WorldWideScience

Sample records for assessment options issues

  1. NAEP 12th Grade World History Assessment: Issues and Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Robert B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a snapshot of world history education to illuminate the challenges that the National Assessment Governing Board faces in creating a National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) world history framework. Using state standards documents, statutes concerning high school graduation, results from the NAEP transcript studies,…

  2. Vojany Station reconstruction, repowering and expansion assessment: Options, issues and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, W.F. [Southern Electric International, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States); Griswold, G.H.; Peyton, J.C. [Southern Company Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Recent European community and state specific environmental guideline, legislative, and regulatory activities have led power producers to assess their currently installed generation technologies with regard to clean air compliance strategies. For the application to older generation facilities, the prudence of linking facility rehabilitation with the addition of environmental control systems to repowering options is warranted. Similarly, ongoing privatization efforts emphasize the necessity for sound economic decisions of site specific technological applications that consider maintaining or enhancing thermal efficiencies. Southern Electric International (SEI) has conducted such a feasibility study assessment evaluating the reconstruction, repowering and possible expansion of the Slovensky Energeticky Podnik (SEP) 1320 MWe Vojany Station in the Republic of Slovakia. Alternatives included such technologies as atmospheric fluid bed combustion, furnace and duct sorbent injection, low NOx burners, gas re-burn, selective catalytic reduction, selective non-catalytic reduction, state of the art precipitators and baghouses, wet and dry flue gas desulfurization systems and repowering technologies. In addition, new, turn of the century environmentally plausible and efficient electric power technologies were addressed.

  3. Option valuation for energy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostertag, K.; Llerena, P.; Richard, A.

    2004-01-01

    In many industrial and economic situations, decision processes, both individual and collective, have to simultaneously face uncertainty and irreversibility of some kind. This is particularly valid for energy choices if they are linked to technological alternatives. The purpose of this book is to highlight specific aspects of these situations. This is done from the particular perspective of option valuation. The contributions to this book grew out of an international workshop on ''Option valuation in energy and environmental issues'' held at the Fraunhofer ISI in February 2003. This workshop brought together reseachers from energy economics, but also researchers working on option valuation in other empirical fields or with a more theoretical perspective. This is reflected in the organisation of the book, which starts with some theory-oriented contributions and subsequently presents more applied contributions in the field of energy economics with an extension to water infrastructure in the annex. (orig.)

  4. Issues and Options in Creating a National Assessment in World History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Robert B.; Shreiner, Tamara L.

    2005-01-01

    The National Assessment Governing Board (NAGB) is considering creating a National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) for world history education. On the surface, a national assessment in world history appears to be a sensible and essentially unproblematic decision. However, problems lurk below the surface challenging the creation of a…

  5. The Department of Homeland Security's Risk Assessment Methodology: Evolution, Issues, and Options for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Masse, Todd; O'Neil, Siobhan; Rollins, John

    2007-01-01

    .... Secretary Chertoff has stated "DHS must base its work on priorities driven by risk" and, increasingly, risk assessment and subsequent risk mitigation have influenced all of the department's efforts...

  6. Cross-sectoral assessment of mitigation options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, K.

    1997-01-01

    similarly been assessed in the country study for Zimbabwe, The options include in particular efficiency improvements in industrial plants and in the energy sector, A new methodological issue in the country study for Zimbabwe is the comparable assessment of greenhouse gas reductions options for multiple...... emission sources and gases. The paper reports the result of the integrated assessment of CO2 and CH4 reduction options for energy, agriculture, forestry and waste management for Zimbabwe, This leads up to a final discussion on methodological issues involved in cross-sectoral mitigation assessment. (C) 1997...

  7. Key issues and options in accounting for carbon sequestration and temporary storage in life cycle assessment and carbon footprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandao, Miguel; Levasseur, Annie; Kirschbaum, Miko U. F.

    2013-01-01

    . However, there is still no overall consensus on the most appropriate ways of considering and quantifying it. Method: This paper reviews and discusses six available methods for accounting for the potential climate impacts of carbon sequestration and temporary storage or release of biogenic carbon in LCA...... footprinting (CF) are increasingly popular tools for the environmental assessment of products, that take into account their entire life cycle. There have been significant efforts to develop robust methods to account for the benefits, if any, of sequestration and temporary storage and release of biogenic carbon...

  8. Solar Access: Issues and Policy Options | State, Local, and Tribal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Governments | NREL Solar Access: Issues and Policy Options Solar Access: Issues and Policy Options June 06, 2017 by Alison Holm Distributed solar capacity in the United States is on the rise : approximately 2,580 megawatts (MW) of new residential solar photovoltaic (PV) capacity was brought online in

  9. Energy and sustainable development: issues and options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appert, O.

    2001-01-01

    Future development needs to be sustainable in all of its dimensions if it is to continue to fully contribute to human welfare. In the achievement of this objective, the manner in which energy is produced and consumed is of crucial importance. In the wake of these insights, first attempts begin to provide concrete options for steps towards sustainability in the energy sector. Two criteria can be identified for developing sustainable development policies. First, such policies need to strike a balance between the three dimensions of sustainable development - economic, environmental and social - acknowledging that all three are intrinsically linked. Second, policies in the energy sector need to reduce exposure to large-scale risks and improve the resilience of the energy system through active risk management and diversification. (authors)

  10. Assessing Window Replacement Options | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  11. Spent fuel storage - dry storage options and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akins, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    The increase in the number of nuclear energy power generation facilities will require the ability to store the spent nuclear fuel for a long period until the host countries develop reprocessing or disposal options. Plants have storage pools which are closely associated with the operating units. These are excellent for short term storage, but require active maintenance and operations support which are not desirable for the long term. Over the past 25 years, dry storage options have been developed and implemented throughout the world. In recent years, protection against terrorist attack has become an increasing source of design objectives for these facilities, as well as the main nuclear plant. This paper explores the current design options of dry storage cask systems and examines some of the current design issues for above ground , in-ground, or below-ground storage of spent fuel in dry casks. (author)

  12. Energy options for residential buildings assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaie, Behnaz; Dincer, Ibrahim; Esmailzadeh, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Studying various building energy options. ► Assessing these options from various points. ► Comparing these options for better environment and sustainability. ► Proposing renewable energy options as potential solutions. - Abstract: The building sector, as one of the major energy consumers, demands most of the energy research to assess different energy options from various aspects. In this paper, two similar residential buildings, with either low or high energy consumption patterns, are chosen as case studies. For these case studies, three different renewable energy technology and three different hybrid systems are designed for a specified size. Then, the environmental impact indices, renewable energy indices, and the renewable exergy indices have been estimated for every energy options. Results obtained show that the hybrid systems (without considering the economics factors) are superior and having top indices. The importance of the energy consumption patterns in buildings are proven by the indices. By cutting the energy consumption to about 40% the environment index would increase by more than twice (2.1). Utilization of the non-fossil fuels is one part of the solution to environmental problems while energy conservation being the other. It has been shown that the re-design of the energy consumption model is less complex but more achievable for buildings.

  13. Imports/exports issues and options : discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Alberta marketplace is ideally located for connections to British Columbia, the Pacific Northwest, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and the Mid-Continental Area Power Pool (MAPP). Alignment with other markets becomes an important issue and provides challenges that must be overcome. It provides an opportunity for expanded trade in Alberta based loads and generation. The Real Time (RT) market for the trading of physical, dispatchable energy and the forwards markets (financial and intended to go to delivery through the RT market) are comprised in the Alberta marketplace. The development of a complete marketplace for electricity is fully supported by the Power Poll of Alberta. Developments in those two markets allow greater opportunity for a review of the interconnections in the Alberta electricity market. In this document, an attempt is made to identify issues relating to the imports and exports and develop alternative mechanisms to resolve these issues. Three main objectives were put forth: identify a better mechanism to meet the requirements of the Pool Price Deficiency Regulation (PPDR), identify a better mechanism to allow imports and exports to participate in the Alberta market that takes into consideration the impact of transmission constraints, and to better align with external markets. An hour ahead firm market for interconnections was one option that addresses the issues under consideration

  14. Issues in Assessment: Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Patricia A., Ed.

    This collection of articles is the third in a series on assessment produced by Finger Lakes Community College (New York). It deals with classroom assessment as an ongoing process that can be of significant value to teachers as well as to students. Assessment at the college and assessment in the classroom in general are explored. Articles include:…

  15. Air quality management in China: issues, challenges, and options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzed the control progress and current status of air quality, identified the major air pollution issues and challenges in future, proposed the long-term air pollution control targets, and suggested the options for better air quality in China. With the continuing growth of economy in the next 10-15 years, China will face a more severe situation of energy consumption, electricity generation and vehicle population leading to increase in multiple pollutant emissions. Controlling regional air pollution especially fine particles and ozone, as well as lowering carbon emissions from fossil fuel consumption will be a big challenge for the country. To protect public health and the eco-system, the ambient air quality in all Chinese cities shall attain the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) and ambient air quality guideline values set by the World Health Organization (WHO). To achieve the air quality targets, the emissions of SO2, NOx, PM10, and volatile organic compounds (VOC) should decrease by 60%, 40%, 50%, and 40%, respectively, on the basis of that in 2005. A comprehensive control policy focusing on multiple pollutants and emission sources at both the local and regional levels was proposed to mitigate the regional air pollution issue in China. The options include development of clean energy resources, promotion of clean and efficient coal use, enhancement of vehicle pollution control, implementation of synchronous control of multiple pollutants including SO2, NOx, VOC, and PM emissions, joint prevention and control of regional air pollution, and application of climate friendly air pollution control measures.

  16. 13 CFR 107.250 - Exclusion of stock options issued by Licensee from Management Expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Sbic § 107.250 Exclusion of stock options issued by Licensee from Management Expenses. Stock options... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exclusion of stock options issued by Licensee from Management Expenses. 107.250 Section 107.250 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL...

  17. Classroom Implementation. Issues in Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Patricia A., Ed.

    This booklet, second in a series on issues in assessment, seeks to describe an initiative supported by Finger Lakes Community College (New York) to use classroom assessment techniques (CATs) in different academic areas and to present an overview of some assessment approaches that have been used in the classroom. Papers include: (1) "Enhancing…

  18. Comparative Assessment of Energy Supply Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogner, H.-H.; Vladu, I. F.

    2000-01-01

    The complexity facing today's energy planners and decision-makers, particularly in electricity sector, has increased. They must take into account many elements in selecting technologies and strategies that will impact near term energy development and applications in their countries. While costs remain a key factor, tradeoffs between the demands of environmental protection and economic development will have to be made. This fact, together with the needs of many countries to define their energy and electricity programmes in a sustainable manner, has resulted in a growing interest in the application of improved data, tools and techniques for comparative assessment of different electricity generation options, particularly from an environmental and human health viewpoint. Although global emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants, e.g. SO 2 , NO x and particulate, must be reduced, the reality today is that these emissions are increasing and are expected to continue increasing. In examining the air pollutants, as well as water effluents and solid waste generated by electricity production, it is necessary to assess the full energy chain from fuel extraction to waste disposal, including the production of construction and auxiliary materials. The paper describes this concept and illustrates its implementation for assessing and comparing electricity generation costs, emissions, wastes and other environmental burdens from different energy sources. (author)

  19. Options for Open Issues in Planetary Protection on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Benton

    2016-07-01

    Planetary Protection policies span a wide range, with several new components which currently have only high-level requirements or concerns associated with them. There are various options for more detailed requirements and/or analyses which can be used to meet the intent and specifications attendant with each new policy. Encroachment near a Special Region (SR) requires special consideration. Unless Category IVb procedures are undertaken, no hardware may land within an error ellipse of a SR. However, a buffer zone could be specified, and/or assessment of contamination by windborne organisms taking into account prevailing weather, history of regional dust devils, "cleaning event" disturbances experienced by MER rovers, dilution effects relative to the 1E-4 criterion for equivalence to Category IVb bioburden reduction by dry heat, and time of exposure to harsh UV and oxidants on Mars. Most or all designated SR's are potentially but not yet proven to be SR's. Methane plume detection from orbit or ground-based assets, with consideration of where the putative SR may exist (subsurface?) can be quantitatively compared with the potential for contamination by downward transport of bioburden from hardware surfaces. Similar considerations apply to caves and cavities providing access to sub-surface regions, including evaluation of thermal regimes and compatibility with microbial growth. Ultimately, these decisions may be affected by assessment of intrinsic lethality of the martian environment which could be evaluated via direct experimentation, such as use of bacterial endospores or other hardy organisms that have been genetically engineered to prevent growth on Mars (e.g., knockout genes), with aliquots exposed separately to the full martian environment, to atmospheric oxidants (sans UV), and to the universal soil. Upon return-to-Earth, the survival power of such organism relative to control samples would provide direct measurements that can be used to evaluate and pave the way

  20. Assessment of basic safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queniart, D.

    1996-01-01

    Work on the French-German common safety approach for future nuclear power plants continued in 1994 to allow for more detailed discussion of some major issues, taking into account the options provided by the industry for the EPR (European Pressurized water Reactor) project, as described in the document entitled 'Conceptual Safety Features Review File'. Seven meetings of a GPR/RSK advisory experts subgroup, six GPR/RSK plenary sessions and six meetings of the safety authorities (DFD) dealt with the following topics: design of the systems and use of probabilistic approaches, application of a 'break preclusion' approach to the main primary pipings, protection against external hazards (aircraft crashes, explosions, earthquakes), provisions with respect to accidents involving core melt and to containment design, radiological consequences of reference accidents and accidents involving core melt at low pressure. The important aspects of the joint policy are recalled in the presentation. The whole set of GPR/RSK recommendations were agreed by the French and German safety authorities during the DFD meetings of 1994 and early 1995. The utilities decided to begin the basic design phase in February, 1995. Work is now continuing to develop the common French-German approach for future nuclear power plants, in the same way as before. In 1995, this mainly covers the design of the containment and of the systems, but also new issues such as the protection against secondary side overpressurization, radiological protection of workers and radioactive wastes. (J.S.). 3 figs., 1 tab

  1. Mycoplasma genitalium infections: current treatment options and resistance issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethi S

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sunil Sethi, Kamran Zaman, Neha Jain Department of Medical Microbiology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India Abstract: Mycoplasma genitalium is one of the important causes of non-gonococcal urethritis. Rising incidence and emerging antimicrobial resistance are a major concern these days. The poor clinical outcomes with doxycycline therapy led to the use of azithromycin as the primary drug of choice. Single-dose azithromycin regimen over a period of time was changed to extended regimen following studies showing better clinical cures and less risk of resistance development. However, emerging macrolide resistance, either due to transmission of resistance or drug pressure has further worsened the management of this infection. The issues of drug resistance and treatment failures also exist in cases of M. genitalium infection. At present, the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR M. genitalium strains is an alarming sign for its treatment and the associated public health impact due to its complications. However, newer drugs like pristinamycin, solithromycin, sitafloxacin, and others have shown a hope for the clinical cure, but need further clinical trials to optimize the therapeutic dosing schedules and formulate appropriate treatment regimens. Rampant and inappropriate use of these newer drugs will further sabotage future attempts to manage MDR strains. There is currently a need to formulate diagnostic algorithms and etiology-based treatment regimens rather than the syndromic approach, preferably using combination therapy instead of a monotherapy. Awareness about the current guidelines and recommended treatment regimens among clinicians and local practitioners is of utmost importance. Antimicrobial resistance testing and global surveillance are required to assess the efficacy of current treatment regimens and for guiding future research for the early detection and management of MDR M. genitalium infections

  2. Feedback implementation options and issues for B factory accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.D.; Briggs, D.; Eisen, N.; Hindi, H.; Hosseini, W.; Oxoby, G.; Linscott, I.; Coiro, O.; Ghigo, A.; Serio, M.; Lambertson, G.; Voelker, F.

    1992-09-01

    The proposed B factory accelerator facilities will require active feedback systems to control multibunch instabilities. These feedback systems must operate in machines with thousands of circulating bunches and with short (2--4 ns) interbunch intervals. The functional requirements for transverse (betatron) and longitudinal (synchrotron) feedback systems are presented. Several possible implementation options are discussed and system requirements developed. Conceptual designs are presented for the PEP II transverse and longitudinal feedback systems

  3. Reactor-Based Plutonium Disposition: Opportunities, Options, and Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, S.R.

    1999-01-01

    The end of the Cold War has created a legacy of surplus fissile materials (plutonium and highly enriched uranium) in the United States (U.S.) and the former Soviet Union. These materials pose a danger to national and international security. During the past few years, the U.S. and Russia have engaged in an ongoing dialog concerning the safe storage and disposition of surplus fissile material stockpiles. In January 1997, the Department of Energy (DOE) announced the U. S. would pursue a dual track approach to rendering approximately 50 metric tons of plutonium inaccessible for use in nuclear weapons. One track involves immobilizing the plutonium by combining it with high-level radioactive waste in glass or ceramic ''logs''. The other method, referred to as reactor-based disposition, converts plutonium into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for nuclear reactors. The U.S. and Russia are moving ahead rapidly to develop and demonstrate the technology required to implement the MOX option in their respective countries. U.S. MOX fuel research and development activities were started in the 1950s, with irradiation of MOX fuel rods in commercial light water reactors (LWR) from the 1960s--1980s. In all, a few thousand MOX fuel rods were successfully irradiated. Though much of this work was performed with weapons-grade or ''near'' weapons-grade plutonium--and favorable fuel performance was observed--the applicability of this data for licensing and use of weapons-grade MOX fuel manufactured with modern fuel fabrication processes is somewhat limited. The U.S. and Russia are currently engaged in an intensive research, development, and demonstration program to support implementation of the MOX option in our two countries. This paper focuses on work performed in the U.S. and provides a brief summary of joint U.S./Russian work currently underway

  4. Reactor-based plutonium disposition: Opportunities, options, and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, S.

    2000-01-01

    The end of the Cold War has created a legacy of surplus fissile materials (plutonium and highly enriched uranium) in the United States (U.S.) and the former Soviet Union. These materials pose a danger to national and international security. During the past few years, the U.S. and Russia have engaged in an ongoing dialog concerning the safe storage and disposition of surplus fissile material stockpiles. In January 1997, the Department of Energy (DOE) announced the U.S. would pursue a dual track approach to rendering approximately 50 metric tons of plutonium inaccessible for use in nuclear weapons. One track involves immobilizing the plutonium by combining it with high-level radioactive waste in glass or ceramic ''logs''. The other method, referred to as reactor-based disposition, converts plutonium into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for nuclear reactors. The U.S. and Russia are moving ahead rapidly to develop and demonstrate the technology required to implement the MOX option in their respective countries. U.S. MOX fuel research and development activities were started in the 1950s with irradiation of MOX fuel rods in commercial light water reactors (LWR) from the 1960s-1980s. In all, a few thousand MOX fuel rods were successfully irradiated. Though much of this work was performed with weapons-grade or ''near'' weapons-grade plutonium - and favorable fuel performance was observed - the applicability of this data for licensing and use of weapons-grade MOX fuel manufactured with modem fuel fabrication processes is somewhat limited. The U.S. and Russia are currently engaged in an intensive research, development, and demonstration program to support implementation of the MOX option in our two countries. This paper focuses on work performed in the U.S. and provides a brief summary of joint U.S./Russian work currently underway. (author)

  5. Geographic Concentration of Oil Infrastructure: Issues and Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-24

    along the Gulf of Mexico. 28 Figure 3 reveals the travel pattern of the two hurricanes and the scope of impact on oil and natural gas platforms...road to travel before this level of cooperation is achieved. 15 Consideration of this issue of geographic concentration of oil infrastructure...million), Port Security Grants ($201 million), Intercity Bus Security Grants ($12 million), Trucking Security Grants ($12 million), and Buffer Zone

  6. Chemical Facility Security: Reauthorization, Policy Issues, and Options for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    gaseous chlorine disinfection to chloramine disinfection —a change identified by some advocacy groups as being an inherently safer substitution—as being...chemicals, such as chlorine, for purposes such as disinfection .29 Advocates for their inclusion in security regulations cite the presence of such...Science and Technology (S& T ) Directorate is engaged in a Chemical Infrastructure Risk Assessment Project that, among other goals, will assess the

  7. Quality of life issues relating to endocrine treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P

    1999-01-01

    for measuring health-related quality of life should assess both overall and disease-specific quality of life. Data from two large studies of bicalutamide monotherapy show that this non-steroidal antiandrogen is associated with significant health-related quality of life advantages in the treatment of patients...

  8. Cost estimate and economic issues associated with the MOX option (prior to DOE's record of decision)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.L.; Miller, J.W.

    1997-04-01

    Before the January 1997 Record of Decision (ROD), the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE-MD) evaluated three technologies for the disposition of ∼50 MT of surplus plutonium from defense-related programs-reactors, immobilization, and deep boreholes. As part of the process supporting the ROD, and comprehensive assessment of technical viability, cost, and schedule was conducted by DOE-MD and its national laboratory contractors. Oak Ridge National Laboratory managed and coordinated the life-cycle cost (LCC) assessment effort for this program. This report discusses the economic analysis methodology and the results for the reactor options considered prior to ROD. A secondary intent of the report is to discuss major technical and economic issues that impact cost and schedule. To evaluate the economics of the reactor option and other technologies on an equitable basis, a set of cost-estimating guidelines and a common cost-estimating format were utilized by all three technology teams. This report includes the major economic analysis assumptions and the comparative constant-dollar and discounted-dollar LCCs for all nine reactor scenarios

  9. Assessment of Astrid reactor pit design options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verpoest, Thomas; Villedieu, Alexandre; Robin, Jean-Charles

    2014-01-01

    Answering the French Act of the 28. of June 2006 about nuclear materials and waste management, the ASTRID (Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration) Project has the objectives to demonstrate the industrial feasibility based on identified domains (safety, operability, economy) of Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor and to perform transmutation demonstrations. The pre-conceptual design, started in 2010, considers several reactor pit design options. One of the objectives is to define a reference configuration for the ASTRID project which is able to answer safety and design requirements. The components addressed in this article are: the safety vessel and the Decay Heat Removal system through the main vessel. The core catcher associated to the different configurations studied in this article is an internal core catcher (inside the main vessel). This article deals with the different locations of the DHR through the main vessel and the type of the safety vessel (supported versus suspended vessel). These options are studied in order to establish the advantages and drawbacks of the different configurations in terms of economy, safety, In Service Inspection and Repair (ISIR), operability, robustness, and project risk (authors)

  10. Quality of life issues relating to endocrine treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P

    1999-01-01

    Recent interest has focused on the use of hormone therapy in prostate cancer for both the management of patients with non-metastatic disease and as a neoadjuvant or adjuvant to curative therapies. This has resulted in patients with fewer symptoms being treated for longer periods of time. Endocrine...... treatments for prostate cancer, such as castration, combined androgen blockade and non-steroidal antiandrogen monotherapy, have shown similar results in terms of time to progression and survival. The main difference between these treatments is their impact on patients' quality of life. Instruments...... for measuring health-related quality of life should assess both overall and disease-specific quality of life. Data from two large studies of bicalutamide monotherapy show that this non-steroidal antiandrogen is associated with significant health-related quality of life advantages in the treatment of patients...

  11. Engineering Options Assessment Report. Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anast, Kurt Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-13

    This report examines and assesses the available systems and facilities considered for carrying out remediation activities on remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The assessment includes a review of the waste streams consisting of 60 RNS, 29 above-ground UNS, and 79 candidate below-ground UNS containers that may need remediation. The waste stream characteristics were examined along with the proposed treatment options identified in the Options Assessment Report . Two primary approaches were identified in the five candidate treatment options discussed in the Options Assessment Report: zeolite blending and cementation. Systems that could be used at LANL were examined for housing processing operations to remediate the RNS and UNS containers and for their viability to provide repackaging support for remaining LANL legacy waste.

  12. Engineering Options Assessment Report: Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anast, Kurt Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-18

    This report examines and assesses the available systems and facilities considered for carrying out remediation activities on remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The assessment includes a review of the waste streams consisting of 60 RNS, 29 aboveground UNS, and 79 candidate belowground UNS containers that may need remediation. The waste stream characteristics were examined along with the proposed treatment options identified in the Options Assessment Report . Two primary approaches were identified in the five candidate treatment options discussed in the Options Assessment Report: zeolite blending and cementation. Systems that could be used at LANL were examined for housing processing operations to remediate the RNS and UNS containers and for their viability to provide repackaging support for remaining LANL legacy waste.

  13. Applying real options analysis to assess cleaner energy development strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Ching-Tsung; Lo, Shang-Lien; Lin, Tyrone T.

    2011-01-01

    The energy industry, accounts for the largest portion of CO 2 emissions, is facing the issue of compliance with the national clean energy policy. The methodology for evaluating the energy mix policy is crucial because of the characteristics of lead time embedded with the power generation facilities investment and the uncertainty of future electricity demand. In this paper, a modified binomial model based on sequential compound options, which may account for the lead time and uncertainty as a whole is established, and a numerical example on evaluating the optional strategies and the strategic value of the cleaner energy policy is also presented. It is found that the optimal decision at some nodes in the binomial tree is path dependent, which is different from the standard sequential compound option model with lead time or time lag concept. The proposed modified binomial sequential compound real options model can be generalized and extensively applied to solve the general decision problems that deal with the long lead time of many government policies as well as capital intensive investments. - Highlights: → Introducing a flexible strategic management approach for government policy making. → Developing a modified binomial real options model based on sequential compound options. → Proposing an innovative model for managing the long term policy with lead time. → Applying to evaluate the options of various scenarios of cleaner energy strategies.

  14. Assessment of body temperature measurement options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sund-Levander, Märtha; Grodzinsky, Ewa

    Assessment of body temperature is important for decisions in nursing care, medical diagnosis, treatment and the need of laboratory tests. The definition of normal body temperature as 37°C was established in the middle of the 19th century. Since then the technical design and the accuracy of thermometers has been much improved. Knowledge of physical influence on the individual body temperature, such as thermoregulation and hormones, are still not taken into consideration in body temperature assessment. It is time for a change; the unadjusted mode should be used, without adjusting to another site and the same site of measurement should be used as far as possible. Peripheral sites, such as the axillary and the forehead site, are not recommended as an assessment of core body temperature in adults. Frail elderly individuals might have a low normal body temperature and therefore be at risk of being assessed as non-febrile. As the ear site is close to the hypothalamus and quickly responds to changes in the set point temperature, it is a preferable and recommendable site for measurement of body temperature.

  15. Integrated assessment of bioelectricity technology options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornley, Patricia; Upham, Paul; Huang, Ye; Rezvani, Sina; Brammer, John; Rogers, John

    2009-01-01

    Power generation from biomass is a sustainable energy technology which can contribute to substantial reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, but with greater potential for environmental, economic and social impacts than most other renewable energy technologies. It is important therefore in assessing bioenergy systems to take account of not only technical, but also environmental, economic and social parameters on a common basis. This work addresses the challenge of analysing, quantifying and comparing these factors for bioenergy power generation systems. A life-cycle approach is used to analyse the technical, environmental, economic and social impacts of entire bioelectricity systems, with a number of life-cycle indicators as outputs to facilitate cross-comparison. The results show that similar greenhouse gas savings are achieved with the wide variety of technologies and scales studied, but land-use efficiency of greenhouse gas savings and specific airborne emissions varied substantially. Also, while specific investment costs and electricity costs vary substantially from one system to another the number of jobs created per unit of electricity delivered remains roughly constant. Recorded views of stakeholders illustrate that diverging priorities exist for different stakeholder groups and this will influence appropriate choice of bioenergy systems for different applications

  16. Automatic, Multiple Assessment Options in Undergraduate Meteorology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.

    2017-01-01

    Since 2008, automatic, multiple assessment options have been utilised in selected undergraduate meteorology courses at the University of Wisconsin--Milwaukee. Motivated by a desire to reduce stress among students, the assessment methodology includes examination-heavy and homework-heavy alternatives, differing by an adjustable 15% of the overall…

  17. Assessment of DOE radioactive scrap metal disposition options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, C.R.; Kasper, K.M.; Bossart, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    The DOE has amassed a large amount of radioactively-contaminated scrap metal (RSM) as a result of past operations and decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) projects. The volume of RSM will continue to increase as a result of the D ampersand D of more than 6,000 surplus facilities and many of the 14,000 operating facilities in the DOE complex. RSM can be either surface contaminated or volumetrically contaminated, or both, with varying amounts of radioactivity. Several options exist for the disposition of this RSM, including disposal as radioactive waste, recycling by decontamination and free-release for unrestricted use, or recycling for restricted reuse inside a DOE controlled area. The DOE Office of Science and Technology (EM-50) has been actively investing in technology and strategy development in support of restricted-reuse RSM recycling for the past several years. This paper will assess the nature of the RSM recycling issue, review past investment by DOE to develop technologies and strategies to recycle RSM, and then discuss some recommendations concerning future investments in support of RSM management. Available information on the supply of RSM will be presented in Section II. The regulatory and policy framework concerning recycling RSM will be presented in Section III. A review of DOE investment in RSM recycling technology and current programs will be presented in Section IV. The current and projected industrial capacity will be described in Section V. And, finally, a discussion of issues and recommendations regarding DOE technology development interests in RSM recycling will be presented in Section VI and VII, respectively

  18. Assessment of DOE radioactive scrap metal disposition options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, C.R.; Kasper, K.M. [Waste Policy Institute, Morgantown, WV (United States); Bossart, S.J. [Department of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The DOE has amassed a large amount of radioactively-contaminated scrap metal (RSM) as a result of past operations and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) projects. The volume of RSM will continue to increase as a result of the D&D of more than 6,000 surplus facilities and many of the 14,000 operating facilities in the DOE complex. RSM can be either surface contaminated or volumetrically contaminated, or both, with varying amounts of radioactivity. Several options exist for the disposition of this RSM, including disposal as radioactive waste, recycling by decontamination and free-release for unrestricted use, or recycling for restricted reuse inside a DOE controlled area. The DOE Office of Science and Technology (EM-50) has been actively investing in technology and strategy development in support of restricted-reuse RSM recycling for the past several years. This paper will assess the nature of the RSM recycling issue, review past investment by DOE to develop technologies and strategies to recycle RSM, and then discuss some recommendations concerning future investments in support of RSM management. Available information on the supply of RSM will be presented in Section II. The regulatory and policy framework concerning recycling RSM will be presented in Section III. A review of DOE investment in RSM recycling technology and current programs will be presented in Section IV. The current and projected industrial capacity will be described in Section V. And, finally, a discussion of issues and recommendations regarding DOE technology development interests in RSM recycling will be presented in Section VI and VII, respectively.

  19. Survey and selection of assessment methodologies for GAVE options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weterings, R.

    1999-05-01

    The Dutch government is interested in the possibilities for a market introduction of new gaseous and liquid energy carriers. To this purpose the GAVE-programme was recently set up. This study is carried out within the framework of the GAVE-programme and aims at the selection of methodologies for assessing the technological, economic, ecological and social perspectives of these new energy options (so-called GAVE-options). Based on the results of these assessments the Dutch ministries of Housing, Planning and Environment (VROM) and Economic Affairs (EZ) will decide at the end of 1999 about starting demonstration projects of promising energy carriers

  20. An assessment of option B implementation for the prevention of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of option B implementation for the prevention of mother to child transmission in Dschang, Cameroon: results from the DREAM (Drug Resource ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader).

  1. Impact assessment of adaptation options and strategies for coping ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Impact assessment of adaptation options and strategies for coping with climate change on the livelihoods of pastoral and agro-pastoral communities in Sudan' Butana area. Ibrahim, Abdelhamed M.M.. URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10625/53410. Date: 2013-11 ...

  2. An assessment of option B implementation for the prevention of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of option B implementation for the prevention of mother to child transmission in Dschang, Cameroon: results from the DREAM (Drug Resource Enhancement against AIDS and ... Those with a CD4 count <350 cells/mm3 during pregnancy had the highest mortality risk (RR 2.53; 95% CL= 1.86-3.44). The HIV ...

  3. Assessment of Combustion and Potash Production as Options for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed combustion and potash production as options for management of wood waste. The percentage reduction in volume by combustion and potash generation potential of wood waste from nine different common species of wood obtained from a wood factory in Ibadan were evaluated. Potash from the ashes ...

  4. Radiological protection criteria risk assessments for waste disposal options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.D.

    1982-01-01

    Radiological protection criteria for waste disposal options are currently being developed at the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), and, in parallel, methodologies to be used in assessing the radiological impact of these options are being evolved. The criteria and methodologies under development are intended to apply to all solid radioactive wastes, including the high-level waste arising from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (because this waste will be solidified prior to disposal) and gaseous or liquid wastes which have been converted to solid form. It is envisaged that the same criteria will be applied to all solid waste disposal options, including shallow land burial, emplacement on the ocean bed (sea dumping), geological disposal on land and sub-seabed disposal

  5. Environmental Issues in the Power Sector : Long-Term Impacts and Policy Options for Karnataka

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This study of the long-term environmental impacts and policy options for power sector development in Karnataka, is one of a series undertaken by the Bank, in cooperation with the Government of India and state governments. It is a follow-up to the broader study Environmental Issues in the Power Sector (EIPS) (ESMAP/World Bank 1998), and the general methodology developed for EIPS, is used fo...

  6. Economic Journal in Russia: Quality Assessment Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ol’ga Valentinovna Tret’yakova

    2016-05-01

    alternative to the new VAK List. The author draws a conclusion about the need to review the first results of the project and to continue working with them, because the issues identified still do not allow the RSCI list to be used as a full replacement for the VAK List. The paper propose options to expand the RSCI list. The author substantiates the necessity to expand the geography of journals included in the RSCI

  7. Human intrusion: issues concerning its assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimwood, P.D.; Smith, G.M.

    1989-01-01

    The potential significance of human intrusion in the performance assessment of radioactive waste repositories has been increasingly recognized in recent years. It is however an area of assessment in which subjective judgments dominate. This paper identifies some of the issues involved. These include regulatory criteria, scenario development, probability assignment, consequence assessment and measures to mitigate human intrusion

  8. SPECAL ISSUE Assessing the Assessment Procedures and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community Based Education/CBE Courses at Jimma. University .... Develop policies and strategies for the CBE courses with high levels of ... practices to enhance successful performance and sustainability of the philosophy in ... Thus, descriptive method was used in this study to assess and describe the existing condition of ...

  9. State Bioenergy Primer: Information and Resources for States on Issues, Opportunities, and Options for Advancing Bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrnett, D. S.; Mulholland, D.; Zinsmeister, E.; Doris, E.; Milbrandt, A.; Robichaud. R.; Stanley, R.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2009-09-01

    One renewable energy option that states frequently consider to meet their clean energy goals is the use of biomass resources to develop bioenergy. Bioenergy includes bioheat, biopower, biofuels, and bioproducts. This document provides an overview of biomass feedstocks, basic information about biomass conversion technologies, and a discussion of benefits and challenges of bioenergy options. The Primer includes a step-wise framework, resources, and tools for determining the availability of feedstocks, assessing potential markets for biomass, and identifying opportunities for action at the state level. Each chapter contains a list of selected resources and tools that states can use to explore topics in further detail.

  10. The option to expand a project: its assessment with the binomial options pricing model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Cruz Rambaud

    Full Text Available Traditional methods of investment appraisal, like the Net Present Value, are not able to include the value of the operational flexibility of the project. In this paper, real options, and more specifically the option to expand, are assumed to be included in the project information in addition to the expected cash flows. Thus, to calculate the total value of the project, we are going to apply the methodology of the Net Present Value to the different scenarios derived from the existence of the real option to expand. Taking into account the analogy between real and financial options, the value of including an option to expand is explored by using the binomial options pricing model. In this way, estimating the value of the option to expand is a tool which facilitates the control of the uncertainty element implicit in the project. Keywords: Real options, Option to expand, Binomial options pricing model, Investment project appraisal

  11. Life cycle assessment of automobile/fuel options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Heather L; Lave, Lester B

    2003-12-01

    We examine the possibilities for a "greener" car that would use less material and fuel, be less polluting, and would have a well-managed end-of-life. Light-duty vehicles are fundamental to our economy and will continue to be for the indefinite future. Any redesign to make these vehicles greener requires consumer acceptance. Consumer desires for large, powerful vehicles have been the major stumbling block in achieving a "green car". The other major barrier is inherent contradictions among social goals such as fuel economy, safety, low emissions of pollutants, and low emissions of greenhouse gases, which has led to conflicting regulations such as emissions regulations blocking sales of direct injection diesels in California, which would save fuel. In evaluating fuel/vehicle options with the potential to improve the greenness of cars [diesel (direct injection) and ethanol in internal combustion engines, battery-powered, gasoline hybrid electric, and hydrogen fuel cells], we find no option dominates the others on all dimensions. The principles of green design developed by Anastas and Zimmerman (Environ. Sci. Technol. 2003, 37, 94A-101A) and the use of a life cycle approach provide insights on the key sustainability issues associated with the various options.

  12. Reactivation of nuclear power plant construction projects. Plant status, policy issues and regulatory options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangler, M.B.

    1986-07-01

    Prior to the TMI-2 accident on March 28, 1979, four nuclear power plant units that had previously been issued a construction permit were cancelled, principally because of reduced projections of regional power demand. Since that time, an additional 31 units with CPs have been cancelled and eight units deferred. On December 23, 1985 one of the deferred units (Limerick-2) was reactivated and construction resumed. The primary objective of this policy study is to identify the principal issues requiring office-level consideration in the event of reactivation of the construction of one or more of the nuclear power plants falling into two categories: (1) LWR units issued a construction permit whose construction has been cancelled, and (2) LWR units whose construction has been deferred. The study scope is limited to identifying regulatory issues or questions deserving analysis rather than providing, at this time, answers or recommended actions. Five tasks are addressed: a tabulation and discussion of the status of all cancelled and deferred LWR units; and identification of potential safety and environmental issues; an identification of regulatory or policy issues and needed information to determine the desirability of revising certain rules and policies; and identification of regulatory options and decision criteria; and an identification of decision considerations in determining staff requirements and organizational coordination of LWR reactivation policy and implementation efforts. 41 refs

  13. Environmental assessment of current and future Swiss electricity supply options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Christian; Heck, Thomas; Hirschberg, Stefan; Dones, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Options for near future electricity supply are currently one of the main topics in the Swiss energy policy debate. Contrary to the total energy demand per capita the trend of rising electricity demand per capita is still visible. This paper presents a comparative environmental assessment of a broad portfolio of current and future electricity generation technologies including nuclear, fossil, and renewable power plants with their associated energy chains. The evaluation, based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), is carried out quantifying ten different environmental indicators, grouped in the categories greenhouse gas emissions, consumption of resources, waste, and impact on ecosystems. Hydropower shows minimal environmental impacts for all indicators; for other systems, the picture is diverse. The comparison of non-aggregated indicators allows preliminary conclusions about the environmental performance of the assessed systems. Establishing ranking of technologies calls for aggregating the indicators, which can be done by weighting of the indicators based on individual or stakeholder group preferences, either within a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) framework or with Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methods. Calculating total costs of electricity by adding external costs due to impacts on human health and ecosystems to the electricity production costs poses another option for ranking of technologies. (authors)

  14. Socioeconomic assessment: issues, status, and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boryczka, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    Numerous public meetings and hearings have been held in Texas, Mississippi, Louisiana and Utah on the issue of siting a nuclear waste repository in salt. Citizens in these potential site areas have raised many questions about how this facility will affect their quality of life. Questions about population and economic changes have been of particular concern. In developing a socioeconomic program, these issues and others have been an integral part of Battelle's socioeconomic studies. The three elements of Battelle's socioeconomic program are comprised of three elements: impact assessment, impact mitigation and community development, and impact monitoring. In addition, our approach to assessing socioeconomic impacts for the environmental assessment (EA) required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 are described. Since the EA analysis will address many of the issues raised in the site areas, these concerns will be elaborated on. Finally, various techniques for managing socioeconomic impacts will be presented. 6 references, 1 figure

  15. Assessing the Option to Abandon an Investment Project by the Binomial Options Pricing Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Cruz Rambaud

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Usually, traditional methods for investment project appraisal such as the net present value (hereinafter NPV do not incorporate in their values the operational flexibility offered by including a real option included in the project. In this paper, real options, and more specifically the option to abandon, are analysed as a complement to cash flow sequence which quantifies the project. In this way, by considering the existing analogy with financial options, a mathematical expression is derived by using the binomial options pricing model. This methodology provides the value of the option to abandon the project within one, two, and in general n periods. Therefore, this paper aims to be a useful tool in determining the value of the option to abandon according to its residual value, thus making easier the control of the uncertainty element within the project.

  16. Comparative assessment of electricity generation options in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonin, T.V.; Mundo, M.Q.; Venida, L.L.; Arriola, H.; Madrio, E.

    2001-01-01

    The development of a country specific data base on energy sources, facilities and technologies is presented in this paper. It also identified feasible national electricity generating options and electric power system expansion alternatives for the period 2000-2020, and conducted comparative assessments of these options based on economic and environmental considerations. The possible role of nuclear power in the country's future electric energy was also studied. The comparison of three electricity generating options were considered: coal-fired thermal power plant without flue gas desulfurization (FGD), coal-fired thermal power plant with FGD and combined cycle power plant with 300 MW generating capacity each. Based on the analysis of three alternatives, the use of coal-fired power plants equipped with flue gas desulfurization (FGD) should be seriously considered. The government is expected to pursue the full development of local energy sources such as hydropower, geothermal, coal, natural gas and other new and renewable energy sources. However, there will still be a major need for imported oil and coal fuel which will likely supply unidentified energy sources beyond 2010. In the case of nuclear power, the government has not firmed up definite plans for any construction of nuclear power plants after 2010. However, the long term energy development plan still includes the operation of at least two nuclear power plants by the 2020 and this long term range program has not been revised in the recent published updates. (Author)

  17. Assessment of Used Nuclear Fuel Inventory Relative to Disposition Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, John C.; Peterson, Joshua L.; Mueller, Don; Gehin, Jess C.; Worrall, Andrew; Taiwo, Temitope; Nutt, Mark; Williamson, Mark A.; Todosow, Mike; Wigeland, Roald; Halsey, William; Omberg, Ronald; Swift, Peter; Carter, Joe

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a technical assessment of the current inventory [∼70,150 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) as of 2011] of U.S.-discharged used nuclear fuel (UNF) to support decisions regarding fuel cycle strategies and research, development and demonstration (RD and D) needs. The assessment considered discharged UNF from commercial nuclear electricity generation and defense and research programs and determined that the current UNF inventory can be divided into the following three categories: 1. Disposal - excess material that is not needed for other purposes; 2. Research - material needed for RD and D purposes to support waste management (e.g., UNF storage, transportation, and disposal) and development of alternative fuel cycles (e.g., separations and advanced fuels/reactors); and 3. Recycle/Recovery - material with inherent and/or strategic value. A set of key assumptions and attributes relative to the disposition options was used to categorize the current UNF inventory. Based on consideration of RD and D needs, time frames and material needs for deployment of alternative fuel cycles, characteristics of the current UNF inventory, and possible uses to support national security interests, it was determined that the vast majority of the category, without the need for retrieval for reuse or research purposes. Access to the material in the Research and Recycle/Recovery categories should be retained to support RD and D needs and national security interests. This assessment does not assume any decision about future fuel cycle options or preclude any potential options, including those with potential recycling of commercial UNF, since the ∼2,000 MTHM that is generated annually could provide the feedstock needed for deployment of alternative fuel cycles.

  18. Impact assessment of waste management options in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Reginald B H; Khoo, Hsien H

    2006-03-01

    This paper describes the application of life cycle assessment for evaluating various waste management options in Singapore, a small-island city state. The impact assessment method by SimaPro is carried out for comparing the potential environmental impacts of waste treatment options including landfilling, incineration, recycling, and composting. The inventory data include gases and leachate from landfills, air emissions and energy recovery from incinerators, energy (and emission) savings from recycling, composting gases, and transport pollution. The impact assessment results for climate change, acidification, and ecotoxicity show that the incineration of materials imposes considerable harm to both human health and the environment, especially for the burning of plastics, paper/cardboard, and ferrous metals. The results also show that, although some amount of energy can be derived from the incineration of wastes, these benefits are outweighed by the air pollution (heavy metals and dioxins/furans) that incinerators produce. For Singapore, landfill gases and leachate generate minimal environmental damage because of the nation's policy to landfill only 10% of the total disposed wastes. Land transportation and separation of waste materials also pose minimal environmental damage. However, sea transportation to the landfill could contribute significantly to acidification because of the emissions of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides from barges. The composting of horticultural wastes hardly imposes any environmental damage. Out of all the waste strategies, the recycling of wastes offers the best solution for environmental protection and improved human health for the nation. Significant emission savings can be realized through recycling.

  19. Brent Spar abandonment - Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO) assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    Possible methods of abandoning or re-using the Brent Spar storage and tanker offloading facility following its decommissioning in 1991 are discussed. The report assesses six of the thirteen possible methods, including horizontal dismantling and onshore disposal, vertical dismantling and onshore disposal, in-field disposal, deep water disposal, refurbishment and re-use, and continued maintenance, in order to determine the Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO). The BPEO covers technical feasibility risks to health and safety of the work force, environmental impacts, public acceptability and costs. (UK)

  20. Issues in the determination of the optimal portfolio of electricity supply options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickey, Emily A.; Lon Carlson, J.; Loomis, David

    2010-01-01

    In recent years a growing amount of attention has been focused on the need to develop a cost-effective portfolio of electricity supply options that provides society with a measure of protection from such factors as fuel price volatility and supply interruptions. A number of strategies, including portfolio theory, real options theory, and different measures of diversity have been suggested. In this paper we begin by first considering how we might characterize an optimal portfolio of supply options and identify a number of constraints that must be satisfied as part of the optimization process. We then review the strengths and limitations of each approach listed above. The results of our review lead us to conclude that, of the strategies we consider, using the concept of diversity to assess the viability of an electricity supply portfolio is most appropriate. We then provide an example of how a particular measure of diversity, the Shannon-Weiner Index, can be used to assess the diversity of the electricity supply portfolio in the state of Illinois, the region served by the Midwest Independent System Operator (MISO), and the continental United States.

  1. Long-term issues associated with spent nuclear power fuel management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jae-Sol, Lee; Kosaku, Fukuda; Burcl, R.; Bell, M.

    2003-01-01

    Spent fuel management is perceived as one of the crucial issues to be resolved for sustainable utilisation of nuclear power. In the last decades, spent fuel management policies have shown diverging tendencies among the nuclear power production countries - a group has adhered to reprocessing- recycle and another has turned to direct disposal, while the rest of the countries have not taken decision yet, often with ''wait and see'' position. Both the closed and open fuel cycle options for spent fuel management have been subject to a number of debates with pros and cons on various issues such as proliferation risk, environmental impact, etc. The anticipation for better technical solutions that would mitigate those issues has given rise to the renewal of interest in partitioning and transmutation of harmful nuclides to be disposed of, and in a broader context, the recent initiatives for development of innovative nuclear systems. The current trend toward globalization of market economy, which has already brought important impacts on nuclear industry, might have a stimulating effect on regional-international co-operations for cost-effective efforts to mitigate some of those long-term issues associated with spent fuel management. (author)

  2. Preliminary Options Assessment of Versatile Irradiation Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Ramazan Sonat [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this report is to summarize the work undertaken at INL from April 2016 to January 2017 and aimed at analyzing some options for designing and building a versatile test reactor; the scope of work was agreed upon with DOE-NE. Section 2 presents some results related to KNK II and PRISM Mod A. Section 3 presents some alternatives to the VCTR presented in [ ] as well as a neutronic parametric study to assess the minimum power requirement needed for a 235U metal fueled fast test reactor capable to generate a fast (>100 keV) flux of 4.0 x 1015 n /cm2-s at the test location. Section 4 presents some results regarding a fundamental characteristic of test reactors, namely displacement per atom (dpa) in test samples. Section 5 presents the INL assessment of the ANL fast test reactor design FASTER. Section 6 presents a summary.

  3. Preventing trafficking in women and children in Asia: issues and options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, T

    1999-09-01

    This article discusses the issues and options in the prevention of trafficking of women and children in Asia. Studies revealed a higher prevalence of trafficking in Asian countries such as Nepal, India, Bangladesh, Philippines, Cambodia, and Thailand. This is due to a huge population, growing urbanization, and poverty. Several programs by the government and nongovernmental organizations have been developed to address the trafficking problem. In Nepal, the Maiti program was organized to help trafficking victims return to their home country, while occupational alternatives and awareness campaigns were organized for young women vulnerable to trafficking. In Thailand, greater penalties were imposed to customers as compared to the sellers so as to discourage the continuance and decrease the prevalence of trafficking. Other strategies have also been identified, such as prosecution of procurers, community awareness through campaigns, poverty alleviation, and gender equalization to address the trafficking problem.

  4. Life cycle assessment of bagasse waste management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiatkittipong, Worapon; Wongsuchoto, Porntip; Pavasant, Prasert

    2009-01-01

    Bagasse is mostly utilized for steam and power production for domestic sugar mills. There have been a number of alternatives that could well be applied to manage bagasse, such as pulp production, conversion to biogas and electricity production. The selection of proper alternatives depends significantly on the appropriateness of the technology both from the technical and the environmental points of view. This work proposes a simple model based on the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental impacts of various alternatives for dealing with bagasse waste. The environmental aspects of concern included global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential and photochemical oxidant creation. Four waste management scenarios for bagasse were evaluated: landfilling with utilization of landfill gas, anaerobic digestion with biogas production, incineration for power generation, and pulp production. In landfills, environmental impacts depended significantly on the biogas collection efficiency, whereas incineration of bagasse to electricity in the power plant showed better environmental performance than that of conventional low biogas collection efficiency landfills. Anaerobic digestion of bagasse in a control biogas reactor was superior to the other two energy generation options in all environmental aspects. Although the use of bagasse in pulp mills created relatively high environmental burdens, the results from the LCA revealed that other stages of the life cycle produced relatively small impacts and that this option might be the most environmentally benign alternative

  5. Risk Assessment of Arsenic Mitigation Options in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M. Feroze; Shamsuddin, Abu Jafar; Mahmud, Shamsul Gafur; Deere, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    The provision of alternative water sources is the principal arsenic mitigation strategy in Bangladesh, but can lead to risk substitution. A study of arsenic mitigation options was undertaken to assess water quality and sanitary condition and to estimate the burden of disease associated with each technology in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Dugwells and pond-sand filters showed heavy microbial contamination in both dry and monsoon seasons, and the estimated burden of disease was high. Rainwater was of good quality in the monsoon but deteriorated in the dry season. Deep tubewells showed microbial contamination in the monsoon but not in the dry season and was the only technology to approach the World Health Organization's reference level of risk of 10-6 DALYs. A few dugwells and one pond-sand filter showed arsenic in excess of 50 μg/L. The findings suggest that deep tubewells and rainwater harvesting provide safer water than dugwells and pond-sand filters and should be the preferred options. PMID:17366776

  6. Technology assessment of various coal-fuel options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coenen, R.; Findling, B.; Klein-Vielhauer, S.; Nieke, E.; Paschen, H.; Tangen, H.; Wintzer, D.

    1991-01-01

    The technology assessment (TA) study of coal-based fuels presented in this report was performed for the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology. Its goal was to support decision-making of the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology in the field of coal conversion. Various technical options of coal liquefaction have been analyzed on the basis of hard coal as well as lignite -- direct liquefaction of coal (hydrogenation) and different possibilities of indirect liquefaction, that is the production of fuels (methanol, gasoline) by processing products of coal gasification. The TA study takes into consideration the entire technology chain from coal mining via coal conversion to the utilization of coal-based fuels in road transport. The analysis focuses on costs of the various options, overall economic effects, which include effects on employment and public budgets, and on environmental consequences compared to the use of liquid fuels derived from oil. Furthermore, requirements of infrastructure and other problems of the introduction of coal-based fuels as well as prospects for the export of technologies of direct and indirect coal liquefaction have been analyzed in the study. 14 figs., 10 tabs

  7. ASTRID power conversion system: Assessment on steam and gas options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laffont, Guy; Cachon, Lionel; Jourdain, Vincent; Fauque, Jean Marie

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: ◆ Two power conversion systems have been investigated for the ASTRID prototype. ◆ Steam PCS: • Most mature system based on a well-developed turbomachinery technology. • High plant efficiency. • Studies on steam generators designs and leak detection systems in progress with the aim of reducing the risk of large SWRs and of limiting its consequences. • Design and licensing safety assessment of a SFR must deal with the Sodium Water Air reaction (SWAR). ◆ Gas PCS: • Strong advantage as it inherently eliminates the SWR and SWAR risks. • Very innovative option: major breakthroughs but feasibility and viability not yet demonstrated. • Remaining technological challenges but no showstopper indentified. • General architecture: investigations in progress to improve performances, operability and maintainability

  8. Trophy Hunting, Conservation, and Rural Development in Zimbabwe: Issues, Options, and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor K. Muposhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trophy hunting has potential to support conservation financing and contribute towards rural development. We conducted a systematic review of the Zimbabwean trophy hunting perspective spanning from pre-1890 to 2015, by examining the following: (1 evolution of legal instruments, administration, and governance of trophy hunting, (2 significance of trophy hunting in conservation financing and rural development, and (3 key challenges, emerging issues in trophy hunting industry, and future interventions. Our review shows that (i there has been a constant evolution in the policies related to trophy hunting and conservation in Zimbabwe as driven by local and international needs; (ii trophy hunting providing incentives for wildlife conservation (e.g., law enforcement and habitat protection and rural communities’ development. Emerging issues that may affect trophy hunting include illegal hunting, inadequate monitoring systems, and hunting bans. We conclude that trophy hunting is still relevant in wildlife conservation and rural communities’ development especially in developing economies where conservation financing is inadequate due to fiscal constraints. We recommend the promotion of net conservation benefits for positive conservation efforts and use of wildlife conservation credits for the opportunity costs associated with reducing trophy hunting off-take levels and promoting nonconsumptive wildlife use options.

  9. Seismic hazard assessment: Issues and alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Seismic hazard and risk are two very important concepts in engineering design and other policy considerations. Although seismic hazard and risk have often been used inter-changeably, they are fundamentally different. Furthermore, seismic risk is more important in engineering design and other policy considerations. Seismic hazard assessment is an effort by earth scientists to quantify seismic hazard and its associated uncertainty in time and space and to provide seismic hazard estimates for seismic risk assessment and other applications. Although seismic hazard assessment is more a scientific issue, it deserves special attention because of its significant implication to society. Two approaches, probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) and deterministic seismic hazard analysis (DSHA), are commonly used for seismic hazard assessment. Although PSHA has been pro-claimed as the best approach for seismic hazard assessment, it is scientifically flawed (i.e., the physics and mathematics that PSHA is based on are not valid). Use of PSHA could lead to either unsafe or overly conservative engineering design or public policy, each of which has dire consequences to society. On the other hand, DSHA is a viable approach for seismic hazard assessment even though it has been labeled as unreliable. The biggest drawback of DSHA is that the temporal characteristics (i.e., earthquake frequency of occurrence and the associated uncertainty) are often neglected. An alternative, seismic hazard analysis (SHA), utilizes earthquake science and statistics directly and provides a seismic hazard estimate that can be readily used for seismic risk assessment and other applications. ?? 2010 Springer Basel AG.

  10. A Scheme for the Integrated Assessment of Mitigation Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, H.; Edenhofer, O.

    2003-04-01

    After some consensus has been achieved that the global mean temperature will have increased by 1.4 to 5.8^oC at the end of this century in case of continued ``business as usual'' greenhouse gas emissions, society has to decide if or which mitigation measures should be taken. A new integrated assessment project on this very issue will be started at PIK in spring 2003. The assessment will cover economic aspects as well as potential side effects of various measures. In the economic module, the effects of investment decisions on technological innovation will be explicitly taken into account. Special emphasize will be put on the issue of uncertainty. Hereby we distinguish the uncertainty related to the Integrated Assessment modules, including the economic module, from the fact that no over-complex system can be fully captured by a model. Therefore, a scheme for the assessment of the ``residual'', the non-modelled part of the system, needs to be worked out. The scheme must be truly interdisciplinary, i.e. must be applicable to at least the natural science and the economic aspects. A scheme based on meta-principles like minimum persistence, ubiquity, or irreversibility of potential measures appears to be a promising candidate. An implementation of ubiquity as at present successfully operated in environmental chemistry may serve as a guideline [1]. Here, the best-known mechanism within a complex impact chain of potentially harmful chemicals, their transport, is captured by a reaction-diffusion mechanism [2]. begin{thebibliography}{0} bibitem{s} M. Scheringer, Persistence and spatial range as endpoints of an exposure-based assessment of organic chemicals. Environ. Sci. Technol. 30: 1652-1659 (1996). bibitem{h} H. Held, Robustness of spatial ranges of environmental chemicals with respect to model dimension, accepted for publication in Stoch. Environ. Res. Risk Assessment.

  11. Assessing Pinyon Juniper Feedstock Properties and Utilization Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gresham, Garold Linn [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kenney, Kevin Louis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Pinyon-juniper woodlands are a major ecosystem type found in the Southwest and the Intermountain West regions of the United States. These ecosystems are characterized by the presence of several different species of pinyon pine and juniper as the dominant plant cover. Since the 1800s, pinyon-juniper woodlands have rapidly expanded their range at the expense of existing ecosystems. Additionally, existing woodlands have become more dense, potentially increasing fire hazards. Land managers responsible for these areas often desire to reduce pinyonjuniper coverage on their lands for a variety of reasons, including restoration to previous vegetative cover, mitigation of fire risk, and improvement in wildlife habitat. However, the cost of clearing or thinning pinyon-juniper stands can be prohibitive. One reason for this is the lack of utilization options for the resulting biomass that could help recover some of the cost of pinyonjuniper stand management. The goal of this project was to assess the feedstock characteristics of biomass from a pinyon-juniper harvest so that potential applications for the biomass may be evaluated.

  12. A qualitative assessment of climate adaptation options and some estimates of adaptation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ierland, E.C.; De Bruin, K.; Dellink, R.B.; Ruijs, A.

    2006-12-01

    The Routeplanner project aims to provide a 'systematic assessment' of potential adaptation options to respond to climate change in the Netherlands in connection to spatial planning. The study is the result of a policy oriented project that took place between May and September 2006. The aim of the current study is to provide a 'qualitative assessment' of the direct and indirect effects of adaptation options and to provide an assessment of some of the costs and benefits of adaptation options. The present report presents and summarizes the results of all phases of the study: an inventory of adaptation options, a qualitative assessment of the effects of the adaptation options for the Netherlands in the long run, a database which allows to rank the various options according to a set of criteria and a relative ranking on the basis of these criteria. Finally, the report also contains the best available information on costs and benefits of various adaptation options.

  13. An informal judgment assessment of subsidence mitigation options for low-level radioactive waste management on the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.; Besinger, H.; Dolenc, M.

    1999-01-01

    An assessment of options to mitigate the effects of subsidence at low-level radioactive waste disposal sites on the Nevada Test Site was conducted using an informal method of expert judgment. Mitigation options for existing waste cells and future waste cells were identified by a committee composed of knowledgeable personnel from the DOE and DOE-contractors. Eight ranking factors were developed to assess the mitigation options and these factors were scored through elicitation of consensus views from the committee. Different subsets of the factors were applied respectively, to existing waste cells and future waste cells, and the resulting scores were ranked using weighted and unweighted scores. These scores show that there is a large number of viable mitigation options and considerable flexibility in assessing the subsidence issue with a greater range of options for future waste cells compared to existing waste cells. A highly ranked option for both existing and future waste cells is covering the waste cells with a thick closure cap of native alluvium

  14. Results of focus group assessments of transportation financing options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The Wisconsin Commission on Transportation Finance and Policy was created in the 2011-2013 biennial state budget to : identify and evaluate transportation finance options to address needs into the future. As part of its scope, the Commission : needed...

  15. Bioenergy options. Multidisciplinary participatory method for assessing bioenergy options for rural villages in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauzeni, A S; Masao, H P; Sawe, E N; Shechambo, F C [Dar Es Salaam Univ. (Tanzania). Inst. of Resource Assessment; Ellegaard, A [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)

    1999-12-31

    In Tanzania, like in many other developing countries in Southern and Eastern Africa, bioenergy planning has received relatively little attention, compared to planning for `modern` energy sources, although it accounts for about 90% of the country`s energy supply. As a result there is less understanding of the complexity and diversity of bioenergy systems. There is a lack of reliable data and information on bio-resources, their consumption and interaction with social, economic, institutional and environmental factors. This is largely due to lack of adequately developed and easily understood methods of data and information development, analysis and methods of evaluating available bioenergy options. In order to address the above constraints a project was initiated where the general objective was to develop and test a multi-disciplinary research method for identifying bioenergy options that can contribute to satisfying the energy needs of the rural household, agricultural and small scale industrial sectors, promote growth and facilitate sustainable development. The decision on the development and testing of a multidisciplinary research method was based on the fact that in Tanzania several bioenergy programmes have been introduced e.g. tree planting, improved cookstoves, biogas, improved charcoal making kilns etc. for various purposes including combating deforestation; promoting economic growth, substitution of imported petroleum fuels, health improvement, and raising standards of living. However efforts made in introducing these programmes or interventions have met with limited success. This situation prevails because developed bioenergy technologies are not being adopted in adequate numbers by the target groups. There are some indications from the study that some of the real barriers to effective bioenergy interventions or adoption of bioenergy technologies lie at the policy level and not at the project level. After the development and testing of the methodology

  16. Bioenergy options. Multidisciplinary participatory method for assessing bioenergy options for rural villages in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauzeni, A.S.; Masao, H.P.; Sawe, E.N.; Shechambo, F.C. [Dar Es Salaam Univ. (Tanzania). Inst. of Resource Assessment; Ellegaard, A. [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    In Tanzania, like in many other developing countries in Southern and Eastern Africa, bioenergy planning has received relatively little attention, compared to planning for `modern` energy sources, although it accounts for about 90% of the country`s energy supply. As a result there is less understanding of the complexity and diversity of bioenergy systems. There is a lack of reliable data and information on bio-resources, their consumption and interaction with social, economic, institutional and environmental factors. This is largely due to lack of adequately developed and easily understood methods of data and information development, analysis and methods of evaluating available bioenergy options. In order to address the above constraints a project was initiated where the general objective was to develop and test a multi-disciplinary research method for identifying bioenergy options that can contribute to satisfying the energy needs of the rural household, agricultural and small scale industrial sectors, promote growth and facilitate sustainable development. The decision on the development and testing of a multidisciplinary research method was based on the fact that in Tanzania several bioenergy programmes have been introduced e.g. tree planting, improved cookstoves, biogas, improved charcoal making kilns etc. for various purposes including combating deforestation; promoting economic growth, substitution of imported petroleum fuels, health improvement, and raising standards of living. However efforts made in introducing these programmes or interventions have met with limited success. This situation prevails because developed bioenergy technologies are not being adopted in adequate numbers by the target groups. There are some indications from the study that some of the real barriers to effective bioenergy interventions or adoption of bioenergy technologies lie at the policy level and not at the project level. After the development and testing of the methodology

  17. Comparative assessment of electricity generation options for Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecilia, Martin Del Campo; Francois, Juan Luis

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to the evaluation of sustainability of energy options for the electricity generation in Mexico. The study evaluated technologies that could be planned in the short term because their high maturity. The purpose was to rank the energy options based on the evaluation of a set of criteria grouped in impact areas for each dimension of the sustainability: economic, environmental and social. Obviously, no single technology exhibited superior performance on the basis of all the criteria and it was necessary to apply a mult criteria decision analysis (MCDA). In total this study all the decision elements were combined and integrated in an inference fuzzy logic system that takes into account the weights of different indicators. The methodology was applied to compare five technologies based on wind, nuclear, natural gas, coal, hydro and oil resources under the current Mexican conditions. In view of the features of the energy options, oil and gas are subject to limited energy resources. Coal and oil show relatively unfavorable ecological and accident risk characteristics. Gas is by far the option with the best performance among the fossil fuel options. In the case of nuclear energy, the economic, environmental and health indicators are highly favorable, however, social indicators for nuclear energy are unfavorable but they are also very controversial and additional studies must be carried out. The global sustainability of hydro, nuclear, wind and natural gas resulted very close; so these energy options must be considered in the generation expansion planning studies to search the expansion plans with the better combination of generation, energetic diversification and emissions, between other criteria

  18. Options for sustainable passenger transport: an assessment of policy choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugel, J.M.; Rienstra, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    If the current trends in transport are not changed, a sustainable transport system is not feasible. In order to achieve such a state, new technologiesmay be an interesting option. In this context several success and failure factors for the introduction of new technologies are analyzed in this

  19. Neutronic performance issues of the breeding blanket options for the European DEMO fusion power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, U., E-mail: ulrich.fischer@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Bachmann, C. [EUROfusion—Programme Management Unit, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Jaboulay, J.-C. [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, SERMA, LPEC, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Moro, F. [ENEA, Dipartimento Fusione e tecnologie per la Sicurezza Nucleare, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Palermo, I. [Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Pereslavtsev, P. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Villari, R. [ENEA, Dipartimento Fusione e tecnologie per la Sicurezza Nucleare, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Breeder blanket concepts for DEMO—design features. • Neutronic characteristics of breeder blankets. • Evaluation of Tritium breeding potential. • Evaluation of shielding performance. - Abstract: This paper presents nuclear performance issues of the HCPB, HCLL, DCLL and WCLL breeder blankets, which are under development within the PPPT (Power Plant Physics and Technology) programme of EUROfusion, with the objective to assess the potential and suitability of the blankets for the application to DEMO. The assessment is based on the initial design versions of the blankets developed in 2014. The Tritium breeding potential is considered sufficient for all breeder blankets although the initial design versions of the HCPB, HCLL and DCLL blankets were shown to require further design improvements. Suitable measures have been proposed and proven to be sufficient to achieve the required Tritium Breeding Ratio (TBR) ≥ 1.10. The shielding performance was shown to be sufficient to protect the super-conducting toroidal field coil provided that efficient shielding material mixtures including WC or borated water are utilized. The WCLL blanket does not require the use of such shielding materials due to a very compact blanket support structure/manifold configuration which yet requires design verification. The vacuum vessel can be safely operated over the full anticipated DEMO lifetime of 6 full power years for all blanket concepts considered.

  20. Potable water scarcity: options and issues in the coastal areas of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Atikul; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki; Karim, Rezaul; Sekine, Masahiko

    2013-09-01

    In the coastal areas of Bangladesh, scarcity of drinking water is acute as freshwater aquifers are not available at suitable depths and surface water is highly saline. Households are mainly dependent on rainwater harvesting, pond sand filters and pond water for drinking purposes. Thus, individuals in these areas often suffer from waterborne diseases. In this paper, water consumption behaviour in two southwestern coastal districts of Bangladesh has been investigated. The data for this study were collected through a survey conducted on 750 rural households in 39 villages of the study area. The sample was selected using a random sampling technique. Households' choice of water source is complex and seasonally dependent. Water sourcing patterns, households' preference of water sourcing options and economic feasibility of options suggest that a combination of household and community-based options could be suitable for year-round water supply. Distance and time required for water collection were found to be difficult for water collection from community-based options. Both household and community-based options need regular maintenance. In addition to installation of water supply facilities, it is necessary to make the residents aware of proper operation and maintenance of the facilities.

  1. A qualitative assessment of climate adaptation options and some estimates of adaptation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ierland, E.C.; De Bruin, K.; Dellink, R.B.; Ruijs, A.

    2007-02-01

    The Routeplanner project aims to provide a 'systematic assessment' of potential adaptation options to respond to climate change in the Netherlands in connection to spatial planning. The study is the result of a policy oriented project that took place between May and September 2006. The aim of the current study is to provide a 'qualitative assessment' of the direct and indirect effects of adaptation options and to provide an assessment of some of the costs and benefits of adaptation options. The present report presents and summarizes the results of all phases of the study: an inventory of adaptation options, a qualitative assessment of the effects of the adaptation options for the Netherlands in the long run, a database which allows to rank the various options according to a set of criteria and a relative ranking on the basis of these criteria. Finally, the report also contains the best available information on costs and benefits of various adaptation options. However, while conducting the study the project team observed that reliable information in this respect is in many cases still lacking and an urgent need exists for more detailed studies on costs and benefits of adaptation options and the design of the best options to cope with climate change

  2. Sexuality issues in gynaecological oncology patients: post treatment symptoms and therapeutic options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavazzo, C; Johnson, K; Savage, H; Gallagher, S; Datta, M; Winter-Roach, B A

    2015-03-01

    According to recent studies up to 80% of patients would like to receive more information about how cancer treatments can affect their sexual functioning. Moreover, 75 % of them would not feel comfortable being the first to bring up the subject. Our Gynaecological Advice Clinic was established in 2006 at the Christie Hospital and offers support to cancer patients who face sexuality issues. A previous evaluation established that the service sees approximately, 200 patients per year. The aims of this study are to evaluate the service by collecting data relating to levels of attendance, type and amount of clinical activity and to explore further patients' experiences and management. This is a retrospective study which was carried out in 2012-2013. Different models are used to evaluate our patients including history taking integrated therapy model, consultations to understand the normal anatomy and physiology with the use of diagrams and photographs, psycho-education and the international classification "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition" (DSMV). The treatment options advised include medications such as hormone replacement treatment, testosterone, antidepressant, local oestrogen, tibolone, aqueous cream, lubrication to introitus, diprobase, dermal cream and advice for massage to areas of discomfort. Moreover, the use of vaginal dilators, the role of pelvic floor exercises, vulval care and self examination are explained. The team works closely with the psycho-oncology department. The most frequently discussed topics that were covered during the consultation are analysed. 41 outpatient clinics were held between 2012 and 2013. 194 patients attended those clinics during the study period. Single and not group therapy was offered to all the participants. 216 patients were offered appointments while 194 patients actually attended (90%). Patients' age ranged from 24 to 91 years with a mean age of 59 years. 45% had endometrial and 32% cervical

  3. Policy options for pharmaceutical pricing and purchasing: issues for low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Knight, Rosemary; Roughead, Elizabeth Ellen; Brooks, Geoffrey; Mant, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Pharmaceutical expenditure is rising globally. Most high-income countries have exercised pricing or purchasing strategies to address this pressure. Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), however, usually have less regulated pharmaceutical markets and often lack feasible pricing or purchasing strategies, notwithstanding their wish to effectively manage medicine budgets. In high-income countries, most medicines payments are made by the state or health insurance institutions. In LMICs, most pharmaceutical expenditure is out-of-pocket which creates a different dynamic for policy enforcement. The paucity of rigorous studies on the effectiveness of pharmaceutical pricing and purchasing strategies makes it especially difficult for policy makers in LMICs to decide on a course of action. This article reviews published articles on pharmaceutical pricing and purchasing policies. Many policy options for medicine pricing and purchasing have been found to work but they also have attendant risks. No one option is decisively preferred; rather a mix of options may be required based on country-specific context. Empirical studies in LMICs are lacking. However, risks from any one policy option can reasonably be argued to be greater in LMICs which often lack strong legal systems, purchasing and state institutions to underpin the healthcare system. Key factors are identified to assist LMICs improve their medicine pricing and purchasing systems. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  4. Financial Engineering With Options and Its Implementation for Issuing of New Financial Innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Bobriková

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to focus on innovative structured products − investment certificates. The paper shows the creation techniques of a new discount basket certificate using two-asset correlation options, which play the central role in financial engineering. The possibilities of investment using given certificates are investigated for potential investors. Methodology: Methodology of the paper is based on European style two-asset correlation options in analytical expression whose payoff is based on two underlying assets with two strike prices. Due to the lack of real-traded two asset correlation option data, own calculations of option premiums are processed in statistical program R. Also, the pricing of the new discount basket certificate is examines. Approach: Theoretical value of the new discount basket certificate with different levels of its parameters on the stocks Facebook and Google is obtained and it is performed the analysis of the profitability for to the investor at the maturity date. Also, there is showed which parameters the investor should pay attention when deciding to invest into the given investment certificate. Findings: Specific characteristics of each proposed certificate are pointed out and compared to each other with conclusion that every certificate can be the most profitable in specific price development of the underlying assets, but not in every price development. Ideas on how this certificate can be part of a personal investment portfolio are also presented.

  5. Issues related to adapting assessment practices

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    they leave school, then teaching and specifically assessment have failed. Gruender ... argues that the success of any system of assessment can be judged by the modeling ... proposed to replace the previous eight design features of Curriculum. 2005. ... ment of formative and continuous assessment (Chisholm, 1999:253).

  6. Mathematical modeling for exploring the effects of overtime option, rework, and discontinuous inventory issuing policy on EMQ model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singa Wang Chiu

    2018-09-01

    Full Text Available This study employs mathematical modeling to explore the effects of overtime option, rework, and discontinuous end-item issuing policy on the economic manufacturing quantity (EMQ model. Conventional EMQ model assumed that all products fabricated are of good quality and are issued under continuous policy. In real world, however, nonconforming items are randomly produced, due to diverse unexpected factors in fabrication process. When finished items are to be distributed to outside locations, discontinuous multi-shipment policy is often used rather than continuous rule. In addition, with the intention of increasing short-term capacity or shortening replenishment cycle length to smooth the production planning, adopting overtime option can be an effective strategy. To cope with the aforementioned features in real production systems, this study incorporates overtime option, rework, and multi-shipment policy into the EMQ model and explores their joint effects on optimal lot size and number of shipments, and on other relevant system parameters. Mathematical modeling and Hessian matrix equations enable us to derive the optimal policies to the problem. Through the use of numerical example, the applicability of research result is exhibited and a variety of significant effects of these features on the proposed system are revealed.

  7. Issues in Assessment: Putting Theory into Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Patricia A., Ed.

    Assessment as conducted at Finger Lakes Community College (FLCC) in Canandaigua (New York) has taken various forms and has been conducted under various names. This publication offers an overview of assessment at the college from a philosophical and historical perspective. In both general and specific terms, the efforts of the college to meet the…

  8. Assessing alternative options for allocating oil revenue in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkhordar, Zahra A.; Saboohi, Yadollah

    2013-01-01

    The present paper focuses on medium-term effects of alternative windfall management strategies for a resource abundant country where the resource revenues are expected to last over a prolonged period. In particular, the trade-off between spending and saving is analyzed within the framework of a recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium model. The model is further validated against historical data available for 2001–2010. The total factor productivity is calculated endogenously in the model based on a function that reflects the changes in factor productivity. The results suggest that saving oil revenues, whether in an oil fund or through physical investment in domestic sectors, leads to a higher economic growth. However, physical investment is superior in the short to medium term based on the resultant GDP while creating an oil fund might be more beneficial in the post oil era. - Highlights: • A recursive dynamic general equilibrium model is applied for Iran. • The total factor productivity is calculated endogenously. • Alternative revenue allocation options are investigated. • Physical investment of oil windfalls leads to higher economic growth in medium run. • Financial investment of oil revenues leads to higher economic growth in long run

  9. Negotiation of Meaning in Required and Optional Information Exchange Tasks: Discourse Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre Mohamadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely argued that different types of tasks facilitate the acquisition of communicative language to different degrees through providing different contexts for the occurrence of negotiation of meaning which is believed to have facilitative role in language acquisition. Although task based instruction provides a medium for acquiring the communicative language, it suffers from a number of oversimplifications.  The potentials of each task type in creating such a medium were not investigated in exhaustive detail, and it is left as a potentially interesting topic for further research.  This paper reports the analysis of the negotiation of meaning produced by eight intermediate EFL students engaged in required and optional information exchange tasks in dyads.  The results show that pushed output has different quality in these different task types meaning whereas required information exchange task provided a medium for more incidence of negotiation work, optional information exchange tasks engaged participants more with discourse work and led to more incidence of the clarification request as an interactional move that has a facilitative role in pushed output. Test constructors and materials developers need to take principled decisions in what to be included in the tests and texts.

  10. Agroforestry, livestock, fodder production and climate change adaptation and mitigation in East Africa: issues and options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dawson, Ian K; Carsan, Sammy; Franzel, Steve

    Agroforestry and livestock-keeping both have the potential to promote anthropogenic climate changeresilience, and understanding how they can support each other in this context is crucial. Here, we discuss relevant issues in East Africa, where recent agroforestry interventions to support...

  11. Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, S.

    2010-05-01

    This report provides an overview of a technical report on an assessment NREL conducted in Greensburg, Kansas, to identify potential opportunities to develop a biomass pelletization or briquetting plant in the region. See NREL/TP-7A2-45843 for the Executive Summary of this report.

  12. A multi-criteria decision analysis assessment of waste paper management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanan, Deirdre; Burnley, Stephen; Cooke, David

    2013-03-01

    The use of Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) was investigated in an exercise using a panel of local residents and stakeholders to assess the options for managing waste paper on the Isle of Wight. Seven recycling, recovery and disposal options were considered by the panel who evaluated each option against seven environmental, financial and social criteria. The panel preferred options where the waste was managed on the island with gasification and recycling achieving the highest scores. Exporting the waste to the English mainland for incineration or landfill proved to be the least preferred options. This research has demonstrated that MCDA is an effective way of involving community groups in waste management decision making. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative assessment of electricity generation options using DECADES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Martin, D.; Lopez Lopez, I.; Turtos Carbonell, L.

    1999-01-01

    Cuba is poor in primary energy resources. In 1998, 99.4% of electricity generated by the National Electric System came from fossil fuel with the environment implications that this Situation causes. Cuba joint DECADES project (Databases and methodologies for Comparative Assessment of Different Energy Sources) to support planning and decision making process with Appropriated tools. The paper presents the main work carried out with DECADES. An important Effort was devoted to implement the Country Specific Database, to assess power plants and Chains, to select and evaluate different expansion scenarios taking into consideration its Environment implications. At the same time an effort was dedicated to correct, test and Implement DECADES capabilities. The potential role of nuclear power in the expansion policy of Cuban electric system, the Influence of an Oil Steam Boiler project and control technology installation, were performed. Conclusions of the main task done with DECADES are presented

  14. Profit shifting and 'aggressive' tax planning by multinational firms: Issues and options for reform

    OpenAIRE

    Fuest, Clemens; Spengel, Christoph; Finke, Katharina; Heckemeyer, Jost; Nusser, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the issue of profit shifting and ‘aggressive’ tax planning by multinational firms. The paper makes two contributions. Firstly, we provide some background information to the debate by giving a brief overview over existing empirical studies on profit shifting and by describing arrangements for IP-based profit shifting which are used by the companies currently accused of avoiding taxes. We then show that preventing this type of tax avoidance is, in principle, straightforward...

  15. Technical Assessments of Future European Space Transportation Options

    OpenAIRE

    Sippel, Martin; van Foreest, Arnold; Dutheil, Jean-Philippe; Philip, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes some of the most recent activities in Germany in the technical assessment of future European launcher architecture. In focus is a joint effort of DLR-SART with German launcher industry in the definition of a next generation upper-medium class expendable TSTO with an initial operational capability after 2020. Involved companies are EADS astrium and MT Aerospace. This DLR-agency funded study WOTAN investigates fully cryogenic launchers as well as those with a com...

  16. Taxation, revenue allocation and fiscal federalism in Nigeria: Issues, challenges and policy options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salami Adeleke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxation is one of the most important and easy sources of revenue to any government, as the government possesses inherent power to impose taxes and levies. Nigeria tax system has been weak due largely to inadequate data of the tax base and heavy reliance on oil revenue. With the volatility in oil prices and excruciating impacts of the recent global financial crisis, taxation deserves more attention now than ever before in Nigeria. One issue that is critical to domestic resource mobilization and utilization is the issue of fiscal federalism. Nigeria operates three tiers of government; Federal, State and Local Governments with separate revenue, expenditure, and assigned responsibilities each. However, all decisions including resources are controlled from the centre and the vertical revenue allocations tilt more towards the direction of federal government, contrary to the tenets of federalism the country is practicing. Both vertical and horizontal revenue in Nigeria is engulfed in controversy. The paper presents key issues, trend and challenges of taxation and fiscal federalism in Nigeria. In addition, the paper highlights a number of suggestions that would stimulate increase in tax revenue and guarantee fiscal assignment acceptable to the federal and sub-national government.

  17. Funding issues and options for pharmacists providing sessional services to rural hospitals in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Amy Cw; Emmerton, Lynne M; Hattingh, H Laetitia; La Caze, Adam

    2015-06-01

    Many of Australia' s rural hospitals operate without an on-site pharmacist. In some, community pharmacists have sessional contracts to provide medication management services to inpatients. This paper discusses the funding arrangements of identified sessional employment models to raise awareness of options for other rural hospitals. Semistructured one-on-one interviews were conducted with rural pharmacists with experience in a sessional employment role (n =8) or who were seeking sessional arrangements (n = 4). Participants were identified via publicity and referrals. Interviews were conducted via telephone or Skype for ~40-55 min each, recorded and analysed descriptively. A shortage of state funding and reliance on federal funding was reported. Pharmacists accredited to provide medication reviews claimed remuneration via these federal schemes; however, restrictive criteria limited their scope of services. Funds pooling to subsidise remuneration for the pharmacists was evident and arrangements with local community pharmacies provided business frameworks to support sessional services. Participants were unaware of each other's models of practice, highlighting the need to share information and these findings. Several similarities existed, namely, pooling funds and use of federal medication review remuneration. Findings highlighted the need for a stable remuneration pathway and business model to enable wider implementation of sessional pharmacist models.

  18. SY Tank Farm ventilation isolation option risk assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, T.B.; Morales, S.D.

    1994-03-01

    The safety of the 241-SY Tank Farm ventilation system has been under extensive scrutiny due to safety concerns associated with tank 101-SY. Hydrogen and other gases are generated and trapped in the waste below the liquid surface. Periodically, these gases are released into the dome space and vented through the exhaust system. This attention to the ventilation system has resulted in the development of several alternative ventilation system designs. The ventilation system provides the primary means of mitigation of accidents associated with flammable gases. This report provides an assessment of various alternatives ventilation system designs.

  19. HTGR containment design options: an application of probabilistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-08-01

    Through the use of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), it is possible to quantitatively evaluate the radiological risk associated with a given reactor design and to place such risk into perspective with alternative designs. The merits are discussed for several containment alternatives for the HTGR from the viewpoints of economics and licensability, as well as public risk. The quantification of cost savings and public risk indicates that presently acceptable public risk can be maintained and cost savings of $40 million can result from use of a vented confinement for the HTGR

  20. Radiological assessments of land disposal options: recent model developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearn, H.S.; Pinner, A.V.; Hemming, C.R.

    1984-10-01

    This report describes progress in the development of methodologies and models for assessing the radiological impact of the disposal of low and intermediate level wastes by (i) shallow land burial in simple trenches (land 1), (ii) shallow land burial in engineered facilities (land 2), and (iii) emplacement in mined repositories or existing cavities (land 3/4). In particular the report describes wasteform leaching models, for unconditioned and cemented waste, the role of engineered barriers of a shallow land burial facility in reducing the magnitude of doses arising from groundwater contact and a detailed consideration of the interactions between radioactive carbon and various media. (author)

  1. Assessment of energy efficiency options in the building sector of Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chedid, R.B.; Ghajar, R.F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the merits of implementing energy efficiency policies in the building sector in Lebanon following the approach normally adopted in Climate Change studies. The paper first examines the impact of the energy sector on the Lebanese economy, and then assesses the feasibility of implementing suitable energy efficiency options in the building sector. For this purpose, a detailed analysis of the building sector in Lebanon is presented with emphasis on the thermal characteristics of building envelopes and the energy consuming equipment. The long-term benefits of applying energy efficiency options in the building sector are then assessed using a scenario-type analysis that compares these benefits against those of a baseline scenario that assumes no significant implementation of energy efficiency policies. Finally, feasible options are highlighted and recommendations to remove the major barriers hindering the penetration of energy efficiency options in the Lebanese market are provided

  2. Uncertainties on hydrocarbon exploration assessments in both the absence and presence of optioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, I.

    1998-01-01

    For hydrocarbon exploration opportunities a decision tree evaluation including variance in expected value leads to an extra uncertainty on the quality and worth of expected values as a decision device, due to both intrinsic uncertainties in success probability, assessed gains and assessed costs, and to the fact that the expected value is not one of the realizable outcomes. This paper shows how these uncertainty factors can be properly taken into account to provide a revised assessment of worth. In addition, a similar sense of logic prevails when options are considered for an opportunity. The uncertainty and success probability for an optional opportunity are also assessed in terms of the volatility of the maximum option worth. (author)

  3. Energy and the environment: Technology assessment and policy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, M.P.W.

    1990-01-01

    While the energy crisis of the 1970s stimulated technological innovation in developed countries, it often had the opposite effect in the third world. However, developing countries can be considered to have two types of energy systems: ''connected'' and ''disconnected''. The connected system is affected by changes in the price of commercial energy, but the disconnected system is usually rural and remote. Commercial forms of energy may be needed in the disconnected system, but they are largely unavailable. In some of the developing countries, new energy technologies have therefore been developed which adapt traditional technologies still existing in the disconnected sector. In this article some of the work of the United National Centre for Science and Technology for Development is described. Through its ATAS (Advance Technology Alert System) programme, international and regional workshops are held to discuss policy questions arising in regard to new technologies and developments. Workshops have been held in Moscow on new energy technologies in the industry subsystem (connected), in Guatemala City on new energy technologies and the disconnected system, and in Ottawa on new energy technologies, transportation and development. Initial assessments made by or through these workshops are outlined here. A fourth workshop will be held in June 1990 in Saarbrucken on energy technologies and climate change. (author). 3 figs

  4. Assessing Option Grid® practicability and feasibility for facilitating shared decision making: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsulukidze, Maka; Grande, Stuart W; Gionfriddo, Michael R

    2015-07-01

    To assess the feasibility of Option Grids(®)for facilitating shared decision making (SDM) in simulated clinical consultations and explore clinicians' views on their practicability. We used mixed methods approach to analyze clinical consultations using the Observer OPTION instrument and thematic analysis for follow-up interviews with clinicians. Clinicians achieved high scores on information sharing and low scores on preference elicitation and integration. Four themes were identified: (1) Barriers affect practicability of Option Grids(®); (2) Option Grids(®) facilitate the SDM process; (3) Clinicians are aware of the gaps in their practice of SDM; (4) Training and ongoing feedback on the optimal use of Option Grids(®) are necessary. Use of Option Grids(®) by clinicians with background knowledge in SDM did not facilitate optimal levels of competency on the SDM core concepts of preference elicitation and integration. Future research must evaluate the impact of training on the use of Option Grids(®), and explore how best to help clinicians bridge the gap between knowledge and action. Clinicians proficiently imparting information in simulations struggled to elicit and integrate patient preferences - understanding this gap and developing strategies to close it are the next steps for implementing SDM into clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A multi-criteria decision analysis assessment of waste paper management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanan, Deirdre; Burnley, Stephen; Cooke, David

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Isolated communities have particular problems in terms of waste management. ► An MCDA tool allowed a group of non-experts to evaluate waste management options. ► The group preferred local waste management solutions to export to the mainland. ► Gasification of paper was the preferred option followed by recycling. ► The group concluded that they could be involved in the decision making process. - Abstract: The use of Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) was investigated in an exercise using a panel of local residents and stakeholders to assess the options for managing waste paper on the Isle of Wight. Seven recycling, recovery and disposal options were considered by the panel who evaluated each option against seven environmental, financial and social criteria. The panel preferred options where the waste was managed on the island with gasification and recycling achieving the highest scores. Exporting the waste to the English mainland for incineration or landfill proved to be the least preferred options. This research has demonstrated that MCDA is an effective way of involving community groups in waste management decision making

  6. A multi-criteria decision analysis assessment of waste paper management options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanan, Deirdre [Department of Design, Development, Environment and Materials, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Burnley, Stephen, E-mail: s.j.burnley@open.ac.uk [Department of Design, Development, Environment and Materials, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Cooke, David [Department of Design, Development, Environment and Materials, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Isolated communities have particular problems in terms of waste management. ► An MCDA tool allowed a group of non-experts to evaluate waste management options. ► The group preferred local waste management solutions to export to the mainland. ► Gasification of paper was the preferred option followed by recycling. ► The group concluded that they could be involved in the decision making process. - Abstract: The use of Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) was investigated in an exercise using a panel of local residents and stakeholders to assess the options for managing waste paper on the Isle of Wight. Seven recycling, recovery and disposal options were considered by the panel who evaluated each option against seven environmental, financial and social criteria. The panel preferred options where the waste was managed on the island with gasification and recycling achieving the highest scores. Exporting the waste to the English mainland for incineration or landfill proved to be the least preferred options. This research has demonstrated that MCDA is an effective way of involving community groups in waste management decision making.

  7. Chemical Facility Security: Issues and Options for the 112th Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    between two approved disinfectants —chlorine and chloramine —as correlated with an unexpected increase in levels of lead in drinking water due to...treatment facilities possess large amounts of potentially hazardous chemicals, such as chlorine, for purposes such as disinfection .50 Advocates for their...Works, June 21, 2006, S.Hrg. 109-1044. 89 The DHS Science and Technology (S& T ) Directorate is engaged in a Chemical Infrastructure Risk Assessment

  8. EPa`s program for risk assessment guidelines: Exposure issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, M.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Three major issues to be dealt with over the next ten years in the exposure assessment field are: consistency in terminology, the impact of computer technology on the choice of data and modeling, and conceptual issues such as the use of time-weighted averages.

  9. Mechanization of Conservation Agriculture for Smallholders: Issues and Options for Sustainable Intensification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Sims

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Conservation agriculture (CA is an increasingly adopted production system to meet the goals of sustainable crop production intensification in feeding a growing world population whilst conserving natural resources. Mechanization (especially power units, seeders, rippers and sprayers is a key input for CA and smallholder farmers often have difficulties in making the necessary investments. Donors may be able to provide mechanization inputs in the short term, but this is not a sustainable solution as a machinery input supply chain needs to be built up to continue availability after external interventions cease. Local manufacture should be supported, as was the case in Brazil, but this is a slow development process, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. A more immediate solution is to equip and train CA service provision entrepreneurs. With the right equipment, selected for the needs of their local clientele, and the right technical and business management training, such entrepreneurs can make a livelihood by supplying high quality CA and other mechanization services on a fully costed basis. Elements of the required training, based on extensive field experience, are provided. To catalyse the growth of CA providers’ business, the market can be stimulated for an initial period by issuing e-vouchers for services and inputs.

  10. Ecologic assessment of closure options for Savannah River Plant waste sites: Task 38, AX-681812

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Ecologic assessment of closure options is one of several analyses being documented in the EIDs (along with analysis of relative potential health risks, accident risks, and costs). This information will serve as a basis for choosing the best option for closing a particular waste facility. This report presents the methodology adopted for SRP waste site ecological assessment, and the results of its application. The results of the ecologic assessment indicated that no impacts are expected for any of the closure options at eleven sites. Significant ecologic impacts are possible at the eight waste sites or groups of waste sites including the Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds, Old TNX Seepage Basin, CMP Pits, F-Area Seepage Basins, H-Area Seepage Basins, SRL Seepage Basins, R-Reactor Seepage Basins, and L-Area Oil and Chemical Basin. 104 refs., 22 figs., 241 tabs

  11. Sustainable energy provision: a comparative assessment of the various electricity supply options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, A.

    2000-01-01

    The provision of electricity is of central importance for economic growth and societal development. While numerous societal and economic benefits arise from the use of electricity, the production of electricity can also have negative impacts on the environment and the climate system. The commitment to sustainable development calls for the evaluation of the extent to which the different electricity supply options fulfill the sustainability criteria. The conceptual framework of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) can provide a solid basis for a comparative assessment of different electricity supply options with regard to their environmental impacts, raw material requirements as well as their resulting external costs. Results of a comprehensive comparative assessment of nuclear energy and other electricity options are presented. (author)

  12. A comprehensive assessment of options for the legal form of the Paris Climate Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maljean-Dubois, Sandrine; Wemaere, Matthieu; Thomas Spencer

    2014-01-01

    For many years, the issue of the legal form of the new climate agreement has hovered over the international negotiations. Countries have insisted on first discussing substance. Indeed, it is here that the main divergences remain. However, one year out from the Paris climate conference, it is time to open the discussion on the legal form of the final agreement. The issue of legal form is often reduced to the negotiation of a 'binding' or 'non-binding' agreement. The bindingness of an international environmental agreement however depends on multiple parameters. We propose four parameters to be considered: the form of the core agreement; the 'anchoring' of commitments; mechanisms for transparency, accountability and facilitation; and mechanisms for compliance. Parties should assess pros and cons of these options, and the agreement be optimised across all four. Negotiations appear to be heading towards a hybrid agreement. Some provisions would be contained in a core agreement, and some in implementing documents such as decisions or schedules. This structure can help to balance legal certainty with flexibility. The core agreement should contain a binding provision to implement and regularly update a 'nationally determined contribution' (NDC). If these NDCs were to be housed outside the agreement, this could give more flexibility on their content, submission and updating. The core agreement should contain strong provisions on transparency, accountability and facilitation, including independent institutional arrangements (a Transparency Committee). At this stage in global cooperation and given inherent weaknesses in international environmental law, a punitive compliance mechanism seems unfeasible. However, the agreement should contain a compliance mechanism regarding procedural obligations, such as submission and updating of NDCs. (authors)

  13. Integrated economic assessment of energy and forestry mitigation options using MARKAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    There have been a number of economic assessment of GHG mitigation studies carried out in Indonesia. Several alternative mitigation options for energy and non-energy sectors have been described and the economic assessment of the options has been done for each sectors. However, most of the economic assessment particularly for non-energy sector, was not to find a least cost option but the lowest cost options. A program called MARKAL developed by a consortium of energy specialists from more than a dozen countries in the early 1980s, is a program that can be used for optimization, so that the least cost options could be selected. Indonesia has used this program intensively for energy system analysis. Attempt to use this program for other sector has not been developed as this program was designed for energy sector. Therefore, using MARKAL for other sector, all activities of the other sectors should be treated as energy activities. This study is aimed to use MARKAL for analysing both energy and forestry sector together. This paper described briefly the methodology of using MARKAL for both energy and forestry sectors. As the activities in energy sector have unique characteristics, thus only forest activities are described in more detail. (au)

  14. Economic assessment of climate adaptation options for urban drainage design in Odense, Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Q; Halsnæs, K; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, K

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is likely to influence the water cycle by changing the precipitation patterns, in some cases leading to increased occurrences of precipitation extremes. Urban landscapes are vulnerable to such changes due to the concentrated population and socio-economic values in cities. Feasible adaptation requires better flood risk quantification and assessment of appropriate adaptation actions in term of costs and benefits. This paper presents an economic assessment of three prevailing climate adaptation options for urban drainage design in a Danish case study, Odense. A risk-based evaluation framework is used to give detailed insights of the physical and economic feasibilities of each option. Estimation of marginal benefits of adaptation options are carried out through a step-by-step cost-benefit analysis. The results are aimed at providing important information for decision making on how best to adapt to urban pluvial flooding due to climate impacts in cities.

  15. Template for assessing climate change impacts and management options: TACCIMO user guide version 2.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrys Treasure; Steven McNulty; Jennifer Moore Myers; Lisa Nicole Jennings

    2014-01-01

    The Template for Assessing Climate Change Impacts and Management Options (TACCIMO) is a Web-based tool developed by the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture to assist Federal, State, and private land managers and planners with evaluation of climate change science implications for sustainable natural resource management. TACCIMO is a dynamic information...

  16. Assessing alternative production options for eco-efficient food supply chains using multi-objective optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banasik, Aleksander; Kanellopoulos, Argyris; Claassen, G.D.H.; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, Jacqueline M.; Vorst, van der Jack G.A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Due to tremendous losses of resources in modern food supply chains, higher priority should be given to reducing food waste and environmental impacts of food production. In practice, multiple production options are available, but must be quantitatively assessed with respect to economic and

  17. Perspectives and reconciliation of viewpoints on risk assessment issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    It is important to recognize the distinction between risk assessment and its components which include risk analysis, perspectives study, and decision analysis. Divergence of opinion within the scientific community as well as the public at large is a characteristic of issues related to nuclear power. The divergent opinions can largely be characterized as either optimistic or pessimistic in nature. Reconciliation of divergent viewpoints presents some difficult challenges. It is doubtful that issues which have an emotional or philosophical basis can be resolved through technical efforts. Public education on the technical issues might prove helpful

  18. Assessing climate adaptation options and uncertainties for cereal systems in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, K.; Sultan, B.; Biasutti, M.; Lobell, D. B.

    2015-12-01

    The already fragile agriculture production system in West Africa faces further challenges in meeting food security in the coming decades, primarily due to a fast increasing population and risks of climate change. Successful adaptation of agriculture should not only benefit in the current climate but should also reduce negative (or enhance positive) impacts for climate change. Assessment of various possible adaptation options and their uncertainties provides key information for prioritizing adaptation investments. Here, based on the several robust aspects of climate projections in this region (i.e. temperature increases and rainfall pattern shifts), we use two well-validated crop models (i.e. APSIM and SARRA-H) and an ensemble of downscaled climate forcing to assess five possible and realistic adaptation options (late sowing, intensification, thermal time increase, water harvesting and increased resilience to heat stress) in West Africa for the staple crop production of sorghum. We adopt a new assessment framework to account for both the impacts of adaptation options in current climate and their ability to reduce impacts of future climate change, and also consider changes in both mean yield and its variability. Our results reveal that most proposed "adaptation options" are not more beneficial in the future than in the current climate, i.e. not really reduce the climate change impacts. Increased temperature resilience during grain number formation period is the main adaptation that emerges. We also find that changing from the traditional to modern cultivar, and later sowing in West Sahel appear to be robust adaptations.

  19. A multi-actor multi-criteria framework to assess the stakeholder support for different biofuel options: The case of Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcksin, Laurence; Macharis, Cathy; Lebeau, Kenneth; Boureima, Faycal; Van Mierlo, Joeri; Bram, Svend; De Ruyck, Jacques; Mertens, Lara; Jossart, Jean-Marc; Gorissen, Leen; Pelkmans, Luc

    2011-01-01

    The multi-actor multi-criteria analysis (MAMCA) is a methodology to evaluate different policy measures, whereby different stakeholders' opinions are explicitly taken into account. In this paper, the framework is used to assess several biofuel options for Belgium that can contribute to the binding target of 10% renewable fuels in transport by 2020, issued by the Renewable Energy Directive (RED). Four biofuel options (biodiesel, ethanol, biogas and synthetic biodiesel (also referred to as 'biomass-to-liquid' or BTL)) together with a reference fossil fuel option, are evaluated on the aims and objectives of the different stakeholders involved in the biofuel supply chain (feedstock producers, biofuel producers, fuel distributors, end users, vehicle manufacturers, government, NGOs and North-South organizations). Overall, the MAMCA provided insights in the stakeholder's position and possible implementation problems for every biofuel option. As such, it helps decision makers in establishing a supportive policy framework to facilitate implementation and to ensure market success, once they have decided on which biofuel option (or combination of options) to implement. - Research Highlights: → Stakeholder support is an indispensable factor for market success of biofuels. → A MAMCA explicitly includes stakeholder visions in the decision-making process. → The MAMCA shows strengths and weaknesses of alternatives for different stakeholders. →Information on stakeholder's position helps to establish implementation pathways. → Policy makers should focus on combination of biofuel options to reach EU 2020 target.

  20. Eco-efficiency assessment of options for metal recovery from incineration residues: a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meylan, Grégoire; Spoerri, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Residues from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration in Switzerland have been a hot topic in recent years, both in the research and practice communities. Regarded by many as an economically and environmentally sound solution to this issue, technological retrofitting of existing grate incinerators has the dual purpose of enhancing the metal recovery of bottom and fly ashes and improving the inertization of residues to be landfilled. How does context influence the economic and environmental performance of this particular technological option? Under which conditions would this technological option be implemented nationwide in the future? What are stakeholders' views on sustainable transitions of MSW incineration? We propose a three-stage methodological procedure to address these questions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ethical issues in the psychosocial assessment of bariatric surgery candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouleau, Codie R; Rash, Joshua A; Mothersill, Kerry J

    2016-07-01

    Psychosocial evaluation is recommended prior to bariatric surgery. Practice guidelines have been published on assessment methods for bariatric surgery candidates, but they have not emphasized ethical issues with this population. This review outlines ethical and professional considerations for behavioral healthcare providers who conduct pre-surgical assessments of bariatric surgery candidates by merging ethical principles for mental health professionals with current practices in pre-surgical assessments. Issues discussed include the following: (a) establishing and maintaining competence, (b) obtaining informed consent, (c) respecting confidentiality, (d) avoiding bias and discrimination, (e) avoiding and addressing dual roles, (f) selecting and using psychological tests, and (g) acknowledging limitations of psychosocial assessments. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Personality Assessment of Global Talent: Conceptual and Methodological Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Vijver, Fons J. R.

    2008-01-01

    The recruitment of managers who will operate in a culturally heterogeneous context (as expatriate managers, managers in a global company, or managers of a multicultural workforce) is increasingly important in an age of globalization. This article describes conceptual and methodological issues in the assessment of such managers, notably in the…

  3. Assessing Preferences for AAC Options in Communication Interventions for Individuals with Developmental Disabilities: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Larah; Sigafoos, Jeff; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.

    2011-01-01

    We synthesized studies that assessed preference for using different augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) options. Studies were identified via systematic searches of electronic databases, journals, and reference lists. Studies were evaluated in terms of: (a) participants, (b) setting, (c) communication options assessed, (d) design, (e)…

  4. Assessing CO2 Mitigation Options Utilizing Detailed Electricity Characteristics and Including Renewable Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensaida, K.; Alie, Colin; Elkamel, A.; Almansoori, A.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a novel techno-economic optimization model for assessing the effectiveness of CO2 mitigation options for the electricity generation sub-sector that includes renewable energy generation. The optimization problem was formulated as a MINLP model using the GAMS modeling system. The model seeks the minimization of the power generation costs under CO2 emission constraints by dispatching power from low CO2 emission-intensity units. The model considers the detailed operation of the electricity system to effectively assess the performance of GHG mitigation strategies and integrates load balancing, carbon capture and carbon taxes as methods for reducing CO2 emissions. Two case studies are discussed to analyze the benefits and challenges of the CO2 reduction methods in the electricity system. The proposed mitigations options would not only benefit the environment, but they will as well improve the marginal cost of producing energy which represents an advantage for stakeholders.

  5. Comparative availability and reliability assessment of design options for the secondary sodium loops of the EFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamme, H.

    1989-01-01

    The EFR (European Fast Reactor) project has entered a conceptual study period where different design alternatives are compared concerning feasibility, safety and economic aspects. This paper describes a comparative probabilistic availability and reliability assessment of alternative design options for the secondary sodium loops. These loops will provide heat transfer from the reactor pool to the water-steam (power generating) side. So a high operational availability of the secondary loops during plant lifetime is essential for economic power generation. Additionally a high reliability is required to fulfill the operational decay heat removal function in case of a reactor trip. Availabilities and reliabilities of the different options were assessed using failure mode and effect analysis and the fault tree method. (orig.)

  6. Republic of the Marshall Islands. Energy Project Development Options and Technical Assessment (2013)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, Misty Dawn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Olis, Dan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ness, J. Erik [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The advancement of renewable energy and energy efficient technologies continues to be fluid. There are many technical opportunities and strategies that can be utilized to guide communities to deploy cost-effective commercial alternative energy options; however, to achieve aggressive economic, environmental, and security goals, it requires a comprehensive, integrated approach. This document reports on the initial findings of an energy assessment that was conducted for the Republic of the Marshall Islands.

  7. Life-cycle assessment of selected management options for air pollution control residues from waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruergaard, Thilde; Hyks, Jiri; Astrup, Thomas

    2010-09-15

    Based on available technology and emission data seven selected management options for air-pollution-control (APC) residues from waste incineration were evaluated by life-cycle assessment (LCA) using the EASEWASTE model. Scenarios were evaluated with respect to both non-toxicity impact categories (e.g. global warming) and toxicity related impact categories (e.g. ecotoxicity and human toxicity). The assessment addressed treatment and final placement of 1 tonne of APC residue in seven scenarios: 1) direct landfilling without treatment (baseline), 2) backfilling in salt mines, 3) neutralization of waste acid, 4) filler material in asphalt, 5) Ferrox stabilization, 6) vitrification, and 7) melting with automobile shredder residues (ASR). The management scenarios were selected as examples of the wide range of different technologies available worldwide while at the same time using realistic technology data. Results from the LCA were discussed with respect to importance of: energy consumption/substitution, material substitution, leaching, air emissions, time horizon aspects for the assessment, and transportation distances. The LCA modeling showed that thermal processes were associated with the highest loads in the non-toxicity categories (energy consumption), while differences between the remaining alternatives were small and generally considered insignificant. In the toxicity categories, all treatment/utilization options were significantly better than direct landfilling without treatment (lower leaching), although the thermal processes had somewhat higher impacts than the others options (air emissions). Transportation distances did not affect the overall ranking of the management alternatives. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Document Image Processing: Going beyond the Black-and-White Barrier. Progress, Issues and Options with Greyscale and Colour Image Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendley, Tom

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of digital document image processing focuses on issues and options associated with greyscale and color image processing. Topics include speed; size of original document; scanning resolution; markets for different categories of scanners, including photographic libraries, publishing, and office applications; hybrid systems; data…

  9. Incorporating externalities in the assessment of different energy options for electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacomino, Vanusa Maria Feliciano; Souza, Jair Albo Marques de; Grynberg, Suely Epsztein; Aronne, Ivan Dionysio

    2002-01-01

    The production of electricity considering its full chain cycle arises major local, regional and global environmental impacts. This fact and the need of several countries to establish energy plans for the next decades and also the recognition that environmental issues are playing important role in the decision-making process justify the interest in appropriate and comprehensive methodologies and tools to deal with this matter, to be applied mainly in the power sector. The main aim of the present investigation was the implementation and application of a simplified methodology based on the impact pathway (or damage function) approach which is being proposed by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for the estimation of externalities arising from the full chain cycle of different energy sources for electricity production in its Member States. The externalities arising from different options, including coal, oil, gas and nuclear, were estimated. A computer model based on the optimization of non-linear functions was used as a support tool for decision-making in the power sector. Taking into consideration the externalities from the air emissions of different options, nuclear power is the best solution even taking into consideration the effects of high consequence/low probability accidents. It should be noted that this investigation is not only being used to implement an environmental database, but also in enhancing the Brazilian capability in evaluating the different energy options for electricity production in the framework of sustainable development. (author)

  10. Assessment of distributed solar power systems: Issues and impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, R. A.; Chernoff, H.; Schweizer, T. C.; Patton, J. B.

    1982-11-01

    The installation of distributed solar-power systems presents electric utilities with a host of questions. Some of the technical and economic impacts of these systems are discussed. Among the technical interconnect issues are isolated operation, power quality, line safety, and metering options. Economic issues include user purchase criteria, structures and installation costs, marketing and product distribution costs, and interconnect costs. An interactive computer program that allows easy calculation of allowable system prices and allowable generation-equipment prices was developed as part of this project. It is concluded that the technical problems raised by distributed solar systems are surmountable, but their resolution may be costly. The stringent purchase criteria likely to be imposed by many potential system users and the economies of large-scale systems make small systems (less than 10 to 20 kW) less attractive than larger systems. Utilities that consider life-cycle costs in making investment decisions and third-party investors who have tax and financial advantages are likely to place the highest value on solar-power systems.

  11. Emergy-based sustainability assessment of different energy options for green buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Zhiwen; Zhao, Jianing; Yao, Runming; Shu, Zhan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We apply Emergy to assess environmental impact of different energy options. • We develop a new index to assess the anthropogenic heat emission. • The way of electricity produced is crucial to the total environmental load. • The direct-fired lithium-bromide absorption type shows highest environmental load. - Abstract: It is necessary to minimize the environmental impact and utilize natural resources in a sustainable and efficient manner in the early design stage of developing an environmentally-conscious design for a heating, ventilating and air-conditioning system. Energy supply options play a significant role in the total environmental load of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems. To assess the environmental impact of different energy options, a new method based on Emergy Analysis is proposed. Emergy Accounting, was first developed and widely used in the area of ecological engineering, but this is the first time it has been used in building service engineering. The environmental impacts due to the energy options are divided into four categories under the Emergy Framework: the depletion of natural resources, the greenhouse effect (carbon dioxide equivalents), the chemical rain effect (sulfur dioxide equivalents), and anthropogenic heat release. The depletion of non-renewable natural resources is indicated by the Environmental Load Ratio, and the environmental carrying capacity is developed to represent the environmental service to dilute the pollutants and anthropogenic heat released. This Emergy evaluation method provides a new way to integrate different environmental impacts under the same framework and thus facilitates better system choices. A case study of six different kinds of energy options consisting of renewable and non-renewable energy was performed by using Emergy Theory, and thus their relative environmental impacts were compared. The results show that the method of electricity generation in energy sources, especially

  12. The meaning of results. Understanding comparative risk assessments of energy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.; Holland, M.; Rabl, A.; Dreicer, M.

    1999-01-01

    Results of comparative risk assessments can be used for a range of potential applications: choice and balance of technologies for strategic energy planning; choice of a new power plant; optimal dispatching of existing plants; optimization of regulations (emission limits, environmental quality objectives such as air quality limits, tradable permits, pollution taxes); accounting for climate change. When reporting the results of comparative risk assessment, a number of factors should be clear: precise nature of the energy system being assessed; what has been excluded from the analysis; sources of data used in assessment; assumptions that have been made; and what the analysts and other experts have regarded as the key sensitivities in the analysis. If all factors are addressed, the results of comparative risk assessment will prove to be an essential resource for making the best decisions about energy options and policies

  13. Ethical issues in personality assessment in forensic psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, S; VandeCreek, L

    2001-10-01

    In this article we address several ethical issues of concern for psychologists who are engaged in personality assessment in forensic settings such as for courts or attorneys. The ethical issues reviewed include the role of the psychologist as an expert witness, matters of competence, informed consent, confidentiality, multiple relationships, and special issues related to billing. Emphasis is placed on how psychologists can provide useful information to the courts in a manner consistent with the American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, the Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic Psychologist's Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists, and the APA's Guidelines for Child Custody Evaluations in Divorce Proceedings. The practical recommendations made in this article are consistent with the APA's Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct.

  14. Contextual assessment in science education: Background, issues, and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Stephen

    2006-09-01

    Contemporary assessment practices in science education have undergone significant changes in recent decades. The basis for these changes and the resulting new assessment practices are the subject of this two-part paper. Part 1 considers the basis of assessment that, more than 25 years ago, was driven by the assumptions of decomposability and decontextualization of knowledge, resulting in a low-inference testing system, often described as traditional. This assessment model was replaced not on account of direct criticism, but rather on account of a larger revolution - the change from behavioral to cognitive psychology, developments in the philosophy of science, and the rise of constructivism. Most notably, the study of the active cognitive processes of the individual resulted in a major emphasis on context in learning and assessment. These changes gave rise to the development of various contextual assessment methodologies in science education, for example, concept mapping assessment, performance assessment, and portfolio assessment. In Part 2, the literature relating to the assessment methods identified in Part 1 is reviewed, revealing that there is not much research that supports their validity and reliability. However, encouraging new work on selected-response tests is forming the basis for reconsideration of past criticisms of this technique. Despite the major developments in contextual assessment methodologies in science education, two important questions remain unanswered, namely, whether grades can be considered as genuine numeric quantities and whether the individual student is the appropriate unit of assessment in public accountability. Given these issues and the requirement for science assessment to satisfy the goals of the individual, the classroom, and the society, tentative recommendations are put forward addressing these parallel needs in the assessment of science learning.

  15. Medication for Military Aircrew: Current Use, Issues, and Strategies for Expanded Options (les medicaments pour les equipaes militaires: Consommation actuelle, questions et strategies pour des options elargies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    evaluated. When monitoring vestibular functioning, several important issues need to be understood. Anamnesis : Because damage to the vestibular system due...to drugs usually affects both labyrinths, the most important tool in standard diagnostic practice, the anamnesis , falls short. In the usual clinical

  16. Tackling ethical issues in health technology assessment: a proposed framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burls, Amanda; Caron, Lorraine; Cleret de Langavant, Ghislaine; Dondorp, Wybo; Harstall, Christa; Pathak-Sen, Ela; Hofmann, Bjørn

    2011-07-01

    Values are intrinsic to the use of health technology assessments (HTAs) in health policy, but neglecting value assumptions in HTA makes their results appear more robust or normatively neutral than may be the case. Results of a 2003 survey by the International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA) revealed the existence of disparate methods for making values and ethical issues explicit when conducting HTA. An Ethics Working Group, with representation from sixteen agencies, was established to develop a framework for addressing ethical issues in HTA. Using an iterative approach, with email exchanges and face-to-face workshops, a report on Handling Ethical Issues was produced. This study describes the development process and the agreed upon framework for reflexive ethical analysis that aims to uncover and explore the ethical implications of technologies through an integrated, context-sensitive approach and situates the proposed framework within previous work in the development of ethics analysis in HTA. It is important that methodological approaches to address ethical reflection in HTA be integrative and context sensitive. The question-based approach described and recommended here is meant to elicit this type of reflection in a way that can be used by HTA agencies. The questions proposed are considered only as a starting point for handling ethics issues, but their use would represent a significant improvement over much of the existing practice.

  17. The environmental assessment of nuclear materials disposition options: A transportation perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.K.; Clauss, D.B.; Moyer, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has undertaken a program to evaluate and select options for the long-term storage and disposition of fissile materials declared surplus to defense needs as a result of the end of the Cold War. The transport of surplus fissile material will be an important and highly visible aspect of the environmental impact studies and other planning documents required for implementation of the disposition options. This report defines the roles and requirements for transportation of fissile materials in the program, and discusses an existing methodology for determining the environmental impact in terms of risk. While it will be some time before specific alternatives are chosen that will permit the completion of detailed risk calculations, the analytical models for performing the probabilistic risk assessments already exist with much of the supporting data related to the transportation system. This report summarizes the various types of data required and identifies sources for that data

  18. Beyond pure offsetting: Assessing options to generate Net-Mitigation-Effects in carbon market mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnecke, Carsten; Wartmann, Sina; Höhne, Niklas; Blok, Kornelis

    2014-01-01

    The current project-based carbon market mechanisms such as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and the Joint Implementation (JI) do not have a direct impact on global greenhouse gas emission levels, because they only replace or offset emissions. Nor do they contribute to host country's national greenhouse gas emission reduction targets. Contributions to net emission reductions in host countries is likely to become mandatory in new mechanisms under development such as in the framework for various approaches, a new market-based mechanism and even in a reformed JI. This research analysed the question if approaches for carbon market-based mechanisms exist that allow the generation of net emission reductions in host countries while keeping project initiation attractive. We present a criteria-based assessment method and apply it for four generic options in existing mechanisms and derive implications for future mechanism frameworks. We identified the application of “discounts” on the amount of avoided emissions for the issuance of carbon credits and “standardisation below business as usual” as most promising options over “limiting the crediting period” and “over-conservativeness”. We propose to apply these options differentiated over project types based on internal rate of return to ensure cost-efficiency and attractiveness. - Highlights: • Options for net emission reductions of market-based mechanisms are assessed. • Research combines past and current views for project and sector-based mechanisms. • Implementation ensures initiation of mitigation activities is not discouraged. • Important insights for methodological design of new market-based mechanisms. • Profitability-based approach for project-based mechanisms suggested

  19. Discussion of some issues in assessing nuclear and radiation environmental impacts and in related assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ziqiang

    1998-01-01

    The author discusses some noticeable issues in drafting assessment report of nuclear and radiation environmental impacts and relevant aspects needed to be considered from the point of view of comprehensive environmental assessment. The considerable issue are principles of radioactive waste management, optimization of radiation protection and collective dose, and uncertainty of the assessment. Implementing reporting system on assessment of nuclear and radiation environmental impacts would improve environmental protection for nuclear and radiation facilities. However, trade's, regional , country and global assessment of environmental impacts has to be enhanced. For this purpose, it is necessary to develop methodology of qualitative and quantitative comprehensive assessment

  20. Climate Change and Environmental assessments: Issues in an African Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalfelt, Arne; Naess, Lars Otto

    1997-12-31

    The present report discusses the potential for integrating climate change issues into environmental assessments of development actions, with an emphasis on sub-Sahara Africa. The study is motivated by the fact that future climate change could have significant adverse impacts on the natural and socio-economic environment in Africa. Yet, to date global change issues, including climate change, have been largely overlooked in the process of improving environmental assessment procedures and methodologies. It is argued that although emissions of greenhouse gases in Africa are negligible today, it is highly relevant to include this aspect in the planning of long-term development strategies. The report discusses potential areas of conflicts and synergies between climate change and development goals. The general conclusion is that environmental assessments could be an appropriate tool for addressing climate change issues, while there are still several obstacles to its practical implementation. Four priority areas are suggested for further work: (1) Environmental accounting, (2) harmonization and standard-setting, (3) implementation, and (4) risk management. 82 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs.

  1. Current issues and perspectives in food safety and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbrand, G

    2015-12-01

    In this review, current issues and opportunities in food safety assessment are discussed. Food safety is considered an essential element inherent in global food security. Hazard characterization is pivotal within the continuum of risk assessment, but it may be conceived only within a very limited frame as a true alternative to risk assessment. Elucidation of the mode of action underlying a given hazard is vital to create a plausible basis for human toxicology evaluation. Risk assessment, to convey meaningful risk communication, must be based on appropriate and reliable consideration of both exposure and mode of action. New perspectives, provided by monitoring human exogenous and endogenous exposure biomarkers, are considered of great promise to support classical risk extrapolation from animal toxicology. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Implementation and assessment of improved models and options in TRAC-BF1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytis, G.Th.

    1996-07-01

    A summary of modifications and options introduced in TRAC-BF1 is presented and it is shown that the predicting capabilities of the modified version of the core are greatly improved. These changes include the introduction of a different heat transfer package during reflooding, the implementation of a simple single-phase limit procedure for forcing the two phases to acquire the same velocity if one phase disappears, a close assessment of the annular flow interfacial shear correlation, implementation of a simple radiation model which seems to alleviate some numerical-oscillations problems induced by the existing highly complex model. Furthermore, different options were introduced and tested like upwinding some terms of the momentum equations (which seems to solve a number of problems reported in the past), the second upwind scheme for the convective terms of the phasic momentum equations and the implementation and assessment of a completely different annular flow interfacial shear correlation. The modified TRAC-BF1 is assessed against some bottom-flooding separate-effect experiments, a 'benchmark' top flooding simulation as well as against the TLTA test Nr. 6423. In the process of this task, the different options are assessed and discussed and is shown that the predictions of the modified code are physically sound and close to the measurements, while almost all the predicted variables are free of unphysical spurious oscillations. The modifications introduced solve a number of problems associated with the frozen version of the code and result in a version which can be confidently used for LB-LOCA analyses. (author) 19 figs., 16 refs

  3. The role of quantitative optimization techniques in assessment of best practicable environmental options for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    The interpretation of the Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO) and ALARA concepts in radioactive waste management is given. The quantitative analysis of the financial and radiological impacts of different options for waste management is discussed. Finally, the role of quantitative multi-attribute analysis in the DOE's assessment of BPEOs for radioactive waste is described. (UK)

  4. Regional issue identification and assessment. First annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    This regional assessment report portrays the major regional environmental, human health and safety, socioeconomic and institutional effects that might result from the implementation of one of a set of national energy supply and demand projections developed by the Department of Energy in 1978. General problem areas are identified and assessed on a regional and state basis that could either constrain or significantly modify the realization of the energy projections. Many of the issues identified are of a long-standing nature and would continue to exist, in spite of the particular energy projection used. The research and assessments reflected in this document were performed by six national laboratories. It is a compilation of individual reports prepared by Federal regions and available separately.

  5. Assessment of First Wall and Blanket Options with the Use of Liquid Breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Malang, S.; Sawan, M.

    2005-01-01

    As candidate blanket concepts for a U.S. advanced reactor power plant design, with consideration of the time frame for ITER development, we assessed first wall and blanket design concepts based on the use of reduced activation ferritic steel as structural material and liquid breeder as the coolant and tritium breeder. The liquid breeder choice includes the conventional molten salt Li 2 BeF 4 and the low melting point molten salts such as LiBeF 3 and LiNaBeF 4 (FLiNaBe). Both self-cooled and dual coolant molten salt options were evaluated. We have also included the dual coolant leadeutectic Pb-17Li design in our assessment. We take advantage of the molten salt low electrical and thermal conductivity to minimize impacts from the MHD effect and the heat losses from the breeder to the actively cooled steel structure. For the Pb-17Li breeder we employ flow channel inserts of SiC f /SiC composite with low electrical and thermal conductivity to perform respective insulation functions. We performed preliminary assessments of these design options in the areas of neutronics, thermal-hydraulics, safety, and power conversion system. Status of the R and D items of selected high performance blanket concepts is reported. Results from this study will form the technical basis for the formulation of the U.S. ITER test module program and corresponding test plan

  6. ANDROS: A code for Assessment of Nuclide Doses and Risks with Option Selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begovich, C.L.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Ohr, S.Y.; Chester, R.O.

    1986-11-01

    ANDROS (Assessment of Nuclide Doses and Risks with Option Selection) is a computer code written to compute doses and health effects from atmospheric releases of radionuclides. ANDROS has been designed as an integral part of the CRRIS (Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System). ANDROS reads air concentrations and environmental concentrations of radionuclides to produce tables of specified doses and health effects to selected organs via selected pathways (e.g., ingestion or air immersion). The calculation may be done for an individual at a specific location or for the population of the whole assessment grid. The user may request tables of specific effects for every assessment grid location. Along with the radionuclide concentrations, the code requires radionuclide decay data, dose and risk factors, and location-specific data, all of which are available within the CRRIS. This document is a user manual for ANDROS and presents the methodology used in this code

  7. Assessment of options for the treatment of Sizewell PWR liquid effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornby, J.; Allam, J.; Knibbs, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the origins of PWR liquid waste streams, their composition and rates of arising. Data has been collected from operational PWRs and estimates obtained for Sizewell B PWR liquid waste streams. Current liquid waste treatment practices are reviewed and assessments made of established and novel treatment techniques which could be applicable to Sizewell B. A short list of treatment options is given and recommendations are made relating to established treatment technologies suitable for Sizewell B and also to development work on more novel treatments which could lead to a reduction in waste disposal volumes. (author)

  8. Assessment of policy options with regard to air pollution from international shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, F.; Veldeman, N.; Lodewijks, P.; Duuerinck, J.; Janssen, L.; Campling, P.; Janssen, S.; Vanherle, K.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a study has been carried out for DG Environment of the European Commission titled 'Market-based instruments for Reducing Air Pollution. Assessment of Policy Options to reducing air pollution from shipping'. Within this study it was decided to study the environmental impact of two legally possible trading systems: a voluntary emissions trading system for all sea areas belonging to the European Union and a mandatory emissions trading system for the ports and territorial waters of EU Member States. If the emissions in ports and coastal waters will be made part of such a trading system it can result in lower environmental exposure for the population. [nl

  9. Integrated assessment of vulnerability to climate change and options for adaptation in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, K.; Kuikman, P.J.; Veraart, J.A.; Van Walsum, P.E.V.; Westein, E.; Verhagen, A.; Daan, N.; Van Ierland, E.C.; Szoenyi, J.; De Groot, R.S.; Van Vliet, A.; Martens, P.; Amelung, B.; Huynen, M.

    2002-01-01

    In recent decades it has become increasingly clear that the global climate is warming and that regional climates are changing. The changes include alterations in rainfall pattern and intensities, sea level, and the frequencies of extreme weather events. Climate changes will not just have global effects, they will also occur regionally. The consequences will be felt and dealt with in our own region. In addition to studies at the European level, a study entitled 'An integrated assessment of vulnerability to climate change and adaptation options in the Netherlands' was carried out

  10. [The Probabilistic Efficiency Frontier: A Value Assessment of Treatment Options in Hepatitis C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlbacher, Axel C; Sadler, Andrew

    2017-06-19

    Background The German Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) recommends the concept of the efficiency frontier to assess health care interventions. The efficiency frontier supports regulatory decisions on reimbursement prices for the appropriate allocation of health care resources. Until today this cost-benefit assessment framework has only been applied on the basis of individual patient-relevant endpoints. This contradicts the reality of a multi-dimensional patient benefit. Objective The objective of this study was to illustrate the operationalization of multi-dimensional benefit considering the uncertainty in clinical effects and preference data in order to calculate the efficiency of different treatment options for hepatitis C (HCV). This case study shows how methodological challenges could be overcome in order to use the efficiency frontier for economic analysis and health care decision-making. Method The operationalization of patient benefit was carried out on several patient-relevant endpoints. Preference data from a discrete choice experiment (DCE) study and clinical data based on clinical trials, which reflected the patient and the clinical perspective, respectively, were used for the aggregation of an overall benefit score. A probabilistic efficiency frontier was constructed in a Monte Carlo simulation with 10000 random draws. Patient-relevant endpoints were modeled with a beta distribution and preference data with a normal distribution. The assessment of overall benefit and costs provided information about the adequacy of the treatment prices. The parameter uncertainty was illustrated by the price-acceptability-curve and the net monetary benefit. Results Based on the clinical and preference data in Germany, the interferon-free treatment options proved to be efficient for the current price level. The interferon-free therapies of the latest generation achieved a positive net cost-benefit. Within the decision model, these therapies

  11. Geotechnical Issues in Total System Performance Assessments of Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HO, CLIFFORD K.; HOUSEWORTH, JIM; WILSON, MICHAEL L.

    1999-01-01

    A Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) of Yucca Mountain consists of integrated sub-models and analyses of natural and engineered systems. Examples of subsystem models include unsaturated-zone flow and transport, seepage into drifts, coupled thermal hydrologic processes, transport through the engineered barrier system, and saturated-zone flow and transport. The TSPA evaluates the interaction of important processes among these subsystems, and it determines the impact of these processes on the overall performance measures (e.g., dose rate to humans). This paper summarizes the evaluation, abstraction, and combination of these subsystem models in a TSPA calculation, and it provides background on the individual TSPA subsystem components that are most directly impacted by geotechnical issues. The potential impact that geologic features, events, and processes have on the overall performance is presented, and an evaluation of the sensitivity of TSPA calculations to these issues is also provided

  12. Assessment of geotechnical issues associated with the PGS reservoir dyke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besaw, David; Donnely, C.; Ghiabi, Hani; Doyle, Warren [Hatch, (Canada); Diallo, Alain [Ontario Power Generation, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The PGS reservoir has had several issues with seepage and seepage-related phenomena since its construction in 1953. In 1958, a major sinkhole on the upstream side of the near chaining 6+00 was found. Ontario Hydro decided to draw down the reservoir, repair the sinkhole area immediately and undertake a major grouting program. This paper presented a study of geotechnical issues associated with the PGS reservoir dyke. This study was launched to investigate the potential remedial solutions to maintain the long term safety of the dyke and to determine the ways to expand the energy generating capability of the facility. In this paper, the recent Hatch findings on the geology, construction history, hydrogeological setting and seepage evaluation were presented. Next, the assessment of future measures for seepage control and energy enhancement opportunities were discussed.

  13. Modeling issues associated with production reactor safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stack, D.W.; Thomas, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes several Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) modeling issues that are related to the unique design and operation of the production reactors. The identification of initiating events and determination of a set of success criteria for the production reactors is of concern because of their unique design. The modeling of accident recovery must take into account the unique operation of these reactors. Finally, a more thorough search and evaluation of common-cause events is required to account for combinations of unique design features and operation that might otherwise not be included in the PSA. It is expected that most of these modeling issues also would be encountered when modeling some of the other more unique reactor and nonreactor facilities that are part of the DOE nuclear materials production complex. 9 refs., 2 figs

  14. Conceptual adsorption models and open issues pertaining to performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R.J.

    1991-10-01

    Recently several articles have been published that question the appropriateness of the distribution coefficient, Rd, concept to quantify radionuclide migration. Several distinct issues are raised by various critics. In this paper I provide some perspective on issues surrounding the modeling of nuclide retardation. The first section defines adsorption terminology and discusses various adsorption processes. The next section describes five commonly used adsorption conceptual models, specifically emphasizing what attributes that affect adsorption are explicitly accommodated in each model. I also review efforts to incorporate each adsorption model into performance assessment transport computer codes. The five adsorption conceptual models are (1) the constant Rd model, (2) the parametric Rd model, (3) isotherm adsorption models, (4) mass-action adsorption models, and (5) surface-complexation with electrostatics models. The final section discusses the adequacy of the distribution ratio concept, the adequacy of transport calculations that rely on constant retardation factors and the status of incorporating sophisticated adsorption models into transport codes

  15. Final Report - Assessment of Testing Options for the NTR at the INL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, Steven D; McLing, Travis L; McCurry, Michael; Plummer, Mitchell A

    2013-02-01

    One of the main technologies that can be developed to dramatically enhance the human exploration of space is the nuclear thermal rocket (NTR). Several studies over the past thirty years have shown that the NTR can reduce the cost of a lunar outpost, reduce the risk of a human mission to Mars, enable fast transits for most missions throughout the solar system, and reduce the cost and time for robotic probes to deep space. Three separate committees of the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences have recommended that NASA develop the NTR. One of the primary issues in development of the NTR is the ability to verify a flight ready unit. Three main methods can be used to validate safe operation of a NTR: 1) Full power, full duration test in an above ground facility that scrubs the rocket exhaust clean of any fission products; 2) Full power , full duration test using the Subsurface Active Filtering of Exhaust (SAFE) technique to capture the exhaust in subsurface strata; 3) Test of the reactor fuel at temperature and power density in a driver reactor with subsequent first test of the fully integrated NTR in space. The first method, the above ground facility, has been studied in the past. The second method, SAFE, has been examined for application at the Nevada Test Site. The third method relies on the fact that the Nuclear Furnace series of tests in 1971 showed that the radioactive exhaust coming from graphite based fuel for the NTR could be completely scrubbed of fission products and the clean hydrogen flared into the atmosphere. Under funding from the MSFC, the Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR) at the Idaho National laboratory (INL) has completed a reexamination of Methods 2 and 3 for implementation at the INL site. In short, the effort performed the following: 1) Assess the geology of the INL site and determine a location suitable SAFE testing; 2) Perform calculations of gas transport throughout the geology; 3) Produce a cost estimate of a

  16. Assessment of Startup Fuel Options for a Test or Demonstration Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmack, Jon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hayes, Steven [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Walters, L. C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This document explores startup fuel options for a proposed test/demonstration fast reactor. The fuel options considered are the metallic fuels U-Zr and U-Pu-Zr and the ceramic fuels UO2 and UO2-PuO2 (MOX). Attributes of the candidate fuel choices considered were feedstock availability, fabrication feasibility, rough order of magnitude cost and schedule, and the existing irradiation performance database. The reactor-grade plutonium bearing fuels (U-Pu-Zr and MOX) were eliminated from consideration as the initial startup fuels because the availability and isotopics of domestic plutonium feedstock is uncertain. There are international sources of reactor grade plutonium feedstock but isotopics and availability are also uncertain. Weapons grade plutonium is the only possible source of Pu feedstock in sufficient quantities needed to fuel a startup core. Currently, the available U.S. source of (excess) weapons-grade plutonium is designated for irradiation in commercial light water reactors (LWR) to a level that would preclude diversion. Weapons-grade plutonium also contains a significant concentration of gallium. Gallium presents a potential issue for both the fabrication of MOX fuel as well as possible performance issues for metallic fuel. Also, the construction of a fuel fabrication line for plutonium fuels, with or without a line to remove gallium, is expected to be considerably more expensive than for uranium fuels. In the case of U-Pu-Zr, a relatively small number of fuel pins have been irradiated to high burnup, and in no case has a full assembly been irradiated to high burnup without disassembly and re-constitution. For MOX fuel, the irradiation database from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is extensive. If a significant source of either weapons-grade or reactor-grade Pu became available (i.e., from an international source), a startup core based on Pu could be reconsidered.

  17. Assessing ecological effects of radionuclides: data gaps and extrapolation issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline; Gilek, Michael; Sundell-Bergman, Synnoeve; Larsson, Carl-Magnus

    2004-01-01

    By inspection of the FASSET database on radiation effects on non-human biota, one of the major difficulties in the implementation of ecological risk assessments for radioactive pollutants is found to be the lack of data for chronic low-level exposure. A critical review is provided of a number of extrapolation issues that arise in undertaking an ecological risk assessment: acute versus chronic exposure regime; radiation quality including relative biological effectiveness and radiation weighting factors; biological effects from an individual to a population level, including radiosensitivity and lifestyle variations throughout the life cycle; single radionuclide versus multi-contaminants. The specificities of the environmental situations of interest (mainly chronic low-level exposure regimes) emphasise the importance of reproductive parameters governing the demography of the population within a given ecosystem and, as a consequence, the structure and functioning of that ecosystem. As an operational conclusion to keep in mind for any site-specific risk assessment, the present state-of-the-art on extrapolation issues allows us to grade the magnitude of the uncertainties as follows: one species to another > acute to chronic = external to internal = mixture of stressors> individual to population> ecosystem structure to function

  18. Measurement issues in the sonographic assessment of tennis elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltawski, Leon; Jayaram, Vijay; Watson, Tim

    2010-05-01

    Sonography is increasingly being used for assessment in tennis elbow research and clinical practice, but there are a lack of data regarding its validity, reliability, and responsiveness to change for this application. Studies using the modality were reviewed to establish current levels of evidence for these measurement properties. There is reasonable evidence regarding its validity for identifying tennis elbow tendinopathy, but a lack of data addressing its reliability and responsiveness. Practical issues affecting image quality are discussed, and recommendations for further investigation are suggested, to enhance the credible use of sonography with this debilitating condition.

  19. A comparative assessment of different options to reduce CO2 emissions. Working paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messner, S.; Nakicenovic, N.

    1992-03-01

    The IIASA research project on Environmentally Compatible Energy Strategies includes the assessment of options and measures for mitigating global CO 2 emissions. The basis of this assessment is the comparative inventory of technological and economic measures including efficiency improvement, conservation, enhanced use of low-carbon fuels, carbon free sources of energy and measures for removing carbon from fuels, flue gases and also from the atmosphere such as afforestation, and finally also measures for enhancement of carbon sinks. To include all potential options, the comparison is based on energy end-use accounting for the fully interlinked energy conversion chain up to energy resources. The analysis is supported by a fully interactive data bank system, CO2DB, that is capable of evaluating full energy chains with respect to their economic, technical and environmental parameters. The paper reports energy requirements, cost and CO 2 emissions for different energy chains providing industrial drives, cooling and air transport services. At additional cost, emissions can be reduced drastically on all these end-use categories. (authors)

  20. Combining analytical frameworks to assess livelihood vulnerability to climate change and analyse adaptation options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M S; Podesta, G; Fazey, I; Geeson, N; Hessel, R; Hubacek, K; Letson, D; Nainggolan, D; Prell, C; Rickenbach, M G; Ritsema, C; Schwilch, G; Stringer, L C; Thomas, A D

    2013-10-01

    Experts working on behalf of international development organisations need better tools to assist land managers in developing countries maintain their livelihoods, as climate change puts pressure on the ecosystem services that they depend upon. However, current understanding of livelihood vulnerability to climate change is based on a fractured and disparate set of theories and methods. This review therefore combines theoretical insights from sustainable livelihoods analysis with other analytical frameworks (including the ecosystem services framework, diffusion theory, social learning, adaptive management and transitions management) to assess the vulnerability of rural livelihoods to climate change. This integrated analytical framework helps diagnose vulnerability to climate change, whilst identifying and comparing adaptation options that could reduce vulnerability, following four broad steps: i) determine likely level of exposure to climate change, and how climate change might interact with existing stresses and other future drivers of change; ii) determine the sensitivity of stocks of capital assets and flows of ecosystem services to climate change; iii) identify factors influencing decisions to develop and/or adopt different adaptation strategies, based on innovation or the use/substitution of existing assets; and iv) identify and evaluate potential trade-offs between adaptation options. The paper concludes by identifying interdisciplinary research needs for assessing the vulnerability of livelihoods to climate change.

  1. Regional issue identification and assessment: study methodology. First annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The overall assessment methodologies and models utilized for the first project under the Regional Issue Identification and Assessment (RIIA) program are described. Detailed descriptions are given of the methodologies used by lead laboratories for the quantification of the impacts of an energy scenario on one or more media (e.g., air, water, land, human and ecology), and by all laboratories to assess the regional impacts on all media. The research and assessments reflected in this document were performed by the following national laboratories: Argonne National Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This report contains five chapters. Chapter 1 briefly describes the overall study methodology and introduces the technical participants. Chapter 2 is a summary of the energy policy scenario selected for the RIIA I study and Chapter 3 describes how this scenario was translated into a county-level siting pattern of energy development. The fourth chapter is a detailed description of the individual methodologies used to quantify the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the scenario while Chapter 5 describes how these impacts were translated into comprehensive regional assessments for each Federal Region.

  2. Power and environmental assessment: Introduction to the special issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashmore, Matthew; Richardson, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The significance of politics and power dynamics has long been recognised in environmental assessment (EA) research, but there has not been sustained attention to power, either theoretically or empirically. The aim of this special issue is to encourage the EA community to engage more consistently with the issue of power. The introduction represents a ground-clearing exercise intended to clarify the terms of the debate about power in the EA field, and to contribute to the development of a research agenda. Research trends in the field are outlined, and potential analytic and normative lines of inquiry are identified. The contributions to this special issue represent contrasting conceptual and methodological approaches that navigate the analytical and normative terrain of power dynamics in EA. Together, they demonstrate that power cannot be removed from EA policy or practices, and is a necessary research focus for the development of the field. - Highlights: ► Introduces the themed section on power ► Provides an overview of the papers in the themed section ► Identifies research trends and directions for future research

  3. POLICY ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH USING SIMULATION TO ASSESS ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchitel, Kirsten; Tanana, Heather

    2014-11-01

    This report examines the relationship between simulation-based science and judicial assessments of simulations or models supporting evaluations of environmental harms or risks, considering both how it exists currently and how it might be shaped in the future. This report considers the legal standards relevant to judicial assessments of simulation-based science and provides examples of the judicial application of those legal standards. Next, this report discusses the factors that inform whether there is a correlation between the sophistication of a challenged simulation and judicial support for that simulation. Finally, this report examines legal analysis of the broader issues that must be addressed for simulation-based science to be better understood and utilized in the context of judicial challenge and evaluation. !

  4. Biomass Direct Liquefaction Options. TechnoEconomic and Life Cycle Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tews, Iva J.; Zhu, Yunhua; Drennan, Corinne; Elliott, Douglas C.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Onarheim, Kristin; Solantausta, Yrjo; Beckman, David

    2014-07-31

    The purpose of this work was to assess the competitiveness of two biomass to transportation fuel processing routes, which were under development in Finland, the U.S. and elsewhere. Concepts included fast pyrolysis (FP), and hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), both followed by hydrodeoxygenation, and final product refining. This work was carried out as a collaboration between VTT (Finland), and PNNL (USA). The public funding agents for the work were Tekes in Finland and the Bioenergy Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy. The effort was proposed as an update of the earlier comparative technoeconomic assessment performed by the IEA Bioenergy Direct Biomass Liquefaction Task in the 1980s. New developments in HTL and the upgrading of the HTL biocrude product triggered the interest in reinvestigating this comparison of these biomass liquefaction processes. In addition, developments in FP bio-oil upgrading had provided additional definition of this process option, which could provide an interesting comparison.

  5. The issue of risk dilution in risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmot, R.; Robinson, P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores an issue that was first highlighted more than 20 years ago during an inquiry concerning the Sizeweli B nuclear power station in the UK. In the probabilistic safety assessment for this plant, the proponent had apparently reduced its estimates of risk by admitting to increased uncertainty about the timing of certain events. This situation is counter-intuitive, since an increase in uncertainty about the factors contributing to safety would be expected to lead to less confidence and hence to greater risk. This paradoxical situation was termed 'risk dilution' and it has been a topic of interest to reviewers of safety cases since. The recent international peer review of the Yucca Mountain performance assessments concluded that there was a potential for risk dilution in the assumptions and calculations presented. The next section describes how assumptions about the timing of events and other aspects of an assessment may lead to risk dilution, and this is followed by two examples based on recent performance assessments. The final section discusses how potential problems can be identified in safety cases, and the types of response that a regulator might adopt as a result. (authors)

  6. Life cycle assessment of wastewater treatment options for small and decentralized communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, A P; Urbano, L; Brito, A G; Janknecht, P; Salas, J J; Nogueira, R

    2007-01-01

    Sustainability has strong implications on the practice of engineering. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an appropriate methodology for assessing the sustainability of a wastewater treatment plant design. The present study used a LCA approach for comparing alternative wastewater treatment processes for small and decentralised rural communities. The assessment was focused on two energy-saving systems (constructed wetland and slow rate infiltration) and a conventional one (activated sludge process). The low environmental impact of the energy-saving wastewater treatment plants was demonstrated, the most relevant being the global warming indicator. Options for reduction of life cycle impacts were assessed including materials used in construction and operational lifetime of the systems. A 10% extension of operation lifetime of constructed wetland and slow rate infiltration systems led to a 1% decrease in CO2 emissions, in both systems. The decrease in the abiotic depletion was 5 and 7%, respectively. Also, replacing steel with HDPE in the activated sludge tank resulted in a 1% reduction in CO2 emission and 1% in the abiotic depletion indicator. In the case of the Imhoff tank a 1% reduction in CO2 emissions and 5% in the abiotic depletion indicator were observed when concrete was replaced by HDPE.

  7. Introduction to the special issue on the personality assessment inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, John E; Blais, Mark A

    2007-02-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Personality Assessment brings together 13 new research studies on the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) that should inform users and stimulate future empirical activity with this measure. In 4 articles, authors evaluate the validity scales and indexes of the PAI using both analog and criterion designs and samples from a variety of clinical and forensic settings. In a 5th article, the authors describe a novel approach to profile interpretation using two PAI negative distortion measures. The authors present applications of the PAI to new populations and problems including a German translation of the PAI and profile information for male batterers and victims of head injury. The authors of 2 studies extend research on the validity of the PAI for the assessment of borderline personality disorder. In the final 3 studies, the authors evaluate the validity of PAI measures of violence and aggression to predict subsequent aggressive behavior and institutional misconduct. Finally, the authors offer several suggestions for future research with the PAI.

  8. Political economy of the energy-groundwater nexus in India: exploring issues and assessing policy options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Tushaar; Giordano, Mark; Mukherji, Aditi

    2012-08-01

    Indian agriculture is trapped in a complex nexus of groundwater depletion and energy subsidies. This nexus is the product of past public policy choices that initially offered opportunities to India's small-holder-based irrigation economy but has now generated in its wake myriad economic, social, and environmental distortions. Conventional `getting-the-price-right' solutions to reduce these distortions have consistently been undermined by the invidious political economy that the nexus has created. The historical evolution of the nexus is outlined, the nature and scale of the distortions it has created are explored, and alternative approaches which Indian policy makers can use to limit, if not eliminate, the damaging impacts of the distortions, are analysed.

  9. Photovoltaic procurement strategies: an assessment of supply issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posner, D.; Costello, D.

    1980-02-01

    This review report presents the results of an analysis of alternative approaches to the design of a federal photovoltaics procurement program. Advantages and disadvantages of large purchases at fixed prices and smaller purchases for testing and demonstrating the technology are presented. The objectives and possible impacts of these purchase programs on the photovoltaic industry are described. The reactions of the industry to alternative purchase programs were assessed using personal interviews with selected companies currently active in photovoltaics. The report begins with a review of the impacts of federal procurements on other innovations, including the electronics industry, and suggests the relation of these procurements to photovoltaics. The methodology for conducting the interviews is presented next. The results of the interviews are summarized into possible scenarios of future developments in the industry and into discussions of key issues in the design of a procurement program. An appendix on the current structure of the photovoltaic industry is provided.

  10. Status of thermalhydraulic modelling and assessment: Open issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bestion, D.; Barre, F. [CEA, Grenoble (France)

    1997-07-01

    This paper presents the status of the physical modelling in present codes used for Nuclear Reactor Thermalhydraulics (TRAC, RELAP 5, CATHARE, ATHLET,...) and attempts to list the unresolved or partially resolved issues. First, the capabilities and limitations of present codes are presented. They are mainly known from a synthesis of the assessment calculations performed for both separate effect tests and integral effect tests. It is also interesting to list all the assumptions and simplifications which were made in the establishment of the system of equations and of the constitutive relations. Many of the present limitations are associated to physical situations where these assumptions are not valid. Then, recommendations are proposed to extend the capabilities of these codes.

  11. Conceptual adsorption models and open issues pertaining to performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Recently several articles have been published that question the appropriateness of the distribution coefficient, Rd, concept to quantify radionuclide migration. Several distinct issues surrounding the modeling of nuclide retardation. The first section defines adsorption terminology and discusses various adsorption processes. The next section describes five commonly used adsorption conceptual models, specifically emphasizing what attributes that affect adsorption are explicitly accommodated in each model. I also review efforts to incorporate each adsorption model into performance assessment transport computer codes. The five adsorption conceptual models are (1) the constant Rd model, (2) the parametric Rd model, (3) isotherm adsorption models, (4) mass action adsorption models, and (5) surface-complexation with electrostatics models. The final section discusses the adequacy of the distribution ratio concept, the adequacy of transport calculations that rely on constant retardation factors and the status of incorporating sophisticated adsorption models into transport codes. 86 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  12. Status of thermalhydraulic modelling and assessment: Open issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bestion, D.; Barre, F.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the status of the physical modelling in present codes used for Nuclear Reactor Thermalhydraulics (TRAC, RELAP 5, CATHARE, ATHLET,...) and attempts to list the unresolved or partially resolved issues. First, the capabilities and limitations of present codes are presented. They are mainly known from a synthesis of the assessment calculations performed for both separate effect tests and integral effect tests. It is also interesting to list all the assumptions and simplifications which were made in the establishment of the system of equations and of the constitutive relations. Many of the present limitations are associated to physical situations where these assumptions are not valid. Then, recommendations are proposed to extend the capabilities of these codes

  13. Safety assessment for a disposal option of TENORM wastes coming from the electric generation in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyva, Dennys; Gil, Reinaldo; Peralta, Jose L.; Odalys Ramos

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was the safety assessment for a disposal option of ashes wastes coming from the electric generation in Cuba. The ashes are planned to be disposed as subsurface layer, covered with soil under controlled conditions. The composition of theses wastes are TENORM ( 226 Ra and 224 Ra) and heavy metals (vanadium, chromium, zinc), therefore, their disposal should accomplish the national and international defined regulations. The adopted safety assessment methodology, allowed the identification and selection of the main scenarios to evaluate, the mathematical models to apply and the comparison against the assessment criteria. According to the assessment context and the site characteristics, the atmospheric and groundwater scenarios were evaluated. During the modelling stage were included the identification of the main exposure pathways and the most relevant assessment processes were modelled (transport of contaminants, radioactive decay, etc.). For atmospheric dispersion, the SCREEN3 model was adopted, including the radioactive decay and other radiological properties. The DRAF model was used for the groundwater scenario. The doses for inhalation, external irradiation and foodstuff ingestion were obtained using several dosimetric models. The results showed that the 226 Ra concentration values were higher than the 228 Ra in the evaluation points, for atmospheric and groundwater scenarios. This behaviour is influenced by the small radioactive inventory, the shorter half life of the 228 Ra and the distance between the disposal site and the evaluation points. The obtained external doses were always below the dose limits for the members of the public and for all scenarios, including the more conservatives. The lower dose (by ingestion) values were associated to the scenarios of radionuclides transport through the geosphere. According the safety assessment and the established scenarios, the evaluated disposal practice does not represent a relevant

  14. A comparison of independently conducted dose assessments to determine compliance and resettlement options for the people of Rongelap Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, S.L.; Robison, W.L.; Thorne, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    Rongelap Island was the home of Marshallese people numbering less than 120 in 1954; 67 were on the island and severely exposed to radioactive fallout from an atomic weapons test in March of that year. Those resident on Rongelap were evacuated 50 h after the test, returned 3 y later, then voluntarily left their home island in 1985 due to their ongoing fear of radiation exposure from residual radioactive contamination. Following international negotiations in 1991, a Memorandum of Understanding (NIOU) was signed in early 1992 between the Republic of the Marshall Islands Government, the Rongelap Atoll Local Government, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of the Interior. In this MOU it was agreed that the Republic of the Marshall Islands, with the aid of the U.S. Department of Energy, would carry out independent dose assessments for the purpose of assisting and advising the Rongelap community on radiological issues related to a safe resettlement of Rongelap. In 1994, four independent assessments were reported, including one from each of the following entities: Marshall Islands Nationwide Radiological Study; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; an independent advisor from the United Kingdom (MCT); and a committee of the National Research Council. All four assessments concluded that possibly more than 25% of the adult population could exceed the 1 mSv y -1 dose level based on strict utilization of a local food diet. The purpose of this report is to summarize the methodology, assumptions, and findings from each of four assessments; to summarize the recommendations related to mitigation and resettlement options; to discuss unique programmatic aspects of the study; and to consider the implications of the findings to the future of the Rongelap people. 63 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Customer system efficiency improvement assessment: Supply curves for transmission and distribution conservation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tepel, R.C.; Callaway, J.W.; De Steese, J.G.

    1987-11-01

    This report documents the results of Task 6 in the Customer System Efficiency Improvement (CSEI) Assessment Project. A principal objective of this project is to assess the potential for energy conservation in the transmission and distribution (TandD) systems of electric utilities in the BPA service area. The scope of this assessment covers BPA customers in the Pacific Northwest region and all non-federal TandD systems, including those that currently place no load on the BPA system. Supply curves were developed to describe the conservation resource potentially available from TandD-system efficiency improvements. These supply curves relate the levelized cost of upgrading existing equipment to the estimated amount of energy saved. Stated in this form, the resource represented by TandD loss reductions can be compared with other conservation options and regional electrical generation resources to determine the most cost-effective method of supplying power to the Pacific Northwest. The development of the supply curves required data acquisition and methodology development that are also described in this report. 11 refs., 11 figs., 16 tabs.

  16. An assessment of energy options for a remote first nation community. Paper no. IGEC-1-055

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ianniciello, C.; Wild, P.; Pitt, L.; Artz, S.

    2005-01-01

    Development of renewable energy systems for remote communities is gaining interest among government, utilities, NGOs and the communities themselves as a means of improving lifestyles of community members and showcasing renewable energy systems. The Huu-ay-aht First Nation, whose traditional territory is located on the west side of Vancouver Island in British Columbia, is a community which has energy related problems and energy related opportunities. The objective of this study is to assess possible energy options for the Huu-ay-aht First Nation traditional territory. Current and future energy services within the territory were used as the starting point for developing energy system options. Extensive consultation with community members was instrumental in clearly defining the objectives of the study and understanding the territory's energy demand. The energy demand assessment included an estimation of the electric, heating and transportation loads in the community, an assessment of efficiency and demand side management (DSM) options, and an estimation of potential future demand scenarios. Energy resources were assessed, with viable ones retained for consideration in potential energy system options. The information from the community consultations, demand estimates and resource assessments are being used in the development and analysis of energy system options to support the Huu-ay-aht's energy needs and community goals. (author)

  17. Spiritual issues and quality of life assessment in cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efficace, Fabio; Marrone, Robert

    2002-11-01

    Being diagnosed with cancer forces most human beings to face their own death. The comfortable sense of both invulnerability and immortality is shattered, making the patient thoroughly aware that life is finite and limited. Approaching death, cancer patients commonly embark on an inner journey involving a search for meaning as well as a reordering of priorities involving physical, psychological, social, and spiritual needs. Although interest in the role of spirituality, relating to both adjustment to cancer and the overall quality of life of cancer patients, has increased in recent years, most of the commonly used quality of life (QOL) instruments in oncology typically do not include spiritual issues. In this article, it is argued that assessing QOL effectively should involve all aspects of the personality, including mind, body, and spirit as well. This article also reviews recent studies, which have shown that spiritual well-being, although a many-sided and difficult construct to define, is closely related to the QOL of cancer patients. It is also suggested that further research is needed to understand how the new focus on spirituality can contribute to a more comprehensive assessment of patient's QOL in cancer care.

  18. Principles and issues in radiological ecological risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel; Domotor, Stephen; Higley, Kathryn; Kocher, David; Bilyard, Gordon

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides a bridge between the fields of ecological risk assessment (ERA) and radioecology by presenting key biota dose assessment issues identified in the US Department of Energy's Graded Approach for Evaluating Radiation Doses to Aquatic and Terrestrial Biota in a manner consistent with the US Environmental Protection Agency's framework for ERA. Current radiological ERA methods and data are intended for use in protecting natural populations of biota, rather than individual members of a population. Potentially susceptible receptors include vertebrates and terrestrial plants. One must ensure that all media, radionuclides (including short-lived radioactive decay products), types of radiations (i.e., alpha particles, electrons, and photons), and pathways (i.e., internal and external contamination) are combined in each exposure scenario. The relative biological effectiveness of alpha particles with respect to deterministic effects must also be considered. Expected safe levels of exposure are available for the protection of natural populations of aquatic biota (10 mGy d(-1)) and terrestrial plants (10 mGy d(-1)) and animals (1 mGy d(-1)) and are appropriate for use in all radiological ERA tiers, provided that appropriate exposure assumptions are used. Caution must be exercised (and a thorough justification provided) if more restrictive limits are selected, to ensure that the supporting data are of high quality, reproducible, and clearly relevant to the protection of natural populations.

  19. 36 CFR 72.12 - Assessment of needs, problems and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Issues. Management issues deal with operation of the park and recreation system. Information should... and issues. 72.12 Section 72.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Assessment of needs, problems and issues. The Action Program should begin with an Assessment describing the...

  20. Stabilising greenhouse gas concentrations at low levels. An assessment of options and costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Vuuren, D.P.; Den Elzen, M.G.J.; Lucas, P.L.; Eickhout, B.; Strengers, B.J.; Van Ruijven, B.; Berk, M.M.; De Vries, H.J.M.; Wonink, S.J.; Van den Houdt, R.; Oostenrijk, R. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency MNP, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Hoogwijk, M. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands); Meinshausen, M. [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research PIK, Postdam (Germany)

    2006-10-15

    Preventing 'dangerous anthropogenic interference of the climate system' may require stabilisation of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at relatively low levels such as 550 ppm CO2-eq. and below. Relatively few studies exist that have analysed the possibilities and implications of meeting such stringent climate targets. This report presents a series of related papers that address this issue - either by focusing on individual options or by presenting overall strategies at the global and regional level. The results show that it is technically possible to reach ambitious climate targets - with abatement costs for default assumptions in the order of 1-2% of global GDP. To achieve these lower concentration levels, global emissions need to peak within 15-20 years. The stabilisation scenarios use a large portfolio of measures, including energy efficiency but also carbon capture and storage, large scale application of bio-energy, reduction of non-CO2 gasses, increased use of renewable and/or nuclear power and carbon plantations.

  1. An Assessment of Geological Carbon Sequestration Options in the Illinois Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Finley

    2005-09-30

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) has investigated the options for geological carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in the 155,400-km{sup 2} (60,000-mi{sup 2}) Illinois Basin. Within the Basin, underlying most of Illinois, western Indiana, and western Kentucky, are relatively deeper and/or thinner coal resources, numerous mature oil fields, and deep salt-water-bearing reservoirs that are potentially capable of storing CO{sub 2}. The objective of this Assessment was to determine the technical and economic feasibility of using these geological sinks for long-term storage to avoid atmospheric release of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel combustion and thereby avoid the potential for adverse climate change. The MGSC is a consortium of the geological surveys of Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky joined by six private corporations, five professional business associations, one interstate compact, two university researchers, two Illinois state agencies, and two consultants. The purpose of the Consortium is to assess carbon capture, transportation, and storage processes and their costs and viability in the three-state Illinois Basin region. The Illinois State Geological Survey serves as Lead Technical Contractor for the Consortium. The Illinois Basin region has annual emissions from stationary anthropogenic sources exceeding 276 million metric tonnes (304 million tons) of CO{sub 2} (>70 million tonnes (77 million tons) carbon equivalent), primarily from coal-fired electric generation facilities, some of which burn almost 4.5 million tonnes (5 million tons) of coal per year. Assessing the options for capture, transportation, and storage of the CO{sub 2} emissions within the region has been a 12-task, 2-year process that has assessed 3,600 million tonnes (3,968 million tons) of storage capacity in coal seams, 140 to 440 million tonnes (154 to 485 million tons) of capacity in mature oil reservoirs, 7,800 million tonnes (8,598 million tons) of capacity in saline

  2. Assessment of coal technology options and implications for the State of Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, J.L.; Elcock, D.; Elliott, T.J. [and others

    1993-12-01

    The mandate of this research report was to provide the state of Hawaii with an assessment of the potential opportunities and drawbacks of relying on coal-fired generating technologies to diversify its fuel mix and satisfy future electric power requirements. This assessment was to include a review of existing and emerging coal-based power technologies-including their associated costs, environmental impacts, land use, and infrastructure requirements-to determine the range of impacts likely to occur if such systems were deployed in Hawaii. Coupled with this review, the report was also to (1) address siting and safety issues as they relate to technology choice and coal transport, (2) consider how environmental costs associated with coal usage are included in the integrated resource planning (ERP) process, and (3) develop an analytical tool from which the Department of Business, Economic Development & Tourism of the State of Hawaii could conduct first-order comparisons of power plant selection and siting. The prepared report addresses each element identified above. However, available resources and data limitations limited the extent to which particular characteristics of coal use could be assessed. For example, the technology profiles are current but not as complete regarding future developments and cost/emissions data as possible, and the assessment of coal technology deployment issues in Hawaii was conducted on an aggregate (not site-specific) basis. Nonetheless, the information and findings contained in this report do provide an accurate depiction of the opportunities for and issues associated with coal utilization in the state of Hawaii.

  3. Environmental assessment of different management options for individual waste fractions by means of life-cycle assessment modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredi, Simone; Tonini, Davide; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    and environmental factors involved, including energy generation from landfill gas and storage of biogenic carbon. Leachate and gas emissions associated to each individual waste fraction have been estimated by means of a mathematical modelling. This approach towards landfilling emissions allows for a more precise...... quantification of the landfill impacts when comparing management options for selected waste fractions.Results from the life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) show that the environmental performance estimated for landfilling with energy recovery of the fractions “organics” and “recyclable paper” is comparable...... with composting (for “organics”) and incineration (for “recyclable paper”). This however requires high degree of control over gas and leachate emissions, high gas collection efficiency and extensive gas utilization at the landfill. For the other waste fractions, recycling and incineration are favourable, although...

  4. MOX fuel use as a back-end option: Trends, main issues and impacts on fuel cycle management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, K.; Choi, J.-S.; Shani, R.; Durpel, L. van den; Bertel, E.; Sartori, E.

    2000-01-01

    In the past decades while the FBIULWR fuel cycle concept was zealously being developed, MOX-fuel use in thermal reactors was taken as an alternative back-end policy option. However, the plutonium recycling with LWRs has evolved to industrial level, gaining high maturity through the incubative period while FBR deployment was envisaged. Today, MOX-fuel use in LWRs makes integral part of the fuel cycle for those countries relying on the recycling policy. Developments to improve the fuel cycle performance, including the minimisation of remaining wastes, and the reactor engineering aspects owing to MOX-fuel use, are continued. This paper jointly presented by IAEA and OECD/NEA brings an integrated overview on MOX use as a back-end policy, covering MOX fuel utilisation, fuel performance and technology, economics, licensing, MOX fuel trends in the coming decades. (author)

  5. Issues and options with regard to the renewables target in the context of the 2030 EU Climate and Energy Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Thomas; Colombier, Michel; Ribera, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The renewables target in the current package has leveraged significant growth in renewables. The share of renewables in final energy consumption increased from 9.7% in 2007 to 13% in 2011; in electricity from 15.8% to 21.7%. Unit costs have fallen as well. However, the renewables targets have also generated significant conflict. The synthetic indicator used to distribute EU targets (GDP/capita) has meant that some Member States must make significant efforts, in the final analysis possibly in excess of their economic potential and preferences. Top-down targets have unleashed policy innovation and capacity expansion in Member States; but in some cases effective appropriation in Member States' policy approaches has lagged behind. Nonetheless, there are still strong arguments for a framework for renewables in the future package. Firstly, these technologies will be vital to any long-term, decarbonization scenario. Secondly, there are still significant cost cuts that must be achieved in many renewables technologies, via technological and systemic learning driven by controlled capacity expansion and enhanced R and D. Thirdly, coordinating policy and infrastructure planning, as well as market integration and state aid policy all require that we have a clear idea of the direction of the EU energy mix and Member State policy efforts. In this context, this paper explores options to include renewables in the 2030 climate and energy package. These include binding, top-down targets, non-binding targets, and binding, bottom-up targets negotiated within an EU framework. Whatever approach is taken to the options discussed in the paper, it appears that a key role of the 2030 package should be to strengthen planning and policy processes within Member States, and in turn its integration at EU level. (authors)

  6. Assessment of the technical viability of reactor options for plutonium disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primm, R.T. III.

    1996-01-01

    Various reactor concepts for the disposition of surplus Pu have been proposed by reactor vendors; not all have attained the same level of technical viability. Studies were performed to differentiate between reactor concepts by devising a quantitative index for technical viability. For a quantitative assessment, three issues required resolution: the definition of a technical maturity scale, the treatment of ''subjective'' factors which cannot be easily represented in a quantitative format, and the protocol for producing a single technical viability figure-of-merit for each alternative. Alternatives involving the use of foreign facilities were found to be the most technically viable

  7. Survey and selection of assessment methodologies for GAVE options; Inventarisatie en selectie van beoordelingsmethodieken voor GAVE-opties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weterings, R. [ed.] [TNO Milieu, Energie en Procesinnovatie TNO-MEP, Apeldoorn (Netherlands)

    1999-05-01

    The Dutch government is interested in the possibilities for a market introduction of new gaseous and liquid energy carriers. To this purpose the GAVE-programme was recently set up. This study is carried out within the framework of the GAVE-programme and aims at the selection of methodologies for assessing the technological, economic, ecological and social perspectives of these new energy options (so-called GAVE-options). Based on the results of these assessments the Dutch ministries of Housing, Planning and Environment (VROM) and Economic Affairs (EZ) will decide at the end of 1999 about starting demonstration projects of promising energy carriers.

  8. Assessment and Management of Professionalism Issues in Pathology Residency Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald E. Domen MD

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Professionalism issues are common in residency training and can be very difficult to recognize and manage. Almost one-third of the milestones for pathology recently instituted by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education encompass aspects of professionalism. Program directors are often unsure of how and when to remediate residents for unprofessional behavior. We used a case-based educational approach in a workshop setting to assist program directors in the management of unprofessional behavior in residents. Eight case scenarios highlighting various aspects of unprofessional behavior by pathology residents were developed and presented in an open workshop forum at the annual pathology program director’s meeting. Prior to the workshop, 2 surveys were conducted: (1 to collect data on program directors’ experience with identifying, assessing, and managing unprofessional behavior in their residents and (2 to get feedback from workshop registrants on how they would manage each of the 8 case scenarios. A wide range of unprofessional behaviors have been observed by pathology program directors. Although there is occasionally general agreement on how to manage specific behaviors, there remains wide variation in how to manage many of the presented unprofessional behaviors. Remediation for unprofessional behavior in pathology residents remains a difficult and challenging process. Additional education and research in this area are warranted.

  9. Ethical issues of obesity surgery--a health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarni, Samuli I; Anttila, Heidi; Saarni, Suoma E; Mustajoki, Pertti; Koivukangas, Vesa; Ikonen, Tuija S; Malmivaara, Antti

    2011-09-01

    New surgical technologies may challenge societal values, and their adoption may lead to ethical challenges. Despite proven cost-effectiveness, obesity (bariatric) surgery and its public funding have been questioned on ethical arguments relating to, for example, the self-inflicted or non-disease nature of obesity. Our aim was to analyze the ethical issues relevant to bariatric surgery. A comprehensive health technology assessment was conducted on bariatric surgery for morbid obesity using the EUnetHTA method, including a fully integrated ethical analysis. The ethical arguments suggesting that obesity should not be surgically treated because it is self-inflicted were rejected. Medicalization of obesity may have both positive and negative effects that impact the various stakeholders differently, thus being difficult to balance. Informing bariatric surgery patients and actively supporting their autonomy is exceptionally important, as the benefits and harms of both obesity and bariatric surgery are complex, and the outcome depends on how well the patient understands and adheres to the life-long changes in eating habits required. Justice considerations are important in organizing surgical treatment of obesity, as the obese are discriminated against in many ways and obesity is more common in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations who might have problems of access to treatments. Obesity should be treated like other diseases in health care, and obesity surgery rationed like other cost-effective treatments. Positive actions to ensure patient autonomy and just access to surgical treatments may be warranted.

  10. Reducing uncertainty in risk assessment by using specific knowledge to replace default options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, R O

    1996-01-01

    This paper has advocated the development of specific scientific information, especially information on the mechanisms of action of chemicals, to use in place of default options in assessing human cancer risks. Four examples have been discussed that build largely on information from the CIIT research program. These four examples are worthy of consideration as a group, with a view to developing insights for increasing the effectiveness and efficiency of obtaining such data in the future and, most of all, to increase their acceptance for use instead of default options. In my view, key features of all four examples are that the data are framed within an exposure-dose-response paradigm and that there is a clear linkage to the end point of concern-cancer. As the number of techniques available for making observations at the cellular and molecular levels continues to increase at a rapid pace, linking these observations to the health end points of concern such as cancer is going to be increasingly important, especially in enhancing the value of the observations for risk assessment purposes. Equally as important, the mechanistic observations must be linked to realistic exposures and associated tissue dose that can be related to realistic human exposure scenarios. In my opinion, the likelihood of obtaining information of value for risk assessment purposes using the most sophisticated of molecular and cellular techniques will be of limited value if the exposures or doses are not realistically linked to those likely to be encountered by humans. The mechanism of alpha 2u-globulin nephropathy and its association with kidney tumors in male rats and the conclusion that the male rat kidney tumor findings are not applicable to assessing human cancer risk is an example of a qualitative decision. I suspect this may be a somewhat unusual case. As one looks across the various mammalian species used for experimentation and makes comparisons with humans, a unifying theme is the relative

  11. Ratepayer-funded energy-efficiency programs in a restructuredelectri city industry: Issues and options for regulators andlegislators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph; Goldman, Charles; Nadel, Stephen

    1998-05-01

    Electric industry restructuring requires state regulators and legislators to re-examine the purposes served by and the continuing need for ratepayer-funded energy-efficiency programs, as well as the mechanisms to collect funds for these programs and the institutions appropriate to administer them. This paper offers background to these issues and a series of recommendations based on analysis of recent state experiences. Our recommendations are summarized.

  12. Climate change impacts and adaptation options for the Greek agriculture in 2021–2050: A monetary assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Georgopoulou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a quantitative assessment of mid-term (2021–2050 climate change impacts on and potential adaptation options for selected crops in Greece that are of importance in terms of their share in national agricultural production and gross value added. Central points in the assessment are the monetary evaluation of impacts and the cost-benefit analysis of adaptation options. To address local variability in current and future climate conditions, analysis is spatially disaggregated into geographical regions using as an input downscaled results from climatic models. For some crops (cereals, vegetables, pulses, grapevines, changes in future agricultural yields are assessed by means of agronomic simulation models, while for the rest crops changes are assessed through regression models. The expected effects on crop yields of a number of potential adaptation options are also investigated through the same models, and the costs and benefits of these options are also quantitatively assessed. The findings indicate that climate change may create winners and losers depending on their agricultural activity and location, while adaptation can mitigate adverse effects of climate change under cost-effective terms.

  13. Eco-Efficiency Assessment of Bioplastics Production Systems and End-of-Life Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunnika Changwichan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bioplastics demand has been increased globally due to concerns regarding environmentally friendly consumption and production. Polylactic acid (PLA, polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs, and polybutylene succinate (PBS are promising bioplastics with bio-based feedstocks and property of biodegradability. They are produced by bacterial fermentation of sugars from carbohydrate sources. With flexibility in their properties, PLA, PHAs, and PBS can potentially substitute conventional plastics such as polypropylene (PP, polyethylene terephthalate (PET, and polystyrene (PS. This study aims at evaluating the environmental and economic sustainability of bioplastics production together with end-of-life (EOL options. The combination of environmental and economic indicators, eco-efficiency (E/E, was selected to investigate the performance of PLA, PHAs, and PBS from sugarcane and cassava in comparison with PP. The environmental impacts were determined using life cycle assessment. The product cost was used to represent the economic value. The E/E results showed that the environmental and economic sustainability could be enhanced with 100% mechanical recycling of all kinds of studied plastics. It is also important to highlight that mechanical recycling showed a better performance in terms of E/E than composting of bioplastics.

  14. An Assessment of Geological Carbon Storage Options in the Illinois Basin: Validation Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, Robert

    2012-12-01

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) assessed the options for geological carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage in the 155,400 km{sup 2} (60,000 mi{sup 2}) Illinois Basin, which underlies most of Illinois, western Indiana, and western Kentucky. The region has annual CO{sub 2} emissions of about 265 million metric tonnes (292 million tons), primarily from 122 coal-fired electric generation facilities, some of which burn almost 4.5 million tonnes (5 million tons) of coal per year (U.S. Department of Energy, 2010). Validation Phase (Phase II) field tests gathered pilot data to update the Characterization Phase (Phase I) assessment of options for capture, transportation, and storage of CO{sub 2} emissions in three geological sink types: coal seams, oil fields, and saline reservoirs. Four small-scale field tests were conducted to determine the properties of rock units that control injectivity of CO{sub 2}, assess the total storage resources, examine the security of the overlying rock units that act as seals for the reservoirs, and develop ways to control and measure the safety of injection and storage processes. The MGSC designed field test operational plans for pilot sites based on the site screening process, MVA program needs, the selection of equipment related to CO{sub 2} injection, and design of a data acquisition system. Reservoir modeling, computational simulations, and statistical methods assessed and interpreted data gathered from the field tests. Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA) programs were established to detect leakage of injected CO{sub 2} and ensure public safety. Public outreach and education remained an important part of the project; meetings and presentations informed public and private regional stakeholders of the results and findings. A miscible (liquid) CO{sub 2} flood pilot project was conducted in the Clore Formation sandstone (Mississippian System, Chesterian Series) at Mumford Hills Field in Posey County, southwestern

  15. Development and Assessment of the Social Issues Advocacy Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Johanna E.; Marszalek, Jacob M.; Linnemeyer, Rachel M.; Bahner, Angela D.; Misialek, Leah Hanson

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the development and the initial psychometric evaluation of the Social Issues Advocacy Scale in two studies. In the first study, an exploratory factor analysis (n = 278) revealed a four-factor scale, accounting for 71.4% of the variance, measuring different aspects of social issue advocacy: Political and Social Advocacy,…

  16. Assessing communication on sexual and reproductive health issues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    issues among high school students with their parents, Bullen ... through targeted family life education activities among students and parents. [Ethiop. J. ... sexual issues and impact of this communication on ..... Males were about five times more likely than females to .... Prevention and Control Office and Regional Health.

  17. Pre-eclampsia Diagnosis and Treatment Options: A Review of Published Economic Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakiyah, Neily; Postma, Maarten J; Baker, Philip N; van Asselt, Antoinette D I

    2015-10-01

    Pre-eclampsia is a pregnancy complication affecting both mother and fetus. Although there is no proven effective method to prevent pre-eclampsia, early identification of women at risk of pre-eclampsia could enhance appropriate application of antenatal care, management and treatment. Very little is known about the cost effectiveness of these and other tests for pre-eclampsia, mainly because there is no clear treatment path. The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive overview of the existing evidence on the health economics of screening, diagnosis and treatment options in pre-eclampsia. We searched three electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library) for studies on screening, diagnosis, treatment or prevention of pre-eclampsia, published between 1994 and 2014. Only full papers written in English containing complete economic assessments in pre-eclampsia were included. From an initial total of 138 references, six papers fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Three studies were on the cost effectiveness of treatment of pre-eclampsia, two of which evaluated magnesium sulphate for prevention of seizures and the third evaluated the cost effectiveness of induction of labour versus expectant monitoring. The other three studies were aimed at screening and diagnosis, in combination with subsequent preventive measures. The two studies on magnesium sulphate were equivocal on the cost effectiveness in non-severe cases, and the other study suggested that induction of labour in term pre-eclampsia was more cost effective than expectant monitoring. The screening studies were quite diverse in their objectives as well as in their conclusions. One study concluded that screening is probably not worthwhile, while two other studies stated that in certain scenarios it may be cost effective to screen all pregnant women and prophylactically treat those who are found to be at high risk of developing pre-eclampsia. This study is the first to provide a comprehensive overview

  18. The quantification of environmental indicators for sustainability assessment of future electricity supply options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, A.; Bauer, Ch.; Heck, T.

    2011-02-01

    Within the project NEEDS (New Energy Externalities Development for Sustainability) a range of criteria and indicators were defined according to the widely recognised 'three pillar' interpretation of sustainable development in order to assess future electricity generating technologies including their associated fuel cycles. The basic characteristics of the 26 technologies were defined as being appropriate in 2050 according to 'realistic/optimistic' development scenarios. The potential environmental impacts of each technology were assessed by initially determining the various criteria necessary to describe the range of significant impact areas. These criteria were then expressed and measured by one or more quantifiable indicators which were calculated using Life Cycle Inventories established earlier in the project. This report contributed to Research Stream RS2b of the project by quantifying and comparing the results of these indicators for each of the four countries used in the assessment: France, Germany, Switzerland and Italy. The environmental assessment showed that the nuclear technologies cause relatively very low impacts according to most of the indicators. The Generation IV, European Fast Reactor, has significant advantages over the European Pressurised Reactor but the availabilities of the two reactors will be quite different. Whereas the first examples of the EPR are already under construction, the design finalisation of the EFR is not yet complete meaning that the first plant is not expected to be constructed before 2040. An overarching and clear distinction between the fossil fueled technologies was less possible and the application of carbon capture and storage, whilst showing large reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, was shown to be counteracted in a number of other indicators. The integration of solid fuel gasification prior to combustion also showed both benefits and disadvantages. For most indicators, the natural gas combined cycle options

  19. Relationship between regulatory issues and probabilistic risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilberg, D.; Papazoglou, I.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain some perspective on the characteristics and the relative number of regulatory issues that are PRA related, i.e., can be effectively addressed by plant specific PRA studies. It was also aimed at developing approaches to resolution of regulatory issues as part of plant specific PRAs. Several ongoing NRC programs include a number of safety-related issues which are applicable to operating plants. A number of these issues include aspects that strongly interact with items addressed in PRA studies. The resolution of several generic issues using PRA studies has already started. A review of over 335 issues included in three NRC programs was conducted: Generic Issue Program (GI); Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP); and TMI Action Plan (TMI). The review identifid 240 items related to PRA, 120 of which were judged to have significant effect on core damage frequency. It is believed that these items can be effectively treated in a PRA study that includes internal and external events

  20. EPA`s program for risk assessment guidelines: Cancer classification issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltse, J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Issues presented are related to classification of weight of evidence in cancer risk assessments. The focus in this paper is on lines of evidence used in constructing a conclusion about potential human carcinogenicity. The paper also discusses issues that are mistakenly addressed as classification issues but are really part of the risk assessment process. 2 figs.

  1. Economic assessment of preeclampsia : Screening, diagnosis, treatment options, and long term outcomes, a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zakiyah, N.; Van Asselt, A.; Baker, P.; Postma, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To provide a comprehensive overview of the existing evidence on the health economics of screening, diagnosis, and treatment options in preeclampsia. Methods: A systematic literature search was undertaken using three electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane) to identify all English

  2. Economic assessment of preeclampsia : Screening, diagnosis, treatment options, and long term outcomes - A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zakiyah, Neily; Van Asselt, Antoinette D.; Baker, Philip N.; Postma, Maarten J.

    OBJECTIVES: Provide a comprehensive overview of the existing evidence on the health economics of screening, diagnosis, and treatment options in preeclampsia. METHODS: A systematic literature search was undertaken using three electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane) to identify all English

  3. Special Issue on Using Econometrics for Assessing Economic Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    2009-01-01

    Two methodological approaches to empirical economics which are labelled ‘theory first' versus ‘reality first' are introduced building the background for the discussion of the individual contributions to this special issue.......Two methodological approaches to empirical economics which are labelled ‘theory first' versus ‘reality first' are introduced building the background for the discussion of the individual contributions to this special issue....

  4. Integrated and holistic suitability assessment of recycling options for masonry rubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, T.; Rübner, K.; Meng, B.

    2012-04-01

    Our industrial society depends on continuous mining and consumption of raw materials and energy. Besides, the building sector causes one of the largest material streams in Germany. On the one hand, the building sector is connected with a high need in material and energetic resources as well as financial expenditures. On the other hand, nearly 50 % of the volume of waste arises from the building industry. During the last years, the limitation of natural resources, increasing negative environmental consequences as well as rising prices and shortages of dump space have led to a change in thinking in the building and waste industry to a closed substance cycle waste management. In consideration of the production figures of the main kinds of masonry units (clay bricks, sand-lime bricks, autoclaved aerated concrete brick, concrete blocks), a not unimportant quantity of masonry rubble (including gypsum plaster boards, renders, mortars and mineral insulating materials) of more than 20 million tons per year is generated in the medium term. With regard to a sustainable closed substance cycle waste management, these rest masses have to be recycled if possible. Processed aggregates made from masonry rubble can be recycled in the production of new masonry units under certain conditions. Even carefully deconstructed masonry units can once more re-used as masonry units, particularly in the area of the preservation of monuments and historical buildings. In addition, masonry rubble in different processing qualities is applied in earth and road construction, horticulture and scenery construction as well as concrete production. The choice of the most suitable recycling option causes technical, economical and ecological questions. At present, a methodology for a comprehensive suitability assessment with a passable scope of work does not exist. Basic structured and structuring information on the recycling of masonry rubble is absent up to now. This as well as the economic and technical

  5. Critical review of decision support tools for sustainability assessment of site remediation options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huysegoms, Lies; Cappuyns, Valérie

    2017-07-01

    In Europe alone, there are more than 2,5 million potentially contaminated sites of which 14% are expected to require remediation. Contaminated soil and groundwater can cause damage to human health as well as to valuable ecosystems. Globally more attention has been paid to this problem of soil contamination in the past decades. For example, more than 58 000 sites have been remediated in Europe between 2006 and 2011. Together with this increase in remediation projects there has been a surge in the development of new remediation technologies and decision support tools to be able to match every site and its specific characteristics to the best possible remediation alternative. In the past years the development of decision support tools (DST) has evolved in a more sustainable direction. Several DSTs added the claim not only to denote effective or technologically and economically feasible remediation alternatives but also to point out the more or most sustainable remediation alternatives. These trends in the evaluation of site remediation options left users with a confusing clew of possibly applicable tools to assist them in decision making for contaminated site remediation. This review provides a structured overview on the extent decision support tools for contaminated site remediation, that claim to assist in choosing the most sustainable remediation alternative, actually include the different elements of sustainability proposed in our assessment framework. The review contains an in-depth analysis of thirteen tools specifically developed to assess the sustainability of site remediation alternatives. This analysis is based on six criteria derived from the definition of sustainable development of the Brundtland report. The six criteria were concretized by using the three pillars of sustainability, applied to site remediation according to the SuRF-UK framework, two criteria derived from Life Cycle Assessment and Cost-Benefit Analysis, and an 'User friendly' criterion

  6. REAL OPTIONS ANALYSIS – ASSESSMENT METHOD OF INVESTMENT PROJECTS IN GREEN ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAFTEI DANIEL

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights the importance of real options as a evaluation method of investment in green energy. Article consider several theoretical and practical approaches, the analysis based on real options by many authors who have theorized and used this method. Each approach provides a operationalisation through a steps series of specific evaluation. This paper highlights the different views: academics, financiers, managers and facilitates the access to an accurate evaluation decisions of projects.

  7. Assessment of environmental impact of nuclear and other options for electricity generation in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feretic, D.; Tomsic, Z.; Kovacevic, T.

    1996-01-01

    Possible scenarios of future electricity production and supply, especially their environmental impact and social acceptability, have recently been put in the focus of overall interest. This paper analyzes the air impact and costs of possible developing options, varying the fuel types for future power plants. Nuclear option has also been taken in consideration. Two categories of costs have been introduced: internal cost (investment, O and M and fuel cost) and external cost (monetary equivalent of the environmental damage caused by plant operation). (author)

  8. Assessment of Options for the Treatment of Nitrate Salt Wastes at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Bruce Alan; Funk, David John; Stevens, Patrice Ann

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes the methodology used to evaluate options for treatment of the remediated nitrate salt waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The method selected must enable treatment of the waste drums, which consist of a mixture of complex nitrate salts (oxidizer) improperly mixed with sWheat Scoop®1, an organic kitty litter and absorbent (fuel), in a manner that renders the waste safe, meets the specifications of waste acceptance criteria, and is suitable for transport and final disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant located in Carlsbad, New Mexico. A Core Remediation Team was responsible for comprehensively reviewing the options, ensuring a robust, defensible treatment recommendation. The evaluation process consisted of two steps. First, a prescreening process was conducted to cull the list on the basis for a decision of feasibility of certain potential options with respect to the criteria. Then, the remaining potential options were evaluated and ranked against each of the criteria in a consistent methodology. Numerical scores were established by consensus of the review team. Finally, recommendations were developed based on current information and understanding of the scientific, technical, and regulatory situation. A discussion of the preferred options and documentation of the process used to reach the recommended treatment options are presented.

  9. Assessment of Options for the Treatment of Nitrate Salt Wastes at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Bruce Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Funk, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stevens, Patrice Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-17

    This paper summarizes the methodology used to evaluate options for treatment of the remediated nitrate salt waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The method selected must enable treatment of the waste drums, which consist of a mixture of complex nitrate salts (oxidizer) improperly mixed with sWheat Scoop®1, an organic kitty litter and absorbent (fuel), in a manner that renders the waste safe, meets the specifications of waste acceptance criteria, and is suitable for transport and final disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant located in Carlsbad, New Mexico. A Core Remediation Team was responsible for comprehensively reviewing the options, ensuring a robust, defensible treatment recommendation. The evaluation process consisted of two steps. First, a prescreening process was conducted to cull the list on the basis for a decision of feasibility of certain potential options with respect to the criteria. Then, the remaining potential options were evaluated and ranked against each of the criteria in a consistent methodology. Numerical scores were established by consensus of the review team. Finally, recommendations were developed based on current information and understanding of the scientific, technical, and regulatory situation. A discussion of the preferred options and documentation of the process used to reach the recommended treatment options are presented.

  10. Tsunami prevention and mitigation necessities and options derived from tsunami risk assessment in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, J.; Zosseder, K.; Wegscheider, S.; Steinmetz, T.; Mück, M.; Strunz, G.; Riedlinger, T.; Anwar, H. Z.; Birkmann, J.; Gebert, N.

    2009-04-01

    information and other GIS products will be presented. The focus of the products is on the one hand to provide relevant risk assessment products as decision support to issue a tsunami warning within the early warning stage. On the other hand the maps and GIS products shall provide relevant information to enable local decision makers to act adequately concerning their local risks. It is shown that effective prevention and mitigation measures can be designed based on risk assessment results and information especially when used pro-active and beforehand a disaster strikes. The conducted hazard assessment provides the probability of an area to be affected by a tsunami threat divided into two ranked impact zones. The two divided impact zones directly relate to tsunami warning levels issued by the Early Warning Center and consequently enable the local decision maker to base their planning (e.g. evacuation) accordingly. Within the tsunami hazard assessment several hundred pre-computed tsunami scenarios are analysed. This is combined with statistical analysis of historical event data. Probabilities of tsunami occurrence considering probabilities of different earthquake magnitudes, occurrences of specific wave heights at coast and spatial inundation probability are computed. Hazard assessment is then combined with a comprehensive vulnerability assessment. Here deficits in e.g. people's ability to receive and understand a tsunami warning and deficits in their ability to respond adequately (evacuate on time) are quantified and are visualized for the respective coastal areas. Hereby socio-economic properties (determining peoples ability to understand a warning and to react) are combined with environmental conditions (land cover, slope, population density) to calculate the time needed to evacuate (reach a tsunami safe area derived through the hazard assessment). This is implemented using a newly developed GIS cost-distance weighting approach. For example, the amount of people affected in a

  11. Social Cost Assessment for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options in the Republic of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Ji-eun; Yim, Man-Sung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This paper will investigate the vast array of economic factors to estimate the true cost of the nuclear power. There are many studies addressing the external costs of energy production. However, it is only since the 1990s that the external costs of nuclear powered electricity production has been studied in detail. Each investigation has identified their own set of external costs and developed formulas and models using a variety of statistical techniques. The objective of this research is to broaden the scope of the parameters currently consider by adding new areas and expanding on the types of situations considered. Previously the approach to evaluating the external cost of nuclear power did not include various fuel cycle options and influencing parameters. Cost has always been a very important factor in decision-making, in particular for policy choices evaluating the alternative energy sources and electricity generation technologies. Assessment of external costs in support of decision-making should reflect timely consideration of important country specific policy objective. PWR-MOX and FR-Pyro are the best fuel cycle in parameter of environment impacts, but OT or OT-ER is proper than FR-Pyro in human beings. Using the OT fuel cycle is better than FR-Pyro to reduce the conflict cost. When energy supply is deficient, FR-Pyro fuel cycle stands longer than other fuel cycles. Proliferation resistance is shown as 'high' in all fuel cycles, so there are no difference between fuel cycles. When the severe accident occurs, FR-Pyro cycle is economical than other OT based fuel cycles.

  12. Northern Cheyenne Reservation Coal Bed Natural Resource Assessment and Analysis of Produced Water Disposal Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaochang Wo; David A. Lopez; Jason Whiteman Sr.; Bruce A. Reynolds

    2004-07-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) development in the Powder River Basin (PRB) is currently one of the most active gas plays in the United States. Monthly production in 2002 reached about 26 BCF in the Wyoming portion of the basin. Coalbed methane reserves for the Wyoming portion of the basin are approximately 25 trillion cubic feet (TCF). Although coal beds in the Powder River Basin extend well into Montana, including the area of the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation, the only CBM development in Montana is the CX Field, operated by the Fidelity Exploration, near the Wyoming border. The Northern Cheyenne Reservation is located on the northwest flank of the PRB in Montana with a total land of 445,000 acres. The Reservation consists of five districts, Lame Deer, Busby, Ashland, Birney, and Muddy Cluster and has a population of 4,470 according to the 2000 Census. The CBM resource represents a significant potential asset to the Northern Cheyenne Indian Tribe. Methane gas in coal beds is trapped by hydrodynamic pressure. Because the production of CBM involves the dewatering of coalbed to allow the release of methane gas from the coal matrix, the relatively large volume of the co-produced water and its potential environmental impacts are the primary concerns for the Tribe. Presented in this report is a study conducted by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology (MBMG) in partnership with the Northern Cheyenne Tribe to assess the Tribe’s CBM resources and evaluate applicable water handling options. The project was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the Native American Initiative of the National Petroleum Technology Office, under contract DEAC07- 99ID13727. Matching funds were granted by the MBMG in supporting the work of geologic study and mapping conducted at MBMG.

  13. Assessment of industrial energy options based on coal and nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, T.D.; Bowers, H.I.; Bryan, R.H.; Delene, J.G.; Hise, E.C.; Jones, J.E. Jr.; Klepper, O.H.; Reed, S.A.; Spiewak, I.

    1975-07-01

    Industry consumes about 40 percent of the total primary energy used in the United States. Natural gas and oil, the major industrial fuels, are becoming scarce and expensive; therefore, there is a critical national need to develop alternative sources of industrial energy based on the more plentiful domestic fuels--coal and nuclear. This report gives the results of a comparative assessment of nuclear- and coal-based industrial energy systems which includes technical, environmental, economic, and resource aspects of industrial energy supply. The nuclear options examined were large commercial nuclear power plants (light-water reactors or high-temperature gas-cooled reactors) and a small [approximately 300-MW(t)] special-purpose pressurized-water reactor for industrial applications. Coal-based systems selected for study were those that appear capable of meeting environmental standards, especially with respect to sulfur dioxide; these are (1) conventional firing using either low- or high-sulfur coal with stack-gas scrubbing equipment, (2) fluidized-bed combustion using high-sulfur coal, (3) low- and intermediate-Btu gas, (4) high-Btu pipeline-quality gas, (5) solvent-refined coal, (6) liquid boiler fuels, and (7) methanol from coal. Results of the study indicated that both nuclear and coal fuel can alleviate the industrial energy deficit resulting from the decline in availability of natural gas and oil. However, because of its broader range of application and relative ease of implementation, coal is expected to be the more important substitute industrial fuel over the next 15 years. In the longer term, nuclear fuels could assume a major role for supplying industrial steam. (U.S.)

  14. Asia least-cost greenhouse gas abatement strategy identification and assessment of mitigation options for the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Sujata; Bhandari, Preety

    1998-01-01

    The focus of the presentation was on greenhouse gas mitigation options for the energy sector for India. Results from the Asia Least-cost Greenhouse gas Abatement Strategies (ALGAS) project were presented. The presentation comprised of a review of the sources of greenhouse gases, the optimisation model, ie the Markal model, used for determining the least-cost options, discussion of the results from the baseline and the abatement scenarios. The second half of the presentation focussed on a multi-criteria assessment of the abatement options using the Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) model. The emissions of all greenhouse gases, for India, are estimated to be 986.3 Tg of carbon dioxide equivalent for 1990. The energy sector accounted for 58 percent of the total emissions and over 90 percent of the CO2 emissions. Net emissions form land use change and forestry were zero. (au)

  15. Employer Supported Child Care: An Idea Whose Time Has Come. A Conference on Child Care as an Employee Benefit (Costs and Benefits, Successful Programs, Company Options, Current Issues). Conference Proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiman, Peter, Ed.; Sud, Gian, Ed.

    Many aspects of employer-sponsored child care programs--including key issues, costs and benefits, programmatic options, and implementation strategies--are discussed in these conference proceedings. Public policy issues, legal aspects of child care as an employee benefit, tax incentives for corporate child care, and funding sources for child care…

  16. 2010 FIFA world cup South Africa: travel health issues and new options for protection against meningococcal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Jane N; Bröker, Michael; Worth, Christopher

    2010-03-01

    The public health implications of large crowds gathering at a range of key global events should never be underestimated. This is especially the case with the upcoming 2010 FIFA World Cup South Africa programme where thousands of local and travelling spectators, players and officials from all over the world will be present. Although meningococcal disease contracted whilst actually travelling is relatively rare, any travel health risk assessment should involve consideration of potential exposure to and transmission of this disease where crowding occurs. In South Africa, for reasons not completely understood, the incidence of meningococcal disease is higher than in most European countries. Whilst the currently available polysaccharide vaccines can help protect travellers against meningococcal disease there are some well recognised limitations of such vaccines. These can, however, be overcome with the use of newly developed conjugated quadrivalent meningococcal vaccines. A quadrivalent conjugate vaccine should be the first choice for travellers to areas in which the risk of exposure to meningococcal disease is significant. The conjugated quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine should be recommended for all those attending or playing in the 2010 FIFA World Cup South Africa as well as similar global and regional events.

  17. Assessment of the mitigation options in the energy system in Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christov, C.; Vassilev, C.; Simenova, K. [and others

    1996-12-31

    Bulgaria signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the UNCEP in Rio in June 1992. The parliament ratified the Convention in March 1995. In compliance with the commitments arising under the Convention, Bulgaria elaborates climate change polity. The underlying principles in this policy are Bulgaria to joint the international efforts towards solving climate change problems to the extent that is adequate to both the possibilities of national economy and the options to attract foreign investments. All policies and measures implemented should be as cost-effective as possible. The Bulgarian GHG emission profile reveals the energy sector as the most significant emission source and also as an area where the great potential for GHG emissions reduction exists. This potential could be achieved in many cases by relatively low cost or even no-cost options. Mitigation analysis incorporates options in energy demand and energy supply within the period 1992-2020.

  18. Economic assessment of climate adaptation options for urban drainage design in Odense, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Halsnæs, Kirsten; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    framework is used to give detailed insights of the physical and economic feasibilities of each option. Estimation of marginal benefits of adaptation options are carried out through a step-by-step cost-benefit analysis. The results are aimed at providing important information for decision making on how best......Climate change is likely to influence the water cycle by changing the precipitation patterns, in some cases leading to increased occurrences of precipitation extremes. Urban landscapes are vulnerable to such changes due to the concentrated population and socio-economic values in cities. Feasible...

  19. Assessment of bio-fuel options for solid oxide fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiefeng

    Rising concerns of inadequate petroleum supply, volatile crude oil price, and adverse environmental impacts from using fossil fuels have spurred the United States to promote bio-fuel domestic production and develop advanced energy systems such as fuel cells. The present dissertation analyzed the bio-fuel applications in a solid oxide fuel cell-based auxiliary power unit from environmental, economic, and technological perspectives. Life cycle assessment integrated with thermodynamics was applied to evaluate the environmental impacts (e.g., greenhouse gas emission, fossil energy consumption) of producing bio-fuels from waste biomass. Landfill gas from municipal solid wastes and biodiesel from waste cooking oil are both suggested as the promising bio-fuel options. A nonlinear optimization model was developed with a multi-objective optimization technique to analyze the economic aspect of biodiesel-ethanol-diesel ternary blends used in transportation sectors and capture the dynamic variables affecting bio-fuel productions and applications (e.g., market disturbances, bio-fuel tax credit, policy changes, fuel specification, and technological innovation). A single-tube catalytic reformer with rhodium/ceria-zirconia catalyst was used for autothermal reformation of various heavy hydrocarbon fuels (e.g., diesel, biodiesel, biodiesel-diesel, and biodiesel-ethanol-diesel) to produce a hydrogen-rich stream reformates suitable for use in solid oxide fuel cell systems. A customized mixing chamber was designed and integrated with the reformer to overcome the technical challenges of heavy hydrocarbon reformation. A thermodynamic analysis, based on total Gibbs free energy minimization, was implemented to optimize the operating environment for the reformations of various fuels. This was complimented by experimental investigations of fuel autothermal reformation. 25% biodiesel blended with 10% ethanol and 65% diesel was determined to be viable fuel for use on a truck travelling with

  20. Safety issues for LMFBR: important features drawn from the assessments of Superphenix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natta, M.

    2002-01-01

    Superphenix, which is built on the site of Creys-Malville, is still the biggest LMFBR plant that has been in operation. It is a pool type reactor, as Phenix and the RNR 1 500 and EFR projects. After the analysis of the preliminary safety (1974-1975), the construction was authorised by decree of the Prime Minister in 1977, the authorization for fuel loading and star-up to 3% was given by the minister of industry in July 1985 and full power was achieved in December 1986. The plant was operated until the end of December 1996, producing the equivalent of 320 EFPD, corresponding to half of the maximum barn-up of the first core. The plant was definitively stopped on the 20. of April 1998 by a decision of the French government. During this period of 25 years of licensing, construction and operation of Superphenix, others discussions and preliminary licensing procedures were started for new projects, mainly the RNR 1500 French project and the EFR European project. The operation of Superphenix was also marked by several incidents, which led to additional licensing procedures and important modifications. This period was also marked by an important work of research and development in the safety field, mostly related to the issues concerning hypothetical core disruptive accidents (HCDA) and sodium fires; further, this period was marked by the Three Mile Island accident in 1979 and the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The purpose of this paper is to present some items which were discussed during this period of 25 years and which should be of interest for future LMFBRs. In this presentation, we shall discuss the key issues concerning the safety criteria and options taken with respect to severe accidents, i.e. core melt accidents, giving details on some specific which are less known since they were assessed only lately for Superphenix, sometimes in connection with the on-going safety researches. (author)

  1. Assessment and E-Learning: Current Issues and Future Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Neil; Sakui, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes different ways in which digital technology can be used for language learning. It then identifies some key trends connecting assessment and technology in language learning and higher education: the use of automated systems to enhance traditional assessment practices; the use of Web 2.0 tools to facilitate new assessment…

  2. Uncertainty assessment of climate change adaptation options in urban flash floods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Adaptation is necessary to cope with the increasing flood risk in cities due to climate change in many regions of the world. Decision marking of adaptation strategies often requires a comprehensive risk-based economic analysis to indicate the net benefits of proposed options. Priority...

  3. Climate change risks and adaptation options across Australian seafood supply chains – A preliminary assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fleming

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is already impacting the biology of the oceans and some dependent industries are in turn responding to these impacts. The development of response options for users of marine resources, such as fishers, is important in guiding adaptation efforts. However, harvesting fish is only the first step in a supply chain that delivers seafood to consumers. Impacts higher up the chain have seldom been considered in fisheries-climate research yet an understanding of these impacts and how climate risks and adaptation information are interpreted and used by stakeholders across the chain is vital for developing viable and sustainable adaptation options. We examined stakeholder perceptions of points where climate change impacts and adaptations currently occur, or may occur in the future, across the supply chains of several Australian fisheries (southern rock lobster, tropical rock lobster, prawn and aquaculture sectors (oyster, aquaculture prawn. We found that climate change impacts are well understood at the harvest stage and there is evidence of potential impacts and disruption to supply chains. Yet, there currently is no strong driver for change higher up the chain. Holistic adaptation planning along the supply chain, underpinned by targeted information and policy for the catch, processing and distribution, and marketing phases is needed. This effort is needed now, as some adaptation options have long lead times, and a delay in adaptation planning may limit future options. Given potential lead times and associated uncertainty, a risk-based approach is recommended with regard to adaptation planning for Australia’s seafood sector.

  4. A Methodology for Comparative Assessment of Energy Options: The Case of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-del-Campo, Cecilia; Francois, Juan-Luis

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a methodology to measure the sustainability of alternatives for electricity generation. It is based on the evaluation of indicators in three dimensions of sustainability. No single technology exhibited superior performance on the basis of all indicators and it was necessary the application of a method to make the aggregation of all the indicators, taking into account the relative importance in the decision. In this study, a fuzzy logic inference system was developed to build a decision function that depends on all the indicators. The purpose is to rank the energy options in terms of economic, environmental and social sustainability. All the decision elements are combined and integrated in an inference logic system that takes into account weights of different indicators. The methodology was applied to evaluate the sustainability of nuclear, wind, natural gas, coal, hydro and oil technologies under Mexican conditions. When only the economic dimension is considered nuclear is the best option, if the environmental dimension is also considered the nuclear option is the best alternative too. When the social dimension is also taken into account the nuclear option is the worst. These results are obtained using the same weight to each dimension to accomplish with the equilibrium principle of the sustainability. (authors)

  5. Students' Use of Optional Online Reviews and Its Relationship to Summative Assessment Outcomes in Introductory Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Shana K.; Rahman, Shuhebur; Lund, Terry J. S.; Armstrong, Patrick I.; Lamm, Monica H.; Reason, Robert D.; Coffman, Clark R.

    2017-01-01

    Retrieval practice has been shown to produce significant enhancements in student learning of course information, but the extent to which students make use of retrieval to learn information on their own is unclear. In the current study, students in a large introductory biology course were provided with optional online review questions that could be…

  6. An updated dose assessment for resettlement options at Bikini Atoll--a U.S. nuclear test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, W L; Bogen, K T; Conrado, C L

    1997-07-01

    On 1 March 1954, a nuclear weapon test, code-named BRAVO, conducted at Bikini Atoll in the northern Marshall Islands contaminated the major residence island. There has been a continuing effort since 1977 to refine dose assessments for resettlement options at Bikini Atoll. Here we provide a radiological dose assessment for the main residence island, Bikini, using extensive radionuclide concentration data derived from analysis of food crops, ground water, cistern water, fish and other marine species, animals, air, and soil collected at Bikini Island as part of our continuing research and monitoring program that began in 1978. The unique composition of coral soil greatly alters the relative contribution of 137Cs and 90Sr to the total estimated dose relative to expectations based on North American and European soils. Without counter measures, 137Cs produces 96% of the estimated dose for returning residents, mostly through uptake from the soil to terrestrial food crops but also from external gamma exposure. The doses are calculated assuming a resettlement date of 1999. The estimated maximum annual effective dose for current island conditions is 4.0 mSv when imported foods, which are now an established part of the diet, are available. The 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral effective doses are 91 mSv, 130 mSv, and 150 mSv, respectively. A detailed uncertainty analysis for these dose estimates is presented in a companion paper in this issue. We have evaluated various countermeasures to reduce 137Cs in food crops. Treatment with potassium reduces the uptake of 137Cs into food crops, and therefore the ingestion dose, to about 5% of pretreatment levels and has essentially no negative environmental consequences. We have calculated the dose for the rehabilitation scenario where the top 40 cm of soil is removed in the housing and village area, and the rest of the island is treated with potassium fertilizer; the maximum annual effective dose is 0.41 mSv and the 30-, 50-, and 70-y

  7. Issues in the Assessment of Social Phobia: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letamendi, Andrea M.; Chavira, Denise A.; Stein, Murray B.

    2010-01-01

    Since the emergence of social phobia in DSM nomenclature, the mental health community has witnessed an expansion in standardized methods for the screening, diagnosis, and measurement of the disorder. This article reviews formal assessment methods for social phobia, including diagnostic interview, clinician-administered instruments, and self report questionnaires. Frequently used tools for assessing constructs related to social phobia, such as disability and quality of life, are also briefly presented. This review evaluates each method by highlighting the assessment features recommended in social phobia literature, including method of administration, item content, coverage, length of scale, type of scores generated, and time frame. PMID:19728569

  8. Evaluation of natural gas supply options for Southeast and Central Europe: Part 2. Multi-criteria assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afgan, Naim H.; Carvalho, Maria G.; Pilavachi, Petros A.; Martins, Nelson

    2008-01-01

    Decision making methods are used as a tool for the selection of alternatives to be evaluated on the basis of several criteria. Evaluation of the potential routes for natural gas supply to the Southeast and Central European countries is studied using single and multi-criteria evaluation. The potential options included in this analysis are the: Yamal Route; Nabucco Route; West Balkan Route; LNG Neum Route; and Gas by Wire Route. In part 1, the paper was devoted to the definition of the indicators and to single indicator analysis. In part 2, the analysis is based on multi-criteria evaluation, which comprises the possibility to assess the options under predefined constraints amongst indicators. The paper also describes different methods used for multi-criteria evaluation. This analysis focuses on cases with different priorities defined among individual weighting coefficients with the others having the same value. It was shown that all options under specific constraints can be qualified as promising in the decision making process. It is also concluded that favourite indicator constraints may exaggerate some options

  9. The Western Energy Corridor Initiative: Unconventional Fuel Development Issues, Impacts, and Management Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfsberg, A.; Hagood, M.; Pasqualini, D.; Wood, T.; Wilson, C.; Witkowski, M.; Levitt, D.; Pawar, R.; Keating, G.; Ziock, H.

    2008-12-01

    The United States is increasingly dependent on imported oil and gas; commodities for which other nations are competing and for which future supply may be inadequate to support our transportation fuel needs. Therefore, a renewed interest in 'harder-to-get' unconventional fuels has emerged in both industry and government with directed focus on world class hydrocarbon resources within a corridor extending from Canada southward through the Rocky Mountain States. Within this Western Energy Corridor, co-located with significant conventional hydrocarbon and renewable energy resources, lie some of the world's richest unconventional hydrocarbon resources in oil shales, oil sands and coal for coal-to-liquid conversion. However, development of these resources poses substantial environmental concerns as well as increasing competition for limited resources of water and habitat. With large-scale energy development in the predominantly rural region, local communities, infrastructures, and economies will face increasing demands for roads, electricity, law enforcement, labor, and other support services. The Western Energy Corridor Initiative (WECI) seeks to develop an integrated assessment of the impacts of unconventional fuel development, the interrelationships of planned energy developments in different basins, and the resultant demands placed on the region. This initial WECI study focuses on two of the most important current issues for industry, regulators, and stakeholders -- the assessment of carbon and water resources issues, impacts, and management strategies. Through scenario analyses using coupled systems and process level models, this study investigates the viability of integrated development of multiple energy resources in a carbon neutral and environmentally acceptable manner, and the interrelationships of various energy resource development plans. The modeling framework is designed to extend to include infrastructure, employment, training, fiscal and economic demands

  10. Environmental Decision Making and Information Technology: Issues Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barg, S.; Fletcher, T.; Mechling, J.; Tonn, B.; Turner, R.

    1999-05-01

    This report presents a summary of the Information Technology and Environmental Decision Making Workshop that was held at Harvard University, October 1-3, 1998. Over sixty participants from across the US took part in discussions that focused on the current practice of using information technology to support environmental decision making and on future considerations of information technology development, information policies, and data quality issues in this area. Current practice is focusing on geographic information systems and visualization tools, Internet applications, and data warehousing. In addition, numerous organizations are developing environmental enterprise systems to integrate environmental information resources. Plaguing these efforts are issues of data quality (and public trust), system design, and organizational change. In the future, much effort needs to focus on building community-based environmental decision-making systems and processes, which will be a challenge given that exactly what needs to be developed is largely unknown and that environmental decision making in this arena has been characterized by a high level of conflict. Experimentation and evaluation are needed to contribute to efficient and effective learning about how best to use information technology to improve environmental decision making.

  11. Assessments of high-consequence platforms: Issues and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digre, K.A.; Craig, M.J.K.

    1994-01-01

    An API task group has developed a process for the assessment of existing platforms to determine their fitness for purpose. This has been released as a draft supplement to API RP 2A-WSD, 20th edition. Details and the background of this work are described in a companion paper. The assessment of a platform's fitness for purpose involves firstly a definition of the platform's exposure; and secondly, an evaluation of the platform's predicted performance relative to the assessment criteria associated with that exposure. This paper deals with platforms in the high exposure category. That is, platforms whose potential failure consequences, in terms of potential life loss and environmental damage, are significant. The criteria for placement of a platform in a high exposure category are explained, as are the performance criteria demanded of these high exposure platforms. In the companion paper, the metocean assessment process and associated API-developed acceptance criteria are highlighted. This paper addresses primarily ice and seismic loading assessments and associated API-developed criteria, which are based on over thirty years of successful offshore operation and field experience, as well as extrapolation of land-based performance criteria. Three West Coast, USA production platforms are used for illustration

  12. Assessment of Startup Fuel Options for the GNEP Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jon Carmack (062056); Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu (103171); David Alberstein

    2008-02-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Program (GNEP) includes a program element for the development and construction of an advanced sodium cooled fast reactor to demonstrate the burning (transmutation) of significant quantities of minor actinides obtained from a separations process and fabricated into a transuranic bearing fuel assembly. To demonstrate and qualify transuranic (TRU) fuel in a fast reactor, an Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) prototype is needed. The ABR would necessarily be started up using conventional metal alloy or oxide (U or U, Pu) fuel. Startup fuel is needed for the ABR for the first 2 to 4 core loads of fuel in the ABR. Following start up, a series of advanced TRU bearing fuel assemblies will be irradiated in qualification lead test assemblies in the ABR. There are multiple options for this startup fuel. This report provides a description of the possible startup fuel options as well as possible fabrication alternatives available to the program in the current domestic and international facilities and infrastructure.

  13. Assessment of the environmental impact of available options in electric power development under Polish conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cofala, Janusz; ); Jankowski, Boleslaw

    1999-01-01

    The current European initiatives limiting environmental impacts of energy production and use are presented and the proposal emission levels together with benefits are given. The role of nuclear power in achieving environmental targets in the EU countries is stressed. Then a comparison of the following 3 major electricity production options: modern coal fired power plants, gas fired combined cycle power plants and nuclear power plants is done. In the comparison Polish conditions are taken into account

  14. Technology assessment of human spaceflight - Combining philosophical and technical issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromm, J.; Hoevelmann, G. H.

    1992-08-01

    A transutilitarian rationale is proposed for assessing human spaceflight that is based on objectives for these endeavors and ethical norms of conduct. Specific attention is given to: presupposed/tacit reasons for including man in spaceflight and the restricted notion of rational/justifiable activity. It is shown that economic rationale is insufficient and unsuitable as a means for assessing manned spaceflight, and transutilitarian objectives are compiled that contribute to the motivation for manned flight. The transutilitarian motivations include: pioneering uncharted territory, enhancing national prestige, establishing space-related autonomy, promoting international cooperation, and enhancing science and the quality of human life.

  15. EPA`s program for risk assessment guidelines: Quantification issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dourson, M.L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The quantitative procedures associated with noncancer risk assessment include reference dose (RfD), benchmark dose, and severity modeling. The RfD, which is part of the EPA risk assessment guidelines, is an estimation of a level that is likely to be without any health risk to sensitive individuals. The RfD requires two major judgments: the first is choice of a critical effect(s) and its No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL); the second judgment is choice of an uncertainty factor. This paper discusses major assumptions and limitations of the RfD model.

  16. Options Assessment Report: Treatment of Nitrate Salt Waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Bruce Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stevens, Patrice Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-17

    This report documents the methodology used to select a method of treatment for the remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The method selected should treat the containerized waste in a manner that renders the waste safe and suitable for transport and final disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository, under specifications listed in the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (DOE/CBFO, 2013). LANL recognizes that the results must be thoroughly vetted with the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) and that a modification to the LANL Hazardous Waste Facility Permit is a necessary step before implementation of this or any treatment option. Likewise, facility readiness and safety basis approvals must be received from the Department of Energy (DOE). This report presents LANL’s preferred option, and the documentation of the process for reaching the recommended treatment option for RNS and UNS waste, and is presented for consideration by NMED and DOE.

  17. Options assessment report: Treatment of nitrate salt waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Bruce Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stevens, Patrice Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-16

    This report documents the methodology used to select a method of treatment for the remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The method selected should treat the containerized waste in a manner that renders the waste safe and suitable for transport and final disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository, under specifications listed in the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (DOE/CBFO, 2013). LANL recognized that the results must be thoroughly vetted with the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) and the a modification to the LANL Hazardous Waste Facility Permit is a necessary step before implementation of this or any treatment option. Likewise, facility readiness and safety basis approvals must be received from the Department of Energy (DOE). This report presents LANL's preferred option, and the documentation of the process for reaching the recommended treatment option for RNS and UNS waste, and is presented for consideration by NMED and DOE.

  18. Critical Issues in Assessing Teacher Compensation. Backgrounder. No. 2638

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richwine, Jason; Biggs, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    A November 2011 Heritage Foundation report--"Assessing the Compensation of Public-School Teachers"--presented data on teacher salaries and benefits in order to inform debates about teacher compensation reform. The report concluded that public-school teacher compensation is far ahead of what comparable private-sector workers enjoy, and that…

  19. Assessing Competency to Address Ethical Issues in Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Robert; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A study evaluated the feasibility of an objective structured clinical examination to assess the competence of foreign medical school graduates, clinical clerks, and interns to address clinical ethical situations. The University of Toronto's experience with the measure found it useful but in need of improvement. (MSE)

  20. School Refusal Behavior: Classification, Assessment, and Treatment Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Marcella I.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses diagnostic and functional classification, assessment, and treatment approaches for school refusal behavior. Diagnostic classification focuses on separation anxiety disorder, specific phobia, social phobia, depression, and truancy. Functional classification focuses on the maintaining consequences of the behavior, such as avoidance of…

  1. The economics of nuclear decontamination: assessing policy options for the management of land around Fukushima dai-ichi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, Alistair

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Assesses land management options after the Fukushima accident. • Builds a model for exploring intervention and decontaminations options in areas affected by radioactive contamination. • Findings suggest delaying decontamination efforts by 3–10 years is optimal with a central figure of 8.75 years. • Results are sensitive to estimates of the benefits of resettlement. • Poor state of knowledge about some variables that are key for policy actions, such as psychological benefits and costs of resettlement. -- Abstract: In the light of the Japanese government's intensive efforts to decontaminate areas affected by radioactive Caesium from Fukushima dai-ichi nuclear power plant, I create a framework for assessing the merits of management options. In particular I consider delayed intervention as a possible policy. Delay can be optimal because allowing the natural decay of radiation can lower significantly the costs of achieving targets for exposure. Using some benchmark data for Japan I estimate that optimal delay is positive for most reasonable parameter values. Optimal delay generally lies in the range of 3–10 years with a central figure of 8.8 years. There is however considerable uncertainty over some of the key parameter values, particularly with regard to the behaviour of currently evacuated inhabitants

  2. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, W.L.; Ahrendt, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  3. Older drivers with cognitive impairments : issues of detection and assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Catarina

    2003-01-01

    Older drivers are often presented as a traffic safety problem . Age-related medical conditions such as dementias and stroke impair cognitive functions that are crucial for safe driving Uncertainty remains regarding the most appropriate clinical methods to assess driving fitness in these patient groups. Furthermore, preclinical dementia and cognitive impairment may affect driving performance and lead to an increased crash risk. The first general aim of the thesis was to inve...

  4. Energy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampton, Michael

    1999-01-01

    This chapter focuses on energy options as a means of managing exposure to energy prices. An intuitive approach to energy options is presented, and traditional definitions of call and put options are given. The relationship between options and swaps, option value and option exercises, commodity options, and option pricing are described. An end-user's guide to energy option strategy is outlined, and straight options, collars, participating swaps and collars, bull and bear spreads, and swaption are examined. Panels explaining the defining of basis risk, and discussing option pricing and the Greeks, delta hedging, managing oil options using the Black-Scholes model, caps, floors and collars, and guidelines on hedging versus speculation with options are included in the paper

  5. Key issues on safety design basis selection and safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, S.; Togo, Y.

    1976-01-01

    In current fast reactor design in Japan, four design accident conditions and four design seismic conditions are adopted as the design base classifications. These are classified by the considerations on both likelihood of occurrence and the severeness of the consequences. There are several major problem areas in safety design consideration such as core accident problems which include fuel sodium interaction, fuel failure propagation and residual decay heat removal, and decay heat removal systems problems which is more or less the problem of selection of appropriate system and of assurance of high reliability of the system. In view of licensing, two kinds of accidents are postulated in evaluating the adequacy of a reactor site. The one is the ''major accident'' which is the accident to give most severe radiation hazard to the public from technical point of view. The other is the ''hypothetical accident'', induced public accident of which is severer than that of major accident. While the concept of the former is rather unique to Japanese licensing, the latter is almost equivalent to design base hypothetical accident of the US practice. In this paper, design bases selections, key safety issues and some of the licensing considerations in Japan are described

  6. Accelerator assisted repositories, technical issue identification and economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, T.; Favale, A.; Berwald, D. [Northrop Grumman Corp., Bethpage, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    An investigation (technical and economic) is presented to quantify the impact of accelerator assisted repository (AAR) system on the US national nuclear repository strategy. An overview of US spent fuel policy is presented which provides a means to comparatively assess competing spent fuel disposition technologies under investigation. The advantages of an AAR system are highlighted and discussed. A companion economic analysis is presented. The results indicate that although a US geologic waste repository will continue to be required, waste partitioning and accelerator transmutation of selected actinides, and long-lived fission products, can result in substantial benefits. (author) 18 refs.

  7. Assessment of stormwater management options in urban contexts using Multiple Attribute Decision-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gogate, Nivedita G.; Kalbar, Pradip; Raval, Pratap M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of selecting the most sustainable stormwater management alternative in developing countries in a dense urban context. Firstly, suitable Low Impact Development (LID) stormwater management measures for dense urban areas in developing countries were identified based...... sustainable stormwater management options in densely populated areas of developing countries....... on critical review of literature. Alternatives have been formulated as varying percentages (degree of adoption) of these suitable measures to manage the stormwater sustainably. Further, a novel decision-making framework is developed which generates the hierarchy for selection of the most sustainable...

  8. Dietary assessment in children and adolescents: issues and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Artiach Escauriaza, Belén; Artiach Escauriaza, Javier; Polanco Allúe, Isabel

    2015-02-26

    The assessment of dietary intake in children and adolescents is of great interest for different purposes. The characteristics of each developmental stage and associated cognitive abilities are two factors that influence the ability of children to provide valid and reliable information on food consumption. The ability to remember, limitations of vocabulary or the ability to identify different foods are some of the relevant aspects. In addition, often parents or caregivers provide surrogate information and their degree of knowledge depends on the time they spend with the child and on whether they share meals. As children grow they become more independent and increasingly spend more time away from their parents. Children also have limitations to recognize food models and photographs and associate them with different amounts of food consumed. On the other hand, often children and adolescents perceive long interviews or self-administered questionnaires they as long and boring. The use of new technologies is contributing to the development of new tools adapting dietary assessment the methods to the cognitive abilities of children, introducing gaming environments and narrative structures that attract their interest and improve the quality of information they report.. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2015. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  9. Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damalas, Christos A.; Eleftherohorinos, Ilias G.

    2011-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms), many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence), and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization of the already

  10. Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Damalas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms, many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence, and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization

  11. Trends of significant operating events in assessing programmatic issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanning, W.D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes one part of the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) program for evaluating significant events and the process for identifying trends that may be indicative of programmatic weaknesses at operating nuclear power plants. A database management system was developed to permit analyses of significant operating events, events of potential safety significance, and certain reactor scrams. The analyses were based on events and problems reported by telephone to the NRC by licensees within hours of the events and, therefore, provided current operational data trend information. The regulatory requirements for reporting significant events, the screening criteria, and the process for identifying outliers for formal evaluation are described herein. This process contributed to an understanding of the underlying causes for events and problems. Examples are included of operating experience assessments that identified plants with a poor operating experience history that was attributable to procedural inadequacies, operator training deficiencies, inadequate root cause analysis, and inadequate control and planning of activities

  12. Waste disposal of HYLIFE II structure: Issues and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    Initial analysis has shown that by using 304 stainless steel (SS) a significant fraction (92 wt%) of the structural mass in the initial HYLIFE-II design could be disposed of by shallow burial. And if all the structural components are mixed together and treated as one entity, all of it could be disposed of by shallow burial. Two other types of SSs assessed, Mn-modified 316 and Prime Candidate Alloy (PCA), were found to require disposal by deep geologic burial of most of the structural mass. The presents of Nb and Mo in Mn-modified 316 and Prime Candidate Alloy (PCA), were found to dominate the generation of long term wastes produced and their presence should be avoided

  13. Life Cycle Assessment of electricity generation: overview and methodological issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turconi, Roberto; Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    study focuses on the comparability between different technologies, identifying and quantifying the possible mistakes that can occur when comparing two technologies whose environmental assessments have been performed with conflicting assumptions. Nine different power generation technologies were examined......: hard coal, lignite, natural gas, oil, nuclear, biomass, hydroelectric, solar photovoltaic and wind. More than 150 published studies were selected and analyzed to investigate whether "typical" GHG, NOx and SO2 emission factors for each technology could be identified. For a better overview of the sources...... of emissions, those were divided among three life cycle phases: fuel provision, operation of the plant and infrastructure. It was possible to estimate typical emission factors for all technologies except for biomass, where methodological and technical aspects result in very variable outcomes. Within...

  14. NPP fuel cycle and assessment of possible options for long-term fuel supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatenko, E.I.; Lebedev, V.M.; Davidenko, N.N.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present some results of the analysis of the possible options for Russian NPPs fuel supply. In the classical consideration these are four fuel cycles: uranium cycle based on natural uranium, this cycle has several economical advantages with the use of CANDU type reactors with a heavy-water moderator; uranium cycle based on enriched uranium, it is a basis for the current and future nuclear power; uranium-thorium fuel cycle with capabilities which are very promising but unfortunately difficult to implement in practice; plutonium-uranium cycle, in terms of its potential capabilities it is an excellent option, but it is extremely difficult to implement it in practice due to a high activity and toxicity of nuclear materials under recycle. The nuclear power of Russia is currently aimed at using the cheapest fuel resources, that is first of all, uranium reprocessed from industrial reactor fuel and slag-heaps accumulated on the past in isotope-separation plant sites. These resources are enough for the Russian large-scale nuclear power to be developed [ru

  15. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/8: Cooperative Border Security for Jordan: Assessment and Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qojas, M.

    1999-03-01

    This document is an analysis of options for unilateral and cooperative action to improve the security of Jordan's borders. Sections describe the current political, economic, and social interactions along Jordan's borders. Next, the document discusses border security strategy for cooperation among neighboring countries and the adoption of confidence-building measures. A practical cooperative monitoring system would consist of hardware for early warning, command and control, communications, and transportation. Technical solutions can expand opportunities for the detection and identification of intruders. Sensors (such as seismic, break-wire, pressure-sensing, etc.) can warn border security forces of intrusion and contribute to the identification of the intrusion and help formulate the response. This document describes conceptual options for cooperation, offering three scenarios that relate to three hypothetical levels (low, medium, and high) of cooperation. Potential cooperative efforts under a low cooperation scenario could include information exchanges on military equipment and schedules to prevent misunderstandings and the establishment of protocols for handling emergency situations or unusual circumstances. Measures under a medium cooperation scenario could include establishing joint monitoring groups for better communications, with hot lines and scheduled meetings. The high cooperation scenario describes coordinated responses, joint border patrols, and sharing border intrusion information. Finally, the document lists recommendations for organizational, technical, and operational initiatives that could be applicable to the current situation.

  16. A Policy Alternative Analysis and Simplified Scoring Method to Assess Policy Options for Marine Conservation Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharuga, S. M.; Reams, M.

    2016-12-01

    Traditional approaches to marine conservation and management are increasingly being found as inadequate; and, consequently, more complex ecosystem-based approaches to protecting marine ecosystems are growing in popularity. Ecosystem-based approaches, however, can be particularly challenging at a local level where resources and knowledge of specific marine conservation components may be limited. Marine conservation areas are known by a variety of names globally, but can be divided into four general types: Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), Marine Reserves, Fishery Reserves, and Ecological Reserves (i.e. "no take zones"). Each type of conservation area involves specific objectives, program elements and likely socioeconomic consequences. As an aid to community stakeholders and decision makers considering establishment of a marine conservation area, a simple method to compare and score the objectives and attributes of these four approaches is presented. A range of evaluation criteria are considered, including conservation of biodiversity and habitat, effective fishery management, overall cost-effectiveness, fairness to current users, enhancement of recreational activities, fairness to taxpayers, and conservation of genetic diversity. Environmental and socioeconomic costs and benefits of each type of conservation area are also considered. When exploring options for managing the marine environment, particular resource conservation needs must be evaluated individually on a case-by-case basis and the type of conservation area established must be tailored accordingly. However, MPAs are often more successful than other conservation areas because they offer a compromise between the needs of society and the environment, and therefore represent a viable option for ecosystem-based management.

  17. Water resources planning under climate change: Assessing the robustness of real options for the Blue Nile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeuland, Marc; Whittington, Dale

    2014-03-01

    This article presents a methodology for planning new water resources infrastructure investments and operating strategies in a world of climate change uncertainty. It combines a real options (e.g., options to defer, expand, contract, abandon, switch use, or otherwise alter a capital investment) approach with principles drawn from robust decision-making (RDM). RDM comprises a class of methods that are used to identify investment strategies that perform relatively well, compared to the alternatives, across a wide range of plausible future scenarios. Our proposed framework relies on a simulation model that includes linkages between climate change and system hydrology, combined with sensitivity analyses that explore how economic outcomes of investments in new dams vary with forecasts of changing runoff and other uncertainties. To demonstrate the framework, we consider the case of new multipurpose dams along the Blue Nile in Ethiopia. We model flexibility in design and operating decisions—the selection, sizing, and sequencing of new dams, and reservoir operating rules. Results show that there is no single investment plan that performs best across a range of plausible future runoff conditions. The decision-analytic framework is then used to identify dam configurations that are both robust to poor outcomes and sufficiently flexible to capture high upside benefits if favorable future climate and hydrological conditions should arise. The approach could be extended to explore design and operating features of development and adaptation projects other than dams.

  18. Issues in developing valid assessments of speech pathology students' performance in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Sue; Lincoln, Michelle; Ferguson, Alison; McAllister, Lindy

    2010-01-01

    Workplace-based learning is a critical component of professional preparation in speech pathology. A validated assessment of this learning is seen to be 'the gold standard', but it is difficult to develop because of design and validation issues. These issues include the role and nature of judgement in assessment, challenges in measuring quality, and the relationship between assessment and learning. Valid assessment of workplace-based performance needs to capture the development of competence over time and account for both occupation specific and generic competencies. This paper reviews important conceptual issues in the design of valid and reliable workplace-based assessments of competence including assessment content, process, impact on learning, measurement issues, and validation strategies. It then goes on to share what has been learned about quality assessment and validation of a workplace-based performance assessment using competency-based ratings. The outcomes of a four-year national development and validation of an assessment tool are described. A literature review of issues in conceptualizing, designing, and validating workplace-based assessments was conducted. Key factors to consider in the design of a new tool were identified and built into the cycle of design, trialling, and data analysis in the validation stages of the development process. This paper provides an accessible overview of factors to consider in the design and validation of workplace-based assessment tools. It presents strategies used in the development and national validation of a tool COMPASS, used in an every speech pathology programme in Australia, New Zealand, and Singapore. The paper also describes Rasch analysis, a model-based statistical approach which is useful for establishing validity and reliability of assessment tools. Through careful attention to conceptual and design issues in the development and trialling of workplace-based assessments, it has been possible to develop the

  19. Course 'Radiation and life', assessment of issues of public concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Cruz, Dumenigo; Quevedo Garcia, Jose R.; Betancourt Hernandez, Luisa; Fuente Puch, Andres de la; Perez Reyes, Yolanda; Jerez Vegueria, Pablo F.

    2008-01-01

    The public of the XXI Century is avid for information about the newest technical and scientific advances occurred and on how do they impact in our daily life. All over the world, the channels of mass communication provide all kind of valuable knowledge that could be of interest for the audience. Part of this broadcasted information however, is managed without the required scientific strictness due to its technical complexity or in most the cases, because it is being used for sensational purposes. The Nuclear Energy has been subjected to different manipulations and misinterpretation by the media because the disastrous consequences of its initial utilization for war purposes. For this reason, the International Atomic Energy Agency has recommended to its Member States the development of a coherent policy for public information based on an adequate real balance of the risk and the benefits of the pacific uses of the nuclear energy, with special emphasis in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. In this context, the Regulatory Bodies are invited to use all available resources for information distribution to provide the truth that the society requires with transparency and the appropriate technical strictness as well as to develop periodical assessment on how does the population incorporate this information and what changes on the public perception of the nuclear energy have occurred. In line with the policy of the Government of the Republic of Cuba concerning the systematic improvement and strengthening the level of the general culture of our population, a comprehensive course entitled 'Radiation and Life' was designed and prepared by the authors of the present paper, and broadcasted by the Cuban television in the popular programme 'University for all'. The email recipient 'radiacionesyvida at cnsn.cu' was specially implemented to assess the impact of this course in the public opinion. This email address was used as an effective way of interaction between the lectures

  20. Biological monitoring and assessment of rivers as a basis for identifying and prioritising river management options

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, DJ

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available management objectives. This paper demonstrates how the results obtained with biological indices and system-specific knowledge, are combined to derive semi quantitative assessments of ecosystem condition. These assessments provide the basis for responding...

  1. 41 CFR 102-80.75 - Who assesses environmental issues in Federal construction and lease construction projects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... environmental issues in Federal construction and lease construction projects? 102-80.75 Section 102-80.75 Public... Management Assessment of Environmental Issues § 102-80.75 Who assesses environmental issues in Federal construction and lease construction projects? Federal agencies must assess required environmental issues...

  2. International Space Station (ISS) External Thermal Control System (ETCS) Loop A Pump Module (PM) Jettison Options Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murri, Daniel G.; Dwyer Cianciolo, Alicia; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Powell, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    On December 11, 2013, the International Space Station (ISS) experienced a failure of the External Thermal Control System (ETCS) Loop A Pump Module (PM). To minimize the number of extravehicular activities (EVA) required to replace the PM, jettisoning the faulty pump was evaluated. The objective of this study was to independently evaluate the jettison options considered by the ISS Trajectory Operations Officer (TOPO) and to provide recommendations for safe jettison of the ETCS Loop A PM. The simulation selected to evaluate the TOPO options was the NASA Engineering and Safety Center's (NESC) version of Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) developed to support another NESC assessment. The objective of the jettison analysis was twofold: (1) to independently verify TOPO posigrade and retrograde jettison results, and (2) to determine jettison guidelines based on additional sensitivity, trade study, and Monte Carlo (MC) analysis that would prevent PM recontact. Recontact in this study designates a propagated PM trajectory that comes within 500 m of the ISS propagated trajectory. An additional simulation using Systems Tool Kit (STK) was run for independent verification of the POST2 simulation results. Ultimately, the ISS Program removed the PM jettison option from consideration. However, prior to the Program decision, the retrograde jettison option remained part of the EVA contingency plan. The jettison analysis presented showed that, in addition to separation velocity/direction and the atmosphere conditions, the key variables in determining the time to recontact the ISS is highly dependent on the ballistic number (BN) difference between the object being jettisoned and the ISS.

  3. Uncertainty assessment of climate change adaptation options in urban flash floods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    Adaptation is necessary to cope with the increasing flood risk in cities due to anthropogenic climate change in many regions of the world. The choice of adaptation strategies can and should be based on a comprehensive risk-based economic analysis to indicate the net benefits of proposed options...... presented is based on a flood risk framework that is in accordance with the EU flood directive, but adapted and extended to incorporate anticipated future changes due to city development and hydrologic extremes. The framework is used to study the importance of inherent uncertainties in order to find robust......-effective regardless of the uncertainties from climate change impacts and /or damage estimation procedure when considering the ability to reduce the risk of flooding. The description of the correlation structure between the key inputs proved to be important in order to obtain a correct description of the resulting...

  4. Landscape ecological assessment: a tool for integrating biodiversity issues in strategic environmental assessment and planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörtberg, U M; Balfors, B; Knol, W C

    2007-03-01

    To achieve a sustainable development, impacts on biodiversity of urbanisation, new infrastructure projects and other land use changes must be considered on landscape and regional scales. This requires that important decisions are made after a systematic evaluation of environmental impacts. Landscape ecology can provide a conceptual framework for the assessment of consequences of long-term development processes like urbanisation on biodiversity components, and for evaluating and visualising the impacts of alternative planning scenarios. The aim of this paper was to develop methods for integrating biodiversity issues in planning and strategic environmental assessment in an urbanising environment, on landscape and regional levels. In order to test developed methods, a case study was conducted in the region of Stockholm, the capital of Sweden, and the study area embraced the city centre, suburbs and peri-urban areas. Focal species were tested as indicators of habitat quality, quantity and connectivity in the landscape. Predictive modelling of habitat distribution in geographic information systems involved the modelling of focal species occurrences based on empirical data, incorporated in a landscape ecological decision support system. When habitat models were retrieved, they were applied on future planning scenarios in order to predict and assess the impacts on focal species. The scenario involving a diffuse exploitation pattern had the greatest negative impacts on the habitat networks of focal species. The scenarios with concentrated exploitation also had negative impacts, although they were possible to mitigate quite easily. The predictions of the impacts on habitats networks of focal species made it possible to quantify, integrate and visualise the effects of urbanisation scenarios on aspects of biodiversity on a landscape level.

  5. Probabilistic Assessment of Investment Options in Honey Value Chains in Lamu County, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Wafula

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Designing and implementing biodiversity-based value chains can be a complex undertaking, especially in places where outcomes are uncertain and risks of project failure and cost overruns are high. We used the Stochastic Impact Evaluation (SIE approach to guide the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD on viable investment options in honey value chains, which the agency considered implementing as an economic incentive for communities along the Kenya-Somalia border to conserve biodiversity. The SIE approach allows for holistic analysis of project cost, benefit, and risk variables, including those with uncertain and missing information. It also identifies areas that pose critical uncertainties in the project. We started by conducting a baseline survey in Witu and Awer in Lamu County, Kenya. The aim of the survey was to establish the current farm income from beekeeping as a baseline, against which the prospective impacts of intervention options could be measured. We then developed an intervention decision model that was populated with all cost, benefit and risk variables relevant to beekeeping. After receiving training in making quantitative estimates, four subject-matter experts expressed their uncertainty about the proposed variables in the model by specifying probability distributions for them. We then used Monte Carlo simulation to project decision outcomes. We also identified variables that projected decision outcomes were most sensitive to, and we determined the value of information for each variable. The variable with the highest information value to the decision-maker in Witu was the honey price. In Awer, no additional information on any of the variables would change the recommendation to invest in honey value chains in the region. The analysis demonstrates a novel and comprehensive approach to decision-making for different stakeholders in a project where decision outcomes are uncertain.

  6. The application of RFIDs in libraries : an assessment of technological, management and professional issues

    OpenAIRE

    Gibb, Forbes; Thornley, Clare V.; Ferguson, Stuart; Weckert, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper starts by outlining the technologies involved in RFIDs and reviews the issues raised by their general application. It then identifies their potential application areas within the library sector based on a generic process view of library activities. Finally it highlights the issues that are raised by their application in libraries and provides an assessment of which of these issues are likely to raise ethical concerns for library professionals. The purpose is to provide an overview ...

  7. Management options for recycling radioactive scrap metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehmel, J.C.; MacKinney, J.; Bartlett, J.

    1997-02-01

    The feasibility and advantages of recycling radioactive scrap metals (RSM) have yet to be assessed, given the unique technical, regulatory, safety, and cost-benefit issues that have already been raised by a concerned recycling industry. As is known, this industry has been repeatedly involved with the accidental recycling of radioactive sources and, in some cases, with costly consequences. If recycling were deemed to be a viable option, it might have to be implemented with regulatory monitoring and controls. Its implementation may have to consider various and complex issues and address the requirements and concerns of distinctly different industries. There are three basic options for the recycling of such scraps. They are: (1) recycling through the existing network of metal-scrap dealers and brokers, (2) recycling directly and only with specific steelmills, or (3) recycling through regional processing centers. Under the first option, scrap dealers and brokers would receive material from RSM generators and determine at which steelmills such scraps would be recycled. For the second option, RSM generators would deal directly with selected steelmills under specific agreements. For the third option, generators would ship scraps only to regional centers for processing and shipment to participating steelmills. This paper addresses the potential advantages of each option, identifies the types of arrangements that would need to be secured among all parties, and attempts to assess the receptivity of the recycling industry to each option.

  8. Assessing Children with Traumatic Brain Injuries: Integrating Educational and Medical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Steven R.; Yingst, Christine A.

    1992-01-01

    This overview of traumatic brain injuries discusses (1) incidence and prevalence; (2) characteristics; (3) the recovery process; and (4) educational/medical assessment, including premorbid functioning, current functioning, educationally relevant medical issues, and amount and type of family support. (JDD)

  9. Workshop on Regulatory Review and Safety Assessment Issues in Repository Licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmot, Roger D.

    2011-02-01

    The workshop described here was organised to address more general issues regarding regulatory review of SKB's safety assessment and overall review strategy. The objectives of the workshop were: - to learn from other programmes' experiences on planning and review of a license application for a nuclear waste repository, - to offer newly employed SSM staff an opportunity to learn more about selected safety assessment issues, and - to identify and document recommendations and ideas for SSM's further planning of the licensing review

  10. Assessment of policy options with regard to air pollution from international shipping; Beoordeling beleidsopties luchtvervuiling internationale scheepvaart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, F.; Veldeman, N.; Lodewijks, P.; Duuerinck, J.; Janssen, L.; Campling, P.; Janssen, S. [Vlaamse Instelling voor Technologisch Onderzoek VITO, Mol (Belgium); Vanherle, K. [Transport and Mobility Leuven, Kessel-Lo, Leuven (Belgium)

    2011-10-15

    Recently, a study has been carried out for DG Environment of the European Commission titled 'Market-based instruments for Reducing Air Pollution. Assessment of Policy Options to reducing air pollution from shipping'. Within this study it was decided to study the environmental impact of two legally possible trading systems: a voluntary emissions trading system for all sea areas belonging to the European Union and a mandatory emissions trading system for the ports and territorial waters of EU Member States. If the emissions in ports and coastal waters will be made part of such a trading system it can result in lower environmental exposure for the population. [Dutch] Recent is een studie uitgevoerd voor DG Environment van de Europese Commissie met de titel 'Market-based instruments for reducing air pollution. Assessment of policy options to reduce air pollution from shipping'. Binnen deze studie is er voor gekozen om de milieu-impact van twee juridisch mogelijke handelssystemen te bestuderen: een vrijwillig emissiehandelssysteem voor alle zeegebieden behorende tot de Europese Unie en een verplicht emissiehandelssysteem voor de havens en de territoriale wateren van de EU-lidstaten. Als de emissies in havens en kustwateren in een handelssysteem meedraaien, kan dat tot lagere blootstelling van de bevolking leiden.

  11. Numerical modelling to assess maintenance strategy management options for a small tidal inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaeri, Saeed; Tomlinson, Rodger; Etemad-Shahidi, Amir; Strauss, Darrell

    2017-03-01

    Small tidal inlets are found to be more sensitive to anthropogenic alteration than their larger counterparts. Such alterations, although typically supported by technical design reports, sometimes require amendments or modification. One of the most suitable tools to conduct the necessary studies in this regard is numerical modelling, since the behaviour of the inlet system in response to proposed remedial actions, can easily be identified. In this paper, various alternative proposals are investigated to determine the most practical and viable option to mitigate the need for ongoing maintenance at a typical small, jettied tidal inlet. The main tool to investigate the alternatives is the hydro-sedimentological modelling of the inlet system, which was performed using the Delft3D software package. The proposed alternative entrance modifications were based upon structural alterations of the inlet system (such as a jetty extension or submerged weir) and non-structural scenarios (such as a change of the time of the dredging campaign or the deposition location of the dredged material). It was concluded that whilst a detailed study is inevitable in order to achieve a comprehensive design plan, based upon the results of this study the construction of a submerged weir at the entrance channel can satisfy the needs of most of the stakeholders, with justifiable costs over a longer period.

  12. Occurrence of otitis media in children and assessment of treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwokoye, N N; Egwari, L O; Olubi, O O

    2015-08-01

    Otitis media is a more frequent occurrence in children, and the disease may progress from an acute to chronic state if appropriate and timely intervention is not initiated. A total of 212 children aged 6 months to 10 years were examined and treated for otitis media, in a 13-month hospital-based study. Acute otitis media was diagnosed in 130 (61.3 per cent) of the patients. There were 82 (38.7 per cent) chronic suppurative otitis media cases. The incidence of acute otitis media and chronic suppurative otitis media in the first year of life was 54.6 per cent and 45.1 per cent respectively. Chronic suppurative otitis media patients were assigned to one of three treatment groups. Recovery occurred in 70.4 per cent of amoxicillin-treated patients, in 88.9 per cent of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid treated patients and in 96.4 per cent of culture and antibiotic sensitivity test patients. Relapses were seen only in the amoxicillin (five cases) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (two cases) groups. The success rate in patients treated with antibiotics makes this option mandatory for an established diagnosis.

  13. Assessing landowners' attitudes toward wild hogs and support for control options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplenor, Carlotta A; Poudyal, Neelam C; Muller, Lisa I; Yoest, Chuck

    2017-10-01

    Wild hogs (Sus scrofa) are an invasive species with destructive habits, particularly rooting and wallowing, which can directly impact agricultural crops, pasture land, and water quality. Considering wild hogs are widely dispersed across the landscape, they are extremely difficult to control. Disagreements can arise among different stakeholders over whether and how their populations should be managed. The purpose of this article was to examine Tennessee, United States landowners' attitudes toward wild hogs, to compare acceptability of control methods, and to evaluate factors significantly influencing public support for regulations to control wild hogs. Logistic regression was employed to analyze data collected from a statewide survey of rural landowners in the fall of 2015. Landowners had overwhelmingly negative attitudes towards wild hogs, and were concerned about their impact on the natural environment and rural economy. Although landowners showed support for controlling wild hogs, levels of acceptability for management options varied. Respondents favored active management and supported education and incentive-based control programs to control wild hogs. Cognitive concepts such as social and personal norms and awareness of consequences, as well as demographic characteristics, significantly predicted landowners' support for state regulations to control wild hogs in Tennessee. Findings increase our understanding of the human dimensions of wild hog management and that of other similarly invasive animals, and may guide resource managers in designing effective and socially acceptable management strategies to control wild hog populations in Tennessee and elsewhere. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Solar Schools Assessment and Implementation Project: Financing Options for Solar Installations on K-12 Schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, J.; Kandt, A.

    2011-10-01

    This report focuses on financial options developed specifically for renewable energy and energy efficiency projects in three California public school districts. Solar energy systems installed on public schools have a number of benefits that include utility bill savings, reductions in greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) and other toxic air contaminants, job creation, demonstrating environmental leadership, and creating learning opportunities for students. In the 2011 economic environment, the ability to generate general-fund savings as a result of reducing utility bills has become a primary motivator for school districts trying to cut costs. To achieve meaningful savings, the size of the photovoltaic (PV) systems installed (both individually on any one school and collectively across a district) becomes much more important; larger systems are required to have a material impact on savings. Larger PV systems require a significant financial commitment and financing therefore becomes a critical element in the transaction. In simple terms, school districts can use two primary types of ownership models to obtain solar installations and cost savings across a school district. The PV installations can be financed and owned directly by the districts themselves. Alternatively, there are financing structures whereby another entity, such as a solar developer or its investors, actually own and operate the PV systems on behalf of the school district. This is commonly referred to as the 'third-party ownership model.' Both methods have advantages and disadvantages that should be weighed carefully.

  15. Students’ Use of Optional Online Reviews and Its Relationship to Summative Assessment Outcomes in Introductory Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Shana K.; Rahman, Shuhebur; Lund, Terry J. S.; Armstrong, Patrick I.; Lamm, Monica H.; Reason, Robert D.; Coffman, Clark R.

    2017-01-01

    Retrieval practice has been shown to produce significant enhancements in student learning of course information, but the extent to which students make use of retrieval to learn information on their own is unclear. In the current study, students in a large introductory biology course were provided with optional online review questions that could be accessed as Test questions (requiring students to answer the questions before receiving feedback) or as Read questions (providing students with the question and correct answer up-front). Students more often chose to access the questions as Test compared with Read, and students who used the Test questions scored significantly higher on subsequent exams compared with students who used Read questions or did not access the questions at all. Following an in-class presentation of superior exam performance following use of the Test questions, student use of Test questions increased significantly for the remainder of the term. These results suggest that practice questions can be an effective tool for enhancing student achievement in biology and that informing students about performance-based outcomes coincides with increased use of retrieval practice. PMID:28408408

  16. Options theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markland, J.T.

    1992-01-01

    Techniques used in conventional project appraisal are mathematically very simple in comparison to those used in reservoir modelling, and in the geosciences. Clearly it would be possible to value assets in mathematically more sophisticated ways if it were meaningful and worthwhile so to do. The DCf approach in common use has recognized limitations; the inability to select a meaningful discount rate being particularly significant. Financial Theory has advanced enormously over the last few years, along with computational techniques, and methods are beginning to appear which may change the way we do project evaluations in practice. The starting point for all of this was a paper by Black and Scholes, which asserts that almost all corporate liabilities can be viewed as options of varying degrees of complexity. Although the financial presentation may be unfamiliar to engineers and geoscientists, some of the concepts used will not be. This paper outlines, in plain English, the basis of option pricing theory for assessing the market value of a project. it also attempts to assess the future role of this type of approach in practical Petroleum Exploration and Engineering economics. Reference is made to relevant published Natural Resource literature

  17. Pest risk assessment of Monilinia fructicola for the EU territory and identification and evaluation of risk management options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2011-01-01

    The EFSA Panel on Plant Health has delivered a pest risk assessment on the risk posed by Monilinia fructicola to the EU territory and has identified risk management options and evaluated their effectiveness in reducing the risk to plant health posed by this organism. The Panel has also analysed...... the effectiveness of the special requirements presently listed in Annex IV, Part A, Section I of Council Directive 2000/29/EC, in reducing the risk of introduction of this pest into the EU territory. The Panel concluded that the main pathways for entry into the EU territory are plant material for propagation...... of the risk assessment area. Cultural practices and control measures currently applied and competition with other Monilinia species cannot prevent the establishment of M. fructicola. The probability of spread is very likely because of the multiple ways of dispersal of the pest. The overall impact...

  18. Spent fuel reprocessing options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this publication is to provide an update on the latest developments in nuclear reprocessing technologies in the light of new developments on the global nuclear scene. The background information on spent fuel reprocessing is provided in Section One. Substantial global growth of nuclear electricity generation is expected to occur during this century, in response to environmental issues and to assure the sustainability of the electrical energy supply in both industrial and less-developed countries. This growth carries with it an increasing responsibility to ensure that nuclear fuel cycle technologies are used only for peaceful purposes. In Section Two, an overview of the options for spent fuel reprocessing and their level of development are provided. A number of options exist for the treatment of spent fuel. Some, including those that avoid separation of a pure plutonium stream, are at an advanced level of technological maturity. These could be deployed in the next generation of industrial-scale reprocessing plants, while others (such as dry methods) are at a pilot scale, laboratory scale or conceptual stage of development. In Section Three, research and development in support of advanced reprocessing options is described. Next-generation spent fuel reprocessing plants are likely to be based on aqueous extraction processes that can be designed to a country specific set of spent fuel partitioning criteria for recycling of fissile materials to advanced light water reactors or fast spectrum reactors. The physical design of these plants must incorporate effective means for materials accountancy, safeguards and physical protection. Section four deals with issues and challenges related to spent fuel reprocessing. The spent fuel reprocessing options assessment of economics, proliferation resistance, and environmental impact are discussed. The importance of public acceptance for a reprocessing strategy is discussed. A review of modelling tools to support the

  19. Provision of financial transmission rights including assessment of maximum volumes of obligations and options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristiansen, Tarjei

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the risks faced by the providers of financial transmission rights (FTRs). The introduction of FTRs in different systems in the USA must be viewed in relationship to the organization of the market. Often, private players own the central grid, while an independent system operator (ISO) operates the grid. The revenues from transmission congestion collected in the day-ahead and balancing markets should give the ISO sufficient revenues to cover the costs associated with providing FTRs. This can be ensured if the issued FTRs fulfill the simultaneous feasibility test described by Hogan. This test on a three-node network is studied under different assumptions to find the maximum volumes, which can be sold, including contingency constraints. Next the feasibility test is analyzed when taking into account the proceeds from the FTR auction, and demonstrates that a higher volume might be issued. We introduce uncertainty under different scenarios for locational prices and calculate the maximum provided volumes. As a tool for risk management, the provider of the FTRs can use the Value at Risk approach. Finally, the provision of FTRs by private parties is discussed. (author)

  20. Reactor-based management of used nuclear fuel: assessment of major options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finck, Phillip J; Wigeland, Roald A; Hill, Robert N

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the current status of the ongoing Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program in the U.S. Department of Energy that is investigating the potential for using the processing and recycling of used nuclear fuel to improve radioactive waste management, including used fuel. A key element of the strategies is to use nuclear reactors for further irradiation of recovered chemical elements to transmute certain long-lived highly-radioactive isotopes into less hazardous isotopes. Both thermal and fast neutron spectrum reactors are being studied as part of integrated nuclear energy systems where separations, transmutation, and disposal are considered. Radiotoxicity is being used as one of the metrics for estimating the hazard of used fuel and the processing of wastes resulting from separations and recycle-fuel fabrication. Decay heat from the used fuel and/or wastes destined for disposal is used as a metric for use of a geologic repository. Results to date indicate that the most promising options appear to be those using fast reactors in a repeated recycle mode to limit buildup of higher actinides, since the transuranic elements are a key contributor to the radiotoxicity and decay heat. Using such an approach, there could be much lower environmental impact from the high-level waste as compared to direct disposal of the used fuel, but there would likely be greater generation of low-level wastes that will also require disposal. An additional potential waste management benefit is having the ability to tailor waste forms and contents to one or more targeted disposal environments (i.e., to be able to put waste in environments best-suited for the waste contents and forms). Copyright © 2010 Health Physics Society

  1. NON-PROLIFERATION IMPACT ASSESSMENT FOR GNEP: ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH TRANSPORTATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radel, Ross; Rochau, Gary E

    2008-03-01

    This report evaluates transportation issues for nuclear material in the proposed Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) fuel cycle. Since many details of the GNEP program are yet to be determined, this document is intended only to identify general issues. The existing regulatory environment is determined to be largely prepared to incorporate the changes that the GNEP program will introduce. Nuclear material vulnerability and attractiveness are considered with respect to the various transport stages within the GNEP fuel cycle. Physical protection options are then outlined for the transportation of this nuclear material. It is determined that increased transportation security will be required for the GNEP fuel cycle, particularly for international transport. Finally, transportation considerations for several fuel cycle scenarios are discussed. These scenarios compare the current "once-through" fuel cycle with various aspects of the proposed GNEP fuel cycle. 3

  2. Comparative assessment of nuclear power and other options: the DECADES project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladu, I. F.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained in constructing and implementing a general framework for performing comprehensive assessment within the inter-agency joint project on Databases and Methodologies for Comparative Assessment of Different Energy Sources for electricity generation. The project was established in 1992 by nine international organizations. A short description of the DECADES project objectives, structure and main components is given. The technology inventory databases, which are a major part of the project, address all the levels of different energy chains, from fuel extraction through electricity generation to waste disposal. These databases support comparative assessment in the power sector, by providing generic information as well as country or region specific information on existing technologies and on those expected to enter the market in the next two to three decades. The paper further touches on the types of assessment that can be carried out using the methodology and databases developed. It point out in this regard the possibilities and limitations of comparative assessments performed at the level of power plant, full electricity supply chain and country or region electricity generation system. Illustrative results are presented for comparisons performed at all these levels. Case studies and workshops and seminars are one of the main activities carried out until now for validation and dissemination of the DECADES Computer Tools. In those studies where it was considered, nuclear power appeared to be cost effective for reducing emissions of CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x and other greenhouse gases. Finally, the paper briefly introduce the activities envisaged for the phase II of the DECADES project which will focus on disseminating the current computer tools, providing training in the use of the tools, and supporting country studies, and on development of new analytical capabilities. The paper concludes with some findings and remarks pointing out the

  3. A System Dynamics Approach for the Integrative Assessment of Contaminated Land Management Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKnight, Ursula S.; Finkel, Michael

    2009-01-01

    ). Within the suggested tiered frameworks a gap exists with respect to preliminary assessment methodologies that are capable of prioritising hot spots and streamlining the further planning process. In this paper, we give a brief glimpse of the decision support system CARO-Plus (Cost-efficiency Analysis...... of contamination extent, boundary conditions/limitations, stakeholders, etc.) has led to the proposal of tiered frameworks for site investigation, risk assessment and management, e.g. in the United Kingdom and in the USA. Recent policies request an increased emphasis on modelling (e.g. EU Water Framework Directive...

  4. The inter-agency joint project decades: a framework for comparatively assessing electricity generation options and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, E.

    1995-01-01

    The environmental and health-related impacts of different energy systems are become some the important issues for the years to come. The fact that all fuel chains for the electricity generation system involve some health risks and lead to some environmental impacts and that many countries have the need to define their energy programmes for the coming decades, have arouse a growing interest in the application of improved data, tools and techniques for comparative assessment of different electricity systems, and more specially for theirs environmental and human health aspects. The need to design and implement sustainable strategies in the electricity sector has been stressed in many international fora. The essential goal of sustainable strategies is to provide the energy services required for supporting economic growth and improving quality of life, especially in developing countries, while minimizing the health and environmental impacts of human activities. The inter-agency joint project on data bases and methodologies for comparative assessment of different energy sources for electricity generation (DECADES) has been established with the objective of enhancing capabilities for incorporating health and environmental issues in the comparative assessment of different electricity generation chains and strategies in the process of planning and decision making for the electricity sector. This project is carried out jointly by a number of international organizations. In order to cover the main issues to be addressed for carrying out this comparative assessment the DECADES project focuses on: technology inventory, development of an integrated software package for electricity system analysis and expansion planning, compilation and review of methodologies, analytical models and computerized tools for comparative assessment, some case studies addressing specific national or regional issues. (author). 3 boxes

  5. Psychological Testing and Psychological Assessment: A Review of Evidence and Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Gregory J.; Finn, Stephen E.; Eyde, Lorraine D.; Kay, Gary G.; Moreland, Kevin L.; Dies, Robert R.; Eisman, Elena J.; Kubiszyn, Tom W.; Reed, Geoffrey M.

    2001-01-01

    Summarizes issues associated with psychological assessment, concluding that: psychological test validity is strong and is comparable to medical test validity; distinct assessment methods provide unique sources of information; and clinicians who rely solely on interviews are prone to incomplete understandings. Suggests that multimethod assessment…

  6. Toward a procedure for integrating moral issues in health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Bjørn

    2005-01-01

    Although ethics has been on the agenda in health technology assessment (HTA) since its inception, the integration of moral issues is still not standard and is performed in a vast variety of ways. Therefore, there is a need for a procedure for integrating moral issues in HTA. Literature review of existing approaches together with application of various theories in moral philosophy and axiology. The article develops a set of questions that addresses a wide range of moral issues related to the assessment and implementation of health technology. The issues include general moral issues and moral issues related to stakeholders, methodology, characteristics of technology, and to the HTA process itself. The questions form a kind of checklist for use in HTAs. The presented approach for integrating moral issues in HTA has a broad theoretical foundation and has shown to be useful in practice. Integrating ethical issues in HTAs can be of great importance with respect to the dissemination of HTA results and in efficient health policy making.

  7. Application of the standard options of the FITNET procedure to the structural integrity assessment of welded specimens containing cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzioba, Ihor; Neimitz, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the structural integrity of welded specimens is assessed. The specimens were welded using a conventional technique, MAG, and an unconventional one, laser technology. Welded specimens were of the central crack under tension (CCT) type. The elements were loaded, the maximum load was recorded, and the second and the third options of the FITNET procedure were utilized to estimate the critical loading. Estimated and recorded loads were compared to verify the conservatism of the estimated results. For comparison, the results obtained using Option 1 of the FITNET procedure (not recommended in the case analysed) are also presented. Results of the mechanical properties, hardness, fracture toughness for the base and the weld material and residual stress distributions are reported for both MAG and laser welding techniques. The results obtained confirm that the FITNET procedures were properly deigned. The higher the level of analysis, the smaller the conservatism of predictions observed. The overconservative conclusions, following from the lower level of analysis, suggest that the structural element is endangered, do not have to exclude it from exploitation. The higher level of analysis can, in some cases, confirm that the structural element containing a crack can still be exploited

  8. Assessing environmental and health impact of the nuclear fuel cycle. Methodology and application to prospective actinides recycling options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garzenne, Claude; Grouiller, Jean-Paul; Le Boulch, Denis

    2005-01-01

    French Industrial Companies: EDF, AREVA (COGEMA and FRAMATOME-ANP), associated with ANDRA, the organization in charge of the waste management in France, and Public Research Institute CEA and IRSN, involved in the nuclear waste management, have developed in collaboration a methodology intended to assess the environmental and health impact of the nuclear fuel cycle. This methodology, based on fuel cycle simulation, Life Cycle Analysis, and Impact Studies of each fuel cycle facilities, has been applied to a set of nuclear scenarios covering a very contrasted range of waste management options, in order to characterize the effect of High Level Waste transmutation, and to estimate to what extent it could contribute to reduce their overall impact on health and environment. The main conclusion we could draw from this study is that it is not possible to discriminate, as far as health and environmental impacts are concerned, nuclear scenarios implementing very different levels of HLW transmutation, representative of the whole range of available options. The main limitation of this work is due to the hypothesis of normal behavior of all fuel cycle facilities: main future improvement of the methodology would be to take the accidental risk into account. (author)

  9. Life cycle assessment integrated with thermodynamic analysis of bio-fuel options for solid oxide fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiefeng; Babbitt, Callie W; Trabold, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    A methodology that integrates life cycle assessment (LCA) with thermodynamic analysis is developed and applied to evaluate the environmental impacts of producing biofuels from waste biomass, including biodiesel from waste cooking oil, ethanol from corn stover, and compressed natural gas from municipal solid wastes. Solid oxide fuel cell-based auxiliary power units using bio-fuel as the hydrogen precursor enable generation of auxiliary electricity for idling heavy-duty trucks. Thermodynamic analysis is applied to evaluate the fuel conversion efficiency and determine the amount of fuel feedstock needed to generate a unit of electrical power. These inputs feed into an LCA that compares energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of different fuel pathways. Results show that compressed natural gas from municipal solid wastes is an optimal bio-fuel option for SOFC-APU applications in New York State. However, this methodology can be regionalized within the U.S. or internationally to account for different fuel feedstock options. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Life cycle assessment of mobility options using wood based fuels--comparison of selected environmental effects and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Jana; Kaltschmitt, Martin

    2013-12-01

    An environmental assessment and a cost analysis were conducted for mobility options using electricity, hydrogen, ethanol, Fischer-Tropsch diesel and methane derived from wood. Therefore, the overall life cycle with regard to greenhouse gas emissions, acidifying emissions and fossil energy demand as well as costs is analysed. The investigation is carried out for mobility options in 2010 and gives an outlook to the year 2030. Results show that methane utilization in the car is beneficial with regard to environmental impacts (e.g. 58.5 g CO2-eq./km) and costs (23.1 €-ct./km) in 2010, especially in comparison to hydrogen usage (132.4 g CO2-eq./km and 63.9 €-ct./km). The electric vehicle construction has high environmental impacts and costs compared to conventional vehicles today, but with technical improvements and further market penetration, battery electric vehicles can reach the level of concepts with combustion engines in future applications (e.g. cost decrease from 38.7 to 23.4 €-ct./km). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Integrating experimental and numerical methods for a scenario-based quantitative assessment of subsurface energy storage options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabuth, Alina; Dahmke, Andreas; Hagrey, Said Attia al; Berta, Márton; Dörr, Cordula; Koproch, Nicolas; Köber, Ralf; Köhn, Daniel; Nolde, Michael; Tilmann Pfeiffer, Wolf; Popp, Steffi; Schwanebeck, Malte; Bauer, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Within the framework of the transition to renewable energy sources ("Energiewende"), the German government defined the target of producing 60 % of the final energy consumption from renewable energy sources by the year 2050. However, renewable energies are subject to natural fluctuations. Energy storage can help to buffer the resulting time shifts between production and demand. Subsurface geological structures provide large potential capacities for energy stored in the form of heat or gas on daily to seasonal time scales. In order to explore this potential sustainably, the possible induced effects of energy storage operations have to be quantified for both specified normal operation and events of failure. The ANGUS+ project therefore integrates experimental laboratory studies with numerical approaches to assess subsurface energy storage scenarios and monitoring methods. Subsurface storage options for gas, i.e. hydrogen, synthetic methane and compressed air in salt caverns or porous structures, as well as subsurface heat storage are investigated with respect to site prerequisites, storage dimensions, induced effects, monitoring methods and integration into spatial planning schemes. The conceptual interdisciplinary approach of the ANGUS+ project towards the integration of subsurface energy storage into a sustainable subsurface planning scheme is presented here, and this approach is then demonstrated using the examples of two selected energy storage options: Firstly, the option of seasonal heat storage in a shallow aquifer is presented. Coupled thermal and hydraulic processes induced by periodic heat injection and extraction were simulated in the open-source numerical modelling package OpenGeoSys. Situations of specified normal operation as well as cases of failure in operational storage with leaking heat transfer fluid are considered. Bench-scale experiments provided parameterisations of temperature dependent changes in shallow groundwater hydrogeochemistry. As a

  12. Northeast regional assessment study for solar electric options in the period 1980-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-04-01

    Opportunities for demonstration and large scale deployment of solar electric facilities are identified and assessed. Technical, economic, and institutional factors that can contribute to an accelerated use of solar energy for electric power generation are defined. The following topics are covered: a description of the Northeast Region and its solar resources, central station applications, a dispersed user analysis, user viewpoints and institutional factors, and market potential for dispersed solar electric systems. (MHR)

  13. Rehabilitation Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Speech Pathology Occupational Therapy Art Therapy Recreational therapy Neuropsychology Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care ... Speech Pathology Occupational Therapy Art Therapy Recreational therapy Neuropsychology Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care ...

  14. Insurance coverage and prenatal care among low-income pregnant women: an assessment of states' adoption of the "Unborn Child" option in Medicaid and CHIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarlenski, Marian P; Bennett, Wendy L; Barry, Colleen L; Bleich, Sara N

    2014-01-01

    The "Unborn Child" (UC) option provides state Medicaid/Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) programs with a new strategy to extend prenatal coverage to low-income women who would otherwise have difficulty enrolling in or would be ineligible for Medicaid. To examine the association of the UC option with the probability of enrollment in Medicaid/CHIP during pregnancy and probability of receiving adequate prenatal care. We use pooled cross-sectional data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System from 32 states between 2004 and 2010 (n = 81,983). Multivariable regression is employed to examine the association of the UC option with Medicaid/CHIP enrollment during pregnancy among eligible women who were uninsured preconception (n = 45,082) and those who had insurance (but not Medicaid) preconception (n = 36,901). Multivariable regression is also employed to assess the association between the UC option and receipt of adequate prenatal care, measured by the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index. Residing in a state with the UC option is associated with a greater probability of Medicaid enrollment during pregnancy relative to residing in a state without the policy both among women uninsured preconception (88% vs. 77%, P option is not significantly associated with receiving adequate prenatal care, among both women with and without insurance preconception. The UC option provides states a key way to expand or simplify prenatal insurance coverage, but further policy efforts are needed to ensure that coverage improves access to high-quality prenatal care.

  15. Ranking of options of real estate use by expert assessments mathematical processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepikhina, O. Yu; Skachkova, M. E.; Mihaelyan, T. A.

    2018-05-01

    The article is devoted to the development of the real estate assessment concept. In conditions of multivariate using of the real estate method based on calculating, the integral indicator of each variant’s efficiency is proposed. In order to calculate weights of criteria of the efficiency expert method, Analytic hierarchy process and its mathematical support are used. The method allows fulfilling ranking of alternative types of real estate use in dependence of their efficiency. The method was applied for one of the land parcels located on Primorsky district in Saint Petersburg.

  16. Assessing the cost-effectiveness of seismic risk reduction options in oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasserasadi, K.; Ghafory-Ashtiany, M.

    2007-01-01

    An integrated probabilistic methodology for cost-efficiency estimation of different sort of seismic risk management measures are introduced by adding Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) module to an integrated seismic risk assessment model. An oil refinery in Iran has been selected for case study and cost-efficiency of software and hardware mitigation measures are evaluated. The results have shown that: (1) software mitigation measures have more benefit than hardware ones, (2) considering indirect loss in CBA lead to more benefit-cost ratio and (3) although increase of discount ratio decreases the benefit-cost ratio, the arrangement of mitigation measures from benefit-cost viewpoint are constant. (authors)

  17. Assessment of the energy requirements and selected options facing major consumers within the Egyptian industrial and agricultural sectors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-05-31

    The objectives of the energy assessment study of Egypt are to develop an understanding of the current status of the principal energy users in Egypt's industrial and agricultural sectors; to estimate the energy demand and efficiency for each selected subsector within these major sectors; to identify opportunities for fuel type changes, technology switches, or production pattern changes which might increase the efficiency with which Egypt's energy is used both now and in the future: and based on options identified, to forecast energy efficiencies for selected Egyptian subsectors for the years 1985 and 2000. Study results are presented for the iron and steel, aluminium, fertilizer, chemical, petrochemical, cement, and textile industries and automotive manufacturers. Study results for drainage, irrigation, and mechanization procedures in the agricultural sector and food processing sector are also presented. (MCW)

  18. Biofuel or excavation? - Life cycle assessment (LCA) of soil remediation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suer, Pascal; Andersson-Skoeld, Yvonne [Swedish Geotechnical Institute, 58193 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2011-02-15

    The environmental consequences of soil remediation through biofuel or through dig-and-dump were compared using life cycle assessment (LCA). Willow (Salix viminalis) was actually grown in-situ on a discontinued oil depot, as a phytoremediation treatment. These data were used for the biofuel remediation, while excavation-and-refill data were estimated from experience. The biofuel remediation had great environmental advantages compared to the ex situ excavation remediation. With the ReCiPe impact assessment method, which included biodiversity, the net environmental effect was even positive, in spite of the fact that the wood harvest was not utilised for biofuel production, but left on the contaminated site. Impact from the Salix viminalis cultivation was mainly through land use for the short rotation coppice, and through journeys of control personnel. The latter may be reduced when familiarity with biofuel as a soil treatment method increases. The excavation-and-refill remediation was dominated by the landfill and the transport of contaminated soil and backfill. (author)

  19. OPTIONS FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF ITEMS OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AT NATIONAL, EUROPEAN AND INTERNATIONAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIA SAMARA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of evaluation is to determine the financial position and the outcome of the entity’s activity. With the intensification of the phenomena of globalization of economies and financial markets and the emergence of phenomena such as inflation, it began to be more often used the assessment based on the current value and, in particular, on the fair value. The users of the financial statements must always be taken into when selecting a basis of evaluation. Internationally, we can observe the tendency that, by the use of a certain bases of evaluation, to respond favourably to the needs of a various range of users; a balance must be assured between the relevance of the information (their usefulness in decision-making and their reliability (their objectivity.

  20. Issues in assessing the economic benefits of ambient ozone control: some examples from agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    Information on the economic benefits arising from alternative secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards can provide one measure of regulatory efficiency. If benefits assessments are to be used in assessing regulatory impacts of federal standards as recently ordered by President Ronald Reagan, the economic concept of benefits, the limitations of benefits analysis, and the validity of those estimates needs to be clarified. Some methodological and applied issues which can effect the validity of environmental economic assessments as they pertain to agriculture are reviewed. Recent studies from the assessment literature on agriculture are critiqued with respect to how well they address such issues. An attempt is made to identify potential sources of variability in estimates found within that literature. Finally, implications for performance of future assessments are discussed.

  1. Assessing environmental impacts of storage technologies and competing options for balancing demand and supply in 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droste-Franke, Bert [Europaeische Akademie Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler GmbH, Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The major aim of using renewable energies for electricity production is to realise a sustainable and environmental friendly energy system which can be operated viably in the long term. One major indicator to reach this aim is the overall emission of CO2 resulting from the use of a certain technology. However, further environmental aspects have to be taken into account for an adequate evaluation of technologies. With respect to preserving the environmental basis for future generations several environmental pressures have to be considered which can either lead to small and substitutable, marginal environmental damages or to environmental impacts which contribute to burdens which could become critical, i.e., jeopardising important environmental functions. Thus, it should be accounted for the societal acceptability of their (potential) environmental impacts. The analysis presented here deals with the assessment of environmental effects of both types, marginal and potentially critical, for current and advanced technologies which can be used for balancing fluctuations in the electricity production from renewable sources in an economic environment of 2050. The basic results used were derived in a study carried out by the Europaeische Akademie GmbH (Droste-Franke et al. 2012).

  2. Life cycle assessment of solid waste management options for Eskisehir, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banar, Mufide; Cokaygil, Zerrin; Ozkan, Aysun

    2009-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was used to determine the optimum municipal solid waste (MSW) management strategy for Eskisehir city. Eskisehir is one of the developing cities of Turkey where a total of approximately 750 tons/day of waste is generated. An effective MSW management system is needed in this city since the generated MSW is dumped in an unregulated dumping site that has no liner, no biogas capture, etc. Therefore, five different scenarios were developed as alternatives to the current waste management system. Collection and transportation of waste, a material recovery facility (MRF), recycling, composting, incineration and landfilling processes were considered in these scenarios. SimaPro7 libraries were used to obtain background data for the life cycle inventory. One ton of municipal solid waste of Eskisehir was selected as the functional unit. The alternative scenarios were compared through the CML 2000 method and these comparisons were carried out from the abiotic depletion, global warming, human toxicity, acidification, eutrophication and photochemical ozone depletion points of view. According to the comparisons and sensitivity analysis, composting scenario, S3, is the more environmentally preferable alternative. In this study waste management alternatives were investigated only on an environmental point of view. For that reason, it might be supported with other decision-making tools that consider the economic and social effects of solid waste management

  3. A Parametric Genetic Algorithm Approach to Assess Complementary Options of Large Scale Wind-solar Coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tim; Mareda; Ludovic; Gaudard; Franco; Romerio

    2017-01-01

    The transitional path towards a highly renewable power system based on wind and solar energy sources is investigated considering their intermittent and spatially distributed characteristics. Using an extensive weather-driven simulation of hourly power mismatches between generation and load, we explore the interplay between geographical resource complementarity and energy storage strategies. Solar and wind resources are considered at variable spatial scales across Europe and related to the Swiss load curve, which serve as a typical demand side reference. The optimal spatial distribution of renewable units is further assessed through a parameterized optimization method based on a genetic algorithm. It allows us to explore systematically the effective potential of combined integration strategies depending on the sizing of the system, with a focus on how overall performance is affected by the definition of network boundaries. Upper bounds on integration schemes are provided considering both renewable penetration and needed reserve power capacity. The quantitative trade-off between grid extension, storage and optimal wind-solar mix is highlighted.This paper also brings insights on how optimal geographical distribution of renewable units evolves as a function of renewable penetration and grid extent.

  4. On-farm welfare assessment for regulatory purposes: Issues and possible solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jan Tind; Fraser, David

    2010-01-01

    On-farm welfare assessment has been used mainly for non-regulatory purposes such as producer education or to qualify for voluntary welfare-assurance programs. The application of on-farm assessments in regulatory programs would require four issues to be addressed: (1) selecting criteria...... solution. Issues 3 and 4 (fairness and efficiency) require scientific data on the precision, repeatability, independence, and cost-of-scoring for the various candidate criteria. A process is also needed to bring the scientific information into the deliberative process, either as formal recommendations and...

  5. Workshop on Regulatory Review and Safety Assessment Issues in Repository Licensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmot, Roger D. (Galson Sciences Limited (United Kingdom))

    2011-02-15

    The workshop described here was organised to address more general issues regarding regulatory review of SKB's safety assessment and overall review strategy. The objectives of the workshop were: - to learn from other programmes' experiences on planning and review of a license application for a nuclear waste repository, - to offer newly employed SSM staff an opportunity to learn more about selected safety assessment issues, and - to identify and document recommendations and ideas for SSM's further planning of the licensing review

  6. Deliberating emission reduction options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowd, A. M.; Rodriguez, M.; Jeanneret, T. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation CSIRO, 37 Graham Rd, Highett VIC 3190 (Australia); De Best-Waldhober, M.; Straver, K.; Mastop, J.; Paukovic, M. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    For more than 20 years there has been a concerted international effort toward addressing climate change. International conventions, such as the United Nations Foreign Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC; ratified in 1994), have been established by committed nations seeking to address global climate change through the reduction of greenhouse gases emitted into the Earth's atmosphere (Global CCS Institute, 2011). Long recognised as the most crucial of the greenhouse gases to impact global warming, the majority of carbon dioxide's anthropogenic global emissions are directly related to fuel combustion of which both Australia and the Netherlands' energy production is significantly reliant. Both these nations will need to consider many opinions and make hard decisions if alternative energy options are to be implemented at the scale that is required to meet international emission targets. The decisions that are required not only need to consider the many options available but also their consequences. Along with politicians, policy developers and industry, the general public also need to be active participants in deciding which energy options, and their subsequent consequences, are acceptable for implementation at the national level. Access to balanced and factual information is essential in establishing informed opinions on the many policy options available. Past research has used several methods to measure public perceptions and opinions yet for complex issues, such as emission reduction, some of these methods have shown to be problematic. For example, semi structured interviews can provide data that is flexible and context rich yet is does also come with the limitations such as it seldom provides a practical assessment that can be utilised from researcher to researcher, across disciplines and public participation techniques. Surveys on the other hand usually address these limitations but surveys that do not encourage comparison of information or ask participants to

  7. Deliberating emission reduction options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowd, A.M.; Rodriguez, M.; Jeanneret, T. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation CSIRO, 37 Graham Rd, Highett VIC 3190 (Australia); De Best-Waldhober, M.; Straver, K.; Mastop, J.; Paukovic, M. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    For more than 20 years there has been a concerted international effort toward addressing climate change. International conventions, such as the United Nations Foreign Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC; ratified in 1994), have been established by committed nations seeking to address global climate change through the reduction of greenhouse gases emitted into the Earth's atmosphere (Global CCS Institute, 2011). Long recognised as the most crucial of the greenhouse gases to impact global warming, the majority of carbon dioxide's anthropogenic global emissions are directly related to fuel combustion of which both Australia and the Netherlands' energy production is significantly reliant. Both these nations will need to consider many opinions and make hard decisions if alternative energy options are to be implemented at the scale that is required to meet international emission targets. The decisions that are required not only need to consider the many options available but also their consequences. Along with politicians, policy developers and industry, the general public also need to be active participants in deciding which energy options, and their subsequent consequences, are acceptable for implementation at the national level. Access to balanced and factual information is essential in establishing informed opinions on the many policy options available. Past research has used several methods to measure public perceptions and opinions yet for complex issues, such as emission reduction, some of these methods have shown to be problematic. For example, semi structured interviews can provide data that is flexible and context rich yet is does also come with the limitations such as it seldom provides a practical assessment that can be utilised from researcher to researcher, across disciplines and public participation techniques. Surveys on the other hand usually address these limitations but surveys that do not encourage comparison of information or ask

  8. Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Control Technology Options within the Energy, Water and Food Nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ansari, Tareq; Korre, Anna; Nie, Zhenggang; Shah, Nilay

    2015-04-01

    The utilisation of Energy, Water and Food (EWF) resources can be described as a nexus of complex linkages embodied in industrial and natural processes. Food production is one such example of a system that mobilises EWF resources to deliver a product which is highly influenced by the efficiency of the industrial processes contributing to it and the conditions of the surrounding natural environment. Aggregating the utilisation of EWF resources into interconnected sub-systems is necessary for the accurate representation of the system's dynamics in terms of its material flow and resource consumption. The methodology used in this study is an extension of previous work developed regarding nexus analysis (Al-Ansari et al. 2014a, Al-Ansari et al. 2014b). Life cycle assessment (LCA) is used to prepare detailed models of the sub-system components, determine the linkages between the different nexus constituents and evaluate impacts on the natural environment. The nexus system is comprised of water sub-systems represented by a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination process. Energy sub-systems for power generation include models for a combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) and solar Photovoltaics (PV) energy generation, as well as an amine based CO2 capture process enabling the utilisation of CO2 for the artificial fertilization of crops. The agricultural sub-systems include the production and application of fertilizers and the raising of livestock. A biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) for power generation using waste manure from the livestock sub-system is also included. The objective of this study is to consider a conventional food system in Qatar and enhance its environmental performance by using a nexus approach to examine different scenarios and operating modes. For the Qatar case study, three scenarios and four modes of operation were developed as part of the analysis. The baseline scenario uses fossil fuel to power the entire EWF nexus system using CCGT, the

  9. Renewable energy and policy options in an integrated ASEAN electricity market: Quantitative assessments and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Youngho; Li, Yanfei

    2015-01-01

    Energy market integration (EMI) in the ASEAN region is a promising solution to relieve the current immobilization of its renewable energy resources and would serve the fast increasing demand for electricity in the region. EMI could be further extended with coordinated policies in carbon pricing, renewable energy portfolio standards (RPS), and feed-in-tariffs (FIT) in the ASEAN countries. Using a linear dynamic programming model, this study quantitatively assesses the impacts of EMI and the above-mentioned policies on the development of renewable energy in the power generation sector of the region, and the carbon emissions reduction achievable with these policies. According to our results, EMI is expected to significantly promote the adoption of renewable energy. Along with EMI, FIT appears to be more cost-effective than RPS and is recommended for the ASEAN region, albeit political barriers for policy coordination among the countries might be a practical concern. In addition, an RPS of 30% electricity from renewable sources by 2030, which is considered politically a “low-hanging fruit”, would achieve moderate improvements in carbon emissions reductions and renewable energy development, while incurring negligible increases in the total cost of electricity. -- Highlights: •Energy market integration (EMI), carbon pricing, RPS, and FIT are examined for ASEAN. •EMI is a promising and feasible solution to promote renewable energy for ASEAN. •Along with EMI, FIT appears to be more cost-effective than RPS for ASEAN. •RPS of 30% by 2030 appears to be reasonable and feasible for ASEAN. •Coordinating FIT and RPS policies under EMI among ASEAN is advised

  10. Assessment and management of respiratory function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: current and emerging options

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoMauro, Antonella; D’Angelo, Maria Grazia; Aliverti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked myopathy resulting in progressive weakness and wasting of all the striated muscles including the respiratory muscles. The consequences are loss of ambulation before teen ages, cardiac involvement and breathing difficulties, the main cause of death. A cure for DMD is not currently available. In the last decades the survival of patients with DMD has improved because the natural history of the disease can be changed thanks to a more comprehensive therapeutic approach. This comprises interventions targeted to the manifestations and complications of the disease, particularly in the respiratory care. These include: 1) pharmacological intervention, namely corticosteroids and idebenone that significantly reduce the decline of spirometric parameters; 2) rehabilitative intervention, namely lung volume recruitment techniques that help prevent atelectasis and slows the rate of decline of pulmonary function; 3) scoliosis treatment, namely steroid therapy that is used to reduce muscle inflammation/degeneration and prolong ambulation in order to delay the onset of scoliosis, being an additional contribution to the restrictive lung pattern; 4) cough assisted devices that improve airway clearance thus reducing the risk of pulmonary infections; and 5) non-invasive mechanical ventilation that is essential to treat nocturnal hypoventilation, sleep disordered breathing, and ultimately respiratory failure. Without any intervention death occurs within the first 2 decades, however, thanks to this multidisciplinary therapeutic approach life expectancy of a newborn with DMD nowadays can be significantly prolonged up to his fourth decade. This review is aimed at providing state-of-the-art methods and techniques for the assessment and management of respiratory function in DMD patients. PMID:26451113

  11. Assessment of coastal management options by means of multilayered ecosystem models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Ana M.; Ferreira, João G.; Nunes, João P.; Yan, Xiaojun; Bricker, Suzanne; Corner, Richard; Groom, Steve; Gu, Haifeng; Hawkins, Anthony J. S.; Hutson, Rory; Lan, Dongzhao; Silva, João D. Lencart e.; Pascoe, Philip; Telfer, Trevor; Zhang, Xuelei; Zhu, Mingyuan

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents a multilayered ecosystem modelling approach that combines the simulation of the biogeochemistry of a coastal ecosystem with the simulation of the main forcing functions, such as catchment loading and aquaculture activities. This approach was developed as a tool for sustainable management of coastal ecosystems. A key feature is to simulate management scenarios that account for changes in multiple uses and enable assessment of cumulative impacts of coastal activities. The model was applied to a coastal zone in China with large aquaculture production and multiple catchment uses, and where management efforts to improve water quality are under way. Development scenarios designed in conjunction with local managers and aquaculture producers include the reduction of fish cages and treatment of wastewater. Despite the reduction in nutrient loading simulated in three different scenarios, inorganic nutrient concentrations in the bay were predicted to exceed the thresholds for poor quality defined by Chinese seawater quality legislation. For all scenarios there is still a Moderate High to High nutrient loading from the catchment, so further reductions might be enacted, together with additional decreases in fish cage culture. The model predicts that overall, shellfish production decreases by 10%-28% using any of these development scenarios, principally because shellfish growth is being sustained by the substances to be reduced for improvement of water quality. The model outcomes indicate that this may be counteracted by zoning of shellfish aquaculture at the ecosystem level in order to optimize trade-offs between productivity and environmental effects. The present case study exemplifies the value of multilayered ecosystem modelling as a tool for Integrated Coastal Zone Management and for the adoption of ecosystem approaches for marine resource management. This modelling approach can be applied worldwide, and may be particularly useful for the application of

  12. Optimization of transit bus fleet's life cycle assessment impacts with alternative fuel options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ercan, Tolga; Zhao, Yang; Tatari, Omer; Pazour, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Public transportation is one of the most promising transportation modes to reduce the environmental emissions of the transportation sector in the U.S. In order to mitigate the environmental impacts brought by the transit bus system, new energy buses are introduced into the vehicle market. The goal of this study is to find an optimal bus fleet combination for different driving conditions to minimize life cycle cost, greenhouse gas emissions, and conventional air pollutant emission impacts. For this purpose, a Multi-Objective Linear Programming approach is used to select the optimum bus fleet combinations. Given different weight scenarios, this method could effectively provide solutions for decision makers with various budget constraints or emission reduction requirements. The results indicate that in heavily congested driving cycles such as the Manhattan area, the battery electric bus is the dominant vehicle type, while the hybrid bus has more balanced performances in most scenarios because of its lower initial investment comparing to battery electric buses. Petroleum powered buses have seldom been selected by the model. The trade-off analysis shows that the overall greenhouse gas impact performance is sensitive to the life cycle cost after certain points, which could provide valuable information for the bus fleet combination planning. - Highlights: • Hybrid-Life Cycle Assessment analysis approach for transit bus operations. • Optimizing the economic and sustainability impacts of transit bus fleet operation. • CO 2 emissions and other air pollutants related health and environmental damage cost. • Trade-offs between CO 2 emissions and cost of transit bus fleet operation.

  13. Review and Assessment of Commercial Vendors/Options for Feeding and Pumping Biomass Slurries for Hydrothermal Liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglin, Eric J.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2012-11-01

    The National Advanced Biofuels Consortium is working to develop improved methods for producing high-value hydrocarbon fuels. The development of one such method, the hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) process, is being led by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The HTL process uses a wet biomass slurry at elevated temperatures (i.e., 300 to 360°C [570 to 680°F]) and pressures above the vapor pressure of water (i.e., 15 to 20 MPa [2200 to 3000 psi] at these temperatures) to facilitate a condensed-phase reaction medium. The process has been successfully tested at bench-scale and development and testing at a larger scale is required to prove the viability of the process at production levels. Near-term development plans include a pilot-scale system on the order of 0.5 to 40 gpm, followed by a larger production-scale system on the order of 2000 dry metric tons per day (DMTPD). A significant challenge to the scale-up of the HTL process is feeding a highly viscous fibrous biomass wood/corn stover feedstock into a pump system that provides the required 3000 psi of pressure for downstream processing. In October 2011, PNNL began investigating commercial feed and pumping options that would meet these HTL process requirements. Initial efforts focused on generating a HTL feed and pump specification and then providing the specification to prospective vendors to determine the suitability of their pumps for the pilot-scale and production-scale plants. Six vendors were identified that could provide viable equipment to meet HTL feed and/or pump needs. Those six vendors provided options consisting three types of positive displacement pumps (i.e., diaphragm, piston, and lobe pumps). Vendors provided capabilities and equipment related to HTL application. This information was collected, assessed, and summarized and is provided as appendices to this report.

  14. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT PHASE 1 SLUDGE STORAGE OPTIONS. ASSESSMENT OF T PLANT VERSUS ALTERNATE STORAGE FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, W.W.; Geuther, W.J.; Strankman, M.R.; Conrad, E.A.; Rhoadarmer, D.D.; Black, D.M.; Pottmeyer, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has recommended to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) a two phase approach for removal and storage (Phase 1) and treatment and packaging for offsite shipment (Phase 2) of the sludge currently stored within the 105-K West Basin. This two phased strategy enables early removal of sludge from the 105-K West Basin by 2015, allowing remediation of historical unplanned releases of waste and closure of the 100-K Area. In Phase 1, the sludge currently stored in the Engineered Containers and Settler Tanks within the 105-K West Basin will be transferred into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs). The STSCs will be transported to an interim storage facility. In Phase 2, sludge will be processed (treated) to meet shipping and disposal requirements and the sludge will be packaged for final disposal at a geologic repository. The purpose of this study is to evaluate two alternatives for interim Phase 1 storage of K Basin sludge. The cost, schedule, and risks for sludge storage at a newly-constructed Alternate Storage Facility (ASF) are compared to those at T Plant, which has been used previously for sludge storage. Based on the results of the assessment, T Plant is recommended for Phase 1 interim storage of sludge. Key elements that support this recommendation are the following: (1) T Plant has a proven process for storing sludge; (2) T Plant storage can be implemented at a lower incremental cost than the ASF; and (3) T Plant storage has a more favorable schedule profile, which provides more float, than the ASF. Underpinning the recommendation of T Plant for sludge storage is the assumption that T Plant has a durable, extended mission independent of the K Basin sludge interim storage mission. If this assumption cannot be validated and the operating costs of T Plant are borne by the Sludge Treatment Project, the conclusions and recommendations of this study would change. The following decision-making strategy, which is

  15. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT PHASE 1 SLUDGE STORAGE OPTIONS ASSESSMENT OF T PLANT VERSUS ALTERNATE STORAGE FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RUTHERFORD WW; GEUTHER WJ; STRANKMAN MR; CONRAD EA; RHOADARMER DD; BLACK DM; POTTMEYER JA

    2009-04-29

    The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has recommended to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) a two phase approach for removal and storage (Phase 1) and treatment and packaging for offsite shipment (Phase 2) of the sludge currently stored within the 105-K West Basin. This two phased strategy enables early removal of sludge from the 105-K West Basin by 2015, allowing remediation of historical unplanned releases of waste and closure of the 100-K Area. In Phase 1, the sludge currently stored in the Engineered Containers and Settler Tanks within the 105-K West Basin will be transferred into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs). The STSCs will be transported to an interim storage facility. In Phase 2, sludge will be processed (treated) to meet shipping and disposal requirements and the sludge will be packaged for final disposal at a geologic repository. The purpose of this study is to evaluate two alternatives for interim Phase 1 storage of K Basin sludge. The cost, schedule, and risks for sludge storage at a newly-constructed Alternate Storage Facility (ASF) are compared to those at T Plant, which has been used previously for sludge storage. Based on the results of the assessment, T Plant is recommended for Phase 1 interim storage of sludge. Key elements that support this recommendation are the following: (1) T Plant has a proven process for storing sludge; (2) T Plant storage can be implemented at a lower incremental cost than the ASF; and (3) T Plant storage has a more favorable schedule profile, which provides more float, than the ASF. Underpinning the recommendation of T Plant for sludge storage is the assumption that T Plant has a durable, extended mission independent of the K Basin sludge interim storage mission. If this assumption cannot be validated and the operating costs of T Plant are borne by the Sludge Treatment Project, the conclusions and recommendations of this study would change. The following decision-making strategy, which is

  16. A research agenda for data and scale issues in Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joao, Elsa

    2007-01-01

    The way in which Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) succeeds in its key aim - to integrate the environment into strategic decision-making - is affected by the choice of both data and scale. The data and scale used within SEA fundamentally shape the process. However, in the past, these issues were often not discussed in an explicit or in-depth way. This article proposes a research agenda, and recommendations for future practice, on data and scale issues in SEA. Future research on data issues, spatial and temporal scales (both in terms of detail and extent), tiering, data quality and links to decision-making are recommended. The article concludes that questions of data and scale in SEA are not just technical, they are essential to identifying and understanding the issues that SEA should be addressing, and therefore are a core element of SEA

  17. Implementation options for DNA-based identification into ecological status assessment under the European Water Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Daniel; Borja, Angel; Jones, J Iwan; Pont, Didier; Boets, Pieter; Bouchez, Agnes; Bruce, Kat; Drakare, Stina; Hänfling, Bernd; Kahlert, Maria; Leese, Florian; Meissner, Kristian; Mergen, Patricia; Reyjol, Yorick; Segurado, Pedro; Vogler, Alfried; Kelly, Martyn

    2018-07-01

    Assessment of ecological status for the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) is based on "Biological Quality Elements" (BQEs), namely phytoplankton, benthic flora, benthic invertebrates and fish. Morphological identification of these organisms is a time-consuming and expensive procedure. Here, we assess the options for complementing and, perhaps, replacing morphological identification with procedures using eDNA, metabarcoding or similar approaches. We rate the applicability of DNA-based identification for the individual BQEs and water categories (rivers, lakes, transitional and coastal waters) against eleven criteria, summarised under the headlines representativeness (for example suitability of current sampling methods for DNA-based identification, errors from DNA-based species detection), sensitivity (for example capability to detect sensitive taxa, unassigned reads), precision of DNA-based identification (knowledge about uncertainty), comparability with conventional approaches (for example sensitivity of metrics to differences in DNA-based identification), cost effectiveness and environmental impact. Overall, suitability of DNA-based identification is particularly high for fish, as eDNA is a well-suited sampling approach which can replace expensive and potentially harmful methods such as gill-netting, trawling or electrofishing. Furthermore, there are attempts to replace absolute by relative abundance in metric calculations. For invertebrates and phytobenthos, the main challenges include the modification of indices and completing barcode libraries. For phytoplankton, the barcode libraries are even more problematic, due to the high taxonomic diversity in plankton samples. If current assessment concepts are kept, DNA-based identification is least appropriate for macrophytes (rivers, lakes) and angiosperms/macroalgae (transitional and coastal waters), which are surveyed rather than sampled. We discuss general implications of implementing DNA-based identification

  18. Some issues that easily to be overlooked during the environmental impact assessment of medical electrical accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Jie; Zhou Qifu; Chen Dongliang

    2011-01-01

    This paper mainly introduces the contents of shielding design in the No. 151 report of NCRP published in 2005, discusses some issues that easily to be overlooked during the environmental impact assessment of medical electrical accelerators in China. Some references will be provided in the medical electrical accelerators' shielding design and assessment to achieved the purpose of scientific, reasonable, feasible and economical radiation shielding protection. (authors)

  19. Issues in weighting bioassay data for use in regressions for internal dose assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strom, D.J.

    1992-11-01

    For use of bioassay data in internal dose assessment, research should be done to clarify the goal desired, the choice of method to achieve the goal, the selection of adjustable parameters, and on the ensemble of information that is available. Understanding of these issues should determine choices of weighting factors for bioassay data used in regression models. This paper provides an assessment of the relative importance of the various factors

  20. An integrated framework to assess adaptation options to climate change impacts in an irrigated basin in Central North Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicuna, S.; Melo, O.; Meza, F. J.; Alvarez, P.; Maureira, F.; Sanchez, A.; Tapia, A.; Cortes, M.; Dale, L. L.

    2013-12-01

    Future climate conditions could potentially affect water supply and demand on water basins throughout the world but especially on snowmelt-driven agriculture oriented basins that can be found throughout central Chile. Increasing temperature and reducing precipitation will affect both the magnitude and timing of water supply this part of the world. Different adaptation strategies could be implemented to reduce the impacts of such scenarios. Some could be incorporated as planned policies decided at the basin or Water Use Organization levels. Examples include changing large scale irrigation infrastructure (reservoirs and main channels) either physically or its operation. Complementing these strategies it is reasonable to think that at a disaggregated level, farmers would also react (adapt) to these new conditions using a mix of options to either modify their patterns of consumption (irrigation efficiency, crop mix, crop area reduction), increase their ability to access new sources of water (groundwater, water markets) or finally compensate their expected losses (insurance). We present a modeling framework developed to represent these issues using as a case study the Limarí basin located in Central Chile. This basin is a renowned example of how the development of reservoirs and irrigation infrastructure can reduce climate vulnerabilities allowing the economic development of a basin. Farmers in this basin tackle climate variability by adopting different strategies that depend first on the reservoir water volume allocation rule, on the type and size of investment they have at their farms and finally their potential access to water markets and other water supplies options. The framework developed can be used to study these strategies under current and future climate scenarios. The cornerstone of the framework is an hydrology and water resources model developed on the WEAP platform. This model is able to reproduce the large scale hydrologic features of the basin such as

  1. Workshop on rock mechanics issues in repository design and performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    The Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses organized and hosted a workshop on ''Rock Mechanics Issues in Repository Design and Performance Assessment'' on behalf its sponsor the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This workshop was held on September 19- 20, 1994 at the Holiday Inn Crowne Plaza, Rockville, Maryland. The objectives of the workshop were to stimulate exchange of technical information among parties actively investigating rock mechanics issues relevant to the proposed high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain and identify/confirm rock mechanics issues important to repository design and performance assessment The workshop contained three technical sessions and two panel discussions. The participants included technical and research staffs representing the NRC and the Department of Energy and their contractors, as well as researchers from the academic, commercial, and international technical communities. These proceedings include most of the technical papers presented in the technical sessions and the transcripts for the two panel discussions

  2. Interim report on the assessment of engineering issues for compact high-field ignition devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, C.A.

    1986-04-01

    The engineering issues addressed at the workshop included the overall configuration, layout, and assembly; limiter and first-wall energy removal; magnet system structure design; fabricability; repairability; and costs. In performing the assessment, the primary features and characteristics of each concept under study were reviewed as representative of this class of ignition device. The emphasis was to understand the key engineering areas of concern for this class of device and deliberately not attempt to define an optimum design or to choose a best approach. The assessment concluded that compact ignition tokamaks, as represented by the three concepts under study, are feasible. A number of critical engineering issues were identified, and all appear to have tractable solutions. The engineering issues appear quite challenging, and to obtain increased confidence in the apparent design solutions requires completion of the next level of design detail, complemented by appropriate development programs and testing

  3. Nonorganic Failure to Thrive: Developmental Outcomes and Psychosocial Assessment and Intervention Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffer, Robert W.; Kelley, Mary L.

    1994-01-01

    This review describes Nonorganic Failure to Thrive, presents developmental outcomes, and discusses psychosocial assessment and intervention issues relevant to this developmental disability of early childhood, focusing on child-specific variables, situational and family variables, parent-child interaction variables, and biopsychosocial formulation…

  4. Convergence or Divergence: Alignment of Standards, Assessment, and Issues of Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Norvella, Ed.

    In this report, teacher educators scrutinize the relationships between the standards and assessment movement in education and the United States' increasingly multicultural population. The papers include: "Foreword" (Jacqueline Jordan Irvine); (1) "Diversity and Standards: Defining the Issues" (Norvella P. Carter); (2) "Accountability and…

  5. Issues in Moderation of National Curriculum Assessment at Key Stage 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowling, Les

    1994-01-01

    Highlights the issues of moderation of teacher judgments for accountability and moderation for achieving consistent assessments. Discusses the meaning of moderation, the need for moderating teacher judgments, approaches to moderation, methods of moderation, and most appropriate methods of moderation at Key Stage 3. Presents an approach to…

  6. Assessment of BSBA Students' Conversancy in Current Business Issues: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Eileen A.; Maskulka, Therese A.; Kaminski, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, the faculty of the College of Business at Kutztown University developed a set of five learning goals for its BSBA program. In fall, 2011, the college's Assurance of Learning Committee began to pursue the assessment of the last of these goals: "BSBA graduates will be conversant in current business issues, including ethics, social…

  7. Polish Toxic Currency Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Gontarski

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxic currency options are defined on the basis of the opposition to the nature (essence of an option contract, which is justified in terms of norms founded on the general law clause of characteristics (nature of a relation (which represents an independent premise for imposing restrictions on the freedom of contracts. So-understood toxic currency options are unlawful. Indeed they contravene iuris cogentis regulations. These include for instance option contracts, which are concluded with a bank, if the bank has not informed about option risk before concluding the contract; or the barrier options, which focus only on the protection of bank’s interests. Therefore, such options may appear to be invalid. Therefore, performing contracts for toxic currency options may be qualified as a criminal mismanagement. For the sake of security, the manager should then take into consideration filing a claim for stating invalidity (which can be made in a court verdict. At the same time, if the supervisory board member in a commercial company, who can also be a subject to mismanagement offences, commits an omission involving lack of reaction (for example, if he/she fails to notify of the suspected offence committed by the management board members acting to the company’s detriment when the management board makes the company conclude option contracts which are charged with absolute invalidity the supervisory board member so acting may be considered to act to the company’s detriment. In the most recent Polish jurisprudence and judicature the standard of a “good host” is treated to be the last resort for determining whether the manager’s powers resulting from criminal regulations were performed. The manager of the exporter should not, as a rule, issue any options. Issuing options always means assuming an obligation. In the case of currency put options it is an absolute obligation to purchase a given amount in euro at exchange rate set in advance. On the

  8. The Role of Integrated Modelling and Assessment for Decision-Making: Lessons from Water Allocation Issues in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakeman, A. J.; Guillaume, J. H. A.; El Sawah, S.; Hamilton, S.

    2014-12-01

    Integrated modelling and assessment (IMA) is best regarded as a process that can support environmental decision-making when issues are strongly contested and uncertainties pervasive. To be most useful, the process must be multi-dimensional and phased. Principally, it must be tailored to the problem context to encompass diverse issues of concern, management settings and stakeholders. This in turn requires the integration of multiple processes and components of natural and human systems and their corresponding spatial and temporal scales. Modellers therefore need to be able to integrate multiple disciplines, methods, models, tools and data, and many sources and types of uncertainty. These dimensions are incorporated into iteration between the various phases of the IMA process, including scoping, problem framing and formulation, assessing options and communicating findings. Two case studies in Australia are employed to share the lessons of how integration can be achieved in these IMA phases using a mix of stakeholder participation processes and modelling tools. One case study aims to improve the relevance of modelling by incorporating stakeholder's views of irrigated viticulture and water management decision making. It used a novel methodology with the acronym ICTAM, consisting of Interviews to elicit mental models, Cognitive maps to represent and analyse individual and group mental models, Time-sequence diagrams to chronologically structure the decision making process, an All-encompassing conceptual model, and computational Models of stakeholder decision making. The second case uses a hydro-economic river network model to examine basin-wide impacts of water allocation cuts and adoption of farm innovations. The knowledge exchange approach used in each case was designed to integrate data and knowledge bearing in mind the contextual dimensions of the problem at hand, and the specific contributions that environmental modelling was thought to be able to make.

  9. Assessment of the feasibility and clinical value of further research to evaluate the management options for children with Down syndrome and otitis media with effusion: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortnum, Heather; Leighton, Paul; Smith, Murray D; Brown, Lisa; Jones, Matthew; Benton, Claire; Marder, Elizabeth; Marshall, Andrew; Sutton, Kate

    2014-09-01

    There is clinical uncertainty of the benefits and costs of different treatment options for children with Down syndrome who have glue ear. This study was designed to assess the extent of this lack of knowledge and determine if pursuing further information would be practical, beneficial and cost-effective. To assess the level and practical effect of current uncertainty around treatment options for children with Down syndrome and glue ear. To assess the feasibility of studying the options for management of glue ear in children with Down syndrome via a randomised controlled trial (RCT) or multicentre prospective cohort study by evaluating the willingness of (1) parents to agree to randomisation for their children and (2) clinicians to recruit participants to a definitive study. To undertake value of information analyses to demonstrate the potential economic benefit from undertaking further research. A feasibility study exploring the views of parents of children with Down syndrome and professionals who have responsibility for the health and education of children with Down syndrome, on the participation in, and value of, future research into interventions for glue ear. Data were collected from parents via self-completed questionnaires, face-to-face interviews and focus groups and from professionals via online questionnaires and a Delphi review exercise. Development of economic models to represent clinical pathways of care and a RCT informed a value of information (VOI) analysis. UK (professionals); East Midlands region of the UK (parents). Parents of children aged 1-11 years with Down syndrome (n = 156). Professionals including audiologists, ear, nose and throat surgeons, audiological physicians, speech and language therapists, and teachers of the deaf (n = 128). Quantitative and qualitative data on parental views and experiences of glue ear and its effects; interventions and treatment received; taking part in research and factors that would encourage or

  10. Assessments of the extent to which health-care providers involve patients in decision making: a systematic review of studies using the OPTION instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couët, Nicolas; Desroches, Sophie; Robitaille, Hubert; Vaillancourt, Hugues; Leblanc, Annie; Turcotte, Stéphane; Elwyn, Glyn; Légaré, France

    2015-08-01

    We have no clear overview of the extent to which health-care providers involve patients in the decision-making process during consultations. The Observing Patient Involvement in Decision Making instrument (OPTION) was designed to assess this. To systematically review studies that used the OPTION instrument to observe the extent to which health-care providers involve patients in decision making across a range of clinical contexts, including different health professions and lengths of consultation. We conducted online literature searches in multiple databases (2001-12) and gathered further data through networking. (i) OPTION scores as reported outcomes and (ii) health-care providers and patients as study participants. For analysis, we only included studies using the revised scale. Extracted data included: (i) study and participant characteristics and (ii) OPTION outcomes (scores, statistical associations and reported psychometric results). We also assessed the quality of OPTION outcomes reporting. We found 33 eligible studies, 29 of which used the revised scale. Overall, we found low levels of patient-involving behaviours: in cases where no intervention was used to implement shared decision making (SDM), the mean OPTION score was 23 ± 14 (0-100 scale). When assessed, the variables most consistently associated with higher OPTION scores were interventions to implement SDM (n = 8/9) and duration of consultations (n = 8/15). Whatever the clinical context, few health-care providers consistently attempt to facilitate patient involvement, and even fewer adjust care to patient preferences. However, both SDM interventions and longer consultations could improve this. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Engineering approach to relative quantitative assessment of safety culture and related social issues in NPP operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivokon, V.; Gladyshev, M.; Malkin, S.

    2005-01-01

    The report is devoted to presentation of engineering approach and software tool developed for Safety Culture (SC) assessment as well as to the results of their implementation at Smolensk NPP. The engineering approach is logic evolution of the IAEA ASSET method broadly used at European NPPs in 90-s. It was implemented at Russian and other plants including Olkiluoto NPP in Finland. The approach allows relative quantitative assessing and trending the aspects of SC by the analysis of evens features and causes, calculation and trending corresponding indicators. At the same time plant's operational performances and related social issues, including efficiency of plant operation and personnel reliability, can be monitored. With the help of developed tool the joint team combined from personnel of Smolensk NPP and RRC 'Kurchatov Institute' ('KI') issued the SC self-assessment report, which identifies: families of recurrent events, main safety and operational problems ; their trends and importance to SC and plant efficiency; recommendations to enhance SC and operational performance

  12. Pharmacists' Assessment of the Difficulty and Frequency of Ethical Issues Encountered in Community Pharmacy Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crnjanski, Tatjana; Krajnovic, Dusanka; Savic, Mirko

    2017-05-23

    Researching ethical problems and their frequency could give us a complex picture and greater insight into the types of ethical issues that pharmacists face in providing health care. The overall aim of this study was to assess the pharmacist's perception of difficulty and frequency of selected ethical issues encountered by the community pharmacists in their everyday practice. A quantitative cross sectional multicenter study was performed using a validated survey instrument - Ethical Issue Scale for Community Pharmacy (EISP). The results of the analysis of 690 completely filled out instruments (response rate 78.49%) showed the difference between the ethical issues which always occurred ("A pharmacist is prevented from dispensing a medicine to the patient due to an administrative error in the prescription"), and the ones that pharmacists found most difficult ("A pharmacist dispenses a medicine he/she personally considers inadequate for the therapeutic treatment of the patient, in order to avoid any conflicts with the physician" and "A pharmacist is considering violating the rules and regulations in order to perform an act of humanity"). The majority of respondents (84.78%) were familiar with the Code of Ethics but the correlation between the familiarity and the perceived usefulness of the code in resolving problems in everyday practice was negative (ρ = -0.17, p ethical issues and their occurrence. Further empirical research is recommended in order to systematically identify the ethical issues faced by community pharmacists.

  13. Climate and climate-related issues for the safety assessment SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naeslund, Jens-Ove

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to document current scientific knowledge of the climate-related conditions and processes relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment SR-Can. The report also includes a concise background description of the climate system. The report includes three main chapters: A description of the climate system (Chapter 2); Identification and discussion of climate-related issues (Chapter 3); and, A description of the evolution of climate-related conditions for the safety assessment (Chapter 4). Chapter 2 includes an overview of present knowledge of the Earth climate system and the climate conditions that can be expected to occur in Sweden on a 100,000 year time perspective. Based on this, climate-related issues relevant for the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository are identified. These are documented in Chapter 3 'Climate-related issues' to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment. Finally, in Chapter 4, 'Evolution of climate-related conditions for the safety assessment' an evolution for a 120,000 year period is presented, including discussions of identified climate-related issues of importance for repository safety. The documentation is from a scientific point of view not exhaustive, since such a treatment is neither necessary for the purposes of the safety assessment nor possible within the scope of a safety assessment. As further described in the SR-Can Main Report and in the Features Events and Processes report, the content of the present report has been audited by comparison with FEP databases compiled in other assessment projects. This report follows as far as possible the template for documentation of processes regarded as internal to the repository system. However, the term processes is not used in this report, instead the term issue has been used. Each issue includes a set of processes together resulting in the behaviour of a

  14. Climate and climate-related issues for the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeslund, Jens-Ove (comp.)

    2006-11-15

    The purpose of this report is to document current scientific knowledge of the climate-related conditions and processes relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment SR-Can. The report also includes a concise background description of the climate system. The report includes three main chapters: A description of the climate system (Chapter 2); Identification and discussion of climate-related issues (Chapter 3); and, A description of the evolution of climate-related conditions for the safety assessment (Chapter 4). Chapter 2 includes an overview of present knowledge of the Earth climate system and the climate conditions that can be expected to occur in Sweden on a 100,000 year time perspective. Based on this, climate-related issues relevant for the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository are identified. These are documented in Chapter 3 'Climate-related issues' to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment. Finally, in Chapter 4, 'Evolution of climate-related conditions for the safety assessment' an evolution for a 120,000 year period is presented, including discussions of identified climate-related issues of importance for repository safety. The documentation is from a scientific point of view not exhaustive, since such a treatment is neither necessary for the purposes of the safety assessment nor possible within the scope of a safety assessment. As further described in the SR-Can Main Report and in the Features Events and Processes report, the content of the present report has been audited by comparison with FEP databases compiled in other assessment projects. This report follows as far as possible the template for documentation of processes regarded as internal to the repository system. However, the term processes is not used in this report, instead the term issue has been used. Each issue includes a set of processes together resulting in the

  15. Comparative Risk Assessment of spill response options for a deepwater oil well blowout: Part 1. Oil spill modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French-McCay, Deborah; Crowley, Deborah; Rowe, Jill J; Bock, Michael; Robinson, Hilary; Wenning, Richard; Walker, Ann Hayward; Joeckel, John; Nedwed, Tim J; Parkerton, Thomas F

    2018-05-31

    Oil spill model simulations of a deepwater blowout in the Gulf of Mexico De Soto Canyon, assuming no intervention and various response options (i.e., subsea dispersant injection SSDI, in addition to mechanical recovery, in-situ burning, and surface dispersant application) were compared. Predicted oil fate, amount and area of surfaced oil, and exposure concentrations in the water column above potential effects thresholds were used as inputs to a Comparative Risk Assessment to identify response strategies that minimize long-term impacts. SSDI reduced human and wildlife exposure to volatile organic compounds; dispersed oil into a large water volume at depth; enhanced biodegradation; and reduced surface water, nearshore and shoreline exposure to floating oil and entrained/dissolved oil in the upper water column. Tradeoffs included increased oil exposures at depth. However, since organisms are less abundant below 200 m, results indicate that overall exposure of valued ecosystem components was minimized by use of SSDI. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Community junior sport sponsorship: an online experiment assessing children's responses to unhealthy food v. pro-health sponsorship options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Helen; Scully, Maree; Wakefield, Melanie; Kelly, Bridget; Pettigrew, Simone

    2018-04-01

    To explore children's responses to sponsorship of community junior sport by unhealthy food brands and investigate the utility of alternative, pro-health sponsorship options. Between-subjects experiment, with four sponsorship conditions: A, non-food branding (control); B, unhealthy food branding; C, healthier food branding; D, obesity prevention campaign branding. Online experiment conducted in schools. Participants were shown a junior sports pack for their favourite sport that contained merchandise with branding representing their assigned sponsorship condition. Participants viewed and rated the sports pack, completed a distractor task, then completed questions assessing brand awareness, brand attitudes and preference for food sponsors' products. Students in grades 1 to 3 (aged 5-10 years; n 1124) from schools in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. Compared with the control condition, there were no significant effects of unhealthy food branding on awareness of, attitudes towards or preference for these brands. Exposure to healthier food branding prompted a significant increase in the proportion of children aware of these brands, but did not impact attitudes towards or preference for these brands. Exposure to either healthier food branding or obesity prevention campaign branding prompted a significant reduction in the proportion of children showing a preference for unhealthy food sponsor products. The sponsorship of children's sport by healthier food brands may promote awareness of these brands and healthier sponsorship branding may reduce preferences for some unhealthy food products. Establishing and implementing healthy sponsor criteria in sports clubs could forge healthier sponsorship arrangements and help phase out unhealthy food and beverage sponsors.

  17. An Overview of Turkish Healthcare System after Health Transformation Program: Main Successes, Performance Assessment, Further Challenges, and Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir GÜRSOY

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Turkish healthcare system has been stated to show significant improvements regarding wider access to healthcare facilities, and the quality and efficiency through the introduction of Health Transformation Program launched in 2003. While the old system relied on differing provisions and financing and lacked behind many developed nations in terms of health outcomes, the new system achieved nearly universal coverage and many health outcomes enhanced significantly. Health expenditures rose to 5.4% of GDP in 2013 from 4.8% in 1998. Furthermore, Turkey provided both better financial protection for the poor against high health expenditures, and equity in access to health care across the population. However, Turkey still faces new challenges to catch other developed countries to have better health and further improve financial sustainability. To reach these targets, Turkey needs to further implement new policy options for reform such as combating informal economy, allocating more on health resources, designing incentive- based payment methods, adopting gate keeping system and referral chain, developing capacity to deploy health technology assessments in reimbursement decisions, and ensuring the hospital autonomy.

  18. A simple simulation model as a tool to assess alternative health care provider payment reform options in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashin, Cheryl; Phuong, Nguyen Khanh; Shain, Ryan; Oanh, Tran Thi Mai; Thuy, Nguyen Thi

    2015-01-01

    Vietnam is currently considering a revision of its 2008 Health Insurance Law, including the regulation of provider payment methods. This study uses a simple spreadsheet-based, micro-simulation model to analyse the potential impacts of different provider payment reform scenarios on resource allocation across health care providers in three provinces in Vietnam, as well as on the total expenditure of the provincial branches of the public health insurance agency (Provincial Social Security [PSS]). The results show that currently more than 50% of PSS spending is concentrated at the provincial level with less than half at the district level. There is also a high degree of financial risk on district hospitals with the current fund-holding arrangement. Results of the simulation model show that several alternative scenarios for provider payment reform could improve the current payment system by reducing the high financial risk currently borne by district hospitals without dramatically shifting the current level and distribution of PSS expenditure. The results of the simulation analysis provided an empirical basis for health policy-makers in Vietnam to assess different provider payment reform options and make decisions about new models to support health system objectives.

  19. Impacts on non-human biota from a generic geological disposal facility for radioactive waste: some key assessment issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, C A; Smith, K L; Norris, S

    2010-06-01

    This paper provides an overview of key issues associated with the application of currently available biota dose assessment methods to consideration of potential environmental impacts from geological disposal facilities. It explores philosophical, methodological and practical assessment issues and reviews the implications of test assessment results in the context of recent and on-going challenges and debates.

  20. Performance assessment and licensing issues for United States commercial near-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birk, S. M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper covers the performance assessment and licensing issues, the performance the objectives, the performance assessment phases, the scenario selection, the mathematical modeling and computer programs, the final results of performance assessments submitted for license applications, the institutional control period, and the licensing issues. 38 refs

  1. Impacts on non-human biota from a generic geological disposal facility for radioactive waste: some key assessment issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, C A; Smith, K L; Norris, S

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of key issues associated with the application of currently available biota dose assessment methods to consideration of potential environmental impacts from geological disposal facilities. It explores philosophical, methodological and practical assessment issues and reviews the implications of test assessment results in the context of recent and on-going challenges and debates.

  2. Options Study - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2010-09-01

    The Options Study has been conducted for the purpose of evaluating the potential of alternative integrated nuclear fuel cycle options to favorably address the issues associated with a continuing or expanding use of nuclear power in the United States. The study produced information that can be used to inform decisions identifying potential directions for research and development on such fuel cycle options. An integrated nuclear fuel cycle option is defined in this study as including all aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, from obtaining natural resources for fuel to the ultimate disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) or radioactive wastes. Issues such as nuclear waste management, especially the increasing inventory of used nuclear fuel, the current uncertainty about used fuel disposal, and the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation have contributed to the reluctance to expand the use of nuclear power, even though it is recognized that nuclear power is a safe and reliable method of producing electricity. In this Options Study, current, evolutionary, and revolutionary nuclear energy options were all considered, including the use of uranium and thorium, and both once-through and recycle approaches. Available information has been collected and reviewed in order to evaluate the ability of an option to clearly address the challenges associated with the current implementation and potential expansion of commercial nuclear power in the United States. This Options Study is a comprehensive consideration and review of fuel cycle and technology options, including those for disposal, and is not constrained by any limitations that may be imposed by economics, technical maturity, past policy, or speculated future conditions. This Phase II report is intended to be used in conjunction with the Phase I report, and much information in that report is not repeated here, although some information has been updated to reflect recent developments. The focus in this Options Study was to

  3. Psychological testing and psychological assessment. A review of evidence and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, G J; Finn, S E; Eyde, L D; Kay, G G; Moreland, K L; Dies, R R; Eisman, E J; Kubiszyn, T W; Reed, G M

    2001-02-01

    This article summarizes evidence and issues associated with psychological assessment. Data from more than 125 meta-analyses on test validity and 800 samples examining multimethod assessment suggest 4 general conclusions: (a) Psychological test validity is strong and compelling, (b) psychological test validity is comparable to medical test validity, (c) distinct assessment methods provide unique sources of information, and (d) clinicians who rely exclusively on interviews are prone to incomplete understandings. Following principles for optimal nomothetic research, the authors suggest that a multimethod assessment battery provides a structured means for skilled clinicians to maximize the validity of individualized assessments. Future investigations should move beyond an examination of test scales to focus more on the role of psychologists who use tests as helpful tools to furnish patients and referral sources with professional consultation.

  4. Introduction to the special issue: toward implementing physiological measures in clinical child and adolescent assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Aldao, Amelia

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute of Mental Health recently launched the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). The RDoC is an initiative to improve classification of mental health concerns by promoting research on the brain mechanisms underlying these concerns, with the ultimate goal of developing interventions that target these brain mechanisms. A key focus of RDoC involves opening new lines of research examining patients' responses on biological measures. The RDoC presents unique challenges to mental health professionals who work with children and adolescents. Indeed, mental health professionals rarely integrate biological measures into clinical assessments. Thus, RDoC's ability to improve patient care rests, in part, on the development of strategies for implementing biological measures within mental health assessments. Further, mental health professionals already carry out comprehensive assessments that frequently yield inconsistent findings. These inconsistencies have historically posed challenges to interpreting research findings as well as assessment outcomes in practice settings. In this introductory article, we review key issues that informed the development of a special issue of articles demonstrating methods for implementing low-cost measures of physiological functioning in clinical child and adolescent assessments. We also outline a conceptual framework, informed by theoretical work on using and interpreting multiple informants' clinical reports (De Los Reyes, Thomas, Goodman, & Kundey, 2013 ), to guide hypothesis testing when using physiological measures within clinical child and adolescent assessments. This special issue and the conceptual model described in this article may open up new lines of research testing paradigms for implementing clinically feasible physiological measures in clinical child and adolescent assessments.

  5. Guidance on a harmonised framework for pest risk assessment and the identification and evaluation of pest risk management options by EFSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2010-01-01

    The Scientific Panel on Plant Health was requested by EFSA to develop a guidance document on a harmonised framework for risk assessment of organisms harmful to plants and plant products and the identification and evaluation of risk management options. The document provides guiding principles on a...

  6. Mapping the integration of social and ethical issues in health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoux, Pascale; Williams-Jones, Bryn

    2007-01-01

    Since its inception, the field of health technology assessment (HTA) has stressed the need for consideration of ethical and social issues. However, few concepts or analytic tools have been developed, and because of the complexity of the endeavor and a lack of integration of work already produced, such concepts remain difficult to apply in HTA. Through a descriptive "map" of concepts, tools, and processes, we summarize the most tangible efforts on the part of HTA producers to address social and ethical issues. A literature review and content analysis of HTA reports in the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database enables a synthesis of the reflections on, initiatives around, and gaps in knowledge related to the integration of social and ethical issues in HTA. We examine: (i) the aim of integrating ethical and social issues in HTA, (ii) the theoretical approaches used, (iii) the methods and processes applied, and (iv) the implications for HTA producers. We highlight two levels at which social and ethical issues can be considered: throughout the production process of HTA reports and as part of the organizational structure of HTA agencies. Given the profound societal changes that occur in relation to healthcare technology development, HTA producers have a responsibility to inform and enlighten technology-related public and policy debates. Fulfilling this role, though, requires that socioethical dimensions of technology and HTA are made explicit.

  7. Budget Options

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    This volume-part of the Congressional Budget Office's (CBO's) annual report to the House and Senate Committees on the Budget-is intended to help inform policymakers about options for the federal budget...

  8. Assessment of enriched uranium storage safety issues at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This document is an assessment of the technical safety issues pertaining to the storage of EU at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The purpose of the assessment is to serve as the basis for defining the technical standards for storage of EU at Y-12. A formal assessment of the Y-12 materials acceptance criteria for EU is currently being conducted by a task force cochaired by B. G. Eddy of DOE Oak Ridge Operations and S. 0. Cox of Y-12 Defense Programs. The mission of this technical assessment for storage is obviously dependent on results of the acceptance assessment. Clearly, the two efforts require coordination to avoid inconsistencies. In addition, both these Assessments must be consistent with the Environmental Assessment for EU storage at Y-12.1 Both the Storage Assessment and the Criteria for Acceptance must take cognizance of the fact that a portion of the EU to be submitted for storage in the future is expected to be derived from foreign sources and to include previously irradiated uranium containing significant levels of transuranics, radioactive daughter products, and unstable uranium isotopes that do not occur in the EU stream of the DOE weapons complex. National security considerations may dictate that these materials be accepted despite the fact that they fail to conform to the Acceptance Criteria. This document will attempt to address the complexities inherent in this situation.

  9. Analyzing the Issues in the Implementation of Authentic Assessment in the 2013 Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abna Hidayati

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The  implemention of authentic assessment  in the   2013 Ccurriculum  has been encountered by various challenges. Teacher have to use numerious instruments, which made them quite which are regarded more complicated. this study focused on the analysis of issues experienced by teachers in implementingng theauthentic assessment within the 2013 curriculum. This study used quantitatif method in which questionnaire was  distributed to the teachers. Population included all teachers in Padang whose schools are applying the 2013 curriculum. 120 teacher were randomly taken as the sample.  The results show that in terms of the affective aspect, the teachers had not yet been optimal in conducting self- and peer assessment for the students, thus the further improvement is seriously recomended. In light of the the cognitive aspect, the teachers had done a very good assessment. They had made a variety of assessment types, especially in the essay and oral tests. However, the assessment of psychomotor aspect was not also optimally done need some improvement. From these results, it is hoped that the teachers can further enhance the assessment procedures of the three criteria for better learning outcomes. The school principals should be able to create opportunities for the teachers to take training in the Applying authentic assessment.

  10. Assessment of enriched uranium storage safety issues at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This document is an assessment of the technical safety issues pertaining to the storage of EU at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The purpose of the assessment is to serve as the basis for defining the technical standards for storage of EU at Y-12. A formal assessment of the Y-12 materials acceptance criteria for EU is currently being conducted by a task force cochaired by B. G. Eddy of DOE Oak Ridge Operations and S. 0. Cox of Y-12 Defense Programs. The mission of this technical assessment for storage is obviously dependent on results of the acceptance assessment. Clearly, the two efforts require coordination to avoid inconsistencies. In addition, both these Assessments must be consistent with the Environmental Assessment for EU storage at Y-12.1 Both the Storage Assessment and the Criteria for Acceptance must take cognizance of the fact that a portion of the EU to be submitted for storage in the future is expected to be derived from foreign sources and to include previously irradiated uranium containing significant levels of transuranics, radioactive daughter products, and unstable uranium isotopes that do not occur in the EU stream of the DOE weapons complex. National security considerations may dictate that these materials be accepted despite the fact that they fail to conform to the Acceptance Criteria. This document will attempt to address the complexities inherent in this situation

  11. Individual social security accounts: issues in assessing administrative feasibility and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, K A; Salisbury, D L

    1998-11-01

    Whether to add individual accounts (IAs) to the Social Security system is a highly political issue. But almost lost in the debate so far have been any practical considerations about how to administer such accounts. Any discussion of whether to create individual accounts must also address the basic but critical questions of how they would work: Who would run them? What would they cost? Logistically, are they even possible? This EBRI Issue Brief provides an overview of the most salient administrative issues facing the current Social Security reform debate--issues that challenge proponents to carefully think through how their proposals could be implemented so as to achieve their policy goals. The options and difficulties in administering IAs raise concerns that cut across ideology. The object of this report is neither to dissuade the advocates nor support the critics of individual accounts. Rather, it is to bring practical considerations to a political debate that has largely ignored the pragmatic challenges of whether IAs would be too complex for participants to understand or too difficult for record keepers to administer. The major findings in this analysis include: Adding individual accounts to Social Security could be the largest undertaking in the history of the U.S. financial market, and no system to date has the capacity to administer such a system. The number of workers currently covered by Social Security--the largest single entitlement program in the nation--is at least four times higher than the combined number of all tax-favored employment-based retirement accounts in the United States, which are administered by hundreds of entities. Direct comparisons between employment-based retirement savings plans and Social Security reform are tenuous at best. Social Security covers workers and businesses that are disproportionately excluded from employment-based plans. Because of these differences, a system of individual Social Security accounts would be more

  12. The contribution of sectoral climate change mitigation options to national targets: a quantitative assessment of dairy production in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Patric; Herold, Martin; Rufino, Mariana C.

    2018-03-01

    Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture has become a critical target in national climate change policies. More than 80% of the countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) refer to the reduction of agricultural emissions, including livestock, in their nationally determined contribution (NDC) to mitigate climate change. The livestock sector in Kenya contributes largely to the gross domestic product and to GHG emissions from the land use sector. The government has recently pledged in its NDC to curb total GHG emissions by 30% by 2030. Quantifying and linking the mitigation potential of farm practices to national targets is required to support realistically the implementation of NDCs. Improvements in feed and manure management represent promising mitigation options for dairy production. This study aimed (i) to assess mitigation and food production benefits of feed and manure management scenarios, including land use changes covering Kenya’s entire dairy production region and (ii) to analyse the contribution of these practices to national targets on milk production and mitigation, and their biophysical feasibility given the availability of arable land. The results indicate that improving forage quality by increasing the use of Napier grass and supplementing dairy concentrates supports Kenya’s NDC target, reduces emission intensities by 26%-31%, partially achieves the national milk productivity target for 2030 by 38%-41%, and shows high feasibility given the availability of arable land. Covering manure heaps may reduce emissions from manure management by 68%. In contrast, including maize silage in cattle diets would not reduce emission intensities due to the risk of ten-fold higher emissions from the conversion of land required to grow additional maize. The shortage of arable land may render the implementation of these improved feed practices largely infeasible. This assessment provides the first quantitative estimates of the potential of feed

  13. Expensing options solves nothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlman, William A

    2002-12-01

    The use of stock options for executive compensation has become a lightning rod for public anger, and it's easy to see why. Many top executives grew hugely rich on the back of the gains they made on their options, profits they've been able to keep even as the value they were supposed to create disappeared. The supposed scam works like this: Current accounting regulations let companies ignore the cost of option grants on their income statements, so they can award valuable option packages without affecting reported earnings. Not charging the cost of the grants supposedly leads to overstated earnings, which purportedly translate into unrealistically high share prices, permitting top executives to realize big gains when they exercise their options. If an accounting anomaly is the problem, then the solution seems obvious: Write off executive share options against the current year's revenues. The trouble is, Sahlman writes, expensing option grants won't give us a more accurate view of earnings, won't add any information not already included in the financial statements, and won't even lead to equal treatment of different forms of executive pay. Far worse, expensing evades the real issue, which is whether compensation (options and other-wise) does what it's supposed to do--namely, help a company recruit, retain, and provide the right people with appropriate performance incentives. Any performance-based compensation system has the potential to encourage cheating. Only ethical management, sensible governance, adequate internal control systems, and comprehensive disclosure will save the investor from disaster. If, Sahlman warns, we pass laws that require the expensing of options, thinking that's fixed the fundamental flaws in corporate America's accounting, we will have missed a golden opportunity to focus on the much more extensive defects in the present system.

  14. The Gel Generator option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.E.

    1999-01-01

    The development of a national policy for guaranteeing an ample supply of 99m Tc to nuclear medicine, involves issues which go beyond the means by which radioactivation is achieved. Indeed, in such an exercise the pragmatic dictates of business and the sensitivities of politics must also be taken into account. Furthermore where a preference towards the nuclear reactor or the potential of cyclotrons is being questioned, the debate is incomplete if the only options that are considered are the fission-based 99 Mo generator versus the direct cyclotron production of 99m Tc. There is a third option (also neutron γ-based), an alternative to the fission 99 Mo generator, which ought not be overlooked. The application of low specific activity (n,γ) 99 Mo to a new type of generator, the Gel Generator, has been the focus of much research, particularly in Australia and more recently in China. After the initial concept had been established in the laboratory, the Australian researchers then undertook a comprehensive program of tests on the Gel Generator to assess its potential, either in the clinical laboratory or the centralised radiopharmacy, for supplying 99m Tc suitable for nuclear medicine. The outcome of this program was a clear indication that the Gel Generator innovation had the capability to provide both technical and economic advantages to the nuclear medicine industry. These advantages are described. Since that time the Gel Generator has been selected for routine use in China where it now satisfies more than 30% of the 99m Tc demand. (author)

  15. Workshop on rock mechanics issues in repository design and performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses organized and hosted a workshop on ``Rock Mechanics Issues in Repository Design and Performance Assessment`` on behalf its sponsor the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This workshop was held on September 19- 20, 1994 at the Holiday Inn Crowne Plaza, Rockville, Maryland. The objectives of the workshop were to stimulate exchange of technical information among parties actively investigating rock mechanics issues relevant to the proposed high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain and identify/confirm rock mechanics issues important to repository design and performance assessment The workshop contained three technical sessions and two panel discussions. The participants included technical and research staffs representing the NRC and the Department of Energy and their contractors, as well as researchers from the academic, commercial, and international technical communities. These proceedings include most of the technical papers presented in the technical sessions and the transcripts for the two panel discussions. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  16. Assessing policy options for increasing the use of renewable energy for sustainable development: Modelling energy scenarios for Sichuan, China. A UN-ENERGY demonstration study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    UN-Energy was created in 2004 as the United Nations' principal interagency mechanism in the field of energy. Its creation responds to a request in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation, adopted by the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development, for a new collaborative mechanism between UN agencies, programmes and institutions. UN-Energy has published several reports. The first was prepared for the September 2005 World Summit, 'The Energy Challenge for Achieving the Millennium Development Goals', showing the key role energy access plays for countries to achieve the MDGs. A second report was presented at the May 2006 session of the UN Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD-14), 'Energy in the United Nations: An Overview of UN-Energy Activities'. For the May 2007 CSD-15 UN-Energy brought forward 'Sustainable Bio-Energy: A Framework for Decision-Makers' to help inform dialogue in one critical area of future energy policy choice. Another critical energy policy issue is how renewable energy can be promoted as countries plan for sustainable development. UN-Energy therefore decided to look at how the tools for energy modelling could be evolved. In May 2006, for CSD-14, UN-Energy presented 'Assessing Policy Options for Increasing the Use of Renewable Energy for Sustainable Development: Modelling Energy Scenarios for Ghana'. The Ghana study was carried out by five UN organizations and the Energy Commission of Ghana. It was led by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and included the Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) in the UN Secretariat, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) and the UN Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO). UN-Energy now presents a similar study for Sichuan, China. Together these two reports are the first UN-Energy reports to present analytic results from interagency cooperation that, without UN-Energy, would not have happened. This report analyzes alternative provincial

  17. On Issue of Algorithm Forming for Assessing Investment Attractiveness of Region Through Its Technospheric Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filimonova, L. A.; Skvortsova, N. K.

    2017-11-01

    The article examines the problematic aspects of assessing the investment attractiveness of a region associated with the consideration of methodological issues that require refinement from the point of view of its technospheric security. Such issues include the formation of a sound system of indicators for the assessment of man-made risk which has a particular impact on the level of investment attractiveness of the region. In the context of the instability of the economic situation in Russia, the problem of man-made risks assessing in the context of the regional investment attractiveness based on an integrated approach and taking into account such principles as flexibility, adaptability, innovative orientation has not only lost its relevance but was also transformed into one of the most important conditions for ensuring the effective management of all spheres of the regional activities. The article poses the classical problem of making decisions on the results of the assessment of the investment attractiveness of the region in a matrix format evaluating the utility function. The authors of the article recommended a universal risk assessment model with its subsequent synthesis into technospheric security for the comprehensive assessment of regional investment attractiveness. The principal distinguishing feature of the study results are the schemes for manipulation in the evaluation activity associated with the selection of the optimality criteria groups and models for their study. These iterations make it possible to substantiate the choice of the solution for preserving the technospheric security of the region, a field of compromises or an “ideal” solution to the problem of the regional investment attractiveness loss.

  18. Sustainable Sourcing of Global Agricultural Raw Materials: Assessing Gaps in Key Impact and Vulnerability Issues and Indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel P Springer

    Full Text Available Understanding how to source agricultural raw materials sustainably is challenging in today's globalized food system given the variety of issues to be considered and the multitude of suggested indicators for representing these issues. Furthermore, stakeholders in the global food system both impact these issues and are themselves vulnerable to these issues, an important duality that is often implied but not explicitly described. The attention given to these issues and conceptual frameworks varies greatly--depending largely on the stakeholder perspective--as does the set of indicators developed to measure them. To better structure these complex relationships and assess any gaps, we collate a comprehensive list of sustainability issues and a database of sustainability indicators to represent them. To assure a breadth of inclusion, the issues are pulled from the following three perspectives: major global sustainability assessments, sustainability communications from global food companies, and conceptual frameworks of sustainable livelihoods from academic publications. These terms are integrated across perspectives using a common vocabulary, classified by their relevance to impacts and vulnerabilities, and categorized into groups by economic, environmental, physical, human, social, and political characteristics. These issues are then associated with over 2,000 sustainability indicators gathered from existing sources. A gap analysis is then performed to determine if particular issues and issue groups are over or underrepresented. This process results in 44 "integrated" issues--24 impact issues and 36 vulnerability issues--that are composed of 318 "component" issues. The gap analysis shows that although every integrated issue is mentioned at least 40% of the time across perspectives, no issue is mentioned more than 70% of the time. A few issues infrequently mentioned across perspectives also have relatively few indicators available to fully represent

  19. Sustainable Sourcing of Global Agricultural Raw Materials: Assessing Gaps in Key Impact and Vulnerability Issues and Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Nathaniel P; Garbach, Kelly; Guillozet, Kathleen; Haden, Van R; Hedao, Prashant; Hollander, Allan D; Huber, Patrick R; Ingersoll, Christina; Langner, Megan; Lipari, Genevieve; Mohammadi, Yaser; Musker, Ruthie; Piatto, Marina; Riggle, Courtney; Schweisguth, Melissa; Sin, Emily; Snider, Sara; Vidic, Nataša; White, Aubrey; Brodt, Sonja; Quinn, James F; Tomich, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how to source agricultural raw materials sustainably is challenging in today's globalized food system given the variety of issues to be considered and the multitude of suggested indicators for representing these issues. Furthermore, stakeholders in the global food system both impact these issues and are themselves vulnerable to these issues, an important duality that is often implied but not explicitly described. The attention given to these issues and conceptual frameworks varies greatly--depending largely on the stakeholder perspective--as does the set of indicators developed to measure them. To better structure these complex relationships and assess any gaps, we collate a comprehensive list of sustainability issues and a database of sustainability indicators to represent them. To assure a breadth of inclusion, the issues are pulled from the following three perspectives: major global sustainability assessments, sustainability communications from global food companies, and conceptual frameworks of sustainable livelihoods from academic publications. These terms are integrated across perspectives using a common vocabulary, classified by their relevance to impacts and vulnerabilities, and categorized into groups by economic, environmental, physical, human, social, and political characteristics. These issues are then associated with over 2,000 sustainability indicators gathered from existing sources. A gap analysis is then performed to determine if particular issues and issue groups are over or underrepresented. This process results in 44 "integrated" issues--24 impact issues and 36 vulnerability issues--that are composed of 318 "component" issues. The gap analysis shows that although every integrated issue is mentioned at least 40% of the time across perspectives, no issue is mentioned more than 70% of the time. A few issues infrequently mentioned across perspectives also have relatively few indicators available to fully represent them. Issues in the

  20. Information resources for assessing health effects from chemical exposure: Challenges, priorities, and future issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seigel, S. [National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Issues related to developing information resources for assessing the health effects from chemical exposure include the question of how to address the individual political issues relevant to identifying and determining the timeliness, scientific credibility, and completeness of such kinds of information resources. One of the important ways for agencies to share information is through connection tables. This type of software is presently being used to build information products for some DHHS agencies. One of the challenges will be to convince vendors of data of the importance of trying to make data files available to communities that need them. In the future, information processing will be conducted with neural networks, object-oriented database management systems, and fuzzy-set technologies, and meta analysis techniques.

  1. Assessment Update: Progress, Trends, and Practices in Higher Education. Volume 25, Issue 3, May-June 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, Trudy W., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    This issue of "Assessment Update" presents the following articles: (1) Launching E-Portfolios: An Organic Process; (2) Editor's Notes: Envisioning Learning; (3) Promoting Student Affairs Buy-In for Assessment: Lessons Learned; (4) Working at Assessment; (5) Making the Case for Formative Assessment: How It Improves Student Engagement and…

  2. Assessment Update: Progress, Trends, and Practices in Higher Education. Volume 30, Issue 1, January-February 2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundley, Stephen P., Ed.

    2018-01-01

    This issue of "Assessment Update" presents the following articles: (1) James Madison University: Reflections on Sustained Excellence in Assessment (Keston H. Fulcher and Elizabeth R. H. Sanchez); (2) Editor's Notes: Assessment Excellence Abounds! (Stephen P. Hundley); (3) The Promise of an All-in-One Assessment System for Student…

  3. Contemporary issues for experimental design in assessment of medical imaging and computer-assist systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Robert F.; Beiden, Sergey V.; Campbell, Gregory; Metz, Charles E.; Sacks, William M.

    2003-05-01

    The dialog among investigators in academia, industry, NIH, and the FDA has grown in recent years on topics of historic interest to attendees of these SPIE sub-conferences on Image Perception, Observer Performance, and Technology Assessment. Several of the most visible issues in this regard have been the emergence of digital mammography and modalities for computer-assisted detection and diagnosis in breast and lung imaging. These issues appear to be only the "tip of the iceberg" foreshadowing a number of emerging advances in imaging technology. So it is timely to make some general remarks looking back and looking ahead at the landscape (or seascape). The advances have been facilitated and documented in several forums. The major role of the SPIE Medical Imaging Conferences i well-known to all of us. Many of us were also present at the Medical Image Perception Society and co-sponsored by CDRH and NCI in September of 2001 at Airlie House, VA. The workshops and discussions held at that conference addressed some critical contemporary issues related to how society - and in particular industry and FDA - approach the general assessment problem. A great deal of inspiration for these discussions was also drawn from several workshops in recent years sponsored by the Biomedical Imaging Program of the National Cancer Institute on these issues, in particular the problem of "The Moving Target" of imaging technology. Another critical phenomenon deserving our attention is the fact that the Fourth National Forum on Biomedical Imaging in Oncology was recently held in Bethesda, MD., February 6-7, 2003. These forums are presented by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), and the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA). They are sponsored by the National Institutes of Health/Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences (NIH/FAES). These forums led to the development of the NCI

  4. Protocol of the project pain & disasters: assessment of critical issues and possible solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Mipatrini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disasters cause almost 100 thousand deaths and affect 200 million people every year. Operators working in disaster zones reported problems in importing medications, in particular pain killers and narcotics, in areas of disasters. The importance of ensuring access to painkillers, including major analgesics, is pinpointed by the World Health Organization which through its “Access to Controlled Medications Programme” provides normative guidance, policy analysis and training of healthcare workers on this issue. Nevertheless the little evidence available on the assessment and treatment of pain in disasters suggests that the management of pain in disaster zones may be affected by several factors mainly due to the availability of drugs, the skills of health personnel and cultural issues. Aim:The main aims of this project are: evaluating whether pain is correctly assessed and treated in disaster zones, assessing which are the main limitations to its treatment and producing suggestions and reccomandations to improve its treatment. Materials & Methods: In order to achieve our aims we will adopt a combined approach made by: A systematic review of the evidence will be conducted in the scientific databases Medline and Scopus. A review of grey literature concerning the issue on the Web pages of international organizations and NGOs working in the field of humanitarian aid. A survey among healthcare workers who took part to the international humanitarian actions. A survey among expert of the humanitarian field not necessary involved in projects on the field e.g. lawyer expert in international law, international organizations representatives working in the headquarters etc. A technical table with European experts in the field of pain treatment and/or disaster reaponse.

  5. Assessment of policy issues in nuclear safety regulation according to circumstantial changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Soon Heung; Lee, Byong Ho; Baek, Woon Pil; Lee, Seong Wook; Choi, Seong Soo; Roh, Chang Hyun; Lee, Kwang Gu [Korea Advanced Institute of Scienc and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-15

    The objective of the work is to assess various issues in nuclear safety regulation in consideration of circumstantial changes. Emphasis is given to the safety of operating NPPs. The derivation of an effective regulation system considering 'Rhodic Safety Review (PSR)', 'operating License Renewal (LR)', 'backfitting' and 'maintenance rule' is the main objective of the first two years. It is found that those approaches should be introduced in Korea as soon as possible, with cross lingkage to maximize the effectiveness of regulation. In particular, the approaches for PSR are discussed with consultation of IAEA document and foreign practices.

  6. Assessment of policy issues in nuclear safety regulation according to circumstantial changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Soon Heung; Lee, Byong Ho; Baek, Won Pil; Lee, Kwang Gu; Huh, Gyun Young; Hahn, Young Tae [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-15

    The objective of the work is to assess various issues in nuclear safety regulation in consideration of circumstantial changes. Emphasis is given to the safety of operating NPPs. It is concluded that the Periodic Safety Review (PSR) should be implemented in Korea as soon as possible, in harmonization with the regulation for life extension of NPPs. The IAEA guidelines, including 10 year intervals and 11 safety factors, should be used as the basic guidelines. The approach to improve regulatory effectiveness is also reviewed and a transition to 'knowledge-based regulation' is suggested.

  7. Assessment of policy issues in nuclear safety regulation according to circumstantial changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Soon Heung; Chang, Soon Heung; Lee, Byong Ho; Baek, Won Pil; Roh, Chang Hyun; Lee, Kwang Gu; Kim, Hong Chae; Lee, Yong Ho [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-15

    The objective of the work is to assess various issues in nuclear safety regulation in consideration of circumstantial changes. Emphasis is given to the safety of operating NPPs. It is concluded that the Periodic Safety Review (PSR) should be implemented in Korea as soon as possible, in harmonization with the regulation for life extension of NPPs. The IAEA guidelines, including 10 year intervals and 11 safety factors, should be used as the basic guidelines. Efforts are also required to cope with other circumstantial changes such as the establishment of International Nuclear Regulators Association (INRA)

  8. Methodological issues of assessing the effects of social inequality in Russia’s regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ol’ga Anatol’evna Kozlova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issue concerning the assessment of the impact of social inequality on the socio-demographic characteristics of society. The authors evaluate the impact of the social inequality growth in the Russian Federation subjects on the basis of the analysis of the decile ratio dynamics. They propose a methodological approach to determine the degree of dependence of crime rate on the growth of social inequality. The authors compare the influence of the decile ratio and purchasing power on mortality rate in the regions of Russia

  9. US National Climate Assessment (NCA) Scenarios for Assessing Our Climate Future: Issues and Methodological Perspectives Background Whitepaper for Participants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Richard H.; Engle, Nathan L.; Hall, John; Jacobs, Kathy; Lempert, Rob; Mearns, L. O.; Melillo, Jerry; Mote, Phil; O' Brien, Sheila; Rosenzweig, C.; Ruane, Alex; Sheppard, Stephen; Vallario, Robert W.; Wiek, Arnim; Wilbanks, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    This whitepaper is intended to provide a starting point for discussion at a workshop for the National Climate Assessment (NCA) that focuses on the use and development of scenarios. The paper will provide background needed by participants in the workshop in order to review options for developing and using scenarios in NCA. The paper briefly defines key terms and establishes a conceptual framework for developing consistent scenarios across different end uses and spatial scales. It reviews uses of scenarios in past U.S. national assessments and identifies potential users of and needs for scenarios for both the report scheduled for release in June 2013 and to support an ongoing distributed assessment process in sectors and regions around the country. Because scenarios prepared for the NCA will need to leverage existing research, the paper takes account of recent scientific advances and activities that could provide needed inputs. Finally, it considers potential approaches for providing methods, data, and other tools for assessment participants. We note that the term 'scenarios' has many meanings. An important goal of the whitepaper (and portions of the workshop agenda) is pedagogical (i.e., to compare different meanings and uses of the term and make assessment participants aware of the need to be explicit about types and uses of scenarios). In climate change research, scenarios have been used to establish bounds for future climate conditions and resulting effects on human and natural systems, given a defined level of greenhouse gas emissions. This quasi-predictive use contrasts with the way decision analysts typically use scenarios (i.e., to consider how robust alternative decisions or strategies may be to variation in key aspects of the future that are uncertain). As will be discussed, in climate change research and assessment, scenarios describe a range of aspects of the future, including major driving forces (both human activities and natural processes

  10. Upstream oil and gas industry options paper : report of the upstream oil and gas working group of the Industry Issues Table to the National Climate Change Secretariat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) has coordinated the efforts of the upstream oil and natural gas industry to draft a foundation paper to provide data on industry greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and actions. This paper is a technical piece targeted at government officials and stakeholders involved in the National Climate Change Secretariat process. The paper also outlines the context for considering policies aimed at reducing oil and gas industry emissions on climate change. The 6 key messages that CAPP wanted to emphasize in this paper were: (1) Canada's situation is very different from that of the U.S. and most other industrial countries, (2) GHG emissions are primarily an end-use consumption issue, (3) the climate change issue and the Kyoto Protocol present a major uncertainty that could undermine Canadian oil and natural gas development opportunities, (4) Canada should not be penalised by its growth of oil and natural gas resources, (5) the ability to reduce emissions by changing production technology is limited because large reductions in Canadian upstream emissions would only mean a shift of production to other countries which would not help to reduce global emissions, and (6) Canada should focus on promoting cost-effective action, research and development and international flexibility, and ensure that recognition is given to those companies that reduce emissions. tabs., figs

  11. The primary assessment tool at Philips electronics : capturing real options and organizational risk in technology portfolio management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lint, L.J.O.

    2000-01-01

    I develop an extended scoring approach to build a balanced portfolio of new technology projects under uncertainty at early stages of development. My contribution is twofold. First, I show how the tool incorporates the option approach to decision making to create contingent claims on future market

  12. Improving the sustainability of fatty acid methyl esters (Fame – biodiesel) – assessment of options for industry and agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungmeier, G.; Pucker, J.; Ernst, M.; Haselbacher, P.; Lesschen, J.P.; Kraft, A.; Schulzke, T.; Loo, van E.N.

    2016-01-01

    The life cycle based greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME also called “Biodiesel”) from various resources have been set in the Renewable Energy Directive (RED). Due to technology and scientific progress there are various options to improve the GHG balances of FAME. In

  13. 2005 resource options report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, T.

    2005-01-01

    This resource options report (ROR) fulfils regulatory requirements in British Columbia's two-year resource planning process. It identifies a wide range of resources and technologies that could be used to meet BC Hydro's future electricity demand. As such, it facilitates a transparent public review of resource options which include both supply-side and demand-side options. The resource options that will be used in the 2005 integrated electricity plan (IEP) were characterized. This ROR also documents where there is a general agreement or disagreement on the resource type characterization, based on the First Nations and Stakeholder engagement. BC Hydro used current information to provide realistic ranges on volume and cost to characterize environmental and social attributes. The BC Hydro system was modelled to assess the benefit and cost of various resource options. The information resulting from this ROR and IEP will help in making decisions on how to structure competitive acquisition calls and to determine the level of transmission services needed to advance certain BC Hydro projects. The IEP forecasts the nature and quantity of domestic resources required over the next 20 years. A strategic direction on how those needs will be met has been created to guide the management of BC Hydro's energy resources. Supply-side options include near-commercial technologies such as energy storage, ocean waves, tidal, fuel cells and integrated coal gasification combined cycle technology. Supply-side options also include natural gas, coal, biomass, geothermal, wind, and hydro. 120 refs., 39 tabs., 21 figs., 6 appendices

  14. Current status and future expectation concerning probabilistic risk assessment of NPPs. 1. Features and issues of probabilistic risk assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) could play an important role in assuring safety of NPPs. However PRA had not always effectively used, which was indicated in Japanese government's report on Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. At the Risk Technical Committee (RTC) of Standards Committee of Atomic Energy Society of Japan, preparation of standards (implementing criteria) focusing on PRA methodology and investigation on basic philosophy for use of PRA had been in progress. Based on activities of RTC, a serial in three articles including this described current status and future expectation concerning probabilistic risk assessment of NPPs. This article introduced features and issues of PRA methodology related to the use of PRA. Features of PRA methodology could be shown as (1) systematic and comprehensive understanding of risk, (2) support of grading approach, (3) identification of effective safety upgrade measures and (4) quantitative understanding of effects of uncertainty. Issues of PRA methodology were (1) extension of PRA application area, (2) upgrade of PRA methodology, (3) quality assurance of PRA, (4) treatment of uncertainty and (5) quantitative evaluation criteria. (T. Tanaka)

  15. Uses of human reliability analysis probabilistic risk assessment results to resolve personnel performance issues that could affect safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, J.N.; Spettell, C.M.

    1985-10-01

    This report is the first in a series which documents research aimed at improving the usefulness of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) results in addressing human risk issues. This first report describes the results of an assessment of how well currently available PRA data addresses human risk issues of current concern to NRC. Findings indicate that PRA data could be far more useful in addressing human risk issues with modification of the development process and documentation structure of PRAs. In addition, information from non-PRA sources could be integrated with PRA data to address many other issues. 12 tabs

  16. Nuclear technology options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatores, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Different strategies and motivations in different countries have led to diverse options. In Europe the SNETP (Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform) has the objective of developing R&D supporting GEN-II (present) and GEN-III nuclear systems under development; allowing sustainability and minimisation of waste burden, promoting advanced Gen-IV Fast Reactors; and accounting for a Nuclear Cogeneration Industrial Initiative. A remarkable initiative in the USA has been the promotion of small modular reactors (SMRs) – at less than 300 MWe in capacity, much smaller than typical reactors – which can be an ideal choice for (remote) areas which cannot support a larger reactor. Compact scalable design offers a host of potential safety, construction and economic benefits. More “upbeat” strategies are expected in other areas of the world where significant increase in nuclear energy demand is predicted in the next decades. If this growth materialises, future fuel cycles characteristics, feasibility and acceptability will be crucial. This paper will discuss different scenarios for future fuel cycles, resources optimisation and/or waste minimization, the range from full fast reactor deployment to phase-out, management of spent nuclear fuel and the significant potential benefits of advanced cycles. The next 45 years will be dominated by deployment of standard large or medium size plants operating for 60 years. Available resources do allow it. However, fuel cycle will be a growing and most challenging issue and early assessments will be needed for public acceptance and policy decisions.

  17. Environmental impact assessment and socio political issues of nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmaajaervi, I.; Tolsa, H.

    1997-09-01

    The study is a part of the Publicly Administrated Nuclear Waste Management Research Programme (JYT2) which was carried out in 1994-1996. The principal goal of the research programme has been to provide the authorities with information and research results relevant for the safety of nuclear waste management in order to support the various activities of the authorities. The main emphasis of the research programme focuses on the disposal of spent fuel. In addition to nuclear waste research in the field of natural sciences and technology, the research program- me has focused mostly on societal issues associated with nuclear waste disposal facilities and on the non-radiological environmental effects in the environs of the disposal site. Some of the local effects are already revealed in the research phase, before any final decisions are made as to the selection of the disposal site. The study has focused primarily on local and regional issues. The statutory requirement to conduct environ- mental impact assessment (EIA) chiefly concerns those who are responsible for waste management, but the authorities also need to acquire systematic information in the field to support developing requirements for the content and scope of EIA procedure and preparedness to check the assessments made. This is a report of the first parts of the study in 1994-1995. The report deals with the subject matter generally based on earlier studies in Finland and other countries. The results of the study will be reported later

  18. Medical school accreditation in Australia: Issues involved in assessing major changes and new programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Field

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Medical Council (AMC is an independent company for quality assurance and quality improvement in medical education in Australia and New Zealand. Accreditation procedures for the 20 medical schools in these two countries are somewhat different for three different circumstances or stages of school development: existing medical schools, established courses undergoing major changes, and new schools. This paper will outline some issues involved in major changes to existing courses, and new medical school programs. Major changes have included change from a 6 year undergraduate course to a 5 year undergraduate course or 4 year graduate-entry course, introduction of a lateral graduate-entry stream, new domestic site of course delivery, offshore course delivery, joint program between two universities, and major change to curriculum. In the case of a major change assessment, accreditation of the new or revised course may be granted for a period up to two years after the full course has been implemented. In the assessment of proposals for introduction of new medical courses, six issues needing careful consideration have arisen: forward planning, academic staffing, adequate clinical experience, acceptable research program, adequacy of resources, postgraduate training program and employment.

  19. Biodiversity, ecosystem functions and services in environmental risk assessment: introduction to the special issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Ralf B

    2012-01-15

    This Special Issue focuses on the questions if and how biodiversity, ecosystem functions and resulting services could be incorporated into the Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA). Therefore, three articles provide a framework for the integration of ecosystem services into ERA of soils, sediments and pesticides. Further articles demonstrate ways how stakeholders can be integrated into an ecosystem service-based ERA for soils and describe how the current monitoring could be adapted to new assessment endpoints that are directly linked to ecosystem services. Case studies show that the current ERA may not be protective for biodiversity, ecosystem functions and resulting services and that both pesticides and salinity currently adversely affect ecosystem functions in the field. Moreover, ecological models can be used for prediction of new protection goals and could finally support their implementation into the ERA. Overall, the Special Issue stresses the urgent need to enhance current procedures of ERA if biodiversity, ecosystem functions and resulting services are to be protected. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Online Higher Education Instruction to Foster Critical Thinking When Assessing Environmental Issues - the Brownfield Action Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Peter; Liddicoat, Joseph; Dittrick, Diane; Maenza-Gmelch, Terryanne; Kelsey, Ryan

    2013-04-01

    According to the Environmental Protection Agency, there are presently over half a million brownfields in the United States, but this number only includes sites for which an Environmental Site Assessment has been conducted. The actual number of brownfields is certainly into the millions and constitutes one of the major environmental issues confronting all communities today. Taught in part online for more than a decade in environmental science courses at over a dozen colleges, universities, and high schools in the United States, Brownfield Action (BA) is an interactive, web-based simulation that combines scientific expertise, constructivist education philosophy, and multimedia to advance the teaching of environmental science (Bower et al., 2011). In the online simulation and classroom, students form geotechnical consulting companies, conduct environmental site assessment investigations, and work collaboratively to solve a problem in environmental forensics. The BA model contains interdisciplinary scientific and social information that are integrated within a digital learning environment that encourages students to construct their knowledge as they learn by doing. As such, the approach improves the depth and coherence of students understanding of the course material. Like real-world environmental consultants, students are required to develop and apply expertise from a wide range of fields, including environmental science and engineering as well as journalism, medicine, public health, law, civics, economics, and business management. The overall objective is for students to gain an unprecedented appreciation of the complexity, ambiguity, and risk involved in any environmental issue or crisis.

  1. Assessment of MRI Issues at 3 Tesla for a New Metallic Tissue Marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronenweth, Charlotte M.; Shellock, Frank G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the MRI issues at 3 Tesla for a metallic tissue marker used to localize removal areas of tissue abnormalities. Materials and Methods. A newly designed, metallic tissue marker (Achieve Marker, CareFusion, Vernon Hills, IL) used to mark biopsy sites, particularly in breasts, was assessed for MRI issues which included standardized tests to determine magnetic field interactions (i.e., translational attraction and torque), MRI-related heating, and artifacts at 3 Tesla. Temperature changes were determined for the marker using a gelled-saline-filled phantom. MRI was performed at a relatively high specific absorption rate (whole body averaged SAR, 2.9-W/kg). MRI artifacts were evaluated using T1-weighted, spin echo and gradient echo pulse sequences. Results. The marker displayed minimal magnetic field interactions (2-degree deflection angle and no torque). MRI-related heating was only 0.1°C above background heating (i.e., the heating without the tissue marker present). Artifacts seen as localized signal loss were relatively small in relation to the size and shape of the marker. Conclusions. Based on the findings, the new metallic tissue marker is acceptable or “MR Conditional” (using current labeling terminology) for a patient undergoing an MRI procedure at 3 Tesla or less. PMID:26266051

  2. Assessing Veterinary and Animal Science Students' Moral Judgment Development on Animal Ethics Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrinder, Joy M; Phillips, Clive J C

    2015-01-01

    Little has been done to assess veterinarians' moral judgment in relation to animal ethics issues. Following development of the VetDIT, a new moral judgment measure for animal ethics issues, this study aimed to refine and further validate the VetDIT, and to identify effects of teaching interventions on moral judgment and changes in moral judgment over time. VetDIT-V1 was refined into VetDIT-V2, and V3 was developed as a post-intervention test to prevent repetition. To test these versions for comparability, veterinary and animal science students (n=271) were randomly assigned to complete different versions. The VetDIT discriminates between stages of moral judgment, condensed into three schemas: Personal Interest (PI), Maintaining Norms (MN), and Universal Principles (UP). There were no differences in the scores for MN and UP between the versions, and we equated PI scores to account for differences between versions. Veterinary science students (n=130) who completed a three-hour small-group workshop on moral development theory and ethical decision making increased their use of UP in moral reasoning, whereas students (n=271) who received similar information in a 50-minute lecture did not. A longitudinal comparison of matched first- and third-year students (n=39) revealed no moral judgment development toward greater use of UP. The VetDIT is therefore useful for assessing moral judgment of animal and human ethics issues in veterinary and other animal-related professions. Intensive small-group workshops using moral development knowledge and skills, rather than lectures, are conducive to developing veterinary students' moral judgment.

  3. Universal Health Coverage in Francophone Sub-Saharan Africa: Assessment of Global Health Experts' Confidence in Policy Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Elisabeth; Fecher, Fabienne; Meloni, Remo; van Lerberghe, Wim

    2018-05-29

    Many countries rely on standard recipes for accelerating progress toward universal health coverage (UHC). With limited generalizable empirical evidence, expert confidence and consensus plays a major role in shaping country policy choices. This article presents an exploratory attempt conducted between April and September 2016 to measure confidence and consensus among a panel of global health experts in terms of the effectiveness and feasibility of a number of policy options commonly proposed for achieving UHC in low- and middle-income countries, such as fee exemptions for certain groups of people, ring-fenced domestic health budgets, and public-private partnerships. To ensure a relative homogeneity of contexts, we focused on French-speaking sub-Saharan Africa. We initially used the Delphi method to arrive at expert consensus, but since no consensus emerged after 2 rounds, we adjusted our approach to a statistical analysis of the results from our questionnaire by measuring the degree of consensus on each policy option through 100 (signifying total consensus) minus the size of the interquartile range of the individual scores. Seventeen global health experts from various backgrounds, but with at least 20 years' experience in the broad region, participated in the 2 rounds of the study. The results provide an initial "mapping" of the opinions of a group of experts and suggest interesting lessons. For the 18 policy options proposed, consensus emerged only on strengthening the supply of quality primary health care services (judged as being effective with a confidence score of 79 and consensus score of 90), and on fee exemptions for the poorest (judged as being fairly easy to implement with a confidence score of 66 and consensus score of 85). For none of the 18 common policy options was there consensus on both potential effectiveness and feasibility, with very diverging opinions concerning 5 policy options. The lack of confidence and consensus within the panel seems to

  4. Issues in the assessment of children's coping in the context of mass trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Noffsinger, Mary A; Wind, Leslie H

    2012-06-01

    Exposure to mass trauma has contributed to increasing concern about the well-being of children, families, and communities. In spite of global awareness of the dramatic impact of mass trauma on youth, little is known about how children and adolescents cope with and adapt to disasters and terrorism. While coping has yet to be fully conceptualized as a unified construct, the process of responding to stress includes recognized cognitive, emotional, and behavioral components. Unfortunately, research on the complex process of adaptation in the aftermath of mass trauma is a relatively recent focus. Further study is needed to build consensus in terminology, theory, methods, and assessment techniques to assist researchers and clinicians in measuring children's coping, both generally and within the context of mass trauma. Advancements are needed in the area of coping assessment to identify internal and external factors affecting children's stress responses. Additionally, enhanced understanding of children's disaster coping can inform the development of prevention and intervention programs to promote resilience in the aftermath of traumatic events. This article examines the theoretical and practical issues in assessing coping in children exposed to mass trauma, and includes recommendations to guide assessment and research of children's coping within this specialized context.

  5. The assessment of natural flood management measures as a climate change adaptation option through land use scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacob, Oana; Rowan, John; Brown, Iain; Ellis, Chris

    2014-05-01

    Climate change is one of the most pressing issues facing civil society. Greater variability and more frequent extremes of temperature and precipitation will result in increased flood risk and corresponding social, economic and environmental impacts. Complementing more traditional structurally-based engineering interventions an important additional adaptation strategy is through natural flood management (NFM) measures utilising natural soil, wetland and groundwater storage at the catchment scale to attenuate runoff generation and downstream flooding. Such schemes have multiple co-benefits including improved water quality, biodiversity and amenity and so contribute to greater resilience to uncertain climate futures. As a case-study of a more integrated approach to land use planning we here consider the policy target of the Scottish Government to expand woodland in Scotland by 100,000 ha by 2025 from the current 3 000 ha/year. In this paper we examine runoff response under different woodland expansion scenarios using climate projections obtained from the UK Climate Projections (UKCP09). Woodland creation has recognised potential as a NFM measure, but locating this new planting is constrained by physical and cultural constraints. Land use choices in the future will also strongly reflect emergent socio-economic contexts, here assessed through scenario analysis. The distributed hydrological model WaSiM-ETH was utilised for the analysis using the case-study of the Tarland catchment, a tributary of the River Dee. Terrain data were obtained on a 50 m grid and the model calibrated using meteorological and river gauge data from 2005 to 2007 following a manual and an automatic calibration process. This novel approach highlights that land use change should be carefully managed for planned benefits and to avoid unintended consequences, such as changing the timing of tributary flood responses. Whilst woodland expansion may only provide modest gains in flood reductions the co

  6. Value-impact analysis of regulatory options for resolution of Generic Issue C-8: MSIV [Main Steam Isolation Valve] leakage and LCS [Leakage Control System] failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamison, J.D.; Vo, T.V.; Tabatabai, A.S.

    1990-05-01

    This report describes the analysis conducted to establish the basis for answering two remaining regulatory questions facing the NRC staff regarding the resolution of Generic Issue C-8, specifically:(1) What action should the NRC take concerning plants that currently have a leakage control system (LCS)? and, (2) What action should the NRC take concerning plants that do not have an LCS? Using individual MSIV leak test data, the performance of a system of eight such valves in a standard BWR con-figuration was modeled. The performance model was used along with estimates of core damage accident frequency and calculated dose consequences to determine the public risk associated with each of the alternatives. The occupational exposure implications of each alternative were calculated using estimates of labor hours in radiation zones that would be incurred or avoided. The costs to industry of implementing each alternative were estimated using standard cost formulae and NRC staff estimates. The cost to the NRC were estimated based on the effort incurred or avoided for reviews or other staff actions engendered by the selection of or avoided for reviews or other staff actions engendered by the selection of a particular alternative. The cost and risks thus calculated suggest that no regulatory action can be justified on the basis of risk reduction or cost savings. 12 refs., 1 tab

  7. Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlock, M.; Kersey, K.; Riding In, C.

    2009-07-31

    In 2003, the Pawnee Nation leadership identified the need for the tribe to comprehensively address its energy issues. During a strategic energy planning workshop a general framework was laid out and the Pawnee Nation Energy Task Force was created to work toward further development of the tribe’s energy vision. The overarching goals of the “first steps” project were to identify the most appropriate focus for its strategic energy initiatives going forward, and to provide information necessary to take the next steps in pursuit of the “best fit” energy options. Based on the request of Pawnee Nation’s Energy Task Force the research team, consisting Tribal personnel and Summit Blue Consulting, focused on a review of renewable energy resource development potential, funding sources and utility organizational along with energy savings options. Elements of the energy demand forecasting and characterization and demand side options review remained in the scope of work, but were only addressed at a high level. Description of Activities Performed Renewable Energy Resource Development Potential The research team reviewed existing data pertaining to the availability of biomass (focusing on woody biomass, agricultural biomass/bio-energy crops, and methane capture), solar, wind and hydropower resources on the Pawnee-owned lands. Using these data, combined with assumptions about costs and revenue streams, the research team performed preliminary feasibility assessments for each resource category. The research team also reviewed available funding resources and made recommendations to Pawnee Nation highlighting those resources with the greatest potential for financially-viable development, both in the near-term and over a longer time horizon. Energy Efficiency Options While this was not a major focus of the project, the research team highlighted common strategies for reducing energy use in buildings. The team also discussed the benefits of adopting a building energy code and

  8. Economic assessment of R and D with real options in the field of fast reactors taking into account uncertainty on their competitiveness: the case of France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taverdet-Popiolek, Nathalie; Shoai Tehrani, Bianka

    2013-01-01

    In a context of potential worldwide nuclear development, this paper aims at assessing the economic value of pursuing research in Generation IV fast reactors today, given that it would allow industrial deployment around 2040 in case of high uranium prices. Two key variables shall be considered as inputs for the assessment: the price of uranium and the over-cost of Generation IV reactors compared to the previous generation. Our model based on real options theory demonstrates that this value is positive and outweighs the risks associated with the competitiveness of Generation IV. (authors)

  9. A Trans-disciplinary Hydrogeological Systems Analysis Approach for Identifying and Assessing Managed Aquifer Recharge Options: Example from the Darling River Floodplain, N.S.W., Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrie, K.; Brodie, R. S.; Tan, K. P.; Halas, L.; Magee, J.; Gow, L.; Christensen, N. B.

    2013-12-01

    Surface water availability and quality generally limits managed aquifer recharge (MAR) opportunities in inland Australia's highly salinized landscapes and groundwater systems. Economic factors also commonly limit MAR investigations to shallow freshwater groundwater systems near existing infrastructure. Aquifer opportunities lie mainly in zones of fresh groundwater in relatively thin fluvial sedimentary aquifer systems with highly variable hydraulic properties. As part of a broader strategy to identify water savings in the Murray-Darling Basin, the Broken Hill Managed Aquifer Recharge (BHMAR) project was tasked with identifying and assessing MAR and/or groundwater extraction options to reduce evaporative losses from existing surface water storages, secure Broken Hill's water supply, protect the local environment and heritage, and return water to the river system. A trans-disciplinary research approach was used to identify and assess MAR options across a broad area of the Darling River floodplain. This methodology enabled the team to recognise fundamental problems in discipline approaches, helped identify critical data gaps, led to significant innovation across discipline boundaries, was critical in the development of a new hydrogeological conceptual model, facilitated development of new models of landscape, geological and tectonic evolution of the study area, and enabled completion of pre-commissioning maximal and residual MAR risk assessments. An airborne electromagnetics (AEM) survey, acquired over a large (>7,500 sq km) area of the Darling Floodplain, enabled rapid identification of a multi-layer sequence of aquifers and aquitards, while a phased assessment methodology was developed to rapidly identify and assess over 30 potential MAR targets (largely in fresh groundwater zones within palaeochannels and at palaeochannel confluences). Hydraulic properties were confirmed by a 7.5 km drilling program (100 sonic and rotary mud holes), and complementary field

  10. Human Health Risk Assessment of Pharmaceuticals in Water: Issues and Challenges Ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study identified existing issues related to quantitative pharmaceutical risk assessment (QPhRA, hereafter for pharmaceuticals in water and proposed possible solutions by analyzing methodologies and findings of different published QPhRA studies. Retrospective site-specific QPhRA studies from different parts of the world (U.S.A., United Kingdom, Europe, India, etc. were reviewed in a structured manner to understand different assumptions, outcomes obtained and issues, identified/addressed/raised by the different QPhRA studies. Till date, most of the published studies have concluded that there is no appreciable risk to human health during environmental exposures of pharmaceuticals; however, attention is still required to following identified issues: (1 Use of measured versus predicted pharmaceutical concentration, (2 Identification of pharmaceuticals-of-concern and compounds needing special considerations, (3 Use of source water versus finished drinking water-related exposure scenarios, (4 Selection of representative exposure routes, (5 Valuation of uncertainty factors, and (6 Risk assessment for mixture of chemicals. To close the existing data and methodology gaps, this study proposed possible ways to address and/or incorporation these considerations within the QPhRA framework; however, more research work is still required to address issues, such as incorporation of short-term to long-term extrapolation and mixture effects in the QPhRA framework. Specifically, this study proposed a development of a new “mixture effects-related uncertainty factor” for mixture of chemicals (i.e., mixUFcomposite, similar to an uncertainty factor of a single chemical, within the QPhRA framework. In addition to all five traditionally used uncertainty factors, this uncertainty factor is also proposed to include concentration effects due to presence of different range of concentration levels of pharmaceuticals in a mixture. However, further work is required to

  11. Applicability of PSA Issues for Risk Assessment during Optimisation of In-Service Inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolykhanov, V.; Skalozubov, V.; Kovrigkin, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The current codes determining periodicity of in-service inspection of the NPP equipment have been formed using deterministic approaches and have an unnecessary degree of conservatism. A perspective direction of perfection of normative base is decision making on a basis of risk-informed methodologies. It allows to increase safety of NPP equipment's operation and to optimise programs on inspection of the equipment subject to limited resources by focusing efforts on the most safety significant elements of the equipment. It is internationally accepted that methodology of the probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) is the most universal and comprehensive tool focused on the general assessment of safety of NPP as a whole. By now, PSA Level 1 is fulfilled for all pilot units of the Ukrainian NPPs that is a valuable result, which should be taken into account at an assessment of reliability of the equipment. However, specificity of PSA methodology should be taken into account at the decision of the particular tasks aimed at optimisation of maintenance of the equipment within individual systems. The estimation of the contribution to core damage frequency (CDF) is a PSA issue usually used to assess the significance of consequences of failure of a system/equipment during risk-informed decision-making. This work shows that above factor is only a part of assessment of the significance of consequences as core damage can be expressed in different amount of the damaged fuel elements and, hence, severity of consequences. Besides CDF is directly affected only by active elements which failure can be an initiating event. PSA methodology uses averaged reliability factors of the equipment for all possible operating modes occurring at transitive accident process. Here, there are limited opportunities to account impact of periodicity of maintenance of the equipment on reliability and to predict impact of change of the inspection program. PSA methodology does not allow taking into account

  12. Social, economic and environmental assessment of energy and water desalination options for the Brazilian polygon of drought using the IRIS reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista Filho, D. P.; Cegalla, M.; Raduan, R. N.; Barroso, A. C. O.; Molnary, L.; Lima, F. R. A.; Lira, C. A. B. O.; Lima, R. C. F.

    2004-01-01

    The paper discuss a project conceived to perform a social, economic and environmental assessment of the use of IRIS Reactor for electricity generation and water desalination in the most dry region of Brazil, the Polygon of Drought. The project is financed by the Fund of Energy of the Brazilian Council on Research and Development (CNPq) of the Brazilian Ministry of Science and Technology (MCT), and it will be performed by the Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPe) and the Energetic and Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN) of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). The project will provide comparisons between nuclear and gas options. The final objective of the project is to offer effective evaluations considering the total costs (direct and externalisation) of the different energy options and also the social and environmental aspects associated with them.(author)

  13. Risk assessment of the oriental chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus for the EU territory and identification and evaluation of risk management options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2010-01-01

    in its assessment that a) Castanea plants for intended planting represent the main pathway for entry of D. kuriphilus to the EU; b) D. kuriphilus has a very high potential for establishment in the EU and the climate is suitable wherever Castanea sativa is grown in southern, central and western Europe; c......The Panel on Plant Health was requested by the European Commission to deliver a scientific opinion on the risk posed by the oriental chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus to the EU territory and to identify and evaluate risk management options. Additional analyses were conducted by the Panel...... to a) determine the distribution of the endangered area within the EU territory; b) investigate the pattern and rate of pest diffusion and c) consider the environmental risk of introduction of the biological control agent Torymus sinensis identified as a potential management option. The Panel concluded...

  14. Holistic approach to multi-unit site risk assessment: Status and Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Inn Seock; Jang, Mi Suk; Kim, Seoung Rae

    2017-01-01

    The events at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in March 2011 point out, among other matters, that concurrent accidents at multiple units of a site can occur in reality. Although site risk has been deterministically considered to some extent in nuclear power plant siting and design, potential occurrence of multi-unit accident sequences at a site was not investigated in sufficient detail thus far in the nuclear power community. Therefore, there is considerable worldwide interest and research effort directed toward multi-unit site risk assessment, especially in the countries with high-density nuclear-power-plant sites such as Korea. As the technique of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) has been successfully applied to evaluate the risk associated with operation of nuclear power plants in the past several decades, the PSA having primarily focused on single-unit risks is now being extended to the multi-unit PSA. In this paper we first characterize the site risk with explicit consideration of the risk associated with spent fuel pools as well as the reactor risks. The status of multi-unit risk assessment is discussed next, followed by a description of the emerging issues relevant to the multi-unit risk evaluation from a practical standpoint

  15. Issues in performance assessments for disposal of US Department of Energy low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.E.; Wilhite, E.L.; Duggan, G.J.

    1994-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors have long been pioneers in the field of radiological performance assessment (PA). Much effort has been expended in developing technology and acquiring data to facilitate the assessment process. This is reflected in DOE Order 5820.2A, Radioactive Waste Management Chapter III of the Order lists policy and requirements to manage the DOEs low-level waste; performance objectives for low-level waste management are stated to ensure the protection of public health and the environment. A radiological PA is also required to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives. DOE Order 5820.2A further requires that an Oversight and Peer Review Panel be established to ensure consistency and technical quality around the DOE complex in the development and application of PA models that include site-specific geohydrology and waste composition. The DOE has also established a Performance Assessment Task Team (PATT) to integrate the activities of sites that are preparing PAs. The PATT's purpose is to recommend policy and guidance to DOE on issues that impact PAs so that the approaches taken are as consistent as possible across the DOE complex

  16. Holistic approach to multi-unit site risk assessment: Status and Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Inn Seock; Jang, Mi Suk; Kim, Seoung Rae [Nuclear Engineering Service and Solution Company (NESS), Daejeon Business Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The events at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in March 2011 point out, among other matters, that concurrent accidents at multiple units of a site can occur in reality. Although site risk has been deterministically considered to some extent in nuclear power plant siting and design, potential occurrence of multi-unit accident sequences at a site was not investigated in sufficient detail thus far in the nuclear power community. Therefore, there is considerable worldwide interest and research effort directed toward multi-unit site risk assessment, especially in the countries with high-density nuclear-power-plant sites such as Korea. As the technique of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) has been successfully applied to evaluate the risk associated with operation of nuclear power plants in the past several decades, the PSA having primarily focused on single-unit risks is now being extended to the multi-unit PSA. In this paper we first characterize the site risk with explicit consideration of the risk associated with spent fuel pools as well as the reactor risks. The status of multi-unit risk assessment is discussed next, followed by a description of the emerging issues relevant to the multi-unit risk evaluation from a practical standpoint.

  17. IAEA Issues Report on Mission to Review Japan's Nuclear Power Plant Safety Assessment Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text: A team of international nuclear safety experts has delivered its report on a mission it conducted from 21-31 January 2012 to review Japan's process for assessing nuclear safety at the nation's nuclear power plants. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) officials delivered the IAEA Mission Report to Japanese officials yesterday and made it publicly available today. Following the 11 March 2011 accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Japan's Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) announced the development of a revised safety assessment process for the nation's nuclear power reactors. At the request of the Government of Japan, the IAEA organized a team of five IAEA and three international nuclear safety experts and visited Japan to review NISA's approach to the Comprehensive Assessments for the Safety of Existing Power Reactor Facilities and how NISA examines the results submitted by nuclear operators. A Preliminary Summary Report was issued on 31 January. 'The mission report provides additional information regarding the team's recommendations and overall finding that NISA's instructions to power plants and its review process for the Comprehensive Safety Assessments are generally consistent with IAEA Safety Standards', said team leader James Lyons, Director of the IAEA's Nuclear Installation Safety Division. National safety assessments and their peer review by the IAEA are a key component of the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety, which was approved by the Agency's Member States following last year's nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. The IAEA safety review mission held meetings in Tokyo with officials from NISA, the Japanese Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES), and the Kansai Electric Power Company (KEPCO), and the team visited the Ohi Nuclear Power Station to see an example of how Japan's Comprehensive Safety Assessment is being implemented by nuclear operators. In its report delivered today

  18. Energy exotic options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminski, V.; Gibner, S.; Pinnamaneni, K.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter with 88 references focuses on the use of exotic options to control exposure to energy prices. Exotic options are defined, and the conversion of a standard option into an exotic option and pricing models are examined. Pricing and hedging exotic options, path-dependent options, multi-commodity options, options on the minimum-or-maximum of two commodities, compound options, digital options, hybrid and complex structures, and natural gas daily options are described. Formulas for option pricing for vanilla, barrier, compound, options on minimum or maximum of two assets, and look back options are given in an appendix

  19. Computer Security Issues in Online Banking: An Assessment from the Context of Usable Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmadi, FN; Zaaba, ZF; Osman, A.

    2016-11-01

    Today's online banking is a convenient mode of finance management. Despite the ease of doing online banking, there are people that still sceptical in utilizing it due to perception and its security. This paper highlights the subject of online banking security in Malaysia, especially from the perspective of the end-users. The study is done by assessing human computer interaction, usability and security. An online survey utilising 137 participants was previously conducted to gain preliminary insights on security issues of online banking in Malaysia. Following from those results, 37 participants were interviewed to gauge deeper understanding about end-users perception on online banking within the context of usable security. The results suggested that most of the end-users are continuingly experiencing significant difficulties especially in relation to the technical terminologies, security features and other technical issues. Although the security features are provided to provide a shield or protection, users are still incapable to cope with the technical aspects of such implementation.

  20. Epistemic uncertainties and natural hazard risk assessment - Part 1: A review of the issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beven, K. J.; Aspinall, W. P.; Bates, P. D.; Borgomeo, E.; Goda, K.; Hall, J. W.; Page, T.; Phillips, J. C.; Rougier, J. T.; Simpson, M.; Stephenson, D. B.; Smith, P. J.; Wagener, T.; Watson, M.

    2015-12-01

    Uncertainties in natural hazard risk assessment are generally dominated by the sources arising from lack of knowledge or understanding of the processes involved. There is a lack of knowledge about frequencies, process representations, parameters, present and future boundary conditions, consequences and impacts, and the meaning of observations in evaluating simulation models. These are the epistemic uncertainties that can be difficult to constrain, especially in terms of event or scenario probabilities, even as elicited probabilities rationalized on the basis of expert judgements. This paper reviews the issues raised by trying to quantify the effects of epistemic uncertainties. Such scientific uncertainties might have significant influence on decisions that are made for risk management, so it is important to communicate the meaning of an uncertainty estimate and to provide an audit trail of the assumptions on which it is based. Some suggestions for good practice in doing so are made.

  1. Non-technical issues in safety assessments for nuclear disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallenbach-Herbert, Beate; Brohmann, Bettina

    2010-09-01

    The paper highlights that a comprehensive approach to safety affords the consideration of technology, organisation, personnel and social environment. In several safety relevant contexts of nuclear waste disposal these fields are closely interrelated. The approach for the consideration of socio-scientific aspects which is sketched in this paper supports the systematic treatment of safety relevant non-technical issues in the safety case or in safety assessments for a disposal project. Furthermore it may foster the dialogue among specialists from the technical, the natural- and the socio-scientific field on questions of disposal safety. In this way it may contribute to a better understanding among the affected scientific disciplines in nuclear waste disposal.

  2. Human reliability analysis for probabilistic safety assessments - review of methods and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, G.; Guptan, Rajee; Malhotra, P.K.; Ghadge, S.G.; Chandra, Umesh

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that the two major events in World Nuclear Power Plant Operating history, namely the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl, were Human failure events. Subsequent to these two events, several significant changes have been incorporated in Plant Design, Control Room Design and Operator Training to reduce the possibility of Human errors during plant transients. Still, human error contribution to Risk in Nuclear Power Plant operations has been a topic of continued attention for research, development and analysis. Probabilistic Safety Assessments attempt to capture all potential human errors with a scientifically computed failure probability, through Human Reliability Analysis. Several methods are followed by different countries to quantify the Human error probability. This paper reviews the various popular methods being followed, critically examines them with reference to their criticisms and brings out issues for future research. (author)

  3. Key issues in life cycle assessment of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass: Challenges and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anoop; Pant, Deepak; Korres, Nicholas E; Nizami, Abdul-Sattar; Prasad, Shiv; Murphy, Jerry D

    2010-07-01

    Progressive depletion of conventional fossil fuels with increasing energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have led to a move towards renewable and sustainable energy sources. Lignocellulosic biomass is available in massive quantities and provides enormous potential for bioethanol production. However, to ascertain optimal biofuel strategies, it is necessary to take into account environmental impacts from cradle to grave. Life cycle assessment (LCA) techniques allow detailed analysis of material and energy fluxes on regional and global scales. This includes indirect inputs to the production process and associated wastes and emissions, and the downstream fate of products in the future. At the same time if not used properly, LCA can lead to incorrect and inappropriate actions on the part of industry and/or policy makers. This paper aims to list key issues for quantifying the use of resources and releases to the environment associated with the entire life cycle of lignocellulosic bioethanol production. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Matrix Diffusion for Performance Assessment - Experimental Evidence, Modelling Assumptions and Open Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakob, A

    2004-07-01

    In this report a comprehensive overview on the matrix diffusion of solutes in fractured crystalline rocks is presented. Some examples from observations in crystalline bedrock are used to illustrate that matrix diffusion indeed acts on various length scales. Fickian diffusion is discussed in detail followed by some considerations on rock porosity. Due to the fact that the dual-porosity medium model is a very common and versatile method for describing solute transport in fractured porous media, the transport equations and the fundamental assumptions, approximations and simplifications are discussed in detail. There is a variety of geometrical aspects, processes and events which could influence matrix diffusion. The most important of these, such as, e.g., the effect of the flow-wetted fracture surface, channelling and the limited extent of the porous rock for matrix diffusion etc., are addressed. In a further section open issues and unresolved problems related to matrix diffusion are mentioned. Since matrix diffusion is one of the key retarding processes in geosphere transport of dissolved radionuclide species, matrix diffusion was consequently taken into account in past performance assessments of radioactive waste repositories in crystalline host rocks. Some issues regarding matrix diffusion are site-specific while others are independent of the specific situation of a planned repository for radioactive wastes. Eight different performance assessments from Finland, Sweden and Switzerland were considered with the aim of finding out how matrix diffusion was addressed, and whether a consistent picture emerges regarding the varying methodology of the different radioactive waste organisations. In the final section of the report some conclusions are drawn and an outlook is given. An extensive bibliography provides the reader with the key papers and reports related to matrix diffusion. (author)

  5. Cost assessment and ecological effectiveness of nutrient reduction options for mitigating Phaeocystis colony blooms in the Southern North Sea: an integrated modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancelot, Christiane; Thieu, Vincent; Polard, Audrey; Garnier, Josette; Billen, Gilles; Hecq, Walter; Gypens, Nathalie

    2011-05-01

    Nutrient reduction measures have been already taken by wealthier countries to decrease nutrient loads to coastal waters, in most cases however, prior to having properly assessed their ecological effectiveness and their economic costs. In this paper we describe an original integrated impact assessment methodology to estimate the direct cost and the ecological performance of realistic nutrient reduction options to be applied in the Southern North Sea watershed to decrease eutrophication, visible as Phaeocystis blooms and foam deposits on the beaches. The mathematical tool couples the idealized biogeochemical GIS-based model of the river system (SENEQUE-RIVERSTRAHLER) implemented in the Eastern Channel/Southern North Sea watershed to the biogeochemical MIRO model describing Phaeocystis blooms in the marine domain. Model simulations explore how nutrient reduction options regarding diffuse and/or point sources in the watershed would affect the Phaeocystis colony spreading in the coastal area. The reference and prospective simulations are performed for the year 2000 characterized by mean meteorological conditions, and nutrient reduction scenarios include and compare upgrading of wastewater treatment plants and changes in agricultural practices including an idealized shift towards organic farming. A direct cost assessment is performed for each realistic nutrient reduction scenario. Further the reduction obtained for Phaeocystis blooms is assessed by comparison with ecological indicators (bloom magnitude and duration) and the cost for reducing foam events on the beaches is estimated. Uncertainty brought by the added effect of meteorological conditions (rainfall) on coastal eutrophication is discussed. It is concluded that the reduction obtained by implementing realistic environmental measures on the short-term is costly and insufficient to restore well-balanced nutrient conditions in the coastal area while the replacement of conventional agriculture by organic farming

  6. Fusion as an energy option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, D.

    1976-01-01

    The environmental issues, alternative fusion fuels, the economic potential, and the time scale of fusion power are assessed. It is common for the advocate of a long-term energy source to claim his source (fission, fusion, solar, etc.) as the ultimate solution to man's energy needs. The author does not believe that such a stance will lead to a rational energy policy. Dr. Steiner encourages a long-term energy policy that has as its goal the development of fission breeders, fusion, and solar energy--not be totally reliant on a single source. He does advocate vigorous funding for fusion, not because it is a guarantee for ''clean, limitless, and cheap power,'' but because it may provide an important energy option for the next century

  7. Body Composition Evaluation Issue among Young Elite Football Players: DXA Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Leão

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Accurate assessment of body composition is an important issue among athletes. Different methodologies generate controversial results, leading to a deep uncertainty on individual exercise prescriptions. Thus, this study aims to identify the differences between field methods, such as bioelectrical impedance (BIA and skinfold assessment, with a clinical method, highly accurate, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, among elite young football players. Thirty-eight male football players with a mean (sd age of 16.7 (0.87 years, involved in the Portuguese national competition of U16 (n = 13 and U19 (n = 25, were evaluated and objective measures of body composition, muscle strength and football skills were collected by trained specialists. Body composition was assessed using BIA (Tanita BC-418, Tanita Corp., Tokyo, Japan, in agreement with all the evaluation premises. Additionally, all athletes were evaluated using the clinical method DXA (Hologic Inc., Waltham, MA, USA. Among the U19 athletes, three skinfold sites (SKF were assessed: chest, abdomin and thigh. The Spearman correlation coefficients and the mean difference between methods were calculated. The agreement between both methods was analyzed using Bland-Altman plots. Among the evaluated athletes, lower mean values of body fat % were found using BIA as a method of body composition assessment compared with DXA (12.05 vs. 15.58 for U16; 11.97 vs. 14.16 for U19. Despite the moderate correlation between methods (r = 0.33 to estimate the percentage of total fat, the median of the difference (DXA vs. BIA was relevant in clinical terms, with 2.90% and 1.47% for U16 and U19 athletes, respectively. Stronger correlations were found between the sum of the SKF and DXA fat estimation (r = 0.68. The Bland-Altman plots showed a clear underestimation in the evaluations using the BIA, namely among athletes with better body composition profiles (8%–12% of fat. Using BIA, an underestimation of body fat

  8. Help Options in CALL: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a systematic review of research investigating help options in the different language skills in computer-assisted language learning (CALL). In this review, emerging themes along with is-sues affecting help option research are identified and discussed. We argue that help options in CALL are application resources that do not only seem…

  9. 78 FR 7997 - Noncompensatory Partnership Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... Noncompensatory Partnership Options AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Department of the Treasury. ACTION... noncompensatory options and convertible instruments issued by a partnership. The final regulations generally provide that the exercise of a noncompensatory option does not cause the recognition of immediate income...

  10. 24 CFR 221.255 - Assignment option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assignment option. 221.255 Section... Assignment option. (a) A mortgagee holding a mortgage insured pursuant to a conditional or firm commitment issued on or before November 30, 1983 has the option to assign, transfer and deliver to the Commissioner...

  11. 24 CFR 221.770 - Assignment option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assignment option. 221.770 Section... § 221.770 Assignment option. A mortgagee holding a conditional or firm commitment issued on or before... mortgagee's approved underwriter on or before November 30, 1983) has the option to assign, transfer and...

  12. Using an Integrated Participatory Modeling Approach to Assess Water Management Options and Support Community Conversations on Maui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rushil S. Mistry

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to provide an integrated analysis of water distribution on Maui and the cross-sectoral impacts of policies and regulations aimed at rejuvenating and sustaining the deep-rooted culture on the island. Since the water diversion system was implemented in 1876 on the island of Maui, there has been contention among local interest groups over the right way to manage and allocate this precious resource. There is also concern over the availability of the precious resource in the long term, as the demand for water is expected to exceed the potential supply of water on Maui by 2020. This paper analyzes various long run scenarios of policy options presently being discussed on Maui. By collaborating with local experts, business leaders, and community members, to develop a tool that facilitates policy formulation and evaluation, informed decisions can then be made by the local community to ensure sustainable development.

  13. Emission of toxic components as a factor of the best practice options for waste management: Application of LCA (Life Cycle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović-Čarapina Hristina D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Health and safety have been the major concerns in waste management. Waste must be managed in a way that minimizes risk to human health. Environmental concerns over the management and disposal of waste can be divided into two major areas: conservation of resources and pollution of the environment. Integrated Waste Management (IWM systems combine waste streams, waste collection, treatment and disposal methods, with the objective of achieving environmental benefits, economic optimization and societal acceptability. Integrated waste management using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA attempts to offer the most benign options for waste management. LCA is a compilation and evaluation of the inputs, the outputs and the potential environmental impacts of a product system throughout its life cycle. It can be successfully applied to municipal solid waste management systems to identify the overall environmental burdens and to assess the potential environmental impacts. This paper deals with the LCA of the two waste management options for final disposal of municipal waste, landfilling (landfill without landfill gas collection or leachate collection and sanitary landfilling (landfill with landfill gas collection and recovery and leachate collection and treatments analyzed for town Sombor, Serbia. The research is conducted with the use of the Software Package IWM-2. The indicators which are used in the assessment are air and water emissions of toxic compounds. The results indicated that waste disposal practice has a significant effect on the emission of the toxic components and environmental burdens. Sanitary landfilling of municipal solid waste significantly reduces toxic emission and negative influence on the environment.

  14. An approach for assessing development and deployment risks in the DOE fuel cycle options evaluation and screening study - 5267

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehin, J.C.; Worrall, A.; Oakley, B.; Jenni, K.; Taiwo, T.; Wigeland, R.

    2015-01-01

    One of the key objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Energy Research/development road-map is the development of sustainable nuclear fuel cycles that can improve natural resource utilization and provide solutions to the management of nuclear wastes. Recently, an evaluation and screening (ES) of fuel cycle systems has been conducted to identify those options that provide the best opportunities for obtaining such improvements and also to identify the required research and development activities that can support the development of advanced fuel cycle options. In order to evaluate and screen fuel cycle systems in the ES study, nine criteria were used including Development and Deployment Risk (DDR). More specifically, this criterion was represented by the following metrics: Development time, development cost, deployment cost from prototypic validation to first-of-a-kind commercial, compatibility with the existing nuclear fuel cycle infrastructure, existence of regulations for the fuel cycle and familiarity with licensing, and existence of market incentives and/or barriers to commercial implementation of fuel cycle processes. Given the comprehensive nature of the study, a systematic approach was needed to determine metric data for the DDR criterion. As would be expected, the Evaluation Group representing the once-through use of uranium in thermal reactors is always the highest ranked fuel cycle Evaluation Group for this DDR criterion. Evaluation Groups that consist of once-through fuel cycles that use existing reactor types are consistently ranked very high. The highest ranked limited and continuous recycle fuel cycle Evaluation Groups are those that recycle Pu in thermal reactors. The lowest ranked fuel cycles are predominately continuous recycle single stage and multi-stage fuel cycles that involve TRU and/or U 233 recycle. (authors)

  15. Technical Issues and Proposes on the Legislation of Probabilistic Safety Assessment in Periodic Safety Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Seok-Won; Jeon, Ho-Jun; Na, Jang-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Korean Nuclear Power Plants have performed a comprehensive safety assessment reflecting design and procedure changes and using the latest technology every 10 years. In Korea, safety factors of PSR are revised to 14 by revision of IAEA Safety Guidelines in 2003. In the revised safety guidelines, safety analysis field was subdivided into deterministic safety analysis, PSA (Probabilistic safety analysis), and hazard analysis. The purpose to examine PSA as a safety factor on PSR is to make sure that PSA results and assumptions reflect the latest state of NPPs, validate the level of computer codes and analytical models, and evaluate the adequacy of PSA instructions. In addition, its purpose is to derive the plant design change, operating experience of other plants and safety enhancement items as well. In Korea, PSA is introduced as a new factor. Thus, the overall guideline development and long-term implementation strategy are needed. Today in Korea, full-power PSA model revision and low-power and shutdown (LPSD) PSA model development is being performed as a part of the post Fukushima action items for operating plants. The scope of the full-power PSA is internal/external level 1, 2 PSA. But in case of fire PSA, the scope is level 1 PSA using new method, NUREG/CR-6850. In case of LPSD PSA, level 1 PSA for all operating plants, and level 2 PSA for 2 demonstration plants are under development. The result of the LPSD PSA will be used as major input data for plant specific SAMG (Severe Accident Management Guideline). The scope of PSA currently being developed in Korea cannot fulfill 'All Mode, All Scope' requirements recommended in the IAEA Safety Guidelines. Besides the legislation of PSA, step-by-step development strategy for non-performed scopes such as level 3 PSA and new fire PSA is one of the urgent issues in Korea. This paper suggests technical issues and development strategies for each PSA technical elements.

  16. Advanced CFD simulation for the assessment of nuclear safety issues at EDF. Some examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vare, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    EDF R and D has computer power that puts it amongst the top industrial research centers in the world. Its supercomputers and in-house codes as well as its experts represent important capabilities to support EDF activities (safety analyses, support to the design of new reactors, analysis of accidental situations non reproducible by experiments, better understanding of physics or complex system response, effects of uncertainties and identification of prominent parameters, qualification and optimization of processes and materials...). Advanced numerical simulation is a powerful tool allowing EDF to increase its competitiveness, improve its performance and the safety of its plants. On this issue, EDF made the choice to develop its own in-house codes, instead of using commercial software, in order to be able to capitalize its expertise and methodologies. This choice allowed as well easier technological transfer to the concerned business units or engineering divisions, fast adaptation of our simulation tools to emerging needs and the development of specific physics or functionalities not addressed by the commercial offer. During the last ten years, EDF has decided to open its in-house codes, through the Open Source way. This is the case for Code – Aster (structure analysis), Code – Saturne (computational fluid dynamics, CFD), TELEMAC (flow calculations in aquatic environment), SALOME (generic platform for Pre and Post-Processing) and SYRTHES (heat transfer in complex geometries), among others. The 3 open source software: Code – Aster, Code – Saturne and TELEMAC, are certified by the French Nuclear Regulatory Authority for many «Important to Safety» studies. Advanced simulation, which treats complex, multi-field and multi-physics problems, is of great importance for the assessment of nuclear safety issues. This paper will present 2 examples of advanced simulation using Code – Saturne for safety issues of nuclear power plants in the fields of R and D and

  17. Governance in Southeast Asia: Issues and Options

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Eduardo T.; Mendoza, Magdalena L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper attempts to analyze governance systems in Southeast Asia and proposes some policy suggestions that can improve governance practices in the region. It also discusses the links between governance and official development assistance and the role of the Japan Bank for International Cooperation. To put the discussion on governance systems in a proper context, the paper discusses the governance and growth nexus in Southeast Asia; describes the operating governance systems in Southeast As...

  18. India's Health Initiative: Financing Issues and Options

    OpenAIRE

    Deolalikar, Anil B.; Jamison, Dean T.; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2007-01-01

    In response to the challenge of sustaining the health gains achieved in the better-performing states and ensuring that the lagging states catch up with the rest of the country, the Indian government has launched the National Rural Health Mission. A central goal of the effort is to increase public spending on health from the current 1.1 percent of GDP to roughly 2–3 percent of GDP within the next five years. In this paper, we examine the current status of health financing in India, as well as ...

  19. An Asian poverty line? Issues and options

    OpenAIRE

    Klasen, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Given Asia's record of rapid economic growth and the conceptual and empirical problems of the current international income poverty line ('dollar-a-day'), this paper discusses whether there is merit to develop an Asia-specific poverty line that addresses some of the shortcomings of the dollar-a-day line and additionally considers Asia's particular economic situation. We consider various ways of creating an Asia-specific poverty line, including an Asia-specific international income poverty line...

  20. Venous access: options, approaches and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asch, M.R.

    2001-01-01

    Venous access is an essential part of medical practice. It is needed to obtain blood samples to make the diagnosis and to administer fluids or medicines as part of treatment. Although relatively new in the history of medicine, the placement and maintenance of the various venous access devices now occupies a significant portion of many vascular and interventional radiology practices. Thus, it is important to have a thorough understanding of these devices and their uses. The first long-term venous access devices were used in 1973. These were placed via a surgical cut-down on the subclavian vein. In 1982, the first subcutaneous implantable ports were described. These procedures were initially performed by surgeons, but over the last 5-10 years, both the insertion and management of these devices has shifted to interventional radiologists. Peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) lines have almost completely supplanted the use of standard central lines (Fig. 1). A number of factors have facilitated this - namely, ready and less expensive room access, outpatient procedure and radiologists' accessibility and familiarity with image-guidance procedures and catheters and guide wires. (author)

  1. Homeland Security Office: Issues and Options

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Rensselaer

    2002-01-01

    ... attacks as a federal focal point for coordinating domestic efforts against terrorism. Former Governor Tom Ridge of Pennsylvania, a close friend and political ally of the President, was appointed to head the OHS...

  2. Towards an Integrated Assessment Model for Tropospheric Ozone-Emission Inventories, Scenarios and Emission-control Options

    OpenAIRE

    Olsthoorn, X.

    1994-01-01

    IIASA intends to extend its RAINS model for addressing the issue of transboundary ozone air pollution. This requires the development of a VOC-emissions module, VOCs being precursors in ozone formation. The module should contain a Europe-wide emission inventory, a submodule for developing emission scenarios and a database of measures for VOC-emission control, including data about control effectiveness and control costs. It is recommended to use the forthcoming CORINAIR90 inventory for construc...

  3. Analysis of Critical Issues in Biosphere Assessment Modelling and Site Investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egan, M.J.; Thorne, M.C.; Little, R.H.; Pasco, R.F. [Quintessa Limited, Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this document is to present a critical review of issues concerned with the treatment of the biosphere and geosphere-biosphere interface in long-term performance assessment studies for nuclear waste disposal in Sweden. The review covers three main areas of investigation: a review of SKB's plans for undertaking site investigations at candidate locations for the development of a deep geological repository for spent fuel; identification of critical uncertainties associated with SKB's treatment of the geosphere-biosphere interface in recent performance assessments; and a preliminary modelling investigation of the significance of features, events and processes in the near-surface environment in terms of their effect on the accumulation and redistribution of radionuclides at the geosphere-biosphere interface. Overall, SKB's proposals for site investigations are considered to be comprehensive and, if they can be carried out to the specification presented, will constitute a benchmark that other waste management organisations will have to work hard to emulate. The main concern is that expertise for undertaking the investigations and reporting the results could be stretched very thin. The authors have also identified weaknesses in the documentation concerning the collection of evidence for environmental change and on developing scenarios for future environmental change. A fundamental assumption adopted in the renewed assessment of the SFR 1 repository, which is not discussed or justified in any of the documentation that has been reviewed, is that radionuclides enter the water column of the coastal and lake models directly, without passing first through the bed sediments. The modelling study reported herein suggests that SKB's models are robust to range of alternative conceptual descriptions relating to the geosphere-biosphere interface. There are however situations, in which contaminated groundwater is released via sediment rather than directly

  4. Analysis of Critical Issues in Biosphere Assessment Modelling and Site Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, M.J.; Thorne, M.C.; Little, R.H.; Pasco, R.F.

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this document is to present a critical review of issues concerned with the treatment of the biosphere and geosphere-biosphere interface in long-term performance assessment studies for nuclear waste disposal in Sweden. The review covers three main areas of investigation: a review of SKB's plans for undertaking site investigations at candidate locations for the development of a deep geological repository for spent fuel; identification of critical uncertainties associated with SKB's treatment of the geosphere-biosphere interface in recent performance assessments; and a preliminary modelling investigation of the significance of features, events and processes in the near-surface environment in terms of their effect on the accumulation and redistribution of radionuclides at the geosphere-biosphere interface. Overall, SKB's proposals for site investigations are considered to be comprehensive and, if they can be carried out to the specification presented, will constitute a benchmark that other waste management organisations will have to work hard to emulate. The main concern is that expertise for undertaking the investigations and reporting the results could be stretched very thin. The authors have also identified weaknesses in the documentation concerning the collection of evidence for environmental change and on developing scenarios for future environmental change. A fundamental assumption adopted in the renewed assessment of the SFR 1 repository, which is not discussed or justified in any of the documentation that has been reviewed, is that radionuclides enter the water column of the coastal and lake models directly, without passing first through the bed sediments. The modelling study reported herein suggests that SKB's models are robust to range of alternative conceptual descriptions relating to the geosphere-biosphere interface. There are however situations, in which contaminated groundwater is released via sediment rather than directly to the water column

  5. Next Generation Melter Optioneering Study - Interim Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, M.F.; Calmus, R.B.; Ramsey, G.; Lomax, J.; Allen, H.

    2010-01-01

    The next generation melter (NOM) development program includes a down selection process to aid in determining the recommended vitrification technology to implement into the WTP at the first melter change-out which is scheduled for 2025. This optioneering study presents a structured value engineering process to establish and assess evaluation criteria that will be incorporated into the down selection process. This process establishes an evaluation framework that will be used progressively throughout the NGM program, and as such this interim report will be updated on a regular basis. The workshop objectives were achieved. In particular: (1) Consensus was reached with stakeholders and technology providers represented at the workshop regarding the need for a decision making process and the application of the D 2 0 process to NGM option evaluation. (2) A framework was established for applying the decision making process to technology development and evaluation between 2010 and 2013. (3) The criteria for the initial evaluation in 2011 were refined and agreed with stakeholders and technology providers. (4) The technology providers have the guidance required to produce data/information to support the next phase of the evaluation process. In some cases it may be necessary to reflect the data/information requirements and overall approach to the evaluation of technology options against specific criteria within updated Statements of Work for 2010-2011. Access to the WTP engineering data has been identified as being very important for option development and evaluation due to the interface issues for the NGM and surrounding plant. WRPS efforts are ongoing to establish precisely data that is required and how to resolve this Issue. It is intended to apply a similarly structured decision making process to the development and evaluation of LAW NGM options.

  6. The Development and Application of a Value-Driven Aircraft Maintenance Operations Performance Assessment Model combined with Real Options Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, H.G.; Beelaerts van Blokland, W.W.A.; Curran, R.

    2011-01-01

    This research paper presents the results from the development of an Aircraft Maintenance Operations Performance Assessment Model (AMOPAM). The AMOPAM is able to assess the differences in performance in between two different states or scenarios of aircraft maintenance operations and is able to

  7. Three technical issues in fatigue damage assessment of nuclear power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.; Shah, V.N.

    1991-01-01

    This paper addresses three technical issues that affect the fatigue damage assessment of nuclear power plant components: the effect of the environment on the fatigue life, the importance of the loading sequence in calculating the fatigue crack-initiation damage, and the adequacy of current inservice inspection requirements and methods to characterize fatigue cracks. The environmental parameters that affect the fatigue life of carbon and low alloy steel components are the sulphur content in the steel, the temperature, the amount of dissolved oxygen in the coolant, and the presence of oxidizing agents such as copper oxide. The occurrence of large-amplitude stress cycles early in a component's life followed by low-amplitude stress cycles may cause crack initiation at a cumulative usage factor less than 1.0. The current inservice inspection requirements include volumetric inspections of welds but not of some susceptible sites in the base metal. In addition, the conventional ultrasonic testing techniques need to be improved for reliable detection and accurate sizing of fatigue cracks. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  8. The difficult issue of age assessment on pedo-pornographic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Cristina; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Gabriel, Peter; Gibelli, Daniele; Giudici, Elena; Poppa, Pasquale; Nohrden, Doerte; Assmann, Sabine; Schmitt, Roland; Grandi, Marco

    2009-01-10

    The issue of juvenile pornography has seen an increase in the past few years of the number of expert opinions requested to forensic pathologists, paediatricians and other various experts within the forensic and medical fields concerning the age of represented individuals. Regardless of the entity of the problem, no actual method exists which can allow us to give an objective and scientific answer, particularly in the postpubertal stage. Using parameters related to sexual maturation can be very dangerous. Nonetheless some experts still insist with similar types of "expertises". This study aims at verifying the ability of different experts in assessing age of postpubertal individuals represented in pornographic material. Results underline the difficulties and major uncertainties of age evaluation by visual observation of photographic material particularly when the subjects have reached the sexual maturation stage - and therefore in verifying whether the individual is above or below 18 years of age (an important age limit for most European countries as far as this type of crime is concerned). Furthermore the study stresses the need both to search for an alternate approach and to apply extreme caution in judicial evaluation.

  9. Assessing the Impact of Sustainability Improvement Options on the Agri-food Supply Chain Governance Structures: Development of an Evaluation Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimo Rota

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The competitiveness of a supply chain is driven by the ability of supply chain governance structures to adapt to the chains’ continuously changing technical and organizational characteristics. The present study addresses the adoption of sustainability improvement options in the area of organization and management in the agri-food sector; within this framework the study proposes a tool for assessing the impact of sustainability oriented processes on the supply chain governance structures, in turn influencing the competitiveness of the supply chain. Two different approaches, proposed by (Gereffi et al., 2005 and (Hobbs and Young, 2000 have been linked to provide a theoretical framework for the tool development. The proposed new conceptual framework links the dimensions defining five different governance structures complexity of transaction, ability to codify and capabilities in the supply-base (Gereffi et al., to the product characteristics, regulatory and technology aspects defined by Hobbs and Young as drivers influencing the vertical coordination of supply chains. The method suggested for measuring the relations between improvement options and the chain governance structure is the adoption of experts’ evaluations. This method improves the tool capacity to provide a context-related supply chain governance structure assessment and management.

  10. Energy Recovery from the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste: A Real Options-Based Facility Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Ranieri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, due to the strict regulations on waste landfilling, anaerobic digestion (AD of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW is increasingly considered a sustainable alternative for waste stabilization and energy recovery. AD can reduce the volume of OFMSW going to landfill and produce, at the same time, biogas and compost, all at a profit. The uncertainty about the collected quantity of organic fraction, however, may undermine the economic-financial sustainability of such plants. While the flexibility characterizing some AD technologies may prove very valuable in uncertain contexts since it allows adapting plant capacity to changing environments, the investment required for building flexible systems is generally higher than the investment for dedicated equipment. Hence, an adequate justification of investments in these flexible systems is needed. This paper presents the results of a study aimed at investigating how different technologies may perform from technical, economic and financial standpoints, in presence of an uncertain organic fraction quantity to be treated. Focusing on two AD treatment plant configurations characterized by a technological process with different degree of flexibility, a real options-based model is developed and then applied to the case of the urban waste management system of the Metropolitan Area of Bari (Italy. Results show the importance of pricing the flexibility of treatment plants, which becomes a critical factor in presence of an uncertain organic fraction. Hence, it has to be taken into consideration in the design phase of these plants.

  11. Assessment of improved organ at risk sparing for meningioma: Light ion beam therapy as boost versus sole treatment option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mock, Ulrike; Georg, Dietmar; Sölkner, Lukas; Suppan, Christian; Vatnitsky, Stanislav M.; Flechl, Birgit; Mayer, Ramona; Dieckmann, Karin; Knäusl, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To compare photons, protons and carbon ions and their combinations for treatment of atypical and anaplastical skull base meningioma. Material and methods: Two planning target volumes (PTV initial /PTV boost ) were delineated for 10 patients (prescribed doses 50 Gy(RBE) and 10 Gy(RBE)). Plans for intensity modulated photon (IMXT), proton (IMPT) and carbon ion therapy ( 12 C) were generated assuming a non-gantry scenario for particles. The following combinations were compared: IMXT + IMXT/IMPT/ 12 C; IMPT + IMPT/ 12 C; and 12 C + 12 C. Plan quality was evaluated by target conformity and homogeneity (CI, HI), V 95% , D 2% and D 50% and dose-volume-histogram (DVH) parameters for organs-at-risk (OAR). If dose escalation was possible, it was performed until OAR tolerance levels were reached. Results: CI was worst for IMXT. HI < 0.05 ± 0.01 for 12 C was significantly better than for IMXT. For all treatment options dose escalation above 60 Gy(RBE) was possible for four patients, but impossible for six patients. Compared to IMXT + IMXT, ion beam therapy showed an improved sparing for most OARs, e.g. using protons and carbon ions D 50% was reduced by more than 50% for the ipsilateral eye and the brainstem. Conclusion: Highly conformal IMPT and 12 C plans could be generated with a non-gantry scenario. Improved OAR sparing favors both sole 12 C and/or IMPT plans

  12. Comparison between three option, four option and five option multiple choice question tests for quality parameters: A randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegada, Bhavisha; Shukla, Apexa; Khilnani, Ajeetkumar; Charan, Jaykaran; Desai, Chetna

    2016-01-01

    Most of the academic teachers use four or five options per item of multiple choice question (MCQ) test as formative and summative assessment. Optimal number of options in MCQ item is a matter of considerable debate among academic teachers of various educational fields. There is a scarcity of the published literature regarding the optimum number of option in each item of MCQ in the field of medical education. To compare three options, four options, and five options MCQs test for the quality parameters - reliability, validity, item analysis, distracter analysis, and time analysis. Participants were 3 rd semester M.B.B.S. students. Students were divided randomly into three groups. Each group was given one set of MCQ test out of three options, four options, and five option randomly. Following the marking of the multiple choice tests, the participants' option selections were analyzed and comparisons were conducted of the mean marks, mean time, validity, reliability and facility value, discrimination index, point biserial value, distracter analysis of three different option formats. Students score more ( P = 0.000) and took less time ( P = 0.009) for the completion of three options as compared to four options and five options groups. Facility value was more ( P = 0.004) in three options group as compared to four and five options groups. There was no significant difference between three groups for the validity, reliability, and item discrimination. Nonfunctioning distracters were more in the four and five options group as compared to three option group. Assessment based on three option MCQs is can be preferred over four option and five option MCQs.

  13. Assessing indoor air quality options: Final environmental impact statement on new energy-efficient home programs: Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This report discusses the impact of energy conservation measures on indoor air quality in various size residential buildings. This volume includes appendices on ventilation rates, indoor pollutant levels, health effects, human risk assessment, radon, fiberglass hazards, tobacco smoke, mitigation

  14. Performance assessment issues in utility-scale photovoltaics in warm and sunny climates★

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruther Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the declining costs of photovoltaics (PV, and the excellent solar energy resource availability in the country, the Brazilian government and the electricity sector have started to evaluate and consider PV as a serious potential contributor to the National electricity mix. Since the late 1990s, Brazilian electrical utilities are required by the National Electrical Energy Regulatory Agency ANEEL to invest 1% of their operational income on R&D. In 2011 ANEEL issued an R&D call dedicated to utility-scale PV. The solar energy research group at Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (www.fotovoltaica.ufsc.br has been actively investigating and promoting PV in Brazil, operates since 1997 the first grid-connected, thin-film PV generator in the country. Under the ANEEL R&D call, a 4-year, US$ 20 million project was started in 2012. The project aims at assessing the performance of seven different PV technologies at eight different Evaluation Sites (ES in Brazil, and also to design, procure, install and monitor the performance of a utility-scale 3 MWp R&D PV power plant, which is located at one of these eight ES. The 3 MWp PV power plant and all the eight ES are fully monitored, with all electrical and environmental parameters measured at 1-s intervals. PV technologies include thin-film amorphous silicon (a-Si, microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si, cadmium telluride (CdTe, copper indium gallium diselenide, mono- and multi-crystalline silicon (c-Si and m-Si, all at fixed tilt, as well as double-axis tracking, concentrated PV using triple-junction InGap/GaAs/Ge at 820 suns concentration. All ES are identical, except for the fixed PV arrays tilt angle, which is equal to the latitude at each site. The 3 MWp R&D PV power plant is co-located at one of the ES sites. Thin-film PV technologies with a low temperature coefficient of power presented superior output performance, and cloud-edge and cloud-enhancement effects of solar irradiance resulted in

  15. Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlock, M.; Kersey, K.; Riding In, C.

    2009-07-21

    Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma Energy Option Analyses In 2003, the Pawnee Nation leadership identified the need for the tribe to comprehensively address its energy issues. During a strategic energy planning workshop a general framework was laid out and the Pawnee Nation Energy Task Force was created to work toward further development of the tribe’s energy vision. The overarching goals of the “first steps” project were to identify the most appropriate focus for its strategic energy initiatives going forward, and to provide information necessary to take the next steps in pursuit of the “best fit” energy options. Description of Activities Performed The research team reviewed existing data pertaining to the availability of biomass (focusing on woody biomass, agricultural biomass/bio-energy crops, and methane capture), solar, wind and hydropower resources on the Pawnee-owned lands. Using these data, combined with assumptions about costs and revenue streams, the research team performed preliminary feasibility assessments for each resource category. The research team also reviewed available funding resources and made recommendations to Pawnee Nation highlighting those resources with the greatest potential for financially-viable development, both in the near-term and over a longer time horizon. Findings and Recommendations Due to a lack of financial incentives for renewable energy, particularly at the state level, combined mediocre renewable energy resources, renewable energy development opportunities are limited for Pawnee Nation. However, near-term potential exists for development of solar hot water at the gym, and an exterior wood-fired boiler system at the tribe’s main administrative building. Pawnee Nation should also explore options for developing LFGTE resources in collaboration with the City of Pawnee. Significant potential may also exist for development of bio-energy resources within the next decade. Pawnee Nation representatives should closely monitor

  16. A Framework for Teachers' Assessment of Socio-Scientific Argumentation: An Example Using the GMO Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Nina; Chang Rundgren, Shu-Nu

    2015-01-01

    Socio-scientific issues (SSI) have proven to be suitable contexts for students to actively reflect on and argue about complex social issues related to science. Research has indicated that explicitly teaching SSI argumentation is a good way to help students develop their argumentation skills and make them aware of the complexity of SSI. However,…

  17. Assessing Interdisciplinary Learning and Student Activism in a Water Issues Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Anja; Juris, Stephen J.; Willermet, Cathy; Drake, Eron; Upadhaya, Samik; Chhetri, Pratik

    2014-01-01

    In response to a request from a campus student organization, faculty from three fields came together to develop and teach an integrated interdisciplinary course on water issues and social activism. This course, "Water as Life, Death, and Power," brought together issues from the fields of anthropology, biology and chemistry to explore…

  18. Options for the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne, Niklas; Phylipsen, Dian; Ullrich, Simone; Blok, Kornelis

    2005-02-15

    This study assesses available options for the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. The study includes the following sections: An introduction, an overview of proposals and establishing a network, analysis of interests of countries, selected country case studies, an overview of the issues to be considered, options for adaptation to climate change, a new approach ''Common but Differentiated Convergence'', an update of the Triptych approach, a comprehensive compromise proposal, the comparison of emission allowances under various approaches and a negotiation strategy for the EU and Germany. (orig.)

  19. Options for the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne, Niklas; Phylipsen, Dian; Ullrich, Simone; Blok, Kornelis

    2005-02-15

    This study assesses available options for the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. The study includes the following sections: An introduction, an overview of proposals and establishing a network, analysis of interests of countries, selected country case studies, an overview of the issues to be considered, options for adaptation to climate change, a new approach ''Common but Differentiated Convergence'', an update of the Triptych approach, a comprehensive compromise proposal, the comparison of emission allowances under various approaches and a negotiation strategy for the EU and Germany. (orig.)

  20. Increased crop failure due to climate change: assessing adaptation options using models and socio-economic data for wheat in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Challinor, Andrew J [Institute for Climate and Atmospheric Science, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Simelton, Elisabeth S; Fraser, Evan D G [Sustainability Research Institute, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Hemming, Debbie; Collins, Mathew, E-mail: a.j.challinor@leeds.ac.uk [Met Office Hadley Centre, FitzRoy Road, Exeter EX1 3PB (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    Tools for projecting crop productivity under a range of conditions, and assessing adaptation options, are an important part of the endeavour to prioritize investment in adaptation. We present ensemble projections of crop productivity that account for biophysical processes, inherent uncertainty and adaptation, using spring wheat in Northeast China as a case study. A parallel 'vulnerability index' approach uses quantitative socio-economic data to account for autonomous farmer adaptation. The simulations show crop failure rates increasing under climate change, due to increasing extremes of both heat and water stress. Crop failure rates increase with mean temperature, with increases in maximum failure rates being greater than those in median failure rates. The results suggest that significant adaptation is possible through either socio-economic measures such as greater investment, or biophysical measures such as drought or heat tolerance in crops. The results also show that adaptation becomes increasingly necessitated as mean temperature and the associated number of extremes rise. The results, and the limitations of this study, also suggest directions for research for linking climate and crop models, socio-economic analyses and crop variety trial data in order to prioritize options such as capacity building, plant breeding and biotechnology.

  1. An assessment of the potentials of nuclear power and carbon capture and storage in the long-term global warming mitigation options based on Asian Modeling Exercise scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Shunsuke

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of global warming mitigation options based on scenarios from the Asian Modeling Exercise. Using an extended version of the integrated assessment model MARIA-23 (Multiregional Approach for Resource and Industry Allocation), we analyze nuclear fuel recycling options, carbon capture and storage technologies (CCS), and biomass utilization. To assess the potential implications of decreased social acceptance of nuclear power in the wake of the Fukushima nuclear accident, additional scenarios including a nuclear power expansion limitation, are analyzed. We also evaluate MARIA-23 model simulation estimates of long-term contributions and interrelationships among nuclear power, biomass, and CCS. Finally, potential costs of nuclear limitation under carbon control policies are assessed. The simulation results in this paper suggest the following: (1) under the reference scenario, global GDP losses in climate limitation scenarios range from 1.3% per year to 3.9% per year in 2060, rising to between 3.5% per year and 4.5% per year in 2100; (2) the use of nuclear fuel reprocessing technologies increase rapidly in all carbon control policy scenarios; (3) under a scenario where the price of CO 2 is $30 and nuclear power expansion is strictly limited, GDP losses increase significantly—from 4.5% per year to 6.4% per year by 2100; (4) nuclear power and CCS are substitute mitigation technologies. With nuclear power technology available CCS deployment reaches approximately 15,000 Mt-CO 2 per year by 2010; without a nuclear power option, CCS deployment rises to more than 80,000 Mt-CO 2 per year; and (5) biomass utilization cannot fully compensate for limitations to nuclear power expansion in policy scenarios. In addition to examining the role of these three technologies on global scales, we report results for several major Asian regions, namely Japan, China, and India. China tends to deploy nuclear power (if available) in response to rapidly growing

  2. The transportation issue management system: A tool for issue resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branch, K.M.; Boryczka, M.K.

    1987-01-01

    During the last decade, issue management programs have been developed and used by a number of large corporations in the United States. These systems have generally been designed to help senior program managers identify issues, develop strategic plans, and resolve issues. These systems involve scanning and abstracting literature to create a database that is then used for 1) issue identification, 2) issue analysis, 3) priority assessment, 4) development of corporate position/strategic options, and 5) action planning and implementation. Most of the existing systems rely on staff to identify trends in the computerized output, analyze the importance of the issue to the company, and assist in developing corporate responses. The Department of Energy has recently developed an issue management system for the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management's (OCRWM) transportation program. This system is designed to help DOE identify institutional issues related to radioactive waste transportation, analyze the issues, and resolve them in a manner that is responsive to interested parties. The system will contain pertinent information from DOE technical reports, other federal documents, correspondence, professional journals, popular literature, newsclips, legislation and testimony. The program is designed around a number of institutional issues including: prenotification, physical protection procedures; highway, rail, and barge routing; inspections and enforcement of shipments; emergency response; liability, cask design and testing; overweight trucks; rail service; modal mix; infrastructure improvements; training standards, and operational procedures

  3. Use of external cost assessment and multi-criteria decision analysis for comparative evaluation of options for electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, S.; Dones, R.; Gantner, U.

    2001-01-01

    The paper addresses external cost and multi-criteria analyses carried out for selected future electricity generating systems of interest under the Swiss conditions. The external cost estimates are based on an application of the 'impact pathway approach', enhanced by earlier experience from extensive Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The estimated total costs, i.e. the sum of internal and external costs, may serve as a measure of economic and environmental efficiency of energy systems. The multi-criteria approach allows a more explicit consideration of the social dimension, which is highly important for the decision-making process. The applications of multi-criteria analyses illustrate the sensitivity of the results to the range of preferences expressed in the energy debate. Certain patterns in system ranking can be observed in spite of these sensitivities. Both total cost assessment and multi-criteria analysis are found to be useful, complementary instruments to support procedures for decision-making. (author)

  4. Use of external cost assessment and multi-criteria decision analysis for comparative evaluation of options for electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, Stefan; Dones, Roberto; Gantner, Urs

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses external cost and multi-criteria analyses carried out for selected future electricity generating systems of interest under the Swiss. conditions. The external cost estimates are based on an application of the 'impact pathway approach', enriched by earlier experience from extensive Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The estimated total costs, i.e. the sum of internal and external costs may serve as a measure of economic and environmental efficiency of energy systems. The multi-criteria approach allows a more explicit consideration of the social dimension, highly important for the decision process. The applications of multi-criteria analysis illustrate the sensitivity of the results to a range of preferences expressed in the energy debate. Certain patterns in systems ranking can be observed in spite of these sensitivities. Both total cost assessment and multi-criteria analysis are found to be useful, complementary instruments to support the decision process. (author)

  5. Exploration of Important Issues for the Safety of SFR 1 using Performance Assessment Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maul, P.R.; Robinson, P.C.

    2002-06-01

    SKB has produced a revised safety case for the SFR 1 disposal facility for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes at Forsmark: project SAFE. This assessment includes a Performance Assessment (PA) for the long term post-closure safety of the facility. SKI has a responsibility to scrutinise SKB's safety case that is shared with SSI. Quintessa has undertaken a review of SKB's case for the long term safety of SFR 1 to assist SKI's evaluation of SAFE, and this is given in SKI-R--02-61, henceforth referred to as the Quintessa Review. The current report describes the independent PA calculations that provided an input to that review. Since 1999 SKI has been developing a PA capability for SFR 1 using the AMBER software. Two key features of the approach taken have been: To represent the whole system in a single model; and To allow the time-dependency of all key features, events and processes to be represented. These capabilities allow a better understanding of the key features of the system to be obtained for different future evolutions (scenarios). This report presents a summary of the work undertaken to provide SKI with a PA capability for SFR 1 and the calculations undertaken with it. Calculations have been undertaken for radionuclides transported in groundwater and gas, but not for direct intrusion by humans into the wastes. It should be emphasised that the purpose of the Performance Assessment calculations described in this report is not to provide an alternative assessment of potential radiological impacts to that produced by SKB. The aim is to use the models that have been developed to investigate the important features of the system and to help SKI scrutinise the case put to them by SKB. The PA calculations that have been undertaken are by no means comprehensive, and various issues could be investigated further if required. The key issues that have been identified can be summarised as follows: 1. The SFR 1 system has a number of different timescales that can

  6. Lateral epicondylitis. Associations of MR imaging and clinical assessments with treatment options in patients receiving conservative and arthroscopic managements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Ji Young; Lee, Min Hee; Chung, Hye Won; Lee, Sang Hoon; Shin, Myung Jin; Jeon, In-Ho

    2018-01-01

    We assessed the implications of MR imaging with clinical history in lateral epicondylitis management by evaluating imaging and clinical features in patients with lateral epicondylitis treated conservatively or operatively. Sixty patients with lateral epicondylitis treated conservatively (n = 38) or operatively (n = 22) from 2011-2015 were included. MR imaging findings of common extensor tendon (CET), lateral collateral ligament (LCL) complex, muscle oedema, ulnar nerve and elbow joint were reviewed. Clinical data recorded were frequency, duration and intensity of pain, history of trauma and injection therapy, range of motion. MRI-assessed CET and LCL complex abnormalities, muscle oedema, radiocapitellar joint widening, joint effusion/synovitis, pain frequency and intensity differed significantly between the two groups (p <.05) with increased severity in operative group. Persistent pain (OR 12.2, p <.01), CET abnormality on longitudinal plane (OR 7.5, p =.03 for grade 2; OR 22.4, p <.01 for grade 3) and muscle oedema (OR 6.7, p =.03) were major factors associated with operative treatment. Area under the ROC curve of predicted probabilities for combination of these factors was 0.83. MR imaging, combined with clinical assessment, could facilitate appropriate management planning for patients with lateral epicondylitis. (orig.)

  7. Lateral epicondylitis. Associations of MR imaging and clinical assessments with treatment options in patients receiving conservative and arthroscopic managements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Ji Young [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Gachon University, Department of Radiology, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Min Hee; Chung, Hye Won; Lee, Sang Hoon; Shin, Myung Jin [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, In-Ho [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2018-03-15

    We assessed the implications of MR imaging with clinical history in lateral epicondylitis management by evaluating imaging and clinical features in patients with lateral epicondylitis treated conservatively or operatively. Sixty patients with lateral epicondylitis treated conservatively (n = 38) or operatively (n = 22) from 2011-2015 were included. MR imaging findings of common extensor tendon (CET), lateral collateral ligament (LCL) complex, muscle oedema, ulnar nerve and elbow joint were reviewed. Clinical data recorded were frequency, duration and intensity of pain, history of trauma and injection therapy, range of motion. MRI-assessed CET and LCL complex abnormalities, muscle oedema, radiocapitellar joint widening, joint effusion/synovitis, pain frequency and intensity differed significantly between the two groups (p <.05) with increased severity in operative group. Persistent pain (OR 12.2, p <.01), CET abnormality on longitudinal plane (OR 7.5, p =.03 for grade 2; OR 22.4, p <.01 for grade 3) and muscle oedema (OR 6.7, p =.03) were major factors associated with operative treatment. Area under the ROC curve of predicted probabilities for combination of these factors was 0.83. MR imaging, combined with clinical assessment, could facilitate appropriate management planning for patients with lateral epicondylitis. (orig.)

  8. Assessment of combustion and related issues in the DWPF and ITP waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsberg, T.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents a review of the safety analyses described in the DWPF Safety Analysis Report, the combustion analysis of the ITP Tanks 48 and 49, and presents conclusions drawn from interviews staff on issues related to accident analysis, in particular on issues related to combustion phenomena. The major objectives of this report are to clarify the issues related to the modes of combustion and expected loads on process vessels and structures and, in addition, to offer recommendations which would improve the defense-in-depth posture of the DWPF

  9. Assessment of Materials Issues for Light-Water Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandusky, David; Lunceford, Wayne; Bruemmer, Stephen M.; Catalan, Michael A.

    2013-02-01

    The primary objective of this report is to evaluate materials degradation issue unique to the operational environments of LWSMR. Concerns for specific primary system components and materials are identified based on the review of design information shared by mPower and NuScale. Direct comparisons are made to materials issues recognized for advanced large PWRs and research activities are recommended as needed. The issues identified are intended to improve the capability of industry to evaluate the significance of any degradation that might occur during long-term LWSMR operation and by extension affect the importance of future supporting R&D.

  10. Support interoperability and reusability of emerging forms of assessment: Some issues on integrating IMS LD with IMS QTI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, Yongwu; Boon, Jo; Van der Klink, Marcel; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Miao, Y., Boon, J., Van der Klink, M., Sloep, P. B., & Koper, R. (2011). Support interoperability and reusability of emerging forms of assessment: Some issues on integrating IMS LD with IMS QTI. In F. Lazarinis, S. Green, & E. Pearson (Eds.), E-Learning Standards and Interoperability: Frameworks

  11. Sustainability performance for Brazilian electricity power industry: An assessment integrating social, economic and environmental issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartori, S.; Witjes, S.; Campos, L.M.S.

    2017-01-01

    The increased pressure on companies to address sustainability issues has resulted in the development of several voluntary corporate sustainability integration approaches. The array of existing approaches is large and overwhelming, resulting in companies not understanding what corporate

  12. Technology assessment of future intercity passenger transporation systems. Volume 2: Identification of issues affecting intercity transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Papers on major issues and trends that affect the future of intercity transportation are presented. Specific areas covered include: political, social, technological, institutional, and economic mechanisms, the workings of which determine how future intercity transporation technologies will evolve and be put into service; the major issues of intercity transportation from the point of view of reform, including candidate transporation technologies; and technical analysis of trends affecting the evolution of intercity transportation technologies.

  13. Comparison between major repair and replacement options for a bridge deck life cycle assessment: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Dabous Saleh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Material production, manufacturing, transportation, usage, and end of lifeprocessing are usually the main contributors defining the life cycle assessment (LCA. Bridge infrastructure is important to the economy and the society. Over their life cycle, highway bridges experience several stressors that can significantly affect their structural performance and therefore require rehabilitation. This paper discusses the life cycle analysis of bridge rehabilitation decisions and demonstrates the analysis with a case study of a bridge located in Ontario, Canada. The LCA of the bridge deck is analyzed for two rehabilitation strategies: major repair and replacement. The study focuses on evaluating the different life cycle phases of the bridge deck by assessing their carbon dioxide emission, energy consumption and cost. Also, the paper presents the impact of the different elements within each phase to identify the most contributing elements. The LCA of the bridge deck is analyzed and estimated with the aid of CES EduPack 2016 software that includes a database of more than 4000 different materials and more than 200 manufacturing processes. Analysis of the case study shows that material phase causes significant life cycle impact. The study concluded that the deck replacement yields higher environmental impact and life cycle cost compared to repairing and strengthening the deck.

  14. Lateral epicondylitis: Associations of MR imaging and clinical assessments with treatment options in patients receiving conservative and arthroscopic managements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ji Young; Lee, Min Hee; Jeon, In-Ho; Chung, Hye Won; Lee, Sang Hoon; Shin, Myung Jin

    2018-03-01

    We assessed the implications of MR imaging with clinical history in lateral epicondylitis management by evaluating imaging and clinical features in patients with lateral epicondylitis treated conservatively or operatively. Sixty patients with lateral epicondylitis treated conservatively (n = 38) or operatively (n = 22) from 2011-2015 were included. MR imaging findings of common extensor tendon (CET), lateral collateral ligament (LCL) complex, muscle oedema, ulnar nerve and elbow joint were reviewed. Clinical data recorded were frequency, duration and intensity of pain, history of trauma and injection therapy, range of motion. MRI-assessed CET and LCL complex abnormalities, muscle oedema, radiocapitellar joint widening, joint effusion/synovitis, pain frequency and intensity differed significantly between the two groups (p lateral epicondylitis. • MRI can reflect different disease severity between patients treated conservatively/operatively. • CET abnormality, muscle oedema were major MRI findings with operative treatment. • Patients in operative group were more likely to experience persistent pain. • MRI plus clinical symptoms could facilitate appropriate management for lateral epicondylitis.

  15. Assessing the Value of an Optional Radiation Oncology Clinical Rotation During the Core Clerkships in Medical School

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaorsky, Nicholas G.; Malatesta, Theresa M.; Den, Robert B.; Wuthrick, Evan; Ahn, Peter H.; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Shi, Wenyin; Dicker, Adam P.; Anne, P. Rani; Bar-Ad, Voichita [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College, Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Showalter, Timothy N., E-mail: timothy.showalter@jeffersonhospital.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College, Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Few medical students are given proper clinical training in oncology, much less radiation oncology. We attempted to assess the value of adding a radiation oncology clinical rotation to the medical school curriculum. Methods and Materials: In July 2010, Jefferson Medical College began to offer a 3-week radiation oncology rotation as an elective course for third-year medical students during the core surgical clerkship. During 2010 to 2012, 52 medical students chose to enroll in this rotation. The rotation included outpatient clinics, inpatient consults, didactic sessions, and case-based presentations by the students. Tests of students' knowledge of radiation oncology were administered anonymously before and after the rotation to evaluate the educational effectiveness of the rotation. Students and radiation oncology faculty were given surveys to assess feedback about the rotation. Results: The students' prerotation test scores had an average of 64% (95% confidence interval [CI], 61-66%). The postrotation test scores improved to an average of 82% (95% CI, 80-83%; 18% absolute improvement). In examination question analysis, scores improved in clinical oncology from 63% to 79%, in radiobiology from 70% to 77%, and in medical physics from 62% to 88%. Improvements in all sections but radiobiology were statistically significant. Students rated the usefulness of the rotation as 8.1 (scale 1-9; 95% CI, 7.3-9.0), their understanding of radiation oncology as a result of the rotation as 8.8 (95% CI, 8.5-9.1), and their recommendation of the rotation to a classmate as 8.2 (95% CI, 7.6-9.0). Conclusions: Integrating a radiation oncology clinical rotation into the medical school curriculum improves student knowledge of radiation oncology, including aspects of clinical oncology, radiobiology, and medical physics. The rotation is appreciated by both students and faculty.

  16. Assessing the Value of an Optional Radiation Oncology Clinical Rotation During the Core Clerkships in Medical School

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaorsky, Nicholas G.; Malatesta, Theresa M.; Den, Robert B.; Wuthrick, Evan; Ahn, Peter H.; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Shi, Wenyin; Dicker, Adam P.; Anne, P. Rani; Bar-Ad, Voichita; Showalter, Timothy N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Few medical students are given proper clinical training in oncology, much less radiation oncology. We attempted to assess the value of adding a radiation oncology clinical rotation to the medical school curriculum. Methods and Materials: In July 2010, Jefferson Medical College began to offer a 3-week radiation oncology rotation as an elective course for third-year medical students during the core surgical clerkship. During 2010 to 2012, 52 medical students chose to enroll in this rotation. The rotation included outpatient clinics, inpatient consults, didactic sessions, and case-based presentations by the students. Tests of students’ knowledge of radiation oncology were administered anonymously before and after the rotation to evaluate the educational effectiveness of the rotation. Students and radiation oncology faculty were given surveys to assess feedback about the rotation. Results: The students’ prerotation test scores had an average of 64% (95% confidence interval [CI], 61–66%). The postrotation test scores improved to an average of 82% (95% CI, 80–83%; 18% absolute improvement). In examination question analysis, scores improved in clinical oncology from 63% to 79%, in radiobiology from 70% to 77%, and in medical physics from 62% to 88%. Improvements in all sections but radiobiology were statistically significant. Students rated the usefulness of the rotation as 8.1 (scale 1–9; 95% CI, 7.3–9.0), their understanding of radiation oncology as a result of the rotation as 8.8 (95% CI, 8.5–9.1), and their recommendation of the rotation to a classmate as 8.2 (95% CI, 7.6–9.0). Conclusions: Integrating a radiation oncology clinical rotation into the medical school curriculum improves student knowledge of radiation oncology, including aspects of clinical oncology, radiobiology, and medical physics. The rotation is appreciated by both students and faculty.

  17. Assessing the impact of framing on the comparative favourability of nuclear power as an electricity generating option in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Christopher R.; Eiser, J. Richard; Gamble, Tim R.

    2012-01-01

    In 2007 the UK government's public consultation on the future of nuclear power courted much criticism. Three studies were conducted to assess whether key arguments used by government within this consultation might have influenced public opinion about the technology. Participants first read a passage of text that made salient certain positive (climate change mitigation, increased energy security) or negative (nuclear waste) aspects of the nuclear debate. Participants then completed a task that required them to create an electricity mix for the UK by varying the contributions made by each of five energy sources (coal, gas, nuclear, renewables and electric import). Study 1 seemed to indicate that pitching the debate in terms of climate change mitigation was effective in increasing endorsement of nuclear power. The results of studies 2 and 3, however, contested this conclusion, suggesting that these arguments were having little direct impact upon participants' preferences for nuclear power. The results of these studies hold implications for UK energy policy and attitude assessment and can contribute to the understanding of how the arguments used by government in the 2007 consultation might have influenced public opinion. - Highlights: ► Three studies investigate the acceptability of nuclear power in response to ‘framing’ used by government in 2007 UK consultation. ► Acceptability of nuclear power was compared against four energy sources in an ‘electricity calculator’ task. ► Study 1 showed an apparent increase in the endorsement of nuclear following climate change ‘framing’. ► Studies 2 and 3 contradict this finding, suggesting that ‘framing’ had a limited direct effect on preferences for nuclear power.

  18. Comparative assessment of energy options and strategies in Mexico until 2025. Final report of a coordinated research project 2000-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    Mexico is undergoing significant changes in the energy sector, in particular in the electric power sector, such as the restructuring of power markets; increasing emphasis on socioeconomic and environmental impacts of the electric power system; and consideration of an higher role for energy technologies compatible with sustainable development. The Mexican Government has identified the need for ensuring a sustainable pattern of production, distribution and use of energy and electricity. In this context, a comparative assessment analysis is a prerequisite for planning of the future energy and electricity facilities of the country in order to make timely decisions. It requires the identification of the expected levels of energy and electricity demand and the options that are available to meet these demands, taking special note of the national energy resources and potential imported sources. Further analysis would be needed for the optimization of the supply options to meet the demand in the most efficient and economic manner with due consideration of the environmental impacts and resource requirements. In accordance with its mandate, the IAEA has developed a systematic approach along with a set of computer-based models for elaborating national energy strategies covering the analysis of all of the above aspects. Under its Technical Cooperation Programme, the IAEA provides assistance to its Member States to enhance national capabilities for elaborating sustainable energy development strategies and assessing the role of nuclear power and other energy options, by transferring the analytical tools along with training and providing expertise. The present report describes the results of the Comparative Assessment of Energy Options and Strategies until 2025 study for Mexico conducted by the Secretaria de Energia, in cooperation with several national institutions, in particular the University of Mexico. The comprehensive national analysis focuses on energy and electricity

  19. Energy options?; Energie opties?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Sark, W. (ed.)

    2006-05-15

    March 2006 the so-called Options Document was published by the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) and the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP). The document is an overview of technical options to reduce energy consumption and emission of greenhouse gases up to 2020. Next to a brief summary of the document a few reactions and comments on the contents of the document are given. [Dutch] Maart 2006 publiceerde het Energieonderzoek Centrum Nederland (ECN) en het Milieu- en Natuurplanbureau (MNP) het zogenaamde Optiedocument energie en emissies 2010-2020. Daarin wordt een overzicht gegeven van de technische mogelijkheden voor vermindering van het energieverbruik en de uitstoot van broeikasgassen en luchtverontreinigende stoffen tot 2020. Naast een korte samenvatting van het document worden enkele reacties gegeven op de inhoud.

  20. Assessing the role of regulatory bodies in managing health professional issues and errors in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risso-Gill, Isabelle; Legido-Quigley, H; Panteli, D; Mckee, M

    2014-08-01

    This paper explores how medical regulatory bodies in nine European countries manage professional issues involving quality and patient safety, to build on limited existing information on procedures for regulating medical professionals in Europe. Twelve vignettes describing scenarios of concerns about standards of physicians were developed, covering clinical, criminal and administrative matters. Medical regulatory bodies in nine European countries were asked what action they would normally take in each situation. Their responses were related to their regulatory mandate. Responses varied greatly across participating countries. Regulators are always involved where patients are at risk or where a criminal offence is committed within the clinical setting. Non-criminal medical issues were generally handled by the employer, if any, at their discretion. Countries varied in the use of punitive measures, the extent to which they took an interest in issues arising outside professional activities, and whether they dealt with issues themselves or referred cases to another regulatory authority or took no action at all. There is little consistency across Europe on the regulation of medical professionals. There is considerable diversity in the range of topics that regulatory bodies oversee, with almost all covering health care quality and safety and others encompassing issues related to reputation, respect and trust. These inconsistencies have significant implications for professional mobility, patient safety and quality of care. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  1. The challenge of a ban on animal testing for the development of a regulated legal market for new psychoactive substances (NPS) ('legal highs') in New Zealand: Issues and options for resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychert, Marta; Wilkins, Chris

    2015-12-01

    In mid-July 2013, New Zealand passed the Psychoactive Substances Act (PSA), which allowed 'low risk' psychoactive products ('legal highs') to be approved for legal sale. In early May 2014, following public protest, the Psychoactive Substances Amendment Act (PSAA) was passed banning animal testing of psychoactive products, potentially making the new regime unworkable. To investigate strategies to overcome the impasse created by the animal testing ban. Solutions to the impasse were investigated using 'scenario' and 'stakeholder' analysis. Legislation, parliamentary debates, and regulatory statements related to the PSA and animal testing were reviewed. Strategies to resolve the impasse were discussed with stakeholders including the Psychoactive Substances Regulatory Authority (PSRA) officials, health officials, a legal high industry lawyer, and a leading legal highs manufacturer. This process generated six possible scenarios and five decision-making criteria of key importance to major stakeholders. Scenarios were then evaluated based on feedback from the industry and regulators. The six scenarios were: (1) pragmatic modification of the animal testing ban; (2) waiting until new non-animal test models are internationally accepted; (3) use of non-validated replacement test methods; (4) judicial challenge of the animal testing ban; (5) 'creative compliance' by only presenting human clinical trial results; and (6) philosophical re-conceptualisation of the 'benefits' from psychoactive products. Options 1 and 5 appear to be the most attractive overall solutions. However, both rely on a new political consensus and astute framing of the issues by political communicators. Political decision makers may be happy to accept Scenario 2 which would impose significant delays. A 'failed' pharmaceutical product with psychoactive effects may have the test data required to be approved under Scenarios 1 and 5. Ultimately, the pleasurable benefits from psychoactive products may need to be

  2. Performance assessment of confinements for medium-level and α-contaminated waste. PACOMA project. Rock salt option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsekorn, R.P; Nies, A.; Rausch, H.; Storck, R.

    1991-03-01

    The objective of the contribution to the PACOMA project is to develop and demonstrate procedures for radiological safety of repositories in salt domes. An analogue study is performed by the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN, where alternative disposal concepts in different salt formations were investigated. It is discussed, how far appropriate choice of the repository design parameters can improve the whole systems. The research covers deterministic calculations for three scenarios, the normal evolution scenario with subrosion of the salt dome, the combined brine intrusion scenario with brine intrusion from brine pockets and via an anhydrite vein, and the human intrusion scenario of solution mining of a storage cavern. For the combined brine intrusion scenario alternative waste inventories, different disposal concepts, variants of the layout of dams and sealings are investigated, and results obtained from variations of parameter values are discussed. Additionally, comprehensive probabilistic calculations have been carried out with the help of a Monte-Carlo simulation. Results are discussed in form of an uncertainty analysis of the maximum dose and global sensitivity studies of system parameters. The assessments main result is, that the reference case, where the reference repository design and the reference disposal concept are applied, deterministic calculations with best estimate values as well as probabilistic calculations do not manifest unacceptable risk. Investigation of alternative concepts and design variants indicate a high potential for system optimization. (orig./HP)

  3. Assessment of air pollution emissions and evaluation of renewable energy as mitigation option-power generation sector of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harijan, K.H.; Uqaili, M.A.; Memon, M.

    2005-01-01

    Energy is an engine for growth and is linked with all aspects of development, poverty alleviation, and improvement of quality of life. The production, distribution and use of energy particularly fossil fuels have significant environmental impacts. Pakistan has total power generation capacity of 19.25 GW, with 63.9% thermal, 33.7% hydel and 2.4% nuclear share. The electricity generation increased by 7.5% per annum during the last three decades and future demand has been projected to grow at 7%-11 % per annum. This increasing power demand will depend mainly on power generation from fossil fuels. This paper presents the review of power generation situation and assesses the air pollution emissions from thermal power generation in Pakistan. The paper also investigates the prospects of renewable energy- sources for air pollution mitigation in the country. The study indicates that thermal power generation plants are the major source of air pollution emissions in the country. This air pollution has local, regional and global environmental impacts. The paper concludes that the use of renewables such as hydel, wind, solar and biomass energy for power generation can contribute substantially in air pollution mitigation in the country. (author)

  4. Comparative risk assessment of spill response options for a deepwater oil well blowout: Part III. Stakeholder engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ann Hayward; Scholz, Debra; McPeek, Melinda; French-McCay, Deborah; Rowe, Jill; Bock, Michael; Robinson, Hilary; Wenning, Richard

    2018-05-25

    This paper describes oil spill stakeholder engagement in a recent comparative risk assessment (CRA) project that examined the tradeoffs associated with a hypothetical offshore well blowout in the Gulf of Mexico, with a specific focus on subsea dispersant injection (SSDI) at the wellhead. SSDI is a new technology deployed during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill response. Oil spill stakeholders include decision makers, who will consider whether to integrate SSDI into future tradeoff decisions. This CRA considered the tradeoffs associated with three sets of response strategies: (1) no intervention; (2) mechanical recovery, in-situ burning, and surface dispersants; and, (3) SSDI in addition to responses in (2). For context, the paper begins with a historical review of U.S. policy and engagement with oil spill stakeholders regarding dispersants. Stakeholder activities throughout the project involved decision-maker representatives and their advisors to inform the approach and consider CRA utility in future oil spill preparedness. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Selecting chemical and ecotoxicological test batteries for risk assessment of trace element-contaminated soils (phyto)managed by gentle remediation options (GRO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpiene, Jurate; Bert, Valérie; Dimitriou, Ioannis; Eriksson, Jan; Friesl-Hanl, Wolfgang; Galazka, Rafal; Herzig, Rolf; Janssen, Jolien; Kidd, Petra; Mench, Michel; Müller, Ingo; Neu, Silke; Oustriere, Nadège; Puschenreiter, Markus; Renella, Giancarlo; Roumier, Pierre-Hervé; Siebielec, Grzegorz; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Manier, Nicolas

    2014-10-15

    During the past decades a number of field trials with gentle remediation options (GRO) have been established on trace element (TE) contaminated sites throughout Europe. Each research group selects different methods to assess the remediation success making it difficult to compare efficacy between various sites and treatments. This study aimed at selecting a minimum risk assessment battery combining chemical and ecotoxicological assays for assessing and comparing the effectiveness of GRO implemented in seven European case studies. Two test batteries were pre-selected; a chemical one for quantifying TE exposure in untreated soils and GRO-managed soils and a biological one for characterizing soil functionality and ecotoxicity. Soil samples from field studies representing one of the main GROs (phytoextraction in Belgium, Sweden, Germany and Switzerland, aided phytoextraction in France, and aided phytostabilization or in situ stabilization/phytoexclusion in Poland, France and Austria) were collected and assessed using the selected test batteries. The best correlations were obtained between NH4NO3-extractable, followed by NaNO3-extractable TE and the ecotoxicological responses. Biometrical parameters and biomarkers of dwarf beans were the most responsive indicators for the soil treatments and changes in soil TE exposures. Plant growth was inhibited at the higher extractable TE concentrations, while plant stress enzyme activities increased with the higher TE extractability. Based on these results, a minimum risk assessment battery to compare/biomonitor the sites phytomanaged by GROs might consist of the NH4NO3 extraction and the bean Plantox test including the stress enzyme activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Option Fixation: A Cognitive Contributor to Overconfidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieck, Winston R.; Merkle, Edgar C.; Van Zandt, Trisha

    2007-01-01

    The ASC model of choice and confidence in general knowledge proposes that respondents first Assess the familiarity of presented options, and then use the high-familiarity option as a retrieval cue to Search memory for the purposes of Constructing an explanation about why that high-familiarity option is true. The ASC process implies that…

  7. Impacts of climate change on the municipal water management system in the Kingdom of Bahrain: Vulnerability assessment and adaptation options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed K. Al-Zubari

    Full Text Available An assessment of the vulnerability of the municipal water management system to the impacts of climate change in the Kingdom of Bahrain, manifested by the increase in demands due to increase in temperatures, is conducted using a dynamic mathematical model representing the water sector in the kingdom. The model is developed using WEAP software and was calibrated and validated by historical matching utilizing data for the period 2000–2012. The model is used in the evaluation of the municipal water sector performance in terms of municipal water demands and their associated cost without and with climate change impacts scenarios for the period 2012–2030. The impact of climate change on the municipal water system is quantified as the difference between the two scenarios in three selected cost indicators: financial (production, conveyance and distribution costs, economic (natural gas asset consumption by desalination plants, and environmental (CO2 emissions by desalination plants. The vulnerability assessment indicated that the current municipal water management system in Bahrain is generally inefficient and associated with relatively high costs, which are expected to increase with time under the current policies and management approach focusing on supply-side management. The increase in temperature will increase these already high costs, and would exacerbate the water management challenges in Bahrain. However, these mounting challenges also present an opportune moment for Bahrain to review its current water resources management approaches and practices and to integrate climate change adaptation measures into its water planning and policies. In order to build an adaptive management capacity of the municipal water management system in Bahrain, a number of management interventions are proposed and evaluated, individually and combined, for their effectiveness in enhancing the efficiency of the management system using the developed dynamic model. These

  8. Assessment of waste management options in the oil and gas industry in Ghana using nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahialey, W. K.

    2013-07-01

    Ghana's oil find is growing steadily as more discoveries are being made. Oil and gas exploration and production coupled with their related activities produce wastes. These wastes could be put into three primary categories such as produced water, drilling cuttings and associated wastes (any other waste related with the exploration, development and production of crude oil or natural gas). These wastes may contain varying amount of contaminants such as heavy metals, suspended solid particles and radioactive materials such as Ra-226 or Rn-228, product of U-238 decay that occur in some geologic formations and sediments. The main objective of this study is to assess the waste management practices in the oil and gas industry in Ghana by qualification and quantification of waste generated during exploration and production, examining the system put in place by oil and gas companies to manage these wastes and also determine some basic contaminants in some of these wastes brought to shore for management. Waste samples were taken from Tema Oil Refinery (TOR) and Zeal Environmental Technology Limited at Takoradi. The samples were analyzed by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS) analytical methods to determine heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Hg, As, Ag, Ba, Se) in the oily waste water, oil based mud, block and ash samples. The results showed that the levels of heavy metals were below the EPA permissible limit for discharge into the natural drainage except the level of Pb in the mud samples taken from Zeal before treatment. The levels ranged from 3.99mg/l to 7.44mgl. Even though these levels were above 0.1mg/l discharge standard limit, there was no cause for alarm because the levels dropped below the EPA limit after treatment. Furthermore, the quantity of general garbage deposited in the landfill at Takoradi be Zeal Environmental Technology Limited from 2011 to 2012 increased from 497m 3 to 1,314.29m 3 respectively. (author)

  9. Assessing Differences in the Availability of Opioid Addiction Therapy Options: Rural Versus Urban and American Indian Reservation Versus Nonreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirchak, Katherine A; Murphy, Sean M

    2017-01-01

    Opioid misuse is a large public health problem in the United States. Residents of rural areas and American Indian (AI) reservation/trust lands represent traditionally underserved populations with regard to substance-use disorder therapy. Assess differences in the number of opioid agonist therapy (OAT) facilities and physicians with Drug Addiction Treatment Act (DATA) waivers for rural versus urban, and AI reservation/trust land versus non-AI reservation/trust land areas in Washington State. The unit of analysis was the ZIP code. The dependent variables were the number of OAT facilities and DATA-waivered physicians in a region per 10,000 residents aged 18-64 in a ZIP code. A region was defined as a ZIP code and its contiguous ZIP codes. The independent variables were binary measures of whether a ZIP code was classified as rural versus urban, or AI reservation/trust land versus non-AI reservation/trust land. Zero-inflated negative binomial regressions with robust standard errors were estimated. The number of OAT clinics in a region per 10,000 ZIP-code residents was significantly lower in rural versus urban areas (P = .002). This did not differ significantly between AI reservation/trust land and non-AI reservation/trust land areas (P = .79). DATA-waivered physicians in a region per 10,000 ZIP-code residents was not significantly different between rural and urban (P = .08), or AI reservation/trust land versus non-AI reservation/trust land areas (P = .21). It appears that the potential for Washington State residents of rural and AI reservation areas to receive OAT is similar to that of residents outside of those areas; however, difficulties in accessing therapy may remain, highlighting the importance of expanding health care insurance and providing support for DATA-waivered physicians. © 2016 National Rural Health Association.

  10. Assessing Minimum Competencies of Beginning Teachers: Instrumentation, Measurement Issues, Legal Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellett, Chad D.

    An overview is presented of a performance-based assessment system, Teacher Performance Assessment Instruments (TPAI), developed by the Teacher Assessment Project at the University of Georgia to measure competencies of beginning teachers for initial professional certification. To clearly separate the preparation and certification functions within…

  11. Encouraging private sector investment in climatefriendly technologies in developing countries. An assessment of policy options for the Dutch government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Rooijen, S.N.M.; Van Wees, M.T.

    2006-10-01

    This study aims to explore new or reformed policies to be adopted by the Dutch government to encourage private sector investments in climate-friendly technologies in developing countries. A literature review of barriers to climate-friendly investments and of directions for solutions has been complemented with a number of in-depth interviews with stakeholders representing the major actors involved in investment projects (project sponsors, financing institutions, institutional investors and government). The barrier analysis has resulted in the following list of key obstacles to climate-friendly investments: (1) Lack of a sound, transparent and stable enabling environment for investing in developing countries; (2) Shortage of experienced and creditworthy sponsors; (3) High specific project risks; (4) Overestimation investment risks related to (sustainable) investments in developing countries in general (risk perspective); (5) Additional costs of climate-friendly technologies; (6) Shortage of risk capital; (7) Insufficient guarantee mechanisms; (8) Lack of know-how on public-private partnership structures and on financial design; and (9) Lack of insight how corporate social responsibility can be operationalised. Four main gaps have been identified on the basis of an assessment of current Dutch policies and instruments: (1) Shortage of instruments to directly promote investments; (2) Underdeveloped guarantee instruments; (3) Too restrictive cap on project size in financial schemes; (4) Lack of support in operationalising the concept of corporate social responsibility. Four areas for new or intensified policies have been identified based on the barrier and gap analysis: (1) Direct promotion of (potentially large scale) investments, including: (a) Supporting (the establishment of) sponsor companies developing sustainable energy projects in developing countries; (b) Making risk capital available; (c) Creating investment credit facilities; (d) Making development capital in

  12. Value-impact assessment for resolution of generic safety issue 143 - availability of HVAC and chilled water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daling, P.M.; Marler, J.E.; Vo, T.V. [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), has conducted an assessment of the values (benefits) and impacts (costs) associated with potential resolutions to Generic Issue 143, {open_quotes}Availability of Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) and Chilled Water Systems.{close_quotes} This assessment was conducted to identify vulnerabilities related to failure of HVAC, chilled water and room cooling systems and develop estimates of the core damage frequencies and public risks associated with failures of these systems. This information was used to develop proposed resolution strategies to this generic issue and perform a value/impact assessment to determine their cost-effectiveness. Probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) for four representative plants from the basis for the core damage frequency and public risk calculations. Internally-initiated core damage sequences as well as external events were considered. Three proposed resolution strategies were developed for this safety issue and it was determined that all three were not cost-effective. Additional evaluations were performed to develop {open_quotes}generic{close_quotes} insights on potential design-related vulnerabilities and potential high-frequency accident sequences that involve failures of HVAC/room cooling functions.

  13. Value-impact assessment for resolution of generic safety issue 143 - availability of HVAC and chilled water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daling, P.M.; Marler, J.E.; Vo, T.V.

    1995-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), has conducted an assessment of the values (benefits) and impacts (costs) associated with potential resolutions to Generic Issue 143, open-quotes Availability of Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) and Chilled Water Systems.close quotes This assessment was conducted to identify vulnerabilities related to failure of HVAC, chilled water and room cooling systems and develop estimates of the core damage frequencies and public risks associated with failures of these systems. This information was used to develop proposed resolution strategies to this generic issue and perform a value/impact assessment to determine their cost-effectiveness. Probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) for four representative plants from the basis for the core damage frequency and public risk calculations. Internally-initiated core damage sequences as well as external events were considered. Three proposed resolution strategies were developed for this safety issue and it was determined that all three were not cost-effective. Additional evaluations were performed to develop open-quotes genericclose quotes insights on potential design-related vulnerabilities and potential high-frequency accident sequences that involve failures of HVAC/room cooling functions

  14. Performance assessment and licensing issues for United States commercial near-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birk, S.M.

    1997-10-01

    The final objective of performance assessment for a near-surface LLW disposal facility is to demonstrate that potential radiological impacts for each of the human exposure pathways will not violate applicable standards. This involves determining potential pathways and specific receptor locations for human exposure to radionuclides; developing appropriate scenarios for each of the institutional phases of a disposal facility; and maintaining quality assurance and control of all data, computer codes, and documentation. The results of a performance assessment should be used to demonstrate that the expected impacts are expected to be less than the applicable standards. The results should not be used to try to predict the actual impact. This is an important distinction that results from the uncertainties inherent in performance assessment calculations. The paper discusses performance objectives; performance assessment phases; scenario selection; mathematical modeling and computer programs; final results of performance assessments submitted for license application; institutional control period; licensing issues; and related research and development activities

  15. “Which Child Left Behind”: Historical Issues Regarding Equity in Science Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Joy Cumming

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of learning plays a dominant role in formal education in the forms of determining features of curriculum that are emphasized, pedagogic methods that teachers use with their students, and parents’ and employers’ understanding of how well students have performed. A common perception is that fair assessment applies the same mode of assessment and content focus for all students—the approach of assessments in international comparative studies of science achievement. This article examines research evidence demonstrating that the act of assessment is not neutral—different forms of assessment advantage or disadvantage groups of students on the basis of family backgrounds, gender, race, or disability. Assessment that implicitly or explicitly captures the social capital of the child serves to consolidate, not address, educational equity. The article provides an overview of ways that science curriculum focus and assessment can introduce bias in the identification of student achievement. It examines the effect of changes to curriculum and assessment approaches in science, and relationships between assessment of science and the cultural context of the student. Recommendations are provided for science–assessment research to address bias for different groups of students.

  16. Treatment Options for Retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other places in the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  17. Learning about Complex Multi-Stakeholder Issues: Assessing the Visual Problem Appraisal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, L.M.; Put, M.; Leeuwis, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the visual problem appraisal (VPA) learning environment in higher education. The VPA has been designed for the training of competences that are required in complex stakeholder settings in relation to sustainability issues. The design of VPA incorporates a

  18. Forensic psychiatric evaluations: an overview of methods, ethical issues, and criminal and civil assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Leo

    2015-05-01

    Forensic psychiatry is frequently defined as the branch of psychiatry that deals with issues arising in the interface between psychiatry and the law. Psychiatrists are called on by the legal system to provide testimony in a wide variety of cases, criminal and civil. In criminal cases, forensic psychiatrists may be asked to comment on the competence of a person to make decisions throughout all the phases of criminal investigation, trial, and punishment. These include the competence to stand trial, to plead guilty, to be sentenced, to waive appeal, and to be executed. In civil cases, forensic psychiatric experts are asked to evaluate a number of civil competences, including competence to make a will or contract or to make decisions about one's person and property. Psychiatrists are also called on to testify about many other issues related to civil cases. Forensic psychiatrists who work with children and adolescents are frequently involved in evaluations and testimonies concerning juvenile delinquency, child custody, termination of parental rights, and other issues. As such, forensic psychiatric experts have now developed into a reputable and well-known group of professionals. Forensic evaluation methods, ethical issues related to forensic psychiatric practice, and some common criminal and civil forensic psychiatric evaluations are discussed in this overview.

  19. Assessing stakeholder's experience and sensitivity on key issues for the economic growth of organic aquaculture production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lembo, Giuseppe; Jokumsen, Alfred; Spedicato, Maria Teresa

    2018-01-01

    expressed by the participants revealed both competence and awareness, despite the complexity of the subject. Several ideas and useful suggestions emerged regarding unresolved technical issues. In addition, the need for a targeted communication strategy on the quality of organic aquaculture products...... and the necessity of fostering European/national programs to support the production and marketing of organic aquaculture products were highlighted...

  20. An Assessment of the Growth in Coverage of Social and Environmental Issues in Graduate Accounting Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sharon; Weber, James

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines if there has been an increase in the attention paid to social and environmental issues (SEI) in accounting curricula. Using schools participating in the Aspen Institute's Beyond Grey Pinstripes (BGP) program, we measure the increase in the number of accounting courses incorporating SEI across the biennial application years of…

  1. Re-Examining Test Item Issues in the TIMSS Mathematics and Science Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianjun

    2011-01-01

    As the largest international study ever taken in history, the Trend in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) has been held as a benchmark to measure U.S. student performance in the global context. In-depth analyses of the TIMSS project are conducted in this study to examine key issues of the comparative investigation: (1) item flaws in mathematics…

  2. An assessment of the role mass market demand response could play in contributing to the management of variable generation integration issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappers, Peter; Mills, Andrew; Goldman, Charles; Wiser, Ryan; Eto, Joseph H.

    2012-01-01

    The penetration of wind and solar generating resources is expected to dramatically increase in the United States over the coming years. It is widely understood that large scale deployment of these types of renewable energy sources (e.g., wind, solar) that have variable and less predictable production characteristics than traditional thermal resources poses integration challenges for bulk power system operators. At present, bulk power system operators primarily utilize strategies that rely on existing thermal generation resources and improved wind and solar energy production forecasts to manage this uncertainty; a host of additional options are also envisioned for the near future including demand response (DR). There are well-established bodies of research that examine variable generation integration issues as well as demand response potential; but, the existing literature that provides a comparative assessment of the two neither treats this topic comprehensively nor in a highly integrated fashion. Thus, this paper seeks to address these missing pieces by considering the full range of opportunities and challenges for mass market DR rates and programs to support integration of variable renewable generation. - Highlights: ► Mass market demand response can help manage the integration of renewable resources. ► To be more effective, retail electricity rates must apply contemporaneous prices. ► Demand response programs will require shorter duration and more frequent events. ► Mass market customers will likely need to accept control technology. ► Market rules and regulatory policies must change to expand demand response's role.

  3. Male Fertility Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertility issues are common in boys and men getting cancer treatment. Fertility preservation options include sperm banking, testicular shielding, testicular sperm extraction (TESE), and testicular tissue freezing. Support and clinical trials are listed.

  4. Fusion Canada issue 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on Fusion Materials Research, ITER physics research, fusion performance record at JET, and design options for reactor building. 4 figs

  5. APPLICATION OF LOT QUALITY ASSURANCE SAMPLING FOR ASSESSING DISEASE CONTROL PROGRAMMES - EXAMINATION OF SOME METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES

    OpenAIRE

    T. R. RAMESH RAO

    2011-01-01

    Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS), a statistical tool in industrial setup, has been in use since 1980 for monitoring and evaluation of programs on disease control / immunization status among children / health workers performance in health system. While conducting LQAS in the field, there are occasions, even after due care of design, there are practical and methodological issues to be addressed before it is recommended for implementation and intervention. LQAS is applied under the assumpti...

  6. AEGIS and Ship Self-Defense System (SSDS) Platforms: Using KVA Analysis, Risk Simulation and Strategic Real Options to Assess Operational Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uchytil, Joseph; Housel, Thomas; Hom, Sandra; Mun, Johnathan; Tarantino, Eric

    2006-01-01

    .... The results of the research demonstrated that the leave and layer approach for incrementally replacing AEGIS system modules was the most valuable strategic option, providing the highest return...

  7. Natural gas for power generation : issues and implications : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This report presented a historical examination of trends in natural gas-fired generation as well as a perspective on the issues and potential implications of increasing reliance on natural gas. Potential changes to Canadian energy consumers were reviewed in addition to natural gas infrastructure and services. Electricity prices relating to natural gas generation were examined. A broad regional and continental perspective was employed to account for energy market integration and the fact that gas trends reflect developments outside of Canada. The report was divided into 2 sections: (1) an examination of the trend toward natural-gas fired generation of electricity in North America; and (2) an examination of issues in closer detail from a regional perspective followed by a discussion of the changes in generation and natural gas markets in western, eastern, and central North America. Questions arising from the analysis of specific regional supply, demand and infrastructure situations were also examined. Recommendations were presented for issues concerning the current gas market and the appropriate role of the government in ensuring adequate generation. Uncertainties in future natural gas supply were also considered. It was concluded that rapid industrial growth will continue to increase demand for natural gas and electricity supply. 5 figs

  8. Assessment of alternative fuel and powertrain transit bus options using real-world operations data: Life-cycle fuel and emissions modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yanzhi; Gbologah, Franklin E.; Lee, Dong-Yeon; Liu, Haobing; Rodgers, Michael O.; Guensler, Randall L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We present a practical fuel and emissions modeling tool for alternative fuel buses. • The model assesses well-to-wheels emissions impacts of bus fleet decisions. • Mode-based approach is used to account for duty cycles and local conditions. • A case study using real-world operations data from Atlanta, GA is presented. • Impacts of alternative bus options depend on operating and geographic features. - Abstract: Hybrid and electric powertrains and alternative fuels (e.g., compressed natural gas (CNG), biodiesel, or hydrogen) can often reduce energy consumption and emissions from transit bus operations relative to conventional diesel. However, the magnitude of these energy and emissions savings can vary significantly, due to local conditions and transit operating characteristics. This paper introduces the transit Fuel and Emissions Calculator (FEC), a mode-based life-cycle emissions modeling tool for transit bus and rail technologies that compares the performance of multiple alternative fuels and powertrains across a range of operational characteristics and conditions. The purpose of the FEC is to provide a practical, yet technically sophisticated tool for regulatory agencies and policy analysts in assessing transit fleet options. The FEC’s modal modeling approach estimates emissions as a function of engine load, which in turn is a function of transit service parameters, including duty cycle (idling and speed-acceleration profile), road grade, and passenger loading. This approach allows for customized assessments that account for local conditions. Direct emissions estimates are derived from the scaled tractive power (STP) operating mode bins and emissions factors employed in the U.S. EPA’s MOVES (MOtor Vehicle Emissions Simulator) model. Life-cycle emissions estimates are calculated using emissions factors from the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model. The case study presented in this paper

  9. KEY ISSUES FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF THE ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: BREAKOUT GROUP REPORTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractOn the final afternoon of the Workshop, Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods, speakers and participants met in breakout groups to discuss specific questions in the areas of 1) Use of Human Clinical Data; 2) Animal Models to Assess Food ...

  10. Assessment of Cooperation Mechanism options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lise-Lotte Pade; Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Lise Skovsgaard

    2012-01-01

    This document reports activities and results of Task 3.2 of the Intelligent Energy Europe supported project RES4Less. Furthermore, fruitful inputs have been obtained in the stakeholder workshops carried out within the RES4Less project. Additionally, the topic has been presented and debated at two...... international conferences. The results were also shared and enriched by comments from other members of the RES4Less Team during internal meetings of the project....

  11. Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: Enrollment Options Following the Termination of a Plan or Plan Option. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-28

    The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is issuing a final rule to amend the Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program regulations regarding enrollment options following the termination of a plan or plan option.

  12. Framework for Continuous Assessment and Improvement of Occupational Health and Safety Issues in Construction Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoudi, Shahram; Ghasemi, Fakhradin; Mohammadfam, Iraj; Soleimani, Esmaeil

    2014-01-01

    Background: Construction industry is among the most hazardous industries, and needs a comprehensive and simple-to-administer tool to continuously assess and promote its health and safety performance. Methods: Through the study of various standard systems (mainly Health, Safety, and Environment Management System; Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series 180001; and British Standard, occupational health and safety management systems-Guide 8800), seven main elements were determined fo...

  13. The impact of water quality changes on the socio-economic system of the Guadiana Estuary: an assessment of management options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Helena E. Guimarães

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tourism related to bathing has a growing economic importance in the Guadiana Estuary in southern Spain and Portugal. Polls of local public opinion showed an awareness of potential and current threats to the aquatic environment posed by regulation of river flow and untreated/poorly-treated urban sewage discharge. Because of this strong concern for water quality, it was selected as the policy issue for our application of the Systems Approach Framework (SAF. We developed an integrated simulation model of the Guadiana estuarine system in which the ecological system and socioeconomic components are linked by means of beach eco-label (Blue Flag Award through its dependence on fecal bacterial thresholds. We quantified the socioeconomic impacts of water quality through an Economic Base Model that is used to portray the effect of increasing employment on resident population as a result of change in coastal water quality. A Cost-Benefit Analysis provides monetary indicators for scenario evaluation. It includes a monetary valuation of changes in water quality on human welfare using a Contingent Valuation Method. Because the population has a strong seasonal influence on the wastewater discharge into the estuary, we were able to simulate the feedback loop between the human activities that control water quality and those that benefit from it. We organized a critical evaluation of our efforts with the stakeholders, which allowed us to better understand their perceptions of the strengths, limitations, and opportunities for future SAF applications. Here we describe several aspects of our efforts that demonstrate the potential value of the SAF to environmental managers and stakeholders in clarifying some of the causal mechanisms, management options, and costs for resolution of the conflictual problem between water quality and tourism in the Guadiana estuary.

  14. Australian Asian Options

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Moreno; Javier F. Navas

    2003-01-01

    We study European options on the ratio of the stock price to its average and viceversa. Some of these options are traded in the Australian Stock Exchange since 1992, thus we call them Australian Asian options. For geometric averages, we obtain closed-form expressions for option prices. For arithmetic means, we use different approximations that produce very similar results.

  15. Options with Extreme Strikes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingjiong Zhu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this short paper, we study the asymptotics for the price of call options for very large strikes and put options for very small strikes. The stock price is assumed to follow the Black–Scholes models. We analyze European, Asian, American, Parisian and perpetual options and conclude that the tail asymptotics for these option types fall into four scenarios.

  16. Primary Payer at DX: Issues with Collection and Assessment of Data Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Recinda L; Williamson, Laura; Andrews, Patricia; Kahn, Amy

    2016-01-01

    An individual's access to health insurance influences the amount and type of health services a patient receives for prevention and treatment, and, ultimately, influences survival. The North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR) Item #630, Primary Payer at DX, is a required field intended to document health insurance status for the purpose of supporting patterns-of-care studies and other research. However, challenges related to the uniformity of collection and availability of data needed to populate this field diminish the value of the Primary Payer at DX data. A NAACCR taskforce worked on issues surrounding the collection of Primary Payer at DX; including proposing a crosswalk between Primary Payer at DX and the new Public Health Payment Typology standard, often available in hospital discharge databases. However, there are issues with compatibility between coding systems, intent of data collection, timelines for coding insurance, and changes in insurance coverage (partly due to the Affordable Care Act) that continue to complicate the collection and use of Primary Payer at DX data.

  17. Designing Conservation Corridors in Production Landscapes: Assessment Methods, Implementation Issues, and Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda T. Lombard

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Designing broad-scale conservation corridors has become increasingly common as a way of conducting an assessment for achieving targets for the representation and persistence of nature. However, since many of these corridors must traverse agricultural and other production landscapes, planning and implementation are not trivial tasks. Most approaches to conservation assessments in the dynamic world of production landscapes are data-intensive and analytically complex. However, in the real world, donor and other external requirements impose time and budget constraints, and dictate strong stakeholder involvement in the entire planning process. In order to accommodate this, assessments must be rapid, cheap, and the approach and products must be comprehensible and acceptable to stakeholders. Here we describe such an assessment aimed at identifying and implementing a network of conservation corridors in the Gouritz Initiative project domain of South Africa's Cape Floristic Region hotspot. We used empirical data and expert knowledge to identify a corridor network hypothesized to sustain key ecological and evolutionary processes. We also consulted experts to provide a spatially explicit assessment of the opportunity costs of conservation associated with agriculture, the predominant land use in the region. We used these products to identify categories of land requiring different actions and instruments to achieve conservation goals, thereby moving from the "where" to the "how" of conservation. This information was then fed into the collaborative strategy development process for the Gouritz Initiative. Our discussion emphasizes the lessons that we learnt from undertaking this assessment, particularly lessons regarding the implementation of the planning products. We conclude that at the outset of any planning project, a consensus on the vision must be achieved, a detailed social assessment of appropriate institutions must be undertaken, and a learning

  18. Issues and challenges in the assessment, diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors: Assessing the needs of cardiologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dupuis Martin

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This needs assessment, initiated by the Academy for Healthcare Education Inc. in cooperation with AXDEV Group Inc., explored the knowledge, attitudes, behavior, and skills of community-based and academic-affiliated U.S. cardiologists in the area of CV risk assessment, treatment, and management from July 2006 to December 2006. Methods The needs assessment used a multistage, mixed-method approach to collect, analyze, and verify data from two independent sources. The exploratory phase collected data from a representative sampling of U.S. cardiologists by means of qualitative panel meetings, one-on-one interviews, and quantitative questionnaires. In the validation phase, 150 cardiologists from across the United States completed a quantitative online questionnaire. Data were analyzed with standardized statistical methods. Results The needs assessment found that cardiologists have areas of weakness pertaining to their interpersonal skills, which may influence patient-physician communication and patient adherence. Cardiologists appeared to have little familiarity with or lend little credence to the concept of relative CV risk. In daily clinical practice, they faced challenges with regard to optimal patient outcome in areas of patient referral from primary-care providers, CV risk assessment and treatment, and patient monitoring. Community-based and academic-affiliated cardiologists appeared to be only moderately interested in educational interventions that pertain to CV risk-reduction strategies. Conclusion Educational interventions that target cardiologists' interpersonal skills to enhance their efficacy may benefit community-based and academic-affiliated specialists. Other desirable educational initiatives should address gaps in the patient referral process, improve patient knowledge and understanding of their disease, and provide supportive educational tools and materials to enhance patient-physician communication.

  19. Case study on comparative assessment of nuclear and coal-fueled electricity generation options and strategy for nuclear power development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Shiping; Shi Xiangjun; Bao Yunqiao; Mo Xuefeng; Wei Zhihong; Fang Dong; Ma Yuqing; Li Hong; Pan Ziqiang; Li Xutong

    2001-01-01

    China, as other countries in the world, is seeking for a way of sustainable development. In energy/electricity field, nuclear power is one of electric energy options considering the Chinese capability of nuclear industry. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of nuclear power in Chinese energy/electricity system in future by comprehensive assessment. The main conclusions obtained from this study are: (1) China will need a total generation capacity of 750 - 879 GW in 2020, which means new power units of 460 - 590 GW generation capacity will be built from 2001 to 2020. (2) the total amount of SO 2 emission from power production will rise to 16 - 18 Mt in 2020, about 2.8 - 3.2 times of 1995, even if the measures to control SO 2 emission are taken for all new coal units. (3) CO 2 emission from electricity generation will reach 21 - 24 Gt in 2020. (4) the environmental impacts and health risks of coal-fired energy chain are greater than that of nuclear chain. The normalized health risk caused by coal chain is 20.12 deaths/GW·a but 4.63 deaths/GW·a by nuclear chain in China. (5) As estimated by experts, there will be a shortage of 200 GW in 2050 in China even if considering the maximum production of coal, the utilization of hydropower and renewable resource. Nuclear power is the only way to fill the gap between demand and supply

  20. Developmental assessment of RELAP5/MOD3.1 with separate-effect and integral test experiments: model changes and options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytis, G.T.

    1996-04-01

    A summary of modifications and options introduced in RELAP5/MOD3.1 (R5M3.1) is presented and it is shown that the predicting capabilities of the modified version of the code are greatly improved, while the general philosophy we followed in arriving at these modifications is also outlined. These changes which are the same ones we implemented in the past in the version 7j of the code, include 2 different heat transfer packages (one of them activated during reflooding), modification of the low mass-flux Groeneveld CHF look-up table and of the dispersed flow interfacial area (and shear) as well as of the criterion for transition into and out from this regime, almost complete elimination of the under-relaxation schemes of the interfacial closure coefficients etc. The modified R5M3.1 code is assessed against a number of separate-effect and integral test experiments and in contrast to the frozen version, is shown to result in physically sound predictions which are much closer to the measurements, while almost all the predicted variables are free of unphysical spurious oscillations. The modifications introduced solve a number of problems associated with the frozen version of the code and result in a version which can be confidently used both for SB-LOCA and LB-LOCA analyses. (author) 7 figs., 20 refs