ...

  19. Managing the care of health and the cure of disease--Part II: Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glouberman, S; Mintzberg, H

    2001-01-01

    The development of appropriate levels of integration in the system of health care and disease cure will require stronger collective cultures and enhanced communication among the key actors. Part II of this paper uses this line of argument to reframe four major issues in this system: coordination of acute cure and of community care, and collaboration in institutions and in the system at large.

  20. Student Performance on the NBME Part II Subtest and Subject Examination in Obstetrics-Gynecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metheny, William P.; Holzman, Gerald B.

    1988-01-01

    Comparison of the scores of 342 third-year medical students on the National Board of Medical Examiners subject examination and the Part II subtest on obstetrics-gynecology found significantly better performance on the former, suggesting a need to interpret the scores differently. (Author/MSE)

  1. A primer for clinical researchers in the emergency department: Part II: research science and conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babl, Franz E; Davidson, Andrew

    2010-10-01

    Research is an important part of emergency medicine and provides the scientific underpinning for optimal patient care. Although increasing numbers of emergency physicians participate in research activities, formal research training is currently neither part of emergency physician training in Australia nor easily available for clinicians interested in clinical research. In a two-part series, which is targeted at part-time clinical researchers in the ED, we set out and explain the key elements for conducting high-quality and ethical research. Part I addressed ethical and regulatory aspects. In Part II, we describe important elements of research science, and practical elements of research conduct and administration, which form the basis for high-quality research. © 2010 The Authors. Emergency Medicine Australasia © 2010 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  2. In vitro performance of Class I and II composite restorations: a literature review on nondestructive laboratory trials--part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietschi, D; Argente, A; Krejci, I; Mandikos, M

    2013-01-01

    A literature review was conducted on adhesive Class I and II restorations and nondestructive in vitro tests using the PubMed/Medline database for the 1995-2010 period. The first part of this review has presented and critically appraised selected literature dealing with the quality and in vitro behavior of adhesive Class II restorations using photoelasticity, finite element analysis, and microleakage study protocols. This second part reviews additional parameters, which are deformation and fracture resistance to cyclic loading, shrinkage stress and tooth deformation following restoration placement, bond strength (microtensile, tensile, and shear tests), and marginal and internal adaptation. In addition, a "relevance score" has been proposed that aims to classify the different study protocols according, firstly, to the resulting quality, quantity, and consistency of the evidence and then, secondly, to their potential clinical relevance, as estimated by their ability to simulate oral and biomechanical strains. The highest clinical relevance was attributed to marginal and internal adaptation studies, following cyclic loading in a moist environement. However, a combination of in vitro protocols will have an even greater predictive potential and has to be considered as a crucial preclinical research approach with which to investigate the numerous restorative configurations that cannot be efficiently and rapidly tested in vivo.

  3. European Fissure Sealant Guidelines: assessment using AGREE II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martin-Galindo, L; Rodríguez-Lozano, F J; Abalos-Labruzzi, C; Niederman, R

    2017-02-01

    Pit and fissure sealants are effective in reducing the incidence of occlusal caries, and multiple clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have been developed for recommending their proper use. The usefulness of CPGs depends on their quality and on the rigour of the guideline development process. A study was made to assess the quality of current European CPGs based on the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) instrument, which uses 23 key items rated on a 7-point scale to assess practice guideline development and the quality of reporting. A search was conducted for fissure sealant guidelines for preventing caries in children and adults at high and low risk published in the last 10 years. Calibration was carried out before scoring to assess agreement between the appraisers using the AGREE II instrument. The searches identified 19 relevant guidelines, and following application of the inclusion/exclusion criteria, three guidelines were retained for evaluation. The proportion of observed agreement was calculated, expressed by the agreement separately for positive and negative ratings (PA = 0.89, NA = 0-91). The results of the guideline assessments revealed the highest score for the Irish guideline, a moderate score for the French guideline and the lowest score for the European guideline. Based on the AGREE II instrument, the results obtained show significant variation in the quality assessment of the three European Fissure Sealant Guidelines. Future studies should be carried out both to develop quality dental CPGs and to investigate effective ways of adopting them. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Crosscultural measurement equivalence of the Health Assessment Questionnaire II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oude Voshaar, Martijn A H; Glas, Cees A W; ten Klooster, Peter M; Taal, Erik; Wolfe, Frederick; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the crosscultural measurement equivalence of the US and Dutch Health Assessment Questionnaire II (HAQ-II) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Item response theory (IRT) analyses were performed on US (n = 18,747) and Dutch (n = 1,022) HAQ-II data to evaluate the equivalence of crosscultural item performance. The observed inconsistencies were modeled by assigning country-specific item parameters to biased items. The impact of crosscultural item bias on the comparability of the Dutch and US total scores was analyzed by evaluating the agreement between physical function levels estimated from an IRT model with country-specific item parameters for biased items and physical function levels estimated from the original model that did not account for cultural bias. Two items showed significant crosscultural bias. However, the agreement in physical function estimates between the respecified and original models was very high, with an intraclass correlation coefficient >0.99 and Bland-Altman limits of agreement ranging from -0.08 to -0.01 on a latent scale with a mean of 0 and an SD of 1. This study suggests that the Dutch and US HAQ-II produce total scores that can be interpreted interchangeably across countries in RA studies, despite some minor bias at the item level. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  5. Essential features of Chiari II malformation in MR imaging : an interobserver reliability study-part 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, Niels; van der Vliet, Ton; Rotteveel, Jan J.; Feuth, Ton; Roeleveld, Nel; Mullaart, Reinier A.

    Brain MR imaging is essential in the assessment of Chiari II malformation in clinical and research settings concerning spina bifida. However, the interpretation of morphological features of the malformation on MR images may not always be straightforward. In an attempt to select those features that

  6. Essential features of Chiari II malformation in MR imaging: an interobserver reliability study--part 1.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, N.; Vliet, T. van der; Rotteveel, J.J.; Feuth, T.; Roeleveld, N.; Mullaart, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Brain MR imaging is essential in the assessment of Chiari II malformation in clinical and research settings concerning spina bifida. However, the interpretation of morphological features of the malformation on MR images may not always be straightforward. In an attempt to select those

  7. Rail and multimodal freight: a problem-oriented survey (part II-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin MARINOV

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper includes the Part II-2 of the series of problem-oriented surveys on rail and multimodal freight transportation services, which aim is to reveal the current situation in this sector and raises looming questions for discussion. The particular objective of Part II-2 is to discuss recently published works and documents dedicated to Multi-actor chain management and control, Mode choice and pricing strategies, Intermodal transportation policy and planning as well as Miscellaneous. It should be noted that this paper is a problem oriented survey and does not explicitly focus on the available scientific instrumental that has been applied in dealing with rail and multimodal freight. However, throughout the description methods and concepts are addressed, where it is of interest.

  8. Bloqueio do nervo supraescapular: procedimento importante na prática clínica. Parte II Suprascapular nerve block: important procedure in clinical practice. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rassi Fernandes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O bloqueio do nervo supraescapular é um método de tratamento reprodutível, confiável e extremamente efetivo no controle da dor no ombro. Esse método tem sido amplamente utilizado por profissionais na prática clínica, como reumatologistas, ortopedistas, neurologistas e especialistas em dor, na terapêutica de enfermidades crônicas, como lesão irreparável do manguito rotador, artrite reumatoide, sequelas de AVC e capsulite adesiva, o que justifica a presente revisão (Parte II. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever as técnicas do procedimento e suas complicações descritas na literatura, já que a primeira parte reportou as indicações clínicas, drogas e volumes utilizados em aplicação única ou múltipla. Apresentamse, detalhadamente, os acessos para a realização do procedimento tanto direto como indireto, anterior e posterior, lateral e medial, e superior e inferior. Diversas são as opções para se realizar o bloqueio do nervo supraescapular. Apesar de raras, as complicações podem ocorrer. Quando bem indicado, este método deve ser considerado.The suprascapular nerve block is a reproducible, reliable, and extremely effective treatment method in shoulder pain control. This method has been widely used by professionals in clinical practice such as rheumatologists, orthopedists, neurologists, and pain specialists in the treatment of chronic diseases such as irreparable rotator cuff injury, rheumatoid arthritis, stroke sequelae, and adhesive capsulitis, which justifies the present review (Part II. The objective of this study was to describe the techniques and complications of the procedure described in the literature, as the first part reported the clinical indications, drugs, and volumes used in single or multiple procedures. We present in details the accesses used in the procedure: direct and indirect, anterior and posterior, lateral and medial, upper and lower. There are several options to perform suprascapular nerve block

  9. Performance assessment of the SOFA, APACHE II scoring system, and SAPS II in intensive care unit organophosphate poisoned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Hwan; Yeo, Jung Hoon; Kang, Mun Ju; Lee, Jun Ho; Cho, Kwang Won; Hwang, SeongYoun; Hong, Chong Kun; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Yang Weon

    2013-12-01

    This study assessed the ability of the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and Acute Physiology, Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scoring systems, as well as the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II method to predict group mortality in intensive care unit (ICU) patients who were poisoned with organophosphate. The medical records of 149 organophosphate poisoned patients admitted to the ICU from September 2006 to December 2012 were retrospectively examined. The SOFA, APACHE II, and SAPS II were calculated based on initial laboratory data in the Emergency Department, and during the first 24 hr of ICU admission. The probability of death was calculated for each patient based on the SOFA score, APACHE II score, and SAPS II equations. The ability to predict group mortality by the SOFA score, APACHE II score, and SAPS II method was assessed using two by two decision matrices and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. A total of 131 patients (mean age, 61 yr) were enrolled. The sensitivities, specificities, and accuracies were 86.2%, 82.4%, and 83.2% for the SOFA score, respectively; 65.5%, 68.6%, and 67.9% for the APACHE II scoring system, respectively; and 86.2%, 77.5%, and 79.4% for the SAPS II, respectively. The areas under the curve in the ROC curve analysis for the SOFA score, APACHE II scoring system, and SAPS II were 0.896, 0.716, and 0.852, respectively. In conclusion, the SOFA, APACHE II, and SAPS II have different capability to discriminate and estimate early in-hospital mortality of organophosphate poisoned patients. The SOFA score is more useful in predicting mortality, and easier and simpler than the APACHE II and SAPS II.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ARMY STATIONARY AXLE TEST STAND FOR LUBRICANT EFFICIENCY EVALUATION-PART II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-13

    EFFICIENCY TEST STAND – PART II INTERIM REPORT TFLRF No. 484 by Adam C. Brandt Edwin A. Frame U.S. Army TARDEC Fuels and Lubricants...efficiency test stand to allow for laboratory based investigation of Fuel Efficient Gear Oils (FEGO) and their impact on vehicle efficiency. Development...differentiation of efficiency between tested lubricants was achieved in the low speed/lower load operating conditions of the FTM cycle , while efficiency

  11. Societal Planning: Identifying a New Role for the Transport Planner-Part II: Planning Guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khisty, C. Jotin; Leleur, Steen

    1997-01-01

    The paper seeks to formulate planning guidelines based on Habermas's theory of communicative action. Specifically, this has led to the formulation of a set of four planning validity claims concerned to four types of planning guidelines concerning adequacy, dependency, suitability and adaptability......-a-vis the planning validity claims. Among other things the contingency of this process is outlined. It is concluded (part I & II) that transport planners can conveniently utilize the guidelines in their professional practice, tailored to their particular settings....

  12. Partial covering of a circle by equal circles. Part II: The case of 5 circles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Gáspár

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available How must n equal circles of given radius r be placed so that they cover as great a part of the area of the unit circle as possible? In this Part II of a two-part paper, a conjectured solution of this problem for n = 5 is given for r varying from the maximum packing radius to the minimum covering radius. Results are obtained by applying a mechanical model described in Part I. A generalized tensegrity structure is associated with a maximum area configuration of the 5 circles, and by using catastrophe theory, it is pointed out that the ''equilibrium paths'' have bifurcations, that is, at certain values of r, the type of the tensegrity structure and so the type of the circle configuration changes.

  13. A thermoelectric power generating heat exchanger: Part II – Numerical modeling and optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarhadi, Ali; Bjørk, Rasmus; Lindeburg, N.

    2016-01-01

    In Part I of this study, the performance of an experimental integrated thermoelectric generator (TEG)-heat exchanger was presented. In the current study, Part II, the obtained experimental results are compared with those predicted by a finite element (FE) model. In the simulation of the integrated...... TEG-heat exchanger, the thermal contact resistance between the TEG and the heat exchanger is modeled assuming either an ideal thermal contact or using a combined Cooper–Mikic–Yovanovich (CMY) and parallel plate gap formulation, which takes into account the contact pressure, roughness and hardness...

  14. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) test facilities study program. Final report. Volume II. Part C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-17

    Results are presented of an 8-month study to develop alternative non-site-specific OTEC facilities/platform requirements for an integrated OTEC Test Program which may include land and floating test facilities. Volume II--Appendixes is bound in three parts (A, B, and C) which together comprise a compendium of the most significant detailed data developed during the study. Part C describes test facility support, data acquisition and control system design, cost data, energy self-sufficiency, and test facility applications.

  15. The year 2013 in the European Heart Journal--Cardiovascular Imaging: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plein, Sven; Edvardsen, Thor; Pierard, Luc A; Saraste, Antti; Knuuti, Juhani; Maurer, Gerald; Lancellotti, Patrizio

    2014-08-01

    The new multi-modality cardiovascular imaging journal, European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging, was created in 2012. Here we summarize the most important studies from the journal's second year in two articles. Part I of the review has summarized studies in myocardial function, myocardial ischaemia, and emerging techniques in cardiovascular imaging. Part II is focussed on valvular heart diseases, heart failure, cardiomyopathies, and congenital heart diseases. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 266 - Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride III Appendix III to Part 266 Protection of Environment... to Part 266—Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride Terrain...

  17. Alchemical poetry in medieval and early modern Europe: a preliminary survey and synthesis. Part II - Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Didier

    2011-03-01

    This article provides a preliminary description of medieval and early modern alchemical poetry composed in Latin and in the principal vernacular languages of western Europe. It aims to distinguish the various genres in which this poetry flourished, and to identify the most representative aspects of each cultural epoch by considering the medieval and early modern periods in turn. Such a distinction (always somewhat artificial) between two broad historical periods may be justified by the appearance of new cultural phenomena that profoundly modified the character of early modern alchemical poetry: the ever-increasing importance of the prisca theologia, the alchemical interpretation of ancient mythology, and the rise of neo-Latin humanist poetry. Although early modern alchemy was marked by the appearance of new doctrines (notably the alchemical spiritus mundi and Paracelsianism), alchemical poetry was only superficially modified by criteria of a scientific nature, which therefore appear to be of lesser importance. This study falls into two parts. Part I provides a descriptive survey of extant poetry, and in Part II the results of the survey are analysed in order to highlight such distinctive features as the function of alchemical poetry, the influence of the book market on its evolution, its doctrinal content, and the question of whether any theory of alchemical poetry ever emerged. Part II is accompanied by an index of the authors and works cited in both parts.

  18. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 236 - Risk Assessment Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... upper bound, as estimated with a sensitivity analysis, and the risk value selected must be demonstrated... paths to a mishap as predicted by the safety analysis methodology. The documentation shall be in such a... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Risk Assessment Criteria B Appendix B to Part 236...

  19. Groundwater resources assessment of part of Ilesa, Southwestern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An integrated geophysical survey involving the electromagnetic (EM) and direct current resistivity methods was carried out in part of Ilesha, Osun State, underlain by schists, quartzite and quartz schist complex, with a view to assessing the groundwater potential. The EM survey was conducted along eighteen (18) EM profiles ...

  20. A legacy of struggle: the OSHA ergonomics standard and beyond, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delp, Linda; Mojtahedi, Zahra; Sheikh, Hina; Lemus, Jackie

    2014-11-01

    The OSHA ergonomics standard issued in 2000 was repealed within four months through a Congressional resolution that limits future ergonomics rulemaking. This section continues the conversation initiated in Part I, documenting a legacy of struggle for an ergonomics standard through the voices of eight labor, academic, and government key informants. Part I summarized important components of the standard; described the convergence of labor activism, research, and government action that laid the foundation for a standard; and highlighted the debates that characterized the rulemaking process. Part II explores the anti-regulatory political landscape of the 1990s, as well as the key opponents, power dynamics, and legal maneuvers that led to repeal of the standard. This section also describes the impact of the ergonomics struggle beyond the standard itself and ends with a discussion of creative state-level policy initiatives and coalition approaches to prevent work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) in today's sociopolitical context.

  1. A Lagrangian variational formulation for nonequilibrium thermodynamics. Part II: Continuum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay-Balmaz, François; Yoshimura, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    Part I of this paper introduced a Lagrangian variational formulation for nonequilibrium thermodynamics of discrete systems. This variational formulation extends Hamilton's principle to allow the inclusion of irreversible processes in the dynamics. The irreversibility is encoded into a nonlinear nonholonomic constraint given by the expression of entropy production associated to all the irreversible processes involved. In Part II, we develop this formulation for the case of continuum systems by extending the setting of Part I to infinite dimensional nonholonomic Lagrangian systems. The variational formulation is naturally expressed in the material representation, while its spatial version is obtained via a nonholonomic Lagrangian reduction by symmetry. The theory is illustrated with the examples of a viscous heat conducting fluid and its multicomponent extension including chemical reactions and mass transfer.

  2. Subseabed disposal program annual report, January-December 1980. Volume II. Appendices (principal investigator progress reports). Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinga, K.R. (ed.)

    1981-07-01

    Volume II of the sixth annual report describing the progress and evaluating the status of the Subseabed Disposal Program contains the appendices referred to in Volume I, Summary and Status. Because of the length of Volume II, it has been split into two parts for publication purposes. Part 1 contains Appendices A-Q; Part 2 contains Appendices R-MM. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each appendix for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  3. Proprioception in musculoskeletal rehabilitation. Part 2: Clinical assessment and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Nicholas C; Röijezon, Ulrik; Treleaven, Julia

    2015-06-01

    Proprioception can be impaired in gradual-onset musculoskeletal pain disorders and following trauma. Understanding of the role of proprioception in sensorimotor dysfunction and methods for assessment and interventions is of vital importance in musculoskeletal rehabilitation. In Part 1 of this two-part Masterclass we presented a theory-based overview of the role of proprioception in sensorimotor control, causes and findings of altered proprioception in musculoskeletal conditions, and general principles of assessment and interventions. The aim of this second part is to present specific methods for clinical assessment and interventions to improve proprioception in the spine and extremities. Clinical assessment of proprioception can be performed using goniometers, inclinometers, laser-pointers, and pressure sensors. Manual therapy, taping, and bracing can immediately enhance proprioception and should be used to prepare for exercise interventions. Various types of exercise (active joint repositioning, force sense, co-ordination, muscle performance, balance/unstable surface, plyometric, and vibration training) should be employed for long-term enhancement of proprioception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Modelling and mapping of spatial differentiated impacts of nitrogen input to ecosystems within the framework of the UNECE-Convention of Air Pollution Prevention. Part II. The model BERN - assessment of vegetation change and biodiversity; Modellierung und Kartierung raeumlich differenzierter Wirkungen von Stickstoffeintraegen in Oekosysteme im Rahmen der UNECE-Luftreinhaltekonvention. Teilbericht II. Das BERN-Modell - ein Bewertungsmodell fuer die oberirdische Biodiversitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, Hans-Dieter; Schlutow, Angela; Kraft, Philipp; Scheuschner, Thomas; Weigelt-Kirchner, Regine [OEKO-DATA - Ecosystem Analysis and Environmental Data Management, Strausberg (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    Semi-natural ecosystems are exposed to high atmospheric deposition for decades. In contrary to sulphur deposition which could be significantly reduced due to international conventions on air pollution prevention during the last decades, deposition of both, reduced and oxidized nitrogen is still on a very high level in average 40 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in forest ecosystems in Germany. The FuE-Project ''Modelling and mapping of spatial differentiated impacts of nitrogen input to ecosystems within the framework of the UNECE - Convention of Air Pollution Prevention'' was jointly conducted by 4 partner institutions and studied impacts of atmospheric nitrogen deposition and climate change on physicochemical properties of forest soils, nutrient storage and nutrient export (Karlsruhe Research Centre, IMK-IFU) as well as biodiversity of vegetation (OEKO-DATA and Waldkundeinstitut Eberswalde) and soil organisms (Giessen University). Work carried out at OEKO-DATA initially concentrated on the development of the BERN-model. About 14 585 vegetation inventories from all over Germany and other 2 914 relevant inventories evaluated from neighboring countries were integrated in BERN database. With this model, the vegetation changes as a function of variations in the location conditions could be identified due to the implementation of the corresponding time series of geochemical and climate parameters from MoBiLE. A validation of the MoBiLE-BERN-coupling was carried out at Level II sites. From the dynamics of the vegetation development in the context of location changes could be derived critical loads and limits. Also the current regeneration potential as well as a harmonious natural balance of location factors could be determined. Likewise, the potential of danger to biodiversity and the livelihood opportunities of plant species or societies could be demonstrated. The most distinct dependence of biodiversity change could be detected on the alterations of

  5. Photometry of Type II Cepheid Candidates from the Northern Part of the All Sky Automated Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Edward G.; Hemen, Brian; Rogalla, Danielle; Thacker-Lynn, Lauren

    2009-06-01

    We have obtained VR photometry of 282 Cepheid variable star candidates from the northern part of the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS). These together with data from the ASAS and the Northern Sky Variability Survey (NSVS) were used to redetermine the periods of the stars. We divided the stars into four groups based on location in a plot of mean color, langV-Rrang, versus period. Two of the groups fell within the region of the diagram containing known type II Cepheids and yielded 14 new highly probable type II Cepheids. The properties of the remaining stars in these two groups are discussed but their nature remains uncertain. Unexplained differences exist between the sample of stars studied here and a previous sample drawn from the NSVS by Akerlof et al. This suggests serious biases in the identification of variables in different surveys.

  6. PIC Simulations in Low Energy Part of PIP-II Proton Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, Gennady

    2014-07-01

    The front end of PIP-II linac is composed of a 30 keV ion source, low energy beam transport line (LEBT), 2.1 MeV radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and medium energy beam transport line (MEBT). This configuration is currently being assembled at Fermilab to support a complete systems test. The front end represents the primary technical risk with PIP-II, and so this step will validate the concept and demonstrate that the hardware can meet the specified requirements. SC accelerating cavities right after MEBT require high quality and well defined beam after RFQ to avoid excessive particle losses. In this paper we will present recent progress of beam dynamic study, using CST PIC simulation code, to investigate partial neutralization effect in LEBT, halo and tail formation in RFQ, total emittance growth and beam losses along low energy part of the linac.

  7. Validity of the Sleep Subscale of the Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-II (DASH-II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Malone, Carrie J.

    2006-01-01

    Currently there are no available sleep disorder measures for individuals with severe and profound intellectual disability. We, therefore, attempted to establish the external validity of the "Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-II" (DASH-II) sleep subscale by comparing daily observational sleep data with the responses of…

  8. Optimal recombination in genetic algorithms for combinatorial optimization problems: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eremeev Anton V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys results on complexity of the optimal recombination problem (ORP, which consists in finding the best possible offspring as a result of a recombination operator in a genetic algorithm, given two parent solutions. In Part II, we consider the computational complexity of ORPs arising in genetic algorithms for problems on permutations: the Travelling Salesman Problem, the Shortest Hamilton Path Problem and the Makespan Minimization on Single Machine and some other related problems. The analysis indicates that the corresponding ORPs are NP-hard, but solvable by faster algorithms, compared to the problems they are derived from.

  9. Cancer concepts and principles: primer for the interventional oncologist-part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Ryan; Vouche, Michael; Sze, Daniel Y; Hohlastos, Elias; Collins, Jeremy; Schirmang, Todd; Memon, Khairuddin; Ryu, Robert K; Sato, Kent; Chen, Richard; Gupta, Ramona; Resnick, Scott; Carr, James; Chrisman, Howard B; Nemcek, Albert A; Vogelzang, Robert L; Lewandowski, Robert J; Salem, Riad

    2013-08-01

    This is the second of a two-part overview of the fundamentals of oncology for interventional radiologists. The first part focused on clinical trials, basic statistics, assessment of response, and overall concepts in oncology. This second part aims to review the methods of tumor characterization; principles of the oncology specialties, including medical, surgical, radiation, and interventional oncology; and current treatment paradigms for the most common cancers encountered in interventional oncology, along with the levels of evidence that guide these treatments. Copyright © 2013 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A framework for biodynamic feedthrough analysis--part II: validation and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venrooij, Joost; van Paassen, Marinus M; Mulder, Mark; Abbink, David A; Mulder, Max; van der Helm, Frans C T; Bulthoff, Heinrich H

    2014-09-01

    Biodynamic feedthrough (BDFT) is a complex phenomenon, that has been studied for several decades. However, there is little consensus on how to approach the BDFT problem in terms of definitions, nomenclature, and mathematical descriptions. In this paper, the framework for BDFT analysis, as presented in Part I of this dual publication, is validated and applied. The goal of this framework is twofold. First of all, it provides some common ground between the seemingly large range of different approaches existing in BDFT literature. Secondly, the framework itself allows for gaining new insights into BDFT phenomena. Using recently obtained measurement data, parts of the framework that were not already addressed elsewhere, are validated. As an example of a practical application of the framework, it will be demonstrated how the effects of control device dynamics on BDFT can be understood and accurately predicted. Other ways of employing the framework are illustrated by interpreting the results of three selected studies from the literature using the BDFT framework. The presentation of the BDFT framework is divided into two parts. This paper, Part II, addresses the validation and application of the framework. Part I, which is also published in this journal issue, addresses the theoretical foundations of the framework. The work is presented in two separate papers to allow for a detailed discussion of both the framework's theoretical background and its validation.

  11. Study of the twinned dendrite tip shape II: Experimental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado-Ordorica, M.A., E-mail: mario.salgado@novelis.com [Laboratoire de Simulation des Materiaux LSMX, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Station 12, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Burdet, P.; Cantoni, M. [Centre Interdisciplinaire de Microscopie Electronique CIME, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Station 12, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Rappaz, M. [Laboratoire de Simulation des Materiaux LSMX, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Station 12, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2011-08-15

    The favorable growth kinetics of twinned dendrites can be explained by their complex morphology, multiple side branching mechanisms, growth undercooling and tip morphology. Three models were proposed for the twinned dendrite tip shape: (i) a grooved tip satisfying the Smith condition at the triple line; (ii) a doublon , i.e. a double-tip dendrite that grows with a narrow and deep liquid channel in its center; and (iii) a pointed (or edgy) tip, with consideration of the solid-liquid interfacial energy anisotropy. In the first part of this work, phase field simulations of half a twinned dendrite with an appropriate boundary condition to reproduce the Smith condition supported the doublon conjecture, with a narrow liquid channel ending its solidification with the formation of small liquid droplets. In this part, experimental observations of twinned dendrite tips reveal the presence of a small, but well-defined, groove, thus definitely eliminating the edged tip hypothesis. Focused ion beam nanotomography and energy-dispersive spectroscopy chemical analysis in a transmission electron microscope reveal the existence of a positive solute gradient in a region localized within 2 {mu}m around the twin plane. In Al-Zn specimens, small particles aligned within the twin plane further support the doublon conjecture and the predicted formation of small liquid droplets below the doublon root.

  12. History of spine biomechanics: part II--from the Renaissance to the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Sait; Andalkar, Niteen; Benzel, Edward C

    2007-02-01

    Spine biomechanics provide the foundation for the disciplines of spine medicine and spine surgery. Although modern spine biomechanics emerged during the second half of the last century, it has many ancient, medieval, and post-Renaissance roots. In Part I of this series, the ancient and medieval roots of spine biomechanics were reviewed. In Part II, the effects of post-Renaissance scientists on the development of modern spine biomechanics, as well as the studies on gait, bone, and muscles performed before the 20th century, are reviewed. Subsequently, war-related studies performed in the 20th century contributed to the formation of modern biomechanics. The first biomechanics-related organizations and scientific publications did not emerge until the second half of the 20th century. These events provided the final bricks in the foundation that facilitated the emergence of modern spine biomechanics research.

  13. Practical application of new technologies for melanoma diagnosis: Part II. Molecular approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Jordon; Hand, Matthew; Truong, Amanda; Grossman, Douglas

    2015-06-01

    The criterion standard for diagnosing cutaneous melanoma continues to be histologic examination. However, classifying some melanocytic lesions by conventional microscopy can be problematic if they exhibit some architectural or morphologic characteristics of both nevus and melanoma. Moreover, histologic appearance does not always predict biologic behavior. There is therefore a need and opportunity to develop new technologies that can facilitate the histologic diagnosis of melanoma and potentially help distinguish lesions with a lesser or greater risk of metastasis. In part II of this 2-part continuing medical education article, we will review the molecular technologies currently available for facilitating melanoma diagnosis, including comparative genomic hybridization, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and epidermal genetic retrieval. Our goal is to provide the clinician with an up to date understanding of these molecular approaches so that they can be applied to their management of challenging melanocytic lesions. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Exploring Cancer Therapeutics with Natural Products from African Medicinal Plants, Part II: Alkaloids, Terpenoids and Flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwodo, Justina N; Ibezim, Akachukwu; Simoben, Conrad V; Ntie-Kang, Fidele

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stands as second most common cause of disease-related deaths in humans. Resistance of cancer to chemotherapy remains challenging to both scientists and physicians. Medicinal plants are known to contribute significantly to a large population of Africa, which is to a very large extent linked to folkloric claims which is part of their livelihood. In this review paper, the potential of naturally occurring anti-cancer agents from African flora has been explored, with suggested modes of action, where such data is available. Literature search revealed plant-derived compounds from African flora showing anti-cancer and/or cytotoxic activities, which have been tested in vitro and in vivo. This corresponds to 400 compounds (from mildly active to very active) covering various compound classes. However, in this part II, we only discussed the three major compound classes which are: flavonoids, alkaloids and terpenoids.

  15. Advances in Unsteady Boundary Layer Transition Research, Part II: Experimental Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Schobeiri

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This two-part article presents recent advances in boundary layer research into the unsteady boundary layer transition modeling and its validation. This, Part II, deals with the results of an inductive approach based on comprehensive experimental and theoretical studies of unsteady wake flow and unsteady boundary layer flow. The experiments were performed on a curved plate at a zero streamwise pressure gradient under periodic unsteady wake flow, in which the frequency of the periodic unsteady flow was varied. To validate the model, systematic experimental investigations were performed on the suction and pressure surfaces of turbine blades integrated into a high-subsonic cascade test facility, which was designed for unsteady boundary layer investigations. The analysis of the experiment's results and comparison with the model's prediction confirm the validity of the model and its ability to predict accurately the unsteady boundary layer transition.

  16. Biology and Mechanics of Blood Flows Part II: Mechanics and Medical Aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Thiriet, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Biology and Mechanics of Blood Flows presents the basic knowledge and state-of-the-art techniques necessary to carry out investigations of the cardiovascular system using modeling and simulation. Part II of this two-volume sequence, Mechanics and Medical Aspects, refers to the extraction of input data at the macroscopic scale for modeling the cardiovascular system, and complements Part I, which focuses on nanoscopic and microscopic components and processes. This volume contains chapters on anatomy, physiology, continuum mechanics, as well as pathological changes in the vasculature walls including the heart and their treatments. Methods of numerical simulations are given and illustrated in particular by application to wall diseases. This authoritative book will appeal to any biologist, chemist, physicist, or applied mathematician interested in the functioning of the cardiovascular system.

  17. Part I: Sound color in the music of Gyorgy Kurtag, Part II: "Leopard's Path," thirteen visions for chamber ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iachimciuc, Igor

    The dissertation is in two parts, a theoretical study and a musical composition. In Part I the music of Gyorgy Kurtag is analyzed from the point of view of sound color. A brief description of what is understood by the term sound color, and various ways of achieving specific coloristic effects, are presented in the Introduction. An examination of Kurtag's approaches to the domain of sound color occupies the chapters that follow. The musical examples that are analyzed are selected from Kurtag's different compositional periods, showing a certain consistency in sound color techniques, the most important of which are already present in the String Quartet, Op. 1. The compositions selected for analysis are written for different ensembles, but regardless of the instrumentation, certain principles of the formation and organization of sound color remain the same. Rather than relying on extended instrumental techniques, Kurtag creates a large variety of sound colors using traditional means such as pitch material, register, density, rhythm, timbral combinations, dynamics, texture, spatial displacement of the instruments, and the overall musical context. Each sound color unit in Kurtag's music is a separate entity, conceived as a complete microcosm. Sound color units can either be juxtaposed as contrasting elements, forming sound color variations, or superimposed, often resulting in a Klangfarbenmelodie effect. Some of the same gestural figures (objets trouves) appear in different compositions, but with significant coloristic modifications. Thus, the principle of sound color variations is not only a strong organizational tool, but also a characteristic stylistic feature of the music of Gyorgy Kurtag. Part II, Leopard's Path (2010), for flute, clarinet, violin, cello, cimbalom, and piano, is an original composition inspired by the painting of Jesse Allen, a San Francisco based artist. The composition is conceived as a cycle of thirteen short movements. Ten of these movements are

  18. Functional assessment of feet of patients with type II diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Saura Cardoso

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the incidence of functional changes and risk of developing ulcers in type II diabetic patients seen in Primary Healthcare Units (Unidades Básicas de Saúde- UBS. Methods: A cross-sectional, quantitative and descriptive study comprising 80patients with type II diabetes mellitus (DM aged between 41 to 85 years and attended inthe UBS in the city of Parnaíba-PI. Volunteers responded to the identification form and theMichigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI, followed by an evaluation of the lowerlimbs, as follows: achilles and patellar reflex, palpation of arterial pulses (dorsalis pedis and posterior tibial, tactile sensitivity (Monofilament 10g and vibration sensitivity (128Hz tuning fork; identification of the presence of changes such as ingrown toenails, calluses,claw toes and hair loss. Finally, using the information acquired from the assessment, subjects were classified according to the risk of developing wounds. Results: The sample consisted of 76 diabetic patients, with average age of 63.8 ± 10.4 years, 63 (82.8% were female, mean diagnostic time 8.8 ± 7.2 years, average body mass index (BMI 28.2 ± 5.4 kg/m2, with 15.7% of the sample being smokers. The myotatic reflexes and arterial pulses were reduced. Tactile sensitivity was identified in 81.5% and 13.1% did not feel the vibration of the tuning fork. The most dominant changes identified were calluses, 76.3% (n = 58. Risk level 2 of developing ulcers stood out, 52.6% (n = 40. Conclusion: Functional changes were detected in the sample and a classification of risk 2 for developing wounds was found in more than 50% of the assessed patients. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.5020/18061230.2013.p563

  19. Is extreme learning machine feasible? A theoretical assessment (part I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xia; Lin, Shaobo; Fang, Jian; Xu, Zongben

    2015-01-01

    An extreme learning machine (ELM) is a feedforward neural network (FNN) like learning system whose connections with output neurons are adjustable, while the connections with and within hidden neurons are randomly fixed. Numerous applications have demonstrated the feasibility and high efficiency of ELM-like systems. It has, however, been open if this is true for any general applications. In this two-part paper, we conduct a comprehensive feasibility analysis of ELM. In Part I, we provide an answer to the question by theoretically justifying the following: 1) for some suitable activation functions, such as polynomials, Nadaraya-Watson and sigmoid functions, the ELM-like systems can attain the theoretical generalization bound of the FNNs with all connections adjusted, i.e., they do not degrade the generalization capability of the FNNs even when the connections with and within hidden neurons are randomly fixed; 2) the number of hidden neurons needed for an ELM-like system to achieve the theoretical bound can be estimated; and 3) whenever the activation function is taken as polynomial, the deduced hidden layer output matrix is of full column-rank, therefore the generalized inverse technique can be efficiently applied to yield the solution of an ELM-like system, and, furthermore, for the nonpolynomial case, the Tikhonov regularization can be applied to guarantee the weak regularity while not sacrificing the generalization capability. In Part II, however, we reveal a different aspect of the feasibility of ELM: there also exists some activation functions, which makes the corresponding ELM degrade the generalization capability. The obtained results underlie the feasibility and efficiency of ELM-like systems, and yield various generalizations and improvements of the systems as well.

  20. [Correction of refractive errors in patients with strabismus. Part II. Clinical aspects of refraction--spectacle and contact lens correction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarz-Sawińska, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    In Part II the clinical aspects of refractive errors such as hyperopia, myopia, astigmatism, anisometropia, aphakia and unilateral pseudophakia have been described along with strabismus and prism and spectacle correction allowing additionally proper visual alignment.

  1. Base cation deposition in Europe - Part II. Acid neutralization capacity and contribution to forest nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draaijers, G.P.J.; Leeuwen, E.P. van; Jong, P.G.H. de; Erisman, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    An assessment was made of the capacity of base cations to neutralize acid deposition and of the contribution of base cation deposition to forest nutrition in Europe. In large parts of southern Europe more than 50% of the potential acid deposition was found counteracted by deposition of non-sea salt

  2. Mineral resources of parts of the Departments of Antioquia and Caldas, Zone II, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R.B.; Feininger, Tomas; Barrero, L.; Dario, Rico H.; ,; Alvarez, A.

    1970-01-01

    The mineral resources of an area of 40,000 sq km, principally in the Department of Antioquia, but including small parts of the Departments of Caldas, C6rdoba, Risaralda, and Tolima, were investigated during the period 1964-68. The area is designated Zone II by the Colombian Inventario Minero Nacional(lMN). The geology of approximately 45 percent of this area, or 18,000 sq km, has been mapped by IMN. Zone II has been a gold producer for centuries, and still produces 75 percent of Colombia's gold. Silver is recovered as a byproduct. Ferruginous laterites have been investigated as potential sources of iron ore but are not commercially exploitable. Nickeliferous laterite on serpentinite near Ure in the extreme northwest corner of the Zone is potentially exploitable, although less promising than similar laterites at Cerro Matoso, north of the Zone boundary. Known deposits of mercury, chromium, manganese, and copper are small and have limited economic potentia1. Cement raw materials are important among nonmetallic resources, and four companies are engaged in the manufacture of portland cement. The eastern half of Zone II contains large carbonate rock reserves, but poor accessibility is a handicap to greater development at present. Dolomite near Amalfi is quarried for the glass-making and other industries. Clay saprolite is abundant and widely used in making brick and tiles in backyard kilns. Kaolin of good quality near La Union is used by the ceramic industry. Subbituminous coal beds of Tertiary are an important resource in the western part of the zone and have good potential for greater development. Aggregate materials for construction are varied and abundant. Deposits of sodic feldspar, talc, decorative stone, and silica are exploited on a small scale. Chrysotils asbestos deposits north of Campamento are being developed to supply fiber for Colombia's thriving asbestos-cement industry, which is presently dependent upon imported fiber. Wollastonite and andalusite are

  3. Analysis of Radionuclide Releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achim, Pascal; Monfort, Marguerite; Le Petit, Gilbert; Gross, Philippe; Douysset, Guilhem; Taffary, Thomas; Blanchard, Xavier; Moulin, Christophe

    2014-03-01

    The present part of the publication (Part II) deals with long range dispersion of radionuclides emitted into the atmosphere during the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident that occurred after the March 11, 2011 tsunami. The first part (Part I) is dedicated to the accident features relying on radionuclide detections performed by monitoring stations of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization network. In this study, the emissions of the three fission products Cs-137, I-131 and Xe-133 are investigated. Regarding Xe-133, the total release is estimated to be of the order of 6 × 1018 Bq emitted during the explosions of units 1, 2 and 3. The total source term estimated gives a fraction of core inventory of about 8 × 1018 Bq at the time of reactors shutdown. This result suggests that at least 80 % of the core inventory has been released into the atmosphere and indicates a broad meltdown of reactor cores. Total atmospheric releases of Cs-137 and I-131 aerosols are estimated to be 1016 and 1017 Bq, respectively. By neglecting gas/particulate conversion phenomena, the total release of I-131 (gas + aerosol) could be estimated to be 4 × 1017 Bq. Atmospheric transport simulations suggest that the main air emissions have occurred during the events of March 14, 2011 (UTC) and that no major release occurred after March 23. The radioactivity emitted into the atmosphere could represent 10 % of the Chernobyl accident releases for I-131 and Cs-137.

  4. Two-loop renormalization in the standard model, part II. Renormalization procedures and computational techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Actis, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Passarino, G. [Torino Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica Teorica; INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    In part I general aspects of the renormalization of a spontaneously broken gauge theory have been introduced. Here, in part II, two-loop renormalization is introduced and discussed within the context of the minimal Standard Model. Therefore, this paper deals with the transition between bare parameters and fields to renormalized ones. The full list of one- and two-loop counterterms is shown and it is proven that, by a suitable extension of the formalism already introduced at the one-loop level, two-point functions suffice in renormalizing the model. The problem of overlapping ultraviolet divergencies is analyzed and it is shown that all counterterms are local and of polynomial nature. The original program of 't Hooft and Veltman is at work. Finite parts are written in a way that allows for a fast and reliable numerical integration with all collinear logarithms extracted analytically. Finite renormalization, the transition between renormalized parameters and physical (pseudo-)observables, are discussed in part III where numerical results, e.g. for the complex poles of the unstable gauge bosons, are shown. An attempt is made to define the running of the electromagnetic coupling constant at the two-loop level. (orig.)

  5. Seismic risk analysis for General Electric Plutonium Facility, Pleasanton, California. Final report, part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-27

    This report is the second of a two part study addressing the seismic risk or hazard of the special nuclear materials (SNM) facility of the General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center at Pleasanton, California. The Part I companion to this report, dated July 31, 1978, presented the seismic hazard at the site that resulted from exposure to earthquakes on the Calaveras, Hayward, San Andreas and, additionally, from smaller unassociated earthquakes that could not be attributed to these specific faults. However, while this study was in progress, certain additional geologic information became available that could be interpreted in terms of the existance of a nearby fault. Although substantial geologic investigations were subsequently deployed, the existance of this postulated fault, called the Verona Fault, remained very controversial. The purpose of the Part II study was to assume the existance of such a capable fault and, under this assumption, to examine the loads that the fault could impose on the SNM facility. This report first reviews the geologic setting with a focus on specifying sufficient geologic parameters to characterize the postulated fault. The report next presents the methodology used to calculate the vibratory ground motion hazard. Because of the complexity of the fault geometry, a slightly different methodology is used here compared to the Part I report. This section ends with the results of the calculation applied to the SNM facility. Finally, the report presents the methodology and results of the rupture hazard calculation.

  6. Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution in Shiraz, Iran: a two-part study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Gharehchahi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to assess health-impacts of short-term exposure to the air pollutants including PM10, SO2, and NO2 in Shiraz, Iran in a two-part study from 2008 to 2010. In part I, local relative risks (RRs and baseline incidences (BIs were calculate using generalized additive models. In part II, we estimated the number of excess hospitalizations (NEHs due to cardiovascular diseases (CDs, respiratory diseases (RDs, respiratory diseases in elderly group (RDsE—people older than 65 years old, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPDs as a result of exposure to air pollutants using AirQ model, which is proposed approach for air pollution health impact assessment by World Health Organization. In part I, exposure to increase in daily mean concentration of PM10 was associated with hospitalizations due to RDs with a RR of 1.0049 [95% confidence interval (CI, 1.0004 to 1.0110]. In addition, exposure to increase in daily mean concentration of SO2 and NO2 were associated with hospitalizations due to RDsE and COPDs with RRs of 1.0540 [95% CI, 1.0050 to 1.1200], 1.0950 [95% CI, 1.0700 to 1.1100], 1.0280 [95% CI, 1.0110 to 1.0450] and 1.0360 [95% CI, 1.0210 to 1.0510] per 10 μg/m3 rise of these pollutants, respectively. In part II, the maximum NEHs due to CDs because of exposure to PM10 were in 2009—1489 excess cases (ECs. The maximum NEHs due to RDs because of exposure to PM10 were in 2009—1163 ECs. Meanwhile, the maximum NEHs due to RDsE and COPDs because of exposure to SO2 were in 2008, which are 520 and 900 ECs, respectively. In conclusion, elevated morbidity risks were found from acute exposure to air pollutants.

  7. Probability calculations for three-part mineral resource assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellefsen, Karl J.

    2017-06-27

    Three-part mineral resource assessment is a methodology for predicting, in a specified geographic region, both the number of undiscovered mineral deposits and the amount of mineral resources in those deposits. These predictions are based on probability calculations that are performed with computer software that is newly implemented. Compared to the previous implementation, the new implementation includes new features for the probability calculations themselves and for checks of those calculations. The development of the new implementation lead to a new understanding of the probability calculations, namely the assumptions inherent in the probability calculations. Several assumptions strongly affect the mineral resource predictions, so it is crucial that they are checked during an assessment. The evaluation of the new implementation leads to new findings about the probability calculations,namely findings regarding the precision of the computations,the computation time, and the sensitivity of the calculation results to the input.

  8. The spectrum of oculocutaneous disease: Part II. Neoplastic and drug-related causes of oculocutaneous disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Antoinette; Abramson, Amanda K; Patel, Mahir; Warren, Richard B; Menter, M Alan

    2014-05-01

    There are a multitude of diseases that commonly affect both the skin and the eye. Part II of this 2-part series reviews the oculocutaneous manifestations of neoplasms, both benign and malignant, and adverse drug reactions affecting the skin and the eye. Though rare, a number of neoplasms that primarily involve the skin, such as melanoma and basal cell carcinoma, can metastasize to the eye, leading to permanent damage if not properly treated. In addition, periocular neoplasms can irritate the conjunctiva and lid, reducing a patient's ability to see clearly. Neoplastic diseases, such as xeroderma pigmentosum, Sturge-Weber syndrome, and multiple myeloma, can also lead to permanent changes in the eye if not discovered and managed promptly. Furthermore, there are a multitude of drugs, including those commonly used by dermatologists, which can result in permanent damage to the eye. With proper knowledge of the ocular manifestations and treatment recommendations described in this 2-part series, dermatologists with the assistance of their ophthalmology colleagues can help avoid the complications, including permanent blindness, associated with infectious, inflammatory, genetic, neoplastic, and drug-related conditions. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. From Constraints to Resolution Rules Part II : chains, braids, confluence and T&E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthier, Denis

    In this Part II, we apply the general theory developed in Part I to a detailed analysis of the Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CSP). We show how specific types of resolution rules can be defined. In particular, we introduce the general notions of a chain and a braid. As in Part I, these notions are illustrated in detail with the Sudoku example - a problem known to be NP-complete and which is therefore typical of a broad class of hard problems. For Sudoku, we also show how far one can go in "approximating" a CSP with a resolution theory and we give an empirical statistical analysis of how the various puzzles, corresponding to different sets of entries, can be classified along a natural scale of complexity. For any CSP, we also prove the confluence property of some Resolution Theories based on braids and we show how it can be used to define different resolution strategies. Finally, we prove that, in any CSP, braids have the same solving capacity as Trial-and-Error (T&E) with no guessing and we comment this result in the Sudoku case.

  10. Music in the exercise domain: a review and synthesis (Part II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorghis, Costas I.; Priest, David-Lee

    2011-01-01

    Since a 1997 review by Karageorghis and Terry, which highlighted the state of knowledge and methodological weaknesses, the number of studies investigating musical reactivity in relation to exercise has swelled considerably. In this two-part review paper, the development of conceptual approaches and mechanisms underlying the effects of music are explicated (Part I), followed by a critical review and synthesis of empirical work (spread over Parts I and II). Pre-task music has been shown to optimise arousal, facilitate task-relevant imagery and improve performance in simple motoric tasks. During repetitive, endurance-type activities, self-selected, motivational and stimulative music has been shown to enhance affect, reduce ratings of perceived exertion, improve energy efficiency and lead to increased work output. There is evidence to suggest that carefully selected music can promote ergogenic and psychological benefits during high-intensity exercise, although it appears to be ineffective in reducing perceptions of exertion beyond the anaerobic threshold. The effects of music appear to be at their most potent when it is used to accompany self-paced exercise or in externally valid conditions. When selected according to its motivational qualities, the positive impact of music on both psychological state and performance is magnified. Guidelines are provided for future research and exercise practitioners. PMID:22577473

  11. Constructions of Optical Queues With a Limited Number of Recirculations--Part II: Optimal Constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Xuan-Chao

    2010-01-01

    One of the main problems in all-optical packet-switched networks is the lack of optical buffers, and one feasible technology for the constructions of optical buffers is to use optical crossbar Switches and fiber Delay Lines (SDL). In this two-part paper, we consider SDL constructions of optical queues with a limited number of recirculations through the optical switches and the fiber delay lines. Such a problem arises from practical feasibility considerations. In Part I, we have proposed a class of greedy constructions for certain types of optical queues, including linear compressors, linear decompressors, and 2-to-1 FIFO multiplexers, and have shown that every optimal construction among our previous constructions of these types of optical queues under the constraint of a limited number of recirculations must be a greedy construction. In Part II, the present paper, we further show that there are at most two optimal constructions and give a simple algorithm to obtain the optimal construction(s). The main idea i...

  12. Putting microbes to work: dairy fermentation, cell factories and bioactive peptides. Part II: bioactive peptide functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Maria; Stanton, Catherine; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Ross, R Paul

    2007-04-01

    A variety of milk-derived biologically active peptides have been shown to exert both functional and physiological roles in vitro and in vivo, and because of this are of particular interest for food science and nutrition applications. Biological activities associated with such peptides include immunomodulatory, antibacterial, anti-hypertensive and opioid-like properties. Milk proteins are recognized as a primary source of bioactive peptides, which can be encrypted within the amino acid sequence of dairy proteins, requiring proteolysis for release and activation. Fermentation of milk proteins using the proteolytic systems of lactic acid bacteria is an attractive approach for generation of functional foods enriched in bioactive peptides given the low cost and positive nutritional image associated with fermented milk drinks and yoghurt. In Part II of this review, we focus on examples of milk-derived bioactive peptides and their associated health benefits, to illustrate the potential of this area for the design and improvement of future functional foods.

  13. CERN scientists take part in the Tevatron Run II performance review committee

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    Tevatron Run II is under way at Fermilab, exploring the high-energy frontier with upgraded detectors that will address some of the biggest questions in particle physics.Until CERN's LHC switches on, the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider is the world's only source of top quarks. It is the only place where we can search for supersymmetry, for the Higgs boson, and for signatures of additional dimensions of space-time. The US Department of Energy (DOE) recently convened a high-level international review committee to examine Fermilab experts' first-phase plans for the accelerator complex. Pictured here with a dipole magnet in CERN's LHC magnet test facility are the four CERN scientists who took part in the DOE's Tevatron review. Left to right: Francesco Ruggiero, Massimo Placidi, Flemming Pedersen, and Karlheinz Schindl. Further information: CERN Courier 43 (1)

  14. Repository Planning, Design, and Engineering: Part II-Equipment and Costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Phillip M; Gunter, Elaine W

    2016-08-01

    Part II of this article discusses and provides guidance on the equipment and systems necessary to operate a repository. The various types of storage equipment and monitoring and support systems are presented in detail. While the material focuses on the large repository, the requirements for a small-scale startup are also presented. Cost estimates and a cost model for establishing a repository are presented. The cost model presents an expected range of acquisition costs for the large capital items in developing a repository. A range of 5,000-7,000 ft(2) constructed has been assumed, with 50 frozen storage units, to reflect a successful operation with growth potential. No design or engineering costs, permit or regulatory costs, or smaller items such as the computers, software, furniture, phones, and barcode readers required for operations have been included.

  15. Multiobjective Optimization for Fixture Locating Layout of Sheet Metal Part Using SVR and NSGA-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fixture plays a significant role in determining the sheet metal part (SMP spatial position and restraining its excessive deformation in many manufacturing operations. However, it is still a difficult task to design and optimize SMP fixture locating layout at present because there exist multiple conflicting objectives and excessive computational cost of finite element analysis (FEA during the optimization process. To this end, a new multiobjective optimization method for SMP fixture locating layout is proposed in this paper based on the support vector regression (SVR surrogate model and the elitist nondominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II. By using ABAQUS™ Python script interface, a parametric FEA model is established. And the fixture locating layout is treated as design variables, while the overall deformation and maximum deformation of SMP under external forces are as the multiple objective functions. First, a limited number of training and testing samples are generated by combining Latin hypercube design (LHD with FEA. Second, two SVR prediction models corresponding to the multiple objectives are established by learning from the limited training samples and are integrated as the multiobjective optimization surrogate model. Third, NSGA-II is applied to determine the Pareto optimal solutions of SMP fixture locating layout. Finally, a multiobjective optimization for fixture locating layout of an aircraft fuselage skin case is conducted to illustrate and verify the proposed method.

  16. Psychoeducational Interventions with Pediatric Cancer Patients: Part II. Effects of Information and Skills Training on Health-Related Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, Ivan L.; Bradlyn, Andrew S.; Kato, Pamela M.

    2003-01-01

    In Part I of this paper, we described a model that was used as a framework for reviewing studies of psychoeducational interventions intended to influence illness- and treatment-related behaviors and attitudes in pediatric cancer patients. In Part II, we distinguish between interventions that attempt to influence patients' behaviors just by…

  17. The Mental Health Recovery Movement and Family Therapy, Part II: A Collaborative, Appreciative Approach for Supporting Mental Health Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehart, Diane R.

    2012-01-01

    A continuation of Part I, which introduced mental health recovery concepts to family therapists, Part II of this article outlines a collaborative, appreciative approach for working in recovery-oriented contexts. This approach draws primarily upon postmodern therapies, which have numerous social justice and strength-based practices that are easily…

  18. Reciprocity-enhanced optical communication through atmospheric turbulence - part II: communication architectures and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puryear, Andrew L.; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.; Parenti, Ronald R.

    2012-10-01

    Free-space optical communication provides rapidly deployable, dynamic communication links that are capable of very high data rates compared with those of radio-frequency systems. As such, free-space optical communication is ideal for mobile platforms, for platforms that require the additional security afforded by the narrow divergence of a laser beam, and for systems that must be deployed in a relatively short time frame. In clear-weather conditions the data rate and utility of free-space optical communication links are primarily limited by fading caused by micro-scale atmospheric temperature variations that create parts-per-million refractive-index fluctuations known as atmospheric turbulence. Typical communication techniques to overcome turbulence-induced fading, such as interleavers with sophisticated codes, lose viability as the data rate is driven higher or the delay requirement is driven lower. This paper, along with its companion [J. H. Shapiro and A. Puryear, "Reciprocity-Enhanced Optical Communication through Atmospheric Turbulence-Part I: Reciprocity Proofs and Far-Field Power Transfer"], present communication systems and techniques that exploit atmospheric reciprocity to overcome turbulence which are viable for high data rate and low delay requirement systems. Part I proves that reciprocity is exhibited under rather general conditions, and derives the optimal power-transfer phase compensation for far-field operation. The Part II paper presents capacity-achieving architectures that exploit reciprocity to overcome the complexity and delay issues that limit state-of-the art free-space optical communications. Further, this paper uses theoretical turbulence models to determine the performance—delay, throughput, and complexity—of the proposed architectures.

  19. Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining 21st Pacific Asia Conference, PAKDD 2017 Held in Jeju, South Korea, May 23 26, 2017. Proceedings Part I, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-27

    currently val!d OMB control number. PLEASE DD NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED...Data Mining 21’’ Pacific-Asia Conference, PAKDD 2017Jeju, South Korea, May 23-26, Sb. GRANT NUMBER 2017 Proceedings, Part I, Part II Sc. PROGRAM...Springer; Switzerland. 14. ABSTRACT The Pacific-Asia Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (PAKDD) is a leading international conference

  20. Performance assessment for the class L-II disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This draft radiological performance assessment (PA) for the proposed Class L-II Disposal Facility (CIIDF) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) has been prepared to demonstrate compliance with the requirements of the US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A. This PA considers the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) over the operating life of the facility and the long-term performance of the facility in providing protection to public health and the environment. The performance objectives contained in the order require that the facility be managed to accomplish the following: (1) Protect public health and safety in accordance with standards specified in environmental health orders and other DOE orders. (2) Ensure that external exposure to the waste and concentrations of radioactive material that may be released into surface water, groundwater, soil, plants, and animals results in an effective dose equivalent (EDE) that does not exceed 25 mrem/year to a member of the public. Releases to the atmosphere shall meet the requirements of 40 CFR Pt. 61. Reasonable effort should be made to maintain releases of radioactivity in effluents to the general environment as low as reasonably achievable. (1) Ensure that the committed EDEs received by individual who inadvertently may intrude into the facility after the loss of active institutional control (100 years) will not exceed 100 mrem/year for continuous exposure of 500 mrem for a single acute exposure. (4) Protect groundwater resources, consistent with federal, state, and local requirements.

  1. Trends in Primary and Revision Hip Arthroplasty Among Orthopedic Surgeons Who Take the American Board of Orthopedics Part II Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslam Pour, Aidin; Bradbury, Thomas L; Horst, Patrick K; Harrast, John J; Erens, Greg A; Roberson, James R

    2016-07-01

    A certified list of all operative cases performed within a 6-month period is a required prerequisite for surgeons taking the American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery Part II oral examination. Using the American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery secure Internet database database containing these cases, this study (1) assessed changing trends for primary and revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) and (2) compared practices and early postoperative complications between 2 groups of examinees, those with and without adult reconstruction fellowship training. Secure Internet database was searched for all 2003-2013 procedures with a Current Procedural Terminology code for THA, hip resurfacing, hemiarthroplasty, revision hip arthroplasty, conversion to THA, or removal of hip implant (Girdlestone, static, or dynamic spacer). Adult reconstruction fellowship-trained surgeons performed 60% of the more than 33,000 surgeries identified (average 28.1) and nonfellowship-trained surgeons performed 40% (average 5.2) (P < .001). Fellowship-trained surgeons performed significantly more revision surgeries for infection (71% vs 29%)(P < .001). High-volume surgeons had significantly fewer complications in both primary (11.1% vs 19.6%) and revision surgeries (29% vs 35.5%) (P < .001). Those who passed the Part II examination reported higher rates of complications (21.5% vs 19.9%). In early practice, primary and revision hip arthroplasties are often performed by surgeons without adult reconstruction fellowship training. Complications are less frequently reported by surgeons with larger volumes of joint replacement surgery who perform either primary or more complex cases. Primary hip arthroplasty is increasingly performed by surgeons early in practice who have completed an adult reconstructive fellowship after residency training. This trend is even more pronounced for more complex cases such as revision or management of infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Education in our time: competency or aptitude? The case for medicine. Part II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viniegra-Velázquez, Leonardo

    Part II is focused on participatory education (PE), a distinctive way to understand and practice education in contrast to passive education. The core of PE is to develop everyone's own cognitive potentialities frequently mutilated, neglected or ignored. Epistemological and experiential basis of PE are defined: the concept of incisive and creative criticism, the idea of knowledge as each person's own construct and life experience as the main focus of reflection and cognition. The PE aims towards individuals with unprecedented cognitive and creative faculties, capable of approaching a more inclusive and hospitable world. The last part criticizes the fact that medical education has remained among the passive education paradigm. The key role of cognitive aptitudes, both methodological and practical (clinical aptitude), in the progress of medical education and practice is emphasized. As a conclusion, the knowhow of education is discussed, aiming towards a better world away from human and planetary degradation. Copyright © 2017 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  3. Interview-Based Qualitative Research in Emergency Care Part II: Data Collection, Analysis and Results Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranney, Megan L.; Meisel, Zachary; Choo, Esther K.; Garro, Aris; Sasson, Comilla; Morrow, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative methods are increasingly being used in emergency care research. Rigorous qualitative methods can play a critical role in advancing the emergency care research agenda by allowing investigators to generate hypotheses, gain an in-depth understanding of health problems or specific populations, create expert consensus, and develop new intervention and dissemination strategies. In Part I of this two-article series, we provided an introduction to general principles of applied qualitative health research and examples of its common use in emergency care research, describing study designs and data collection methods most relevant to our field (observation, individual interviews, and focus groups). Here in Part II of this series, we outline the specific steps necessary to conduct a valid and reliable qualitative research project, with a focus on interview-based studies. These elements include building the research team, preparing data collection guides, defining and obtaining an adequate sample, collecting and organizing qualitative data, and coding and analyzing the data. We also discuss potential ethical considerations unique to qualitative research as it relates to emergency care research. PMID:26284572

  4. Long-term solar activity and terrestrial connections. Part II: at the beckon of the sun?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Diamantides

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available The research task described herein aims at the structuring of an analytical tool that traces the time course of geophysical phenomena, regional or global, and compares it to the course of long-term solar conditions, long-term meaning decades or a few centuries. The model is based on the premise that since in a last analysis the preponderance of atmospheric, hydrospheric, and, possibly, some aspects of geospheric phenomena are, or have been, powered by energy issuing from the sun - either now or in the past - the long-term behavior of such phenomena is ultimately "connected" to long-term changes occurring in the sun itself. Accordingly, the proposed research firstly derives and models a stable surrogate pattern for the long-term solar activity, secondly introduces a transfer-function algorithm for modeling the connection between the surrogate and terrestrial phenomena viewed as partners in the connection, and thirdly probes the connection outcome for episodic or unanticipated effects that may arise due to the fact that in the present context, the connection, should it exist, is very likely nonlinear. Part I of the study presents the theory of the concept, while Part II demonstrates the concept's pertinence to a number of terrestrial phenomena.Key words. Solar activity · Kolmogorov algorithm

  5. Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Pharmacogenomics of Immunosuppressants in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCune, Jeannine S; Bemer, Meagan J; Long-Boyle, Janel

    2016-05-01

    Part I of this article included a pertinent review of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT), the role of postgraft immunosuppression in alloHCT, and the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacogenomics of the calcineurin inhibitors and methotrexate. In this article (Part II), we review the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacogenomics of mycophenolic acid (MPA), sirolimus, and the antithymocyte globulins (ATG). We then discuss target concentration intervention (TCI) of these postgraft immunosuppressants in alloHCT patients, with a focus on current evidence for TCI and on how TCI may improve clinical management in these patients. Currently, TCI using trough concentrations is conducted for sirolimus in alloHCT patients. Several studies demonstrate that MPA plasma exposure is associated with clinical outcomes, with an increasing number of alloHCT patients needing TCI of MPA. Compared with MPA, there are fewer pharmacokinetic/dynamic studies of rabbit ATG and horse ATG in alloHCT patients. Future pharmacokinetic/dynamic research of postgraft immunosuppressants should include '-omics'-based tools: pharmacogenomics may be used to gain an improved understanding of the covariates influencing pharmacokinetics as well as proteomics and metabolomics as novel methods to elucidate pharmacodynamic responses.

  6. Interview-based Qualitative Research in Emergency Care Part II: Data Collection, Analysis and Results Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranney, Megan L; Meisel, Zachary F; Choo, Esther K; Garro, Aris C; Sasson, Comilla; Morrow Guthrie, Kate

    2015-09-01

    Qualitative methods are increasingly being used in emergency care research. Rigorous qualitative methods can play a critical role in advancing the emergency care research agenda by allowing investigators to generate hypotheses, gain an in-depth understanding of health problems or specific populations, create expert consensus, and develop new intervention and dissemination strategies. In Part I of this two-article series, we provided an introduction to general principles of applied qualitative health research and examples of its common use in emergency care research, describing study designs and data collection methods most relevant to our field (observation, individual interviews, and focus groups). Here in Part II of this series, we outline the specific steps necessary to conduct a valid and reliable qualitative research project, with a focus on interview-based studies. These elements include building the research team, preparing data collection guides, defining and obtaining an adequate sample, collecting and organizing qualitative data, and coding and analyzing the data. We also discuss potential ethical considerations unique to qualitative research as it relates to emergency care research. © 2015 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  7. Diagnosing DSM-IV--Part II: Eysenck (1986) and the essentialist fallacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, J C

    1997-07-01

    In Part I (Wakefield, 1997, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35, 633-649) of this two-article series, I used the harmful dysfunction analysis of the concept of disorder (Wakefield, 1992a, American Psychologist, 47, 373-388) to 'diagnose' a problem with DSM-IV. I argued that DSM-IV diagnostic criteria often violate the 'dysfunction' requirement by invalidity classifying harms not caused by dysfunctions as disorders. In Part II, I examine Eysenck's (Eysenck, 1986, Contemporary directions in psychopathology: Toward the DSM-IV) argument that DSM commits a 'categorical fallacy' and should be replaced by dimensional diagnoses based on Eysenckian personality traits. I argue that Eysenck's proposed diagnostic criteria violate the 'harm' requirement by invalidly classifying symptomless conditions as disorders. Eysenck commits an 'essentialist fallacy'; he misconstrues 'disorder' as an essentialist theoretical concept when in fact it is a hybrid theoretical-practical or 'cause-effect' concept. He thus ignores the harmful effects essential to disorder that are captured in DSM's symptom-based categories.

  8. A novel embeddable spherical smart aggregate for structural health monitoring: part II. Numerical and experimental verifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qingzhao; Fan, Shuli; Mo, Y. L.; Song, Gangbing

    2017-09-01

    The newly developed spherical smart aggregate (SSA) based on a radially polarized spherical piezoceramic shell element has unique omnidirectional actuating and sensing capabilities that can greatly improve the detection aperture and provide additional functionalities in health monitoring applications in concrete structures. Detailed fabrication procedures and electrical characterization of the SSA have been previously studied (Part I). In this second paper (Part II), the functionalities of the SSA used in both active sensing and passive sensing approaches were investigated in experiments and numerical simulations. One SSA sample was embedded in a 1 ft3 concrete specimen. In the active sensing approach, the SSA was first utilized as an actuator to generate stress waves and six conventional smart aggregates (SA) mounted on the six faces of the concrete cube were utilized as sensors to detect the wave response. Conversely, the embedded SSA was then utilized as a sensor to successively detect the wave response from each SA. The experimentally obtained behavior of the SSA was then compared with the numerical simulation results. Further, a series of impact tests were conducted to verify the performance of the SSA in the detection of the impact events from different directions. Comparison with the wave response associated with different faces of the cube verified the omnidirectional actuating and sensing capabilities of the SSA.

  9. How Clean Are Hotel Rooms? Part II: Examining the Concept of Cleanliness Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanza, Barbara A; Kirsch, Katie; Kline, Sheryl Fried; Sirsat, Sujata; Stroia, Olivia; Choi, Jin Kyung; Neal, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Hotel room cleanliness is based on observation and not on microbial assessment even though recent reports suggest that infections may be acquired while staying in hotel rooms. Exploratory research in the first part of the authors' study was conducted to determine if contamination of hotel rooms occurs and whether visual assessments are accurate indicators of hotel room cleanliness. Data suggested the presence of microbial contamination that was not reflective of visual assessments. Unfortunately, no standards exist for interpreting microbiological data and other indicators of cleanliness in hotel rooms. The purpose of the second half of the authors' study was to examine cleanliness standards in other industries to see if they might suggest standards in hotels. Results of the authors' study indicate that standards from other related industries do not provide analogous criteria, but do provide suggestions for further research.

  10. Rare or remarkable microfungi from Oaxaca (south Mexico)--Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale-Agha, N; Jensen, M; Brassmann, M; Kautz, S; Eilmus, S; Ballhorn, D J

    2008-01-01

    Microfungi were collected in southern Mexico in the vicinity of Puerto Escondido, Oaxaca in 2007. In 2006, samples were gathered from Acacia myrmecophytes [(Remarkable microfungi from Oaxaca of Acacia species) Part I]. In the present investigation [Part II], we collected microfungi from different parts of a variety of wild and cultivated higher plants belonging to the families Anacardiaceae, Caricaceae, Fabaceae, Moraceae, and Nyctaginacae. The microfungi found here live as parasites or saprophytes. Interestingly, the species Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. and Magn.) Briosi and Cavara has repeatedly been used to cause fungal infections of Phaseolus lunatus leaves in laboratory experiments. We could now find the same fungus as parasite on the same host plants under field conditions showing that results obtained in the laboratory are also relevant in nature. Most of the fungal species collected belong to the classes Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina and Deuteromycotina. Until now, some of the microfungi identified in this study have been rarely observed before or have been reported for the first time in Mexico, for example: Pestalotia acaciae Thüm. on Acacia collinsii Safford; Corynespora cassiicola (Berk. and M.A. Curtis) C.T. Wei on Carica papaya L.; Botryosphaeria ribis Grossenb. and Duggar and Cercosporella leucaenae (Raghu Ram and Mallaiah) U. Braun (new for Mexico) and Camptomeris leucaenae (F. Stevens and Dalbey) Syd. (new for Mexico) on Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit.; Oidium clitoriae Narayanas. and K. Ramakr. and Phakopsora cf. pachyrhizi Sydow and Sydow (new for Mexico) on Clitoria ternatea L.; Botryosphaeria obtusa (Schw.) Shoemaker on Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.; Cylindrocladium scoparium Morg. on Ficus benjamina L.; Acremonium sp. on Bougainvillea sp. All specimens are located in the herbarium ESS. Mycotheca Parva collection G.B. Feige and N. Ale-Agha.

  11. Gunshot residue testing in suicides: Part II: Analysis by inductive coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, D Kimberley; Castorena, Joe L; Martinez, Michael; Garcia, James; DiMaio, Vincent J M

    2007-09-01

    Several different methods can be employed to test for gunshot residue (GSR) on a decedent's hands, including scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray (SEM/EDX) and inductive coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). In part I of this 2-part series, GSR results performed by SEM/EDX in undisputed cases of suicidal handgun wounds were studied. In part II, the same population was studied, deceased persons with undisputed suicidal handgun wounds, but GSR testing was performed using ICP-AES. A total of 102 cases were studied and analyzed for caliber of weapon, proximity of wound, and the results of the GSR testing. This study found that 50% of cases where the deceased was known to have fired a handgun immediately prior to death had positive GSR results by ICP/AES, which did not differ from the results of GSR testing by SEM/EDX. Since only 50% of cases where the person is known to have fired a weapon were positive for GSR by either method, this test should not be relied upon to determine whether someone has discharged a firearm and is not useful as a determining factor of whether or not a wound is self-inflicted or non-self-inflicted. While a positive GSR result may be of use, a negative result is not helpful in the medical examiner setting as a negative result indicates that either a person fired a weapon prior to death or a person did not fire a weapon prior to death.

  12. On the Processing of Spalling Experiments. Part II: Identification of Concrete Fracture Energy in Dynamic Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukić, Bratislav B.; Saletti, Dominique; Forquin, Pascal

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a second part of the study aimed at investigating the fracture behavior of concrete under high strain rate tensile loading. The experimental method together with the identified stress-strain response of three tests conducted on ordinary concrete have been presented in the paper entitled Part I (Forquin and Lukić in Journal of Dynamic Behavior of Materials, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40870-017-0135-1). In the present paper, Part II, the investigation is extended towards directly determining the specific fracture energy of each observed fracture zone by visualizing the dynamic cracking process with a temporal resolution of 1 µs. Having access to temporal displacement fields of the sample surface, it is possible to identify the fracture opening displacement (FOD) and the fracture opening velocity of any principle (open) and secondary (closed) fracture at each measurement instance, that may or may not lead to complete physical failure of the sample. Finally, the local Stress-FOD curves were obtained for each observed fracture zone, opposed to previous works where indirect measurements were used. The obtained results indicated a much lower specific fracture energy compared to the results often found in the literature. Furthermore, numerical simulations were performed with a damage law to evaluate the validity of the proposed experimental data processing and compare it to the most often used one in the previous works. The results showed that the present method can reliably predict the specific fracture energy needed to open one macro-fracture and suggested that indirect measurement techniques can lead to an overestimate of specific fracture energy due to the stringent assumption of linear elasticity up-to the peak and the inability of having access to the real post-peak change of axial stress.

  13. Viabilidade do emprego de cinza de casca de arroz natural em concreto estrutural (parte II: durabilidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Cechella Isaia

    Full Text Available Resumo Os resíduos incorporados aos materiais de construção devem ser usados, se possível, sem processamentos, para evitar o aumento dos impactos ambientais e custos adicionais. A cinza de casca de arroz (CCA é uma pozolana que deve ser previamente moída, para aumentar a finura e a reatividade com o cimento, quando empregada como material cimentício. Este trabalho estuda cinza de casca de arroz natural (CCAN sem processamento em substituição parcial de 15% de cimento, em massa, para uso em concreto estrutural, cominuída por moagem conjunta com os agregados no tambor da betoneira. Na parte I desta pesquisa, já publicada, são apresentados os resultados de microestrutura, resistência mecânica e retração, também para o teor de 25%, e nesta parte II são mostrados os dados dos ensaios de durabilidade (carbonatação, penetração de cloretos, resistividade, absorção d'água, permeabilidade ao oxigênio, absorção capilar e reação álcali-sílica - RAS, comparados ao concreto referência com 100% de cimento e, ainda, com CCA moída previamente (CCAM. Os resultados mostram que 15% de CCAN é factível de ser empregado em concreto porque apresenta desempenho superior ao concreto referência, quando usado cimento com pozolanas e próximos ou até superiores às misturas de CCAM, para grande parte das variáveis estudadas. Conclui-se que 15% de CCAN para concreto estrutural é viável e traz maior sustentabilidade.

  14. Metric attributes of the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale 3.0 battery: part II, construct and content validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forjaz, Maria João; Martinez-Martin, Pablo

    2006-11-01

    This article is the second of a two-part series concerning the metric properties of the following three Parkinson's disease (PD) scales: modified Hoehn and Yahr staging (H&Y), Schwab and England (S&E), and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) 3.0. Part II focuses on construct and content validity. To assess construct validity, a sample of 1,136 PD patients completed the above-mentioned PD scales. Correlation coefficients between measures of disability and dysfunction [S&E, UPDRS Activities of Daily Living (ADL), and UPDRS Motor Examination] were |r| = 0.69-0.77, indicating good convergent validity. Results showed that the S&E (F(5,945) = 193.47; P scales and items. This enabled the scales' content validity index to be calculated, which ranged from 41.7% (UPDRS Mentation) to 83.3% (UPDRS Motor Examination). In conclusion, while the modified H&Y, S&E, and UPDRS displayed satisfactory construct validity, the content validity of all scales except UPDRS Motor Examination failed to attain adequate standards.

  15. Sexuality and personal relationships for people with an intellectual disability. Part II: staff and family carer perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D S; McGuire, B E; Healy, E; Carley, S N

    2009-11-01

    Recent ideological shifts in service provision promote appropriate sexual expression for people with an intellectual disability (ID), although there is little evidence that such advances in ideology are matched by current service provision. Part II of the current two-part study assessed the attitudes of staff and family carers to the sexuality of people with an ID. A questionnaire survey which included case scenarios was carried out with family (n = 155) and staff carers (n = 153) of people with an ID in the west of Ireland. In general, staff carers were more inclined than family carers to openly discuss issues of sexuality with service users, and to suggest environmental, rather than service-user characteristics, as impediments to such discussions. Attitudinal differences emerged with significant differences between staff and family carers and between younger and older carers. Staff carers were more likely to support service-user engagement in intimate and non-intimate relationships whereas the majority of family carers (80%) showed a preference for low levels of intimacy in service-user relationships. When compared with the attitudes of family carers towards the sexuality of people with ID, the attitudes of staff carers more closely match those promoted by ideological developments. However, differences in attitudes between carer groups may lead to inconsistent approaches to the management of sexuality. As a consequence, we conclude that there is continued need to provide staff and family carers with opportunities for dialogue and an ongoing need for training in the area of sexuality.

  16. Sludge in the pulp and paper industry in Sweden, part II[Combustion of]; Slam fraan skogsindustrin, fas II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyllenhammar, Marianne; Herstad Svaerd, Solvie; Kjoerk, Anders; Larsson, Sara; Wennberg, Olle [S.E.P. Scandinavian Energy Project AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Aamand, Lars-Erik [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Eskilsson, David [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2003-11-01

    During part II of this research program combustible sludge from the pulp and paper industry has been studied in detail. 560,000 tonnes of sludge per year (calculated as dry sludge) are produced in Sweden. The energy potential in the produced sludge is about 2 TWh/year. Today 1 TWh/year is produced in the pulp and paper mill's own boilers. This means that additional energy can be utilized from this material. An objective of this program has been to decide whether or not there are sludge types which are favourable respectively difficult to combust. By mixing different sludge types, or other waste products, emissions and/or problems during combustion can be minimized. These possibilities have been studied thoroughly in this program. A lot of sludge samples have been studied in laboratory scale at SP and in full-scale at Chalmers 12 MW CFB boiler. As a complement to the practical tests S.E.P. has done research regarding different aspects of sludge as a fuel; for example handling of sludge and regional drying. The results of 40 sintering tests at SP showed that the sintering temperature during combustion of sludge in a fluidised bed, with silica sand as bed material, varied between <850 deg C and >1100 deg C. The evaluation showed that the alkali content in the ash had the largest influence on the sintering temperature. Other factors were less important. During the tests at Chalmers eleven different sludge samples have been combusted together with wood pellets. Initially there were problems with the feeding to the boiler for some of the sludge samples. When the fuel feeding problems were solved the combustion took place without any problems. When sludge is co-combusted together with a 'clean' base fuel such as wood pellets the sulphur-, nitrogen- and chloride contents in the sludge have a large impact on the emissions. The normal way to reduce sulphur dioxide but also hydrogen chloride is to add lime in different positions into and after the boiler. In

  17. Manufacturing processes of cellular metals. Part II. Solid route, metals deposition, other processes; Procesos de fabricacion de metales celulares. Parte II: Via solida, deposicion de metales otros procesos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, P.; Cruz, L. J.; Coleto, J.

    2009-07-01

    At the first part of this paper review a description about cellular metal processes by liquid route, was made. In this second part, solid processes and metals deposition are described. In similar way, the different kind of processes in each case are reviewed; making a short description about the main parameters involved and the advantages and drawbacks in each of them. (Author) 147 refs.

  18. Neutronics and thermohydraulics of the reactor C.E.N.E. Part II; Analisis neutronico y termohidraulico del reactor C.E.N.E. Parte II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, R.

    1976-07-01

    In this report the analysis of neutronics thermohydraulics and shielding of the 10 HWt swimming pool reactor C.E.N.E is included. In each of these chapters is given a short description of the theoretical model used, along with the theoretical versus experimental checking carried out, whenever possible, with the reactors JEN-I and JEN-II of Junta de Energia Nuclear. (Author) 11 refs.

  19. Niacin Alternatives for Dyslipidemia: Fool's Gold or Gold Mine? Part II: Novel Niacin Mimetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Harsh; Dunbar, Richard L

    2016-04-01

    Two cardiovascular outcome trials established niacin 3 g daily prevents hard cardiac events. However, as detailed in part I of this series, an extended-release (ER) alternative at only 2 g nightly demonstrated no comparable benefits in two outcome trials, implying the alternative is not equivalent to the established cardioprotective regimen. Since statins leave a significant treatment gap, this presents a major opportunity for developers. Importantly, the established regimen is cardioprotective, so the pathway is likely beneficial. Moreover, though effective, the established cardioprotective regimen is cumbersome, limiting clinical use. At the same time, the ER alternative has been thoroughly discredited as a viable substitute for the established cardioprotective regimen. Therefore, by exploiting the pathway and skillfully avoiding the problems with the established cardioprotective regimen and the ER alternative, developers could validate cardioprotective variations facing little meaningful competition from their predecessors. Thus, shrewd developers could effectively tap into a gold mine at the grave of the ER alternative. The GPR109A receptor was discovered a decade ago, leading to a large body of evidence commending the niacin pathway to a lower cardiovascular risk beyond statins. While mediating niacin's most prominent adverse effects, GPR109A also seems to mediate anti-lipolytic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherogenic effects of niacin. Several developers are investing heavily in novel strategies to exploit niacin's therapeutic pathways. These include selective GPR109A receptor agonists, niacin prodrugs, and a niacin metabolite, with encouraging early phase human data. In part II of this review, we summarize the accumulated results of these early phase studies of emerging niacin mimetics.

  20. Effects of hypobaric pressure on human skin: implications for cryogen spray cooling (part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Guillermo; Franco, Walfre; Liu, Jie; Svaasand, Lars O; Nelson, J Stuart

    2005-02-01

    Clinical results have demonstrated that dark purple port wine stain (PWS) birthmarks respond favorably to laser induced photothermolysis after the first three to five treatments. Nevertheless, complete blanching is rarely achieved and the lesions stabilize at a red-pink color. In a feasibility study (Part I), we showed that local hypobaric pressure on PWS human skin prior to laser irradiation induced significant lesion blanching. The objective of the present study (Part II) is to investigate the effects of hypobaric pressures on the efficiency of cryogen spray cooling (CSC), a technique that assists laser therapy of PWS and other dermatoses. Experiments were carried out within a suction cup and vacuum chamber to study the effect of hypobaric pressure on the: (1) interaction of cryogen sprays with human skin; (2) spray atomization; and (3) thermal response of a model skin phantom. A high-speed camera was used to acquire digital images of spray impingement on in vivo human skin and spray cones generated at different hypobaric pressures. Subsequently, liquid cryogen was sprayed onto a skin phantom at atmospheric and 17, 34, 51, and 68 kPa (5, 10, 15, and 20 in Hg) hypobaric pressures. A fast-response temperature sensor measured sub-surface phantom temperature as a function of time. Measurements were used to solve an inverse heat conduction problem to calculate surface temperatures, heat flux, and overall heat extraction at the skin phantom surface. Under hypobaric pressures, cryogen spurts did not produce skin indentation and only minimal frost formation. Sprays also showed shorter jet lengths and better atomization. Lower minimum surface temperatures and higher overall heat extraction from skin phantoms were reached. The combined effects of hypobaric pressure result in more efficient cryogen evaporation that enhances heat extraction and, therefore, improves the epidermal protection provided by CSC. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Reciprocating gait orthosis powered with electrical muscle stimulation (RGO II). Part II: Medical evaluation of 70 paraplegic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomonow, M; Reisin, E; Aguilar, E; Baratta, R V; Best, R; D'Ambrosia, R

    1997-05-01

    Medical evaluation was performed on a group of paraplegics who were trained to walk with the Reciprocating Gait Orthosis powered with electrical muscle stimulation (RGO II). The evaluation included changes in spasticity, cholesterol level, bone metabolism, cardiac output and stroke volume, vital capacity, knee extensors torque, and heart rate at the end of a 30-meter walk. After an average of 14 weeks of training during which patients walked for 3 hours per week, significant reductions in spasticity, total cholesterol and low-density lipids, hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio, and increased knee extensor torque were evident. The data also showed that improvements occurred in the calcium/creatinine ratio, serum calcium and alkaline phosphatase levels, cardiac output and stroke volume, and vital capacity, yet these improvements were not statistically significant. The final heart rate at the end of a 30-meter walk showed that the RGO II required only a moderate level of exertion, which was found to be the lowest among the other mechanical or muscle stimulation orthoses available to paraplegics. It was concluded that the limited but reasonable level of functional regain provided by the RGO II is associated with a general improvement in the paraplegic's physiological condition if used for a minimum of 3 to 4 hours per week.

  2. Testing and Analysis of a Composite Non-Cylindrical Aircraft Fuselage Structure . Part II; Severe Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekop, Adam; Jegley, Dawn C.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Rouse, Marshall; Wu, Hsi-Yung T.

    2016-01-01

    The Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project aimed to develop aircraft technologies enabling significant fuel burn and community noise reductions. Small incremental changes to the conventional metallic alloy-based 'tube and wing' configuration were not sufficient to achieve the desired metrics. One airframe concept identified by the project as having the potential to dramatically improve aircraft performance was a composite-based hybrid wing body configuration. Such a concept, however, presented inherent challenges stemming from, among other factors, the necessity to transfer wing loads through the entire center fuselage section which accommodates a pressurized cabin confined by flat or nearly flat panels. This paper discusses a finite element analysis and the testing of a large-scale hybrid wing body center section structure developed and constructed to demonstrate that the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure concept can meet these challenging demands of the next generation airframes. Part II of the paper considers the final test to failure of the test article in the presence of an intentionally inflicted severe discrete source damage under the wing up-bending loading condition. Finite element analysis results are compared with measurements acquired during the test and demonstrate that the hybrid wing body test article was able to redistribute and support the required design loads in a severely damaged condition.

  3. Tutorial on Feedback Control of Flows, Part II: Diagnostics and Feedback Control of Mixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole M. Aamo

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Control of fluid flows span a wide variety of specialities. In Part II of this tutorial, we focus on diagnostics of mixing and the problem of enhancing mixing by boundary feedback control. Diagnostic tools from dynamical systems theory are presented that enable detection and quantification of chaotic transport in periodically perturbed systems. However, real systems are generally not periodic, and available measurements or simulations are finite in time. A method for quantifying mixing in finite-time velocity fields is discussed, and applied to data obtained from simulations of the 2D controlled channel flow. Mixing has traditionally been brought on by open-loop control strategies, such as stirring, jet injection or mixing valves. Applications of active feedback to mixing problems are scarce in the literature, but the idea is currently drawing attention from various research groups. Feedback laws for the purpose of mixing enhancement in 2D and 3D pipe flow are presented, and simulations show that they induce strong mixing.

  4. Familial breast cancer. Part II: Relationships with histology, staging, steroid receptors and serum tumor markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, I; Nacheva, M; Tzingilev, D

    2002-01-01

    To identify differences in clinical characteristics, histological features, hormone receptor status, and tumor marker expression between patients with sporadic and familial breast cancer. As in the previous Part I of this study, two groups of women with breast cancer were compared. The first group (group I) included 504 patients with a family history of breast cancer. The second (control) group (group II) consisted of 300 patients not reporting such a history in their relatives. The examined parameters in this report were stage and axillary lymph node involvement at the time of the initial diagnosis, treatment methods, hormone receptor status, and serum levels of the tumor markers CEA and CA 15.3. The data were processed and analysed using the SPSS statistical package. The statistical significance of differences between groups and subgroups was evaluated by x(2) Pearson's test and Student's paired t-test. Compared to sporadic cases, patients with familial breast cancer were more often diagnosed at an advanced III or IV stage; metastatic involvement of the regional lymph nodes was more frequent in group I patients. In the same group more radical surgical procedures combined with chemotherapy and local irradiation were performed. In group I the percentage of negative hormone receptors was higher (35.3% versus 22.6%; p result of their particular characteristics, these patients require more radical surgical techniques combined with pre- or postoperative local radiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy.

  5. Reproduction in the space environment: Part II. Concerns for human reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, R. T.; Santy, P. A.

    1990-01-01

    Long-duration space flight and eventual colonization of our solar system will require successful control of reproductive function and a thorough understanding of factors unique to space flight and their impact on gynecologic and obstetric parameters. Part II of this paper examines the specific environmental factors associated with space flight and the implications for human reproduction. Space environmental hazards discussed include radiation, alteration in atmospheric pressure and breathing gas partial pressures, prolonged toxicological exposure, and microgravity. The effects of countermeasures necessary to reduce cardiovascular deconditioning, calcium loss, muscle wasting, and neurovestibular problems are also considered. In addition, the impact of microgravity on male fertility and gamete quality is explored. Due to current constraints, human pregnancy is now contraindicated for space flight. However, a program to explore effective countermeasures to current constraints and develop the required health care delivery capability for extended-duration space flight is suggested. A program of Earth- and space-based research to provide further answers to reproductive questions is suggested.

  6. Coordinator(a) de Servicios Clinicos. Parte I (Unidad I-IV). Parte II (Unidad V-VI). Guia. Documento de Trabajo (Clinical Services Coordinator. Part I. Units I-IV. Part II. Units V-VI. Guide. Working Document).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerto Rico State Dept. of Education, Hato Rey. Area for Vocational and Technical Education.

    This guide is intended for instructing secondary students in the occupation of clinical services coordinator in a hospital. The first part contains four units on the following subjects: the occupation of clinical services coordinator; interpersonal relationships; ethical/legal aspects; and communications (telephone, intercom, and others). For each…

  7. Student nurse satisfaction levels with their courses: Part II--effects of academic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid

    2002-02-01

    The degree of student satisfaction with their educational experiences is an important dimension in the assessment of institutional effectiveness. All nursing education teams are currently working on ways to improve the quality of their educational provision and increase the satisfaction of their students. This is the second of a two-part article on the factors that influence student satisfaction with their courses. Part I examined how the four demographic features of gender, disability, ethnicity and age influenced student satisfaction and their performance on nursing modules. This paper complements Part I by examining the effects of three educational factors (academic level of the module, mode of study, and the qualification aim) on the accomplishment and satisfaction levels of 460 students attending multidisciplinary health care modules at the School of Health Care, Oxford Brookes University, 2000/2001. The study found that in contrast to Level 1 students, Level 3 participants felt the need for modules to stimulate more interest, that module teams be more skilled and knowledgeable and that library resources be more abundant. The findings also suggested that part-time students required significantly more attention than full-time participants in terms of the need for smaller seminar groups that would facilitate contributions and decrease inhibitions among students, and were more concerned with the utility and relevance of their learning in relation to their chosen professions. Diploma participants had the highest satisfaction followed by the BA and then the BSc students. The findings raise issues which are of interest to academic staff and nursing students, and the implications for nurse education and curriculum design are discussed within the context of student nurse satisfaction and quality issues of learning and teaching in higher education. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Developing guidelines for economic evaluation of environmental impacts in EIAs. Part II: Case studies and dose-response literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This Part II of the report contains full versions of the case studies for air, water and land (Chapters 2-4), which were only summarised in Part I. In addition, during the work the research team has collected a large amount of literature and information on dose response relationships for air and water pollution relevant to China. This information is included as Chapters 5 and 6.

  9. Safety Assessment of Advanced Imaging Sequences II: Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2016-01-01

    An automatic approach for simulating the emitted pressure, intensity, and MI of advanced ultrasound imaging sequences is presented. It is based on a linear simulation of pressure fields using Field II, and it is hypothesized that linear simulation can attain the needed accuracy for predicting Mec...

  10. Statistical assessment – as a part of security assessment applied to a block cipher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Roxana Dragomir

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The security provided by the block cipher algorithms is a top modern approached issue within the specific researches. The security assessment of a block algorithm involves the assessing and testing of components, the statistical testing of algorithm and last, but not least, the cryptanalysis. This paper intends to approach a part of this issue by presenting one of the security assessment stages, namely the component analysis, together with the statistical testing of the block cipher. The statistical testing may be considered as a first step in the security assessing of a block algorithm. The statistical testing of randomness of the block cipher represents an essential phase, both, for the research-development process, and for the assessment process applied to the cryptographic primitives, taking into account that the block algorithms are used on a large scale in cryptographic applications. Assessing them, from a cryptographic point of view, is a highly complex task, which cannot be efficiently accomplished by formal methods. This paper presents several statistical methods of carrying out a security assessment on a block algorithm.

  11. Industry Wage Surveys: Banking and Life Insurance, December 1976. Part I--Banking. Part II--Life Insurance. Bulletin 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsky, Carl

    This report presents the results of a survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics to determine wages and related benefits in (1) the banking industry and (2) for employees in home offices and regional head offices of life insurance carriers. Part 1 discusses banking industry characteristics and presents data for tellers and selected…

  12. Exhaust Gas Temperature Measurements in Diagnostics of Turbocharged Marine Internal Combustion Engines Part II Dynamic Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korczewski Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The second part of the article describes the technology of marine engine diagnostics making use of dynamic measurements of the exhaust gas temperature. Little-known achievements of Prof. S. Rutkowski of the Naval College in Gdynia (now: Polish Naval Academy in this area are presented. A novel approach is proposed which consists in the use of the measured exhaust gas temperature dynamics for qualitative and quantitative assessment of the enthalpy flux of successive pressure pulses of the exhaust gas supplying the marine engine turbocompressor. General design assumptions are presented for the measuring and diagnostic system which makes use of a sheathed thermocouple installed in the engine exhaust gas manifold. The corrected thermal inertia of the thermocouple enables to reproduce a real time-history of exhaust gas temperature changes.

  13. Validity of the clinical diagnostic criteria for vascular dementia: a critical review. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederkehr, Sandra; Simard, Martine; Fortin, Claudette; van Reekum, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This review is the second of a two-part series focusing on the validity of eight clinical criteria for vascular dementia. Sixteen studies were selected according to their purposes and quality of experimental design. The analysis revealed that criteria for vascular dementia are not interchangeable; the eight criteria sets yielded different sensitivity and specificity results, as well as marked variability in incidence, prevalence, and frequency rates. Although the State of California Alzheimer's Disease Diagnostic and Treatment Centers (ADDTC) were the most sensitive and useful criteria in clinical settings and the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-Association Internationale pour la Recherche et l'Enseignement en Neurosciences (NINDS-AIREN) were the most specific and useful criteria in research, all criteria shared similar flaws. A definition of the cognitive syndrome, associated vascular causes or lesions, and methods of assessment should be clearly specified in the future. Suggestions for improvement are made.

  14. FEBEX II Project Post-mortem analysis EDZ assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazargan Sabet, B.; Shao, H.; Autio, J.; Elorza, F. J.

    2004-07-01

    Within the framework of the FEBEX II project a multidisciplinary team studied the mechanisms of creation of the potential damaged zone around the test drift. The research program includes laboratory and in situ investigations as well as the numerical modelling of the observed phenomena. Where laboratory investigations are concerned, the 14C-PMMA technique was applied to study the spatial distribution of porosity in the samples taken from the test drift wall. In addition complementary microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies were performed to make qualitative investigations on the pore apertures and minerals in porous regions. The results obtained with the PMMA method have not shown any clear increased porosity zone adjacent to the tunnel wall. The total porosity of the samples varied between 0.6-1.2%. The samples of unplugged region did not differ from the samples of plugged region. A clear increase in porosity to depths of 10-15 mm from the tunnel wall was detected in lamprophyre samples. According to the SEM/EDX analyses the excavation-disturbed zone in the granite matrix extended to depths of 1-3 mm from the wall surface. A few quartz grains were crushed and some micro fractures were found. Gas permeability tests were carried out on two hollow cylinder samples of about 1m long each taken on the granite wall perpendicular to the drift axis. The first sample was cored in the service area far from the heated zone and the second one at the level of the heater. The tests were performed at constant gas pressure by setting a steady state radial flow through a section of 1cm wide isolated by means of four mini-packers. The profile of the gas permeability according to the core length has been established. The results obtained for both considered samples have shown permeability ranging between 3.5 10-18 and 8.4 10-19m2, pointing out the absence of a marked damage. Acoustic investigations have been carried out with the objective of quantifying the

  15. Study of diffuse H II regions potentially forming part of the gas streams around Sgr A*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armijos-Abendaño, J.; López, E.; Martín-Pintado, J.; Báez-Rubio, A.; Aravena, M.; Requena-Torres, M. A.; Martín, S.; Llerena, M.; Aldás, F.; Logan, C.; Rodríguez-Franco, A.

    2018-02-01

    We present a study of diffuse extended ionised gas toward three clouds located in the Galactic Centre (GC). One line of sight (LOS) is toward the 20 km s-1 cloud (LOS-0.11) in the Sgr A region, another LOS is toward the 50 km s-1 cloud (LOS-0.02), also in Sgr A, while the third is toward the Sgr B2 cloud (LOS+0.693). The emission from the ionised gas is detected from Hnα and Hmβ radio recombination lines (RRLs). Henα and Hemβ RRL emission is detected with the same n and m as those from the hydrogen RRLs only toward LOS+0.693. RRLs probe gas with positive and negative velocities toward the two Sgr A sources. The Hmβ to Hnα ratios reveal that the ionised gas is emitted under local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions in these regions. We find a He to H mass fraction of 0.29±0.01 consistent with the typical GC value, supporting the idea that massive stars have increased the He abundance compared to its primordial value. Physical properties are derived for the studied sources. We propose that the negative velocity component of both Sgr A sources is part of gas streams considered previously to model the GC cloud kinematics. Associated massive stars with what are presumably the closest H II regions to LOS-0.11 (positive velocity gas), LOS-0.02 and LOS+0.693 could be the main sources of UV photons ionising the gas. The negative velocity components of both Sgr A sources might be ionised by the same massive stars, but only if they are in the same gas stream.

  16. The 183-WSL Fast Rain Rate Retrieval Algorithm. Part II: Validation Using Ground Radar Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviola, Sante; Levizzani, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The Water vapour Strong Lines at 183 GHz (183-WSL) algorithm is a method for the retrieval of rain rates and precipitation type classification (convectivestratiform), that makes use of the water vapor absorption lines centered at 183.31 GHz of the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit module B (AMSU-B) and of the Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) flying on NOAA-15-18 and NOAA-19Metop-A satellite series, respectively. The characteristics of this algorithm were described in Part I of this paper together with comparisons against analogous precipitation products. The focus of Part II is the analysis of the performance of the 183-WSL technique based on surface radar measurements. The ground truth dataset consists of 2.5 years of rainfall intensity fields from the NIMROD European radar network which covers North-Western Europe. The investigation of the 183-WSL retrieval performance is based on a twofold approach: 1) the dichotomous statistic is used to evaluate the capabilities of the method to identify rain and no-rain clouds; 2) the accuracy statistic is applied to quantify the errors in the estimation of rain rates.The results reveal that the 183-WSL technique shows good skills in the detection of rainno-rain areas and in the quantification of rain rate intensities. The categorical analysis shows annual values of the POD, FAR and HK indices varying in the range 0.80-0.82, 0.330.36 and 0.39-0.46, respectively. The RMSE value is 2.8 millimeters per hour for the whole period despite an overestimation in the retrieved rain rates. Of note is the distribution of the 183-WSL monthly mean rain rate with respect to radar: the seasonal fluctuations of the average rainfalls measured by radar are reproduced by the 183-WSL. However, the retrieval method appears to suffer for the winter seasonal conditions especially when the soil is partially frozen and the surface emissivity drastically changes. This fact is verified observing the discrepancy distribution diagrams where2the 183-WSL

  17. Review on health effects related to mobile phones. Part II: results and conclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Mayada M R

    2011-01-01

    Part 1 of this review was published in the Journal of Egyptian Association of Public Health 2010; 85(5, 6):337-345. It included the introduction and methodology. It was based on reviewing the literature published in the last 10 years (2000-2010). Searches were made electronically through various search engines and health-related databases, and manually through journals, reports, and conference proceedings. The references used in the introduction of part 1 were mainly WHO reports, textbooks, and nonserial publications. In part 2, the literature published in 2011 was added to the yield and the results and conclusions are based on the updated search. In this literature search, 69 research articles (epidemiologic, experimental, cellular, and animal studies), 17 systemic or meta-analysis review studies, and four reports were included. The evidence presented in these peer-reviewed publications did not provide a consistent pattern that exposure to mobile phones is detrimental to health. Only studies associating mobile phone use during driving with road traffic accidents and those investigating electromagnetic interference with personal or hospital medical electronic devices showed consistent results. Regarding children, there are currently little data on cell phone use and health effects, including the risk of cancer. Further experimental and epidemiologic studies are needed to seek explanations for the controversies in studies on mobile phones so far. These studies should apply sound methodology for exposure assessment of mobile phone radiation and should focus on the effects of long-term use (more than 10 years). Cohort studies, in particular, should be established to investigate the long-term effects of mobile phone use on brain cancer as well as to investigate the possible health effects among children.

  18. The 12-item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II: a nonparametric item response analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez Ana

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have analyzed the psychometric properties of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II using classical omnibus measures of scale quality. These analyses are sample dependent and do not model item responses as a function of the underlying trait level. The main objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the WHO-DAS II items and their options in discriminating between changes in the underlying disability level by means of item response analyses. We also explored differential item functioning (DIF in men and women. Methods The participants were 3615 adult general practice patients from 17 regions of Spain, with a first diagnosed major depressive episode. The 12-item WHO-DAS II was administered by the general practitioners during the consultation. We used a non-parametric item response method (Kernel-Smoothing implemented with the TestGraf software to examine the effectiveness of each item (item characteristic curves and their options (option characteristic curves in discriminating between changes in the underliying disability level. We examined composite DIF to know whether women had a higher probability than men of endorsing each item. Results Item response analyses indicated that the twelve items forming the WHO-DAS II perform very well. All items were determined to provide good discrimination across varying standardized levels of the trait. The items also had option characteristic curves that showed good discrimination, given that each increasing option became more likely than the previous as a function of increasing trait level. No gender-related DIF was found on any of the items. Conclusions All WHO-DAS II items were very good at assessing overall disability. Our results supported the appropriateness of the weights assigned to response option categories and showed an absence of gender differences in item functioning.

  19. The new production theory for health care through clinical reengineering: a study of clinical guidelines--Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, J R

    1995-01-01

    In Part I of this two-part article, in the December 1994 issue of the journal, the author discussed the manufacturing theories of Peter Drucker in terms of their applicability for the health care field. He concluded that Drucker's four principles and practices of manufacturing--statistical quality control, manufacturing accounting, modular organization, and systems approach--do have application to the health care system. Clinical guidelines, a variation on the Drucker theory, are a specific example of the manufacturing process in health. The performance to date of some guidelines and their implications for the health care reform debate are discussed in Part II of the article.

  20. Control of uncertain systems by feedback linearization with neural networks augmentation. Part II. Controller validation by numerical simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian TOADER

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper was conceived in two parts. Part I, previously published in this journal, highlighted the main steps of adaptive output feedback control for non-affine uncertain systems, having a known relative degree. The main paradigm of this approach was the feedback linearization (dynamic inversion with neural network augmentation. Meanwhile, based on new contributions of the authors, a new paradigm, that of robust servomechanism problem solution, has been added to the controller architecture. The current Part II of the paper presents the validation of the controller hereby obtained by using the longitudinal channel of a hovering VTOL-type aircraft as mathematical model.

  1. Functional role of inorganic trace elements in angiogenesis-Part II: Cr, Si, Zn, Cu, and S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Asatourian, Armen; Orangi, Jafar; Sorenson, Christine M; Sheibani, Nader

    2015-10-01

    Trace elements play critical roles in angiogenesis events. The effects of nitrogen, iron, selenium, phosphorus, gold, and calcium were discussed in part I. In part II, we evaluated the effect of chromium, silicon, zinc, copper, and sulfur on different aspects of angiogenesis, with critical roles in healing and regeneration processes, and undeniable roles in tumor growth and cancer therapy. This review is the second of series that serves as an overview of the role of inorganic elements in regulation of angiogenesis and vascular function. The methods of exposure, structure, mechanism, and potential activity of these trace elements are briefly discussed. An electronic search was performed on the role of these trace elements in angiogenesis from January 2005 to April 2014. The recent aspects of the relationship between five different trace elements and their role in regulation of angiogenesis, and homeostasis of pro- and anti-angiogenic factors were assessed. Many studies have investigated the effects and importance of these elements in angiogenesis events. Both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on angiogenesis are observed for the evaluated elements. Chromium can promote angiogenesis in pathological manners. Silicon as silica nanoparticles is anti-angiogenic, while in calcium silicate extracts and bioactive silicate glasses promote angiogenesis. Zinc is an anti-angiogenic agent acting on important genes and growth factors. Copper and sulfur compositions have pro-angiogenic functions by activating pro-angiogenic growth factors and promoting endothelial cells migration, growth, and tube formation. Thus, utilization of these elements may provide a unique opportunity to modulate angiogenesis under various setting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessing competence in communication and interpersonal skills: the Kalamazoo II report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, F Daniel; Gordon, Geoffrey H; Whelan, Gerald; Cole-Kelly, Kathy; Frankel, Richard; Buffone, Natalie; Lofton, Stephanie; Wallace, MaryAnne; Goode, Leslie; Langdon, Lynn

    2004-06-01

    Accreditation of residency programs and certification of physicians requires assessment of competence in communication and interpersonal skills. Residency and continuing medical education program directors seek ways to teach and evaluate these competencies. This report summarizes the methods and tools used by educators, evaluators, and researchers in the field of physician-patient communication as determined by the participants in the "Kalamazoo II" conference held in April 2002. Communication and interpersonal skills form an integrated competence with two distinct parts. Communication skills are the performance of specific tasks and behaviors such as obtaining a medical history, explaining a diagnosis and prognosis, giving therapeutic instructions, and counseling. Interpersonal skills are inherently relational and process oriented; they are the effect communication has on another person such as relieving anxiety or establishing a trusting relationship. This report reviews three methods for assessment of communication and interpersonal skills: (1) checklists of observed behaviors during interactions with real or simulated patients; (2) surveys of patients' experience in clinical interactions; and (3) examinations using oral, essay, or multiple-choice response questions. These methods are incorporated into educational programs to assess learning needs, create learning opportunities, or guide feedback for learning. The same assessment tools, when administered in a standardized way, rated by an evaluator other than the teacher, and using a predetermined passing score, become a summative evaluation. The report summarizes the experience of using these methods in a variety of educational and evaluation programs and presents an extensive bibliography of literature on the topic. Professional conversation between patients and doctors shapes diagnosis, initiates therapy, and establishes a caring relationship. The degree to which these activities are successful depends, in

  3. Small Business Innovation Research, Post-Phase II Opportunity Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2015-01-01

    This report outlines current Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Post-Phase II opportunity contract award results for the SBIR technology program from 2007 to 2011 for NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD), Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD), Science Mission Directorate (SMD), and Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD). The report provides guidelines for incorporating SBIR technology into NASA programs and projects and provides a quantitative overview of the post-Phase II award patterns that correspond with each mission directorate at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). In recent years, one of NASA's goals has been to not only transfer SBIR technologies to commercial industries, but to ensure that NASA mission directorates incorporate SBIR technologies into their program and project activities. Before incorporating technologies into MD programs, it is important to understand each mission directorate structure because each directorate has different objectives and needs. The directorate program structures follow.

  4. Contributions to North American Ethnology, Volume II, Part II: The Klamath Indians of southwestern Oregon: dictionary of the Klamath language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatschet, Albert Samuel; Powell, John Wesley

    1890-01-01

    The present Dictionary, divided in two parts, contains the lexical portion of an Oregonian language never before reduced to writing. In view of the numerous obstacles and difficulties encountered in the preparation of such a work, a few hints upon its origin and tendencies will be of service in directing the studies of those who wish to acquire a more intimate knowledge of this energetic and well developed western language.

  5. Part I: Virtual laboratory versus traditional laboratory: Which is more effective for teaching electrochemistry? Part II: The green synthesis of aurones using a deep eutectic solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Ian C.

    The role of the teaching laboratory in science education has been debated over the last century. The goals and purposes of the laboratory are still debated and while most science educators consider laboratory a vital part of the education process, they differ widely on the purposes for laboratory and what methods should be used to teach laboratory. One method of instruction, virtual labs, has become popular among some as a possible way of capitalizing on the benefits of lab in a less costly and more time flexible format. The research regarding the use of virtual labs is limited and the few studies that have been done on General Chemistry labs do not use the virtual labs as a substitute for hands-on experiences, but rather as a supplement to a traditional laboratory program. This research seeks to determine the possible viability of a virtual simulation to replace a traditional hands-on electrochemistry lab in the General Chemistry II course sequence. The data indicate that for both content knowledge and the development of hands-on skills the virtual lab showed no significant difference in overall scores on the assessments, but that an individual item related to the physical set-up of a battery showed better scores for the hands-on labs over the virtual labs. Further research should be done to determine if these results are similar in other settings with the use of different virtual labs and how the virtual labs compare to other laboratories using different learning styles and learning goals. One often cited purpose of laboratory experiences in the context of preparing chemists is to simulate the experiences common in chemical research so graduate experience in a research laboratory was a necessary part of my education in the field of laboratory instruction. This research experience provided me the opportunity, to complete an organic synthesis of aurones using a deep eutectic solvent. These solvents show unique properties that make them a viable alternative to ionic

  6. AICRG, Part II: Crestal bone loss associated with the Ankylos implant: loading to 36 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Cherng-Tzeh; Morris, Harold F; Ochi, Shigeru; Walker, Lori; DesRosiers, Deborah

    2004-01-01

    The Ankylos endosseous dental implant is a new implant design that will be available in the United States in early 2004. It features an internal tapered abutment connection, a smooth polished collar without threads at the coronal part of the implant body, and a roughened surface with variable threads on the body of the implant fixture. A precise, tapered, conical abutment connection eliminates the microgap often found in 2-stage implant systems. This microgap may allow the accumulation of food debris and bacteria, as well as micromovement between the parts during clinical function, both of which can lead to a localized inflammation and crestal bone loss. The purpose of this section of the study was to assess any crestal bone loss associated with this new implant. The clinical performance of this new implant design was studied under well-controlled clinical conditions. Over 1500 implants were placed and restored. The vertical crestal bone loss was measured "directly" between the time of implant placement and uncovering, using a periodontal probe. Serial dental radiographs were taken between loading, and the 12-, 24-, and 36-month follow-up visits to determine "indirect" crestal bone loss within a specific period. Bone loss varied among the participating centers from less than 0.5 mm to 2.0 mm. The largest amount of bone loss occurred between the time of placement and uncovering. Following loading, the mean bone loss for all implants for a period of 3 years was about 0.2 mm/y. The extent of the crestal bone loss after loading was minimal for patients regardless of age, gender, prosthetic applications, bone density, and remote or crestal incisions, as well as for smokers or nonsmokers. Bone loss per year is well within the guidelines of 0.2 mm/y proposed by others.

  7. Modulus of elasticity, creep and shrinkage of concrete, phase II : part 1, creep study, final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    A laboratory testing program was performed to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of typical Class II, IV, V, and VI concrete mixtures made with a Miami Oolite limestone, a Georgia granite, and a lightweight aggregate Stalite, including c...

  8. Citrus fruits. Part II. Chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation. B. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganna, S; Govindarajan, V S; Ramana, K V

    1983-01-01

    In Part II of this review on citrus fruits, the literature on chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation are critically considered. Sweet oranges, mandarin, grapefruit, lemon, and lime are generally used for processing. The literature on chemical components of citrus fruit which include sugars, polysaccharides, organic acids, nitrogenous constituents and lipids; carotenoids which contribute to color; vitamins and minerals and flavonoids; limonoids, some of which impart bitterness to the juice; and the volatile components which contribute to aroma were reviewed in section A. Chilled and pasteurized juices, juice concentrates, and beverages are the important products manufactured commercially, and to a limited extent powdered citrus juices, canned segments, and marmalades. The literature on the manufacture of these products also as new types of juice and oil extractors; TASTE and other types of evaporators; tank farms to store juice and concentrate in bulk; aseptic filling in bulk containers and retail packs; alternate flexible and rigid containers other than glass and tin; and recovery of volatile flavoring constituents during juice processing are some of the important technological developments in the recent past and have been discussed in this section. Bitterness in citrus juices and its control, composition of cloud, and its stability and changes during storage have been reviewed. Essential oils, pectin, frozen and dried juice sacs, dried pulp and molasses, flavonoids, seed oil, and meal are the important byproducts, the manufacture of which is given in essential details. Generally, consumers judge the product on the basis of its sensory attributes. The quality of finished product is dependent upon the raw materials used and control of processes. In section C, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) standards for different products, physicochemical and microbiological parameters prescribed as indices of quality of fruit, juice, concentrate, and other

  9. Esthetics in periodontics: covering denuded root surfaces using free gingival grafts without citric acid, Part II: a report on 14 teeth in 10 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, R A

    1989-12-01

    Part I of this series described the history and reviewed various techniques of free gingival graft usage without citric acid. Part II of this series on periodontics describes 10 successful case reports.

  10. Improving visual skills: II-remote assessment via Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Maureen K; Grisham, J David; Wurm, Janice K; Wurm, William C

    2009-02-01

    Even though poor readers often have poor visual skills, such as binocular coordination and oculomotor control, students' visual skills are rarely assessed. Computer assessments have the potential to assist in identifying students whose visual skills are deficient. This study compared assessments made by an Internet-based computer orthoptics program with those of an on-site vision therapist. Students (N = 41) in grades 1 through 8, reading at least 2 levels below grade, were assessed for visual skill dysfunction (including binocular fusion and tracking ability) by a vision therapist at their school in Wisconsin. The therapist determined whether the student had adequate visual skills based on clinical and behavioral observations. A "remote" investigator located in California determined the adequacy of accommodative facility, tracking, and vergence skills in the same students, based on quantitative progress through the modules of an Internet-based computer orthoptics training program during 3 assessment sessions. The on-site therapist made 33 referrals for possible visual skills training (80%). The remote investigator made 25 referrals (61%), all of which were consistent with referrals made by the on-site therapist; thus, no false-positives occurred when using the remote assessment technique. The 8 additional referrals by the therapist were attributed to the ability to observe student behavior during assessment. Remote assessment of visual skills via an Internet orthoptics program may provide a simple means to detect visual skill problems experienced by poor readers.

  11. Propriedades termofísicas de soluções-modelo similares a sucos: parte II Thermophysical properties of model solutions similar to juice: part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Cristina Sobottka Rolim de Moura

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Propriedades termofísicas, densidade e viscosidade de soluções-modelo similares a sucos foram determinadas experimentalmente. Os resultados foram comparados aos preditos por modelos matemáticos (STATISTICA 6.0 e obtidos da literatura em função da sua composição química. Para definição das soluções-modelo, foi realizado um planejamento estrela, mantendo-se fixa a quanti-dade de ácido (1,5% e variando-se a água (82-98,5%, o carboidrato (0-15% e a gordura (0-1,5%. A densidade foi determinada em picnômetro. A viscosidade foi determinada em viscosímetro Brookfield modelo LVF. A condutividade térmica foi calculada com o conhecimento das propriedades difusividade térmica e calor específico (apresentados na Parte I deste trabalho MOURA [7] e da densidade. Os resultados de cada propriedade foram analisados através de superfícies de respostas. Foram encontrados resultados significativos para as propriedades, mostrando que os modelos encontrados representam as mudanças das propriedades térmicas e físicas dos sucos, com alterações na composição e na temperatura.Thermophysical properties, density and viscosity of model solutions similar to juices were experimentally determined. The results were compared to those predicted by mathematical models (STATISTIC 6.0 and to values mentioned in the literature, according to the chemical composition. A star planning was adopted to define model solutions composition; fixing the acid amount in 1.5% and varying water (82-98.5%, carbohydrate (0-15% and fat (0-1.5%. The density was determined by picnometer. The viscosity was determined by Brookfield LVF model viscosimeter. The thermal conductivity was calculated based on thermal diffusivity and specific heat values (presented at the 1st . Part of this paper - MOURA [7] and density. The results of each property were analyzed by the response surface method. The found results were significant, indicating that the models represent the changes of

  12. Zircônia tetragonal policristalina. Parte II: Microestrutura e resistividade elétrica Tetragonal zirconia polycrystals. Part II: Microstructure and electrical resistivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Tadokoro

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Nesta segunda parte são mostrados os resultados obtidos em cerâmicas densas de ZrO2: 3% mol Y2O3 (Y-TZP e 12% mol CeO2 (Ce-TZP, analisadas por espectroscopia Raman, microscopia eletrônica de varredura, e por espectroscopia de impedância. Os resultados mostram que, para ambos tipos de amostras, é possível obter cerâmicas densas (> 95% da densidade teórica para temperaturas de sinterização inferiores a 0,45 T F (T F = temperatura de fusão. A taxa de crescimento de grãos é dependente do cátion estabilizante, sendo maior para a Ce-TZP do que para a Y-TZP. Os espectros Raman de cerâmicas sinterizadas mostram as bandas típicas associadas aos modos ativos da fase cristalográfica tetragonal. Os resultados de espectroscopia de impedância são similares aos obtidos por outros pesquisadores tanto para cerâmicas convencionais quanto nanofásicas no caso da Y-TZP. Para a Ce-TZP foi observada uma redução na condutividade extrínseca em conseqüência da maior pureza do precursor cristalizado.Results on dense ZrO2: 3 mol% Y2O3 (Y-TZP and 12 mol% CeO2 (Ce-TZP ceramics are shown in this second part. Sintered specimens were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and impedance spectroscopy. The main results show that both types of solid solutions may attain a high densification (> 95% of the theoretical density for sintering temperatures lower than 0.45 T F (T F = melting temperature. The rate of grain growth is governed by the stabilizing cation and is faster for Ce-TZP than for Y-TZP. Raman spectra exhibit the six characteristic bands of the tetragonal phase for both specimens. Impedance spectroscopy results for Y-TZP do not differ from those obtained for nanophase ceramics. A reduction in the extrinsic conductivity due to the high purity of the crystallized precursor was observed for Ce-TZP specimens.

  13. French RSE-M and RCC-MR code appendices for flaw analysis: Presentation of the fracture parameters calculation-Part II: Cracked plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marie, S. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DM2S/SEMT/LISN, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France)], E-mail: stephane.marie@cea.fr; Chapuliot, S.; Kayser, Y. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DM2S/SEMT/LISN, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Lacire, M.H. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DDIN, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Drubay, B. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DM2S/SEMT/LISN, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Barthelet, B. [EDF/EPN, Site Cap Ampere, 1 place Pleyel 93207, Saint Denis Cedex 1 (France); Le Delliou, P. [EDF Pole Industrie-Division R and D, Site des Renardieres, Route de Sens, Ecuelles, 77250 Moret sur Loing Cedex (France); Rougier, V. [EDF/UTO SIS/GAM, 6, avenue Montaigne, 93192 Noisy le Grand (France); Naudin, C. [EDF/SEPTEN, 12-14, avenue Dutrievoz, 69628 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Gilles, P.; Triay, M. [AREVA ANP, Tour AREVA, 92084 Paris La Defense Cedex 16 (France)

    2007-10-15

    French nuclear codes include flaw assessment procedures: the RSE-M Code 'Rules for In-service Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components' and the RCC-MR code 'Design and Construction rules for mechanical components of FBR nuclear islands and high temperature applications'. An important effort of development of these analytical methods has been made for the last 10 years in the frame of a collaboration between CEA, EDF and AREVA-NP, and in the frame of R and D actions involving CEA and IRSN. These activities have led to a unification of the common methods of the two codes. The calculation of fracture mechanics parameters, and in particular the stress intensity factor K{sub I} and the J integral, has been widely developed for industrial configurations. All the developments have been integrated in the 2005 edition of RSE-M and in the 2007 edition of RCC-MR. This series of articles is composed of 5 parts: the first part presents an overview of the methods proposed in the RCC-MR and RSE-M codes. Parts II-IV provide compendia for specific components. The geometries are plates (part II), pipes (part III) and elbows (part IV). Finally, part V presents the validation elements of the methods, with details on the process followed for the development and evaluation of the accuracy of the proposed analytical methods. This second article in the series presents all details for the stress intensity factor and J calculations for cracked plates. General data applicable for all defect geometries are first presented, and then, available defect geometries where compendia for K{sub I} and {sigma}{sub ref} calculation are provided are given.

  14. Development banks, risk and Basle II: some assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Sobreira

    Full Text Available The implementation of the Basle II agreement in the financial markets of world economies has been seen as a significant advance in relation to the model enforced under the first agreement (Basle I. It is generally understood that the new agreement represents a substantial advance in relation to the first because it allows banks to better deal with the risks to which they are exposed. Nevertheless, when the application of these principles to development banks is considered it can be noted that certain inconsistencies exist, notably the fact that these institutions are typically public institutions - or at least strongly dependent on public funding - and they do not operate the payment system of the economy. Therefore, the application of the Basle rules to these institutions does not make sense. This means that Basle does not represent an appropriate set of recommendations for how these institutions should deal with their risks, whether because the proposed form of dealing with risks is inadequate, or because other relevant risks for these institutions are not covered by Basle I and II.

  15. ANA as part of a comprehensive reading literacy school assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this article is to report on the results of an exploratory action research study that indicate that the Annual National Assessment is overstepping its boundaries in terms of supporting the development of a systematic, dynamic and effective reading literacy assessment system to address the early literacy skills of ...

  16. Nutrição em Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos -Parte II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Mendonça

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Nesta parte II do artigo “Nutrição em Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos” os autores privilegiam a via entérica para administração de nutrientes a doentes com um aparelho gastrointestinal funcionante. Refere-se quando e como iniciar a administração entérica e as contraindicações associadas à sua utilização, as sondas utilizadas e as técnicas de colocação. Quando a administração entérica está indicada por períodos prolongados pode ser importante discutir as vaotagens da efectivação de gastrostomia ou enterostomia.A colocação indevida das sondas na árvore traqueo-brônquica, a aspiração e a diarreia são as principais complicações da administração entérica.A administração entérica pode ser realizada de forma intermitente ou contínua. O resíduo gástrico deve ser avaliado regularmente e, se houver necessidade, pode recorrer-se à utilização de procinéticos.São discutidas fórmulas especiais de administração entérica dirigidas nomeadamente aos doentes com DPOC, Insuficiência Renal e Diabetes. É focada a problemática da realimentação e sobrealimentação.Finalmente são tratadas as indicações e controlo da alimentação parentérica. SUMMARY: In the second part of “Nutrition in Intensive Care Unit” the authors emphasise the importance of enteric route for the administration of nutrients to patients with a normal condition of the gastroinstestinal tract. The rules for when and how initiate the enteric feeding and the associate contra indications, as well as the utilised catheters and techniques of implementation, are expressed in this article. When the enteric feeding is indicated for a long period of time, the advantages of gastrostomy or enterostomy, should be considered.The incorrect positioning of the feeding catheter in tracheobronchial tree

  17. Characterization of sugar cane bagasse: part II: fluid dynamic characteristics; Caracterizacion del bagazo de la cana de azucar: parte II: caracteristicas fluidodinamicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon, Guillermo A. Roca [Universidad de Oriente (CEEFE/UO), Santiago de Cuba (Cuba). Centro de Estudios de Eficiencia Energetica], Emails: roca@ceefe.uo.edu.cu, grocabayamon@hotmail.com; Sanchez, Caio Glauco [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica], Email: caio@fem.unicamp.br; Gomez, Edgardo Olivares [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], Emails: gomez@bioware.com.br, egomez@energiabr.org.br; Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola. Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], Email: cortez@reitoria.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper is the second part of a general study about physic-geometrical and fluid-dynamics characteristic of the sugarcane bagasse particles. These properties has relevant importance on the dimensions and operation of the equipment for transport and treatment of solid particles. Was used the transport column method for the determination of the drag velocity and later on the drag coefficient of the sugarcane bagasse particles was calculated. Both, the installation and experimental technique used for materials of these characteristics are simple and innovations tools, but rigorous conceptually, thus the results obtained are reliable. Were used several sugarcane bagasse fractions of particles of known mean diameter. The properties determined were expressed as a function of Reynolds and Archimedes a dimensional criteria. The best considered model from statistical analysis (model from equation 8) was statistically validated for determined ranges of Reynolds and Archimedes. These empirical equations can be used to determine these properties in the range and conditions specified and also for modeling some processes where these fractions are employed. (author)

  18. Modeling the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II using non-parametric item response models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Garre, Francisca; Hidalgo, María Dolores; Guilera, Georgina; Pino, Oscar; Rojo, J Emilio; Gómez-Benito, Juana

    2015-03-01

    The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II) is a multidimensional instrument developed for measuring disability. It comprises six domains (getting around, self-care, getting along with others, life activities and participation in society). The main purpose of this paper is the evaluation of the psychometric properties for each domain of the WHO-DAS II with parametric and non-parametric Item Response Theory (IRT) models. A secondary objective is to assess whether the WHO-DAS II items within each domain form a hierarchy of invariantly ordered severity indicators of disability. A sample of 352 patients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder is used in this study. The 36 items WHO-DAS II was administered during the consultation. Partial Credit and Mokken scale models are used to study the psychometric properties of the questionnaire. The psychometric properties of the WHO-DAS II scale are satisfactory for all the domains. However, we identify a few items that do not discriminate satisfactorily between different levels of disability and cannot be invariantly ordered in the scale. In conclusion the WHO-DAS II can be used to assess overall disability in patients with schizophrenia, but some domains are too general to assess functionality in these patients because they contain items that are not applicable to this pathology. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Oceanographic station, temperature profile, meteorological, and other data from CTD and XBT casts from NOAA Ship DELAWARE II and other platforms as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1980-06-25 to 1983-08-04 (NODC Accession 8300119)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic station, temperature profile, meteorological, and other data were collected from CTD and XBT casts from NOAA Ship DELAWARE II and other platforms from...

  20. Oceanographic Station, temperature profiles, and other data from CTD, XBT, and bottle casts from NOAA Ship DELAWARE II as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) from 1972-07-01 to 1972-08-13 (NODC Accession 7201299)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Station,temperature profiles, and other data were collected from CTD, XBT, and bottle casts from NOAA Ship DELAWARE II from 01 July 1972 to 13 August...

  1. Oceanographic station, meteorological and other data from bottle casts from NOAA Ship DELAWARE II and other platforms as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1978-10-06 to 1981-06-17 (NODC Accession 8100730)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic station, meteorological, and other data were collected from bottle casts from NOAA Ship DELAWARE II and other platforms from 06 October 1978 to 17 June...

  2. Oceanographic station, temperature profiles, meteorological, and other data from XBT and bottle casts from NOAA Ship OREGON II as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1972-07-13 to 1972-08-08 (NODC Accession 7300271)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic station, temperature profiles, meteorological, and other data were collected from bottle and XBT casts from NOAA Ship OREGON II from 13 July 1972 to 08...

  3. Technical Information on the Carbonation of the EBR-II Reactor, Summary Report Part 1: Laboratory Experiments and Application to EBR-II Secondary Sodium System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven R. Sherman

    2005-04-01

    Residual sodium is defined as sodium metal that remains behind in pipes, vessels, and tanks after the bulk sodium metal has been melted and drained from such components. The residual sodium has the same chemical properties as bulk sodium, and differs from bulk sodium only in the thickness of the sodium deposit. Typically, sodium is considered residual when the thickness of the deposit is less than 5-6 cm. This residual sodium must be removed or deactivated when a pipe, vessel, system, or entire reactor is permanently taken out of service, in order to make the component or system safer and/or to comply with decommissioning regulations. As an alternative to the established residual sodium deactivation techniques (steam-and-nitrogen, wet vapor nitrogen, etc.), a technique involving the use of moisture and carbon dioxide has been developed. With this technique, sodium metal is converted into sodium bicarbonate by reacting it with humid carbon dioxide. Hydrogen is emitted as a by-product. This technique was first developed in the laboratory by exposing sodium samples to humidified carbon dioxide under controlled conditions, and then demonstrated on a larger scale by treating residual sodium within the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) secondary cooling system, followed by the primary cooling system, respectively. The EBR-II facility is located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in southeastern Idaho, U.S.A. This report is Part 1 of a two-part report. It is divided into three sections. The first section describes the chemistry of carbon dioxide-water-sodium reactions. The second section covers the laboratory experiments that were conducted in order to develop the residual sodium deactivation process. The third section discusses the application of the deactivation process to the treatment of residual sodium within the EBR-II secondary sodium cooling system. Part 2 of the report, under separate cover, describes the application of the technique to residual sodium

  4. Epidemiology of burns throughout the World. Part II: intentional burns in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Michael D

    2012-08-01

    A significant number of burns and deaths from fire are intentionally wrought. Rates of intentional burns are unevenly distributed throughout the world; India has a particularly high rate in young women whereas in Europe rates are higher in men in mid-life. Data from hospitalized burn patients worldwide reveal incidence rates for assault by fire and scalds ranging from 3% to 10%. The average proportion of the body surface area burned in an assault by fire or scalds is approximately 20%. In different parts of the world, attempted burning of others or oneself can be attributed to different motives. Circumstances under which assaults occur fall largely into the categories of interpersonal conflict, including spousal abuse, elder abuse, or interactions over contentious business transactions. Contributing social factors to assaults by burning include drug and alcohol abuse, non-constructive use of leisure time, non-participation in religious and community activities, unstable relationships, and extramarital affairs. Although the incidence of self-mutilation and suicide attempts by burning are relatively low, deliberate self-harm carries a significant risk of death, with an overall mortality rate of 65% worldwide. In those who resort to self-immolation, circumstantial themes reflect domestic discord, family dysfunction, and the social ramifications of unemployment. Preventing injurious burn-related violence requires a multifaceted approach, including legislation and enforcement, education, and advocacy. Better standardized assessment tools are needed to screen for risks of abuse and for psychiatric disorders in perpetrators. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. Monitoring pollution in River Mureş, Romania, part II: metal accumulation and histopathology in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triebskorn, Rita; Telcean, Ilie; Casper, Heidi; Farkas, Anna; Sandu, Cristina; Stan, Gheorghe; Colărescu, Ovidiu; Dori, Tiberiu; Köhler, Heinz-R

    2008-06-01

    As a part of an exposure and effect monitoring conducted along the river Mureş, Western Romania in 2004, the health status of two indigenous fish species, sneep (Chondrostoma nasus) and European chub (Leuciscus cephalus) was investigated upstream and downstream the city of Arad. In fish, histopathology was assessed in liver and gills, and heavy metals (cadmium, copper, lead and zinc) were analyzed in liver samples. In both fish species, histopathological reactions in the gills (epithelial lifting, focal proliferation of epithelial cells of primary and secondary lamellae and resulting fusion of secondary lamellae, hyperplasia and hypertrophy of mucous cells, focal inflammation and necrosis of epithelial cells) were most severe at the two sampling sites upstream Arad city, which were shown to be polluted by copper, cadmium, faecal coliforms and streptococci in a parallel study. At these two sites, also histopathology in the liver of L. cephalus was more prominent than at the two downstream sites. In C. nasus, symptoms in the liver (focal inflammation with lymphocytic infiltrations, macrophage aggregates and single cell necrosis) were also highly pronounced at the sampling site located directly downstream the municipal sewage treatment plant of Arad. With the exception of copper accumulation in L. cephalus caught at the most upstream sampling site, in both fish species cadmium and copper accumulation were exceptionally high and did not differ significantly between the four sampling sites.

  6. An Ansatz Regarding Relativistic Space Travel Part II-Propulsion Realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    Travel to the stars can involve a perilous journey in an unfriendly space-time continuum that can include singularities, nonlinear events, gravity as a function of both position and vehicle velocity, and extra dimensional effects discussed in Part I. Such a device may possibly use field propulsion technology. Although several field propulsion schemes exist, a proposed candidate is based upon using an electromagnetic drive that uses a rotating magnetic field superimposed on the spacecraft's stationary or static electric field. This is comparable to a Searl generator and the field interaction would generate an electromagnetic vortex to create nonlinear gravitational effects possibly due to an inverse Gertsenshtein relationship to push against the intrinsic gravitational field of a planet. Moreover, changing alignment of the magnetic field axis with the electric field will induce a margin of lateral controllability. Issues such as assessing this combined effect of using both electric and magnetic fields are discussed. Finally, the need for experimental data is stressed to validate these otherwise very speculative theoretical notions.

  7. Overlooked Talent Sources and Corporate Strategies for Affirmative Action. Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacobelli, John L.; Muczyk, Jan P.

    1975-01-01

    Part Two of the two-part article describes corporate strategies for affirmative action in order to obtain the most qualified individuals available for professional positions among minority and female candidates. (Author/BP)

  8. Engineering studies on joint bar integrity, part II : finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-02

    This paper is the second in a two-part series describing : research sponsored by the Federal Railroad Administration : (FRA) to study the structural integrity of joint bars. In Part I, : observations from field surveys of joint bar inspections : cond...

  9. Balancing Optimal Assessment with Part-Time Faculty Participation: A Discipline's Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danley-Scott, Jennifer; Tompsett-Makin, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Part-time faculty need to be brought into the student learning outcomes assessment loop not only to help accreditation, but because they, like full-time faculty, can benefit from assessment. When part-time faculty are not participating in assessment, a sizable percentage of courses are being less effectively taught than they could be. In an…

  10. THE FOOTWEAR DESIGNING SESSION USING CRISPIN DYNAMICS ENGINEER. PART II: Creating the parts, Estimating the material consumption, Grading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOVAN-DRAGOMIR Alina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The diversification and customization of products are important characteristic of the modern economy and especially of the fashion industry. Because of this, the lifetime of the footwear product is very short and result the necessity to cut the design and production time. By classic methodology, designing footwear is a very complex and laborious activity. That is because classic methodology requires many graphic executions using manual means, which consume a lot of the producer’s time. With CRISPIN Dynamics, one can visualize a range of designs on-screen; work out the costs of a new style and even cut out sample shoe components. Reliance on manual skills is largely eliminated, so the staff can work creatively, but with increased accuracy and productivity. One can even send designs to a distant office or manufacturing centre in a matter of minutes. This paper presents the basic function of CRISPIN Dynamics CAD Suite Engineer for footwear design. The process of new product development has six stapes: digitized form of the medium copy, last flatting, model drawing, creation and management of individual parts, estimation of material consumption, multiplying the designed footwear product’s pattern. This product has been developed for shoemakers who wish to ensure that their business remains competitive by increasing the efficiency, speed and accuracy of pattern development and grading.

  11. Guidelines for the management of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (including bronchopulmonary and thymic neoplasms). Part II-specific NE tumour types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oberg, Kjell; Astrup, Lone Bording; Eriksson, Barbro

    2004-01-01

    Part II of the guidelines contains a description of epidemiology, histopathology, clinical presentation, diagnostic procedure, treatment, and survival for each type of neuroendocrine tumour. We are not only including gastroenteropancreatic tumours but also bronchopulmonary and thymic neuroendocrine...... tumours. These guidelines essentially cover basic knowledge in the diagnosis and management of the different forms of neuroendocrine tumour. We have, however, tried to give more updated information about the epidemiology and histopathology, which is essential for the clinical management of these tumours....

  12. This new science of ours: a more or less systematic history of consciousness and transcendence. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresan, David I

    2004-06-01

    Part I of this paper having postulated the locus of consciousness as residing in a field between primitive mind in participation mystique with the world and a transcendent ground of being, Part II takes up the nature of mind itself in this field in terms of in vivo experiences. Operations and manifestations of consciousness are inexhaustively explored in four venues: 1) Jung's life experiences, 2) Joseph Henderson's theory of psychic development, 3) Eric Voegelin's theory of consciousness and 4) the experiences of analytic patients in far reaches of very long analyses.

  13. Historia de la robótica: de Arquitas de Tarento al robot da Vinci (Parte II)

    OpenAIRE

    F. M. Sánchez-Martín; Jimenez Schlegl, Pablo; Millán, Félix; Salvador-Bayarri, Jose; Monllau, V.; Palou, Juan; Villavicencio, Humberto

    2007-01-01

    HISTORY OF ROBOTICS: FROM ARCHYTAS OF TARENTUM UNTIL DA VINCI ROBOT. (PART II) Robotic surgery is a reality. In order to to understand how new robots work is interesting to know the history of ancient (see part i) and modern robotics. The desire to design automatic machines imitating humans continued for more than 4000 years. Archytas of Tarentum (at around 400 a.C.), Heron of Alexandria, Hsieh-Fec, Al-Jazari, Bacon, Turriano, Leonardo da Vinci, Vaucanson o von Kempelen were robot inventors. ...

  14. Evaluación neurofuncional del tallo cerebral Parte II: Reflejo mandibular = Neurofunctional evaluation of brain stem. II. Mandibular reflex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Sarmiento, Fidias E.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El reflejo mandibular o maseterino posee conexiones nerviosas únicas, diferentes de las exhi­bidas por otros reflejos monosinápticos humanos, y permite evaluar, de forma fácil y eficien­te, el tallo cerebral por medio de la estimulación mecánica, eléctrica o magnética. Diversos estudios han demostrado la participación en este reflejo de las interneuronas del tallo cerebral y su modulación por estructuras supraespinales, que hacen parte fundamental de su integra­ción motora. El reflejo mandibular es útil para evaluar la afectación trigémino-trigeminal en polineuropatías como la diabetes, neuromiopatías como la esclerosis múltiple y en pacientes con trastornos del movimiento, con o sin disfunción oromandibular. La evaluación neuro­funcional de este reflejo craneofacial ayuda a identificar la integración sensorimotora del tallo cerebral y las posibles alteraciones de estas vías reflejas, debidas a anormalidades del sistema nervioso central o del periférico. Su apropiada ejecución e interpretación, clínica y neurológica, permite aplicar de manera más personalizada diversos protocolos de neurorre­habilitación, con el fin de ayudar a mejorar la calidad de vida de los individuos con afectación de estas vías neurales.

  15. Derivados organometálicos de estanho(II - Parte 1. Compostos ciclopentadienílicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Geraldo M. de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a brief review of the chemistry of cyclopentadienyl Sn(II derivatives which includes the preparation, the molecular structure and reactivity associated with such bis-sandwich tin(II species. It is compared structural and spectroscopic results and it is also discussed how the nature of the cyclopentadienyl ring bonded to the Sn centre plays an important role in the structural and stability features of the derivatives. Bulk rings such as C5HPr i4- , C5Bz5-, C5Me4SiMe2Bu t- and C5Ph5- render air-stable and parallel ring-bonded compounds.

  16. DOE program guide for universities and other research groups. Part I. DOE Research and Development Programs; Part II. DOE Procurement and Assistance Policies/Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    This guide addresses the DOE responsibility for fostering advanced research and development of all energy resources, both current and potential. It is intended to provide, in a single publication, all the fundamental information needed by an institution to develop a potential working relationship with DOE. Part I describes DOE research and development programs and facilities, and identifies areas of additional research needs and potential areas for new research opportunities. It also summarizes budget data and identifies the DOE program information contacts for each program. Part II provides researchers and research administrators with an introduction to the DOE administrative policies and procedures for submission and evaluation of proposals and the administration of resulting grants, cooperative agreements, and research contracts. (RWR)

  17. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) oil storage cavern sulphur mines 2-4-5 certification tests and analysis. Part I: 1981 testing. Part II: 1982 testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beasley, R.R.

    1982-12-01

    Well leak tests and a cavern pressure were conducted in June through December 1981, and are described in Part I. The tests did not indicate conclusively that there was no leakage from the cavern, but the data indicate that cavern structural failure during oil storage is unlikely. The test results indicated that retesting and well workover were desirable prior to making a decision on the cavern use. Well leak tests were conducted in March through May 1982, and are described in Part II. The tests indicated that there was no significant leakage from wells 2 and 4 but that the leakage from wells 2A and 5 exceeded the DOE criterion. Because of the proximity of cavern 2-4-5 to the edge of the salt, this cavern should be considered for only one fill/withdrawal cycle prior to extensive reevaluation. 57 figures, 17 tables.

  18. Programming an interim report on the SETL project. Part I: generalities. Part II: the SETL language and examples of its use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, J T

    1975-06-01

    A summary of work during the past several years on SETL, a new programming language drawing its dictions and basic concepts from the mathematical theory of sets, is presented. The work was started with the idea that a programming language modeled after an appropriate version of the formal language of mathematics might allow a programming style with some of the succinctness of mathematics, and that this might ultimately enable one to express and experiment with more complex algorithms than are now within reach. Part I discusses the general approach followed in the work. Part II focuses directly on the details of the SETL language as it is now defined. It describes the facilities of SETL, includes short libraries of miscellaneous and of code optimization algorithms illustrating the use of SETL, and gives a detailed description of the manner in which the set-theoretic primitives provided by SETL are currently implemented. (RWR)

  19. Perceptual Objective Listening Quality Assessment (POLQA), The Third Generation ITU-T Standard for End-to-End Speech Quality Measurement Part I—Temporal Alignment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerends, J.G.; Schmidmer, C.; Berger, J.; Obermann, M.; Ullman, R.; Pomy, J.; Keyhl, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this and the companion paper Part II, the authors present the Perceptual Objective Listening Quality Assessment (POLQA), the third-generation speech quality measurement algorithm, standardized by the International Telecommunication Union in 2011 as Recommendation P.863. In contrast to the

  20. A critical overview of non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis. Part II: separation efficiency and analysis time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenndler, Ernst

    2014-03-28

    A survey of the literature on non-aqueous capillary zone electrophoresis leaves one with the impression of a prevailing notion that non-aqueous conditions are principally more favorable than conventional aqueous media. Specifically, the application of organic solvents in capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) is believed to provide the general advantages of superior separation efficiency, higher applicable electric field strength, and shorter analysis time. These advantages, however, are often claimed without providing any experimental evidence, or based on rather uncritical comparisons of limited sets of arbitrarily selected separation results. Therefore, the performance characteristics of non-aqueous vs. aqueous CZE certainly deserve closer scrutiny. The primary intention of Part II of this review is to give a critical survey of the literature on non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE) that has emerged over the last five years. Emphasis is mainly placed on those studies that are concerned with the aspects of plate height, plate number, and the crucial mechanisms contributing to zone broadening, both in organic and aqueous conditions. To facilitate a deeper understanding, this treatment covers also the theoretical fundamentals of peak dispersion phenomena arising from wall adsorption; concentration overload (electromigration dispersion); longitudinal diffusion; and thermal gradients. Theoretically achievable plate numbers are discussed, both under limiting (at zero ionic strength) and application-relevant conditions (at finite ionic strength). In addition, the impact of the superimposed electroosmotic flow contributions to overall CZE performance is addressed, both for aqueous and non-aqueous media. It was concluded that for peak dispersion due to wall adsorption and due to concentration overload (electromigration dispersion, leading to peak triangulation) no general conjunction with the solvent can be deduced. This is in contrast to longitudinal diffusion: the

  1. Pipeline external corrosion direct assessment methodology: lessons learned - part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, Angel R. [DNV Columbus, Inc., OH (United States)

    2009-07-01

    DNV Columbus (Former CC Technologies) played a key role in the development of Direct Assessment (DA) methodologies, providing leadership in the NACE technical committees charged with development of DA standards. Since the first publication of NACE Standard RP-0502-2002, External Corrosion Direct Assessment (ECDA) has been successfully applied over a great number of pipelines to evaluate the impact of external corrosion on the pipeline integrity. This paper summarizes the results of applying ECDA over a selected number of underground pipelines and presents interesting facts about the methodology. (author)

  2. Systematic review of biological effects of exposure to static electric fields. Part II: Invertebrates and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedchen, Kristina; Petri, Anne-Kathrin; Driessen, Sarah; Bailey, William H

    2018-01-01

    The construction of high-voltage direct current (HVDC) lines for the long-distance transport of energy is becoming increasingly popular. This has raised public concern about potential environmental impacts of the static electric fields (EF) produced under and near HVDC power lines. As the second part of a comprehensive literature analysis, the aim of this systematic review was to assess the effects of static EF exposure on biological functions in invertebrates and plants and to provide the basis for an environmental impact assessment of such exposures. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) was used to guide the methodological conduct and reporting. Thirty-three studies - 14 invertebrate and 19 plant studies - met the eligibility criteria and were included in this review. The reported behavioral responses of insects and planarians upon exposure strongly suggest that invertebrates are able to perceive the presence of a static EF. Many other studies reported effects on physiological functions that were expressed as, for example, altered metabolic activity or delayed reproductive and developmental stages in invertebrates. In plants, leaf damage, alterations in germination rates, growth and yield, or variations in the concentration of essential elements, for example, have been reported. However, these physiological responses and changes in plant morphology appear to be secondary to surface stimulation by the static EF or caused by concomitant parameters of the electrostatic environment. Furthermore, all of the included studies suffered from methodological flaws, which lowered credibility in the results. At field levels encountered from natural sources or HVDC lines (invertebrates, but they do not provide evidence for adverse effects of static EF on other biological functions in invertebrates and plants. At far higher field levels (> 35kV/m), adverse effects on physiology and morphology, presumably caused by corona-action, appear

  3. A spatial assessment of ecosystem services in Europe - Phase II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maes, Joachim; Hauck, Jennifer; Paracchini,, Maria Luisa

    Mainstreaming ecosystem services in EU decision making processes requires a solid conceptual and methodological framework for mapping and assessing ecosystem services that serve the multiple objectives addressed by policies. The PRESS-2 study (PEER Research on Ecosystem Service – Phase 2) provide...

  4. The SPARC water vapor assessment II: intercomparison of satellite and ground-based microwave measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Nedoluha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of the second SPARC (Stratosphere–troposphere Processes And their Role in Climate water vapor assessment (WAVAS-II, we present measurements taken from or coincident with seven sites from which ground-based microwave instruments measure water vapor in the middle atmosphere. Six of the ground-based instruments are part of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC and provide datasets that can be used for drift and trend assessment. We compare measurements from these ground-based instruments with satellite datasets that have provided retrievals of water vapor in the lower mesosphere over extended periods since 1996. We first compare biases between the satellite and ground-based instruments from the upper stratosphere to the upper mesosphere. We then show a number of time series comparisons at 0.46 hPa, a level that is sensitive to changes in H2O and CH4 entering the stratosphere but, because almost all CH4 has been oxidized, is relatively insensitive to dynamical variations. Interannual variations and drifts are investigated with respect to both the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS; from 2004 onwards and each instrument's climatological mean. We find that the variation in the interannual difference in the mean H2O measured by any two instruments is typically  ∼  1%. Most of the datasets start in or after 2004 and show annual increases in H2O of 0–1 % yr−1. In particular, MLS shows a trend of between 0.5 % yr−1 and 0.7 % yr−1 at the comparison sites. However, the two longest measurement datasets used here, with measurements back to 1996, show much smaller trends of +0.1 % yr−1 (at Mauna Loa, Hawaii and −0.1 % yr−1 (at Lauder, New Zealand.

  5. Complex Moving Parts: Assessment Systems and Electronic Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Martha J.; Robertson, Royce L.

    2013-01-01

    The largest college within an online university of over 50,000 students invested significant resources in translating a complex assessment system focused on continuous improvement and national accreditation into an effective and efficient electronic portfolio (ePortfolio). The team building the system needed a model to address problems met…

  6. Human Rehabilitation Techniques. Disability Analyses: Motor Disabilities. Volume II, Part A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigelman, C.; And Others

    Volume II, Section A of a six-volume final report (which covers the findings of a research project on policy and technology related to rehabilitation of disabled individuals) presents a review of literature on three types of motor disabilities--stroke, spinal cord injury, and cerebral palsy. Individual chapters on each disability cover the…

  7. GUIDE FOR TEACHING ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE TO ELEMENTARY SCHOOL PUPILS. LEVEL II, PART 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WILSON, ROBERT; AND OTHERS

    THE 55 AUDIO-LINGUAL LESSON UNITS OF "TEACHING ENGLISH EARLY" ARE DESIGNED AS A GUIDE FOR THE TEACHER OF ELEMENTARY GRADE CHILDREN WHO HAVE REACHED LEVEL II IN ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE. AIMED PRIMARILY AT THE SPANISH-SPEAKING (MEXICAN-AMERICAN) CHILD, THIS PRE-READING MATERIAL MAY BE USED WITH OTHER LANGUAGE BACKGROUNDS. (SEE THE FINAL REPORT…

  8. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1068 - Emission-Related Parameters and Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dimension. 4. Camshaft timing. a. Valve opening—intake exhaust (degrees from top-dead center or bottom-dead center). b. Valve closing—intake exhaust (degrees from top-dead center or bottom-dead center). c. Valve... bottom-dead center). II. Intake Air System. 1. Roots blower/supercharger/turbocharger calibration. 2...

  9. Studies on the sediments of Vembanad Lake, Kerala state: Part II - Distribution of phosphorus

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, P.S.N.; Veerayya, M.

    in the estuarine region has been attributed to several factors. The impoverishment of Mn and Co can be due to (i) desorption of these elements from the river borne detritus on coming into contact with saline waters, (ii) dredging operations which may lead...

  10. Water mite species of the genus Hydrodroma Koch (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Hydrodromidae) from Australia. Part II.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pesic, V.; Smit, H.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Two new water mite species of the genus Hydrodroma Koch (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Hydrodromidae), characterized by single or absence of swimming setae on II-L-5, are reported from Australia: Hydrodroma wilesi sp. nov. and H. cooki sp. nov. New information is provided for H. tonapii Cook from

  11. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT XV, UNDERSTANDING DC GENERATOR PRINCIPLES (PART II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES FOR DIRECT CURRENT GENERATORS USED ON DIESEL POWERED EQUIPMENT. TOPICS ARE SPECIAL GENERATOR CIRCUITS, GENERATOR TESTING, AND GENERATOR POLARITY. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "DC GENERATORS II--GENERATOR…

  12. Human Rehabilitation Techniques. Disability Analyses: Behavioral Disabilities. Volume II, Part B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigelman, C.; And Others

    Volume II, Section B of a six-volume final report (which covers the findings of a research project on policy and technology related to rehabilitation of disabled individuals) presents a review of literature on three types of behavior disabilities--epilepsy, mental retardation, and schizophrenia. Individual chapters on each disability cover the…

  13. Quality Assurance Assessment of the F-35 Lightning II Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Australia, Denmark , and Norway. The F-35 has three variants. The Conventional Takeoff and Landing (CTOL), Short Takeoff and Vertical Landing...On-Board Oxygen Generation System (OBOGS), Backup Oxygen System (BOS), and Service Connection Package. Figure 11 is a diagram of the Life Support... Backup Oxygen Supply (BOS) Contractor Assessments DODIG-2013-140 │ 45 Figure 12. Honeywell Findings Human Resources (6.2) Competence, Training, and

  14. Assessment of the basic energy sciences program. Volume II. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-01

    A list of experts reviewing the Basic Energy Sciences (BES) program and their organizations are given. The assessment plan is explained; the program examined the following: quality of science being conducted in the program, quality of performers supported by the Basic Energy Sciences (BES) program, and the impact of the research on mission oriented needs. The intent of the assessment is to provide an indication of general status relative to these questions for the BES divisions. The approach to the assessment is described. The sampling plan which was used as a guide in determining the sample size and selecting the sample to evaluate the research program of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences are discussed. Special analyses were conducted on the dispersion of reviewers' ratings, the ratings of the lower funded projects, and the amount of time the principal investigator devoted to the project. These are presented in the final appendix together with histograms for individual rating variables for each program area. (MCW)

  15. Safety Assessment of Advanced Imaging Sequences II: Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2016-01-01

    An automatic approach for simulating the emitted pressure, intensity, and mechanical index (MI) of advanced ultrasound imaging sequences is presented. It is based on a linear simulation of pressure fields using Field II, and it is hypothesized that linear simulation can attain the needed accuracy for predicting MI and I(spta.3) as required by FDA. The method is performed on four different imaging schemes and compared to measurements conducted using the SARUS experimental scanner. The sequences include focused emissions with an F-number of 2 with 64 elements that generate highly nonlinear fields. The simulation time is between 0.67 and 2.8 ms per emission and imaging point, making it possible to simulate even complex emission sequences in less than 1 s for a single spatial position. The linear simulations yield a relative accuracy on MI between -12.1% and 52.3% and for I(spta.3) between -38.6% and 62.6%, when using the impulse response of the probe estimated from an independent measurement. The accuracy is increased to between -22% and 24.5% for MI and between -33.2% and 27.0% for I(spta.3), when using the pressure response measured at a single point to scale the simulation. The spatial distribution of MI and I(ta.3) closely matches that for the measurement, and simulations can, therefore, be used to select the region for measuring the intensities, resulting in a significant reduction in measurement time. It can validate emission sequences by showing symmetry of emitted pressure fields, focal position, and intensity distribution.

  16. A study of flame spread in engineered cardboard fuelbeds: Part II: Scaling law approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittany A. Adam; Nelson K. Akafuah; Mark Finney; Jason Forthofer; Kozo Saito

    2013-01-01

    In this second part of a two part exploration of dynamic behavior observed in wildland fires, time scales differentiating convective and radiative heat transfer is further explored. Scaling laws for the two different types of heat transfer considered: Radiation-driven fire spread, and convection-driven fire spread, which can both occur during wildland fires. A new...

  17. Empirical Psycho-Aesthetics and Her Sisters: Substantive and Methodological Issues--Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konecni, Vladimir J.

    2013-01-01

    Empirical psycho-aesthetics is approached in this two-part article from two directions. Part I, which appeared in the Winter 2012 issue of "JAE," addressed definitional and organizational issues, including the field's origins, its relation to "sister" disciplines (experimental philosophy, cognitive neuroscience of art, and neuroaesthetics), and…

  18. Intraosseous carcinoma of the jaws: A clinicopathologic review. part II: Odontogenic carcinomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woolgar, J.A.; Triantafyllou, A.; Ferlito, A.; Devaney, K.O.; Lewis Jr., J.S.; Rinaldo, A.; Slootweg, P.J.; Barnes, L.

    2013-01-01

    This is the second of a 3-part review of the clinicopathologic features of intraosseous carcinoma of the jaws (IOCJ). This part deals with odontogenic carcinomas, rare entities that are difficult to evaluate because of changes in classification/nomenclature, lack of standardized diagnostic criteria,

  19. Green's function of an infinite slot printed between two homogeneous dielectrics - Part II: Uniform asymptotic solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maci, S.; Neto, A.

    2004-01-01

    This second part of a two-paper sequence deals with the uniform asymptotic description of the Green's function of an infinite slot printed between two different homogeneous dielectric media. Starting from the magnetic current derived in Part I, the dyadic green's function is first formulated in

  20. Instrumentation: Photodiode Array Detectors in UV-VIS Spectroscopy. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dianna G.

    1985-01-01

    A previous part (Analytical Chemistry; v57 n9 p1057A) discussed the theoretical aspects of diode ultraviolet-visual (UV-VIS) spectroscopy. This part describes the applications of diode arrays in analytical chemistry, also considering spectroelectrochemistry, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), HPLC data processing, stopped flow, and…

  1. REMOTE SENSING TOOLS ASSIST IN ENVIRONMENTAL FORENSICS PART II - DIGITAL TOOLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is part two of a two-part discussion, in which we will provide an overview of the use of GIS and GPS in environmental analysis and enforcement. GIS describes a system that manages, analyzes and displays geographic information. Environmental applications include anal...

  2. An Interpretative Review of Smokeless Tobacco Research in the United States: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Elbert D.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presents second part of two-part series reviewing the published literature of smokeless tobacco in the United States. Explores smokeless tobacco as a pharmacologically addicting substance, discusses educational interventions designed to prevent use or help users quit, and outlines areas of future research. (Author)

  3. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment in Greece – Part 3: Deaggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G-A. Tselentis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present third part of the study, concerning the evaluation of earthquake hazard in Greece in terms of various ground motion parameters, deals with the deaggregation of the obtained results The seismic hazard maps presented for peak ground acceleration and spectral acceleration at 0.2 s and 1.0 s, with 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years, were deaggregated in order to quantify the dominant scenario. There are three basic components of each dominant scenario: earthquake magnitude (M, source-to-site distance (R and epsilon (ε. We present deaggregation maps of mean and mode values of M-R-ε triplet showing the contribution to hazard over a dense grid.

  4. Anatomical noise in contrast-enhanced digital mammography. Part II. Dual-energy imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Melissa L.; Yaffe, Martin J. [Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Mainprize, James G. [Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Carton, Ann-Katherine; Saab-Puong, Sylvie; Iordache, Răzvan; Muller, Serge [GE Healthcare, 283 rue de la Minière, Buc 78530 (France); Jong, Roberta A. [Breast Imaging, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Dromain, Clarisse [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulin, Villejuif 94805 (France)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: Dual-energy (DE) contrast-enhanced digital mammography (CEDM) uses an iodinated contrast agent in combination with digital mammography (DM) to evaluate lesions on the basis of tumor angiogenesis. In DE imaging, low-energy (LE) and high-energy (HE) images are acquired after contrast administration and their logarithms are subtracted to cancel the appearance of normal breast tissue. Often there is incomplete signal cancellation in the subtracted images, creating a background “clutter” that can impair lesion detection. This is the second component of a two-part report on anatomical noise in CEDM. In Part I the authors characterized the anatomical noise for single-energy (SE) temporal subtraction CEDM by a power law, with model parameters α and β. In this work the authors quantify the anatomical noise in DE CEDM clinical images and compare this with the noise in SE CEDM. The influence on the anatomical noise of the presence of iodine in the breast, the timing of imaging postcontrast administration, and the x-ray energy used for acquisition are each evaluated.Methods: The power law parameters, α and β, were measured from unprocessed LE and HE images and from DE subtracted images to quantify the anatomical noise. A total of 98 DE CEDM cases acquired in a previous clinical pilot study were assessed. Conventional DM images from 75 of the women were evaluated for comparison with DE CEDM. The influence of the imaging technique on anatomical noise was determined from an analysis of differences between the power law parameters as measured in DM, LE, HE, and DE subtracted images for each subject.Results: In DE CEDM, weighted image subtraction lowers β to about 1.1 from 3.2 and 3.1 in LE and HE unprocessed images, respectively. The presence of iodine has a small but significant effect in LE images, reducing β by about 0.07 compared to DM, with α unchanged. Increasing the x-ray energy, from that typical in DM to a HE beam, significantly decreases α by about 2

  5. Anatomical noise in contrast-enhanced digital mammography. Part II. Dual-energy imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Melissa L; Mainprize, James G; Carton, Ann-Katherine; Saab-Puong, Sylvie; Iordache, Razvan; Muller, Serge; Jong, Roberta A; Dromain, Clarisse; Yaffe, Martin J

    2013-08-01

    Dual-energy (DE) contrast-enhanced digital mammography (CEDM) uses an iodinated contrast agent in combination with digital mammography (DM) to evaluate lesions on the basis of tumor angiogenesis. In DE imaging, low-energy (LE) and high-energy (HE) images are acquired after contrast administration and their logarithms are subtracted to cancel the appearance of normal breast tissue. Often there is incomplete signal cancellation in the subtracted images, creating a background "clutter" that can impair lesion detection. This is the second component of a two-part report on anatomical noise in CEDM. In Part I the authors characterized the anatomical noise for single-energy (SE) temporal subtraction CEDM by a power law, with model parameters α and β. In this work the authors quantify the anatomical noise in DE CEDM clinical images and compare this with the noise in SE CEDM. The influence on the anatomical noise of the presence of iodine in the breast, the timing of imaging postcontrast administration, and the x-ray energy used for acquisition are each evaluated. The power law parameters, α and β, were measured from unprocessed LE and HE images and from DE subtracted images to quantify the anatomical noise. A total of 98 DE CEDM cases acquired in a previous clinical pilot study were assessed. Conventional DM images from 75 of the women were evaluated for comparison with DE CEDM. The influence of the imaging technique on anatomical noise was determined from an analysis of differences between the power law parameters as measured in DM, LE, HE, and DE subtracted images for each subject. In DE CEDM, weighted image subtraction lowers β to about 1.1 from 3.2 and 3.1 in LE and HE unprocessed images, respectively. The presence of iodine has a small but significant effect in LE images, reducing β by about 0.07 compared to DM, with α unchanged. Increasing the x-ray energy, from that typical in DM to a HE beam, significantly decreases α by about 2×10(-5) mm2, and lowers

  6. Carbon Management In the Post-Cap-and-Trade Carbon Economy-Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGroff, F. A.

    2014-12-01

    This is the second installment in our search for a comprehensive economic model to mitigate climate change due to anthropogenic activity. Last year we presented how the unique features of our economic model measure changes in carbon flux due to anthropogenic activity, referred to as carbon quality or CQ, and how the model is used to value such changes in the climate system. This year, our paper focuses on how carbon quality can be implemented to capture the effect of economic activity and international trade on the climate system, thus allowing us to calculate a Return on Climate System (RoCS) for all economic assets and activity. The result is that the RoCS for each public and private economic activity and entity can be calculated by summing up the RoCS for each individual economic asset and activity in which an entity is engaged. Such a macro-level scale is used to rank public and private entities including corporations, governments, and even entire nations, as well as human adaptation and carbon storage activities, providing status and trending insights to evaluate policies on both a micro- and macro-economic level. With international trade, RoCS measures the embodied effects on climate change that will be needed to assess border fees to insure carbon parity on all imports and exports. At the core of our vision is a comprehensive, 'open-source' construct of which our carbon quality metric is the first element. One goal is to recognize each country's endemic resources and infrastructure that affect their ability to manage carbon, while preventing spatial and temporal shifting of carbon emissions that reduce or reverse efforts to mitigate climate change. The standards for calculating the RoCS can be promulgated as part of the Generally Accepted Accounted Principles (GAAP) and the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) to ensure standard and consistent reporting. The value of such insights on the climate system at all levels will be crucial to managing

  7. Diabetes area patent participation analysis - part II: years 2011-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Markus; Crawford, Matthew; Moscovitz, Jamie E; Carpino, Philip A

    2018-02-01

    Diabetes is a metabolic disease characterized by elevated levels of plasma glucose. When untreated, diabetes increases the risk of developing co-morbidities such as cardiovascular disease. Several drugs, often used as part of combination therapies, have been approved to treat the disease, but these drugs will eventually fail to effectively control blood glucose levels, at which point insulin replacement therapy is required. A medical need exists for new antidiabetic drugs that exhibit good efficacy with improved safety/toleration profiles and can be added on top of existing therapies, or that can provide additional benefits beyond glucose lowering such as pancreatic beta (β)-cell protection. Areas covered: This review analyzes drug targets and applicants of patents that published between 2011-2016 claiming novel small or large molecules for the treatment of diabetes, and compares the results to the 2008-2010 time period. Expert opinion: A majority of patent activity around the discovery of new antidiabetic drugs in 2011-2016 was directed against 15 targets, most of which were also the focus of drug discovery efforts in the 2008-2010 time period. The top targets by total patent counts were DPP4, GLP1R, INSR, GPR119, and SGLT2 (SLC5A2). With the exception of GPR119, these are the pharmacological targets of some of the best-selling antidiabetic drugs currently on the market. The top targets of patent families with the largest size counts, a metric useful in assessing patent value and applicant interest, were AMPK, CALCR, DPP4, and GLP1R. The patent analysis identified several emerging targets with greater patent activity in 2011-2016 compared to 2008-2010, including FFAR1, FFAR4, and FGFR1. Most of the patent activity in 2011-2016 was directed at established and precedented diabetes targets, the modulation of which may lead to improvements in glucose control and a delay in the progression of the disease. Few targets were identified that promote pancreatic

  8. In vitro performance of Class I and II composite restorations: a literature review on nondestructive laboratory trials--part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietschi, D; Argente, A; Krejci, I; Mandikos, M

    2013-01-01

    Posterior adhesive restorations are a basic procedure in general dental practices, but their application remains poorly standardized as a result of the number of available options. An abundant number of study hypotheses corresponding to almost unlimited combinations of preparation techniques, adhesive procedures, restorative options, and materials have been described in the literature and submitted to various evaluation protocols. A literature review was thus conducted on adhesive Class I and II restorations and nondestructive in vitro tests using the PubMed/Medline database for the 1995-2010 period. The first part of this review discusses the selected literature related to photoelasticity, finite element analysis (FEM), and microleakage protocols. Based on the aforementioned evaluation methods, the following parameters proved influential: cavity dimensions and design, activation mode (light or chemical), type of curing light, layering technique, and composite structure or physical characteristics. Photoelasticity has various limitations and has been largely (and advantageously) replaced by the FEM technique. The results of microleakage studies proved to be highly inconsistent, and the further use of this technique should be strictly limited. Other study protocols for adhesive Class II restorations were also reviewed and will be addressed in part II of this article, together with a tentative relevance hierarchy of selected in vitro methods.

  9. In vivo assessment of accuracy of Propex II, Root ZX II, and radiographic measurements for location of the major foramen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampelini, Fernanda Garcia; Coelho, Marcelo Santos; Rios, Marcos de Azevêdo; Fontana, Carlos Eduardo; Rocha, Daniel Guimarães Pedro; Pinheiro, Sergio Luiz; Bueno, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this in vivo study was to assess the accuracy of 2 third-generation electronic apex locators (EALs), Propex II (Dentsply Maillefer) and Root ZX II (J. Morita), and radiographic technique for locating the major foramen (MF). Thirty-two premolars with single canals that required extraction were included. Following anesthesia, access, and initial canal preparation with size 10 and 15 K-flex files and SX and S1 rotary ProTaper files, the canals were irrigated with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. The length of the root canal was verified 3 times for each tooth using the 2 apex locators and once using the radiographic technique. Teeth were extracted and the actual WL was determined using size 15 K-files under a × 25 magnification. The Biostat 4.0 program (AnalystSoft Inc.) was used for comparing the direct measurements with those obtained using radiographic technique and the apex locators. Pearson's correlation analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used for statistical analyses. The measurements obtained using the visual method exhibited the strongest correlation with Root ZX II (r = 0.94), followed by Propex II (r = 0.90) and Ingle's technique (r = 0.81; p post hoc test) revealed significant differences between the radiographic measurements and both EALs measurements (p < 0.05). Both EALs presented similar accuracy that was higher than that of the radiographic measurements obtained with Ingle's technique. Our results suggest that the use of these EALs for MF location is more accurate than the use of radiographic measurements.

  10. In vivo assessment of accuracy of Propex II, Root ZX II, and radiographic measurements for location of the major foramen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Garcia Tampelini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim of this in vivo study was to assess the accuracy of 2 third-generation electronic apex locators (EALs, Propex II (Dentsply Maillefer and Root ZX II (J. Morita, and radiographic technique for locating the major foramen (MF. Materials and Methods Thirty-two premolars with single canals that required extraction were included. Following anesthesia, access, and initial canal preparation with size 10 and 15 K-flex files and SX and S1 rotary ProTaper files, the canals were irrigated with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. The length of the root canal was verified 3 times for each tooth using the 2 apex locators and once using the radiographic technique. Teeth were extracted and the actual WL was determined using size 15 K-files under a × 25 magnification. The Biostat 4.0 program (AnalystSoft Inc. was used for comparing the direct measurements with those obtained using radiographic technique and the apex locators. Pearson's correlation analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA were used for statistical analyses. Results The measurements obtained using the visual method exhibited the strongest correlation with Root ZX II (r = 0.94, followed by Propex II (r = 0.90 and Ingle's technique (r = 0.81; p < 0.001. Descriptive statistics using ANOVA (Tukey's post hoc test revealed significant differences between the radiographic measurements and both EALs measurements (p < 0.05. Conclusions Both EALs presented similar accuracy that was higher than that of the radiographic measurements obtained with Ingle's technique. Our results suggest that the use of these EALs for MF location is more accurate than the use of radiographic measurements.

  11. Improvement of the following accident dose assessment system (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Enn Han; Han, Moon Hee; Suh, Kyung Suk; Hwang, Won Tae; Choi, Young Gil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    The FADAS and its database have been updates for calculating the real-time wind fields continuously at the nuclear sites in Korea. The system has been constructed to compute the wind fields using its own process for the dummy meteorological data, and does not effect on the overall wind field module. If the radioactive materials are released into the atmosphere in real situation, the calculations of wind fields and exposure dose in the previous FADAS are performed in the case of the recognition of the above situation in the source term evaluation module. The current version of FADAS includes the program for evaluating the effect of the predicted accident and the assumed scenario together. The dose assessment module is separated into the real-time and the supposed accident respectively. 7 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs. (Author)

  12. The flipped classroom for professional development: part II. making podcasts and videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Charlene M; McDonald, Katie

    2013-11-01

    As described in Part I, podcasts and videos are educational technologies used to flip the classroom. This column describes the technology options for creating podcasts and videos and offers tips on developing podcasts and videos. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Handedness preference and switching of peptide helices. Part II: Helices based on noncoded α-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisma, Marco; De Zotti, Marta; Formaggio, Fernando; Peggion, Cristina; Moretto, Alessandro; Toniolo, Claudio

    2015-03-01

    In this second part of our review article on the preferred screw sense and interconversion of peptide helices, we discuss the most significant computational and experimental data published on helices formed by the most extensively investigated categories of noncoded α-amino acids. They are as follows: (i) N-alkylated Gly residues (peptoids), (ii) C(α) -alkylated α-amino acids, (iii) C(α,β) -sp(2) configurated α-amino acids, and (iv) combinations of residues of types (ii) and (iii). With confidence, the large body of interesting papers examined and classified in this editorial effort will stimulate the development of helical peptides in many diverse areas of biosciences and nanosciences. Copyright © 2015 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Applicability of the Existing CVD Risk Assessment Tools to Type II Diabetics in Oman: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhakeem Al-Rawahi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with type II diabetes (T2DM have an elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD, and it is considered to be a leading cause of morbidity and premature mortality in these patients. Many traditional risk factors such as age, male sex, hypertension, dyslipidemia, glycemic control, diabetes duration, renal dysfunction, obesity, and smoking have been studied and identified as independent factors for CVD. Quantifying the risk of CVD among diabetics using the common risk factors in order to plan the treatment and preventive measures is important in the management of these patients as recommended by many clinical guidelines. Therefore, several risk assessment tools have been developed in different parts of the world for this purpose. These include the tools that have been developed for general populations and considered T2DM as a risk factor, and the tools that have been developed for T2DM populations specifically. However, due to the differences in sociodemographic factors and lifestyle patterns, as well as the differences in the distribution of various CVD risk factors in different diabetic populations, the external applicability of these tools on different populations is questionable. This review aims to address the applicability of the existing CVD risk models to the Omani diabetic population.

  15. The copenhagen psychosocial questionnaire II (COPSOQ II) in Spain--a tool for psychosocial risk assessment at the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada, Salvador; Utzet, Mireia; Molinero, Emilia; Llorens, Clara; Moreno, Neus; Galtés, Ariadna; Navarro, Albert

    2014-01-01

    To describe the second version of the Spanish Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire and to present evidence of its validity and reliability. The original Danish long COPSOQ II questionnaire was adapted to the labor market, cultural, and linguistic setting of Spain and included in the 2010 Spanish Psychosocial Risks Survey. Analysis involved the assessment of psychometric characteristics and associations among psychosocial scales and health scales. Medium and short versions were derived from the long one. The long questionnaire was configured with 24 dimensions (92 items); medium-length questionnaire with 20 dimensions (69 items); and short questionnaire with 14 dimensions (28 items). All scales showed acceptable reliability and concordance between versions. Most associations among psychosocial scales and Mental Health, Stress, and Burnout scales were in the expected direction, except the scale of Influence, that showed some incongruent associations. Results support the validity and reliability of Spanish COPSOQ II questionnaires as tools for psychosocial risk assessment at the workplace, however, better scales should be developed specially for the dimension of Influence. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Mammalian Toxicity of Munition Compounds. Phase II. Effects of Multiple Doses. Part I. Trinitroglycerin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-02-25

    and degeneration and hemosiderosis . Some re- covery occurred despite zontinued dosing, before the 13th week. Mice fed 11 or 100 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks...addition, both the male and female rats fed TNG had hemosiderosis in the spleen and/or the liver. Feeding of 25% lactose did not cause any adverse signs, any...nephritls or mononuclear cell infiltration of the kidney. In addition, one female control had hemosiderosis in the spleen and iI mesinteric lymph node

  17. Project Monitor: Part II. Conservation in small business: an exploratory study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, P Y

    1979-08-01

    Project Monitor examined the energy conservation attitude and behavior of small samples of small business owners/operators in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, focusing on manufacturing concerns and retailers. Section I reports the findings on the energy conserving behavior of 92 smaller manufacturers and Section II identifies the factors which affect decision making concerning energy consuming activities by the owners/operators of 94 small retail establishments. In each, the impact of Project Pacesetter and of the coal strike and the general energy situation is considered. (MCW)

  18. Supuestos resueltos de contabilidad II. parte 2ª. curso 2013-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Osés García, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Este documento contiene ejercicios solucionados y comentados sobre los temas que componen el Plan Docente de la asignatura COMPTABILITAT II del Grau en Administració i Direcció d’Empreses que se imparte en la Facultat Economia i Empresa de la Universitat de Barcelona. Todos los ejercicios contenidos han aparecido en cursos anteriores al 2012-2013 en alguna de las pruebas de evaluación continuada o exámenes de evaluación final de la asignatura. Entendemos que esta publicación es una h...

  19. Transactive System: Part II: Analysis of Two Pilot Transactive Systems using Foundational Theory and Metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Jianming; Sun, Y; Kalsi, Karanjit; Widergren, Steven E.; Wu, Di; Ren, Huiying

    2018-01-24

    This document is the second of a two-part report. Part 1 reviewed several demonstrations of transactive control and compared them in terms of their payoff functions, control decisions, information privacy, and mathematical solution concepts. It was suggested in Part 1 that these four listed components should be adopted for meaningful comparison and design of future transactive systems. Part 2 proposes qualitative and quantitative metrics that will be needed to compare alternative transactive systems. It then uses the analysis and design principles from Part 1 while conducting more in-depth analysis of two transactive demonstrations: the American Electric Power (AEP) gridSMART Demonstration, which used a double –auction market mechanism, and a consensus method like that used in the Pacific Northwest Smart Grid Demonstration. Ultimately, metrics must be devised and used to meaningfully compare alternative transactive systems. One significant contribution of this report is an observation that the decision function used for thermostat control in the AEP gridSMART Demonstration has superior performance if its decision function is recast to more accurately reflect the power that will be used under for thermostatic control under alternative market outcomes.

  20. Arbitrary order 2D virtual elements for polygonal meshes: part II, inelastic problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artioli, E.; da Veiga, L. Beirão; Lovadina, C.; Sacco, E.

    2017-06-01

    The present paper is the second part of a twofold work, whose first part is reported in Artioli et al. (Comput Mech, 2017. doi: 10.1007/s00466-017-1404-5), concerning a newly developed Virtual element method (VEM) for 2D continuum problems. The first part of the work proposed a study for linear elastic problem. The aim of this part is to explore the features of the VEM formulation when material nonlinearity is considered, showing that the accuracy and easiness of implementation discovered in the analysis inherent to the first part of the work are still retained. Three different nonlinear constitutive laws are considered in the VEM formulation. In particular, the generalized viscoelastic model, the classical Mises plasticity with isotropic/kinematic hardening and a shape memory alloy constitutive law are implemented. The versatility with respect to all the considered nonlinear material constitutive laws is demonstrated through several numerical examples, also remarking that the proposed 2D VEM formulation can be straightforwardly implemented as in a standard nonlinear structural finite element method framework.

  1. Arbitrary order 2D virtual elements for polygonal meshes: part II, inelastic problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artioli, E.; Beirão da Veiga, L.; Lovadina, C.; Sacco, E.

    2017-10-01

    The present paper is the second part of a twofold work, whose first part is reported in Artioli et al. (Comput Mech, 2017. doi: 10.1007/s00466-017-1404-5), concerning a newly developed Virtual element method (VEM) for 2D continuum problems. The first part of the work proposed a study for linear elastic problem. The aim of this part is to explore the features of the VEM formulation when material nonlinearity is considered, showing that the accuracy and easiness of implementation discovered in the analysis inherent to the first part of the work are still retained. Three different nonlinear constitutive laws are considered in the VEM formulation. In particular, the generalized viscoelastic model, the classical Mises plasticity with isotropic/kinematic hardening and a shape memory alloy constitutive law are implemented. The versatility with respect to all the considered nonlinear material constitutive laws is demonstrated through several numerical examples, also remarking that the proposed 2D VEM formulation can be straightforwardly implemented as in a standard nonlinear structural finite element method framework.

  2. Psychometric evaluation of the Brachial Assessment Tool Part 1: Reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grad, Bridget Hill; Williams, Gavin; Olver, John; Ferris, Scott; Bialocerkowski, Andrea

    2017-11-06

    To evaluate reproducibility (reliability and agreement) of the Brachial Assessment Tool (BrAT) a new patient-reported outcome measure for adults with traumatic Brachial Plexus Injury (BPI) DESIGN: Prospective repeated measure design SETTING: Outpatient clinics PARTICIPANTS: Adults with confirmed traumatic BPI INTERVENTION: 43 people (age range 19-82) with BPI completed the 31-item 4-response BrAT twice, 2 weeks apart. Results for the 3 subscales and summed score were compared at time 1 and time 2 to determine reliability including systematic differences using paired t tests; test retest using Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC 1,1) and internal consistency using Cronbach alpha. Agreement parameters included standard error of measurement, minimal detectable change and limits of agreement. The BrAT RESULTS: Test retest reliability was excellent (ICC [1,1] = 0.90 - 0.97). Internal consistency was high (Cronbach alpha 0.90 - 0.98). Measurement error was relatively low (SEM range 3.1 - 8.8). A change of >4 for subscale 1, >6 for subscale 2, >4 for subscale 3 and >10 for the summed score is indicative of change over and above measurement error. Limits of agreement ranged from ± 4.4 (subscale 3) to 11.61 (summed score). These findings support the use of the BrAT as a reproducible patient reported outcome measure for adults with traumatic BPI with evidence of appropriate reliability and agreement for both individual and group comparisons. Further psychometric testing is required to establish the construct validity and responsiveness of the BrAT. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Controlled Nonlinear Stochastic Delay Equations: Part II: Approximations and Pipe-Flow Representations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushner, Harold J., E-mail: hjk@dam.brown.edu [Brown University, Applied Math (United States)

    2012-08-15

    This is the second part of a work dealing with key issues that have not been addressed in the modeling and numerical optimization of nonlinear stochastic delay systems. We consider new classes of models, such as those with nonlinear functions of several controls (such as products), each with is own delay, controlled random Poisson measure driving terms, admissions control with delayed retrials, and others. Part I was concerned with issues concerning the class of admissible controls and their approximations, since the classical definitions are inadequate for our models. This part is concerned with transportation equation representations and their approximations. Such representations of nonlinear stochastic delay models have been crucial in the development of numerical algorithms with much reduced memory and computational requirements. The representations for the new models are not obvious and are developed. They also provide a template for the adaptation of the Markov chain approximation numerical methods.

  4. A review of breast tomosynthesis. Part II. Image reconstruction, processing and analysis, and advanced applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Many important post-acquisition aspects of breast tomosynthesis imaging can impact its clinical performance. Chief among them is the reconstruction algorithm that generates the representation of the three-dimensional breast volume from the acquired projections. But even after reconstruction, additional processes, such as artifact reduction algorithms, computer aided detection and diagnosis, among others, can also impact the performance of breast tomosynthesis in the clinical realm. In this two part paper, a review of breast tomosynthesis research is performed, with an emphasis on its medical physics aspects. In the companion paper, the first part of this review, the research performed relevant to the image acquisition process is examined. This second part will review the research on the post-acquisition aspects, including reconstruction, image processing, and analysis, as well as the advanced applications being investigated for breast tomosynthesis. PMID:23298127

  5. Dental sequellae of alveolar clefts: utility of endosseous implants. Part II: clinical cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samama, Yves; Tulasne, Jean-François

    2014-09-01

    This second part follows on from part 1 published in the previous issue of this journal. The aim of this publication is to offer teams specializing in the primary and secondary treatment of labio-alveolar-palatal clefts a prosthetic evaluation for more rational management of the dental sequellae of clefts for patients who, when they reach adulthood, often wish to improve their facial esthetics, in which the dental element plays an important part. The reorganization and restoration of the maxillary anterior teeth and their esthetic integration with respect to the face and lips would then be less of a problem for plastic surgeons and orthodontists. In this regard, the installation in this sector of implants, following ambitious bone surgery involving the sacrifice of the teeth of the medial nasal process in bilateral forms, is a protocol that could usefully be taken into account. Copyright © 2014 CEO. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation and diagnosis of the hair loss patient: part II. Trichoscopic and laboratory evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubki, Thamer; Rudnicka, Lidia; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Shapiro, Jerry

    2014-09-01

    The use of trichoscopy for evaluating a number of hair and scalp disorders is gaining popularity. It is a simple and noninvasive in vivo tool for visualizing hair shafts and the scalp. Recently, alopecias have been classified according to their trichoscopic findings. The second part of this 2-part continuing medical education article reviews recent advances in this field and describes a systematic approach for using the differential diagnostic findings of trichoscopy in alopecia. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Interface fatigue crack propagation in sandwich X-joints – Part II: Finite element modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moslemian, Ramin; Berggreen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the second and final part of this study is to simulate fatigue crack growth in the tested Sandwich Tear Test specimens, described in Part I, using the finite element method. To accelerate the simulation, a cycle jump method is utilized and implemented in the finite element routine....... The proposed method is based on conducting finite element analysis for a set of cycles to establish a trend line, extrapolating the trend line spanning many cycles, and use the extrapolated state as initial state for additional finite element simulations. The measured da/dN relations of the face/core interface...

  8. FROM ZERO-DIMENSIONAL TO 2-DIMENSIONAL CARBON NANOMATERIALS - part II: GRAPHENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin IANCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available As was presented in the first part of this review paper, lately, many theoretical and experimental studies have been carried out to develop one of the most interesting aspects of the science and nanotechnology which is called carbon-related nanomaterials. In this review paper are presented some of the most exciting and important developments in the synthesis, properties, and applications of low-dimensional carbon nanomaterials. In this part of the paper are presented the synthesis techniques used to produce the two-dimensional carbon nanomaterials (including graphene, and also the most important properties and potential applications of graphene.

  9. Extracranial tumor vascularity: determination by dynamic CT scanning. Part II. The unit approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Som, P.M.; Lanzieri, C.F.; Sacher, M.; Lawson, W.; Biller, H.F.

    1985-02-01

    Twenty-eight patients had combined conventional drip infusion CT scans. The information about the anatomic location of the lesion, its configuration, its cross-sectional appearance, its vacularity (as determined by dynamic signature curves), and its clinical presentation were considered as a single overall unit. This diagnostic approach allowed a diagnosis to be made on virtually all of these enhancing lesions without resorting to either a digital venous imaging study or angiographic procedure. In 17 of these cases, such an invasive second procedure was performed either to confirm the CT impression as part of this study or as part of a therapeutic embolization procedure.

  10. Troika's Portuguese Ministry of Justice Experiment, Part II: Continued positive results for civil enforcement actions in Troika's aftermath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Miguel Alves Ribeiro Correia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article constitutes part II of a series of studies on the impact of measures implemented by the Portuguese Ministry of Justice. Particularly, it addresses the results at the level of civil enforcement actions resulting from goals inscribed in the MoU signed between Portugal and the so called Troika (IMF/EC/ECB. The empirical study is now expanded to encompass the quantitative analysis of results achieved not only during the Troika’s period but during the post-Troika period as well. Results show a continued positive effect for civil enforcement actions in Troika's aftermath.

  11. Danish translation and adaptation of Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment 2nd Edition (LOTCA-II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Karina; Oestergaard, Lisa Gregersen; Maribo, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    To translate and adapt the English version of the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment 2nd Edition (LOTCA-II) to Danish. The translation process followed the overall guidelines of the World Health Organization (WHO) with forward translation, expert panel discussion, pre-tests and interviews with patients and laymen, and back-translation. The translation was successful and minor corrections and adaptations were made. In total three versions were produced before the final Danish version LOTCA-II/D was drafted. The Danish version of LOTCA-II was successfully translated and adapted based on the WHO guidelines. Before implementation in clinical practice further research of the reliability and validity of the LOTCA-II/D are needed.

  12. Attachment and Learning. Part II: The Learning Profile of the Avoidant and Disorganized Attachment Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, Heather

    2005-01-01

    Using the framework of Attachment Theory, and following on from Part 1, further patterns of Attachment Behaviour are described and linked to responses in the classroom. The Avoidant and Disorganized patterns are described and linked to responses in the classroom to the teacher and to the educational task illustrated by examples from practice.…

  13. Sintering of Multilayered Porous Structures: Part II – Experiments and Model Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, De Wei; Olevsky, Eugene; Esposito, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Experimental analyses of shrinkage and distortion kinetics during sintering of bilayered porous and dense gadolinium-doped ceria Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95d structures are carried out, and compared with the theoretical models developed in Part I of this work. A novel approach is developed for the determinat...

  14. Didactics of Biology. Selected Bibliography for 1982. Parts I and II. Information Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Antonin, Ed.; Lipertova, Paula, Ed.

    Selected articles on various aspects of biology teaching published in 1982 have been annotated in this two-part bibliography. Entries from 25 journals representing 12 countries are presented according to a topic area classification scheme listed in the table of contents. Countries represented include: Australia; Bulgaria; Czechoslovakia; Federal…

  15. Hip protectors: recommendations for conducting clinical trials--an international consensus statement (part II)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, I D; Robinovitch, S; Birge, S

    2010-01-01

    While hip protectors are effective in some clinical trials, many, including all in community settings, have been unable to demonstrate effectiveness. This is due partly to differences in the design and analysis. The aim of this report is to develop recommendations for subsequent clinical research....

  16. [Liver fibrosis and cirrhosis--selected cytokines, growth factors and proteins. Part II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirkowska, Agnieszka; Paczek, Leszek

    2011-01-01

    Fibrosis is characterized by balance disorders between syntesis and degradation ECM (Extracellular Matrix) by myofibroblasts. Activated by inflammation factor HSC cells transform in myofibroblasts. This changes are caused and assisted by number of mediators: cytokines, growth factors, kinases. All this stimulus we call fibrosis factors. This paper compose second part of object-article: Liver fibrosis and cirrhosis - causes.

  17. Numerical optimization of nitrogen application to rice. Part II. Field evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berge, ten H.F.M.; Qinghua, S.; Zhiming, Z.; Rao, K.S.; Riethoven, J.J.M.; Zhong, X.

    1997-01-01

    The MANAGE-N model (Part I; Ten Berge et al., this issue) was tested by comparing predicted and measured final crop biomass production for 48 rice cultivars under application of 0, 30–40, 60–80 and 90 to 120 kg urea-N per ha at Cuttack, India, during seven consecutive wet seasons. The overall

  18. Elastic and Piezoelectric Properties of Boron Nitride Nanotube Composites. Part II; Finite Element Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H. Alicia; Hardie, Robert; Yamakov, Vesselin; Park, Cheol

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the second part of a two-part series where the first part presents a molecular dynamics model of a single Boron Nitride Nanotube (BNNT) and this paper scales up to multiple BNNTs in a polymer matrix. This paper presents finite element (FE) models to investigate the effective elastic and piezoelectric properties of (BNNT) nanocomposites. The nanocomposites studied in this paper are thin films of polymer matrix with aligned co-planar BNNTs. The FE modelling approach provides a computationally efficient way to gain an understanding of the material properties. We examine several FE models to identify the most suitable models and investigate the effective properties with respect to the BNNT volume fraction and the number of nanotube walls. The FE models are constructed to represent aligned and randomly distributed BNNTs in a matrix of resin using 2D and 3D hollow and 3D filled cylinders. The homogenisation approach is employed to determine the overall elastic and piezoelectric constants for a range of volume fractions. These models are compared with an analytical model based on Mori-Tanaka formulation suitable for finite length cylindrical inclusions. The model applies to primarily single-wall BNNTs but is also extended to multi-wall BNNTs, for which preliminary results will be presented. Results from the Part 1 of this series can help to establish a constitutive relationship for input into the finite element model to enable the modeling of multiple BNNTs in a polymer matrix.

  19. Pathophysiology of immune-mediated demyelinating neuropathies--Part II: Neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franssen, Hessel; Straver, Dirk C G

    2014-01-01

    In the second part of this review we deal with the clinical aspects of immune-mediated demyelinating neuropathies. We describe the relationship between pathophysiology and symptoms and discuss the pathophysiology of specific disease entities, including Guillain-Barré syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, multifocal motor neuropathy, anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein neuropathy, and POEMS syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Quasi-homogeneous Critical Swirling Flows in Expanding pipes, Part II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fledderus, E.R.; van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.

    1996-01-01

    Time-independent swirling flows in rotationally symmetric pipes of constant and varying diameter are constructed using variational techniques. In Part I, by E. van Groesen, B. W. van de Fliert, and E. Fledderus (J. Math. Anal. Appl.,192(1995), 764-788.) critical flows in pipes of uniform

  1. Critiquing Teacher Preparation Research: An Overview of the Field, Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran-Smith, Marilyn; Villegas, Ana Maria; Abrams, Linda; Chavez-Moreno, Laura; Mills, Tammy; Stern, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    This is the second of a two-part article intended to offer teacher educators a cohesive overview of the sprawling and uneven field of research on teacher preparation by identifying, analyzing, and critiquing its major programs. The article discusses research on teacher preparation for the knowledge society and research on teacher preparation for…

  2. A history of the autonomic nervous system: part II: from Reil to the modern era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Peter C; Fisahn, Christian; Iwanaga, Joe; DiLorenzo, Daniel; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2016-12-01

    The history of the study of the autonomic nervous system is rich. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, scientists were beginning to more firmly grasp the reality of this part of the human nervous system. The evolution of our understanding of the autonomic nervous system has a rich history. Our current understanding is based on centuries of research and trial and error.

  3. Facilitating age diversity in organizations ‐ part II: managing perceptions and interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annet de Lange; Jürgen Deller; Beatrice van der Heijden; Guido Hertel

    2013-01-01

    Purpose ‐ Due to demographic changes in most industrialized countries, the average age of working people is continuously increasing, and the workforce is becoming more age-diverse. This review, together with the earlier JMP Special Issue "Facilitating age diversity in organizations ‐ part I:

  4. Facilitating age diversity in organizations – part II: managing perceptions and interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertel, Guido; van der Heijden, Beatrice; de Lange, Annet H.; Deller, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – Due to demographic changes in most industrialized countries, the average age of working people is continuously increasing, and the workforce is becoming more age-diverse. This review, together with the earlier JMP Special Issue “Facilitating age diversity in organizations – part I:

  5. The Multi-Disciplinary Graduate Program in Educational Research. Final Report, Part II; Methodoloqical Trilogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarsfeld, Paul F., Ed.

    Part two of a seven-section, final report on the Multi-Disciplinary Graduate Program in Educational Research, this document contains discussions of quantification and reason analysis. Quantification is presented as a language consisting of sentences (graphs and tables), words, (classificatory instruments), and grammar (rules for constructing and…

  6. Inequalities in South African health care: Part II. Setting the record ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While Part I of this article analysed the problem of structural inequalities in South African health care, this follow-up explores feasible and socially accountable principles as well as a policy strategy to equalise existing discrepancies and disparities. In addition, the prospects of equalising the disparities and discrepancies are ...

  7. The Concept of Time in Rehabilitation and Psychosocial Adaptation to Chronic Illness and Disability: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livneh, Hanoch

    2013-01-01

    The first part of this article focused on providing the reader with a general overview of the concept of time with special emphasis on understanding time's role in the structure of personality theories and their associated therapeutic approaches, as well as linking the discussion to the understanding of time in the context of psychosocial…

  8. EFSUMB Guidelines on Interventional Ultrasound (INVUS), Part II Diagnostic Ultrasound-Guided Interventional Procedures (Long Version)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidhu, P. S.; Brabrand, K.; Cantisani, V.

    2015-01-01

    This is the second part of the series on interventional ultrasound guidelines of the Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB). It deals with the diagnostic interventional procedure. General points are discussed which are pertinent to all patients, followed by organ...

  9. Multi-scale narratives from an IA perspective: Part II Participatory local scenario development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, K.; Patel, M.; Rothman, D.; Quaranta, G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper builds on Part I, where three European and Mediterranean scenarios were introduced. Theses scenarios can be typified as qualitative, integrated narrative storylines that describe three possible directions of future change until 2030. The main purpose of the paper is to summarise the

  10. Uni-directional waves over slowly varying bottom, part II: Deformation of travelling waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pudjaprasetya, S.R.; Pudjaprasetya, S.R.; van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.

    1996-01-01

    A new Korteweg-de Vries type of equation for uni-directional waves over slowly varying bottom has been derived in Part I. The equation retains the Hamiltonian structure of the underlying complete set of equations for surface waves. For flat bottom it reduces to the standard Korteweg-de Vries

  11. Modern Standard Arabic: Intermediate Level, Part II, Lessons 14-30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Peter; And Others

    This volume, the second of three texts for use in intermediate Arabic language courses, contains 17 lessons, each consisting of five main parts. Lessons 11 to 20 do not provide English translations for full sentences. The remaining lessons (21-30) are devoted to developing reading skills and bringing the student to the advanced level. The lessons…

  12. Part II: Ab Initio and NMR Investigations into the Barrier to Internal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A range of 2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl dimethylcarbamates were synthesized as described in part I of this publication, containing either an oxygen or sulphur α to the carbonyl or thiocarbonyl group of the amide moiety. Variable temperature and exchange spectroscopy NMR was performed on these compounds and the barrier ...

  13. Periodical Articles Dealing With the History of Advanced Mathematics--Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Cecil B.; Bidwell, James K.

    1976-01-01

    This is the second part of the bibliography published in the November 1976 issue, listing articles concerned with mathematics beyond that usually taught at the junior high level. Articles are listed concerning mathematical books, periodicals, mathematical societies, and mathematicians of ancient times through the 20th century; a miscellaneous…

  14. NEPSY-II Review: Korkman, M., Kirk, U., & Kemp, S. (2007). "NEPSY--Second Edition" (NEPSY-II). San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, John L.; Matthews, Robb N.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a review of the "NEPSY-Second Edition" (NEPSY-II), an updated and modified version of the NEPSY (Korkman, Kirk, & Kemp, 1998). The NEPSY-II is an individually administered compendium of tests designed to assess neuropsychological development in children ranging from 3 to 16.11 years old. The authors of the…

  15. Use of modulated excitation signals in ultrasound. Part II: Design and performance for medical imaging applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misaridis, Thanassis; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2005-01-01

    For pt.I, see ibid., vol.52, no.2, p.177-91 (2005). In the first paper, the superiority of linear FM signals was shown in terms of signal-to-noise ratio and robustness to tissue attenuation. This second paper in the series of three papers on the application of coded excitation signals in medical....... The method is evaluated first for resolution performance and axial sidelobes through simulations with the program Field II. A coded excitation ultrasound imaging system based on a commercial scanner and a 4 MHz probe driven by coded sequences is presented and used for the clinical evaluation of the coded....... The paper also presents acquired images, using complementary Golay codes, that show the deleterious effects of attenuation on binary codes when processed with a matched filter, als- - o confirmed by the presented simulated images....

  16. Practical recommendations for fertility preservation in women by the FertiPROTEKT network. Part II: fertility preservation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Wolff, Michael; Germeyer, A; Liebenthron, J; Korell, M; Nawroth, F

    2018-01-01

    In addition to guidelines focusing on scientific evidence, practical recommendations on fertility preservation are also needed. A selective literature search was performed based on the clinical and scientific experience of the authors. This article (Part II) focuses on fertility preservation techniques. Part I, also published in this journal, provides information on disease prognosis, disease-specific therapy, and risks for loss of fertility. Ovarian stimulation including double stimulation and freezing of oocytes is the best-established therapy providing live birth chances in women good ovarian, if spontaneous conception is favoured and if preservation in women provides realistic chances of becoming pregnant. The choice of technique needs to be based on the time required, the woman's age, its risks and efficacy, and the individual preference of the patient.

  17. Ceramic materials for porcelain veneers: part II. Effect of material, shade, and thickness on translucency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barizon, Karine T L; Bergeron, Cathia; Vargas, Marcos A; Qian, Fang; Cobb, Deborah S; Gratton, David G; Geraldeli, Saulo

    2014-10-01

    Information regarding the differences in translucency among new ceramic systems is lacking. The purpose of this study was to compare the relative translucency of the different types of ceramic systems indicated for porcelain veneers and to evaluate the effect of shade and thickness on translucency. Disk specimens 13 mm in diameter and 0.7-mm thick were fabricated for the following 9 materials (n=5): VITA VM9, IPS Empress Esthetic, VITA PM9, Vitablocks Mark II, Kavo Everest G-Blank, IPS Empress CAD, IPS e.max CAD, IPS e.maxPress, and Lava Zirconia. VITA VM9 served as the positive control and Lava as the negative control. The disks were fabricated with the shade that corresponds to A1. For IPS e.maxPress, additional disks were made with different shades (BL2, BL4, A1, B1, O1, O2, V1, V2, V3), thickness (0.3 mm), and translucencies (high translucency, low translucency). Color coordinates (CIE L∗ a∗ b∗) were measured with a tristimulus colorimeter. The translucency parameter was calculated from the color difference of the material on a black versus a white background. One-way ANOVA, the post hoc Tukey honestly significant difference, and the Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch multiple range tests were used to analyze the data (α=.05). Statistically significant differences in the translucency parameter were found among porcelains (PPM9, Empress Esthetic>Empress CAD>Mark II, Everest, e.max CAD>e.max Press>Lava. Significant differences also were noted when different shades and thickness were compared (Pveneers present varying degrees of translucency. The thickness and shade of lithium disilicate ceramic affect its translucency. Shade affects translucency parameter less than thickness. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 38 CFR Appendix B to Part 200 - The Action Requiring an Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Environmental Assessment B Appendix B to Part 200 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief ARMED FORCES...—The Action Requiring an Environmental Assessment The following actions are not considered to be major... and would require the preparation of an Environmental Assessment (EA): B.1Construction on previously...

  19. Mixed ligand complexes of alkaline earth metals: Part XII. Mg(II, Ca(II, Sr(II and Ba(II complexes with 5-chlorosalicylaldehyde and salicylaldehyde or hydroxyaromatic ketones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MITHLESH AGRAWAL

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The reactions of alkaline earth metal chlorides with 5-chlorosalicylaldehyde and salicylaldehyde, 2-hydroxyacetophenone or 2-hydroxypropiophenone have been carried out in 1 : 1 : 1 mole ratio and the mixed ligand complexes of the type MLL’(H2O2 (where M = Mg(II, Ca(II, Sr(II and Ba(II, HL = 5-chlorosalicylaldehyde and HL’ = salicylaldehyde, 2-hydroxyacetophenone or 2-hydroxypropiophenone have been isolated. These complexes were characterized by TLC, conductance measurements, IR and 1H-NMR spectra.

  20. Autonomy, consent and responsibility. Part II. Informed consent in medical care and in the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellado, J M

    Legal recognition of patient's rights aspired to change clinical relationship and medical lex artis. However, its implementation has been hampered by the scarcity of resources and the abundance of regulations. For several years, autonomy, consent, and responsibility have formed one of the backbones of the medical profession. However, they have sparked controversy and professional discomfort. In the first part of this article, we examine the conceptual and regulatory limitations of the principle of autonomy as the basis of informed consent. We approach the subject from philosophical, historical, legal, bioethical, deontological, and professional standpoints. In the second part, we cover the viability of informed consent in health care and its relationship with legal responsibility. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Imaging of juvenile spondyloarthritis. Part II: Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Sudoł-Szopińska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile spondyloarthropathies are mainly manifested by symptoms of peripheral arthritis and enthesitis. Early involvement of sacroiliac joints and spine is exceptionally rare in children; this usually happens in adulthood. Conventional radiographs visualize late inflammatory lesions. Early diagnosis is possible with the use of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. The first part of the article presented classifications and radiographic presentation of juvenile spondyloarthropathies. This part discusses changes seen on ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. In patients with juvenile spondyloarthropathies, these examinations are conducted to diagnose inflammatory lesions in peripheral joints, tendon sheaths, tendons and bursae. Moreover, magnetic resonance also shows subchondral bone marrow edema, which is considered an early sign of inflammation. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging do not show specific lesions for any rheumatic disease. Nevertheless, they are conducted for early diagnosis, treatment monitoring and identifying complications. This article presents a spectrum of inflammatory changes and discusses the diagnostic value of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging.

  2. Nanotechnology and its relationship to interventional radiology. Part II: Drug Delivery, Thermotherapy, and Vascular Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Sarah; Slattery, Michael M; Lee, Michael J

    2011-08-01

    Nanotechnology can be defined as the design, creation, and manipulation of structures on the nanometer scale. This two-part review is intended to acquaint the interventionalist with the field of nanotechnology, and provide an overview of potential applications, while highlighting advances relevant to interventional radiology. Part 2 of the article concentrates on drug delivery, thermotherapy, and vascular intervention. In oncology, advances in drug delivery allow for improved efficacy, decreased toxicity, and greater potential for targeted therapy. Magnetic nanoparticles show potential for use in thermotherapy treatments of various tumours, and the effectiveness of radiofrequency ablation can be enhanced with nanoparticle chemotherapy agents. In vascular intervention, much work is focused on prevention of restenosis through developments in stent technology and systems for localised drug delivery to vessel walls. Further areas of interest include applications for thrombolysis and haemostasis.

  3. Global optimization of truss topology with discrete bar areas-Part II: Implementation and numerical results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achtziger, Wolfgang; Stolpe, Mathias

    2009-01-01

    bar areas. We consider here the difficult situation that the truss must be built from pre-produced bars with given areas. This paper together with Part I proposes an algorithmic framework for the calculation of a global optimizer of the underlying non-convex mixed integer design problem. In this paper......A classical problem within the field of structural optimization is to find the stiffest truss design subject to a given external static load and a bound on the total volume. The design variables describe the cross sectional areas of the bars. This class of problems is well-studied for continuous...... on the implementation details but also establish finite convergence of the branch-and-bound method. The algorithm is based on solving a sequence of continuous non-convex relaxations which can be formulated as quadratic programs according to the theory in Part I. The quadratic programs to be treated within the branch...

  4. Musculoskeletal disorders associated with HIV infection and AIDS. Part II: Non-infectious musculoskeletal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tehranzadeh, Jamshid [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Department of Radiological Sciences, Orange, CA (United States); Ter-Oganesyan, Ramon R. [College of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Steinbach, Lynne S. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, San Francisco (United States)

    2004-06-01

    This section of a two-part series on musculoskeletal disorders associated with HIV infection and AIDS reviews the non-infectious musculoskeletal conditions. In the first part, the infectious conditions were reviewed. The non-infectious conditions include polymyositis, drug-induced myopathy, myositis ossificans, adhesive capsulitis, avascular necrosis, bone marrow abnormalities, and hypertrophic osteoarthropathy. Inflammatory and reactive arthropathies are more prevalent in HIV-positive individuals, and a separate section is dedicated to these conditions, including Reiter's syndrome, psoriatic arthritis, HIV-associated arthritis, painful articular syndrome, and acute symmetric polyarthritis. Lastly, we include a discussion of HIV-related neoplastic processes that affect the musculoskeletal system, namely Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (orig.)

  5. Simulación de un reactor-cambiador PARTE II

    OpenAIRE

    López Gabanes, Antonio; Molero Fernández, Jorge; Herraiz Zambudio, José A.; Villora Cano, Gloria; Bódalo Santoyo, Antonio

    1981-01-01

    Como aplicación al tratamiento sobre simulación de un reactorcambiador expuesto en la PARTE I, se realiza a continuación un ejemplo de diseño para un sistema de reacciones simultáneas altamente exotérmicas, empleando agua como agente de enfriamiento. En base al tratamiento teórico expuesto en la PARTE I, como aplicación y comprobación de cuanto allí quedó discutido, se ha realizado el diseño de un reactor catalítico para la producción de óxido de etileno, diseño en...

  6. Information theory in systems biology. Part II: protein-protein interaction and signaling networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavian, Zaynab; Díaz, José; Masoudi-Nejad, Ali

    2016-03-01

    By the development of information theory in 1948 by Claude Shannon to address the problems in the field of data storage and data communication over (noisy) communication channel, it has been successfully applied in many other research areas such as bioinformatics and systems biology. In this manuscript, we attempt to review some of the existing literatures in systems biology, which are using the information theory measures in their calculations. As we have reviewed most of the existing information-theoretic methods in gene regulatory and metabolic networks in the first part of the review, so in the second part of our study, the application of information theory in other types of biological networks including protein-protein interaction and signaling networks will be surveyed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Advances in metabolome information retrieval: turning chemistry into biology. Part II: biological information recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebani, Abdellah; Afonso, Carlos; Bekri, Soumeya

    2017-08-25

    This work reports the second part of a review intending to give the state of the art of major metabolic phenotyping strategies. It particularly deals with inherent advantages and limits regarding data analysis issues and biological information retrieval tools along with translational challenges. This Part starts with introducing the main data preprocessing strategies of the different metabolomics data. Then, it describes the main data analysis techniques including univariate and multivariate aspects. It also addresses the challenges related to metabolite annotation and characterization. Finally, functional analysis including pathway and network strategies are discussed. The last section of this review is devoted to practical considerations and current challenges and pathways to bring metabolomics into clinical environments.

  8. Nanotechnology and its relationship to interventional radiology. Part II: Drug Delivery, Thermotherapy, and Vascular Intervention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, Sarah

    2012-02-01

    Nanotechnology can be defined as the design, creation, and manipulation of structures on the nanometer scale. This two-part review is intended to acquaint the interventionalist with the field of nanotechnology, and provide an overview of potential applications, while highlighting advances relevant to interventional radiology. Part 2 of the article concentrates on drug delivery, thermotherapy, and vascular intervention. In oncology, advances in drug delivery allow for improved efficacy, decreased toxicity, and greater potential for targeted therapy. Magnetic nanoparticles show potential for use in thermotherapy treatments of various tumours, and the effectiveness of radiofrequency ablation can be enhanced with nanoparticle chemotherapy agents. In vascular intervention, much work is focused on prevention of restenosis through developments in stent technology and systems for localised drug delivery to vessel walls. Further areas of interest include applications for thrombolysis and haemostasis.

  9. Nanotechnology and its Relationship to Interventional Radiology. Part II: Drug Delivery, Thermotherapy, and Vascular Intervention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, Sarah

    2010-09-16

    Nanotechnology can be defined as the design, creation, and manipulation of structures on the nanometer scale. This two-part review is intended to acquaint the interventionalist with the field of nanotechnology, and provide an overview of potential applications, while highlighting advances relevant to interventional radiology. Part 2 of the article concentrates on drug delivery, thermotherapy, and vascular intervention. In oncology, advances in drug delivery allow for improved efficacy, decreased toxicity, and greater potential for targeted therapy. Magnetic nanoparticles show potential for use in thermotherapy treatments of various tumours, and the effectiveness of radiofrequency ablation can be enhanced with nanoparticle chemotherapy agents. In vascular intervention, much work is focused on prevention of restenosis through developments in stent technology and systems for localised drug delivery to vessel walls. Further areas of interest include applications for thrombolysis and haemostasis.

  10. Oral ulcers: clinical aspects. A tool for dermatologists. Part II. Chronic ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Corcuera, M; Esparza-Gómez, G; González-Moles, M A; Bascones-Martínez, A

    2009-06-01

    Oral ulcers are generally painful lesions that are related to various conditions developing within the oral cavity. They can be classified as acute or chronic according to their presentation and progression. Acute oral ulcers are be associated with conditions such as trauma, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, Behçet's disease, bacterial and viral infections, allergic reactions or adverse drug reactions. Chronic oral ulcers are associated with conditions such as oral lichen planus, pemphigus vulgaris, mucosal pemphigoid, lupus erythematosus, mycosis and some bacterial and parasitic diseases. The correct differential diagnosis is necessary to establish the appropriate treatment, taking into account all the possible causes of ulcers in the oral cavity. In this second part of this two-part review, chronic oral ulcers are reviewed.

  11. Interview-Based Qualitative Research in Emergency Care Part II: Data Collection, Analysis and Results Reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Ranney, Megan L.; Meisel, Zachary; Choo, Esther K.; Garro, Aris; Sasson, Comilla; Morrow, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative methods are increasingly being used in emergency care research. Rigorous qualitative methods can play a critical role in advancing the emergency care research agenda by allowing investigators to generate hypotheses, gain an in-depth understanding of health problems or specific populations, create expert consensus, and develop new intervention and dissemination strategies. In Part I of this two-article series, we provided an introduction to general principles of applied qualitative...

  12. Microgrids in Active Network Management-Part II:System Operation, Power Quality and Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Palizban, Omid; Kauhaniemi, Kimmo; Josep M. Guerrero

    2014-01-01

    The development of distribution networks for participation in active network management (ANM) and smart grids is introduced using the microgrid concept. In recent years, this issue has been researched and implemented by many experts. The second part of this paper describes those developed operational concepts of microgrids that have an impact on their participation in ANM and in the requirements for achieving targets. Power quality is the most challenging task in microgrids, especially when t...

  13. How to succeed in science: a concise guide for young biomedical scientists. Part II: making discoveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yewdell, Jonathan W

    2008-06-01

    Making discoveries is the most important part of being a scientist, and also the most fun. Young scientists need to develop the experimental and mental skill sets that enable them to make discoveries, including how to recognize and exploit serendipity when it strikes. Here, I provide practical advice to young scientists on choosing a research topic, designing, performing and interpreting experiments and, last but not least, on maintaining your sanity in the process.

  14. Anti-Hypertensive Herbs and Their Mechanisms of Action: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, M. Akhtar; Al Disi, Sara S.; Eid, Ali H.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional medicine has a history extending back to thousands of years, and during the intervening time, man has identified the healing properties of a very broad range of plants. Globally, the use of herbal therapies to treat and manage cardiovascular disease (CVD) is on the rise. This is the second part of our comprehensive review where we discuss the mechanisms of plants and herbs used for the treatment and management of high blood pressure. Similar to the first part, PubMed and ScienceDirect databases were utilized, and the following keywords and phrases were used as inclusion criteria: hypertension, high blood pressure, herbal medicine, complementary and alternative medicine, endothelial cells, nitric oxide (NO), vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, hydrogen sulfide, nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), oxidative stress, and epigenetics/epigenomics. Each of the aforementioned keywords was co-joined with plant or herb in question, and where possible with its constituent molecule(s). This part deals in particular with plants that are used, albeit less frequently, for the treatment and management of hypertension. We then discuss the interplay between herbs/prescription drugs and herbs/epigenetics in the context of this disease. The review then concludes with a recommendation for more rigorous, well-developed clinical trials to concretely determine the beneficial impact of herbs and plants on hypertension and a disease-free living. PMID:27014064

  15. Environmental stressors and cardio-metabolic disease: part II-mechanistic insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münzel, Thomas; Sørensen, Mette; Gori, Tommaso; Schmidt, Frank P; Rao, Xiaoquan; Brook, Frank R; Chen, Lung Chi; Brook, Robert D; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2017-02-21

    Environmental factors can act as facilitators of chronic non-communicable diseases. Ambient noise and air pollution collectively outrank all other environmental risk factors in importance, contributing to over 75% of the disease and disability burden associated with known environmental risk factors. In the first part of this review, we discussed the global burden and epidemiologic evidence supporting the importance of these novel risk factors as facilitators of cardiometabolic disease. In this part, we will discuss pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for noise and air pollution-mediated effects. Akin to traditional cardiovascular risk factors, a considerable body of evidence suggests that these environmental agents induce low-grade inflammation, oxidative stress, vascular dysfunction, and autonomic nervous system imbalance, thereby facilitating the development of diseases such as hypertension and diabetes. Through their impact on traditional risk factors and via additional novel mechanisms, environmental risk factors may have much larger impact on cardiovascular events than currently appreciated. In the second part of this review, we discuss deficiencies and gaps in knowledge and opportunities for new research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  16. The motion planning problem and exponential stabilization of a heavy chain. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Grabowski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the second part of paper [P. Grabowski, The motion planning problem and exponential stabilization of a heavy chain. Part I, to appear in International Journal of Control], where a model of a heavy chain system with a punctual load (tip mass in the form of a system of partial differential equations was interpreted as an abstract semigroup system and then analysed on a Hilbert state space. In particular, in [P. Grabowski, The motion planning problem and exponential stabilization of a heavy chain. Part I, to appear in International Journal of Control] we have formulated the problem of exponential stabilizability of a heavy chain in a given position. It was also shown that the exponential stability can be achieved by applying a stabilizer of the colocated-type. The proof used the method of Lyapunov functionals. In the present paper, we give other two proofs of the exponential stability, which provides an additional intrinsic insight into the exponential stabilizability mechanism. The first proof makes use of some spectral properties of the system. In the second proof, we employ some relationships between exponential stability and exact observability.

  17. PIO I-II tendencies case study. Part 1. Mathematical modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian TOADER

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, a study is performed from the perspective of giving a method to reduce the conservatism of the well known PIO (Pilot-Induced Oscillation criteria in predicting the susceptibility of an aircraft to this very harmful phenomenon. There are three interacting components of a PIO – the pilot, the vehicle, and the trigger (in fact, the hazard. The study, conceived in two parts, aims to underline the importance of human pilot model involved in analysis. In this first part, it is shown, following classical sources, how the LQG theory of control and estimation is used to obtain a complex model of human pilot. The approach is based on the argument, experimentally proved, that the human behaves “optimally” in some sense, subject to his inherent psychophysical limitations. The validation of such model is accomplished based on the experimental model of a VTOL-type aircraft. Then, the procedure of inserting typical saturation nonlinearities in the open loop transfer function is presented. A second part of the paper will illustrate PIO tendencies evaluation by means of a grapho-analytic method.

  18. Part I: In-situ fluorometric quantification of microalgal neutral lipids. Part II: Thermal degradation behavior of investment casting polymer patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongfang

    Research described in this dissertation covers two topics. Part-I is focused on in-situ determination of neutral lipid content of microalgae using a lipophilic fluorescent dye. The traditional Nile red stain-based method for detecting microalgal intracellular lipids is limited due to varying composition and thickness of rigid cell walls. In this study, the addition of dilute acid and heating of solution, were found to greatly enhance staining efficiency of Nile red for microalgal species evaluated. Oil-in-water (O/W) microemulsion stabilized by a non-ionic surfactant was employed as a pseudo-standard that mimics lipid-bearing microalgal cells suspended in water. The average neutral lipid contents determined were very close to the results obtained by traditional gravimetric method and solid phase extraction. Part II of the dissertation explores thermo-physico-chemical properties of polymeric pattern materials, including expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam, polyurethane foam, and epoxy stereolithography (SLA) patterns, that are used in investment casting. Density, elastic modulus, expansion coefficient, thermal degradation behavior, etc. were experimentally investigated for their effects on metal casting quality. The reduction in toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) generated during thermal decomposition of polyurethane pattern was achieved by increasing either oxidant level or residence time in heated zone. Thermal degradation kinetics of the pattern materials were examined with a thermogravimetric analysis and activation energies were determined by Kissinger and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa methods.

  19. Oral health assessment and mouth care for children and young people receiving palliative care. Part two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, S; Chamley, C

    2013-04-01

    This is the second part of a two-part article on oral health assessment and mouth care for children and young people receiving palliative care. This article covers basic oral hygiene and management of oral health problems: oral candidiasis, coated tongue/dirty mouth, dry mouth, hypersalivation, ulceration, painful mouth, stomatitis and mucositis. The article also covers treating patients who are immunocompromised and the need to educate families and carers in the basic principles of oral care, including the importance of preventing cross-infection. Part one outlined oral assessment and discussed the adaptation of the Nottingham Oral Health Assessment Tool (Freer 2000).

  20. 77 FR 60124 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Initial Completeness Assessments for Type II Active Pharmaceutical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... ``Initial Completeness Assessments for Type II API DMFs Under GDUFA.'' Under the Generic Drug User Fee... ingredient (API) drug master files (DMFs) that are referenced in generic drug applications, or in amendments... Dockets Management (HFA-305), Food and Drug Administration, 5630 Fishers Lane, Rm. 1061, Rockville, MD...