WorldWideScience

Sample records for assessment open issues

  1. Open Issues Associated with Passive Safety Systems Reliability Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efforts conducted so far to deal with and evaluate the reliability of passive safety systems (as the thermal-hydraulic passive systems), being implemented in advanced water cooled reactor designs, has aroused an amount of open issues. They should be addressed and conveniently worked out, since it is the major goal of the international community (e.g IAEA) to strive to harmonize the different approaches and to reach a common consensus, in order to add credit to the underlying models and the eventual outcoming reliability figures. The main open points are presented and discussed and a viable path towards the implementation of the research efforts is delineated as well. (author)

  2. Conceptual adsorption models and open issues pertaining to performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently several articles have been published that question the appropriateness of the distribution coefficient, Rd, concept to quantify radionuclide migration. Several distinct issues are raised by various critics. In this paper I provide some perspective on issues surrounding the modeling of nuclide retardation. The first section defines adsorption terminology and discusses various adsorption processes. The next section describes five commonly used adsorption conceptual models, specifically emphasizing what attributes that affect adsorption are explicitly accommodated in each model. I also review efforts to incorporate each adsorption model into performance assessment transport computer codes. The five adsorption conceptual models are (1) the constant Rd model, (2) the parametric Rd model, (3) isotherm adsorption models, (4) mass-action adsorption models, and (5) surface-complexation with electrostatics models. The final section discusses the adequacy of the distribution ratio concept, the adequacy of transport calculations that rely on constant retardation factors and the status of incorporating sophisticated adsorption models into transport codes

  3. Conceptual adsorption models and open issues pertaining to performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently several articles have been published that question the appropriateness of the distribution coefficient, Rd, concept to quantify radionuclide migration. Several distinct issues surrounding the modeling of nuclide retardation. The first section defines adsorption terminology and discusses various adsorption processes. The next section describes five commonly used adsorption conceptual models, specifically emphasizing what attributes that affect adsorption are explicitly accommodated in each model. I also review efforts to incorporate each adsorption model into performance assessment transport computer codes. The five adsorption conceptual models are (1) the constant Rd model, (2) the parametric Rd model, (3) isotherm adsorption models, (4) mass action adsorption models, and (5) surface-complexation with electrostatics models. The final section discusses the adequacy of the distribution ratio concept, the adequacy of transport calculations that rely on constant retardation factors and the status of incorporating sophisticated adsorption models into transport codes. 86 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  4. Status of thermalhydraulic modelling and assessment: Open issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bestion, D.; Barre, F. [CEA, Grenoble (France)

    1997-07-01

    This paper presents the status of the physical modelling in present codes used for Nuclear Reactor Thermalhydraulics (TRAC, RELAP 5, CATHARE, ATHLET,...) and attempts to list the unresolved or partially resolved issues. First, the capabilities and limitations of present codes are presented. They are mainly known from a synthesis of the assessment calculations performed for both separate effect tests and integral effect tests. It is also interesting to list all the assumptions and simplifications which were made in the establishment of the system of equations and of the constitutive relations. Many of the present limitations are associated to physical situations where these assumptions are not valid. Then, recommendations are proposed to extend the capabilities of these codes.

  5. Matrix Diffusion for Performance Assessment - Experimental Evidence, Modelling Assumptions and Open Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakob, A

    2004-07-01

    In this report a comprehensive overview on the matrix diffusion of solutes in fractured crystalline rocks is presented. Some examples from observations in crystalline bedrock are used to illustrate that matrix diffusion indeed acts on various length scales. Fickian diffusion is discussed in detail followed by some considerations on rock porosity. Due to the fact that the dual-porosity medium model is a very common and versatile method for describing solute transport in fractured porous media, the transport equations and the fundamental assumptions, approximations and simplifications are discussed in detail. There is a variety of geometrical aspects, processes and events which could influence matrix diffusion. The most important of these, such as, e.g., the effect of the flow-wetted fracture surface, channelling and the limited extent of the porous rock for matrix diffusion etc., are addressed. In a further section open issues and unresolved problems related to matrix diffusion are mentioned. Since matrix diffusion is one of the key retarding processes in geosphere transport of dissolved radionuclide species, matrix diffusion was consequently taken into account in past performance assessments of radioactive waste repositories in crystalline host rocks. Some issues regarding matrix diffusion are site-specific while others are independent of the specific situation of a planned repository for radioactive wastes. Eight different performance assessments from Finland, Sweden and Switzerland were considered with the aim of finding out how matrix diffusion was addressed, and whether a consistent picture emerges regarding the varying methodology of the different radioactive waste organisations. In the final section of the report some conclusions are drawn and an outlook is given. An extensive bibliography provides the reader with the key papers and reports related to matrix diffusion. (author)

  6. Matrix Diffusion for Performance Assessment - Experimental Evidence, Modelling Assumptions and Open Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report a comprehensive overview on the matrix diffusion of solutes in fractured crystalline rocks is presented. Some examples from observations in crystalline bedrock are used to illustrate that matrix diffusion indeed acts on various length scales. Fickian diffusion is discussed in detail followed by some considerations on rock porosity. Due to the fact that the dual-porosity medium model is a very common and versatile method for describing solute transport in fractured porous media, the transport equations and the fundamental assumptions, approximations and simplifications are discussed in detail. There is a variety of geometrical aspects, processes and events which could influence matrix diffusion. The most important of these, such as, e.g., the effect of the flow-wetted fracture surface, channelling and the limited extent of the porous rock for matrix diffusion etc., are addressed. In a further section open issues and unresolved problems related to matrix diffusion are mentioned. Since matrix diffusion is one of the key retarding processes in geosphere transport of dissolved radionuclide species, matrix diffusion was consequently taken into account in past performance assessments of radioactive waste repositories in crystalline host rocks. Some issues regarding matrix diffusion are site-specific while others are independent of the specific situation of a planned repository for radioactive wastes. Eight different performance assessments from Finland, Sweden and Switzerland were considered with the aim of finding out how matrix diffusion was addressed, and whether a consistent picture emerges regarding the varying methodology of the different radioactive waste organisations. In the final section of the report some conclusions are drawn and an outlook is given. An extensive bibliography provides the reader with the key papers and reports related to matrix diffusion. (author)

  7. Seismic Hazard Assessment and Uncertainties Treatment: Discussion on the current French regulation, practices and open issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taking into account the seismic risk in the context of nuclear safety in France is guided by the Fundamental Safety Rule (RFS2001-01) for the assessment of seismic hazard, and by the Guide ASN/2/01 for the design rules of civil engineering structures. These two references have been updated respectively in 2001 and 2006 and validated by the Nuclear Safety Authority. The French approach is anchored on a deterministic approach. We propose to recall the principles of the methodology recommended by the RFS 2001-01, and to illustrate the advantages and limitations highlighted in recent years. Indeed, this regulatory framework is used both in the design stage and for safety reassessment of all nuclear facilities, power reactors and experimental laboratories and factories. We focus on: (i) key parameters of the approach, and their level of knowledge, (ii) key steps and principles that lead to a non-homogeneous approach between various geographic sites, depending on the seismic activity and / or knowledge, (iii) on physical phenomena (such as the geometric extension of the seismic source, the complexity of earthquake rupture on the fault plane) that are not taken into account, or for which (2D and 3D site effects, and non-linear soil behavior under strong motions), the RFS 2001-01 approach does not provide any guidance, (iv) consideration of epistemic and random uncertainties. We discuss also the probabilistic approaches widely implemented both in France as recently to establish the seismic zoning (reference for the regulation of conventional building and classified installations for the environment), used worldwide and strongly supported by the international Atomic Energy Agency references (safety guides and guidelines). The Tohoku earthquake that occurred in Japan on March 11, 2011, triggering the tsunami that itself caused the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi site has resulted in the realization in France of the Complementary Safety Studies as a request of the

  8. Open Issues in Evolutionary Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fernando; Duarte, Miguel; Correia, Luís; Oliveira, Sancho Moura; Christensen, Anders Lyhne

    2016-01-01

    One of the long-term goals in evolutionary robotics is to be able to automatically synthesize controllers for real autonomous robots based only on a task specification. While a number of studies have shown the applicability of evolutionary robotics techniques for the synthesis of behavioral control, researchers have consistently been faced with a number of issues preventing the widespread adoption of evolutionary robotics for engineering purposes. In this article, we review and discuss the open issues in evolutionary robotics. First, we analyze the benefits and challenges of simulation-based evolution and subsequent deployment of controllers versus evolution on real robotic hardware. Second, we discuss specific evolutionary computation issues that have plagued evolutionary robotics: (1) the bootstrap problem, (2) deception, and (3) the role of genomic encoding and genotype-phenotype mapping in the evolution of controllers for complex tasks. Finally, we address the absence of standard research practices in the field. We also discuss promising avenues of research. Our underlying motivation is the reduction of the current gap between evolutionary robotics and mainstream robotics, and the establishment of evolutionary robotics as a canonical approach for the engineering of autonomous robots. PMID:26581015

  9. Methylmercury risk assessment issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Saroff, L. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-07-01

    This paper reviews the general background of health risks associated with mercury (Hg), primarily methylmercury (MeHg), with a view towards application to advanced technologies that could reduce any contributions from coal combustion. The need for accurate assessment of such risks is discussed, since Hg is now widely dispersed in the environment and cannot easily be eliminated. The primary pathway of MeHg intake is through eating contaminated fish. The issues of concern include identification of critical health outcomes (various neurological indices) and their confounding factors, accurate assessment of MeHg intake rates, and appropriate use of dose-response functions. Ultimately, such information will be used to evaluate alternative coal combustion systems.

  10. Special Issue on Open Source Software Development

    OpenAIRE

    Vonkrogh, Georg; Von Hippel, Eric

    2003-01-01

    This special issue of Research Policy is dedicated to new research on the phenomenon of open source software development. Open Source, because of its novel modes of operation and robust functioning in the marketplace, poses novel and fundamental questions for researchers in many fields, ranging from the economics of innovation to the principles by which productive work can best be organized. In this introduction to the special issue, we provide a general history and description of open source...

  11. Open statistical issues in particle physics

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, Louis

    2008-01-01

    Many statistical issues arise in the analysis of Particle Physics experiments. We give a brief introduction to Particle Physics, before describing the techniques used by Particle Physicists for dealing with statistical problems, and also some of the open statistical questions.

  12. The AGN phenomenon: open issues

    CERN Document Server

    Beckmann, Volker

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this short paper is to motivate and encourage research in the field of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). Here we summarize the main open questions concerning the central engine. Is the central black hole rapidly spinning and can we prove this? What is the dominant accretion mechanism in AGN? Why do some AGN form jets while others don't and how do the jets originate? What keeps jets collimated out to distances of 100 kpc? Is the emission of blazars dominated rather by synchrotron self-Compton or by external Compton processes? Which parameters are important in the unified model? We outline the status of related research, formulate the questions and try to hint at research projects able to tackle these fundamental topics. Deep surveys, polarization measurements, improved models, faster and more accurate simulations as well as bridging the gap in the MeV range can be part of the tools to bring us closer to an understanding of AGN.

  13. Issues in health technology assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In general, the main justification for the provision of health services is to improve the health of individuals and populations. Some experts focus on other goals for the health care systems, such as promoting health care innovation and increasing employment. Information on the efficacy of a diagnostic or therapeutic procedure has become more widely available during the last 25 years, both through increased research and increased availability of data based on, e.g. the Cochrane Collaboration and the Health Technology Assessment Database (INAHTA). At the same time, the most relevant information is often in proprietary hands, that is, in private organizations such as the manufacturing industry or in organizations that collect health information. The American Food and Drug Administration routinely assesses efficacy of devices and makes this information openly accessible. Unfortunately, the European Union focuses on trade issues, including innovation, and does not have a strong focus on public health. Competition for health care resources is a major concern even in segments of the population living in the richest countries. The problem of limited resources is, of course, much more pronounced in poor countries, in particular in the poorest countries. Although cost effectiveness of health care is very important conceptually, data are often not available. Cost effectiveness is often developed within the context of national needs and is very difficult to transfer to other jurisdictions. In addition, data on cost effectiveness are often not available to compare different options in health care. There is thus enormous scope for such studies in the future. Broader issues, such as health care organization and morals and ethics are also important. For example, is it ethical to promote advanced technology in poor countries that cannot provide even basic health care services? Is it ethical for researchers to overlook the basic needs of poor countries when working on

  14. Open Issues in Object-Oriented Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1995-01-01

    We discuss a number of open issues within object-oriented programming. The central mechanisms of object-oriented programming appeared with Simula, developed more than 30 years ago; these include class, subclass, virtual function, active object and the first application framework, Class Simulation....... The core parts of object-oriented programming should be well understood, but there are still a large number of issues where there is no consensus. The term object-orientation has been applied to many subjects, such as analysis, design implementation, data modeling in databases, and distribution. In...... this paper the term object-oriented programming is meant to cover all these subjects, since one of the advantages of object-orientation is that it provides a unified approach to these subjects. The issues being discussed in this paper are the following: modeling versus reuse as the main benefit of...

  15. Open Praxis, volumen 4 issue 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor Open Praxis

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available - Correlation between Performance and Quality of Academic Staff in National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN Olubiyi Adeniyi Adewale, Timothy Olugbenga Ajadi & Juliet O.Inegbedion (1-7 - Benchmarking E-Learning in UK Universities: Lessons from and for the International Context Paul Bacsich (9-17 - Structural equation modelling of factors affecting success in student’s performance in ODL-Programs: Extending Quality Management concepts Per Bergamin, Simone Ziska & Rudolf Groner (18-25 - Quality Assurance in Open and Distance Learning in India S.K. Gandhe (26-32 - Leading innovative approaches to the financial crisis Sarah Guri-Rosenblit (33-38 - TOWARDS KNOWLEDGE BASED ECONOMIES - the contribution of open distance learning strategies in addressing equity and inclusiveness issues in small states like Mauritius Jheengut (39-63 - New Approaches to Quality Assurance in the Changing World of Higher Education Maria Jose Lemaitre (64-75 - Entrepreneurship: New Challenges for Higher Education Institutions Josep Lladós (76-87 - A Psychometric Study in the Performance of Distance learners Ravi K Mahajan (88-94 - Managing Quality Assurance for Distance Learning Programs in Malaysia Mohd Ismail Ramli (95-101 - Employability and lifelong learning Hazel Simmons-McDonald (102-113

  16. Open Praxis, volumen 0 issue 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor Open Praxis

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Table of Contents - Providing Effective Feedback Online Zane Berge & Mauri Collins (1-10 - Mobile Technologies and the Future of Global Education Rory McGreal (11-16 - Cross-Border Higher Education through E-Learning: Issues and Opportunities Kumiko Aoki (17-25 - Open and Distance Education in the Global Environment: Opportunities for Collaboration Ellie Chambers (26-33 - Global Trade in Educational Services: Implications for Open and Distance Learning (ODL S. Savithri & K. Murugan (34-44 - Interactive Computer Simulation to Support Teaching of Biology in Distance Learning Basuki Hardjojo, Diki, S. Nurmawati & Susi Sulistiana (45-54 - An Analysis of Learning Styles of Distance Learners at the Institute of Education Development, Universiti Teknologi Mara, Malaysia Syed Jamal Abdul Nasir bin Syed Mohamad, & Ahmad Saat Daud Mohamad (55-61 - Application of Cognitive Dissonance Theory to Reduce Dropouts in Distance Education System G. Radhakrishna & Anurag Saxena (62-66 - Effects of Globalisation on Education and Culture S. Chinnammai (67-72 - Learning Beyond Boundary: The Quest Of a Global Researcher Gomata Varanasi (73-78 - Computer Technology for Literacy and Empowerment of Masses in Developing Countries Piyush Swami & Sasi Benzigar (79-84

  17. Management issues in open source software networks

    OpenAIRE

    Méndez Durón, Rebeca del C.

    2008-01-01

    Open Source Software projects base their operation on collaborative structure for knowledge exchange in the form of provision or reception of information, expertise and feedback on the creation of source code. Here, we address the direction of these knowledge flows among projects throughout social networks and their impact on project success. We identify the roles of membership or contribution that individuals play within projects. We found that connections through contributors who brin...

  18. Open Praxis, volumen 4 issue 1

    OpenAIRE

    Open Praxis, Editor

    2010-01-01

    - Correlation between Performance and Quality of Academic Staff in National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) Olubiyi Adeniyi Adewale, Timothy Olugbenga Ajadi & Juliet O.Inegbedion (1-7) - Benchmarking E-Learning in UK Universities: Lessons from and for the International Context Paul Bacsich (9-17) - Structural equation modelling of factors affecting success in student’s performance in ODL-Programs: Extending Quality Management concepts Per Bergamin, Simone Ziska & Rudolf Groner (18-2...

  19. The Openness of the University of the Philippines Open University: Issues and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamejor-Mendoza, Maria Fe

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a self-reflection on the state of openness of the University of the Philippines Open University (UPOU). An exploratory and descriptive study, it aims not only to define the elements of openness of UPOU, but also to unravel the causes and solutions to the issues and concerns that limit its options to becoming a truly open university.…

  20. INTANGIBLE ASSETS – AN OPEN ISSUE

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina-Ionela Fadur

    2011-01-01

    We live in an ever more competitive, globalized world, in continuous technological evolution. Optimal resource management implies detailed knowledge on the value of intangible assets. In the present article, we aim to analyze the issue of intangible assets from the perspective of the Spanish accounting system, in order to identify the similarities and differences between it and the Romanian accounting system. The purpose of our approach is to complete the stage of knowledge concerning intangi...

  1. INTANGIBLE ASSETS – AN OPEN ISSUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Ionela Fadur

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We live in an ever more competitive, globalized world, in continuous technological evolution. Optimal resource management implies detailed knowledge on the value of intangible assets. In the present article, we aim to analyze the issue of intangible assets from the perspective of the Spanish accounting system, in order to identify the similarities and differences between it and the Romanian accounting system. The purpose of our approach is to complete the stage of knowledge concerning intangible capital – the hidden fortune of the new economy.

  2. Usability Assessment of Open source application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed mehr Ali Shah

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Open-source software is becoming a gradually more popular as a software development method; some of the most successful softwares are for example: the Linux operating system, Mozilla, Apache web server and openoffice.org. Open source softwares viewed by many as being very good in terms of their usage, reliability, performance and market share. Mostly open source software developer focus on functionality and different feature of the software; on the other hand they ignore the user centric design requirement. In this research work the importance of the usability in Open source applications, such as Openoffice.org are described and how usability can be measured by assessing user performance such as, satisfaction, effectiveness and acceptability. Openoffice.org is a freely available office suite in different operating system and with different languages. The OpenOffice.org 3.0 feature set is similar to the feature set of Microsoft Office 2003. It has word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications all together within a common suite. But still this application suite is not much familiar among common users that cause a major usability threat for usability studies. The basic purposed of this research work was to find out the issues and users satisfaction regarding this Openoffice.org. Empirical method of usability assessment such as thinks aloud, Questionnaires and interviews were used.

  3. Open Praxis, volumen 1 issue 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor Open Praxis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Table of Contents - A Study on the Importance of Fostering Trust in a Distance Learning Community Sónia Sousa, David Lamas & Brian Hudson (1-10 - Teacher Upgrading through Distance Education in a South African Context C. G. Kruger & Prof. E. J. Spamer (11-19 - An Investigation into Delivery of On-Line Courses within an Early Childhood Teacher Education Distance Programme in New Zealand Susan E. Smart (20-29 - Transnational Online Project Management Curriculum Model for Engineering Students Enrique Benimeli Bofarull, Anke Muendler, Peter Haber (30-39 - China Rural Distance Education and Construction of the New Countryside Li Fanghong & Zeng Yichun (40-46 - E-Learning in Japan: Steam Locomotive on Shinkansen Ali E. Ozkul, Ph.D. & Kumiko Aoki, Ph.D.  (47-55 - Widening Access to Higher Education: Open and Distance Learning in Higher Education Setting in Indonesia Paulina Pannen (56-65 - Research and Development of a Costing Toolkit for Distance, Flexible and ICT-Based Education for Teacher Development in Africa Frank R J Banks (66-75 - Fostering E-Learning in Medical Education: The Eurovacc Team Experience Guilherme Andrade Marson, Nathalie Debard, Jean-Pierre Kraehenbuhl, Pascal Py, Yan Cornneille, Laurent Richard, Alain Meystre (76-86 - Program Upgrading Teachers in Education Irene Hardy de Gómez (87-95 - ICT based learning strategies for Educating nomads Yogesh Kulkarni & Dr. Madhav Gaikwad (96-102 - Information and Communication Technology and Distance Education in Brazil Marta de Campos Maia & Fernando de Souza Meirelles (103-112 - ICDE’s interview with Susan D’Antoni, UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP (113-117 - ICDE Task Force Open Educational Resources – Inquiry Results (118-125 - 22nd ICDE – World Conference on Distance Education: Facts and figures (126-131

  4. Socioeconomic assessment: issues, status, and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous public meetings and hearings have been held in Texas, Mississippi, Louisiana and Utah on the issue of siting a nuclear waste repository in salt. Citizens in these potential site areas have raised many questions about how this facility will affect their quality of life. Questions about population and economic changes have been of particular concern. In developing a socioeconomic program, these issues and others have been an integral part of Battelle's socioeconomic studies. The three elements of Battelle's socioeconomic program are comprised of three elements: impact assessment, impact mitigation and community development, and impact monitoring. In addition, our approach to assessing socioeconomic impacts for the environmental assessment (EA) required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 are described. Since the EA analysis will address many of the issues raised in the site areas, these concerns will be elaborated on. Finally, various techniques for managing socioeconomic impacts will be presented. 6 references, 1 figure

  5. Current issues in postclosure performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance assessment, a type of systematic safety analysis, is a method (a) to predict the potential health, safety, and environmental effects of creating and using a nuclear waste repository, (b) to characterize these effects in terms of their magnitude and likelihood, (c) to compare the characterization of these effects to standards of acceptability, and (d) to present the results of these analyses in a format useful to regulators, scientists, and the public. Postclosure performance assessment would thus be those analyses used to predict mined geologic disposal system behavior after permanent closure. The primary focus of and motivation for performance assessment is to evaluate compliance of the repository with regulatory performance standards, although performance assessments are expected to be useful in guiding and evaluating testing, design, and site characterization activities. Given that reduction of modeling uncertainty is an important aspect of obtaining a license, a survey was made of performance assessments for high-level nuclear waste, mined geologic repositories, and of the literature addressing the major issues of performance assessment to identify potentially significant, currently outstanding issues. Given the direction that DOE received from Congress late in 1987, the issues related here are those either directly applicable to or sufficiently general to be potentially applicable to a performance assessment of a Yucca Mountain, Nevada, repository

  6. Water quality issues and energy assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.J.; Chiu, S.

    1980-11-01

    This report identifies and evaluates the significant water quality issues related to regional and national energy development. In addition, it recommends improvements in the Office assessment capability. Handbook-style formating, which includes a system of cross-references and prioritization, is designed to help the reader use the material.

  7. Improving Open Access through Prior Learning Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangxu Yin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores and presents new data on how to improve open access in distance education through using prior learning assessments. Broadly there are three types of prior learning assessment (PLAR: Type-1 for prospective students to be allowed to register for a course; Type-2 for current students to avoid duplicating work-load to gain certification; and Type-3 mapping occupational skills as portfolio-needs analysis. In each of these some e-assessment can play a role, notably in Type-3 in distance education. Our previous research has been in Type-2 and we report the empirical results and challenges involved in practice. Moving beyond Type-2 we further report how e-Type-3 can improve our practice in the Open University of China—a very large ODL provider. We discuss the barriers and challenges being faced, and ways being explored to resolve these issues, to reduce the costs involved and to improve open access to learning.

  8. The mechanics of seismic faulting: recent advances and open issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early years '60 the fracture mechanics was mainly focused on tensile cracks (of prominent importance in engineering problems) and later on shear, antiplane cracks. Since these studies consisted in singular problems without friction, their applicability to earthquake events was extremely limited. After the seminal papers by Kostrov in the late years '60 and the relevant contributions of Aki, Burridge, Andrews, Das, Ida, Madariaga and others in years '70, more elaborated, realistic and physically constrained fault models have been proposed and further intensively used and improved. Complemented by the evidence from laboratory experiments on fracture (first pioneered by Ohnaka and later by Rosakis) and friction (pioneered by Dieterich, Ruina and more recently by Shimamoto), numerical and theoretical models provide substantial improvements in the understanding of the chemical and physical, potentially competing, energy-dissipating processes occurring in the natural fault structures. In spite of these significant advances, some open issues still hover and many important ideas remain unexplored fully. Relevant challenges to relate the physics of the seismic source to the coseismic scenarios and ultimately to the seismic hazard assessment could be successfully handled in the framework of a multidisciplinary approach, which combines theory, numerical models, data analysis, geological observations and laboratory experiments.

  9. Assessments: An Open and Closed Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, R. Nazim

    2015-01-01

    Open book assessment is not a new idea, but it does not seem to have gained ground in higher education. In particular, not much literature is available on open book examinations in mathematics and statistics in higher education. The objective of this paper is to investigate the appropriateness of open book assessments in a first-year business…

  10. The Openness of the University of the Philippines Open University: Issues and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fe Villamejor-Mendoza

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a self-reflection on the state of openness of the University of the Philippines Open University (UPOU. An exploratory and descriptive study, it aims not only to define the elements of openness of UPOU, but also to unravel the causes and solutions to the issues and concerns that limit its options to becoming a truly open university. It is based on four parameters of openness, which are widely universal in the literature, e.g., open admissions, open curricula, distance education at scale, and the co-creation, sharing and use of open educational resources (OER. It draws from the perception survey among peers, which the author conducted in UPOU in July and August 2012. It also relies on relevant secondary materials on the subject.

  11. JAC Software, Solving Conjunction Assessment Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, F.

    2014-09-01

    Conjunction Messages (CM) provided by JSpOC are complete and valuable data to evaluate the level of risk of conjunctions, decide and choose avoidance actions. Nevertheless, conjunction assessment remains a difficult task which requires Middle Man between the CM provider (JSpOC) and Owner/Operators. CAESAR (Conjunction Analysis and Evaluation Service, Alerts and Recommendations) is the French Middle Man. CAESAR relies on a collaborative work environment between CAESAR team and its subscribers. For CAESAR, the collaborative work environment is based on JAC software and a dedicated secure webserver. JAC software is not the Main Flight Dynamics (FD) software used by CAESAR team, but it is a light friendly CM dedicated software to be used on laptops by on-call teams or support dialogue between Middle Man and FD teams. This paper presents the main feedbacks from CAESAR team operational experience and how each new encountered issue has enriched JAC Software functions. JAC has got two levels: - JAC Basic version, to be aware of the situation described with CMs : automatic download of CM from websites with secure password management, capacity to manage CM from different providers, management of the downloaded CM database, visualization of the key data given by the different CM related to each close approach, visualization of the evolution of those key data through tables-graphs-3Danimations, capacity to copy/paste and edit CM data to illustrate sensibility of key parameters, capacity to use several pre-defined dispersions for each primary, printable summary of analysis, statistics on CM in database, - JAC Expert version, to take and validate a decision of avoidance action: sensitivity analysis to errors, thresholds chosen by the user, simulation of maneuvers on the satellite of interest to determine their effect in terms of mitigation of the identified risk. JAC Expert version also includes a monitoring capacity to enable 24/7 analysis. JAC Basic and JAC Expert are

  12. Open Data for Territorial Specialization Assessment Territorial Specialization in Attracting Local Development Funds: an Assessment. Procedure Based on Open Data and Open Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Las Casas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The New Cohesion Policy opens to an integrated place-based approach for the improvement of territorial and social cohesion. The issue of territorial impact assessment of regional development policies highlight that data availability, open access to datasets in “near real-time”, participation, knowledge sharing, assumed importance within the development planning process. The contribution of ‘open data’ appears to be mature and in this paper we present an application of spatial analysis techniques for the evaluation of spatial effects of EU funds starting form open data by open-coesione. The application regards an internal areas of Basilicata Region: the Agri Valley. A complex contests in which an environmental and agricultural traditional vocation conflicts with a recent development of oil extraction industries. Conclusions regard further applications and perspectives for improving and supporting regional development planning considering the exploitation of open data sources and spatial analysis.

  13. Improving Open Access through Prior Learning Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shuangxu; Kawachi, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores and presents new data on how to improve open access in distance education through using prior learning assessments. Broadly there are three types of prior learning assessment (PLAR): Type-1 for prospective students to be allowed to register for a course; Type-2 for current students to avoid duplicating work-load to gain…

  14. Security Issues Specific to e-Assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Marais, Emil; Argles, David; von Solms, Basie

    2006-01-01

    E-learning systems play a primary and/or supportive role in modern education. With e-learning systems e-assessments are an integral part of a course be it to do formative or summative assessments. This paper identifies security vulnerabilities unique to e-assessment that are not addressed in commercial products and web security research. The reason for the additional requirements is that e-assessments are being used more and more to replace paper based tests. The e-assessments need to be in a...

  15. A FRAMEWORK FOR OPEN INNOVATION ASSESSMENT

    OpenAIRE

    CHIEN-TZU TSAI; WAN-FEN LIAO

    2014-01-01

    Innovation is the key for an organization to achieve sustainable development. Open innovation which emphasizes the integration of internal and external resources in an organization has brought about a new perspective in technological developments. In order to promote and ensure the performance of the open innovation, an assessment framework and the evaluation indicators are required. This study extracted dimensions from literatures and propose knowledge operation is an important element as we...

  16. School Readiness: Assessment and Educational Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gredler, Gilbert R.

    Noting that the latest messages communicated to the public about the learning problems of American children emphasize children's lack of social maturity and premature school entry, this book examines the many complex issues surrounding school readiness and entry. The 15 chapters are divided into 4 sections. The first section includes an…

  17. Adolescent Perpetrator Treatment Programs: Assessment Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Joan M.

    The value of early identification of sexually aberrant behaviors and intervention with sexually deviant minors is obvious from a community safety perspective. Early intervention also appears to have value from the offender's perspective. A research review revealed several common themes with implications for both assessment and treatment. Most…

  18. Open-system dynamics of entanglement: a key issues review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aolita, Leandro; de Melo, Fernando; Davidovich, Luiz

    2015-04-01

    One of the greatest challenges in the fields of quantum information processing and quantum technologies is the detailed coherent control over each and every constituent of quantum systems with an ever increasing number of particles. Within this endeavor, harnessing of many-body entanglement against the detrimental effects of the environment is a major pressing issue. Besides being an important concept from a fundamental standpoint, entanglement has been recognized as a crucial resource for quantum speed-ups or performance enhancements over classical methods. Understanding and controlling many-body entanglement in open systems may have strong implications in quantum computing, quantum simulations of many-body systems, secure quantum communication or cryptography, quantum metrology, our understanding of the quantum-to-classical transition, and other important questions of quantum foundations.In this paper we present an overview of recent theoretical and experimental efforts to underpin the dynamics of entanglement under the influence of noise. Entanglement is thus taken as a dynamic quantity on its own, and we survey how it evolves due to the unavoidable interaction of the entangled system with its surroundings. We analyze several scenarios, corresponding to different families of states and environments, which render a very rich diversity of dynamical behaviors.In contrast to single-particle quantities, like populations and coherences, which typically vanish only asymptotically in time, entanglement may disappear at a finite time. In addition, important classes of entanglement display an exponential decay with the number of particles when subject to local noise, which poses yet another threat to the already-challenging scaling of quantum technologies. Other classes, however, turn out to be extremely robust against local noise. Theoretical results and recent experiments regarding the difference between local and global decoherence are summarized. Control and

  19. EPa`s program for risk assessment guidelines: Exposure issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, M.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Three major issues to be dealt with over the next ten years in the exposure assessment field are: consistency in terminology, the impact of computer technology on the choice of data and modeling, and conceptual issues such as the use of time-weighted averages.

  20. Ethical issues in the psychosocial assessment of bariatric surgery candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouleau, Codie R; Rash, Joshua A; Mothersill, Kerry J

    2016-07-01

    Psychosocial evaluation is recommended prior to bariatric surgery. Practice guidelines have been published on assessment methods for bariatric surgery candidates, but they have not emphasized ethical issues with this population. This review outlines ethical and professional considerations for behavioral healthcare providers who conduct pre-surgical assessments of bariatric surgery candidates by merging ethical principles for mental health professionals with current practices in pre-surgical assessments. Issues discussed include the following: (a) establishing and maintaining competence, (b) obtaining informed consent, (c) respecting confidentiality, (d) avoiding bias and discrimination, (e) avoiding and addressing dual roles, (f) selecting and using psychological tests, and (g) acknowledging limitations of psychosocial assessments. PMID:25411197

  1. SUSTAINABLE ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION STRATEGIES FOR OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charity Akuadi OKONKWO

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper first presents an overview of the concepts of assessment and evaluation in Open and Distance Learning (ODL environment. The large numbers of students and numerous courses make assessment and evaluation very difficult and administrative nightmare at Distance Learning (DL institutions. These challenges informed exploring issues relating to assessment and evaluation like the development and use of question bank and deployment of technology in assessment with emphasis on strategies for sustainability. Assessment in ODL, unlike in the Conventional system where students have a range of opportunities to demonstrate their learning periodically, depends on formal assessment tasks only. Thus, for validity to be high in ODL assessment, assessment must provide the appropriate situation possible for measuring the specific abilities being measured. Reliability is maximized when the assessment items are many; the items are not too easy or too difficult for the candidates; and the marking consistent. Evaluation depends on Tutor Marked Assignments (TMAs and End of Semester Examination (ESE in ODL system. Large question/item bank (with reliable and valid questions from which items are picked to constitute test are needed. Attempts are made to provide argument for the use of computer as a viable option for sustainable assessment based on its sustainable features especially for ODL institutions with a large number of students’ population. It is hoped that these strategies if adopted have the potentials to eliminate some of the challenges that ODL institutions are currently facing in assessment. It will also strengthen quality assurance mechanism in ODL institutions.

  2. Moderate alcohol consumption and cardiovascular risk reduction: open issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Costanzo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The inverse relationship between low to moderate alcohol consumption and several favorable health outcomes has been well established in many epidemiological studies and meta-analyses. However, several questions still remain controversial.

    Aims: To discuss a number of open questions relating to the healthy effect of a moderate intake of alcohol (especially wine on cardiovascular disease and total mortality. This will be based on findings from the literature, with a particular emphasis on meta-analyses.

    Results and Conclusion: The role of different alcoholic beverages, age and sex, confounding, former drinkers and study design has been discussed. Whether wine is better than beer or spirits, though suggestive, remains to be established. Cardiovascular morbidity and total mortality is significantly reduced both in men and women who are regular drinkers of low amounts of alcohol; however, the predicted protection in women disappears at lower doses than in men. The primary protection of alcohol decreases after adjustment for known variables, thus confirming the importance of confounding in assessing drinking effects, but it remains significant and of undoubted public health value. As the cardiovascular protection by moderate alcohol consumption might have been unduly overestimated by inclusion in control groups of former drinkers, we compared studies that used as a reference group the category of no alcohol intake and/or formally excluded former drinkers with studies which did not: the protection was indeed somewhat lower in the former than in the latter studies, but was still statistically significant. We conclude that the dose-response relationship between alcohol intake and cardiovascular risk or total mortality, consistently described by J-shaped curves, can be reasonably attributed to a combination of both real beneficial (at lower doses and harmful (at higher doses

  3. UAV-assisted disaster management: Applications and open issues

    OpenAIRE

    Erdelj, Milan; Natalizio, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    The fast-paced development of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and their use in different domains, opens a new paradigm on their use in natural disaster management. In UAV-assisted disaster management applications, UAVs not only survey the affected area but also assist in establishing the communication network between the disaster survivors, rescue teams and nearest available cellular infrastructure. This paper identifies main disaster management applications of UAV networks and discusses open...

  4. Environmental and energy issues in an open economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kyungsoo

    The environmental and energy consequences of globalization have become an important topic of debate. My dissertation examines the interaction between environmental and energy issues and international trade. Specifically, I investigate environmental regulations and policy in an open economy. In the first chapter, I analyze how an environmental tax on pollution from consumption affects trade flows and welfare in an open economy. In particular, I argue that the effect of an environmental tax on the direction of trade flows depends on who is directly burdened by the regulation (consumers or producers) regardless of who is the polluter. In the case of pollution generated by consumers, a tax on consumers who are the polluters tends to increase exports and reduce imports of dirty goods. This result is the opposite of the well-known effect arising from taxes on pollution-intensive industries. Stringent environmental regulations on pollution-intensive industries diminishes exports and increases imports of dirty industries. In terms of welfare, I show the importance of targeting the policy instrument to the correct source of pollution. Assuming pollution is caused by the consumption of a good, a production tax has a weak effect on increasing welfare through reducing pollution. Furthermore, welfare can fall if the production tax ratio is too high, leading to reduced national income. The second chapter is motivated by recent trends in the U.S. economy: increasing imports from China, decreasing energy consumption, and increasing output. There are two primary theoretical approaches related to the relationship between energy use in U.S. manufacturing and increasing imports from China: Heckscher-Ohlin (H-O) trade theory and the Pollution Haven Hypothesis (PHH). These two frameworks generate opposite predictions about the relationship between these trends. H-O theory suggests that with increased Chinese import penetration, U.S. manufacturing should move toward more energy

  5. Mapping the hinterland: Data issues in open science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, Ann; Wilkinson, Clare; Bultitude, Karen; Winfield, Alan F. T.

    2016-01-01

    Open science is a practice in which the scientific process is shared completely and in real time. It offers the potential to support information flow, collaboration and dialogue among professional and non-professional participants. Using semi-structured interviews and case studies, this research investigated the relationship between open science and public engagement. This article concentrates on three particular areas of concern that emerged: first, how to effectively contextualise and narrate information to render it accessible, as opposed to simply available; second, concerns about data quantity and quality; and third, concerns about the skills required for effective contextualisation, mapping and interpretation of information. PMID:24769860

  6. Background, Assessment and Analysis of the Gender Issues in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Moheyuddin, Ghulam

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the assessment of the gender issue in Pakistan, review and analysis of the major sector depicting gender inequalities. Before continuing to the detailed analysis of the gender issues in Pakistan, it gives a bird’s eye-view of the socio-economic, political and cultural background of Pakistan. The paper explains the areas of critical gender inequalities in Pakistan and reviews the various gender indicators in Pakistan. It also discusses the current policies and the program...

  7. Climate change and environmental assessments: Issues in an African perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Dalfelt, Arne; Næss, Lars Otto

    1997-01-01

    The present study discusses the potential for integrating climate change issues into environmental assessments (EAs) of development actions, with emphasis on sub-Sahara Africa. The study is motivated by the fact that future climate change could give significant adverse impacts on the natural and socio-economic environment in Africa. Yet, global change issues – including climate change – have to date largely been overlooked in the process of improving EA procedures and methodologies. The study...

  8. Copolymers at selective interfaces: settled issues and open problems

    CERN Document Server

    Caravenna, Francesco; Toninelli, Fabio Lucio

    2010-01-01

    We review the literature on the localization transition for the class of polymers with random potentials that goes under the name of copolymers near selective interfaces. We outline the results, sketch some of the proofs and point out the open problems in the field. We also present in detail some alternative proofs that simplify what one can find in the literature.

  9. Perspectives and reconciliation of viewpoints on risk assessment issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is important to recognize the distinction between risk assessment and its components which include risk analysis, perspectives study, and decision analysis. Divergence of opinion within the scientific community as well as the public at large is a characteristic of issues related to nuclear power. The divergent opinions can largely be characterized as either optimistic or pessimistic in nature. Reconciliation of divergent viewpoints presents some difficult challenges. It is doubtful that issues which have an emotional or philosophical basis can be resolved through technical efforts. Public education on the technical issues might prove helpful

  10. Openings: On the Journal of Homosexuality, Volume 1, Issue 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotkin, Kevin

    2016-03-01

    This article serves as one of the supplementary pieces of this special issue on "Mapping Queer Bioethics," in which we take a solipsistic turn to "map" the Journal of Homosexuality itself. Here, the author examines Volume 1, Issue 1 of the Journal of Homosexuality and asks whether the journal's first contributors might reveal a historically problematic relationship whereby the categories of front-line LGBT health advocates in the 1970s might be incommensurate with the post-AIDS, queer politics that would follow in decades to come. PMID:26644062

  11. Computer Aided Assessment of Mathematics for Undergraduates with Specific Learning Difficulties--Issues of Inclusion in Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkin, Glynis; Beacham, Nigel; Croft, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    This paper opens up a debate about policy and practice in computer-assisted assessment (CAA) of mathematics for undergraduates with specific learning difficulties e.g. dyslexia. Guidelines for designing assessments for such students are emerging and some may be transferable to CAA. Whether mathematics brings with it particular issues is unclear.…

  12. Assessing Social Value in Open Data Initiatives: A Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi Viscusi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Open data initiatives are characterized, in several countries, by a great extension of the number of data sets made available for access by public administrations, constituencies, businesses and other actors, such as journalists, international institutions and academics, to mention a few. However, most of the open data sets rely on selection criteria, based on a technology-driven perspective, rather than a focus on the potential public and social value of data to be published. Several experiences and reports confirm this issue, such as those of the Open Data Census. However, there are also relevant best practices. The goal of this paper is to investigate the different dimensions of a framework suitable to support public administrations, as well as constituencies, in assessing and benchmarking the social value of open data initiatives. The framework is tested on three initiatives, referring to three different countries, Italy, the United Kingdom and Tunisia. The countries have been selected to provide a focus on European and Mediterranean countries, considering also the difference in legal frameworks (civic law vs. common law countries.

  13. Monetary Integration Issues in Latin America: A Multivariate Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Allegret Jean-Pierre; Sand-Zantman Alain

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses the monetary consequences of the Latin-American integration process. Over the period 1991-2007, we analyze a sample of five Latin-Americancountries focusing on the feasibility of a monetary union between L.A. economies. To this end, we study the issue of business cycle synchronization with the occurrence ofcommon shocks. First, we assess the international disturbances influence on the domestic business cycles. Second, we analyze the impact of the adoption of different exch...

  14. Assessment Worlds Colliding? Negotiating between Discourses of Assessment on an Online Open Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Laura; Hughes, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Using the badged open course, "Taking your first steps into Higher Education", this case study examines how assessment on online open courses draws on concepts of assessment used within formal and informal learning. Our experience was that assessment used within open courses, such as massive open online courses, is primarily determined…

  15. Open heavy flavour production: conceptual framework and implementation issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy flavour production is an important quantum chromodynamics (QCD) process both in its own right and as a key component of precision global QCD analysis. Apparent disagreements between fixed-flavour scheme calculations of b-production rate with experimental measurements in hadro-, lepto- and photo-production provide new impetus for a thorough examination of the theory and phenomenology of this process. We review existing methods of calculation and place them in the context of the general perturbative QCD framework of Collins. A distinction is drawn between scheme dependence and implementation issues related to quark mass effects near threshold. We point out a so far overlooked kinematic constraint on the threshold behaviour, which greatly simplifies the variable flavour number scheme. This obviates the need for the elaborate existing prescriptions and leads to robust predictions. It can facilitate the study of current issues on heavy flavour production as well as precision global QCD analysis. (author)

  16. Key issues and open questions in GMO controls

    OpenAIRE

    Bertheau, Yves; Davison, John; Holst-Jensen, A.; Taverniers, I.

    2005-01-01

    The introduction of genetically modifi ed organisms (GMO) induced the implementation of a set of regulations in Europe as well as in other countries. These regulations were meant to provide a freedom for the consumers to choose the products they want. Analytical methods and traceability shall ensure the reliability of the labelling, a requirement that is not always easy to meet. Technical, fi nancial and other challenges to labelling reliability are among the key issues in the GMO detect...

  17. Assessment in health psychology: Introduction to the special issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Zeeshan

    2016-09-01

    For the past 27 years, has been committed to publishing empirical research relevant to clinical assessment of basic and applied cognition, personality, interpersonal behavior, psychopathology, forensics, and biological psychology. There is growing interest in the use of patient-centered outcomes in medical/surgical care and for measuring health care performance. Patient-centered outcome measures complement traditional clinical outcomes of morbidity and mortality, capturing the patient's perspective regarding their health and its treatment. In this issue, we highlight 11 articles that address different aspects of such work. The articles in this special issue represent both the depth and breadth of the opportunities that exist for psychological assessment in the health setting. While there are countless patient-centered measures currently in use to measure health and health outcomes, the evidence base for their use can be quite variable (Butt, 2016). The hope is that future issues of will highlight more work in this area. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27536998

  18. A Framework for Teaching, Learning, and Assessing Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown-Ice, Rosalyn; Dendinger, Roger

    2008-01-01

    A twelve-question framework for teaching, learning, and assessing environmental issues was created through analysis of environmental textbooks and interviews with professors and researchers who specialize in the environment. Concepts in the framework include: causes, scale, spatial distribution, longevity, consequences, risks, economic…

  19. Broadening the scope of Open Innovation: Introduction to the special issue

    OpenAIRE

    Van de Vrande, Vraeska; Vanhaverbeke,Wim; Gassmann, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    In this first paper of the special issue, we identify some trends in open innovation research by analysing how the literature on this topics has evolved since the introduction of the concept in 2003. Research on open innovation has been mushrooming ever since and the scope has been broadened in different directions. Researchers also started to analyse open innovation at different level of analysis from the individual actors in organisations to ecosystems and national innovation systems. Despi...

  20. Contextual assessment in science education: Background, issues, and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Stephen

    2006-09-01

    Contemporary assessment practices in science education have undergone significant changes in recent decades. The basis for these changes and the resulting new assessment practices are the subject of this two-part paper. Part 1 considers the basis of assessment that, more than 25 years ago, was driven by the assumptions of decomposability and decontextualization of knowledge, resulting in a low-inference testing system, often described as traditional. This assessment model was replaced not on account of direct criticism, but rather on account of a larger revolution - the change from behavioral to cognitive psychology, developments in the philosophy of science, and the rise of constructivism. Most notably, the study of the active cognitive processes of the individual resulted in a major emphasis on context in learning and assessment. These changes gave rise to the development of various contextual assessment methodologies in science education, for example, concept mapping assessment, performance assessment, and portfolio assessment. In Part 2, the literature relating to the assessment methods identified in Part 1 is reviewed, revealing that there is not much research that supports their validity and reliability. However, encouraging new work on selected-response tests is forming the basis for reconsideration of past criticisms of this technique. Despite the major developments in contextual assessment methodologies in science education, two important questions remain unanswered, namely, whether grades can be considered as genuine numeric quantities and whether the individual student is the appropriate unit of assessment in public accountability. Given these issues and the requirement for science assessment to satisfy the goals of the individual, the classroom, and the society, tentative recommendations are put forward addressing these parallel needs in the assessment of science learning.

  1. Managerial Issues in Open and Distance Education Organizations in Transition: A Need for Systematic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemil ULUKAN

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Managerial Issues in Open and Distance Education Organizations in Transition: A Need for Systematic Approach Cemil ULUKAN, PhDAnadolu University Open Education Faculty Eskisehir-TURKEY ABSTRACT Among the most common issues addressed in the educational literature of recent years have been change and transformation . In the literature on open and distance education (ODE, there has been a marked tendency to address change related issues separately. However, ODE leaders should consider all of the relevant organizational aspects during the change process in order to achieve successful transition. This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of what issues should be addressed during the transition process in order to realize a more effective and more competitive ODE organization. It attempts to ensure that all of the major aspects of organizational domains are taken into consideration more systematically in a system-wide transition process.

  2. Current issues and perspectives in food safety and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbrand, G

    2015-12-01

    In this review, current issues and opportunities in food safety assessment are discussed. Food safety is considered an essential element inherent in global food security. Hazard characterization is pivotal within the continuum of risk assessment, but it may be conceived only within a very limited frame as a true alternative to risk assessment. Elucidation of the mode of action underlying a given hazard is vital to create a plausible basis for human toxicology evaluation. Risk assessment, to convey meaningful risk communication, must be based on appropriate and reliable consideration of both exposure and mode of action. New perspectives, provided by monitoring human exogenous and endogenous exposure biomarkers, are considered of great promise to support classical risk extrapolation from animal toxicology. PMID:26614817

  3. Climate Change and Environmental assessments: Issues in an African Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalfelt, Arne; Naess, Lars Otto

    1997-12-31

    The present report discusses the potential for integrating climate change issues into environmental assessments of development actions, with an emphasis on sub-Sahara Africa. The study is motivated by the fact that future climate change could have significant adverse impacts on the natural and socio-economic environment in Africa. Yet, to date global change issues, including climate change, have been largely overlooked in the process of improving environmental assessment procedures and methodologies. It is argued that although emissions of greenhouse gases in Africa are negligible today, it is highly relevant to include this aspect in the planning of long-term development strategies. The report discusses potential areas of conflicts and synergies between climate change and development goals. The general conclusion is that environmental assessments could be an appropriate tool for addressing climate change issues, while there are still several obstacles to its practical implementation. Four priority areas are suggested for further work: (1) Environmental accounting, (2) harmonization and standard-setting, (3) implementation, and (4) risk management. 82 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs.

  4. Options for Open Issues in Planetary Protection on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Benton

    2016-07-01

    Planetary Protection policies span a wide range, with several new components which currently have only high-level requirements or concerns associated with them. There are various options for more detailed requirements and/or analyses which can be used to meet the intent and specifications attendant with each new policy. Encroachment near a Special Region (SR) requires special consideration. Unless Category IVb procedures are undertaken, no hardware may land within an error ellipse of a SR. However, a buffer zone could be specified, and/or assessment of contamination by windborne organisms taking into account prevailing weather, history of regional dust devils, "cleaning event" disturbances experienced by MER rovers, dilution effects relative to the 1E-4 criterion for equivalence to Category IVb bioburden reduction by dry heat, and time of exposure to harsh UV and oxidants on Mars. Most or all designated SR's are potentially but not yet proven to be SR's. Methane plume detection from orbit or ground-based assets, with consideration of where the putative SR may exist (subsurface?) can be quantitatively compared with the potential for contamination by downward transport of bioburden from hardware surfaces. Similar considerations apply to caves and cavities providing access to sub-surface regions, including evaluation of thermal regimes and compatibility with microbial growth. Ultimately, these decisions may be affected by assessment of intrinsic lethality of the martian environment which could be evaluated via direct experimentation, such as use of bacterial endospores or other hardy organisms that have been genetically engineered to prevent growth on Mars (e.g., knockout genes), with aliquots exposed separately to the full martian environment, to atmospheric oxidants (sans UV), and to the universal soil. Upon return-to-Earth, the survival power of such organism relative to control samples would provide direct measurements that can be used to evaluate and pave the way

  5. Research Library Issues: A Bimonthly Report from ARL, CNI, and SPARC--A Special Issue on Strategies for Opening up Content. RLI 269

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, G. Jaia, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Research Library Issues" ("RLI") is a bimonthly report from ARL (Association of Research Libraries), CNI (Coalition of Networked Information), and SPARC (Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition). This issue includes the following articles: (1) Strategies for Opening Up Content: Laying the Groundwork for an Open System of Scholarship…

  6. Open knot-tying skills: residents skills assessed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. van Empel; M.G.E. Verdam; J.A. Huirne; H.J. Bonjer; W.J. Meijerink; F. Scheele

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Open knot-tying and suturing skills are fundamental surgical skills, founding many alternative knot-tying techniques. It is therefore mandatory for residents to possess adequate basic open knot-tying skills. The aim of this study was to compare an objective assessment of open knot-tying skills

  7. Regional issue identification and assessment. First annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    This regional assessment report portrays the major regional environmental, human health and safety, socioeconomic and institutional effects that might result from the implementation of one of a set of national energy supply and demand projections developed by the Department of Energy in 1978. General problem areas are identified and assessed on a regional and state basis that could either constrain or significantly modify the realization of the energy projections. Many of the issues identified are of a long-standing nature and would continue to exist, in spite of the particular energy projection used. The research and assessments reflected in this document were performed by six national laboratories. It is a compilation of individual reports prepared by Federal regions and available separately.

  8. Geotechnical Issues in Total System Performance Assessments of Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) of Yucca Mountain consists of integrated sub-models and analyses of natural and engineered systems. Examples of subsystem models include unsaturated-zone flow and transport, seepage into drifts, coupled thermal hydrologic processes, transport through the engineered barrier system, and saturated-zone flow and transport. The TSPA evaluates the interaction of important processes among these subsystems, and it determines the impact of these processes on the overall performance measures (e.g., dose rate to humans). This paper summarizes the evaluation, abstraction, and combination of these subsystem models in a TSPA calculation, and it provides background on the individual TSPA subsystem components that are most directly impacted by geotechnical issues. The potential impact that geologic features, events, and processes have on the overall performance is presented, and an evaluation of the sensitivity of TSPA calculations to these issues is also provided

  9. Editorial - JIME OER13 special issue: The potential of openness for engaging communities

    OpenAIRE

    Lane, Andy; Comas-Quinn, Anna; Carter, Jackie

    2013-01-01

    This special issue is the fourth devoted to Open Educational Resources (OER) and the third to be drawn from papers presented at the main annual UK-based OER conference. For this special issue, the editors selected papers from the OER13 conference, held in Nottingham in March 2013. The main conference themes were Evidence, Experiences and Expectations, and the chosen papers exemplified some of the ways in which OER can link communities both inside and beyond Higher Education.

  10. Editorial. JIME Nottingham OER2013 Special Issue: The potential of openness for engaging communities.

    OpenAIRE

    Lane, Andrew; Comas-Quinn, Anna; Carter, Jackie

    2013-01-01

    This special issue is the fourth devoted to Open Educational Resources (OER) and the third to be drawn from papers presented at the main annual UK-based OER conference. For this special issue, the editors selected papers from the OER13 conference, held in Nottingham in March 2013. The main conference themes were Evidence, Experiences and Expectations, and the chosen papers exemplified some of the ways in which OER can link communities both inside and beyond Higher Education.

  11. Assessing ecological effects of radionuclides: data gaps and extrapolation issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By inspection of the FASSET database on radiation effects on non-human biota, one of the major difficulties in the implementation of ecological risk assessments for radioactive pollutants is found to be the lack of data for chronic low-level exposure. A critical review is provided of a number of extrapolation issues that arise in undertaking an ecological risk assessment: acute versus chronic exposure regime; radiation quality including relative biological effectiveness and radiation weighting factors; biological effects from an individual to a population level, including radiosensitivity and lifestyle variations throughout the life cycle; single radionuclide versus multi-contaminants. The specificities of the environmental situations of interest (mainly chronic low-level exposure regimes) emphasise the importance of reproductive parameters governing the demography of the population within a given ecosystem and, as a consequence, the structure and functioning of that ecosystem. As an operational conclusion to keep in mind for any site-specific risk assessment, the present state-of-the-art on extrapolation issues allows us to grade the magnitude of the uncertainties as follows: one species to another > acute to chronic = external to internal = mixture of stressors> individual to population> ecosystem structure to function

  12. Assessment in Massive Open Online Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admiraal, Wilfried; Huisman, Bart; Pilli, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Open online distance learning in higher education has quickly gained popularity, expanded, and evolved, with Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) as the most recent development. New web technologies allow for scalable ways to deliver video lecture content, implement social forums and track student progress in MOOCs. However, we remain limited in…

  13. POLICY ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH USING SIMULATION TO ASSESS ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchitel, Kirsten; Tanana, Heather

    2014-11-01

    This report examines the relationship between simulation-based science and judicial assessments of simulations or models supporting evaluations of environmental harms or risks, considering both how it exists currently and how it might be shaped in the future. This report considers the legal standards relevant to judicial assessments of simulation-based science and provides examples of the judicial application of those legal standards. Next, this report discusses the factors that inform whether there is a correlation between the sophistication of a challenged simulation and judicial support for that simulation. Finally, this report examines legal analysis of the broader issues that must be addressed for simulation-based science to be better understood and utilized in the context of judicial challenge and evaluation. !

  14. Issues Involved in the Development of an Open Standard for Data Link of Aviation Weather Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grappel, R. D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes how an effective and efficient data link system for the dissemination of aviation weather information could be constructed. The system is built upon existing 'open standard' foundations drawn from current aviation and computer technologies. Issues of communications protocols and application data formats are discussed. The proposed aviation weather data link system is dependent of the actual link mechanism selected.

  15. Mild cognitive impairment: Conceptual, assessment, ethical, and social issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perla Werner

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Perla Werner1, Amos D Korczyn21Department of Gerontology, Faculty of Social Welfare and Health Sciences, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel; 2Sieratzki Chair of Neurology, Department of Neurology, Tel Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv, IsraelAbstract: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is defined as a condition characterized by newly acquired cognitive decline to an extent that is beyond that expected for age or educational background, yet not causing significant functional impairment. The concept of MCI has received considerable attention in the literature over the past few years, and aspects related to its definition, prevalence, and evolution have been extensively studied and reviewed. Here we attempt to synthesize the implications of the current status of this entity, focusing on the conceptual, methodological, and, in particular, the social and ethical aspects of MCI which have attracted less attention. We discuss the weaknesses of the concept of MCI, which is heterogeneous in etiology, manifestations, and outcomes, and suggest that the emergence of the syndrome at this stage reflects industrial interests related to possible development of drugs for this disorder. On the other hand, the formal diagnosis of MCI, with its implications that the person may develop dementia, may have a grave impact on the psychological state of the individual, at a stage when prediction of outcome is tenuous and possibilities of useful interventions are meager. We present suggestions for the direction of future research in these areas.Keywords: mild cognitive impairment, assessment issues, ethical issues, social issues, dementia

  16. Integrating Sexual Minority Health Issues into a Health Assessment Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Jordon D; Nesteby, J Aleah; Randall, Carla E

    2015-01-01

    The health needs of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) population are traditionally overlooked by the health care community and are rendered invisible by most nursing school curricula. Initial contact with a nurse during a health history and assessment can have an impact on whether the person will feel comfortable disclosing his or her identity, returning for services, or following plans of care. Because the first interaction with a nurse can be critical, the health assessment course is an appropriate place in the curriculum to discuss the needs of the LGBT community. This article includes a discussion of unique health risks to the LGBT population, benefits, and challenges of incorporating these issues into the classroom and recommendations for including the care of this population into a health assessment nursing course. Specific communication techniques are provided that may be helpful during history taking and physical examination with a patient who is LGBT. Guidance regarding physical examination of the transgender patient is also included. These suggestions will be helpful to nurse faculty who teach health assessment, nursing students, educators who design and implement professional development and continuing education for established nurses, preceptors in the clinical setting, and any nurse who is unfamiliar with the needs and concerns specific to the LGBT population. PMID:26653044

  17. A Survey on Big Data Analytics: Challenges, Open Research Issues and Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Acharjya

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A huge repository of terabytes of data is generated each day from modern information systems and digital technolo-gies such as Internet of Things and cloud computing. Analysis of these massive data requires a lot of efforts at multiple levels to extract knowledge for decision making. Therefore, big data analysis is a current area of research and development. The basic objective of this paper is to explore the potential impact of big data challenges, open research issues, and various tools associated with it. As a result, this article provides a platform to explore big data at numerous stages. Additionally, it opens a new horizon for researchers to develop the solution, based on the challenges and open research issues.

  18. Open access and closed discourses: Constructing open access as a development issue.

    OpenAIRE

    Haider, Jutta

    2008-01-01

    This thesis investigates the connection between open access – the free online availability and distribution of scientific and scholarly publications – and the ‘developing world’ from a post- development perspective. It takes a discourse analytical approach, drawing predominantly on Michel Foucault’s understanding of discourse. It aims to answer the following questions: - Which notions of science, of development and progress, of knowledge as well as of information and technology are capital...

  19. ITPA Assessment of ITER Microwave Diagnostic Design Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The microwave-based diagnostic suite proposed for ITER includes Electron Cyclotron Emission, Reflectometry, Collective Thomson Scattering and Refractometry. Their common feature is the use of simple in-vessel metallic antennas and waveguide transmission lines (front-end components) which are relatively insensitive to radiation damage. However, once installed they will be difficult to replace or modify, hence, their careful design is a pressing issue. In contrast, the backend microwave transceivers (which are well developed and can employ the latest technology) will be accessible and less problematic. Here, several topics critical to the overall diagnostic designs and component selection are assessed. These include the provision for in-situ component and system calibration. E.g., initial performance measurements (losses, reflections, mode-conversion) are required to allow identification of component degradation. All the microwave diagnostics will be susceptible to stray radiation damage from non-absorbed ECRH and CTS gyrotron beams or from fast electron generated Bremsstrahlung. Various options and techniques, such as combinations of fast acting shutters, waveguide filters, fuses etc. have been identified to protect the sensitive diagnostic electronics and TL components, such as polarization splitters etc. The Low- Field-Side Reflectometer system is at a crucial design phase — systematic studies of the design drivers as well as the placement and alignment of the antennas using beam-tracing codes have been performed. A major issue is the sensitivity of the probing beam to vertical movements of the plasma column, which is linked to the selection of antenna gain and placement, monostatic vs bistatic antenna arrangements, and fixed antenna alignments vs steerable antennas. The timely assessment of these diagnostic issues has directly impacted the detailed diagnostic designs — which will shortly be placed in the hands of the respective ITER domestic

  20. Peer Assessment for Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, Hoi K.

    2014-01-01

    The teach-learn-assess cycle in education is broken in a typical massive open online course (MOOC). Without formative assessment and feedback, MOOCs amount to information dump or broadcasting shows, not educational experiences. A number of remedies have been attempted to bring formative assessment back into MOOCs, each with its own limits and…

  1. Issues in conducting GHG mitigation assessments in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Framework Convention on Climate change, singed by more than 150 governments worldwide, calls on parties to the Convention to undertake inventories of national sources and sinks of greenhouse gases and to develop plans for responding to climate change. Several institutions, including UNEP, have initiated programs to assist developing countries and countries with economies in transition to meet this obligation. For instance, the U.S. government has committed US dollars 25 million to support climate change country studies. This program is supporting experts in 56 countries to complete their inventories, and assessments of vulnerability and adaptation opportunities and mitigation options. This paper describes a mitigation methodology that is being used for these country studies, and discusses issues that have arisen in conducting mitigation assessments for developing countries in the past. The material in this paper is largely based on a presentation made by the author at a United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Conference in June 1994 at Copenhagen on mitigation methods and costs of reducing carbon emissions. (au)

  2. Peer Assessment for Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs)

    OpenAIRE

    Hoi K. Suen

    2014-01-01

    The teach-learn-assess cycle in education is broken in a typical massive open online course (MOOC). Without formative assessment and feedback, MOOCs amount to information dump or broadcasting shows, not educational experiences. A number of remedies have been attempted to bring formative assessment back into MOOCs, each with its own limits and problems. The most widely applicable approach for all MOOCs to date is to use peer assessment to provide the necessary feedback. However, unmoderated pe...

  3. A Survey on Big Data Analytics: Challenges, Open Research Issues and Tools

    OpenAIRE

    D. P. Acharjya; Kauser Ahmed P

    2016-01-01

    A huge repository of terabytes of data is generated each day from modern information systems and digital technolo-gies such as Internet of Things and cloud computing. Analysis of these massive data requires a lot of efforts at multiple levels to extract knowledge for decision making. Therefore, big data analysis is a current area of research and development. The basic objective of this paper is to explore the potential impact of big data challenges, open research issues, and various tools ass...

  4. Issues in Developing Open Source Licensing Tool for Controllers in the Context of BA (Building Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Ujval

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past ten years building owners, Managers and consulting engineers from the different Manufacturers/Vendors have become the increasingly frustrated by incompatibilities and limited Mechanism for the integration of building automation and control systems(BAS[1] because a site may have BAS equipment from multiple manufacturers in the field . A controller comes with different functionalities. Some of the functionalities will be locked down by the manufactures. There are times when site engineer need to lock or unlock the particular functionality of the controllers, called licensing. As Controllers are part of BAS, there are at present three issues in Developing open source licensing tool, and they mainly concentrate on BAS integration. They are Integration between BAS and existing Enterprise applications, integration of widely used open protocol standards (e.g. BACnet or LonTalk, and integration of subsystems (HVAC systems, fire safety systems, life safety, lighting systems [11] of BAS [14]. Though today many solutions are available, Integration of diverse and heterogeneous BAS systems is a challenge. The paper describes the issues in developing open source licensing tool and how to overcome these issues

  5. BWS Open System Architecture Security Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Ionita

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Business process management systems play a central role in supporting the business operations of medium and large organizations. Because of this the security characteristics of these systems are becoming very important. The present paper describes the BWS architecture used to implement the open process aware information system DocuMentor. Using the proposed platform, the article identifies the security characteristics of such systems, shows the correlation between these characteristics and the security features implemented by the platform and presents examples of how the security of such systems can be enhanced using the extension mechanism.

  6. Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Damalas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms, many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence, and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization

  7. HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT, DELIBERATIVE PROCESS, AND ETHICALLY CONTESTED ISSUES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Norman; van der Wilt, Gert Jan

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare technology assessment (HTA) aims to support decisions as to which technologies should be used in which situations to optimize value. Because such decisions will create winners and losers, they are bound to be controversial. HTA, then, faces a dilemma: should it stay away from such controversies, remaining a source of incomplete advice and risking an important kind of marginalization, or should it enter the controversy? The question is a challenging one, because we lack agreement on principles that are fine grained enough to tell us what choices we should make. In this study, we will argue that HTA should take a stand on ethical issues raised by the technology that is being investigated. To do so, we propose adding a form of procedural justice to HTA to arrive at decisions that the public can regard as legitimate and fair. A fair process involves deliberation about the reasons, evidence, and rationales that are considered relevant to meeting population-health needs fairly. One important way to make sure that there is real deliberation about relevant reasons is to include a range of stakeholders in the deliberative process. To illustrate how such deliberation might work, we use the case of cochlear implants for deaf children. PMID:27472157

  8. Coal availability: issues in assessing US coal reserves and resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newcombe, R J

    1981-05-01

    There are a number of important uncertainties about the economic significance of US coal resources. These uncertainties can be categorized as affecting: the physical size and location of coal resources and reserves; the regional and local variation in coal quality; and the legal and economic availability of coal resources. A more precise understanding of coal availability is important. Richard Schmidt has suggested that consumer undertainty about reserve magnitude and availability may be exploited by producers in setting contract prices, and it has been suggested that errors in assessing the geological and legal recoverability of coal resources may affect coal prices more significantly than variability in estimates of production and distribution costs. Further, misconceptions about coal availability are more likely to cause underestimates then overestimates of future prices. The objectives of this paper are: to discuss some methods used in modeling the nation's coal reserves; and to identify some of the problems involved. The issue of coal availability is addressed in an effort to suggest the need for a systematic approach to the problem.

  9. EPA`s program for risk assessment guidelines: Cancer classification issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltse, J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Issues presented are related to classification of weight of evidence in cancer risk assessments. The focus in this paper is on lines of evidence used in constructing a conclusion about potential human carcinogenicity. The paper also discusses issues that are mistakenly addressed as classification issues but are really part of the risk assessment process. 2 figs.

  10. Assessment in Open and Distance Learning System (ODL: A Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. S. Chaudhary

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessment is an integral part of the learning process. The traditional practice of assessment has changed to meet the need of the contemporary society. In this paper assessment strategies used in Open and Distance Education are discussed and constructive suggestions are given to meet the challenges of assessment. Recently we experience a paradigm shift in assessment both in face-to-face and ODL system. Content-based testing has shifted to performance-based assessment. Assessment is no longer used for grading and certification, rather it has linked with learning and skill development of the students. Instead of a single paper pencil test, a variety of techniques and methods are being increasingly conducted. In this context assessment in the ODL system has adopted a new shape to provide better assessment judgments to its students and at the same time helping teachers and administrators. Coping with the changing scenario in ODL we face challenges addressed extensively in this article.

  11. Peer Assessment for Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoi K. Suen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The teach-learn-assess cycle in education is broken in a typical massive open online course (MOOC. Without formative assessment and feedback, MOOCs amount to information dump or broadcasting shows, not educational experiences. A number of remedies have been attempted to bring formative assessment back into MOOCs, each with its own limits and problems. The most widely applicable approach for all MOOCs to date is to use peer assessment to provide the necessary feedback. However, unmoderated peer assessment results suffer from a lack of credibility. Several methods are available today to improve on the accuracy of peer assessment results. Some combination of these methods may be necessary to make peer assessment results sufficiently accurate to be useful for formative assessment. Such results can also help to facilitate peer learning, online discussion forums, and may possibly augment summative evaluation for credentialing.

  12. Development and Assessment of the Social Issues Advocacy Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Johanna E.; Marszalek, Jacob M.; Linnemeyer, Rachel M.; Bahner, Angela D.; Misialek, Leah Hanson

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the development and the initial psychometric evaluation of the Social Issues Advocacy Scale in two studies. In the first study, an exploratory factor analysis (n = 278) revealed a four-factor scale, accounting for 71.4% of the variance, measuring different aspects of social issue advocacy: Political and Social Advocacy,…

  13. Natural Resources Management: Life Cycle Assessment and Forest Certification and Sustainability Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia A. Layton; Thomas J. Straka

    2010-01-01

    Forest sustainability and forest certification are important natural resource management and environmental issues. Forest certification addresses the social and environmental issues in the acquisition of raw materials (e.g., lumber to be used in the building process). Life cycle assessment is a common technique used in the evaluation of forest sustainability issues and forest certification programs. Life cycle assessment is a tool to evaluate multiple issue environmental and some social impac...

  14. Free and Open Source Software for land degradation vulnerability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbrenda, Vito; Calamita, Giuseppe; Coluzzi, Rosa; D'Emilio, Mariagrazia; Lanfredi, Maria Teresa; Perrone, Angela; Ragosta, Maria; Simoniello, Tiziana

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays the role of FOSS software in scientific research is becoming increasingly important. Besides the important issues of reduced costs for licences, legality and security there are many other reasons that make FOSS software attractive. Firstly, making the code opened is a warranty of quality permitting to thousands of developers around the world to check the code and fix bugs rather than rely on vendors claims. FOSS communities are usually enthusiastic about helping other users for solving problems and expand or customize software (flexibility). Most important for this study, the interoperability allows to combine the user-friendly QGIS with the powerful GRASS-GIS and the richness of statistical methods of R in order to process remote sensing data and to perform geo-statistical analysis in one only environment. This study is focused on the land degradation (i.e. the reduction in the capacity of the land to provide ecosystem goods and services and assure its functions) and in particular on the estimation of the vulnerability levels in order to suggest appropriate policy actions to reduce/halt land degradation impacts, using the above mentioned software. The area investigated is the Basilicata Region (Southern Italy) where large natural areas are mixed with anthropized areas. To identify different levels of vulnerability we adopted the Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESAs) model, based on the combination of indicators related to soil, climate, vegetation and anthropic stress. Such indicators were estimated by using the following data-sources: - Basilicata Region Geoportal to assess soil vulnerability; - DESERTNET2 project to evaluate potential vegetation vulnerability and climate vulnerability; - NDVI-MODIS satellite time series (2000-2010) with 250m resolution, available as 16-day composite from the NASA LP DAAC to characterize the dynamic component of vegetation; - Agricultural Census data 2010, Corine Land Cover 2006 and morphological information to assess

  15. Psychiatric Issues in Palliative Care: Assessing Mental Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Itoro Udo; Zeid Mohammed; Amanda Gash

    2013-01-01

    Issues surrounding capacity to consent to or refuse treatment are increasingly receiving clinical and legal attention. Through the use of 3 case vignettes that involve different aspects of mental health care in palliative care settings, mental capacity issues are discussed. The vignettes tackle capacity in a patient with newly developed mental illness consequent to physical illness, capacity in a patient with mental illness but without delirium and capacity in a patient with known impairment ...

  16. Open issues concerning cross border trade mechanism in southeastern European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    of the ETSO CBT mechanism; 3. Analysis of the possibilities of the SEE CBT mechanism implementation; 4. Assessment of the compensation fund; 4.1 Cost claims; Definition of the HN; Total cost and annual cost of the HN; Transit key; - Cost claims and total compensation fund; 4.2 Obligations to pay and financing of the compensation fund; Obligations to Pay and Cost Claims - SEE CBT 2004 mechanism; 5. Open issues concerning the SEE CBT mechanism; 5.1. Inclusion of the lower voltage levels then 220 kV as exceptions in the HN; 5.2. HN cost calculation based on standard costs; 5.3. Transit key calculation based on the consumption at the level of the entire 110-400 kV network; Impact of the internal consumption level on the cost claim; 5.4. Pancaking effect. In conclusion, the implementation in the year 2004 of a cross Border Trade mechanism in the SEE region is based on the same criteria applied in the ETSO area in 2003. This has the advantage of a harmonized and regulated solution to compensate the TSOs for the costs incurred as a result of hosting transit flows of electricity through their network. The final objective of the joint operation of the ETSO and SEE CBT mechanisms and the creation of a single fund at the level of EU, still needs the harmonization of some technical elements between the two mechanisms by the regulators. On the other hand, the methodology has some deficiency as follows: - the remuneration of each TSO for the cross border trade reflects only the costs of the infrastructure and does not take into consideration the cost of the electricity losses induced by transits; - the mechanism does not offer locational signals for the market participants and does not allow an efficient development of the interconnection lines; this situation can lead to the network congestion and, consequently to the limited exchanges on the regional electricity market. ETSO forecasts to solve these problems, so that, at the level of the 2005 year a methodology for inter TSO

  17. Advanced CFD simulation for the assessment of nuclear safety issues at EDF. Some examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDF R and D has computer power that puts it amongst the top industrial research centers in the world. Its supercomputers and in-house codes as well as its experts represent important capabilities to support EDF activities (safety analyses, support to the design of new reactors, analysis of accidental situations non reproducible by experiments, better understanding of physics or complex system response, effects of uncertainties and identification of prominent parameters, qualification and optimization of processes and materials...). Advanced numerical simulation is a powerful tool allowing EDF to increase its competitiveness, improve its performance and the safety of its plants. On this issue, EDF made the choice to develop its own in-house codes, instead of using commercial software, in order to be able to capitalize its expertise and methodologies. This choice allowed as well easier technological transfer to the concerned business units or engineering divisions, fast adaptation of our simulation tools to emerging needs and the development of specific physics or functionalities not addressed by the commercial offer. During the last ten years, EDF has decided to open its in-house codes, through the Open Source way. This is the case for Code–Aster (structure analysis), Code–Saturne (computational fluid dynamics, CFD), TELEMAC (flow calculations in aquatic environment), SALOME (generic platform for Pre and Post-Processing) and SYRTHES (heat transfer in complex geometries), among others. The 3 open source software: Code–Aster, Code–Saturne and TELEMAC, are certified by the French Nuclear Regulatory Authority for many «Important to Safety» studies. Advanced simulation, which treats complex, multi-field and multi-physics problems, is of great importance for the assessment of nuclear safety issues. This paper will present 2 examples of advanced simulation using Code–Saturne for safety issues of nuclear power plants in the fields of R and D and engineering: 1

  18. Issues in Developing Valid Assessments of Speech Pathology Students' Performance in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Sue; Lincoln, Michelle; Ferguson, Alison; McAllister, Lindy

    2010-01-01

    Background: Workplace-based learning is a critical component of professional preparation in speech pathology. A validated assessment of this learning is seen to be "the gold standard", but it is difficult to develop because of design and validation issues. These issues include the role and nature of judgement in assessment, challenges in measuring…

  19. Industry Issue Paper: The United States—European Union Open Aviation Area: The American Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hofer, Christian; Dresner, Martin

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of current United States–European Union (U.S.–E.U.) aviation relations. Following a brief historical review, the proposed North-Atlantic Open Aviation Area is discussed. Specifically, the associated economic benefits are assessed, and the causes of the current deadlock in U.S.–E.U. negotiations are analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the interests and actions of U.S. stakeholders, most notably U.S. airlines, labor organizations, the Departmen...

  20. Reduction of Measuring Items- Contemporary Issue in Assessing Internal Consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Oluwaseun Gbenga Fadare; Hezekiah Oluleye Babatunde; Gbenga Olayinka Ojo; John Niyi Iyanda; Fisayo Caleb Sangogboye

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses principal component analysis (PCA) as an underlying factor reduction and as a complex, sequential variable reduction procedure in measuring and evaluating internal consistency of measuring instrument. This review paper provides theoretically and practical contemporary-issues on PCA and factor analysis, variable redundancy illustration, concepts of principal component, number of meaningful component to retain, and factor analysis extraction method in multivariate analysis....

  1. Assessing the Open Source Development Processes Using OMM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etiel Petrinja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of development practices in Free Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS projects can contribute to the improvement of the development process by identifying poor practices and providing a list of necessary practices. Available assessment methods (e.g., Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI do not address sufficiently FLOSS-specific aspects (e.g., geographically distributed development, importance of the contributions, reputation of the project, etc.. We present a FLOSS-focused, CMMI-like assessment/improvement model: the QualiPSo Open Source Maturity Model (OMM. OMM focuses on the development process. This makes it different from existing assessment models that are focused on the assessment of the product. We have assessed six FLOSS projects using OMM. Three projects were started and led by a software company, and three are developed by three different FLOSS communities. We identified poorly addressed development activities as the number of commit/bug reports, the external contributions, and the risk management. The results showed that FLOSS projects led by companies adopt standard project management approaches as product planning, design definition, and testing, that are less often addressed by community led FLOSS projects. The OMM is valuable for both the FLOSS community, by identifying critical development activities necessary to be improved, and for potential users that can better decide which product to adopt.

  2. Reduction of Measuring Items- Contemporary Issue in Assessing Internal Consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwaseun Gbenga Fadare

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses principal component analysis (PCA as an underlying factor reduction and as a complex, sequential variable reduction procedure in measuring and evaluating internal consistency of measuring instrument. This review paper provides theoretically and practical contemporary-issues on PCA and factor analysis, variable redundancy illustration, concepts of principal component, number of meaningful component to retain, and factor analysis extraction method in multivariate analysis. This paper collects in one review article information for researchers and practitioners in understanding the subject matter in further simplification of steps in multivariate analysis.

  3. EPA`s program for risk assessment guidelines: Quantification issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dourson, M.L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The quantitative procedures associated with noncancer risk assessment include reference dose (RfD), benchmark dose, and severity modeling. The RfD, which is part of the EPA risk assessment guidelines, is an estimation of a level that is likely to be without any health risk to sensitive individuals. The RfD requires two major judgments: the first is choice of a critical effect(s) and its No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL); the second judgment is choice of an uncertainty factor. This paper discusses major assumptions and limitations of the RfD model.

  4. Data center network architecture in cloud computing:review, taxonomy, and open research issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han QI; Muhammad SHIRAZ; Jie-yao LIU; Abdullah GANI; Zulkanain ABDUL RAHMAN; Torki AALTAMEEM

    2014-01-01

    The data center network (DCN), which is an important component of data centers, consists of a large number of hosted servers and switches connected with high speed communication links. A DCN enables the deployment of resources centralization and on-demand access of the information and services of data centers to users. In recent years, the scale of the DCN has constantly increased with the widespread use of cloud-based services and the unprecedented amount of data delivery in/between data centers, whereas the traditional DCN architecture lacks aggregate bandwidth, scalability, and cost effectiveness for coping with the increasing demands of tenants in accessing the services of cloud data centers. Therefore, the design of a novel DCN architecture with the features of scalability, low cost, robustness, and energy conservation is required. This paper reviews the recent research fi ndings and technologies of DCN architectures to identify the issues in the existing DCN architectures for cloud computing. We develop a taxonomy for the classifi cation of the current DCN architectures, and also qualitatively analyze the traditional and contemporary DCN architectures. Moreover, the DCN architectures are compared on the basis of the signifi cant characteristics, such as bandwidth, fault tolerance, scalability, overhead, and deployment cost. Finally, we put forward open research issues in the deployment of scalable, low-cost, robust, and energy-efficient DCN architecture, for data centers in computational clouds.

  5. Environmental Decision Making and Information Technology: Issues Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barg, S.; Fletcher, T.; Mechling, J.; Tonn, B.; Turner, R.

    1999-05-01

    This report presents a summary of the Information Technology and Environmental Decision Making Workshop that was held at Harvard University, October 1-3, 1998. Over sixty participants from across the US took part in discussions that focused on the current practice of using information technology to support environmental decision making and on future considerations of information technology development, information policies, and data quality issues in this area. Current practice is focusing on geographic information systems and visualization tools, Internet applications, and data warehousing. In addition, numerous organizations are developing environmental enterprise systems to integrate environmental information resources. Plaguing these efforts are issues of data quality (and public trust), system design, and organizational change. In the future, much effort needs to focus on building community-based environmental decision-making systems and processes, which will be a challenge given that exactly what needs to be developed is largely unknown and that environmental decision making in this arena has been characterized by a high level of conflict. Experimentation and evaluation are needed to contribute to efficient and effective learning about how best to use information technology to improve environmental decision making.

  6. Canadian Environmental Assessment Act screening report (draft) proposal for the Petitcodiac River Trial Gate Opening Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Memorandum of Agreement has been signed by the federal government and the Government of New Brunswick concerning a trial opening of the Petitcodiac River Causeway gates at Riverview, New Brunswick. The structure has significantly impeded upstream and downstream diadromous fish migration. Several renovations have been undertaken to solve the problem. Environment Canada and the Department of Fisheries and Oceans have conducted an environmental assessment to address relevant environmental issues concerning the trial gate opening. This report is the draft of the environmental assessment, providing a description of the scope, time table and methodology of the assessment and a list of the various consultations undertaken during the assessment. The project is expected to begin as early as April 1, 1999, with a pre-trial flushing and the drawdown of the head pond. Once the river flow is low enough to allow the management of the gates, the trial gate will be opened. The project will end with the refilling of the head pond, possibly as late as November 1999. 30 refs., 5 tabs., 1 append

  7. Issues in the Assessment and Treatment of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, John P.

    1987-01-01

    Summarizes recent developments in assessment and treatment of obesity. Reviews studies on genetics and weight cycling, which demonstrate the heterogeneous etiology of obesity and help explain difficulty in losing weight or maintaining weight loss. Describes the newer treatment programs which emphasize the development of exercise behaviors,…

  8. Measurement issues in assessing employee performance: A generalizability theory approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, B.O.

    1996-08-01

    Increasingly, organizations are assessing employee performance through the use of rating instruments employed in the context of varied data collection strategies. For example, the focus may be on obtaining multiple perspectives regarding employee performance (360{degree} evaluation). From the standpoint of evaluating managers, upward assessments and ``peer to peer`` evaluations are perhaps two of the more common examples of such a multiple perspective approach. Unfortunately, it is probably fair to say that the increased interest and use of such data collection strategies has not been accompanied by a corresponding interest in addressing both validity and reliability concerns that have traditionally been associated with other forms of employee assessment (e.g., testing, assessment centers, structured interviews). As a consequence, many organizations may be basing decisions upon information collected under less than ideal measurement conditions. To the extent that such conditions produce unreliable measurements, the process may be both dysfunctional to the organization and/or unfair to the individual(s) being evaluated. Conversely, the establishment of reliable and valid measurement processes may in itself support the utilization of results in pursuit of organizational goals and enhance the credibility of the measurement process (see McEvoy (1990), who found the acceptance of subordinate ratings to be related to perceived accuracy and fairness of the measurement process). The present paper discusses a recent ``peer to peer`` evaluation conducted in our organization. The intent is to focus on the design of the study and present a Generalizability Theory (GT) approach to assessing the overall quality of the data collection strategy, along with suggestions for improving future designs. 9 refs., 3 tabs.

  9. Contemporary Issues in the Assessment of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schon, Jacqueline; Shaftel, Julia; Markham, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses issues faced by school psychologists when assessing students who are culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD). The authors describe the growing CLD population and legal requirements for assessment of CLD students for special education eligibility. Difficulties associated with referral and assessment procedures of CLD…

  10. Key issues on safety design basis selection and safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In current fast reactor design in Japan, four design accident conditions and four design seismic conditions are adopted as the design base classifications. These are classified by the considerations on both likelihood of occurrence and the severeness of the consequences. There are several major problem areas in safety design consideration such as core accident problems which include fuel sodium interaction, fuel failure propagation and residual decay heat removal, and decay heat removal systems problems which is more or less the problem of selection of appropriate system and of assurance of high reliability of the system. In view of licensing, two kinds of accidents are postulated in evaluating the adequacy of a reactor site. The one is the ''major accident'' which is the accident to give most severe radiation hazard to the public from technical point of view. The other is the ''hypothetical accident'', induced public accident of which is severer than that of major accident. While the concept of the former is rather unique to Japanese licensing, the latter is almost equivalent to design base hypothetical accident of the US practice. In this paper, design bases selections, key safety issues and some of the licensing considerations in Japan are described

  11. Life Cycle Assessment of electricity generation: overview and methodological issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turconi, Roberto; Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    Electricity production is currently responsible for a large share of global Greenhouse Gas (GHG), NOx and SO2 emissions, and their related environmental impacts. This study provides a critical review of the status of research on life cycle assessment (LCA) of electricity generation. NREL [1...... of emissions, those were divided among three life cycle phases: fuel provision, operation of the plant and infrastructure. It was possible to estimate typical emission factors for all technologies except for biomass, where methodological and technical aspects result in very variable outcomes. Within...... due to geographical factors and date and type of data used. We therefore suggest not to limit studies to GHG, and, to ensure comparability between studies, to transparently report emission factors for electricity production stating clearly the functional unit of the study, the efficiency for fossil...

  12. Algal biofuels: key issues, sustainability and life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Anoop; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2011-01-01

    capital investment. The harvested algal biomass and its extracts can be efficiently converted to different biofuels such as bioethanol, biodiesel, biogas and biohydrogen by implementation of various process technologies. Comprehensive life cycle assessments (LCA) of algal biofuels illustrating...... wastewater. Algae capture CO2 from atmosphere and industrial flue gases and transform it in to organic biomass that can be used for the production of biofuels. Like other biomass, algal biomass is also a carbon neutral source for the production of bioenergy. Therefore cultivation of algal biomass provides...... dual benefits; while being able to utilize nutrients in waste water thus reducing impacts on inland waters it produce biomass for the production of biofuels. However, reaching commercial scale production of algal biofuels is difficult. The main drawbacks include the harvesting of dry biomass and higher...

  13. Methodological issues in the assessment of substance use phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Michael C; Aggen, Steven H; Maes, Hermine H; Kubarych, Thomas S; Schmitt, J Eric

    2006-06-01

    The measurement of behavior is inherently problematic, and this is especially true of substance use and abuse phenotypes. The contingent nature of many assessments, such that symptoms of abuse and dependence cannot be obtained from those who have not initiated substance use, presents special difficulties. Furthermore, it is not clear whether individual differences in liability to use, abuse and dependence are best characterized as dimensions or classes or a combination of both. This article outlines research designs and methods suitable for quantifying liability to substance use. The value of data collected from relatives is emphasized in this context, as they permit identification of models normally compromised because data on, e.g., substance dependence symptoms, are systematically missing in those who have not initiated use of the substance in question. PMID:16723188

  14. Natural Resources Management: Life Cycle Assessment and Forest Certification and Sustainability Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Layton

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Forest sustainability and forest certification are important natural resource management and environmental issues. Forest certification addresses the social and environmental issues in the acquisition of raw materials (e.g., lumber to be used in the building process. Life cycle assessment is a common technique used in the evaluation of forest sustainability issues and forest certification programs. Life cycle assessment is a tool to evaluate multiple issue environmental and some social impacts attributed to a product or process (e.g., wood as a building material. Inputs (like raw material extraction and outputs (like pollution are measured over the entire life process, with a goal to minimize negative environmental impacts over the life cycle of a product or process. The relationship between forest certification schemes and life cycle assessment is examined and assessed.

  15. Course 'Radiation and Life', assessment of issues of public concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The public of the XXI Century is avid for information about the newest technical and scientific advances occurred and on how do they impact in our daily life. All over the world, the channels of mass communication provide all kind of valuable knowledge that could be of interest for the audience. Part of this broadcasted information however, is managed without the required scientific strictness due to its technical complexity or in most the cases, because it is being used for sensational purposes. The Nuclear Energy has been subjected to different manipulations and misinterpretation by the media because the disastrous consequences of its initial utilization for war purposes. For this reason, the International Atomic Energy Agency has recommended to its Member States the development of a coherent policy for public information based on an adequate real balance of the risk and the benefits of the pacific uses of the nuclear energy, with special emphasis in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. In this context, the Regulatory Bodies are invited to use all available resources for information distribution to provide the truth that the society requires with transparency and the appropriate technical strictness as well as to develop periodical assessment on how does the population incorporate this information and what changes on the public perception of the nuclear energy have occurred. In line with the policy of the Government of the Republic of Cuba concerning the systematic improvement and strengthening the level of the general culture of our population, a comprehensive course entitled 'Radiation and Life' was designed and prepared by the authors of the present paper, and broadcasted by the Cuban television in the popular programme 'University for All'. The email recipient radiacionesyvidaatcnsn.cu was specially implemented to assess the impact of this course in the public opinion. This email address was used as an effective way of interaction between the lectures and

  16. Course 'Radiation and life', assessment of issues of public concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The public of the XXI Century is avid for information about the newest technical and scientific advances occurred and on how do they impact in our daily life. All over the world, the channels of mass communication provide all kind of valuable knowledge that could be of interest for the audience. Part of this broadcasted information however, is managed without the required scientific strictness due to its technical complexity or in most the cases, because it is being used for sensational purposes. The Nuclear Energy has been subjected to different manipulations and misinterpretation by the media because the disastrous consequences of its initial utilization for war purposes. For this reason, the International Atomic Energy Agency has recommended to its Member States the development of a coherent policy for public information based on an adequate real balance of the risk and the benefits of the pacific uses of the nuclear energy, with special emphasis in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. In this context, the Regulatory Bodies are invited to use all available resources for information distribution to provide the truth that the society requires with transparency and the appropriate technical strictness as well as to develop periodical assessment on how does the population incorporate this information and what changes on the public perception of the nuclear energy have occurred. In line with the policy of the Government of the Republic of Cuba concerning the systematic improvement and strengthening the level of the general culture of our population, a comprehensive course entitled 'Radiation and Life' was designed and prepared by the authors of the present paper, and broadcasted by the Cuban television in the popular programme 'University for all'. The email recipient 'radiacionesyvida at cnsn.cu' was specially implemented to assess the impact of this course in the public opinion. This email address was used as an effective way of interaction between the lectures

  17. Public opinion and interest group positions on open-space issues in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA: Implications for resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannery, Thomas Allan

    1987-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to elicit and compare the open-space preferences of citizens and openspace experts in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. A randomly selected sample of 492 citizens and 35 open-space experts participated in a telephone survey during May 5 18, 1986. The following hypothesis was tested and used as a guideline for the study: HO1: There is no significant difference between respondents' status and preference for open space in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The hypothesis was rejected. Findings confirmed respondents' status affected preference for open space. Of the eight issues on which the citizen and expert groups were compared, five recorded significant differences in response profiles. The open-space expert group was significantly more supportive of using open space to accommodate offroad vehicle facilities, wildlife preserves, a citywide recreational trail, and a trail system along the arroyos and city ditches. The citizen sample was significantly more supportive of using open space to accommodate overnight camping facilities. Both groups equally supported using open space to accommodate an outdoor amphitheater, outdoor education facilities, and rafting, kayaking, and canoeing facilities. The finding indicated that expert preferences did not represent an aggregate of citizen preferences for managing open-space resources. Understanding both expert and citizen positions will facilitate decision-making processes and help resolve environmental disputes.

  18. Risk assessment for produced water discharges to Louisiana Open Bays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, A.F.; DePhillips, M.P.; Holtzman, S.

    1995-06-23

    Data were collected prior to termination of discharge at three sites (including two open bay sites at Delacroix Island and Bay De Chene) for the risk assessments. The Delacroix Island Oil and Gas Field has been in production since the first well drilling in 1940; the Bay De Chene Field, since 1942. Concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Po, and 228Th were measured in discharges. Radium conc. were measured in fish and shellfish tissues. Sediment PAH and metal conc. were also available. Benthos sampling was conducted. A survey of fishermen was conducted. The tiered risk assessment showed that human health risks from radium in produced water appear to be small; ecological risk from radium and other radionuclides in produced water also appear small. Many of the chemical contaminants discharged to open Louisiana bays appear to present little human health or ecological risk. A conservative screening analysis suggested potential risks to human health from Hg and Pb and a potential risk to ecological receptors from total effluent, Sb, Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, Ag, Zn, and phenol in the water column and PAHs in sediment; quantitiative risk assessments are being done for these contaminants.

  19. Algal biofuels: key issues, sustainability and life cycle assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, A.; Irving Olsen, S.

    2011-05-15

    In recent years research activities are intensively focused on renewable fuels in order to fulfill the increasing energy demand and to reduce the fossil fuels consumption and external oil dependency either in order to provide local energetic resources and or as a means for reducing greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions to reduce the climate change effects. Among the various renewable energy sources algal biofuels is a very promising source of biomass as algae sequester huge quantities of carbon from atmosphere and are very efficient in utilizing the nutrients from the industrial effluent and municipal wastewater. Algae capture CO{sub 2} from atmosphere and industrial flue gases and transform it in to organic biomass that can be used for the production of biofuels. Like other biomass, algal biomass is also a carbon neutral source for the production of bioenergy. Therefore cultivation of algal biomass provides dual benefits; while being able to utilize nutrients in waste water thus reducing impacts on inland waters it produce biomass for the production of biofuels. However, reaching commercial scale production of algal biofuels is difficult. The main drawbacks include the harvesting of dry biomass and higher capital investment. The harvested algal biomass and its extracts can be efficiently converted to different biofuels such as bioethanol, biodiesel, biogas and biohydrogen by implementation of various process technologies. Comprehensive life cycle assessments (LCA) of algal biofuels illustrating environmental benefits and impacts can be a tool for policy decisions and for technology development. (Author)

  20. Workshop on Regulatory Review and Safety Assessment Issues in Repository Licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The workshop described here was organised to address more general issues regarding regulatory review of SKB's safety assessment and overall review strategy. The objectives of the workshop were: - to learn from other programmes' experiences on planning and review of a license application for a nuclear waste repository, - to offer newly employed SSM staff an opportunity to learn more about selected safety assessment issues, and - to identify and document recommendations and ideas for SSM's further planning of the licensing review

  1. Fundamental lifetime mechanisms in routing protocols for wireless sensor networks: a survey and open issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslaminejad, Mohammadreza; Razak, Shukor Abd

    2012-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks basically consist of low cost sensor nodes which collect data from environment and relay them to a sink, where they will be subsequently processed. Since wireless nodes are severely power-constrained, the major concern is how to conserve the nodes' energy so that network lifetime can be extended significantly. Employing one static sink can rapidly exhaust the energy of sink neighbors. Furthermore, using a non-optimal single path together with a maximum transmission power level may quickly deplete the energy of individual nodes on the route. This all results in unbalanced energy consumption through the sensor field, and hence a negative effect on the network lifetime. In this paper, we present a comprehensive taxonomy of the various mechanisms applied for increasing the network lifetime. These techniques, whether in the routing or cross-layer area, fall within the following types: multi-sink, mobile sink, multi-path, power control and bio-inspired algorithms, depending on the protocol operation. In this taxonomy, special attention has been devoted to the multi-sink, power control and bio-inspired algorithms, which have not yet received much consideration in the literature. Moreover, each class covers a variety of the state-of-the-art protocols, which should provide ideas for potential future works. Finally, we compare these mechanisms and discuss open research issues. PMID:23202008

  2. Smartphone-Based Solutions for Fall Detection and Prevention: Challenges and Open Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ashfak Habib

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a state-of-the-art survey of smartphone (SP-based solutions for fall detection and prevention. Falls are considered as major health hazards for both the elderly and people with neurodegenerative diseases. To mitigate the adverse consequences of falling, a great deal of research has been conducted, mainly focused on two different approaches, namely, fall detection and fall prevention. Required hardware for both fall detection and prevention are also available in SPs. Consequently, researchers’ interest in finding SP-based solutions has increased dramatically over recent years. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no published review on SP-based fall detection and prevention. Thus in this paper, we present the taxonomy for SP-based fall detection and prevention solutions and systematic comparisons of existing studies. We have also identified three challenges and three open issues for future research, after reviewing the existing articles. Our time series analysis demonstrates a trend towards the integration of external sensing units with SPs for improvement in usability of the systems.

  3. Doubly-Special Relativity: Facts, Myths and Some Key Open Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Amelino-Camelia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available I report, emphasizing some key open issues and some aspects that are particularly relevant for phenomenology, on the status of the development of “doubly-special” relativistic (“DSR” theories with both an observer-independent high-velocity scale and an observer-independent small-length/large-momentum scale, possibly relevant for the Planck-scale/quantum-gravity realm. I also give a true/false characterization of the structure of these theories. In particular, I discuss a DSR scenario without modification of the energy-momentum dispersion relation and without the қ-Poincaré Hopf algebra, a scenario with deformed Poincaré symmetries which is not a DSR scenario, some scenarios with both an invariant length scale and an invariant velocity scale which are not DSR scenarios, and a DSR scenario in which it is easy to verify that some observable relativistic (but non-special-relativistic features are insensitive to possible nonlinear redefinitions of symmetry generators.

  4. Horizontal Price Transmission in Agricultural Markets: Fundamental Concepts and Open Empirical Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Listorti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Following the dramatic changes experienced by the prices of agricultural commodities in 2007-2008, the analysis of horizontal price transmission mechanisms in agricultural markets has attracted renewed interest. In particular, this has led to the emergence of new challenges for the empirical analysis. How to model the increasing volatility and non linear behaviour of prices, to assess the impact of the policy responses to market turbulence, and how to account for the increasing interconnections between agricultural and non-agricultural commodity markets are amongst the most investigated issues. Building on a common analytical framework, this paper discusses and reviews the most recent methodological developments and empirical contributions in the field.

  5. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) and Their Impact on Academic Library Services: Exploring the Issues and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    2012 was a year of rapid change for education with the advent of MOOCs--Massive Open Online Courses--available for the world to use to learn for free. But what does this mean for the role of the librarian? How has the landscape in education changed, and what are the issues and challenges that librarians now face? This article reviews the position…

  6. Treatment of biodiversity issues in impact assessment of electricity power transmission lines: A Finnish case review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process concerning the route of a 400 kV power transmission line between Loviisa and Hikiae in southern Finland was reviewed in order to assess how biodiversity issues are treated and to provide suggestions on how to improve the effectiveness of treatment of biodiversity issues in impact assessment of linear development projects. The review covered the whole assessment process, including interviews of stakeholders, participation in the interest group meetings and review of all documents from the project. The baseline studies and assessment of direct impacts in the case study were detailed but the documentation, both the assessment programme and the assessment report, only gave a partial picture of the assessment process. All existing information, baseline survey and assessment methods should be addressed in the scoping phase in order to promote interaction between all stakeholders. In contrast to the assessment of the direct effects, which first emphasized impacts on the nationally important and protected flying squirrel but later expanded to deal with the assessment of impacts on ecologically important sites, the indirect and cumulative impacts of the power line were poorly addressed. The public was given the opportunity to become involved in the EIA process. However, they were more concerned with impacts on their properties and less so on biodiversity and species protection issues. This suggests that the public needs to become more informed about locally important features of biodiversity

  7. Open-system dynamics of entanglement:a key issues review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aolita, Leandro; de Melo, Fernando; Davidovich, Luiz

    2015-04-01

    One of the greatest challenges in the fields of quantum information processing and quantum technologies is the detailed coherent control over each and every constituent of quantum systems with an ever increasing number of particles. Within this endeavor, harnessing of many-body entanglement against the detrimental effects of the environment is a major pressing issue. Besides being an important concept from a fundamental standpoint, entanglement has been recognized as a crucial resource for quantum speed-ups or performance enhancements over classical methods. Understanding and controlling many-body entanglement in open systems may have strong implications in quantum computing, quantum simulations of many-body systems, secure quantum communication or cryptography, quantum metrology, our understanding of the quantum-to-classical transition, and other important questions of quantum foundations. In this paper we present an overview of recent theoretical and experimental efforts to underpin the dynamics of entanglement under the influence of noise. Entanglement is thus taken as a dynamic quantity on its own, and we survey how it evolves due to the unavoidable interaction of the entangled system with its surroundings. We analyze several scenarios, corresponding to different families of states and environments, which render a very rich diversity of dynamical behaviors. In contrast to single-particle quantities, like populations and coherences, which typically vanish only asymptotically in time, entanglement may disappear at a finite time. In addition, important classes of entanglement display an exponential decay with the number of particles when subject to local noise, which poses yet another threat to the already-challenging scaling of quantum technologies. Other classes, however, turn out to be extremely robust against local noise. Theoretical results and recent experiments regarding the difference between local and global decoherence are summarized. Control and

  8. Unpacking Pandora's Box: Issues in the Assessment of English Learners' Literacy Skill Development in Multimodal Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Jessica Zacher

    2012-01-01

    In this commentary I unpack the Pandora's Box of issues related to the assessment of English language learners' literacy skill development in multimodal classrooms. I ask how we might quantify the benefits of multimodal composing, for k-12 as well as college students, given the existing complexity of assessing ELLs' traditional literacy skills. I…

  9. 41 CFR 102-80.75 - Who assesses environmental issues in Federal construction and lease construction projects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... environmental issues in Federal construction and lease construction projects? 102-80.75 Section 102-80.75 Public... Management Assessment of Environmental Issues § 102-80.75 Who assesses environmental issues in Federal construction and lease construction projects? Federal agencies must assess required environmental...

  10. Unicast routing protocols for urban vehicular networks:review, taxonomy, and open research issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Syed Adeel Ali SHAH; Muhammad SHIRAZ; Mostofa Kamal NASIR; Rafi dah Binti MD NOOR

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few years, numerous traffic safety applications have been developed using vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). These applications represent public interest and require network-wide dissemination techniques. On the other hand, certain non-safety applications do not require network-wide dissemination techniques. Such applications can be characterized by their individual interest between two vehicles that are geographically apart. In the existing literature, several proposals of unicast protocols exist that can be used for these non-safety applications. Among the proposals, unicast protocols for city scenarios are considered to be most challenging. This implies that in city scenarios unicast protocols show minimal persistence towards highly dynamic vehicular characteristics, including mobility, road structure, and physical environment. Unlike other studies, this review is motivated by the diversity of vehicular characteristics and difficulty of unicast protocol adaption in city scenarios. The review starts with the categorization of unicast protocols for city scenarios according to their requirement for a predefi ned unicast path. Then, properties of typical city roads are discussed, which helps to explore limitations in efficient unicast communication. Through an exhaustive literature review, we propose a thematic taxonomy based on different aspects of unicast protocol operation. It is followed by a review of selected unicast protocols for city scenarios that reveal their fundamental characteristics. Several signifi cant parameters from the taxonomy are used to qualitatively compare the reviewed protocols. Qualitative comparison also includes critical investigation of distinct approaches taken by researchers in experimental protocol evaluation. As an outcome of this review, we point out open research issues in unicast routing.

  11. Assessment and management of socioeconomic issues and public involvement practices for the development of Inshas near surface LILW disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are many issues and practices that could impact the development of Inshas near surface low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility (Inshas-LILW-Facility), beside the radiological factors. These issues may be social, economic, public involvement practices, built environment, land use and natural environment. In addition to these issues, there are other impacts resulting from the widespread use of independent and opposition newspapers and open sky media (satellites) in Egypt. Social issues include the indicators such as demographics, social structure, character and community health. Economic issues comprise employment and labour supply and local economy. Trust building of public and their involvement in different stages of development of a near surface disposal facility could facilitate the development process. The development of Inshas-LILW-Facility involves a number of sequential steps, occurring over a time frame of several decades. These steps include planning and siting, construction, operation, closure and post-closure institutional control. For many of these steps, explicit approvals are required from national authorities, including regulators, before proceeding to the next step. Selection of a preferred site for development is normally subject to consent by the authorities responsible for land use planning. For the Inshas-LILW-Facility, the licensing process is divided into three stages; the first is site selection and construction, the second is operation, and the third is closure and post closure. The regulatory body approved both the site selected in the Inshas area and the construction of the facility. Now, the Inshas-LILW-Facility is in the operational licensing process. To establish public trust during the development stages of the Inshas- LILW-Facility, visitor programmes are prepared periodically for school students, university students, the local community, press people and other visitors to the Inshas-LILW-Facility. In this

  12. Issues and Challenges in Open and Distance e-Learning: Perspectives from the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arinto, Patricia Brazil

    2016-01-01

    Rapid advances in information and communications technology in the digital age have brought about significant changes in the practice of distance education (DE) worldwide. DE practitioners in the Philippines' open university have coined the term "open and distance e-learning" (ODeL) to refer to the new forms of DE, which are…

  13. Current issues and actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the progress that has been made toward achieving full regulatory compliance at the Hanford Site. Ongoing compliance self-assessments, implementation of the Tri-Party Agreement, and public meetings continue to identify environmental compliance issues. These issues are discussed openly with the regulatory agencies and with the public to ensure that all environmental compliance issues are addressed

  14. Current issues and actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the progress that has been made toward achieving full regulatory compliance at the Hanford Site. Ongoing compliance self-assessments, implementation of the Tri-Party Agreement, and public meetings continue to identify environmental compliance issues. These issues are discussed openly with the regulatory agencies and with the public to ensure that all environmental compliance issues are addressed.

  15. Assessment of mindfulness and closely related constructs: Introduction to the special issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Ruth

    2016-07-01

    This article introduces this special issue on the assessment of mindfulness and other related constructs. The need for refinements in self-report methods and the development of more objective performance-based methods for mindfulness is widely recognized. The six articles in this special issue move the field in these directions. Three of the articles expand the understanding of self-report instruments; the other three describe promising laboratory-based tasks. The articles here show that the assessment of mindfulness and related variables is an active and productive area, with interesting new findings emerging at a high rate. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27078184

  16. Special Issue on ActorNetwork Theory, Value CoCreation and Design in Open Innovation Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Storni, Cristiano; Stuedahl, Dagny

    2015-01-01

    The present special issue focuses on the application of ANT to the articulation of a cocreative perspective on design in open innovation environments. The Editors invited submissions by authors using ANT to explore and discuss the link between value co-creation, design and innovation and especially...... those focusing on some aspects of technological innovation. The editorial process concluded with four articles which address the topic in different and somewhat complementary ways....

  17. Teaching Sustainable Development Issues: An Assessment of the Learning Effectiveness of Gaming

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchard, Odile; Buchs, Arnaud,

    2014-01-01

    The article aims at assessing the effectiveness of a role-play in addressing two concerns: clarifying the concept of sustainable development and teaching sustainable development issues. The effectiveness is gauged by surveying students to reveal how the game matches a set of "significant learning" criteria defined by Fink (2003). Firstly, our article brings a short overview of how the concept of sustainable development has emerged and spread over time. Secondly, in order to assess the learnin...

  18. Financial Opening under the WTO Agreement in Selected Asian Countries: Progress and Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yun-Hwan

    2002-01-01

    "Opening of financial services has enormous policy implications for a member country. As demonstrated by the 1997 Asian crisis, mismanagement of financial opening may lead to disastrous economic consequences. Only prudent financial policies, including implementation of commitments under the General Agreement on Trade in Services, can result in macroeconomic stability, sustained output growth, and financial sector development. This paper examines six selected countries, i.e., People's Republic...

  19. On the issues related to compliance assessment of ICNIRP 2010 basic restrictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses technical issues related to compliance assessment of ICNIRP 2010 basic restrictions. Several difficulties are identified in this study when assessing the spatial average and 99th percentile value of the electric field. These issues are mainly attributed to the lack of clarity in the guideline specifications, which leads to inadequate or irreproducible results. Effects on compliance results due to such ambiguous procedures are hereby investigated, with particular focus on technical issues rather than biological ones. Examples spanning from simple canonical test cases to realistic applications have been selected to highlight the strong variability in dosimetry results. Based on our findings, revisiting the ICNIRP 2010 guidelines is strongly recommended, and proposed alternative solutions are outlined. (note)

  20. Workshop on rock mechanics issues in repository design and performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses organized and hosted a workshop on ''Rock Mechanics Issues in Repository Design and Performance Assessment'' on behalf its sponsor the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This workshop was held on September 19- 20, 1994 at the Holiday Inn Crowne Plaza, Rockville, Maryland. The objectives of the workshop were to stimulate exchange of technical information among parties actively investigating rock mechanics issues relevant to the proposed high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain and identify/confirm rock mechanics issues important to repository design and performance assessment The workshop contained three technical sessions and two panel discussions. The participants included technical and research staffs representing the NRC and the Department of Energy and their contractors, as well as researchers from the academic, commercial, and international technical communities. These proceedings include most of the technical papers presented in the technical sessions and the transcripts for the two panel discussions

  1. On-farm welfare assessment for regulatory purposes: Issues and possible solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jan Tind; Fraser, David

    2010-01-01

    On-farm welfare assessment has been used mainly for non-regulatory purposes such as producer education or to qualify for voluntary welfare-assurance programs. The application of on-farm assessments in regulatory programs would require four issues to be addressed: (1) selecting criteria that are...... widely accepted as valid by diverse citizens, (2) setting minimum legal levels, (3) achieving the high level of fairness and objectivity required for legally binding requirements, and (4) achieving the cost-efficiency needed for widespread use of the methods. Issues 1 and 2 pose a particular problem...... because different citizens disagree on what they understand as good animal welfare, with substantial differences between producers and non-producers. A solution could be a deliberative process involving panels of producers and non-producers committed to understanding the issues and reaching a deliberated...

  2. Interim report on the assessment of engineering issues for compact high-field ignition devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The engineering issues addressed at the workshop included the overall configuration, layout, and assembly; limiter and first-wall energy removal; magnet system structure design; fabricability; repairability; and costs. In performing the assessment, the primary features and characteristics of each concept under study were reviewed as representative of this class of ignition device. The emphasis was to understand the key engineering areas of concern for this class of device and deliberately not attempt to define an optimum design or to choose a best approach. The assessment concluded that compact ignition tokamaks, as represented by the three concepts under study, are feasible. A number of critical engineering issues were identified, and all appear to have tractable solutions. The engineering issues appear quite challenging, and to obtain increased confidence in the apparent design solutions requires completion of the next level of design detail, complemented by appropriate development programs and testing

  3. 36 CFR 72.12 - Assessment of needs, problems and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; (2) Integration of park and recreation planning and facility use with other service agencies such as... and issues. 72.12 Section 72.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... services; rehabilitation of existing facilities; and the need for new facilities. The Assessment...

  4. Assessment of Industrial Attachment: Issues and Concerns of Chinhoyi University of Technology's Undergraduate Degree Programme, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinyemba, Fredreck; Bvekerwa, Sailos T.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents findings from an action research that explored industrial attachment supervision and assessment issues and concerns of CUT's (Chinhoyi University of Technology) undergraduate degree programme. The study was motivated by the observation that there is no research project contacted in order to determine the social and economic…

  5. Integrating a Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of the Quality of Academic Life: Political and Logistical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Catherine; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Efforts to assess quality of academic life at Vanderbilt University (Tennessee) resulted in a plan to merge qualitative and quantitative measures and uncovered political, logistical, and fiscal issues in collection and use of the two kinds of data. Although qualitative databases are costly, they are also very useful in different ways. (Author/MSE)

  6. Development of Performance Assessments in Science: Conceptual, Practical, and Logistical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Shavelson, Richard J.

    1997-01-01

    Conceptual, practical, and logistical issues in the development of science performance assessments (SPAs) are discussed. The conceptual framework identifies task, response format, and scoring system as components, and conceives of SPAs as tasks that attempt to recreate conditions in which scientists work. Developing SPAs is a sophisticated effort…

  7. Key Issues in Sex Education: Reflecting on Teaching, Learning and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oerton, Sarah; Bowen, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Drawing upon critical reflections of staff and student experiences of teaching, learning and assessment on an undergraduate module entitled Key Issues in Sex Education, we discuss the strategies used to engage students in debates around sex and relationships education (SRE). To date, there is little research which evaluates how formal assessments…

  8. E-Portfolios: Issues in Assessment, Accountability and Preservice Teacher Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Helen; Knezek, Don

    This paper discusses issues of assessment, accountability, and preservice teacher preparation using electronic portfolios (e-portfolios). It discusses criteria for portfolio design and trends in e-portfolio use to collect evidence of the competencies of preservice teachers that are related to teaching standards. The paper also discusses the…

  9. Assessment of BSBA Students' Conversancy in Current Business Issues: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Eileen A.; Maskulka, Therese A.; Kaminski, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, the faculty of the College of Business at Kutztown University developed a set of five learning goals for its BSBA program. In fall, 2011, the college's Assurance of Learning Committee began to pursue the assessment of the last of these goals: "BSBA graduates will be conversant in current business issues, including ethics, social…

  10. A Policy Analysis and Quantitative Assessment of Key Issues Arising from Climate Change Negotiations Following COP 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sager, J. M

    2003-04-01

    This paper aims to assess the consequences of the amendments made to the Kyoto Protocol during COP 7 in Marrakech. Following a comprehensive policy analysis, the major issue of 'hot air' and CDM transaction costs is examined using the CERT model. This was done to show that primary supply regions, typically those with 'hot air' availability, might control the emissions reduction permit supply market and maximise net export revenues of permit supply by withholding 40 to 60% of available 'hot air' credits. The assumption that primary permit suppliers control permit price via a restriction of 'hot air' supply to the market will inadvertently leave a portion of the market share open to Non-Annex B CDM supply, despite potentially extreme variance in CDM transaction costs. A summary table of policy implications on the emissions reduction permit market is also included in the Appendix. (author)

  11. A Policy Analysis and Quantitative Assessment of Key Issues Arising from Climate Change Negotiations Following COP 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims to assess the consequences of the amendments made to the Kyoto Protocol during COP 7 in Marrakech. Following a comprehensive policy analysis, the major issue of 'hot air' and CDM transaction costs is examined using the CERT model. This was done to show that primary supply regions, typically those with 'hot air' availability, might control the emissions reduction permit supply market and maximise net export revenues of permit supply by withholding 40 to 60% of available 'hot air' credits. The assumption that primary permit suppliers control permit price via a restriction of 'hot air' supply to the market will inadvertently leave a portion of the market share open to Non-Annex B CDM supply, despite potentially extreme variance in CDM transaction costs. A summary table of policy implications on the emissions reduction permit market is also included in the Appendix. (author)

  12. Open Data Readiness Assessment Prepared for Government of Antigua and Barbuda

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    This 2013 report applies the World Bank Open Data Readiness Assessment Framework to diagnose the readiness of Antigua and Barbuda to create an Open Data initiative. The Framework examines the following dimensions: leadership, policy/legal framework, institutional preparedness, data within government, demand for data, open data ecosystem, financing, technology and skills infrastructure, and...

  13. Direct and indirect land use changes issues in European sustainability initiatives: State-of-the-art, open issues and future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facing climate change and growing energy prices, the use of bioenergy is continuously increasing in order to diminish greenhouse gas emissions, secure energy supply and create employment in rural areas. Because the production of biomass or biofuels, wherever it takes place, comes along with externalities, positive or negative, the need for biomass and bioenergy sustainability criteria is more than ever felt. Research on sustainability criteria and certification systems has started through several national and international initiatives. Considering the benefits of an increased use of bioenergy but also the urge for limiting potential negative environmental and socio-economic impacts, the aim of these initiatives was to make the first move regarding bioenergy sustainability, while waiting for the European legislation to regulate this crucial issue. Land use changes, whether direct or indirect, are one of the most important consequences of bioenergy production. While direct land use changes are more easily assessed locally, indirect land use changes exceed the company level and need to be considered at a global scale. Methodologies for dealing with direct and indirect land use changes are proposed among others in the European, Dutch, British and German sustainability initiatives. This paper aims at presenting and comparing those four European initiatives, with a focus on their propositions for direct and indirect land use changes assessment. Key issues are discussed and recommendations are made for steps to overcome identified difficulties in accurately assessing the effects of indirect land use change due to bioenergy production.

  14. Impacts on non-human biota from a generic geological disposal facility for radioactive waste: some key assessment issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an overview of key issues associated with the application of currently available biota dose assessment methods to consideration of potential environmental impacts from geological disposal facilities. It explores philosophical, methodological and practical assessment issues and reviews the implications of test assessment results in the context of recent and on-going challenges and debates.

  15. Engineering approach to relative quantitative assessment of safety culture and related social issues in NPP operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is devoted to presentation of engineering approach and software tool developed for Safety Culture (SC) assessment as well as to the results of their implementation at Smolensk NPP. The engineering approach is logic evolution of the IAEA ASSET method broadly used at European NPPs in 90-s. It was implemented at Russian and other plants including Olkiluoto NPP in Finland. The approach allows relative quantitative assessing and trending the aspects of SC by the analysis of evens features and causes, calculation and trending corresponding indicators. At the same time plant's operational performances and related social issues, including efficiency of plant operation and personnel reliability, can be monitored. With the help of developed tool the joint team combined from personnel of Smolensk NPP and RRC 'Kurchatov Institute' ('KI') issued the SC self-assessment report, which identifies: families of recurrent events, main safety and operational problems ; their trends and importance to SC and plant efficiency; recommendations to enhance SC and operational performance

  16. ASSESSMENT OF ODOUR EMISSIONS FROM AN OPEN BIOFILTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Brancher

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Odour annoyances are considered a major cause of public complaints to regulatory agencies regarding air quality and represent a growing social problem, especially in industrialized countries. In view of the need to diagnose odour sources for control and mitigation of possible impacts on communities, was assessed, through a case study, the odorous emissions from an open biofilter. The equipment was responsible for gas treatment generated in the wastewater plant treatment of a textile industry. Sampling was conducted in the inlet duct of the biofilter using direct sampling and on the emission surface (output using a hood (VDI 3477:2004. Samples were stored in plastic bags manufactured in polyvinyl fluoride (Tedlar® and transported to the laboratory, where the odour concentration (in UO m-3 was determined based on the dynamic olfactometry dilution procedure (EN 13725:2003. To calculate the odour emission rate (OER (in UO h-1, the volumetric flow rate (in m3 h-1 was measured in the inlet duct of the biofilter. The values obtained for the efficiency and the OER were 98.7 % and 0.34 x 106 UO h-1, respectively. Comparing the efficiency value with the criterion established by Article 12 of Resolution SEMA No 054:2006 (State of Paraná, Brazil, adopted as reference, the biofiltration system meets the minimum efficiency rating of 85 % required in removing odour.

  17. Climate and climate-related issues for the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeslund, Jens-Ove (comp.)

    2006-11-15

    The purpose of this report is to document current scientific knowledge of the climate-related conditions and processes relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment SR-Can. The report also includes a concise background description of the climate system. The report includes three main chapters: A description of the climate system (Chapter 2); Identification and discussion of climate-related issues (Chapter 3); and, A description of the evolution of climate-related conditions for the safety assessment (Chapter 4). Chapter 2 includes an overview of present knowledge of the Earth climate system and the climate conditions that can be expected to occur in Sweden on a 100,000 year time perspective. Based on this, climate-related issues relevant for the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository are identified. These are documented in Chapter 3 'Climate-related issues' to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment. Finally, in Chapter 4, 'Evolution of climate-related conditions for the safety assessment' an evolution for a 120,000 year period is presented, including discussions of identified climate-related issues of importance for repository safety. The documentation is from a scientific point of view not exhaustive, since such a treatment is neither necessary for the purposes of the safety assessment nor possible within the scope of a safety assessment. As further described in the SR-Can Main Report and in the Features Events and Processes report, the content of the present report has been audited by comparison with FEP databases compiled in other assessment projects. This report follows as far as possible the template for documentation of processes regarded as internal to the repository system. However, the term processes is not used in this report, instead the term issue has been used. Each issue includes a set of processes together resulting in the

  18. Climate and climate-related issues for the safety assessment SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to document current scientific knowledge of the climate-related conditions and processes relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment SR-Can. The report also includes a concise background description of the climate system. The report includes three main chapters: A description of the climate system (Chapter 2); Identification and discussion of climate-related issues (Chapter 3); and, A description of the evolution of climate-related conditions for the safety assessment (Chapter 4). Chapter 2 includes an overview of present knowledge of the Earth climate system and the climate conditions that can be expected to occur in Sweden on a 100,000 year time perspective. Based on this, climate-related issues relevant for the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository are identified. These are documented in Chapter 3 'Climate-related issues' to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment. Finally, in Chapter 4, 'Evolution of climate-related conditions for the safety assessment' an evolution for a 120,000 year period is presented, including discussions of identified climate-related issues of importance for repository safety. The documentation is from a scientific point of view not exhaustive, since such a treatment is neither necessary for the purposes of the safety assessment nor possible within the scope of a safety assessment. As further described in the SR-Can Main Report and in the Features Events and Processes report, the content of the present report has been audited by comparison with FEP databases compiled in other assessment projects. This report follows as far as possible the template for documentation of processes regarded as internal to the repository system. However, the term processes is not used in this report, instead the term issue has been used. Each issue includes a set of processes together resulting in the behaviour of a

  19. The opening of electricity and gas retail markets - Assessment 2009, Assessment 2010, Assessment 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three articles present and comment data related to the evolution of the electricity and gas retail markets after their opening in July 2007 and during respectively 2009, 2010 and 2011. This evolution is notably addressed in terms of number of residential and non-residential clients and sites, in terms of annual consumption for residential and non-residential sites, and in terms of site location in France

  20. Assessment Update: Progress, Trends, and Practices in Higher Education. Volume 26, Issue 3, May-June 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, Trudy W., Ed.

    2014-01-01

    This issue of "Assessment Update" presents the following articles: (1) Do Good Assessment Practices Measure Up to the Principles of Assessment?; (2) Healthy Assessment: What Nursing Schools Can Teach Us about Effective Assessment of Student Learning; (3) Development of a National Survey for Secondary Mathematics Teacher Education…

  1. Environmental and economic assessment of 'open waste dump' mining in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Danthurebandara, Maheshi; Van Passel, Steven; Van Acker, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Open waste dumps in Sri Lanka generate adverse environmental and socio-economic impacts due to inadequate maintenance. In this study, a concept of 'open waste dump mining' is suggested in order to minimise the environmental and socio-economic impacts, together with resource recovery. A model based on life cycle assessment and life cycle costing has been used to assess the environmental and economic feasibility of the suggested open waste dump mining concept. Two scenarios have been defined fo...

  2. Use of human reliability data reported in probabilistic risk assessments in addressing human factors safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a research program currently being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) which aims to identify and improve means of using probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) results to address human factors safety issues. The long-term goal of this research (FY 1987) will be to make the development process and documentation structure of PRAs more applicable to human factors safety issues facing NRC. Of particular interest are (1) the identification of retrofit requirements, (2) development of baseline measures to evaluate them, and (3) identification of future human factors research needs. Research has started in two phases at BNL. These steps involve (1) identifying and cataloging the human reliability data reported in PRAs and (2) identifying and articulating human factors safety issues confronting NRC. Human factors safety issues and human reliability PRA data will be matched in order to determine how useful current PRA results are in addressing those issues. Methods of using PRA data through manipulation and combination with other data sources to address issues will also be developed. In addition, information concerning errors of commission and omission used in PRAs are being examined and reported on. In the following fiscal years, changes in the PRA process and structure proposed in related efforts will be evaluated by BNL to determine how to optimize the usefulness of PRAs as a regulatory tool. These efforts are discussed separately in the paper

  3. The Core Issues of Open-Ended Funds in China: Conflicts of Interest and Ownership Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Yuzuo Yao

    2012-01-01

    Open-ended funds have been the subject of the important and ongoing reforms in China. The conflict of interest problem, facing the shareholders, the board of directors and the depositary, puts its roots in the ownership structure of fund management companies. This paper, firstly, argues that securities companies, trust companies and banks should not be the holding shareholders of the fund management companies, that is, the proportion of shares held by them should be limited. Secondly, the emp...

  4. Current issues and research trends on open-source software communities

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Torres, María del Rocío; Díaz Fernández, María del Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Open source software (OSS) projects represent a new paradigm of software creation and development based on hundreds or even thousands of developers and users organised in the form of a virtual community. The success of an OSS project is closely linked to the successful organisation and development of the virtual community of support group. This paper reviews different fields and research topics related to the OSS communities such as collective intelligence, the structure of OSS...

  5. Open issues in gamma-ray bursts: polarimetry and dark GRBs

    OpenAIRE

    Malesani, D.; S. Covino(INAF - Oss. Astronomico di Brera); Rossi, E. M.; Lazzati, D.; A. De Luca; Filliatre, P.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2005-01-01

    We review some open problems in the physics of afterglows, namely their polarization properties and the existence of dark/faint bursts. Polarization studies yield precious insights in the physical structure and dynamical evolution of GRB jets, revealing their magnetization properties and their energy profile. Polarimetric observations of GRB 020813 already allowed to exclude a homogeneous jet for this event. We then present observations of faint/dark bursts, showing that some of them may be o...

  6. Self- and Peer Assessment in Massive Open Online Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admiraal, Wilfried; Huisman, Bart; van de Ven, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    Open online distance learning in higher education has quickly gained popularity, expanded, and evolved, with Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) as the most recent development. New web technologies allow for scalable ways to deliver video lecture content, implement social forums and track student progress in MOOCs. However, we remain limited in…

  7. Several High Level Issues in Reliability Assessment of Safety-Critical Software in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Man Cheol; Jang, Seung Cheol [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    For the purpose of developing a consensus method for the reliability assessment of safety-critical digital instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants, several high level issues in reliability assessment of the safety-critical software based on Bayesian belief network modeling and statistical testing are discussed. Related to the Bayesian belief network modeling, the relation between the assessment approach and the sources of evidence, the relation between qualitative evidence and quantitative evidence, and how to consider qualitative evidence are discussed. Related to the statistical testing, the need of the consideration of context-specific software failure probabilities and the inability to perform a huge number of tests in the real world are discussed. The discussions in this paper are expected to provide a common basis for future discussions on the reliability assessment of safety-critical software.

  8. Final Review of Safety Assessment Issues at Savannah River Site, August 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Bixler, Nathan E.

    2011-12-15

    At the request of Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS) management, a review team composed of experts in atmospheric transport modeling for environmental radiation dose assessment convened at the Savannah River Site (SRS) on August 29-30, 2011. Though the meeting was prompted initially by suspected issues related to the treatment of surface roughness inherent in the SRS meteorological dataset and its treatment in the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System Version 2 (MACCS2), various topical areas were discussed that are relevant to performing safety assessments at SRS; this final report addresses these topical areas.

  9. Assessment of enriched uranium storage safety issues at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is an assessment of the technical safety issues pertaining to the storage of EU at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The purpose of the assessment is to serve as the basis for defining the technical standards for storage of EU at Y-12. A formal assessment of the Y-12 materials acceptance criteria for EU is currently being conducted by a task force cochaired by B. G. Eddy of DOE Oak Ridge Operations and S. 0. Cox of Y-12 Defense Programs. The mission of this technical assessment for storage is obviously dependent on results of the acceptance assessment. Clearly, the two efforts require coordination to avoid inconsistencies. In addition, both these Assessments must be consistent with the Environmental Assessment for EU storage at Y-12.1 Both the Storage Assessment and the Criteria for Acceptance must take cognizance of the fact that a portion of the EU to be submitted for storage in the future is expected to be derived from foreign sources and to include previously irradiated uranium containing significant levels of transuranics, radioactive daughter products, and unstable uranium isotopes that do not occur in the EU stream of the DOE weapons complex. National security considerations may dictate that these materials be accepted despite the fact that they fail to conform to the Acceptance Criteria. This document will attempt to address the complexities inherent in this situation

  10. Assessment of enriched uranium storage safety issues at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This document is an assessment of the technical safety issues pertaining to the storage of EU at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The purpose of the assessment is to serve as the basis for defining the technical standards for storage of EU at Y-12. A formal assessment of the Y-12 materials acceptance criteria for EU is currently being conducted by a task force cochaired by B. G. Eddy of DOE Oak Ridge Operations and S. 0. Cox of Y-12 Defense Programs. The mission of this technical assessment for storage is obviously dependent on results of the acceptance assessment. Clearly, the two efforts require coordination to avoid inconsistencies. In addition, both these Assessments must be consistent with the Environmental Assessment for EU storage at Y-12.1 Both the Storage Assessment and the Criteria for Acceptance must take cognizance of the fact that a portion of the EU to be submitted for storage in the future is expected to be derived from foreign sources and to include previously irradiated uranium containing significant levels of transuranics, radioactive daughter products, and unstable uranium isotopes that do not occur in the EU stream of the DOE weapons complex. National security considerations may dictate that these materials be accepted despite the fact that they fail to conform to the Acceptance Criteria. This document will attempt to address the complexities inherent in this situation.

  11. Managing resilience in carrier grade networks: Survey, open issues and trends

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez Almonte, Wilson; Masip Bruin, Xavier; Marín Tordera, Eva; Sánchez López, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    IP/MPLS and Optical technologies are the foundations of current Carrier-Grade Networks (CGNs), due to both the flexibility of IP/MPLS to provide services with distinct requirements and the high transport capacity offered by new Optical technologies, such as Elastic Optical Networks (EONs). However, despite the widespread adoption of these two technologies, interoperability issues still impact on key network features, in particular on resilience capabilities. Resilience is gaining momentum in ...

  12. Integrated Systems for NGS Data Management and Analysis: Open Issues and Available Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Valerio; Ceol, Arnaud; Ogier, Alessandro G E; de Pretis, Stefano; Galeota, Eugenia; Kishore, Kamal; Bora, Pranami; Croci, Ottavio; Campaner, Stefano; Amati, Bruno; Morelli, Marco J; Pelizzola, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have deeply changed our understanding of cellular processes by delivering an astonishing amount of data at affordable prices; nowadays, many biology laboratories have already accumulated a large number of sequenced samples. However, managing and analyzing these data poses new challenges, which may easily be underestimated by research groups devoid of IT and quantitative skills. In this perspective, we identify five issues that should be carefully addressed by research groups approaching NGS technologies. In particular, the five key issues to be considered concern: (1) adopting a laboratory management system (LIMS) and safeguard the resulting raw data structure in downstream analyses; (2) monitoring the flow of the data and standardizing input and output directories and file names, even when multiple analysis protocols are used on the same data; (3) ensuring complete traceability of the analysis performed; (4) enabling non-experienced users to run analyses through a graphical user interface (GUI) acting as a front-end for the pipelines; (5) relying on standard metadata to annotate the datasets, and when possible using controlled vocabularies, ideally derived from biomedical ontologies. Finally, we discuss the currently available tools in the light of these issues, and we introduce HTS-flow, a new workflow management system conceived to address the concerns we raised. HTS-flow is able to retrieve information from a LIMS database, manages data analyses through a simple GUI, outputs data in standard locations and allows the complete traceability of datasets, accompanying metadata and analysis scripts. PMID:27200084

  13. Integrated Systems for NGS Data Management and Analysis: Open Issues and Available Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Valerio; Ceol, Arnaud; Ogier, Alessandro G. E.; de Pretis, Stefano; Galeota, Eugenia; Kishore, Kamal; Bora, Pranami; Croci, Ottavio; Campaner, Stefano; Amati, Bruno; Morelli, Marco J.; Pelizzola, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have deeply changed our understanding of cellular processes by delivering an astonishing amount of data at affordable prices; nowadays, many biology laboratories have already accumulated a large number of sequenced samples. However, managing and analyzing these data poses new challenges, which may easily be underestimated by research groups devoid of IT and quantitative skills. In this perspective, we identify five issues that should be carefully addressed by research groups approaching NGS technologies. In particular, the five key issues to be considered concern: (1) adopting a laboratory management system (LIMS) and safeguard the resulting raw data structure in downstream analyses; (2) monitoring the flow of the data and standardizing input and output directories and file names, even when multiple analysis protocols are used on the same data; (3) ensuring complete traceability of the analysis performed; (4) enabling non-experienced users to run analyses through a graphical user interface (GUI) acting as a front-end for the pipelines; (5) relying on standard metadata to annotate the datasets, and when possible using controlled vocabularies, ideally derived from biomedical ontologies. Finally, we discuss the currently available tools in the light of these issues, and we introduce HTS-flow, a new workflow management system conceived to address the concerns we raised. HTS-flow is able to retrieve information from a LIMS database, manages data analyses through a simple GUI, outputs data in standard locations and allows the complete traceability of datasets, accompanying metadata and analysis scripts. PMID:27200084

  14. The Core Issues of Open-Ended Funds in China: Conflicts of Interest and Ownership Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzuo Yao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Open-ended funds have been the subject of the important and ongoing reforms in China. The conflict of interest problem, facing the shareholders, the board of directors and the depositary, puts its roots in the ownership structure of fund management companies. This paper, firstly, argues that securities companies, trust companies and banks should not be the holding shareholders of the fund management companies, that is, the proportion of shares held by them should be limited. Secondly, the empirical findings are consistent with the view that ownership dispersion yields ownership concentration as ownership dispersion helps to minimize problems with conflicts of interest in most cases.

  15. Open issues in Gamma-Ray Bursts: Polarimetry and dark GRBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malesani, D. [SISSA, Trieste (Italy); Covino, S.; Tagliaferri, G. [INAF-Osservaorio Astronomico di Brera, Merate (Italy); Rossi, E.M. [Max Planck Institut fur Astrophysik, Garching (Germany); Lazzati, D. [Colorado Univ., Boulder (United States). JILA; De Luca [INAF-IASF, Milano (Italy); Filliatre, P. [Laboratoire astroparticule et cosmologie, Paris (France); CEA-DSM-DAPNIA-SAp, Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service d' Astrophysique

    2005-07-15

    We review some open problems in the physics of afterglows, namely their polarization properties and the existence of dark-faint bursts. Polarization studies yield precious insights in the physical structure and dynamical evolution of GRB jets, revealing their magnetization properties and their energy profile. Polarimetric observations of GRB 020813 already allowed to exclude a homogeneous jet for this event. We then present observations of faint-dark bursts, showing that some of them may be obscured by dust, while others are possibly just intrinsically dim.

  16. Open issues in Gamma-Ray Bursts: Polarimetry and dark GRBs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review some open problems in the physics of afterglows, namely their polarization properties and the existence of dark-faint bursts. Polarization studies yield precious insights in the physical structure and dynamical evolution of GRB jets, revealing their magnetization properties and their energy profile. Polarimetric observations of GRB 020813 already allowed to exclude a homogeneous jet for this event. We then present observations of faint-dark bursts, showing that some of them may be obscured by dust, while others are possibly just intrinsically dim

  17. Assessment Update: Progress, Trends, and Practices in Higher Education. Volume 26, Issue 1, January-February 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, Trudy W., Ed.

    2014-01-01

    This issue of "Assessment Update" presents the following articles: (1) Expanding Assessment Perspectives: The Importance of Student Leadership in Student Learning Outcomes Assessment (Abraham J. Lauer and Jamie R. Korin); (2) Empowering Faculty and Students with Assessment Data (Jane M. Souza); (3) Including Faculty in Accreditation…

  18. Assessment Update: Progress, Trends, and Practices in Higher Education. Volume 25, Issue 3, May-June 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, Trudy W., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    This issue of "Assessment Update" presents the following articles: (1) Launching E-Portfolios: An Organic Process; (2) Editor's Notes: Envisioning Learning; (3) Promoting Student Affairs Buy-In for Assessment: Lessons Learned; (4) Working at Assessment; (5) Making the Case for Formative Assessment: How It Improves Student Engagement…

  19. Just Roll with It? Rolling Volumes vs. Discrete Issues in Open Access Library and Information Science Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Cirasella

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Articles in open access (OA journals can be published on a rolling basis, as they become ready, or in complete, discrete issues. This study examines the prevalence of and reasons for rolling volumes vs. discrete issues among scholarly OA library and information science (LIS journals based in the United States. METHODS A survey was distributed to journal editors, asking them about their publication model and their reasons for and satisfaction with that model. RESULTS Of the 21 responding journals, 12 publish in discrete issues, eight publish in rolling volumes, and one publishes in rolling volumes with an occasional special issue. Almost all editors, regardless of model, cited ease of workflow as a justification for their chosen publication model, suggesting that there is no single best workflow for all journals. However, while all rolling-volume editors reported being satisfied with their model, satisfaction was less universal among discrete-issue editors. DISCUSSION The unexpectedly high number of rolling-volume journals suggests that LIS journal editors are making forward-looking choices about publication models even though the topic has not been much addressed in the library literature. Further research is warranted; possibilities include expanding the study’s geographic scope, broadening the study to other disciplines, and investigating publication model trends across the entire scholarly OA universe. CONCLUSION Both because satisfaction is high among editors of rolling-volume journals and because readers and authors appreciate quick publication times, the rolling-volume model will likely become even more prevalent in coming years.

  20. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Materials Issues for Generation IV Systems : Status, Open Questions and Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Gorse, Dominique; Mazière, Dominique; Pontikis, Vassilis

    2008-01-01

    Global warming, shortage of low-cost oil resources and the increasing demand for energy are currently controlling the world's economic expansion while often opposing desires for sustainable and peaceful development. In this context, atomic energy satisfactorily fulfills the criteria of low carbon gas production and high overall yield. However, in the absence of industrial fast-breeders the use of nuclear fuel is not optimal, and the production of high activity waste materials is at a maximum. These are the principal reasons for the development of a new, fourth generation of nuclear reactors, minimizing the undesirable side-effects of current nuclear energy production technology while increasing yields by increasing operation temperatures and opening the way for the industrial production of hydrogen through the decomposition of water. The construction and use of such reactors is hindered by several factors, including performance limitations of known structural materials, particularly if the life of the project...

  1. Workshop on rock mechanics issues in repository design and performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses organized and hosted a workshop on ``Rock Mechanics Issues in Repository Design and Performance Assessment`` on behalf its sponsor the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This workshop was held on September 19- 20, 1994 at the Holiday Inn Crowne Plaza, Rockville, Maryland. The objectives of the workshop were to stimulate exchange of technical information among parties actively investigating rock mechanics issues relevant to the proposed high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain and identify/confirm rock mechanics issues important to repository design and performance assessment The workshop contained three technical sessions and two panel discussions. The participants included technical and research staffs representing the NRC and the Department of Energy and their contractors, as well as researchers from the academic, commercial, and international technical communities. These proceedings include most of the technical papers presented in the technical sessions and the transcripts for the two panel discussions. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  2. Assessment of crack opening area for leak rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharples, J.K.; Bouchard, P.J.

    1997-04-01

    This paper outlines the background to recommended crack opening area solutions given in a proposed revision to leak before break guidance for the R6 procedure. Comparisons with experimental and analytical results are given for some selected cases of circumferential cracks in cylinders. It is shown that elastic models can provide satisfactory estimations of crack opening displacement (and area) but they become increasingly conservative for values of L{sub r} greater than approximately 0.4. The Dugdale small scale yielding model gives conservative estimates of crack opening displacement with increasing enhancement for L{sub r} values greater than 0.4. Further validation of the elastic-plastic reference stress method for up to L{sub r} values of about 1.0 is presented by experimental and analytical comparisons. Although a more detailed method, its application gives a best estimate of crack opening displacement which may be substantially greater than small scale plasticity models. It is also shown that the local boundary conditions in pipework need to be carefully considered when evaluating crack opening area for through-wall bending stresses resulting from welding residual stresses or geometry discontinuities.

  3. Assessment of effect of nasal continuous positive pressure on laryngeal opening using fibre optic laryngoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Gaon, P; Lee, S.; Hannan, S.; Ingram, D.; Milner, A

    1999-01-01

    AIM—To assess the effect of nasal continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) on the dimensions of the laryngeal opening.
METHODS—Nine preterm infants who had previously received ventilatory support for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) were studied. All were receiving nasal CPAP. The laryngeal opening was visualised using a fibre optic video camera system. The ratio of width to length of the opening was measured on and off CPAP.
RESULTS—In eight of the infants the w...

  4. Sustainable Sourcing of Global Agricultural Raw Materials: Assessing Gaps in Key Impact and Vulnerability Issues and Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Nathaniel P; Garbach, Kelly; Guillozet, Kathleen; Haden, Van R; Hedao, Prashant; Hollander, Allan D; Huber, Patrick R; Ingersoll, Christina; Langner, Megan; Lipari, Genevieve; Mohammadi, Yaser; Musker, Ruthie; Piatto, Marina; Riggle, Courtney; Schweisguth, Melissa; Sin, Emily; Snider, Sara; Vidic, Nataša; White, Aubrey; Brodt, Sonja; Quinn, James F; Tomich, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how to source agricultural raw materials sustainably is challenging in today's globalized food system given the variety of issues to be considered and the multitude of suggested indicators for representing these issues. Furthermore, stakeholders in the global food system both impact these issues and are themselves vulnerable to these issues, an important duality that is often implied but not explicitly described. The attention given to these issues and conceptual frameworks varies greatly--depending largely on the stakeholder perspective--as does the set of indicators developed to measure them. To better structure these complex relationships and assess any gaps, we collate a comprehensive list of sustainability issues and a database of sustainability indicators to represent them. To assure a breadth of inclusion, the issues are pulled from the following three perspectives: major global sustainability assessments, sustainability communications from global food companies, and conceptual frameworks of sustainable livelihoods from academic publications. These terms are integrated across perspectives using a common vocabulary, classified by their relevance to impacts and vulnerabilities, and categorized into groups by economic, environmental, physical, human, social, and political characteristics. These issues are then associated with over 2,000 sustainability indicators gathered from existing sources. A gap analysis is then performed to determine if particular issues and issue groups are over or underrepresented. This process results in 44 "integrated" issues--24 impact issues and 36 vulnerability issues--that are composed of 318 "component" issues. The gap analysis shows that although every integrated issue is mentioned at least 40% of the time across perspectives, no issue is mentioned more than 70% of the time. A few issues infrequently mentioned across perspectives also have relatively few indicators available to fully represent them. Issues in the

  5. Sustainable Sourcing of Global Agricultural Raw Materials: Assessing Gaps in Key Impact and Vulnerability Issues and Indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel P Springer

    Full Text Available Understanding how to source agricultural raw materials sustainably is challenging in today's globalized food system given the variety of issues to be considered and the multitude of suggested indicators for representing these issues. Furthermore, stakeholders in the global food system both impact these issues and are themselves vulnerable to these issues, an important duality that is often implied but not explicitly described. The attention given to these issues and conceptual frameworks varies greatly--depending largely on the stakeholder perspective--as does the set of indicators developed to measure them. To better structure these complex relationships and assess any gaps, we collate a comprehensive list of sustainability issues and a database of sustainability indicators to represent them. To assure a breadth of inclusion, the issues are pulled from the following three perspectives: major global sustainability assessments, sustainability communications from global food companies, and conceptual frameworks of sustainable livelihoods from academic publications. These terms are integrated across perspectives using a common vocabulary, classified by their relevance to impacts and vulnerabilities, and categorized into groups by economic, environmental, physical, human, social, and political characteristics. These issues are then associated with over 2,000 sustainability indicators gathered from existing sources. A gap analysis is then performed to determine if particular issues and issue groups are over or underrepresented. This process results in 44 "integrated" issues--24 impact issues and 36 vulnerability issues--that are composed of 318 "component" issues. The gap analysis shows that although every integrated issue is mentioned at least 40% of the time across perspectives, no issue is mentioned more than 70% of the time. A few issues infrequently mentioned across perspectives also have relatively few indicators available to fully represent

  6. ETHICAL ISSUES IN OPEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO EXPECTATIONS AND REALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Vikram RAJ URS

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Education is intimately connected with ethics, because holistically speaking education is more than simply passing examinations and acquiring degrees. Education is character building and life long learning. Savants and philosophers throughout the history of humankind have borne testimony to this aspect of education. Today, there is a great deal of emphasis on continuous and life long learning which implies that education is a continual learning process and not merely relegated to certification. Our experience in the field of distance education indicates that the profile of distance learners varies, cutting across barriers of gender, class and caste. The distance learner may be suffering from a sense of isolation as he/she makes a return to study after a gap of time or while working. It is there that the distance educator makes a positive, ethical and interventionist role by helping the student to learn beyond the stereotypical classroom situation and can act effectively as the friend, philosopher and guide of the learner. Thus practicing what you preach is the moto of ethics in distance. Some of the more important ethical concerns associated with open and distance learning are not those that may be faced by learners. Instead, the challenges faced by those that design ODL or use it in their teaching can be seen as increasingly important. These challenges include globalization, which has emphasized instrumental rather than social aims of education, and the use of cognitive rather than affective pedagogies. For ODL designers and teachers, this has resulted in a concentration on cognitive tasks and market-driven aspects of open and distance learning at the expense of the social harmony that might otherwise be achieved. The overarching ethical concern for ODL practitioners should be to implement an appropriate pedagogy that will satisfy both instrumental and social aims. While this can be achieved, in part, through the use of the pedagogies outlined

  7. Information resources for assessing health effects from chemical exposure: Challenges, priorities, and future issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seigel, S. [National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Issues related to developing information resources for assessing the health effects from chemical exposure include the question of how to address the individual political issues relevant to identifying and determining the timeliness, scientific credibility, and completeness of such kinds of information resources. One of the important ways for agencies to share information is through connection tables. This type of software is presently being used to build information products for some DHHS agencies. One of the challenges will be to convince vendors of data of the importance of trying to make data files available to communities that need them. In the future, information processing will be conducted with neural networks, object-oriented database management systems, and fuzzy-set technologies, and meta analysis techniques.

  8. The open PSA initiative for next generation probabilistic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The open PSA initiative round table discussion session is to bring the PSA community up-to-date on our meetings, workshops, and working groups during the last year. We will have members of the initiative speak on their point of view of the initiative, what they have gained, and where we as a group want to go during the next year. The main idea is to use appropriate modules of different computer codes for a specific purpose which requires a common platform and a common PSA format. In this short paper we introduce our main project for this year: the open PSA model exchange format. (orig.)

  9. Contemporary issues for experimental design in assessment of medical imaging and computer-assist systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Robert F.; Beiden, Sergey V.; Campbell, Gregory; Metz, Charles E.; Sacks, William M.

    2003-05-01

    The dialog among investigators in academia, industry, NIH, and the FDA has grown in recent years on topics of historic interest to attendees of these SPIE sub-conferences on Image Perception, Observer Performance, and Technology Assessment. Several of the most visible issues in this regard have been the emergence of digital mammography and modalities for computer-assisted detection and diagnosis in breast and lung imaging. These issues appear to be only the "tip of the iceberg" foreshadowing a number of emerging advances in imaging technology. So it is timely to make some general remarks looking back and looking ahead at the landscape (or seascape). The advances have been facilitated and documented in several forums. The major role of the SPIE Medical Imaging Conferences i well-known to all of us. Many of us were also present at the Medical Image Perception Society and co-sponsored by CDRH and NCI in September of 2001 at Airlie House, VA. The workshops and discussions held at that conference addressed some critical contemporary issues related to how society - and in particular industry and FDA - approach the general assessment problem. A great deal of inspiration for these discussions was also drawn from several workshops in recent years sponsored by the Biomedical Imaging Program of the National Cancer Institute on these issues, in particular the problem of "The Moving Target" of imaging technology. Another critical phenomenon deserving our attention is the fact that the Fourth National Forum on Biomedical Imaging in Oncology was recently held in Bethesda, MD., February 6-7, 2003. These forums are presented by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), and the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA). They are sponsored by the National Institutes of Health/Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences (NIH/FAES). These forums led to the development of the NCI

  10. Perspective of waste isolation research issues and assessment of consequences for radionuclide release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The finiteness of research resources to address technical issues for nuclear waste management requires a realistic assessment of their importance. The most appropriate method for making this assessment is the combination of system studies, which include consideration of the role of all protective barrier, and consequence assessment models that can estimate the potential hazard imposed upon man for assumed violations of these barriers. Sensitivity analyses on certain issues can then be performed to determine the impact of various descriptive parameters. Work commensurate with this strategy has been initiated at Sandia. Some conclusions drawn from these studies specifically applicable to WIPP for the scenarios considered are that: Waste form and protective canisters are not essential as barriers. Assumed radionuclide dissolutioning is far in excess of that possible with developmental waste forms. Brine migration plays no significant role in long-term isolation; complications to retrievability can be avoided with numerous technical alternaives. Radionuclide sorption in geomedia near repositories plays an important role in reducing consequences, but sites with favorable geologic and hydrologic settings such as WIPP can tolerate essentially no reliance on sorption and still achieve inconsequential predicted doses. Plutonium sorption with K/sub d/ greater than 10 are sufficient to eliminate direct doses from plutonium. Borehole plugs are not required for primary protection. Continued scientific resolution of both real and perceived issues can, however, provide additional assurance and public confidence that consequences can be reduced beyond those predicted in bounding scenarios. In addition, such investigation will assure that appropriate limits are instituted for defining parameters and that all assumptions in predictive models are technically sound

  11. Uncertainties and ensembles in global climate models: open issues with model dependence, performance, and robustness (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutti, R.; Tebaldi, C.

    2013-12-01

    Climate projections have often been summarized as multi model means, assuming that the average of models is better than a single model. Yet averaging models is problematic, because the models are not independent and share biases, and the models may not span the full uncertainty range. A model average can significantly underestimate the climate change signal if the changes are spatially heterogeneous. A seemingly obvious step is to select individual models based on how well they simulate the past and present climate. But metrics of model performance and model weighting is a thorny issue. The lack of verification of the actual climate projections means that we do not know, or cannot agree on which metrics are most relevant to identify a good model. An overview of recent coupled model intercomparisons is given along with a set of major challenges in interpreting them. It is shown that uncertainty in climate projections is difficult to quantify, and has not decreased significantly in the past few years, partly as a result of irreducible climate variability. Progress in model evaluation as well as statistical methods to interpret and combine model projections is urgently needed, in particular as more models of different quality and complexity, including perturbed physics ensembles and ensembles with structurally different models become available.

  12. Decommissioning of research reactors: Evolution, state of the art, open issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many research reactors throughout the world date from the original nuclear research programmes in Member States. Consequently, dozens of old research reactors are candidates for near term decommissioning in parallel with progressive ageing and technical and economic obsolescence. Many of them are located in countries/institutions that, although familiar with the operation and management of their reactors, do not necessarily have adequate expertise and technologies for planning and implementing state of the art decommissioning projects. It is felt that IAEA reports may contribute to the awareness of technologies and know-how already tested successfully elsewhere. This report addresses a subject area that was dealt with earlier by two IAEA publications, namely, Planning and Management for the Decommissioning of Research Reactors and Other Small Nuclear Facilities (Technical Reports Series No. 351) and Decommissioning Techniques for Research Reactors (Technical Reports Series No. 373). This publication updates those reports in view of the technological progress, experience gained and the progressive ageing of research reactors, many of which have already reached the permanent shutdown stage and should be decommissioned soon. It is intended to contribute to the systematic coverage of the entire range of activities that have been addressed by the IAEA's decommissioning work in past years. The perspective of the report is historical, in that relevant issues are identified as solved, pending, or emerging. Much of the information provided in this report will also be of use for the decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities. A Technical Committee Meeting on this subject was held in Vienna from 17 to 21 May 2004, at which the participants reviewed a draft report written by consultants from Canada, Germany, Israel, the Russian Federation and the United Kingdom

  13. Assessment Update: Progress, Trends, and Practices in Higher Education. Volume 25, Issue 4, July-August 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, Trudy W., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    This issue of "Assessment Update" presents the following articles: (1) Student Interpretation of Selected Degree Qualifications Profile Outcomes; (2) Editor's Notes: Ingenuity: A New Super Skill, a New Assessment Challenge, a New National Conversation; (3) Applying Qualitative Techniques to Assessment in Student Affairs; (4)…

  14. The Issues and Methodologies in Sustainability Assessment Tools for Higher Education Institutions: A Review of Recent Trends and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarime, Masaru; Tanaka, Yuko

    2012-01-01

    Assessment tools influence incentives to higher education institutions by encouraging them to move towards sustainability. A review of 16 sustainability assessment tools was conducted to examine the recent trends in the issues and methodologies addressed in assessment tools quantitatively and qualitatively. The characteristics of the current…

  15. Open issues in testing liquidity in frontier financial markets: The case of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minović Jelena Z.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of illiquidity and liquidity risk on expected asset returns in the Serbian stock market. For this market we estimate the conditional Liquidity-adjusted Capital Asset Pricing Model (LCAPM of Acharya and Pedersen (2005. We use daily data for the period from 2005-2009. While the method developed is applicable in other markets this is the first paper that tests the LCAPM model in the case of Serbia. Liquidity risks are allowed to be timevarying. We find that for the Serbian market as a frontier market illiquidity and liquidity risk significantly impact price formation. For such a market the LCAPM may indeed be a good tool for realistic assessment of the expected asset returns.

  16. Online Higher Education Instruction to Foster Critical Thinking When Assessing Environmental Issues - the Brownfield Action Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Peter; Liddicoat, Joseph; Dittrick, Diane; Maenza-Gmelch, Terryanne; Kelsey, Ryan

    2013-04-01

    According to the Environmental Protection Agency, there are presently over half a million brownfields in the United States, but this number only includes sites for which an Environmental Site Assessment has been conducted. The actual number of brownfields is certainly into the millions and constitutes one of the major environmental issues confronting all communities today. Taught in part online for more than a decade in environmental science courses at over a dozen colleges, universities, and high schools in the United States, Brownfield Action (BA) is an interactive, web-based simulation that combines scientific expertise, constructivist education philosophy, and multimedia to advance the teaching of environmental science (Bower et al., 2011). In the online simulation and classroom, students form geotechnical consulting companies, conduct environmental site assessment investigations, and work collaboratively to solve a problem in environmental forensics. The BA model contains interdisciplinary scientific and social information that are integrated within a digital learning environment that encourages students to construct their knowledge as they learn by doing. As such, the approach improves the depth and coherence of students understanding of the course material. Like real-world environmental consultants, students are required to develop and apply expertise from a wide range of fields, including environmental science and engineering as well as journalism, medicine, public health, law, civics, economics, and business management. The overall objective is for students to gain an unprecedented appreciation of the complexity, ambiguity, and risk involved in any environmental issue or crisis.

  17. Medical school accreditation in Australia: Issues involved in assessing major changes and new programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Field

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Medical Council (AMC is an independent company for quality assurance and quality improvement in medical education in Australia and New Zealand. Accreditation procedures for the 20 medical schools in these two countries are somewhat different for three different circumstances or stages of school development: existing medical schools, established courses undergoing major changes, and new schools. This paper will outline some issues involved in major changes to existing courses, and new medical school programs. Major changes have included change from a 6 year undergraduate course to a 5 year undergraduate course or 4 year graduate-entry course, introduction of a lateral graduate-entry stream, new domestic site of course delivery, offshore course delivery, joint program between two universities, and major change to curriculum. In the case of a major change assessment, accreditation of the new or revised course may be granted for a period up to two years after the full course has been implemented. In the assessment of proposals for introduction of new medical courses, six issues needing careful consideration have arisen: forward planning, academic staffing, adequate clinical experience, acceptable research program, adequacy of resources, postgraduate training program and employment.

  18. Environmental impact assessment and socio political issues of nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study is a part of the Publicly Administrated Nuclear Waste Management Research Programme (JYT2) which was carried out in 1994-1996. The principal goal of the research programme has been to provide the authorities with information and research results relevant for the safety of nuclear waste management in order to support the various activities of the authorities. The main emphasis of the research programme focuses on the disposal of spent fuel. In addition to nuclear waste research in the field of natural sciences and technology, the research program- me has focused mostly on societal issues associated with nuclear waste disposal facilities and on the non-radiological environmental effects in the environs of the disposal site. Some of the local effects are already revealed in the research phase, before any final decisions are made as to the selection of the disposal site. The study has focused primarily on local and regional issues. The statutory requirement to conduct environ- mental impact assessment (EIA) chiefly concerns those who are responsible for waste management, but the authorities also need to acquire systematic information in the field to support developing requirements for the content and scope of EIA procedure and preparedness to check the assessments made. This is a report of the first parts of the study in 1994-1995. The report deals with the subject matter generally based on earlier studies in Finland and other countries. The results of the study will be reported later

  19. States and compacts: Issues and events affecting facility development efforts, including the Barnwell opening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, G.S.

    1995-12-31

    Ten years have passed since the first regional low-level radioactive waste compacts received Congressional consent and initiated their efforts to develop new disposal capacity. During these 10 years, both significant achievements and serious setbacks have marked our efforts and affect our current outlook. Recent events in the waste marketplace, particularly in the operating status of the Barnwell disposal facility, have now raised legitimate questions about the continued rationale for the regional framework that grew out of the original legislation enacted by Congress in 1980. At the same time, licensing activities for new regional disposal facilities are under way in three states, and a fourth awaits the final go-ahead to begin construction. Uncertainty over the meaning and reliability of the marketplace events makes it difficult to gauge long-term implications. In addition, differences in the status of individual state and compact facility development efforts lead to varying assessments of the influence these events will, or should, have on such efforts.

  20. Assessment of the food safety issues related to genetically modified foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, H A; Kleter, G A; Noteborn, H P; Kok, E J

    2001-09-01

    International consensus has been reached on the principles regarding evaluation of the food safety of genetically modified plants. The concept of substantial equivalence has been developed as part of a safety evaluation framework, based on the idea that existing foods can serve as a basis for comparing the properties of genetically modified foods with the appropriate counterpart. Application of the concept is not a safety assessment per se, but helps to identify similarities and differences between the existing food and the new product, which are then subject to further toxicological investigation. Substantial equivalence is a starting point in the safety evaluation, rather than an endpoint of the assessment. Consensus on practical application of the principle should be further elaborated. Experiences with the safety testing of newly inserted proteins and of whole genetically modified foods are reviewed, and limitations of current test methodologies are discussed. The development and validation of new profiling methods such as DNA microarray technology, proteomics, and metabolomics for the identification and characterization of unintended effects, which may occur as a result of the genetic modification, is recommended. The assessment of the allergenicity of newly inserted proteins and of marker genes is discussed. An issue that will gain importance in the near future is that of post-marketing surveillance of the foods derived from genetically modified crops. It is concluded, among others that, that application of the principle of substantial equivalence has proven adequate, and that no alternative adequate safety assessment strategies are available. PMID:11576435

  1. Issues in the assessment of children's coping in the context of mass trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Noffsinger, Mary A; Wind, Leslie H

    2012-06-01

    Exposure to mass trauma has contributed to increasing concern about the well-being of children, families, and communities. In spite of global awareness of the dramatic impact of mass trauma on youth, little is known about how children and adolescents cope with and adapt to disasters and terrorism. While coping has yet to be fully conceptualized as a unified construct, the process of responding to stress includes recognized cognitive, emotional, and behavioral components. Unfortunately, research on the complex process of adaptation in the aftermath of mass trauma is a relatively recent focus. Further study is needed to build consensus in terminology, theory, methods, and assessment techniques to assist researchers and clinicians in measuring children's coping, both generally and within the context of mass trauma. Advancements are needed in the area of coping assessment to identify internal and external factors affecting children's stress responses. Additionally, enhanced understanding of children's disaster coping can inform the development of prevention and intervention programs to promote resilience in the aftermath of traumatic events. This article examines the theoretical and practical issues in assessing coping in children exposed to mass trauma, and includes recommendations to guide assessment and research of children's coping within this specialized context. PMID:22691268

  2. Assessing Veterinary and Animal Science Students' Moral Judgment Development on Animal Ethics Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrinder, Joy M; Phillips, Clive J C

    2015-01-01

    Little has been done to assess veterinarians' moral judgment in relation to animal ethics issues. Following development of the VetDIT, a new moral judgment measure for animal ethics issues, this study aimed to refine and further validate the VetDIT, and to identify effects of teaching interventions on moral judgment and changes in moral judgment over time. VetDIT-V1 was refined into VetDIT-V2, and V3 was developed as a post-intervention test to prevent repetition. To test these versions for comparability, veterinary and animal science students (n=271) were randomly assigned to complete different versions. The VetDIT discriminates between stages of moral judgment, condensed into three schemas: Personal Interest (PI), Maintaining Norms (MN), and Universal Principles (UP). There were no differences in the scores for MN and UP between the versions, and we equated PI scores to account for differences between versions. Veterinary science students (n=130) who completed a three-hour small-group workshop on moral development theory and ethical decision making increased their use of UP in moral reasoning, whereas students (n=271) who received similar information in a 50-minute lecture did not. A longitudinal comparison of matched first- and third-year students (n=39) revealed no moral judgment development toward greater use of UP. The VetDIT is therefore useful for assessing moral judgment of animal and human ethics issues in veterinary and other animal-related professions. Intensive small-group workshops using moral development knowledge and skills, rather than lectures, are conducive to developing veterinary students' moral judgment. PMID:26200702

  3. Assessment of the Key Competitiveness Issues and Policy Requirements Facing the Irish Energy Market : Focus on Irish Electricity Market

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the key competitiveness issues facing the Irish energy market from an enterprise consumer perspective and to outline appropriate institutional and policy responses. Final report, December 2002

  4. Wetland inventory, assessment and monitoring: practical techniques and identification of major issues. Proceedings of Workshop 4. Supervising Scientist Report 161

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2nd International Conference on Wetlands and Development aimed to review progress in wetland conservation and development since the 1st Conference (Malaysia, 1995). The conference reviewed trends in wetland development and management, and identified issues and solutions which could benefit agencies and individuals concerned with the wise use of wetlands at all levels. Special focus was given to Africa, with the aim of developing new partnerships, networks and programs for the future. Endorsements for the conference were received from the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Convention to Combat Desertification, the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals, the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, the UN Economic Commission for Africa, and the World Heritage Convention. More than 40 donors provided funds to the conference. The Conference was opened by the Senegalese Minister of Environment and Nature Protection, in the presence of the Senegalese Minister of Foreign Affairs. The Conference included 5 workshops covering: 1. Strategies for wise use of wetlands: Best practices in participatory management; 2. Strategies for conserving migratory waterbirds; 3. Integrated wetlands and water resources management; 4. Wetland inventory, assessment, monitoring and valuation; 5. Mechanisms for financing the wise use of wetlands. The proceedings of workshop 4 are presented in this report

  5. Intelligence Testing and Minority Students: Foundations, Performance Factors, and Assessment Issues. Racial and Ethnic Minority Psychology Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Richard R.; Suzuki, Lisa A.

    This book examines intelligence assessment among ethnic minority children. Part 1, "Foundations," includes: (1) "Historical Issues" (e.g., emergence of intelligence testing in Europe and ideology of the intelligence testing movement); and (2) "Multicultural Perspective of Intelligence: Theory and Measurement Issues" (e.g., group differences in…

  6. From Indicators to Policies: Open Sustainability Assessment in the Water and Sanitation Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Alejandro Iribarnegaray

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A water and sanitation sustainability index (WASSI was developed and estimated in four cities of the province of Salta, in northern Argentina. The index was built with nine descriptors and fifteen indicators that covered all essential aspects of the sustainability of local water and sanitation management systems. Only one of the cities studied obtained a sustainability value above the acceptability threshold adopted (50 of 100 points. Results indicate that the water company needs to address some environmental and social issues to enhance the sustainability of the systems studied. The WASSI was conceptually robust and operationally simple, and could be easily adapted to the case studies. The index can be followed and updated online on a web site specially developed for this project. This website could be useful to promote participatory processes, assist decision makers, and facilitate academic research. According to local stakeholders, a more open sustainability assessment based on sustainability indices and supported by virtual tools would be relevant and highly feasible. It would help decision makers improve the sustainability and transparency of water and sanitation management systems, and promote more sustainable water policies in the region and beyond.

  7. Applicability of PSA Issues for Risk Assessment during Optimisation of In-Service Inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current codes determining periodicity of in-service inspection of the NPP equipment have been formed using deterministic approaches and have an unnecessary degree of conservatism. A perspective direction of perfection of normative base is decision making on a basis of risk-informed methodologies. It allows to increase safety of NPP equipment's operation and to optimise programs on inspection of the equipment subject to limited resources by focusing efforts on the most safety significant elements of the equipment. It is internationally accepted that methodology of the probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) is the most universal and comprehensive tool focused on the general assessment of safety of NPP as a whole. By now, PSA Level 1 is fulfilled for all pilot units of the Ukrainian NPPs that is a valuable result, which should be taken into account at an assessment of reliability of the equipment. However, specificity of PSA methodology should be taken into account at the decision of the particular tasks aimed at optimisation of maintenance of the equipment within individual systems. The estimation of the contribution to core damage frequency (CDF) is a PSA issue usually used to assess the significance of consequences of failure of a system/equipment during risk-informed decision-making. This work shows that above factor is only a part of assessment of the significance of consequences as core damage can be expressed in different amount of the damaged fuel elements and, hence, severity of consequences. Besides CDF is directly affected only by active elements which failure can be an initiating event. PSA methodology uses averaged reliability factors of the equipment for all possible operating modes occurring at transitive accident process. Here, there are limited opportunities to account impact of periodicity of maintenance of the equipment on reliability and to predict impact of change of the inspection program. PSA methodology does not allow taking into account

  8. Performance and Environmental Assessment of an Advanced Aircraft with Open Rotor Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Haller, William J.; Hendricks, Eric S.; Tong, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Application of high speed, advanced turboprops, or "propfans," to transonic transport aircraft received significant attention during the 1970s and 1980s when fuel efficiency was the driving focus of aeronautical research. Unfortunately, after fuel prices declined sharply there was no longer sufficient motivation to continue maturing this technology. Recent volatility in fuel prices and increasing concern for aviation s environmental impact, however, have renewed interest in unducted, open rotor propulsion. Because of the renewed interest in open rotor propulsion, the lack of publicly available up-to-date studies assessing its benefits, and NASA s focus on reducing fuel consumption, a preliminary aircraft system level study on open rotor propulsion was initiated to inform decisions concerning research in this area. New analysis processes were established to assess the characteristics of open rotor aircraft. These processes were then used to assess the performance, noise, and emissions characteristics of an advanced, single-aisle aircraft using open rotor propulsion. The results of this initial study indicate open rotor engines have the potential to provide significant reductions in fuel consumption and landing-takeoff cycle NOX emissions. Noise analysis of the study configuration indicates that an open rotor aircraft in the single-aisle class would be able to meet current noise regulations with margin.

  9. Issues in performance assessments for disposal of US Department of Energy low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors have long been pioneers in the field of radiological performance assessment (PA). Much effort has been expended in developing technology and acquiring data to facilitate the assessment process. This is reflected in DOE Order 5820.2A, Radioactive Waste Management Chapter III of the Order lists policy and requirements to manage the DOEs low-level waste; performance objectives for low-level waste management are stated to ensure the protection of public health and the environment. A radiological PA is also required to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives. DOE Order 5820.2A further requires that an Oversight and Peer Review Panel be established to ensure consistency and technical quality around the DOE complex in the development and application of PA models that include site-specific geohydrology and waste composition. The DOE has also established a Performance Assessment Task Team (PATT) to integrate the activities of sites that are preparing PAs. The PATT's purpose is to recommend policy and guidance to DOE on issues that impact PAs so that the approaches taken are as consistent as possible across the DOE complex

  10. Open-ended approaches to science assessment using computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singley, Mark K.; Taft, Hessy L.

    1995-03-01

    We discuss the potential role of technology in evaluating learning outcomes in large-scale, widespread science assessments of the kind typically done at ETS, such as the GRE, or the College Board SAT II Subject Tests. We describe the current state-of-the-art in this area, as well as briefly outline the history of technology in large-scale science assessment and ponder possibilities for the future. We present examples from our own work in the domain of chemistry, in which we are designing problem solving interfaces and scoring programs for stoichiometric and other kinds of quantitative problem solving. We also present a new scientific reasoning item type that we are prototyping on the computer. It is our view that the technological infrastructure for large-scale constructed response science assessment is well on its way to being available, although many technical and practical hurdles remain.

  11. Key issues in life cycle assessment of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass: Challenges and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anoop; Pant, Deepak; Korres, Nicholas E; Nizami, Abdul-Sattar; Prasad, Shiv; Murphy, Jerry D

    2010-07-01

    Progressive depletion of conventional fossil fuels with increasing energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have led to a move towards renewable and sustainable energy sources. Lignocellulosic biomass is available in massive quantities and provides enormous potential for bioethanol production. However, to ascertain optimal biofuel strategies, it is necessary to take into account environmental impacts from cradle to grave. Life cycle assessment (LCA) techniques allow detailed analysis of material and energy fluxes on regional and global scales. This includes indirect inputs to the production process and associated wastes and emissions, and the downstream fate of products in the future. At the same time if not used properly, LCA can lead to incorrect and inappropriate actions on the part of industry and/or policy makers. This paper aims to list key issues for quantifying the use of resources and releases to the environment associated with the entire life cycle of lignocellulosic bioethanol production. PMID:20015644

  12. Epistemic uncertainties and natural hazard risk assessment - Part 1: A review of the issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beven, K. J.; Aspinall, W. P.; Bates, P. D.; Borgomeo, E.; Goda, K.; Hall, J. W.; Page, T.; Phillips, J. C.; Rougier, J. T.; Simpson, M.; Stephenson, D. B.; Smith, P. J.; Wagener, T.; Watson, M.

    2015-12-01

    Uncertainties in natural hazard risk assessment are generally dominated by the sources arising from lack of knowledge or understanding of the processes involved. There is a lack of knowledge about frequencies, process representations, parameters, present and future boundary conditions, consequences and impacts, and the meaning of observations in evaluating simulation models. These are the epistemic uncertainties that can be difficult to constrain, especially in terms of event or scenario probabilities, even as elicited probabilities rationalized on the basis of expert judgements. This paper reviews the issues raised by trying to quantify the effects of epistemic uncertainties. Such scientific uncertainties might have significant influence on decisions that are made for risk management, so it is important to communicate the meaning of an uncertainty estimate and to provide an audit trail of the assumptions on which it is based. Some suggestions for good practice in doing so are made.

  13. Current issues in dietary acrylamide:formation,mitigation and risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, F.; Salome Mariotti, M.; Granby, Kit

    2014-01-01

    investigation of AA precursors, mechanisms of AA formation and AA mitigation technologies in potato, cereal and coffee products. Additionally, most relevant issues of AA risk assessment are discussed. New technologies tested from laboratory to industrial scale face, as a major challenge, the reduction of AA...... content of browned food, while still maintaining its attractive organoleptic properties. Reducing sugars such as glucose and fructose are the major contributors to AA in potato-based products. On the other hand, the limiting substrate of AA formation in cereals and coffee is the free amino acid asparagine....... For some products the addition of glycine or asparaginase reduces AA formation during baking. Since, for potatoes, the limiting substrate is reducing sugars, increases in sugar content in potatoes during storage then introduce some difficulties and potentially quite large variations in the AA content...

  14. Non-technical issues in safety assessments for nuclear disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper highlights that a comprehensive approach to safety affords the consideration of technology, organisation, personnel and social environment. In several safety relevant contexts of nuclear waste disposal these fields are closely interrelated. The approach for the consideration of socio-scientific aspects which is sketched in this paper supports the systematic treatment of safety relevant non-technical issues in the safety case or in safety assessments for a disposal project. Furthermore it may foster the dialogue among specialists from the technical, the natural- and the socio-scientific field on questions of disposal safety. In this way it may contribute to a better understanding among the affected scientific disciplines in nuclear waste disposal.

  15. Assessment of European Union transition scenarios with a special focus on the issue of carbon leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper uses the model GEMINI-E3 to simulate and assess the transition scenario to 2020 framed by the European Union in its 'Energy-Climate' Directive, and it raises several issues in this connection. After a brief description of the model, the paper presents the results of the scenarios, mainly the values of the major indicators of carbon price - both in the ETS and in non-ETS sectors - and the welfare cost of the EU policy under the various configurations considered. While it is independent of the scenario in the ETS sector, in the non-ETS sector the value of carbon is very sensitive to the provisions of the Directive and in particular the option of resorting to the flexibility mechanisms. The welfare cost also varies significantly according to scenarios, and its value for the entire EU is more than double in the scenario closest to the Directive as compared to the least-cost one. The paper also addresses the very sensitive issue of carbon leakage and argues in favor of a new concept of ''net leakage.'' The analysis shows that while carbon leakage may affect some specific sectors, at the aggregate level it does not represent a real concern, with a magnitude of at most a few percent of GHG abatement by Annex B countries. (author)

  16. Open Access Scientometrics and the UK Research Assessment Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Harnad, Stevan

    2007-01-01

    Scientometric predictors of research performance need to be validated by showing that they have a high correlation with the external criterion they are trying to predict. The UK Research Assessment Exercise (RAE), together with the growing movement toward making the full-texts of research articles freely available on the web -- offer a unique opportunity to test and validate a wealth of old and new scientometric predictors, through multiple regression analysis: Publications, journal impact fa...

  17. Performance analysis and an assessment of operational issues of Ya-21U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive testing of the Soviet made TOPAZ-II space nuclear power system unit designated open-quote open-quote Ya-21U close-quote close-quote was conducted both in the USSR (1989 endash 1990) and in the US (August 1993 to March 1995). The unit underwent a total of 15 tests for a cumulative test/operation time of almost 8000 hours. These tests included steady-state operation at different power levels, fast startups and power optimizations. Leaks were detected in some of the Thermionic Fuel Elements (TFEs) after the first test in the US. These leaks that facilitated air incursion into the interelectrode gap caused operational changes in both electric power and conversion efficiency and changed the optimum cesium pressure and load voltage. Additional changes in operational performance were detected following shock and vibration tests performed in August 1994. Test data was examined and analyzed to assess the performance of not only individual TFEs, and also the whole Ya-21U unit, and identify causes for measured operational performance changes; most probable causes were identified and discussed. The Ya-21U unit remained operational throughout extensive testing for 8000 hours at conditions far exceeding the design limits of the TOPAZ-II system. No single TFE was damaged during testing and measured operational performance changes were uniform among working section TFEs. In addition to providing a unique knowledge base for future development and operation of thermionic power systems, the test results testify to the reliability and ruggedness of the TOPAZ-II system design. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  18. Project-Based Learning and Agile Methodologies in Electronic Courses: Effect of Student Population and Open Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Zapater

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Project-Based Learning (PBL and Agile methodologies have proven to be very interesting instructional strategies in Electronics and Engineering education, because they provide practical learning skills that help students understand the basis of electronics. In this paper we analyze two courses, one belonging to a Master in Electronic Engineering and one to a Bachelor in Telecommunication Engineering that apply Agile-PBL methodologies, and compare the results obtained in both courses with a traditional laboratory course. Our results support previous work stating that Agile-PBL methodologies increase student satisfaction. However, we also highlight some open issues that negatively affect the implementation of these methodologies,such as planning overhead or accidental complexity. Moreover,we show how differences in the student population, mostly related to the time spent on-campus, their commitment to the course or part-time dedication, have an impact on the benefits of Agile-PBL methods. In these cases, Agile-PBL methodologies by themselves are not enough and need to be combined with other techniques to increase student motivation.

  19. Neural basis of decision-making and assessment: Issues on testability and philosophical relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel José Corrêa Mograbi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making is an intricate subject in neuroscience. It is often argued that laboratorial research is not capable of dealing with the necessary complexity to study the issue. Whereas philosophers in general neglect the physiological features that constitute the main aspects of thought and behaviour, I advocate that cutting-edge neuroscientific experiments can offer us a framework to explain human behaviour in its relationship with will, self-control, inhibition, emotion and reasoning. It is my contention that self-control mechanisms can modulate more basic stimuli. Assuming the aforementioned standpoints, I show the physiological mechanisms underlying social assessment and decision-making. I also establish a difference between veridical and adaptive decision-making, useful to create experimental designs that can better mimic the complexity of our day-by-day decisions in more ecologically relevant laboratorial research. Moreover, I analyse some experiments in order to develop an epistemological reflection about the necessary neural mechanisms to social assessment and decision-making.

  20. Neural basis of decision-making and assessment: Issues on testability and philosophical relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mograbi Gabriel José

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making is an intricate subject in neuroscience. It is often argued that laboratorial research is not capable of dealing with the necessary complexity to study the issue. Whereas philosophers in general neglect the physiological features that constitute the main aspects of thought and behaviour, I advocate that cutting-edge neuroscientific experiments can offer us a framework to explain human behaviour in its relationship with will, self-control, inhibition, emotion and reasoning. It is my contention that self-control mechanisms can modulate more basic stimuli. Assuming the aforementioned standpoints, I show the physiological mechanisms underlying social assessment and decision-making. I also establish a difference between veridical and adaptive decision-making, useful to create experimental designs that can better mimic the complexity of our day-by-day decisions in more ecologically relevant laboratorial research. Moreover, I analyse some experiments in order to develop an epistemological reflection about the necessary neural mechanisms to social assessment and decision-making.

  1. Issues in risk assessment and modifications of the NRC health effects models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1992-07-02

    A report, Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis, was published by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, in 1985, and revised in 1989. These reports provided models for estimating health effects that would be expected to result from the radiation exposure received in a nuclear reactor accident. Separate models were given for early occurring effects, late somatic effects, and genetic effects; however, this paper addresses only late somatic effects, or the risk of cancer expected to occur in the lifetimes of exposed individuals. The 1989 revision was prepared prior to the publication of the BEIR V, 1988 UNSCEAR, and ICRP 60 reports. For this reason, an addendum was needed that would provide modified risk models that took into account these recent reports, and, more generally, any new evidence that had appeared since the 1989 publication. Of special importance was consideration of updated analyses of the Japanese A-bomb survivor study data based on revised DS86 dosimetry. The process of preparing the addendum required thorough review and evaluation of the models used by the BEIR V, UNSCEAR, and ICRP committees, and also required thorough consideration of the various decisions that must be made in any risk assessment effort. This paper emphasizes general issues and problems that arise in risk assessment, and also indicates areas where additional development and application of statistical methods may be fruitful.

  2. Issues in risk assessment and modifications of the NRC health effects models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report, Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis, was published by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, in 1985, and revised in 1989. These reports provided models for estimating health effects that would be expected to result from the radiation exposure received in a nuclear reactor accident. Separate models were given for early occurring effects, late somatic effects, and genetic effects; however, this paper addresses only late somatic effects, or the risk of cancer expected to occur in the lifetimes of exposed individuals. The 1989 revision was prepared prior to the publication of the BEIR V, 1988 UNSCEAR, and ICRP 60 reports. For this reason, an addendum was needed that would provide modified risk models that took into account these recent reports, and, more generally, any new evidence that had appeared since the 1989 publication. Of special importance was consideration of updated analyses of the Japanese A-bomb survivor study data based on revised DS86 dosimetry. The process of preparing the addendum required thorough review and evaluation of the models used by the BEIR V, UNSCEAR, and ICRP committees, and also required thorough consideration of the various decisions that must be made in any risk assessment effort. This paper emphasizes general issues and problems that arise in risk assessment, and also indicates areas where additional development and application of statistical methods may be fruitful

  3. The Western Energy Corridor Initiative: Unconventional Fuel Development Issues, Impacts, and Management Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfsberg, A.; Hagood, M.; Pasqualini, D.; Wood, T.; Wilson, C.; Witkowski, M.; Levitt, D.; Pawar, R.; Keating, G.; Ziock, H.

    2008-12-01

    The United States is increasingly dependent on imported oil and gas; commodities for which other nations are competing and for which future supply may be inadequate to support our transportation fuel needs. Therefore, a renewed interest in 'harder-to-get' unconventional fuels has emerged in both industry and government with directed focus on world class hydrocarbon resources within a corridor extending from Canada southward through the Rocky Mountain States. Within this Western Energy Corridor, co-located with significant conventional hydrocarbon and renewable energy resources, lie some of the world's richest unconventional hydrocarbon resources in oil shales, oil sands and coal for coal-to-liquid conversion. However, development of these resources poses substantial environmental concerns as well as increasing competition for limited resources of water and habitat. With large-scale energy development in the predominantly rural region, local communities, infrastructures, and economies will face increasing demands for roads, electricity, law enforcement, labor, and other support services. The Western Energy Corridor Initiative (WECI) seeks to develop an integrated assessment of the impacts of unconventional fuel development, the interrelationships of planned energy developments in different basins, and the resultant demands placed on the region. This initial WECI study focuses on two of the most important current issues for industry, regulators, and stakeholders -- the assessment of carbon and water resources issues, impacts, and management strategies. Through scenario analyses using coupled systems and process level models, this study investigates the viability of integrated development of multiple energy resources in a carbon neutral and environmentally acceptable manner, and the interrelationships of various energy resource development plans. The modeling framework is designed to extend to include infrastructure, employment, training, fiscal and economic demands

  4. Progress in resolving open design issues from the ODR. Report by the Director. ITER technical advisory committee meeting, 25-27 June 2000, St. Petersburg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents progress in resolving open design issues from the ITER-FEAT Outline Design Report and is not repeating the ODR information but concentrates on the specific issues and the progress towards their resolution. It includes some aspects of the Physics analysis (inductive operation scenario and sensitivity analysis, ion heating, possibility of high Q and ignition operation, divertor physics), Magnets (TF coil loads, inductive flux generation, conductor design issues), Vessel/in Vessel (manifolding of blanket coolant, vacuum vessel design development, design implications of divertor material choice), Buildings and Plant services, Operation and Safety

  5. Open Rotor Tone Shielding Methods for System Noise Assessments Using Multiple Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Christopher J.; Thomas, Russell H.; Lopes, Leonard V.; Burley, Casey L.; Van Zante, Dale E.

    2014-01-01

    Advanced aircraft designs such as the hybrid wing body, in conjunction with open rotor engines, may allow for significant improvements in the environmental impact of aviation. System noise assessments allow for the prediction of the aircraft noise of such designs while they are still in the conceptual phase. Due to significant requirements of computational methods, these predictions still rely on experimental data to account for the interaction of the open rotor tones with the hybrid wing body airframe. Recently, multiple aircraft system noise assessments have been conducted for hybrid wing body designs with open rotor engines. These assessments utilized measured benchmark data from a Propulsion Airframe Aeroacoustic interaction effects test. The measured data demonstrated airframe shielding of open rotor tonal and broadband noise with legacy F7/A7 open rotor blades. Two methods are proposed for improving the use of these data on general open rotor designs in a system noise assessment. The first, direct difference, is a simple octave band subtraction which does not account for tone distribution within the rotor acoustic signal. The second, tone matching, is a higher-fidelity process incorporating additional physical aspects of the problem, where isolated rotor tones are matched by their directivity to determine tone-by-tone shielding. A case study is conducted with the two methods to assess how well each reproduces the measured data and identify the merits of each. Both methods perform similarly for system level results and successfully approach the experimental data for the case study. The tone matching method provides additional tools for assessing the quality of the match to the data set. Additionally, a potential path to improve the tone matching method is provided.

  6. Isolated Open Rotor Noise Prediction Assessment Using the F31A31 Historical Blade Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Jones, William T.; Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.; Zawodny, Nikolas S.

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to mitigate next-generation fuel efficiency and environmental impact concerns for aviation, open rotor propulsion systems have received renewed interest. However, maintaining the high propulsive efficiency while simultaneously meeting noise goals has been one of the challenges in making open rotor propulsion a viable option. Improvements in prediction tools and design methodologies have opened the design space for next generation open rotor designs that satisfy these challenging objectives. As such, validation of aerodynamic and acoustic prediction tools has been an important aspect of open rotor research efforts. This paper describes validation efforts of a combined computational fluid dynamics and Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation methodology for open rotor aeroacoustic modeling. Performance and acoustic predictions were made for a benchmark open rotor blade set and compared with measurements over a range of rotor speeds and observer angles. Overall, the results indicate that the computational approach is acceptable for assessing low-noise open rotor designs. Additionally, this approach may be used to provide realistic incident source fields for acoustic shielding/scattering studies on various aircraft configurations.

  7. Technical Issues and Proposes on the Legislation of Probabilistic Safety Assessment in Periodic Safety Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korean Nuclear Power Plants have performed a comprehensive safety assessment reflecting design and procedure changes and using the latest technology every 10 years. In Korea, safety factors of PSR are revised to 14 by revision of IAEA Safety Guidelines in 2003. In the revised safety guidelines, safety analysis field was subdivided into deterministic safety analysis, PSA (Probabilistic safety analysis), and hazard analysis. The purpose to examine PSA as a safety factor on PSR is to make sure that PSA results and assumptions reflect the latest state of NPPs, validate the level of computer codes and analytical models, and evaluate the adequacy of PSA instructions. In addition, its purpose is to derive the plant design change, operating experience of other plants and safety enhancement items as well. In Korea, PSA is introduced as a new factor. Thus, the overall guideline development and long-term implementation strategy are needed. Today in Korea, full-power PSA model revision and low-power and shutdown (LPSD) PSA model development is being performed as a part of the post Fukushima action items for operating plants. The scope of the full-power PSA is internal/external level 1, 2 PSA. But in case of fire PSA, the scope is level 1 PSA using new method, NUREG/CR-6850. In case of LPSD PSA, level 1 PSA for all operating plants, and level 2 PSA for 2 demonstration plants are under development. The result of the LPSD PSA will be used as major input data for plant specific SAMG (Severe Accident Management Guideline). The scope of PSA currently being developed in Korea cannot fulfill 'All Mode, All Scope' requirements recommended in the IAEA Safety Guidelines. Besides the legislation of PSA, step-by-step development strategy for non-performed scopes such as level 3 PSA and new fire PSA is one of the urgent issues in Korea. This paper suggests technical issues and development strategies for each PSA technical elements.

  8. Technical Issues and Proposes on the Legislation of Probabilistic Safety Assessment in Periodic Safety Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Seok-Won; Jeon, Ho-Jun; Na, Jang-Hwan [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Korean Nuclear Power Plants have performed a comprehensive safety assessment reflecting design and procedure changes and using the latest technology every 10 years. In Korea, safety factors of PSR are revised to 14 by revision of IAEA Safety Guidelines in 2003. In the revised safety guidelines, safety analysis field was subdivided into deterministic safety analysis, PSA (Probabilistic safety analysis), and hazard analysis. The purpose to examine PSA as a safety factor on PSR is to make sure that PSA results and assumptions reflect the latest state of NPPs, validate the level of computer codes and analytical models, and evaluate the adequacy of PSA instructions. In addition, its purpose is to derive the plant design change, operating experience of other plants and safety enhancement items as well. In Korea, PSA is introduced as a new factor. Thus, the overall guideline development and long-term implementation strategy are needed. Today in Korea, full-power PSA model revision and low-power and shutdown (LPSD) PSA model development is being performed as a part of the post Fukushima action items for operating plants. The scope of the full-power PSA is internal/external level 1, 2 PSA. But in case of fire PSA, the scope is level 1 PSA using new method, NUREG/CR-6850. In case of LPSD PSA, level 1 PSA for all operating plants, and level 2 PSA for 2 demonstration plants are under development. The result of the LPSD PSA will be used as major input data for plant specific SAMG (Severe Accident Management Guideline). The scope of PSA currently being developed in Korea cannot fulfill 'All Mode, All Scope' requirements recommended in the IAEA Safety Guidelines. Besides the legislation of PSA, step-by-step development strategy for non-performed scopes such as level 3 PSA and new fire PSA is one of the urgent issues in Korea. This paper suggests technical issues and development strategies for each PSA technical elements.

  9. Safety issues for LMFBR: important features drawn from the assessments of Superphenix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superphenix, which is built on the site of Creys-Malville, is still the biggest LMFBR plant that has been in operation. It is a pool type reactor, as Phenix and the RNR 1 500 and EFR projects. After the analysis of the preliminary safety (1974-1975), the construction was authorised by decree of the Prime Minister in 1977, the authorization for fuel loading and star-up to 3% was given by the minister of industry in July 1985 and full power was achieved in December 1986. The plant was operated until the end of December 1996, producing the equivalent of 320 EFPD, corresponding to half of the maximum barn-up of the first core. The plant was definitively stopped on the 20. of April 1998 by a decision of the French government. During this period of 25 years of licensing, construction and operation of Superphenix, others discussions and preliminary licensing procedures were started for new projects, mainly the RNR 1500 French project and the EFR European project. The operation of Superphenix was also marked by several incidents, which led to additional licensing procedures and important modifications. This period was also marked by an important work of research and development in the safety field, mostly related to the issues concerning hypothetical core disruptive accidents (HCDA) and sodium fires; further, this period was marked by the Three Mile Island accident in 1979 and the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The purpose of this paper is to present some items which were discussed during this period of 25 years and which should be of interest for future LMFBRs. In this presentation, we shall discuss the key issues concerning the safety criteria and options taken with respect to severe accidents, i.e. core melt accidents, giving details on some specific which are less known since they were assessed only lately for Superphenix, sometimes in connection with the on-going safety researches. (author)

  10. Globalization, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and Open/Distance Learning in Nigeria: Trends, Issues and Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olusola, Akande Joshua; Alaba, Sofowora Olaniyi

    2011-01-01

    The main thrust of this paper is to discuss the development of open and distance education in Nigeria and the major manifestations of the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in education in open and distance learning. This study further discusses the importance and use of ICTs in open and distance learning in making education…

  11. Analysis of Critical Issues in Biosphere Assessment Modelling and Site Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this document is to present a critical review of issues concerned with the treatment of the biosphere and geosphere-biosphere interface in long-term performance assessment studies for nuclear waste disposal in Sweden. The review covers three main areas of investigation: a review of SKB's plans for undertaking site investigations at candidate locations for the development of a deep geological repository for spent fuel; identification of critical uncertainties associated with SKB's treatment of the geosphere-biosphere interface in recent performance assessments; and a preliminary modelling investigation of the significance of features, events and processes in the near-surface environment in terms of their effect on the accumulation and redistribution of radionuclides at the geosphere-biosphere interface. Overall, SKB's proposals for site investigations are considered to be comprehensive and, if they can be carried out to the specification presented, will constitute a benchmark that other waste management organisations will have to work hard to emulate. The main concern is that expertise for undertaking the investigations and reporting the results could be stretched very thin. The authors have also identified weaknesses in the documentation concerning the collection of evidence for environmental change and on developing scenarios for future environmental change. A fundamental assumption adopted in the renewed assessment of the SFR 1 repository, which is not discussed or justified in any of the documentation that has been reviewed, is that radionuclides enter the water column of the coastal and lake models directly, without passing first through the bed sediments. The modelling study reported herein suggests that SKB's models are robust to range of alternative conceptual descriptions relating to the geosphere-biosphere interface. There are however situations, in which contaminated groundwater is released via sediment rather than directly to the water column

  12. Analysis of Critical Issues in Biosphere Assessment Modelling and Site Investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egan, M.J.; Thorne, M.C.; Little, R.H.; Pasco, R.F. [Quintessa Limited, Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this document is to present a critical review of issues concerned with the treatment of the biosphere and geosphere-biosphere interface in long-term performance assessment studies for nuclear waste disposal in Sweden. The review covers three main areas of investigation: a review of SKB's plans for undertaking site investigations at candidate locations for the development of a deep geological repository for spent fuel; identification of critical uncertainties associated with SKB's treatment of the geosphere-biosphere interface in recent performance assessments; and a preliminary modelling investigation of the significance of features, events and processes in the near-surface environment in terms of their effect on the accumulation and redistribution of radionuclides at the geosphere-biosphere interface. Overall, SKB's proposals for site investigations are considered to be comprehensive and, if they can be carried out to the specification presented, will constitute a benchmark that other waste management organisations will have to work hard to emulate. The main concern is that expertise for undertaking the investigations and reporting the results could be stretched very thin. The authors have also identified weaknesses in the documentation concerning the collection of evidence for environmental change and on developing scenarios for future environmental change. A fundamental assumption adopted in the renewed assessment of the SFR 1 repository, which is not discussed or justified in any of the documentation that has been reviewed, is that radionuclides enter the water column of the coastal and lake models directly, without passing first through the bed sediments. The modelling study reported herein suggests that SKB's models are robust to range of alternative conceptual descriptions relating to the geosphere-biosphere interface. There are however situations, in which contaminated groundwater is released via sediment rather than directly

  13. Opening the Conversation on REU Assessment and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressley, S. N.; LeBeau, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Project evaluation is a key component to ensuring success of any Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program. The Washington State University (WSU) Regional Atmospheric Chemistry: State-of-the-art Measurement and Modeling in the Pacific Northwest REU Site employs a mixed method approach to determine what is working well and what can use improvement (formative evaluation) and to determine impact and effectiveness of the project in reaching the stated goals (summative evaluation). Quantitative data is collected via a pre-/post-test measuring participants' research self-efficacy (RSE), motivation, background information, extent of socialization, and their interpretation of the value of the REU experience. Qualitative data is gathered through individual interviews with the REU students (at the beginning and end of the program) and faculty mentors (at the end). Beginning interviews focus on expectations for the REU program and student backgrounds. End interviews focus on student RSE development, interpretations of their experience, and the value of the experience. Faculty mentors are interviewed to gather insight on student performance in the program and perspectives on the overall success of the program in meeting the proposed goals. Students are provided an opportunity to comment on the strengths and weaknesses of workshops, providing critical feedback to the particular instructor and enabling the faculty to modify the workshop content and activities in future years. Finally, research results are evaluated during the final poster presentation, and faculty are interviewed to report on their perception of how each student learned and gained knowledge during the program. To evaluate the retention of students in engineering and science and identify chosen career paths, a longitudinal survey was created and it is administered via email each year. Many REU programs also employ the Undergraduate Research Students Self-Assessment (URSSA) online tool designed for

  14. Updated Assessment of an Open Rotor Airplane Using an Advanced Blade Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Eric S.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Haller, William J.; Tong, Michael T.; Guynn, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    Application of open rotor propulsion systems (historically referred to as "advanced turboprops" or "propfans") to subsonic transport aircraft received significant attention and research in the 1970s and 1980s when fuel efficiency was the driving focus of aeronautical research. Recent volatility in fuel prices and concern for aviation's environmental impact have renewed interest in open rotor propulsion, and revived research by NASA and a number of engine manufacturers. Over the last few years, NASA has revived and developed analysis capabilities to assess aircraft designs with open rotor propulsion systems. These efforts have been described in several previous papers along with initial results from applying these capabilities. The initial results indicated that open rotor engines have the potential to provide large reductions in fuel consumption and emissions. Initial noise analysis indicated that current noise regulations can be met with modern baseline blade designs. Improved blades incorporating low-noise features are expected to result in even lower noise levels. This paper describes improvements to the initial assessment, plus a follow-on study using a more advanced open rotor blade design to power the advanced singleaisle transport. The predicted performance and environmental results of these two advanced open rotor concepts are presented and compared.

  15. Marine environmental assessment of the Black Sea region ministerial meeting. Opening statement, Monaco, 5 October 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the text of the Opening Statement of the Director General of the IAEA at the Ministerial Meeting on Marine Environmental Assessment of the Black Sea Region, held in Monaco, on 5 October 1998. The Director General emphasized the contribution of the IAEA, mainly through its Technical Co-operation Programme, in strengthening the international co-operation in marine environmental assessment of the Black Sea region

  16. Issues in the assessment of reading disabilities in L2 children--beliefs and research evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geva, E

    2000-01-01

    In bilingual and multilingual settings one is constantly challenged by the difficulty of teasing apart phenomena associated with normal second language (L2) reading acquisition from authentic warning signs of reading failure. The bulk of this paper focuses on a critical discussion of a cluster of beliefs that pertain to the issues concerning the diagnosis of reading disability in multilingual and bilingual settings among school children. Findings from available research on reading acquisition among bilingual children and research focusing specifically on the assessment of English-as-a-second language (ESL) children who might be at risk for reading disability are used to evaluate the validity of these beliefs. While some beliefs are supported by research, others are not. In particular, the research suggests that reliable diagnosis of dyslexia among ESL children can be achieved by examining within-language differences on various indices of basic reading skills such as phonological processing, and by noting a significant gap between oral and reading comprehension. PMID:10840504

  17. The difficult issue of age assessment on pedo-pornographic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Cristina; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Gabriel, Peter; Gibelli, Daniele; Giudici, Elena; Poppa, Pasquale; Nohrden, Doerte; Assmann, Sabine; Schmitt, Roland; Grandi, Marco

    2009-01-10

    The issue of juvenile pornography has seen an increase in the past few years of the number of expert opinions requested to forensic pathologists, paediatricians and other various experts within the forensic and medical fields concerning the age of represented individuals. Regardless of the entity of the problem, no actual method exists which can allow us to give an objective and scientific answer, particularly in the postpubertal stage. Using parameters related to sexual maturation can be very dangerous. Nonetheless some experts still insist with similar types of "expertises". This study aims at verifying the ability of different experts in assessing age of postpubertal individuals represented in pornographic material. Results underline the difficulties and major uncertainties of age evaluation by visual observation of photographic material particularly when the subjects have reached the sexual maturation stage - and therefore in verifying whether the individual is above or below 18 years of age (an important age limit for most European countries as far as this type of crime is concerned). Furthermore the study stresses the need both to search for an alternate approach and to apply extreme caution in judicial evaluation. PMID:19019589

  18. Can the technical issues related to risk assessment of transgenic arthropods be solved?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent progress that has been made in the development of transgenic technologies for non-drosophilid insects now leads to discussions about both how best to use this technology and the types and magnitudes of risk that are arise from the use of transgenic non-drosophilid insects. We discuss the principal issues of risk and conclude that, for the majority of them, techniques already exist that enable the quantification of risk. For others, such as the possibility of horizontal transfer of transposable elements, assessments of risk can still be made however these are indirect measures. Perhaps what is really remarkable is that a true characterization of any transgenic strain of any insect species with respect to genetic fitness and viability is still yet to be made, even though many of these strains have existed for several years. The need for these types of data is becoming urgent as schemes for the use of transgenic insects start to attract public attention and we suggest that support be made for these types of experiment. (author)

  19. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCS): Emerging Trends in Assessment and Accreditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Amit

    2014-01-01

    In 2014, Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are expected to witness a phenomenal growth in student registration compared to the previous years (Lee, Stewart, & Claugar-Pop, 2014). As MOOCs continue to grow in number, there has been an increasing focus on assessment and evaluation. Because of the huge enrollments in a MOOC, it is impossible…

  20. Design and assessment approach on advanced SFR safety with emphasis on core disruptive accident issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A basic safety approach in designing sodium fast reactors (SFRs) is essentially the same as one taken in light water reactors (LWRs). The concept of defence in depth (DiD), as widely applied to the design of LWRs, shall be applied to the safety design of SFRs.With a primary emphasis on preventing and detecting abnormal occurrences, safety design measures shall be provided under postulated abnormal conditions. Those are the appropriate means to shutdown the reactor, cool the residual heat in the reactor core and contain radioactive materials within the reactor facility. Even though the philosophy involved in the DiD concept has been universally accepted, the SFR-specific issues shall be taken into account in technical implementation. The recriticality issue on core disruptive accident (CDA) is highly important in the commercialization of SFRs. Because the fast reactor core is not in the highest reactivity configuration, the recriticality issue in CDA condition has been one of the major safety issues of SFR from the beginning of its development history. The conventional safety approach to this issue is (1) to minimize the occurrence probability of CDA by utilizing, for example, two independent reliable reactor shutdown systems, and (2) to assess the mechanical energy release due to recriticality events assuming hypothetical CDA, confirming the integrity of reactor vessel and component against the estimated mechanical energy and/or loading due to burning of sodium that could be spilled out from the reactor vessel. The assessment method of the CDA has been improved from the very beginning Bethe-Tait model in 1956, which assumes the gravitational fall down of the core fuel, to the recent more mechanistic models such as SAS 4A and SIMMER-III code, which consider various material motion and phase- change mechanism based on in-pile and out-of-pile experiments. Even though their early designs consider CDAs directly in the safety design, the treatment in safety

  1. Assessment of livestock slaughtered for food and meat inspection issues in selected abattoirs in Benue State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Kundu Shima; Idusiye Mosugu; Ternenge Apaa

    2015-01-01

    In recent times, many zoonotic diseases have emerged with serious negative consequences on humans. In the light of this, ante-mortem inspections were conducted, using body condition scoring to assess the health status of livestock presenting for slaughter, and to identify issues relating to meat inspection in four purposively selected government approved abattoirs in Benue State, Nigeria. The result of our assessment showed that 5.0% of the cattle and goats presented for slaughter during the ...

  2. OpenQuake, a platform for collaborative seismic hazard and risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, Paul; Burton, Christopher; Butler, Lars; Crowley, Helen; Danciu, Laurentiu; Nastasi, Matteo; Monelli, Damiano; Pagani, Marco; Panzeri, Luigi; Simionato, Michele; Silva, Vitor; Vallarelli, Giuseppe; Weatherill, Graeme; Wyss, Ben

    2013-04-01

    Sharing of data and risk information, best practices, and approaches across the globe is key to assessing risk more effectively. Through global projects, open-source IT development and collaborations with more than 10 regions, leading experts are collaboratively developing unique global datasets, best practice, tools and models for global seismic hazard and risk assessment, within the context of the Global Earthquake Model (GEM). Guided by the needs and experiences of governments, companies and international organisations, all contributions are being integrated into OpenQuake: a web-based platform that - together with other resources - will become accessible in 2014. With OpenQuake, stakeholders worldwide will be able to calculate, visualize and investigate earthquake hazard and risk, capture new data and share findings for joint learning. The platform is envisaged as a collaborative hub for earthquake risk assessment, used at global and local scales, around which an active network of users has formed. OpenQuake will comprise both online and offline tools, many of which can also be used independently. One of the first steps in OpenQuake development was the creation of open-source software for advanced seismic hazard and risk calculations at any scale, the OpenQuake Engine. Although in continuous development, a command-line version of the software is already being test-driven and used by hundreds worldwide; from non-profits in Central Asia, seismologists in sub-Saharan Africa and companies in South Asia to the European seismic hazard harmonization programme (SHARE). In addition, several technical trainings were organized with scientists from different regions of the world (sub-Saharan Africa, Central Asia, Asia-Pacific) to introduce the engine and other OpenQuake tools to the community, something that will continue to happen over the coming years. Other tools that are being developed of direct interest to the hazard community are: • OpenQuake Modeller; fundamental

  3. Capital Markets and Non-bank Financial Institutions in Romania : Assessment of Key Issues and Recommendations for Development

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    This study assesses key issues and recommendations for development, and reviews the specific changes which are necessary in four areas: structural reforms, market institutions, and infrastructure; accounting, transparency, and disclosure; market infrastructure; and credit enhancements. With only three years remaining before joining the European Union, Romania is working hard to improve its...

  4. A Framework for Teachers' Assessment of Socio-Scientific Argumentation: An Example Using the GMO Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Nina; Chang Rundgren, Shu-Nu

    2015-01-01

    Socio-scientific issues (SSI) have proven to be suitable contexts for students to actively reflect on and argue about complex social issues related to science. Research has indicated that explicitly teaching SSI argumentation is a good way to help students develop their argumentation skills and make them aware of the complexity of SSI. However,…

  5. DV169 Comparative assessment of consumption patterns and environmental issues in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijkx, I.

    2005-01-01

    In this MSc research project the consumption patterns and environmental issues in the developing country Ecuador were studied. Within the ‘Center for Energy and Environmental Studies’ this is a first step in the combined research field of environmental issues and consumption patterns in developing c

  6. Assessing Interdisciplinary Learning and Student Activism in a Water Issues Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Anja; Juris, Stephen J.; Willermet, Cathy; Drake, Eron; Upadhaya, Samik; Chhetri, Pratik

    2014-01-01

    In response to a request from a campus student organization, faculty from three fields came together to develop and teach an integrated interdisciplinary course on water issues and social activism. This course, "Water as Life, Death, and Power," brought together issues from the fields of anthropology, biology and chemistry to explore…

  7. Exploration of Important Issues for the Safety of SFR 1 using Performance Assessment Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SKB has produced a revised safety case for the SFR 1 disposal facility for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes at Forsmark: project SAFE. This assessment includes a Performance Assessment (PA) for the long term post-closure safety of the facility. SKI has a responsibility to scrutinise SKB's safety case that is shared with SSI. Quintessa has undertaken a review of SKB's case for the long term safety of SFR 1 to assist SKI's evaluation of SAFE, and this is given in SKI-R--02-61, henceforth referred to as the Quintessa Review. The current report describes the independent PA calculations that provided an input to that review. Since 1999 SKI has been developing a PA capability for SFR 1 using the AMBER software. Two key features of the approach taken have been: To represent the whole system in a single model; and To allow the time-dependency of all key features, events and processes to be represented. These capabilities allow a better understanding of the key features of the system to be obtained for different future evolutions (scenarios). This report presents a summary of the work undertaken to provide SKI with a PA capability for SFR 1 and the calculations undertaken with it. Calculations have been undertaken for radionuclides transported in groundwater and gas, but not for direct intrusion by humans into the wastes. It should be emphasised that the purpose of the Performance Assessment calculations described in this report is not to provide an alternative assessment of potential radiological impacts to that produced by SKB. The aim is to use the models that have been developed to investigate the important features of the system and to help SKI scrutinise the case put to them by SKB. The PA calculations that have been undertaken are by no means comprehensive, and various issues could be investigated further if required. The key issues that have been identified can be summarised as follows: 1. The SFR 1 system has a number of different timescales that can

  8. Rubric Design for Separating the Roles of Open-Ended Assessments

    CERN Document Server

    Doughty, Leanne

    2014-01-01

    End-of-course assessments play important roles in the ongoing attempt to improve instruction in physics courses. Comparison of students' performance on assessments before and after instruction gives a measure of student learning. In addition, analysis of students' answers to assessment items provides insight into students' difficulties with specific concepts and practices. While open-ended assessments scored with detailed rubrics provide useful information about student reasoning to researchers, end users need to score students' responses so that they may obtain meaningful feedback on their instruction. One solution that satisfies end users and researchers is a grading rubric that separates scoring student work and uncovering student difficulties. We have constructed a separable rubric for the Colorado Classical Mechanics/Math Methods Instrument that has been used by untrained graders to score the assessment reliably, and by researchers to unpack common student difficulties. Here we present rubric development...

  9. Current Issues in Assessment in Early Childhood Care and Education in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Sachiko

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the characteristics of early childhood care and education (ECCE) assessment and identifies current challenges and changes in the assessment of ECCE in Japan. There are differences in assessment between ECCE and elementary school education. Assessment in ECCE is used to focus on making better plans, improving the understanding…

  10. Assessing trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder: Single, open-ended question versus list-based inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Eva; Lonergan, Michelle; Caron, Jean; Brunet, Alain

    2016-08-01

    Trauma exposure is a precursor to a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A dearth of empirical evidence exists on the impact of different measurement practices on estimates of trauma exposure and PTSD within representative epidemiological samples. In the present study, we examined differences in reported trauma exposure and rates of PTSD using single, open-ended question versus list-based trauma assessments in a general community sample. Using data from the third wave of the Montreal epidemiological catchment area study (N = 1029), participants were interviewed in person by a lay interviewer about lifetime history of trauma exposure and PTSD. Prevalence rates of trauma exposure and PTSD diagnosis using single, open-ended question and list-based assessment were compared using a within-subject design. A single, open-ended question versus list-based trauma assessment yielded trauma-exposure rates of 61%, 95% CI [57.8, 63.8] and 78%, 95% CI [75.2, 80.3], respectively. Conditional rates of lifetime PTSD decreased from 6.7%, 95% CI [5.8, 9.4] to 6%, 95% CI [4.4, 7.7], respectively. Increases in trauma exposure were more pronounced in women (33.7%) than men (21.5%), as well as in the younger stratum of study participants (15-24 years old; 36.1%). Underestimation of PTSD using a single, open-ended question assessment was minimal, although all missing cases were women. Our results lend support to the importance of using comprehensive assessments of exposure to potentially traumatic events when conducting epidemiological research, especially when reporting conditional rates of PTSD. Previous research may have underestimated the prevalence of trauma exposure, particularly among young women. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26502204

  11. Risk assessment for produced water discharges to Louisiana open bays. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, A.F.; DePhillips, M.P.; Holtzman, S.

    1996-03-22

    The US Department of Energy (USDOE) has a program of research in the environmental aspects of oil and gas extraction. This sampling project will characterize the environmental impacts associated with the discharge of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), metals and organics in produced water. This report is part of a series of studies of the health and ecological risks from discharges of produced water to the Gulf of Mexico, supported by the USDOE. These assessments are being coordinated with the field study, using the collected data to perform human health and ecological risk assessments. These assessments will provide input to regulators in the development of guidelines and permits, and to industry in the development and use of appropriate discharge practices. The initial human health and ecological risk assessments consist of conservative screening analyses meant to identify potentially important contaminants, and to eliminate others from further consideration. More quantitative assessments were done for contaminants identified, in the screening analysis, as being of potential concern. Section 2 gives an overview of human health and ecological risk assessment to help put the analyses presented here in perspective. Section 3 provides the hazard assessment portion of the risk assessment, and identifies the important receptors and pathways of concern. Section 3 also outlines the approach taken to the risk assessments presented in the rest of the report. The remaining sections (4 through 9) present the human health and ecological risk assessments for discharges of produced water to open bays in Louisiana.

  12. Risk assessment for produced water discharges to Louisiana open bays. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (USDOE) has a program of research in the environmental aspects of oil and gas extraction. This sampling project will characterize the environmental impacts associated with the discharge of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), metals and organics in produced water. This report is part of a series of studies of the health and ecological risks from discharges of produced water to the Gulf of Mexico, supported by the USDOE. These assessments are being coordinated with the field study, using the collected data to perform human health and ecological risk assessments. These assessments will provide input to regulators in the development of guidelines and permits, and to industry in the development and use of appropriate discharge practices. The initial human health and ecological risk assessments consist of conservative screening analyses meant to identify potentially important contaminants, and to eliminate others from further consideration. More quantitative assessments were done for contaminants identified, in the screening analysis, as being of potential concern. Section 2 gives an overview of human health and ecological risk assessment to help put the analyses presented here in perspective. Section 3 provides the hazard assessment portion of the risk assessment, and identifies the important receptors and pathways of concern. Section 3 also outlines the approach taken to the risk assessments presented in the rest of the report. The remaining sections (4 through 9) present the human health and ecological risk assessments for discharges of produced water to open bays in Louisiana

  13. A Review of Quality of Life in Alzheimer's Disease: Part 2: Issues in Assessing Drug Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Sam S. Salek; Melvyn D. Walker; Antony J. Bayer

    1998-01-01

    There are numerous methods available for assessing patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or other forms of dementia. Quality-of-life (QOL) assessment is unique among these methods. The subjective nature of quality of life provides healthcare professionals with the opportunity of incorporating the value systems of patients and their carers into their assessments. A systematic review was carried out to assess the published data (and some unpublished data) on QOL assessment tools and instrument...

  14. Technology assessment of near-term open-cycle thorium-fuelled nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the RCUK-India civil nuclear research collaboration, British and Indian researchers have sought to determine the advantages, disadvantages, and viability of open-cycle thorium-uranium fuelled (Th-U-fuelled) nuclear energy systems. The research centred on fuel cycle modelling and life-cycle assessment of three Th-U-fuelled nuclear energy systems and compared these to a reference uranium-fuelled nuclear energy system, all operating with open nuclear fuel cycles. The results indicate that thorium-based fuels offers little benefit over conventional uranium fuelled approaches for open-cycle nuclear energy production. This paper provides an overview on the project and stresses over-arching conclusions. (author)

  15. Opening doors to natural resource damage assessments: public participation under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first test of the new damage assessment process under the Oil Pollution Act (OPA) of 1990 took place in January 1966 arising out of the T/B North Cape oil spill in Rhode Island. Contrary to past practice when damage assessment was normally conducted behind closed doors, OPA 1990 opened up the assessment process. The OPA facilitates a cooperative assessment effort with the responsible party and opportunities for meaningful participation in the decision-making process by the public. The overall objective of the open natural resource damage assessment (NRDA) process is restoration of the natural resources that have been injured or lost as a result of an oil spill. The purpose of the public involvement is to cultivate a broad understanding of restoration and trust in the process, to improve the efficiency of the process through joint fact finding and to incorporate public concern to achieve more effective restoration planning. Lessons learned from public participation in the T/B North Cape case are expected to set a pattern for future damage assessment cases. 4 refs

  16. Assessment of combustion and related issues in the DWPF and ITP waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a review of the safety analyses described in the DWPF Safety Analysis Report, the combustion analysis of the ITP Tanks 48 and 49, and presents conclusions drawn from interviews staff on issues related to accident analysis, in particular on issues related to combustion phenomena. The major objectives of this report are to clarify the issues related to the modes of combustion and expected loads on process vessels and structures and, in addition, to offer recommendations which would improve the defense-in-depth posture of the DWPF

  17. Assessment of Materials Issues for Light-Water Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandusky, David; Lunceford, Wayne; Bruemmer, Stephen M.; Catalan, Michael A.

    2013-02-01

    The primary objective of this report is to evaluate materials degradation issue unique to the operational environments of LWSMR. Concerns for specific primary system components and materials are identified based on the review of design information shared by mPower and NuScale. Direct comparisons are made to materials issues recognized for advanced large PWRs and research activities are recommended as needed. The issues identified are intended to improve the capability of industry to evaluate the significance of any degradation that might occur during long-term LWSMR operation and by extension affect the importance of future supporting R&D.

  18. Web-MCQ: a set of methods and freely available open source code for administering online multiple choice question assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, Claire

    2007-08-01

    E-learning approaches have received increasing attention in recent years. Accordingly, a number of tools have become available to assist the nonexpert computer user in constructing and managing virtual learning environments, and implementing computer-based and/or online procedures to support pedagogy. Both commercial and free packages are now available, with new developments emerging periodically. Commercial products have the advantage of being comprehensive and reliable, but tend to require substantial financial investment and are not always transparent to use. They may also restrict pedagogical choices due to their predetermined ranges of functionality. With these issues in mind, several authors have argued for the pedagogical benefits of developing freely available, open source e-learning resources, which can be shared and further developed within a community of educational practitioners. The present paper supports this objective by presenting a set of methods, along with supporting freely available, downloadable, open source programming code, to allow administration of online multiple choice question assessments to students. PMID:17958158

  19. Performance assessment and licensing issues for United States commercial near-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The final objective of performance assessment for a near-surface LLW disposal facility is to demonstrate that potential radiological impacts for each of the human exposure pathways will not violate applicable standards. This involves determining potential pathways and specific receptor locations for human exposure to radionuclides; developing appropriate scenarios for each of the institutional phases of a disposal facility; and maintaining quality assurance and control of all data, computer codes, and documentation. The results of a performance assessment should be used to demonstrate that the expected impacts are expected to be less than the applicable standards. The results should not be used to try to predict the actual impact. This is an important distinction that results from the uncertainties inherent in performance assessment calculations. The paper discusses performance objectives; performance assessment phases; scenario selection; mathematical modeling and computer programs; final results of performance assessments submitted for license application; institutional control period; licensing issues; and related research and development activities

  20. Special Issue on Using Econometrics for Assessing Economic Models: An Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Jusélius, Katarina

    2009-01-01

    Two methodological approaches to empirical economics which are labelled 'theory first' versus 'reality first' are introduced building the background for the discussion of the individual contributions to this special issue.

  1. Globalization, Openness and Economic Nationalism: Analytical and Conceptual Issues A Foreword to Globalization and Economic Nationalism in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Ajit

    2011-01-01

    This book to which the present paper provides a foreword, investigates the interactions between globalization and economic nationalism in Asian countries. In this foreword, for South Asian countries the question of economic nationalism is considered through the lens of economic openness. Full globalisation, which connotes close or total integration of countries’ economies with that of the world economy, is the antonym of economic nationalism. The paper argues that economic openness is a multi...

  2. Assessing Sustainability of Logging Practices in the Congo Basin's Managed Forests: the Issue of Commercial Species Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Gourlet-Fleury

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, sustained yield (SY has been viewed as a pillar of sustainable forest management (SFM, but this has been increasingly questioned. Ensuring SY of some species, i.e., a "strong sustainability" paradigm, could be an inadequate criterion if consideration of the social and economic components of the SFM concept are desired. SFM was translated into the ATO/ITTO set of principles, criteria, and indicators (PCI for forest management in the Congo Basin; it resulted in the necessity for a certified logging company to ensure that no significant change in structure and floristic composition would result from logging operations. Besides raising the question of where to place the change threshold, we argue that sustainability must be considered from three indissociable viewpoints: ecological, social, and economic. The issue is how to balance these criteria, knowing that this assessment will involve potential conflicts of representations and beliefs. To discuss these questions, we used the example of two heavily logged timber species in the Congo Basin, sapelli (Entandrophragma cylindricum and ayous (Triplochiton scleroxylon. Using long-term data collected from permanent sample plots in M'Baïki, Central African Republic, we calibrated a matrix model and performed short- and long-term simulations to examine (1 the potential effect of repeated logging of the species under the current national regulation system and (2 the rules that should be set to reach long-term SY. Ensuring long-term SY would require a 22% and 53% decrease in the felling intensity of E. cylindricum and T. scleroxylon, respectively, at first cut, together with an increase in overall logging intensity targeted toward less-used species. Light-demanding E. cylindricum and T. scleroxylon require open forests to regenerate and grow. This new set of rules is probably economically unsustainable for the current African forest industry, and will not meet the ecological requirements

  3. Key issues and options in accounting for carbon sequestration and temporary storage in life cycle assessment and carbon footprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandao, Miguel; Levasseur, Annie; Kirschbaum, Miko U. F.;

    2013-01-01

    footprinting (CF) are increasingly popular tools for the environmental assessment of products, that take into account their entire life cycle. There have been significant efforts to develop robust methods to account for the benefits, if any, of sequestration and temporary storage and release of biogenic carbon...... and CF. Several viewpoints and approaches are presented in a structured manner to help decision-makers in their selection of an option from competing approaches for dealing with timing issues, including delayed emissions of fossil carbon. Results: Key issues identified are that the benefits of...

  4. Multi-disciplinary preliminary design assessments of pusher counter-rotating open rotors for civil aviation

    OpenAIRE

    Bellocq, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    As a consequence of fuel cost escalation and increased stringent engine emission regulations, interest in counter-rotating open rotor engines (CRORs) has been renewed. R&D efforts are currently ongoing to develop the technologies required to ensure the appropriate levels of structural integrity, noise, vibrations and reliability. The assessment of the impact of the main low pressure preliminary design and control parameters of CRORs on mission fuel burn, certification noise and...

  5. The OPAL Project: Open source Procedure for Assessment of Loss using Global Earthquake Modelling software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, James

    2010-05-01

    This paper provides a comparison between Earthquake Loss Estimation (ELE) software packages and their application using an "Open Source Procedure for Assessment of Loss using Global Earthquake Modelling software" (OPAL). The OPAL procedure has been developed to provide a framework for optimisation of a Global Earthquake Modelling process through: 1) Overview of current and new components of earthquake loss assessment (vulnerability, hazard, exposure, specific cost and technology); 2) Preliminary research, acquisition and familiarisation with all available ELE software packages; 3) Assessment of these 30+ software packages in order to identify the advantages and disadvantages of the ELE methods used; and 4) Loss analysis for a deterministic earthquake (Mw7.2) for the Zeytinburnu district, Istanbul, Turkey, by applying 3 software packages (2 new and 1 existing): a modified displacement-based method based on DBELA (Displacement Based Earthquake Loss Assessment), a capacity spectrum based method HAZUS (HAZards United States) and the Norwegian HAZUS-based SELENA (SEismic Loss EstimatioN using a logic tree Approach) software which was adapted for use in order to compare the different processes needed for the production of damage, economic and social loss estimates. The modified DBELA procedure was found to be more computationally expensive, yet had less variability, indicating the need for multi-tier approaches to global earthquake loss estimation. Similar systems planning and ELE software produced through the OPAL procedure can be applied to worldwide applications, given exposure data. Keywords: OPAL, displacement-based, DBELA, earthquake loss estimation, earthquake loss assessment, open source, HAZUS

  6. Open source database of images DEIMOS: extension for large-scale subjective image quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vítek, Stanislav

    2014-09-01

    DEIMOS (Database of Images: Open Source) is an open-source database of images and video sequences for testing, verification and comparison of various image and/or video processing techniques such as compression, reconstruction and enhancement. This paper deals with extension of the database allowing performing large-scale web-based subjective image quality assessment. Extension implements both administrative and client interface. The proposed system is aimed mainly at mobile communication devices, taking into account advantages of HTML5 technology; it means that participants don't need to install any application and assessment could be performed using web browser. The assessment campaign administrator can select images from the large database and then apply rules defined by various test procedure recommendations. The standard test procedures may be fully customized and saved as a template. Alternatively the administrator can define a custom test, using images from the pool and other components, such as evaluating forms and ongoing questionnaires. Image sequence is delivered to the online client, e.g. smartphone or tablet, as a fully automated assessment sequence or viewer can decide on timing of the assessment if required. Environmental data and viewing conditions (e.g. illumination, vibrations, GPS coordinates, etc.), may be collected and subsequently analyzed.

  7. Assessing open-system behavior of 14C in terrestrial gastropod shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rech, J.A.; Pigati, J.S.; Lehmann, S.B.; McGimpsey, C.N.; Grimley, D.A.; Nekola, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    In order to assess open-system behavior of radiocarbon in fossil gastropod shells, we measured the 14C activity on 10 aliquots of shell material recovered from Illinoian (~190-130 ka) and pre-Illinoian (~800 ka) loess and lacustrine deposits in the Midwestern USA. Eight of the 10 aliquots yielded measurable 14C activities that ranged from 0.25 to 0.53 percent modern carbon (pMC), corresponding to apparent 14C ages between 48.2 and 42.1 ka. This small level of open-system behavior is common in many materials that are used for 14C dating (e.g. charcoal), and typically sets the upper practical limit of the technique. Two aliquots of gastropod shells from the Illinoian-aged Petersburg Silt (Petersburg Section) in central Illinois, USA, however, yielded elevated 14C activities of 1.26 and 1.71 pMC, which correspond to apparent 14C ages of 35.1 and 32.7 ka. Together, these results suggest that while many fossil gastropods shells may not suffer from major (>1%) open-system problems, this is not always the case. We then examined the mineralogy, trace element chemistry, and physical characteristics of a suite of fossil and modern gastropod shells to identify the source of contamination in the Petersburg shells and assess the effectiveness of these screening techniques at identifying samples suitable for 14C dating. Mineralogical (XRD) and trace element analyses were inconclusive, which suggests that these techniques are not suitable for assessing open-system behavior in terrestrial gastropod shells. Analysis with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), however, identified secondary mineralization (calcium carbonate) primarily within the inner whorls of the Petersburg shells. This indicates that SEM examination, or possibly standard microscope examination, of the interior of gastropod shells should be used when selecting fossil gastropod shells for 14C dating. ?? 2011 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona.

  8. Key issues for the assessment of the allergenic potential of genetically modified foods: breakout group reports.

    OpenAIRE

    Germolec, Dori R.; Kimber, Ian; Goldman, Lynn; Selgrade, Maryjane

    2003-01-01

    On the final afternoon of the workshop "Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods," held 10-12 December 2001 in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA, speakers and participants met in breakout groups to discuss specific questions in the areas of use of human clinical data, animal models to assess food allergy, biomarkers of exposure and effect, sensitive populations, dose-response assessment, and postmarket surveillance. Each group addressed general questions regarding a...

  9. Global review of open access risk assessment software packages valid for global or continental scale analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, James; Simpson, Alanna; Gunasekara, Rashmin; Baca, Abigail; Schaefer, Andreas; Ishizawa, Oscar; Murnane, Rick; Tijssen, Annegien; Deparday, Vivien; Forni, Marc; Himmelfarb, Anne; Leder, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Over the past few decades, a plethora of open access software packages for the calculation of earthquake, volcanic, tsunami, storm surge, wind and flood have been produced globally. As part of the World Bank GFDRR Review released at the Understanding Risk 2014 Conference, over 80 such open access risk assessment software packages were examined. Commercial software was not considered in the evaluation. A preliminary analysis was used to determine whether the 80 models were currently supported and if they were open access. This process was used to select a subset of 31 models that include 8 earthquake models, 4 cyclone models, 11 flood models, and 8 storm surge/tsunami models for more detailed analysis. By using multi-criteria analysis (MCDA) and simple descriptions of the software uses, the review allows users to select a few relevant software packages for their own testing and development. The detailed analysis evaluated the models on the basis of over 100 criteria and provides a synopsis of available open access natural hazard risk modelling tools. In addition, volcano software packages have since been added making the compendium of risk software tools in excess of 100. There has been a huge increase in the quality and availability of open access/source software over the past few years. For example, private entities such as Deltares now have an open source policy regarding some flood models (NGHS). In addition, leaders in developing risk models in the public sector, such as Geoscience Australia (EQRM, TCRM, TsuDAT, AnuGA) or CAPRA (ERN-Flood, Hurricane, CRISIS2007 etc.), are launching and/or helping many other initiatives. As we achieve greater interoperability between modelling tools, we will also achieve a future wherein different open source and open access modelling tools will be increasingly connected and adapted towards unified multi-risk model platforms and highly customised solutions. It was seen that many software tools could be improved by enabling user

  10. An assessment of the current and potential future natural and anthropogenic issues facing migratory shorebirds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutherland, W.J.; Alves, J.A.; Chang, C.H.; Davidson, D.C.; Finlayson, C.M.; Gill, J.A.; Gill, R.E.; González, P.M.; Gunnarsson, T.G.; Kleijn, D.; Spray, C.J.; Szekely, T.; Thompson, D.B.A.

    2012-01-01

    We review the conservation issues facing migratory shorebird populations that breed in temperate regions and use wetlands in the non-breeding season. Shorebirds are excellent model organisms for understanding ecological, behavioural and evolutionary processes and are often used as indicators of wetl

  11. Understanding What Counts: Issues of Language, Culture, and Power in Mathematics Instruction and Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahnmann, Melisa S.; Hornberger, Nancy H.

    2000-01-01

    Examines mathematics instruction and its relationship to issues of language, culture, and power in a low-income urban elementary school with large numbers of bilingual students. Results of discussions of student work during a summer training institute for university researchers, teachers, and administrators provide suggestions for approaching…

  12. Assessing Power Issues in Canadian and Jamaican Women's Experiences in Learning via Distance in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouthro, Patricia A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines a qualitative research study which examines the experiences of ten Jamaican and Canadian women engaged in learning via distance in a graduate adult education program. Using a critical feminist perspective, three power issues emerged as topics for discussion that are important for distance educators in higher education to take…

  13. Learning about Complex Multi-Stakeholder Issues: Assessing the Visual Problem Appraisal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, L.M.; Put, M.; Leeuwis, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the visual problem appraisal (VPA) learning environment in higher education. The VPA has been designed for the training of competences that are required in complex stakeholder settings in relation to sustainability issues. The design of VPA incorporates a diversi

  14. Learning about Complex Multi-Stakeholder Issues: Assessing the Visual Problem Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witteveen, Loes; Put, Marcel; Leeuwis, Cees

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the visual problem appraisal (VPA) learning environment in higher education. The VPA has been designed for the training of competences that are required in complex stakeholder settings in relation to sustainability issues. The design of VPA incorporates a diversity of instruction strategies to accommodate the…

  15. Assessment challenges in open learning: Way-finding, fork in the road, or end of the line?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Conrad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing global commitments to open learning through the use of Open Educational Resources (OERs are accompanied by concerns over what “to do” with that learning when learners present it to traditional institutions for assessment and accreditation. This paper proposes that established RPL (recognizing prior learningprotocols, in place at many institutions worldwide, can offer a pedagogically sound framework that supports the spirit of open learning and respects the diversity of learners’ efforts.

  16. KEY ISSUES FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF THE ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: BREAKOUT GROUP REPORTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractOn the final afternoon of the Workshop, Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods, speakers and participants met in breakout groups to discuss specific questions in the areas of 1) Use of Human Clinical Data; 2) Animal Models to Assess Food ...

  17. An Analysis of Accommodations Issues from the Standards and Assessments Peer Review. Technical Report 51

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurlow, Martha; Christensen, Laurene; Lail, Kathryn E.

    2008-01-01

    To meet the assessment requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), states must ensure the inclusion of students with disabilities, as well as provide for the appropriate use of assessment accommodations. Accommodations have been defined in a number of ways. In the Council of Chief…

  18. The Fidelity of Formative Assessment Implementation: Issues of Breadth and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, E. Caroline; Lyon, Christine J.

    2015-01-01

    The paper examines the breadth and quality of formative assessment implementation of 202 mathematics and science teachers who participated in a two-year, school-based professional development programme that focused on formative assessment. Results are triangulated using three sources of data: baseline and end-of-Year 2 data from an annual survey,…

  19. Cognitive Readiness Assessment and Reporting: An Open Source Mobile Framework for Operational Decision Support and Performance Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heric, Matthew; Carter, Jenn

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive readiness (CR) and performance for operational time-critical environments are continuing points of focus for military and academic communities. In response to this need, we designed an open source interactive CR assessment application as a highly adaptive and efficient open source testing administration and analysis tool. It is capable…

  20. A review of quality of life in Alzheimer's disease. Part 2: Issues in assessing drug effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salek, S S; Walker, M D; Bayer, A J

    1998-12-01

    There are numerous methods available for assessing patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or other forms of dementia. Quality-of-life (QOL) assessment is unique among these methods. The subjective nature of quality of life provides healthcare professionals with the opportunity of incorporating the value systems of patients and their carers into their assessments. A systematic review was carried out to assess the published data (and some unpublished data) on QOL assessment tools and instruments that claim to measure quality of life in dementia. A number of measures or methods used in the literature for assessing the quality of life of patients with dementing illnesses were identified. It was decided to present the resultant review in 2 parts that correspond to the 2 main groups into which the instruments were categorised. The first (part 1), looked at measures used to assess the impact of disease as well as instruments at a developmental or testing stage. The second (part 2), includes instruments that claim to measure quality of life in studies documenting the impact of a drug in this therapeutic area. This second group consists mainly of instruments identified as being used to assess quality of life during clinical trials in dementia/AD. As in part 1, this part of the review was unable to identify any validated methods of assessing the quality of life of both patients with dementia and their carers at the same time. The ideal instrument must show that it can reliably, reproducibly and comprehensively assess quality of life for both patients with dementia and their carers. It should also demonstrate that it can measure quality of life effectively using a practical administration technique that does not place any unnecessary burden on either informal carers, other healthcare workers involved or the patient themselves. In addition, any measure intended for use in assessing the impact of drug treatment on quality of life must demonstrate sensitivity to change, also

  1. NON-PROLIFERATION IMPACT ASSESSMENT FOR GNEP: ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH TRANSPORTATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radel, Ross; Rochau, Gary E.

    2008-03-01

    This report evaluates transportation issues for nuclear material in the proposed Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) fuel cycle. Since many details of the GNEP program are yet to be determined, this document is intended only to identify general issues. The existing regulatory environment is determined to be largely prepared to incorporate the changes that the GNEP program will introduce. Nuclear material vulnerability and attractiveness are considered with respect to the various transport stages within the GNEP fuel cycle. Physical protection options are then outlined for the transportation of this nuclear material. It is determined that increased transportation security will be required for the GNEP fuel cycle, particularly for international transport. Finally, transportation considerations for several fuel cycle scenarios are discussed. These scenarios compare the current %22once-through%22 fuel cycle with various aspects of the proposed GNEP fuel cycle. 3

  2. An Empirical Assessment of Endogeneity Issues in Demand Analysis for Differentiated Products

    OpenAIRE

    Dhar, Tirtha Pratim; Chavas, Jean-Paul; Gould, Brian W.

    2002-01-01

    This article explores the issue of price and expenditure endogeneity in empirical demand analysis. The analysis focuses on the US carbonated soft drink market. We test the null hypothesis that price and expenditures are exogenous in the demand for carbonated soft drinks. Using an Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) specification, we strongly reject exogeneity for both prices and expenditures. We find that accounting for price/expenditures endogeneity significantly impacts demand elasticity esti...

  3. Using the Internet to Recruit Rural MSM for HIV Risk Assessment: Sampling Issues

    OpenAIRE

    BOWEN, ANNE; Williams, Mark,; Horvath, Keith

    2004-01-01

    The Internet is an emerging research tool that may be useful for contacting and working with rural men who have sex with men (MSM). Little is known about HIV risks for rural men and Internet methodological issues are only beginning to be examined. Internet versus conventionally recruited samples have shown both similarities and differences in their demographic characteristics. In this study, rural MSM from three sizes of town were recruited by two methods: conventional (e.g. face-to-face/snow...

  4. Level of analysis issues in assessing treatment beliefs in substance abuse clinics

    OpenAIRE

    & Jacqueline K. Mitchelson; Marcus W. Dickson; Cynthia L. Arfken; Agius, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The current study applies the growing literature in the organizational sciences regarding levels of analysis issues to the analysis of substance abuse treatment beliefs. Research on clinicians' beliefs in substance abuse treatment is often based on the assumption that the beliefs are sufficiently shared by clinicians within a clinic and sufficiently vary across clinics that they can be treated as a group-level phenomenon. Further, efforts to introduce new innovations are often focused at the ...

  5. APPLICATION OF LOT QUALITY ASSURANCE SAMPLING FOR ASSESSING DISEASE CONTROL PROGRAMMES - EXAMINATION OF SOME METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES

    OpenAIRE

    T. R. RAMESH RAO

    2011-01-01

    Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS), a statistical tool in industrial setup, has been in use since 1980 for monitoring and evaluation of programs on disease control / immunization status among children / health workers performance in health system. While conducting LQAS in the field, there are occasions, even after due care of design, there are practical and methodological issues to be addressed before it is recommended for implementation and intervention. LQAS is applied under the assumpti...

  6. Economic Issues in the Use of Office Spirometry for Lung Health Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Murray Krahn; Chapman, Kenneth R.

    2003-01-01

    The National Lung Health Education Program (United States) has recently recommended using office spirometry to screen for subclinical lung disease in adult smokers. No published studies evaluate the economic consequences of this recommendation. This review article outlines the issues that must be considered when evaluating the costs and health benefits of office spirometry. Much of the available data on the effectiveness of screening is from studies that included smoking cessation interventio...

  7. Natural gas for power generation : issues and implications : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presented a historical examination of trends in natural gas-fired generation as well as a perspective on the issues and potential implications of increasing reliance on natural gas. Potential changes to Canadian energy consumers were reviewed in addition to natural gas infrastructure and services. Electricity prices relating to natural gas generation were examined. A broad regional and continental perspective was employed to account for energy market integration and the fact that gas trends reflect developments outside of Canada. The report was divided into 2 sections: (1) an examination of the trend toward natural-gas fired generation of electricity in North America; and (2) an examination of issues in closer detail from a regional perspective followed by a discussion of the changes in generation and natural gas markets in western, eastern, and central North America. Questions arising from the analysis of specific regional supply, demand and infrastructure situations were also examined. Recommendations were presented for issues concerning the current gas market and the appropriate role of the government in ensuring adequate generation. Uncertainties in future natural gas supply were also considered. It was concluded that rapid industrial growth will continue to increase demand for natural gas and electricity supply. 5 figs

  8. No psychiatry? Assessment of family medicine residents' training in mental health issues.

    OpenAIRE

    Bethune, C; Worrall, G.; Freake, D; Church, E.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the mental health component of the family medicine residency program at Memorial University of Newfoundland, which contains no formal mental health training with psychiatrists, adequately prepares residents for practice, and to assess which aspects of their training enhanced their mental health skills most. DESIGN: Cross-sectional mailed survey. SETTING: A 2-year family practice residency program with a focus on training for rural practice offering integrated and ...

  9. Technical basis for the ITER-FEAT outline design. Progress in resolving open design issues from the outline design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this publication the technical basis for the ITER-FEAT outline design is presented. It comprises the Plant Design Specifications, the Safety Principles and Environmental Criteria, the Site Requirements and Site Design Assumptions. The outline of the key features of the ITER-FEAT design includes main physical parameters and assessment, design overview and preliminary safety assessment, cost and schedule

  10. Quantitative flood risk assessment in historic cities: sensitivity to hydraulic modeling and open socio-economic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, Chiara; Castelli, Fabio; Brugioni, Marcello; Franceschini, Serena; Mazzanti, Bernardo

    2014-05-01

    The assessment of flood risk in urban areas is considered nowadays a crucial issue to be addressed by technicians and public authorities and requires the estimation of hazard, vulnerability and exposure. Each step of the risk assessment brings its uncertainties to the final result, thus the analysis of the sensitivity to the different contributors is required. Since the damages are generally evaluated through stage-damage functions one of the most important contribution is the estimated value of the water depth. Water depth is the outcome of hydraulic models that can be implemented with different modeling approaches and levels of spatial detail, thus providing flood depth maps that may differ in the extension of the inundated area and in the flood depth value. It is generally argued that 2D models are the most suitable to describe flood behavior in the urban environment although most of applications are carried out in small and sparse urban areas. In the historic cities a 2D model provides reliable results if the grid size is small enough to describe the street/building pattern, implying long simulation runs. Another contribution is given by monetary values assigned to the damage categories that may come from different proxy variables and may oscillate according to the real estate quotations. The risk assessment here presented is made possible thanks to a methodology based on the open data, both socio-economic and territorial, that are available in the web. In this work the risk assessment procedure and the sensitivity analysis are applied to the main cities located along the Arno river, Pisa and Florence (Italy) that are usually considered of broad interest for the importance of urban and cultural heritage. The risk is estimated accounting for structures, household contents, commercial and tertiary sectors which are the most representative of the studied areas. The evaluation and mapping of micro-scale flood risk is carried out in a GIS environment using open data

  11. Issues and challenges in the assessment, diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors: Assessing the needs of cardiologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dupuis Martin

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This needs assessment, initiated by the Academy for Healthcare Education Inc. in cooperation with AXDEV Group Inc., explored the knowledge, attitudes, behavior, and skills of community-based and academic-affiliated U.S. cardiologists in the area of CV risk assessment, treatment, and management from July 2006 to December 2006. Methods The needs assessment used a multistage, mixed-method approach to collect, analyze, and verify data from two independent sources. The exploratory phase collected data from a representative sampling of U.S. cardiologists by means of qualitative panel meetings, one-on-one interviews, and quantitative questionnaires. In the validation phase, 150 cardiologists from across the United States completed a quantitative online questionnaire. Data were analyzed with standardized statistical methods. Results The needs assessment found that cardiologists have areas of weakness pertaining to their interpersonal skills, which may influence patient-physician communication and patient adherence. Cardiologists appeared to have little familiarity with or lend little credence to the concept of relative CV risk. In daily clinical practice, they faced challenges with regard to optimal patient outcome in areas of patient referral from primary-care providers, CV risk assessment and treatment, and patient monitoring. Community-based and academic-affiliated cardiologists appeared to be only moderately interested in educational interventions that pertain to CV risk-reduction strategies. Conclusion Educational interventions that target cardiologists' interpersonal skills to enhance their efficacy may benefit community-based and academic-affiliated specialists. Other desirable educational initiatives should address gaps in the patient referral process, improve patient knowledge and understanding of their disease, and provide supportive educational tools and materials to enhance patient-physician communication.

  12. Opening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The views of the Norwegian Government on oil and gas issues are presented. Today Norwegian deliveries of natural gas account for a substantial and growing part of the supplies of gas to Europe. The Government has always tried to implement rules and regulations, which encourage the efficient exploitation of the petroleum resources. The two pillars of the gas marketing system are negotiation of non-field specific gas supply contracts and government allocation of these contracts to individual fields. The Gas Supply Committee is established to make recommendations on allocation issues. Many gas fields on the Continental Shelf have large portions of oil and condensate attached to the gas production. These fields can be produced more efficiently. In Norway, natural gas is gradually becoming a more important part of the Norwegian petroleum activities, and the potential gas resources are expected to be of the same order as the expected potential oil resources. In the present situation, injection gas is needed to optimize the oil production and this imposes constraints on new exports of natural gas. The overall goals of the petroleum industry were reported to the parliament in 1998. In 1999 a supplementary report was presented that covers (1) The oil market and Norwegian policy, (2) The competitiveness of the Norwegian Shelf, (3) The Investment Panel's report which analyzes cost overruns for recent petroleum development projects, and (4) A specific report on cost increases in the Aasgard project. These items are discussed in some detail

  13. Designing Conservation Corridors in Production Landscapes: Assessment Methods, Implementation Issues, and Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H.J. Vlok

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Designing broad-scale conservation corridors has become increasingly common as a way of conducting an assessment for achieving targets for the representation and persistence of nature. However, since many of these corridors must traverse agricultural and other production landscapes, planning and implementation are not trivial tasks. Most approaches to conservation assessments in the dynamic world of production landscapes are data-intensive and analytically complex. However, in the real world, donor and other external requirements impose time and budget constraints, and dictate strong stakeholder involvement in the entire planning process. In order to accommodate this, assessments must be rapid, cheap, and the approach and products must be comprehensible and acceptable to stakeholders. Here we describe such an assessment aimed at identifying and implementing a network of conservation corridors in the Gouritz Initiative project domain of South Africa's Cape Floristic Region hotspot. We used empirical data and expert knowledge to identify a corridor network hypothesized to sustain key ecological and evolutionary processes. We also consulted experts to provide a spatially explicit assessment of the opportunity costs of conservation associated with agriculture, the predominant land use in the region. We used these products to identify categories of land requiring different actions and instruments to achieve conservation goals, thereby moving from the "where" to the "how" of conservation. This information was then fed into the collaborative strategy development process for the Gouritz Initiative. Our discussion emphasizes the lessons that we learnt from undertaking this assessment, particularly lessons regarding the implementation of the planning products. We conclude that at the outset of any planning project, a consensus on the vision must be achieved, a detailed social assessment of appropriate institutions must be undertaken, and a learning

  14. US National Climate Assessment (NCA) Scenarios for Assessing Our Climate Future: Issues and Methodological Perspectives Background Whitepaper for Participants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Richard H.; Engle, Nathan L.; Hall, John; Jacobs, Kathy; Lempert, Rob; Mearns, L. O.; Melillo, Jerry; Mote, Phil; O' Brien, Sheila; Rosenzweig, C.; Ruane, Alex; Sheppard, Stephen; Vallario, Robert W.; Wiek, Arnim; Wilbanks, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    This whitepaper is intended to provide a starting point for discussion at a workshop for the National Climate Assessment (NCA) that focuses on the use and development of scenarios. The paper will provide background needed by participants in the workshop in order to review options for developing and using scenarios in NCA. The paper briefly defines key terms and establishes a conceptual framework for developing consistent scenarios across different end uses and spatial scales. It reviews uses of scenarios in past U.S. national assessments and identifies potential users of and needs for scenarios for both the report scheduled for release in June 2013 and to support an ongoing distributed assessment process in sectors and regions around the country. Because scenarios prepared for the NCA will need to leverage existing research, the paper takes account of recent scientific advances and activities that could provide needed inputs. Finally, it considers potential approaches for providing methods, data, and other tools for assessment participants. We note that the term 'scenarios' has many meanings. An important goal of the whitepaper (and portions of the workshop agenda) is pedagogical (i.e., to compare different meanings and uses of the term and make assessment participants aware of the need to be explicit about types and uses of scenarios). In climate change research, scenarios have been used to establish bounds for future climate conditions and resulting effects on human and natural systems, given a defined level of greenhouse gas emissions. This quasi-predictive use contrasts with the way decision analysts typically use scenarios (i.e., to consider how robust alternative decisions or strategies may be to variation in key aspects of the future that are uncertain). As will be discussed, in climate change research and assessment, scenarios describe a range of aspects of the future, including major driving forces (both human activities and natural processes

  15. Climate and climate-related issues for the safety assessment SR-Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to document current scientific knowledge on climate and climate-related conditions, relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository, to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment SR-Site. The report also presents a number of dedicated studies on climate and selected climate-related processes of relevance for the assessment of long term repository safety. Based on this information, the report presents a number of possible future climate developments for Forsmark, the site selected for building a repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden (Figure 1-1). The presented climate developments are used as basis for the selection and analysis of SR-Site safety assessment scenarios in the SR-Site main report /SKB 2011/. The present report is based on research conducted and published by SKB as well as on research reported in the general scientific literature

  16. Frameworks for Hospital-Based Health Technology Assessment to Resolve Financial Issues in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwon Yang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim was to design frameworks and develop a detailed process regarding Hospital-Based Health Technology Assessment (HB-HTA in South Korea. Methods: We conducted a literature review and interviewed in writing or in person experts to assess the need for and existing types of HB-HTA. Results: HB-HTA in advanced countries can be classified into four types according to the condition of hospitals and type of assessment. Further, the expert interviews revealed the necessity of HB-HTA for the efficient introduction of new health technologies and financial cost reduction in hospitals. Finally, three ideal HB-HTA models for use in South Korea were suggested as part of the identified framework: an education and dissemination model, a governmenthospital joint research model, and a self-research model. Conclusions: The suggested three models will contribute to the provision of safe, effective, and cost-effective health technologies and efficient resources allocation in hospitals.

  17. Climate and climate-related issues for the safety assessment SR-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this report is to document current scientific knowledge on climate and climate-related conditions, relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository, to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment SR-Site. The report also presents a number of dedicated studies on climate and selected climate-related processes of relevance for the assessment of long term repository safety. Based on this information, the report presents a number of possible future climate developments for Forsmark, the site selected for building a repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden (Figure 1-1). The presented climate developments are used as basis for the selection and analysis of SR-Site safety assessment scenarios in the SR-Site main report /SKB 2011/. The present report is based on research conducted and published by SKB as well as on research reported in the general scientific literature

  18. Use of Monte Carlo methods in environmental risk assessments at the INEL: Applications and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EPA is increasingly considering the use of probabilistic risk assessment techniques as an alternative or refinement of the current point estimate of risk. This report provides an overview of the probabilistic technique called Monte Carlo Analysis. Advantages and disadvantages of implementing a Monte Carlo analysis over a point estimate analysis for environmental risk assessment are discussed. The general methodology is provided along with an example of its implementation. A phased approach to risk analysis that allows iterative refinement of the risk estimates is recommended for use at the INEL

  19. Distance education course on spatial multi-hazard risk assessment, using Open Source software

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Westen, C. J.; Frigerio, S.

    2009-04-01

    As part of the capacity building activities of the United Nations University - ITC School on Disaster Geo-Information Management (UNU-ITC DGIM) the International Institute for Geoinformation Science and Earth Observation (ITC) has developed a distance education course on the application of Geographic Information Systems for multi-hazard risk assessment. This course is designed for academic staff, as well as for professionals working in (non-) governmental organizations where knowledge of disaster risk management is essential. The course guides the participants through the entire process of risk assessment, on the basis of a case study of a city exposed to multiple hazards, in a developing country. The courses consists of eight modules, each with a guide book explaining the theoretical background, and guiding the participants through spatial data requirements for risk assessment, hazard assessment procedures, generation of elements at risk databases, vulnerability assessment, qualitative and quantitative risk assessment methods, risk evaluation and risk reduction. Linked to the theory is a large set of exercises, with exercise descriptions, answer sheets, demos and GIS data. The exercises deal with four different types of hazards: earthquakes, flooding, technological hazards, and landslides. One important consideration in designing the course is that people from developing countries should not be restricted in using it due to financial burdens for software acquisition. Therefore the aim was to use Open Source software as a basis. The GIS exercises are written for the ILWIS software. All exercises have also been integrated into a WebGIS, using the Open source software CartoWeb (based on GNU License). It is modular and customizable thanks to its object-oriented architecture and based on a hierarchical structure (to manage and organize every package of information of every step required in risk assessment). Different switches for every component of the risk assessment

  20. Special issue on eHealth and mHealth: Challenges and future directions for assessment, treatment, and dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Belinda; Ritterband, Lee M

    2015-12-01

    This special issue is intended to promote a discussion of eHealth and mHealth and its connection with health psychology. "eHealth" generally refers to the use of information technology, including the Internet, digital gaming, virtual reality, and robotics, in the promotion, prevention, treatment, and maintenance of health. "mHealth" refers to mobile and wireless applications, including text messaging, apps, wearable devices, remote sensing, and the use of social media such as Facebook and Twitter, in the delivery of health related services. This special issue includes 11 articles that begin to address the need for more rigorous methodology, valid assessment, innovative interventions, and increased access to evidence-based programs and interventions. PMID:26651461

  1. ASSESSMENT OF ISSUES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR SUSTAINABLE SOCIAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN ALBANIAN PART OF PRESPA PARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doriana Grazhdani

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The Albanian part of Prespa Lakes Basin includes part of Macro Prespa and Micro Prespa Lakes, and the surrounding forested mountainous slopes, covering a total area of 27750 ha. Despite the contribution of a range of services to human wellbeing, these ecosystems are facing numerous challenges, stemming for the existing practices in many areas that directly or indirectly affect the lakes. An important dilemma encountered in the present situation is the need to sustain growth while preventing damage to environment through the degradation of natural resource. Current resource management practices including water and land-use planning, agriculture, forestry, fisheries and tourism are failing to maintain and restore the health of ecosystems within the Albanian Prespa Lakes area. This paper is focused on issues and opportunities arising from linkages between social economic development and environment. First a summary information on trends and constrains of social economic indicators are provided. Then, associations of environmental issues with social economic activities are analyzed using SWOT analysis method. Finally, some remedies and possible ways for sustainable development are presented in the present paper.

  2. Primary Payer at DX: Issues with Collection and Assessment of Data Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Recinda L; Williamson, Laura; Andrews, Patricia; Kahn, Amy

    2016-01-01

    An individual's access to health insurance influences the amount and type of health services a patient receives for prevention and treatment, and, ultimately, influences survival. The North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR) Item #630, Primary Payer at DX, is a required field intended to document health insurance status for the purpose of supporting patterns-of-care studies and other research. However, challenges related to the uniformity of collection and availability of data needed to populate this field diminish the value of the Primary Payer at DX data. A NAACCR taskforce worked on issues surrounding the collection of Primary Payer at DX; including proposing a crosswalk between Primary Payer at DX and the new Public Health Payment Typology standard, often available in hospital discharge databases. However, there are issues with compatibility between coding systems, intent of data collection, timelines for coding insurance, and changes in insurance coverage (partly due to the Affordable Care Act) that continue to complicate the collection and use of Primary Payer at DX data. PMID:27556850

  3. Severe accident issue resolution -- definition and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this discussion is to introduce the session on the Progress on the Resolution of Severe Accident Issues. There has been much work in the area of resolution of severe accident issues over the past few years. This work has been focused on those issues most important to risk as assessed by comprehensive studies such as NUREG-1150. In particular, issues associated with early containment failure have been analyzed. These efforts to resolve issues have been hampered by the fact that open-quotes issue resolutionclose quotes has not always been well defined. The term open-quotes issue resolutionclose quotes conjures tip different images for the regulator, the accident analyst, the physicist, and the probabalist. In fact it is common to have as many different images of issue resolution as there are people in the room. This issue is complicated by the fact that the uncertainty in severe accident issues is enormous. (When convolved, the quantitative uncertainty in an integrated analysis due to severe accident issues can span several orders of magnitude.) In this summary, hierarchy is presented in an attempt to add some perspective to the resolution of issues in the face of large uncertainties. Recommendations are also made for analysts communicating in the area of issue resolution

  4. An Assessment of Experiential Learning of Global Poverty Issues through International Service Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Quan V.; Raven, Peter V.

    2015-01-01

    Service learning has been used to supplement a standard business curriculum, but not typically in an international business context. We report the results of two short-term study abroad programs in which we incorporated service learning projects, one in Cambodia and the other in Vietnam. Our objective is to assess how we organized and delivered…

  5. Five Big, Big Five Issues : Rationale, Content, Structure, Status, and Crosscultural Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raad, Boele

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses the rationale, content, structure, status, and crosscultural assessment of the Big Five trait factors, focusing on topics of dispute and misunderstanding. Taxonomic restrictions of the original Big Five forerunner, the "Norman Five," are discussed, and criticisms regarding the

  6. Assessment, Quality and Competence: Staff Training Issues for NCVQ. An FEU View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    This document discusses some of the problems and solutions that should be addressed if further education teachers and their training counterparts are to cope with the requirements of Great Britain's new National Council for Vocational Qualifications (NCVQ). It is both a handbook to guide practitioners through some of the assessment implications of…

  7. Issues with Self-Monitoring Assessments: Comments on Koretz and Beguin (2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinharay, Sandip; Haberman, Shelby J.; Zwick, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Several researchers (e.g., Klein, Hamilton, McCaffrey, & Stecher, 2000; Koretz & Barron, 1998; Linn, 2000) have asserted that test-based accountability, a crucial component of U.S. education policy, has resulted in score inflation. This inference has relied on comparisons with performance on other tests such as the National Assessment of…

  8. Eating Disorders of the Adolescent: Current Issues in Etiology, Assessment, and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, LeAdelle; Bajorek, Ellen

    1991-01-01

    Literature on the prevalence, symptomatology, and etiology of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in adolescents is reviewed. The school psychologist is in an essential position to help the adolescent and family. Assessment, consultation, and intervention strategies are discussed for the school psychologist, and psychological and pharmacological…

  9. THE ISSUES OF STANDARDIZATION OF TEACHERS’ INFORMATION-COMMUNICATION COMPETENCY ASSESSMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Degtyaryova, Galina

    2014-01-01

    In the article the approaches to standardization of teachers’ ICT-competence assessment in Ukraine and abroad are singled out. The attention to the necessity of standards’ working out in Ukraine for teachers’ ICT-competence in the system of postgraduate education is made.

  10. Issues in Post-Entry Language Assessment in English-Medium Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, John

    2015-01-01

    Students entering English-medium universities around the world come from diverse linguistic backgrounds and many find it difficult to cope with the language demands of their degree courses. This speech focuses first on the motivations for introducing what are known in Australia as post-entry language assessments (PELAs). I discuss in particular…

  11. Editorial for the Special Issue on Automated Design and Assessment of Heuristic Search Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Ochoa, Gabriela; Preuss, Mike; Bartz-Beielstein, Thomas; Schoenauer, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Heuristic search algorithms have been successfully applied to solve many problems in practice. Their design, however, has increased in complexity as the number of parameters and choices for operators and algorithmic components is also expanding. There is clearly the need of providing the final user with automated tools to assist the tuning, design and assessment of heuristic optimisation methods.

  12. Nano-TiO₂--feasibility and challenges for human health risk assessment based on open literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Frans M; Johnston, Helinor J; Stone, Vicki; Aitken, Robert J; Hankin, Steve; Peters, Sheona; Aschberger, Karin

    2011-06-01

    This study aims at investigating feasibility and challenges associated with conducting a human health risk assessment for nano-titanium-dioxide (nano-TiO₂) based on the open literature by following an approach similar to a classical regulatory risk assessment. Gaps in the available data set, both in relation to exposures and hazard, do not allow reaching any definite conclusions that could be used for regulatory decision-making. Results show that repeated inhalation in the workplace and possibly consumer inhalation may cause risks. Also short-term inhalation following spray applications may cause risks. Main future work should focus on generating occupational and consumer inhalation exposure data, as well as toxicity data on absorption following inhalation, repeated dermal contact, and contact with damaged skin. Also relevant seems further information on possible neurotoxicity and genotoxicity/carcinogenicity, as well as establishing a No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for acute inhalation of nano-TiO₂. PMID:21609135

  13. Biometrical issues in the analysis of adverse events within the benefit assessment of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Ralf; Beckmann, Lars; Lange, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    The analysis of adverse events plays an important role in the benefit assessment of drugs. Consequently, results on adverse events are an integral part of reimbursement dossiers submitted by pharmaceutical companies to health policy decision-makers. Methods applied in the analysis of adverse events commonly include simple standard methods for contingency tables. However, the results produced may be misleading if observations are censored at the time of discontinuation due to treatment switching or noncompliance, resulting in unequal follow-up periods. In this paper, we present examples to show that the application of inadequate methods for the analysis of adverse events in the reimbursement dossier can lead to a downgrading of the evidence on a drug's benefit in the subsequent assessment, as greater harm from the drug cannot be excluded with sufficient certainty. Legal regulations on the benefit assessment of drugs in Germany are presented, in particular, with regard to the analysis of adverse events. Differences in safety considerations between the drug approval process and the benefit assessment are discussed. We show that the naive application of simple proportions in reimbursement dossiers frequently leads to uninterpretable results if observations are censored and the average follow-up periods differ between treatment groups. Likewise, the application of incidence rates may be misleading in the case of recurrent events and unequal follow-up periods. To allow for an appropriate benefit assessment of drugs, adequate survival time methods accounting for time dependencies and duration of follow-up are required, not only for time-to-event efficacy endpoints but also for adverse events. © 2016 The Authors. Pharmaceutical Statistics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26928768

  14. An open trial assessment of "The Number Race", an adaptive computer game for remediation of dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Laurent

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a companion article 1, we described the development and evaluation of software designed to remediate dyscalculia. This software is based on the hypothesis that dyscalculia is due to a "core deficit" in number sense or in its access via symbolic information. Here we review the evidence for this hypothesis, and present results from an initial open-trial test of the software in a sample of nine 7–9 year old children with mathematical difficulties. Methods Children completed adaptive training on numerical comparison for half an hour a day, four days a week over a period of five-weeks. They were tested before and after intervention on their performance in core numerical tasks: counting, transcoding, base-10 comprehension, enumeration, addition, subtraction, and symbolic and non-symbolic numerical comparison. Results Children showed specific increases in performance on core number sense tasks. Speed of subitizing and numerical comparison increased by several hundred msec. Subtraction accuracy increased by an average of 23%. Performance on addition and base-10 comprehension tasks did not improve over the period of the study. Conclusion Initial open-trial testing showed promising results, and suggested that the software was successful in increasing number sense over the short period of the study. However these results need to be followed up with larger, controlled studies. The issues of transfer to higher-level tasks, and of the best developmental time window for intervention also need to be addressed.

  15. Clinch River Breeder Reactor: an assessment of need for power and regulatory issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamblin, D M; Tepel, R C; Bjornstad, D J; Hill, L J; Cantor, R A; Carroll, P J; Cohn, S M; Hadder, G R; Holcomb, B D; Johnson, K E

    1983-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of a research effort designed to assist the US Department of Energy in: (1) reviewing the need for power from the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) in the Southeastern Electric Reliability Council (SERC) region, not including Florida, and (2) isolating specific regulatory and institutional issues and physical transmission capacities that may constrain the market for CRBR power. A review of existing electric power wheeling arrangements in the Southeast and specific federal and state regulatory obstacles that may affect power sales from the CRBR was undertaken. This review was a contributing factor to a decision to target the service territory to SERC-less Florida.

  16. A supply chain based assessment of water issues in the coal industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shortages of water and geographically uneven distribution of coal and water pose great challenges to sustainable development of the coal industry in China. In this paper, we illustrate the major challenges existing in the coal industry from a supply chain viewpoint, and propose technical and policy suggestions to address them. First, we provide quantitative information about water withdrawal, consumption, waste water recycling and treatment and pollution from coal mining, preparation, to final conversion for China's power generation and coal-to-chemical industry. We then analyze scenarios of water use in China's coal industry between 2020 and 2030. Our results show that water issues are becoming increasingly severe constraints for coal development in China, especially in North and West China, where water is more scarce and ecological systems are more vulnerable than other regions. Without implementing effective water-saving measures or regulations the water demand in the coal industry could dramatically increase and probably exceed China's water supply capacity in the near-term future, bringing substantial uncertainty to sustainable development of China's energy economy. We also illustrate that coal-fired power generation, with appropriate technical improvement and proper policy supports, has the greatest potential for water savings in the coal industry. Our conclusions also underscore the importance of expanding energy efficiency and renewable energy in China so as to limit the country's dependence on coal. - Highlights: ► We provide information of water supply and use in the coal industry in China. ► We analyze scenarios of water use in China's coal industry between 2020 and 2030. ► Water issues are becoming severe constrains for the coal industry in China. ► The water demand in the coal industry could exceed China's water supply capacity. ► Coal-fired power generation has great potential for water savings.

  17. Ventricular Assist Device implant (AB 5000) prototype cannula: In vitro assessment of MRI issues at 3-Tesla

    OpenAIRE

    Valencerina Samuel; Shellock Frank G

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Purpose To evaluate MRI issues at 3-Tesla for a ventricular assist device (VAD). Methods The AB5000 Ventricle with a prototype Nitinol wire-reinforced In-Flow Cannula and Out-Flow Cannula attached (Abiomed, Inc., Danvers, MA) was evaluated for magnetic field interactions, heating, and artifacts at 3-Tesla. MRI-related heating was assessed with the device in a gelled-saline-filled, head/torso phantom using a transmit/received RF body coil while performing MRI at a whole body averaged ...

  18. Issues in assessing the cost-effectiveness of coordinated DSM programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coordinated demand-side management (DSM) programs, co-administered by government agencies and electric and gas utilities, are likely to grow in importance in the coming years. Because of the unique features of these types of DSM programs, special care must be taken in assessing their cost-effectiveness. In this paper, we discuss these features, suggest how standard cost-effectiveness measures must be adapted to accommodate them, and show how important these adaptations are in assessing the cost-effectiveness of coordinated programs. At first, we use a least-cost, financial approach. The discussion indicates that failure to account properly for the special features of coordinated programs materially affects estimates of cost-effectiveness and, in extreme cases, may lead to rejection of otherwise cost-effective programs. Then extending the analysis to include economic factors, we speculate that most types of coordinated programs are more attractive than when evaluated on a financial basis. (author)

  19. Assessment of single-shell tank residual-liquid issues at Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides an assessment of the overall effectiveness and implications of jet pumping the interstitial liquids (IL) from single-shell tanks at Hanford. The jet-pumping program, currently in progress at Hanford, involves the planned removal of IL contained in 89 of the 149 single-shell tanks and its transfer to double-shell tanks after volume reduction by evaporation. The purpose of this report is to estimate the public and worker doses associated with (1) terminating pumping immediately, (2) pumping to a 100,000-gal limit per tank, (3) pumping to a 50,000-gal limit per tank, and (4) pumping to the maximum practical liquid removal level of 30,000 gal. Assessment of the cost-effectiveness of these various levels of pumping in minimizing any undue health and safety risks to the public or worker is also presented

  20. Organisational and management issues in the regulatory assessment of underground radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The approach to management of multi-disciplinary contractor-based work, used by a UK Government regulatory body (Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution (HMIP), to develop, test and apply methods of risk assessment, was described by Thompson et al (1993). Two case studies were discussed, and concern was expressed that few, if any, formal publications existed to make more generally available the hard-won knowledge currently possessed by individuals and organisations with practical experience. The danger being that expensive lessons will be relearnt in the coming years after experienced staff move on or retire. The present paper develops these themes further on the basis of recent experience gained in a four year project (1991-95) to review and independently assess preliminary safety-related documentatation associated with the development of a deep disposal facility in the UK for solid low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. (Author)

  1. A reappraisal of some Cigar Lake issues of importance to performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AECL/SKB Cigar Lake Analogue Study was published in 1994. Data from this study, relevant for repository performance assessments, have been reappraised in the light of greater exposure to analogue studies and the development of more realistic models used in performance assessment. Several of the areas proved to have been adequately addressed in the original study, but one of the areas that particularly benefited from the renewed analysis concerned radiolysis. In this case a model for radiolysis was developed and tested, significantly narrowing the gap between calculated and predicted oxidant production. Considerable progress was also made in understanding and modelling the initial formation of the deposit under hydrothermal conditions, and using this conceptual model to evaluate the changes that have subsequently occurred under 'ambient' repository conditions over geological timescales. Moreover, the physical properties of clay as a potential buffer to groundwater flow and radionuclide migration were addressed with some success. 99 refs

  2. Review of GMO safety assessment studies: glyphosate residues in Roundup Ready crops is an ignored issue

    OpenAIRE

    Cuhra, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Published version, also available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12302-015-0052-7 Background Genetically modified glyphosate-tolerant cultivar varieties have been a commercial success widely known as Roundup Ready plants. As new glyphosate-tolerant varieties are introduced to satisfy agriculture demand, it is relevant to review the scientific evidence that documents the quality and safety of such biotechnology. Assessments of genetically modified glyphosate-tolerant plants are partly ba...

  3. Statistical issues in the assessment of health outcomes in children : methodological review.

    OpenAIRE

    Lancaster, Gillian

    2009-01-01

    The lack of outcome measures that are validated for use on children limits the effectiveness and generalizability of paediatric health care interventions. Statistical epidemiology is a broad concept encompassing a wide range of useful techniques for use in child health outcome assessment and development. However, the range of techniques that are available is often confusing and prohibits their adoption. In the paper an overview of methodology is provided within the paediatric context. It is d...

  4. BIOPROTA: international collaboration on key technical issues in biosphere aspects of long-term radiological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BIOPROTA is an international collaborative project which was set up to address key uncertainties in biosphere aspects of assessment of the long-term impact of contaminant releases associated with radioactive waste management. The project began in 2002 and has benefited from the knowledge and experience of organisations from Canada, Finland, France, Japan, Russia, Spain, Sweden, UK and the USA. This paper describes the BIOPROTA objectives and scope, the on-going work programme and methods of work. (author)

  5. Assessing the efficacy of mobile phone interventions using randomised controlled trials: issues and their solutions.

    OpenAIRE

    Emma Beard

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is growing interest in the use of mobile phone interventions to promote behaviour change and their efficacy has been assessed extensively using exploratory methods (e.g., pilot studies and proof of concept). However, in an era of evidence-based practice, calls have been made for digital interventions to be evaluated with the same rigour as other forms of behaviour change interventions i.e. with randomised controlled trials. Aims: This presentation aims to overview a numb...

  6. The Water Risks of Hydraulic Fracturing (Fracking): Key Issues from the New California Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleick, P. H.

    2015-12-01

    A key component of the Water-Energy Nexus is the effort over the past decade or so to quantify the volumes and form of water required for the energy fuel cycle from extraction to generation to waste disposal. The vast majority of the effort in this area has focused on the water needs of electricity generation, but other fuel-cycle components also entail significant water demands and threats to water quality. Recent work for the State of California (managed by the California Council on Science and Technology - CCST) has produced a new state-of-the-art assessment of a range of potential water risks associated with hydraulic fracturing and related oil and gas extraction, including volumetric water demands, methods of disposal of produced water, and aquifer contamination. For example, this assessment produced new information on the disposal of produced water in surface percolation pits and the potential for contamination of local groundwater (see Figure). Understanding these risks raises questions about current production and future plans to expand production, as well as tools used by state and federal agencies to manage these risks. This talk will summarize the science behind the CCST assessment and related policy recommendations for both water and energy managers.

  7. Open Access and Open Assessment: The Future of Peer Reviewed Journals? Experiences with a New Journal in Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Siegert, Olaf; Werner-Schwarz, Korinna

    2009-01-01

    Open Access Journals have become more and more popular as a publishing model for academic scholars. There are already more than 3,500 of them listed in the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ). To establish these journals as a relevant and trustful source for validated research results (and as an alternative to licensed publisher-based journals), peer review is a necessary requisite. The Internet offers new ways to organize the peer review process. It allows for example comments and ratin...

  8. Open Source Procedure for Assessment of Loss using Global Earthquake Modelling software (OPAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, J. E.

    2011-07-01

    This paper provides a comparison between Earthquake Loss Estimation (ELE) software packages and their application using an "Open Source Procedure for Assessment of Loss using Global Earthquake Modelling software" (OPAL). The OPAL procedure was created to provide a framework for optimisation of a Global Earthquake Modelling process through: 1. overview of current and new components of earthquake loss assessment (vulnerability, hazard, exposure, specific cost, and technology); 2. preliminary research, acquisition, and familiarisation for available ELE software packages; 3. assessment of these software packages in order to identify the advantages and disadvantages of the ELE methods used; and 4. loss analysis for a deterministic earthquake (Mw = 7.2) for the Zeytinburnu district, Istanbul, Turkey, by applying 3 software packages (2 new and 1 existing): a modified displacement-based method based on DBELA (Displacement Based Earthquake Loss Assessment, Crowley et al., 2006), a capacity spectrum based method HAZUS (HAZards United States, FEMA, USA, 2003) and the Norwegian HAZUS-based SELENA (SEismic Loss EstimatioN using a logic tree Approach, Lindholm et al., 2007) software which was adapted for use in order to compare the different processes needed for the production of damage, economic, and social loss estimates. The modified DBELA procedure was found to be more computationally expensive, yet had less variability, indicating the need for multi-tier approaches to global earthquake loss estimation. Similar systems planning and ELE software produced through the OPAL procedure can be applied to worldwide applications, given exposure data.

  9. Life cycle assessment of renewables: present issues, future outlook and implications for the calculation of external costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In principle, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is certainly appropriate for estimating external costs of renewables, since major environmental impacts of the latter are generated in phases of the life cycle other than use. In practice however, several issues still remain. They are related to the availability and quality of Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) data, to the frit technological development of renewable energy technologies (RET), to the existence of many different applications of the latter and to a strong dependency on local conditions. Moreover, a 'static' picture of present technologies is not enough for policy indications. Therefore some kind of dynamic LCA is needed. These LCA issues are reflected in the calculation of external costs. First, the paper discusses these issues on the examples of two main technologies, namely photovoltaic (PV) and wind. Second, it discusses the results of ExternE for these two specific technologies and gives an outlook for the future. Future needs for a better use of LCA as a support tool for the calcination of external costs are identified. Finally, a new research project funded by the European Commission focused on LCI of renewables is briefly introduced and presented. (author)

  10. Costs without benefits? Methodological issues in assessing costs, benefits and effectiveness of water protection policies. Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walz, R.; Schleich, J.

    2000-07-01

    In the last few years, the conditions for extending environmental policy in general and policy dealing with the prevention of water pollution in particular have undergone extensive changes. On the one hand, there has been indisputable considerable success in preventing water pollution which has led to less direct pressure for policy action. On the other hand, the rising sewage levies and the lower political priority assigned in general to environmental policy documented in, e. g. public opinion surveys, has led to water pollution control policy facing very different pressures of justification: more efficient use of funds, improved planning processes, proof of the achievable benefit, but also stopping the increase in levies or not hindering economic development, these or similar slogans are the objections brought against water pollution control. Regardless of how unambiguous these terms appear when used as slogans in this way, they become diffuse and unclear if regarded more closely. This paper therefore attempts to reveal the reasons for possible misunderstandings and misinterpretations on the one hand and, on the other, to reveal the basic problems and uncertainties which are necessarily linked with an assessment of costs and benefits. In order to do this, three areas are examined: level of actors and analysis, evaluation methods and assessment of costs and benefits. (orig.)

  11. Ada (R) assessment: An important issue within European Columbus Support Technology Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielcanet, P.

    1986-01-01

    Software will be more important and more critical for Columbus than for any ESA previous project. As a simple comparison, overall software size has been in the range of 100 K source statements for EXOSAT, 500 K for Spacelab, and will probably reach several million lines of code for Columbus (all element together). Based on past experience, the total development cost of software can account for about 10 pct to 15 pct of the total space project development cost. The Ada technology may support the strong software engineering principles needed for Columbus, provided that technology is sufficiently mature and industry plans are meeting the Columbus project schedule. Over the past 3 years, Informatique Internationale has conducted a coherent program based on Ada technology assessment studies and experiments, for ESA and CNES. This specific research and development program benefits from 15 years experience in the field of space software development and is supported by the overall software engineering expertise of the company. The assessment and experiments of Ada software engineering by Informatique Internationale are detailed.

  12. Vojany Station reconstruction, repowering and expansion assessment: Options, issues and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, W.F. [Southern Electric International, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States); Griswold, G.H.; Peyton, J.C. [Southern Company Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Recent European community and state specific environmental guideline, legislative, and regulatory activities have led power producers to assess their currently installed generation technologies with regard to clean air compliance strategies. For the application to older generation facilities, the prudence of linking facility rehabilitation with the addition of environmental control systems to repowering options is warranted. Similarly, ongoing privatization efforts emphasize the necessity for sound economic decisions of site specific technological applications that consider maintaining or enhancing thermal efficiencies. Southern Electric International (SEI) has conducted such a feasibility study assessment evaluating the reconstruction, repowering and possible expansion of the Slovensky Energeticky Podnik (SEP) 1320 MWe Vojany Station in the Republic of Slovakia. Alternatives included such technologies as atmospheric fluid bed combustion, furnace and duct sorbent injection, low NOx burners, gas re-burn, selective catalytic reduction, selective non-catalytic reduction, state of the art precipitators and baghouses, wet and dry flue gas desulfurization systems and repowering technologies. In addition, new, turn of the century environmentally plausible and efficient electric power technologies were addressed.

  13. A Short Assessment of Select Remediation Issues at the Russian Research Center-Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the invitation of the National Academies, Roy Gephart traveled to Russia with an eight-member U.S. team during June, 2008 to participate in a workshop hosted by the National Academies and the Russian Academy of Sciences on radiation contamination and remediation issues in the former Soviet Union. Cleanup problems were assessed by the American participants for six Russian sites: Kurchatov Institute, Lakes 10 and 11 at Mayak, Andreev Bay, Krasnokamensk Mining Enterprise (Siberia), Almaz Mining Enterprise (North Caucasus), and one site for testing peaceful nuclear explosions. Roy lead the Russian Research Center-Kurchatov Institute review session and wrote an assessment of key cleanup issues. Kurchatov is the leading institute in the Former Soviet Union devoted to military and civilian nuclear programs. Founded in 1943 in the outskirts of Moscow, this 100 hectare site of nearly undeveloped, prime real estate is now surrounded by densely populated urban and business districts. Today there are growing concerns over the public safety and environmental security of the site resulting from increasingly obsolete nuclear facilities and a legacy of inadequate waste management practices that resulted in contaminant releases and challenging remediation problems. In addition, there is growing concern over the presence of nuclear facilities within urban areas creating potential targets for terrorist attacks.

  14. Environmental impact assessment and socio political issues of nuclear waste management; Ydinjaetehuollon ympaeristoevaikutusten arviointi ja sosiopoliittiset kysymykset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmaajaervi, I.; Tolsa, H. [VTT Communities and Infrastructure, Espoo (Finland). Urban Planning; Vuori, S. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Nuclear Energy; Litmanen, T. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland)

    1997-09-01

    The study is a part of the Publicly Administrated Nuclear Waste Management Research Programme (JYT2) which was carried out in 1994-1996. The principal goal of the research programme has been to provide the authorities with information and research results relevant for the safety of nuclear waste management in order to support the various activities of the authorities. The main emphasis of the research programme focuses on the disposal of spent fuel. In addition to nuclear waste research in the field of natural sciences and technology, the research program- me has focused mostly on societal issues associated with nuclear waste disposal facilities and on the non-radiological environmental effects in the environs of the disposal site. Some of the local effects are already revealed in the research phase, before any final decisions are made as to the selection of the disposal site. The study has focused primarily on local and regional issues. The statutory requirement to conduct environ- mental impact assessment (EIA) chiefly concerns those who are responsible for waste management, but the authorities also need to acquire systematic information in the field to support developing requirements for the content and scope of EIA procedure and preparedness to check the assessments made. This is a report of the first parts of the study in 1994-1995. The report deals with the subject matter generally based on earlier studies in Finland and other countries. The results of the study will be reported later. 101 refs.

  15. Approach to ecological assessment of power-plant-intake (316b) related issues: the Prairie Island case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessment approaches and strategies useful in addressing important issues in section 316(b) of the 1972 Federal Water Pollution Control Act are illustrated in this report through the analysis and evaluation of the Prairie Island Nuclear Station 316(b) data base. The main issues in 316(b) demonstrations, cooling water intake operation and location, involve determining the impacts of entrainment and impingement. Entrainment impacts were addressed by applying the equivalent adult approach and correcting for inherent biases and by determining the through-plant survival of zooplankton. An assessment of impingement impacts was made by comparing for each of various species the number of fish impinged to estimates of population size. Densities of plankton and fish were compared between the intake area and an alternate area to determine if the location of the present intake minimizes impacts. No definitive conclusion relative to the best location of the intake could be made because of high year to year variability in the data and the differential dominance of trophic groups between areas

  16. Interim qualitative risk assessment for an LNG refueling station and review of relevant safety issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siu, N.; Herring, S.; Cadwallader, L.; Reece, W.; Byers, J.

    1997-07-01

    This report is a qualitative assessment of the public and worker risk involved with the operation of a liquefied natural (LNG) vehicle refueling facility. This study includes facility maintenance and operations, tanker truck delivers and end-use vehicle fueling; it does not treat the risks of LNG vehicles on roadways. Accident initiating events are identified by using a Master Logic Diagram, a Failure Modes and Effects analysis and historical operating experiences. The event trees were drawn to depict possible sequences of mitigating events following the initiating events. The phenomenology of LNG and other vehicle fuels is discussed to characterize the hazard posed by LNG usage. Based on the risk modeling and analysis, recommendations are given to improve the safety of LNG refueling stations in the areas of procedures and training, station design, and the dissemination of best practice information throughout the LNG community.

  17. Qualitative Risk Assessment for an LNG Refueling Station and Review of Relevant Safety Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siu, N.; Herring, J.S.; Cadwallader, L.; Reece, W.; Byers, J.

    1998-02-01

    This report is a qualitative assessment of the public and worker risk involved with the operation of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vehicle refueling facility. This study includes facility maintenance and operations, tank truck deliveries, and end-use vehicle fueling; it does not treat the risks of LNG vehicles on roadways. Accident initiating events are identified by using a Master Logic Diagram, a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis, and historical operating experiences. The event trees were drawn to depict possible sequences of mitigating events following the initiating events. The phenomenology of LNG and other vehicle fuels is discussed to characterize the hazard posed by LNG usage. Based on the risk modeling and analysis, recommendations are given to improve the safety of LNG refueling stations in the areas of procedures and training, station design, and the dissemination of ``best practice`` information throughout the LNG community.

  18. The Seabrook Station probabilistic safety assessment and the issue of completeness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A full scope probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) was completed by Pickard, Lowe and Garrick, Inc. (PLG), for Seabrook Station Units 1 and 2 in December 1983. More than 20 man-years of technical analysis and review effort were expended over about 20 calendar months to complete this PRA. Two objectives were to provide as comprehensive a PRA as permitted by available methods, and to extend the existing methodology where needed. Important attributes of a PRA that contribute to comprehensiveness (such as accuracy in modeling plant specific factors, dependent events, traceability of successive computations, scrutability of documentation, and usefulness of the PRA as a risk management tool) hinge on the ability of the PRA to identify all significant underlying contributors to core melt frequency and to other relevant risk indices

  19. Assessing the risk of violent behavior before issuing a license to carry a handgun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melamed, Yuval; Bauer, Arie; Kalian, Moshe; Rosca, Paula; Mester, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Handguns are intended to be used for protection, but they can also be used as weapons of assault that may endanger others or inflict self-harm and facilitate suicide. Research has revealed a direct correlation between firearm availability and suicide risk. Gun control is intended to reduce violence through legislation that restricts ownership and use of firearms. How can we ensure that firearms will not reach the hands of individuals who may pose a danger to themselves or to others, without infringing on the rights of other citizens to carry guns for protection, which is in the public interest? The potential to commit a crime will materialize, depending on dynamic interactions among personality factors, environmental factors, and the individual's history of offending. We present illustrative cases involving various aspects of gun control and a description of instruments for the assessment of dangerousness that can facilitate the licensing process for carrying and using firearms. PMID:22159982

  20. Hybrid electric vehicle technology assessment : methodology, analytical issues, and interim results.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S.; Santini, D.; Vyas, A.; Anderson, J.; Wang, M.; Bharathan, D.; He, J.

    2002-03-13

    This report presents the results of the first phase of Argonne National Laboratory's (ANL's) examination of the costs and energy impacts of light-duty hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). We call this research an HEV Technology Assessment, or HEVTA. HEVs are vehicles with drivetrains that combine electric drive components (electric motor, electricity storage) with a refuelable power plant (e.g., an internal combustion engine). The use of hybrid drivetrains is widely considered a key technology strategy in improving automotive fuel efficiency. Two hybrid vehicles--Toyota's Prius and Honda's Insight--have been introduced into the U.S. market, and all three auto industry participants in the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) have selected hybrid drivetrains for their prototype vehicles.

  1. The nuclear waste issue: towards an assessment of the partitioning and transmutation of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First of all, this paper describes recent regulatory, scientific and technical developments in France concerning the management of high level, long-lived radioactive waste. In this context, which culminated in parliament's adoption of the radioactive waste management bill, it analyses, from an industrial viewpoint, the motivation for separating and transmuting minor actinides, as well as the technical and economic consequences for waste management. The new law underlines the need to reduce the harmfulness of radioactive waste and research into separation and transmutation is continuing with a view to 'an assessment in 2012 of the industrial perspectives for these technologies' that makes allowance for the developments made with new reactors. It is admitted that the waste will not be eradicated by transmutation and therefore that the geological disposal is inevitable. But destroying the waste, however partially, is worthy of consideration if it helps to simplify disposal and reduce costs. It may also merely reduce safety assessment uncertainty or increase calculation margins. The results of previous studies have shown that research has to focus on the minor actinides. On the one hand, they account for practically all the radiotoxicity of waste and on the other hand, with the exception of two fission products with relatively short half-lives for which suitable interim storage is to be envisaged, they are the main contributors to the thermal load. We therefore examine the possible consequences of management through actinide separation and transmutation on the fuel cycle as a whole, and the advantages to be gained for disposal or release. For example, americium makes a considerable contribution to the thermal load and transmutation would appear possible. Conversely, curium is known to be difficult to transmute and would complicate target or fuel fabrication operations. The potential savings to be made in disposal costs should also make allowance for future optimization

  2. Ecosystem valuation: a sequential decision support system and quality assessment issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, R Kerry; Morse-Jones, Sian; Fisher, Brendan

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the economic value of nature and the services it provides to humanity has become increasingly important for local, national, and global policy and decision making. It has become obvious that quantifying and integrating these services into decision making will be crucial for sustainable development. Problems arise in that it is difficult to obtain meaningful values for the goods and services that ecosystems provide and for which there is no formal market. A wide range of ecosystem services fall into this category. Additional problems arise when economic methods are applied inappropriately and when the importance of ecosystem maintenance for human welfare is underestimated. In this article we identify a place for monetary valuation within the pluralistic approach supported by ecological economics and assess progress to date in the application of environmental valuation to ecosystem service provision. We first review definitions of ecosystem services in order to make an operational link to valuation methods. We then discuss the spatially explicit nature of ecosystem services provision and benefits capture. We highlight the importance of valuing marginal changes and the role for macroscale valuation, nonlinearities in service benefits, and the significance of nonconvexities (threshold effects). We also review guidance on valuation studies quality assurance, and discuss the problems inherent in the methodology as exposed by the findings of behavioral economics, as well as with benefits transfer--the most common way valuation studies are applied in the policy process. We argue for a sequential decision support system that can lead to a more integrated and rigorous approach to environmental valuation and biophysical measurement of ecosystem services. This system itself then needs to be encompassed within a more comprehensive multicriteria assessment dialogue and process. PMID:20146763

  3. Ocular health among radiologists in the age of PACS: is it time for our profession to open its eyes to this issue in light of existing European legislation?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Halpenny, D

    2012-12-01

    The regular use of visual display units (VDUs) at work has been shown to cause the development of a constellation of symptoms ranging from dry eyes to temporary myopia. European workers who use VDUs are now protected under detailed legislation enacted by the European Union (Directive 90\\/270\\/EEC). The use of picture archiving and communications systems, which are almost ubiquitous in European countries, means that, as a profession, radiologists fall under the remit of this legislation. This paper aims to assess the impact that full implementation of this law would have on a radiologist\\'s practice and to more broadly examine the issue of eye care as an occupational health issue in radiology. The authors conclude that eye care in the setting of regular VDU use among radiologists is an important quality control and occupational health issue. There is a clear legal basis requiring employers to provide regular eye examinations and reporting breaks. In the absence of leadership from employers on this issue individual radiologists have a responsibility to ensure that their work practices reflect the legal situation and minimise the effect of eye strain on their performance.

  4. Reliability and Portability Assessment Tool Based on Hazard Rates for an Embedded Open Source Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinobu Tamura

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An embedded OSS (Open Source Software known as one of OSS has been gaining a lot of attention in the embedded system area, i.e., Android, BusyBox, TRON, etc. However, the poor handling of quality problem and customer support prohibit the progress of embedded OSS. Therefore, many companies have been hesitant to innovate the embedded OSS because of OSS includes several software versions. Also, it is difficult for developers to assess reliability and portability of the porting-phase in case of installing the embedded OSS on a single-board computer. In this paper, we develop a method of software reliability/portability assessment tool based on a hazard rate model for the embedded OSS. Especially, we analyze actual software failure-occurrence time-interval data to show numerical examples of software reliability/portability assessment for the embedded OSS. Moreover, we show that our model and tool can assist quality improvement for embedded OSS systems development.

  5. Massive Open Online Course Completion Rates Revisited: Assessment, Length and Attrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Jordan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This analysis is based upon enrolment and completion data collected for a total of 221 Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs. It extends previously reported work (Jordan, 2014 with an expanded dataset; the original work is extended to include a multiple regression analysis of factors that affect completion rates and analysis of attrition rates during courses. Completion rates (defined as the percentage of enrolled students who completed the course vary from 0.7% to 52.1%, with a median value of 12.6%. Since their inception, enrolments on MOOCs have fallen while completion rates have increased. Completion rates vary significantly according to course length (longer courses having lower completion rates, start date (more recent courses having higher percentage completion and assessment type (courses using auto grading only having higher completion rates. For a sub-sample of courses where rates of active use and assessment submission across the course are available, the first and second weeks appear to be critical in achieving student engagement, after which the proportion of active students and those submitting assessments levels out, with less than 3% difference between them.

  6. Assessing anthropogenic pressures on groundwater using stable OH isotopes: perspectives and issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrel, Philippe; Ollivier, Patrick; Flehoc, Christine; Hube, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Large developments of isotope hydrogeology were done and well-established techniques mainly applying stable isotopes of the water molecule (hydrogen and oxygen) are now used largely to trace water provenance but also recharge processes. New methods allow the use of non-traditional isotopes (metals, compound specific stable isotope analysis CSIA...) to trace anthropogenic pressures in surface- and groundwater. Groundwater contamination in large industrial sites may come from several origins such as leakage from tanks during the production process of chemical products, liquid storage tanks, solid end product or past accumulated product in soil which is released over the time. The understanding of the origin and the further evolution of the chemical contamination in groundwater in an industrial site issued from past or current industrial activities is essential for the industrial companies regarding their environmental policies. The objective of this study was to use with an innovative way the stable isotopes of the water molecule as a low cost tool to trace pollutant plumes in groundwater and help to a better management of contaminated industrial sites. We present data on stable isotopes O and H in an European region where electrochemistry plants occur. For confidentiality purposes, the sites remain anonymous. Present day industrial activities have a direct impact on the groundwater over the site and migration of the contaminant(s) plume out of the site is supposed. We first characterize the natural groundwater background through the O-H characterization of surface water, lakes, thermal waters and regional shallow aquifers. High and low altitude recharge can be demonstrated in the area. Secondly, we used the stable isotope of the water molecule to trace over the site the impact of the Cl-rich liquor manufacturing process. Large deuterium enrichment was evidenced in the groundwater and the high values can be related to a direct contamination of the groundwater through

  7. Cosmic-ray world with gamma-ray astronomy: a wealth on information, an even more open issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardillo Martina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since from their discovery in 1912, Cosmic-Rays (CRs are one of the most debated issues of the high energy astrophysics. Their origin is still a fundamental problem and is the subject of very intense research. Until now, the best candidate sources of Galactic CR component are Supernova Remnants (SNRs but final proof for the origin of CRs up to the knee can only be obtained through two fundamental signatures, the detection of a clear gamma-ray signature of π0 decay in Galactic sources and the identification of sources emitting a photon spectrum up to PeV energies. Both indications are quite difficult to obtain. The two gamma-ray satellites, AGILE and Fermi, together with ground telescopes operating in the TeV energy range (HESS, VERITAS and MAGIC, collected a great amount of data from SNRs. In spite of the recent discovery of the neutral pion spectral signature in the SNR W44 spectrum by AGILE (and confirmed by Fermi-LAT, all gamma-ray data collected at GeV and TeV energies for several young and middle-aged SNRs provide interesting challenges to current theoretical models. The emerging view from gamma-ray and particle detection is intriguing and lead to revisit the CR-SNR paradigm, considering also the contribution of other kind of sources.

  8. Issues in the assessment of congenital health risks from mercury in coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.; Moskowitz, P.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Saroff, L. [USDOE Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Clean Coal Technology Program

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes a probabilistic assessment of congenital neurological risks associated with consumption of fish and shellfish containing MeHg and the effects that local coal combustion might have on those risks. Two scenarios were considered with this model: the ``baseline`` scenario (MeHg from fish consumption without local impacts), and the ``impact`` scenario (baseline plus local power-plant impact on freshwater fish). In this paper, we describe the framework and application of the model, including parameters and statistical linkages, the distributions used to represent the parameters, and the statistical methods used to characterize the inherent variability in each individual`s diet and the distribution of individuals within a hypothetical population. These factors define the baseline, which is then compared to observations of MeHg in hair in order to demonstrate the model`s validity. The incremental effect of local coal combustion is represented by augmenting the distribution of Hg in local freshwater fish by a prescribed amount, which we refer to as the ``impact factor.`` Conventional air pollution dispersion modeling is then used to relate this factor to an appropriate range of powerplant characteristics.

  9. Bioavailability as an issue in risk assessment and management of food cadmium: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bioavailability of cadmium (Cd) from food is an important determinant of the potential risk of this toxic element. This review summarizes the effects of marginal deficiencies of the essential nutrients zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), and calcium (Ca) on the enhancement of absorption and organ accumulation and retention of dietary Cd in laboratory animals. These marginal deficiencies enhanced Cd absorption as much as ten-fold from diets containing low Cd concentrations similar to that consumed by some human populations, indicating that people who are nutritionally marginal with respect to Zn, Fe, and Ca are at higher risk of Cd disease than those who are nutritionally adequate. Results from these studies also suggest that the bioavailability of Cd is different for different food sources. This has implications for the design of food safety rules for Cd in that if the dietary source plays such a significant role in the risk of Cd, then different foods would require different Cd limits. Lastly, the importance of food-level exposures of Cd and other potentially toxic elements in the study of risk assessment are emphasized. Most foods contain low concentrations of Cd that are poorly absorbed, and it is neither relevant nor practical to use toxic doses of Cd in experimental diets to study food Cd risks. A more comprehensive understanding of the biochemistry involved in the bioavailability of Cd from foods would help resolve food safety questions and provide the support for a badly needed advance in international policies regarding Cd in crops and foods

  10. Issues in the assessment of congenital health risks from mercury in coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a probabilistic assessment of congenital neurological risks associated with consumption of fish and shellfish containing MeHg and the effects that local coal combustion might have on those risks. Two scenarios were considered with this model: the ''baseline'' scenario (MeHg from fish consumption without local impacts), and the ''impact'' scenario (baseline plus local power-plant impact on freshwater fish). In this paper, we describe the framework and application of the model, including parameters and statistical linkages, the distributions used to represent the parameters, and the statistical methods used to characterize the inherent variability in each individual's diet and the distribution of individuals within a hypothetical population. These factors define the baseline, which is then compared to observations of MeHg in hair in order to demonstrate the model's validity. The incremental effect of local coal combustion is represented by augmenting the distribution of Hg in local freshwater fish by a prescribed amount, which we refer to as the ''impact factor.'' Conventional air pollution dispersion modeling is then used to relate this factor to an appropriate range of powerplant characteristics

  11. Evaluation of colloid transport issues and recommendations for SKI performance assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of this project was to develop recommendations to SKI for evaluating the potential significance of colloids in performance assessment (PA) studies by: Updating a previous review of the treatment of colloids in PA studies for radioactive waste repositories and to include information on PAs published in the period 1997-1999. We have reviewed sixteen PAs conducted in nine countries and have made the following observations: All PAs include colloid formation and colloid transport in their FEP list. Although some programmes have deferred consideration of colloidal radionuclide transport until further research has been performed, more recent PAs do account for the effects of colloids. PAs of disposal systems in which the waste canister is surrounded by a bentonite buffer do not consider the effect of colloids on the source term. These PAs assume that all colloids are filtered by the bentonite buffer and cannot escape from the near-field. PAs of disposal systems with no bentonite buffer have to account for mobilisation of radionuclides from the waste by colloids. The concentration of colloids that may form in the repository is a key uncertainty. Many PA programmes have modelled colloidal radionuclide transport in the geosphere using one-dimensional transport equations. No PA has included a comprehensive treatment of colloid transport using mechanistic modelling. Some PAs have not undertaken modelling of colloid transport in the geosphere, but have relied instead on arguments that such transport processes will be of low consequence to the performance of the disposal system. Five PAs have shown the effects of colloid transport through the geosphere to be potentially significant. For the disposal of spent nuclear fuel, SKB has developed the KBS-3 concept. For the disposal of long-lived low-level and intermediate-level radioactive waste, SKB has developed the SFL 3-5 concept. In the SFL 3-5 concept, waste is placed in underground disposal caverns and

  12. A Photogrammetric Approach for Assessing Positional Accuracy of OpenStreetMap© Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Doucette

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As open source volunteered geographic information continues to gain popularity, the user community and data contributions are expected to grow, e.g., CloudMade, Apple, and Ushahidi now provide OpenStreetMap© (OSM as a base layer for some of their mapping applications. This, coupled with the lack of cartographic standards and the expectation to one day be able to use this vector data for more geopositionally sensitive applications, like GPS navigation, leaves potential users and researchers to question the accuracy of the database. This research takes a photogrammetric approach to determining the positional accuracy of OSM road features using stereo imagery and a vector adjustment model. The method applies rigorous analytical measurement principles to compute accurate real world geolocations of OSM road vectors. The proposed approach was tested on several urban gridded city streets from the OSM database with the results showing that the post adjusted shape points improved positionally by 86%. Furthermore, the vector adjustment was able to recover 95% of the actual positional displacement present in the database. To demonstrate a practical application, a head-to-head positional accuracy assessment between OSM, the USGS National Map (TNM, and United States Census Bureau’s Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding Referencing (TIGER 2007 roads was conducted.

  13. Direct assessment of tensile stress-crack opening behavior of Strain Hardening Cementitious Composites (SHCC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Eduardo B.; Fischer, Gregor; Barros, Joaquim A.O.

    2012-01-01

    -deformation behavior of these materials is therefore of great importance and is frequently carried out by characterizing the material tensile stress–strain behavior. In this paper an alternative approach to evaluate the tensile performance of SHCC is investigated. The behavior of the material in tension is studied at......The process of designing Strain Hardening Cementitious Composites (SHCC) is driven by the need to achieve certain performance parameters in tension. These are typically the pseudo-strain hardening behavior and the ability to develop multiple cracks. The assessment of the tensile load...... the level of a single crack. The derived tensile stress-crack opening behavior is utilized to analyze and compare the influence of various composite parameters on the resulting tensile behavior. The deformations occurring during tensile loading are furthermore examined using a digital image...

  14. Treatment process and toxicities assessment of wastewater issued from anaerobic digestion of household wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djelal, Hayet; Tahrani, Leyla; Fathallah, Salem; Cabrol, Audrey; Mansour, Hedi Ben

    2014-02-01

    Modern society grapples with large amounts of household waste. The anaerobic digestion of this waste offers a promising source for energy-rich biogas production but generates high toxic effluents that require treatment before reuse or disposal into the environment. This study aimed to investigate three techniques, namely coagulation/flocculation, electro-coagulation, and activated sludge, in terms of efficiency in the treatment of these effluents. It also aimed to assess their toxicity effects on the germination and growth of durum wheat Triticum aestivum L. seeds before and after 6 days of treatment. Activated sludge was most efficient in reducing chemical oxygen demand, turbidity, and conductivity (95.7 %, 15.8 %, and 37.5 %, respectively). The effluent treated with this technique induced a marked delay in germination (low mean time of germination) and a significant reduction in the percentages of seed germination and root and leaf growths. It was also noted to strongly induce lipid peroxidation in roots and leaves, which presumably explained the germination/growth inhibition of the wheat seeds. The effluent also induced marked lipid peroxidation effects and strongly inhibited the activities of butyrylcholinesterase in mice bone marrows. The effluent shows a high ability to inhibit the growth of three microalgae; these endpoints are useful tools to biomonitor the physico-chemical quality of this wastewater. Overall, while no significant alterations were observed in terms of animal and vegetable toxicities when the effluent was treated by coagulation/flocculation, activated sludge treatment proved efficient in reducing the toxicities induced by the untreated effluents. The results indicate that the application of this technique is promising with regards to attaining efficient, eco-friendly, and cost-effective strategies for the management and treatment of household waste. PMID:24072641

  15. Constructing a Multiple-Choice Assessment For Upper-Division Quantum Physics From An Open-Ended Tool

    CERN Document Server

    Sadaghiani, Homeyra; Pollock, Steven; Rehn, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    As part of an ongoing investigation of student learning in upper-division quantum mechanics, we needed a high-quality conceptual assessment instrument for comparing outcomes of different curricular approaches. The 14 item open-ended Quantum Mechanics Assessment Tool (QMAT) was previously developed for this purpose. However, open-ended tests require complex scoring rubrics, are difficult to score consistently, and demand substantial investment of faculty time to grade. Here, we present the process of converting open-ended questions to multiple-choice (MC) format. We highlight the construction of effective distractors and the use of student interviews to revise and validate questions and distractors. We examine other elements of the process, including results of a preliminary implementation of the MC assessment given at Cal Poly Pomona and CU Boulder.

  16. Efficiency assessment of wastewater treatment plants: A data envelopment analysis approach integrating technical, economic, and environmental issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellet, Lledó; Molinos-Senante, María

    2016-02-01

    The assessment of the efficiency of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is essential to compare their performance and consequently to identify the best operational practices that can contribute to the reduction of operational costs. Previous studies have evaluated the efficiency of WWTPs using conventional data envelopment analysis (DEA) models. Most of these studies have considered the operational costs of the WWTPs as inputs, while the pollutants removed from wastewater are treated as outputs. However, they have ignored the fact that each pollutant removed by a WWTP involves a different environmental impact. To overcome this limitation, this paper evaluates for the first time the efficiency of a sample of WWTPs by applying the weighted slacks-based measure model. It is a non-radial DEA model which allows assigning weights to the inputs and outputs according their importance. Thus, the assessment carried out integrates environmental issues with the traditional "techno-economic" efficiency assessment of WWTPs. Moreover, the potential economic savings for each cost item have been quantified at a plant level. It is illustrated that the WWTPs analyzed have significant room to save staff and energy costs. Several managerial implications to help WWTPs' operators make informed decisions were drawn from the methodology and empirical application carried out. PMID:26686068

  17. Regional Issue Identification and Assessment (RIIA). Volume III. Institutional barriers to developing power generation facilities in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, F. A.; Sawyer, C. H.; Maxwell, J. H.

    1979-10-01

    The Regional Assessments Division in the US Department of Energy (DOE) has undertaken a program to assess the probable consequences of various national energy policies in regions of the United States and to evaluate the constraints on national energy policy imposed by conditions in these regions. The program is referred to as the Regional Issues Identification and Assessment (RIIA) Program. Currently the RIIA Program is evaluating the Trendlong Mid-Mid scenario, a pattern of energy development for 1985 and 1990 derived from the Project Independence Evaluation System (PIES) model. This scenario assumes a medium annual growth rate in both the national demand for and national supply of energy. It has been disaggregated to specify the generating capacity to be supplied by each energy source in each state. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has the responsibility for evaluating the scenario for the Federal Region 10, consisting of Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. PNL is identifying impacts and constraints associated with realizing the scenario in a variety of categories, including air and water quality impacts, health and safety effects, and socioeconomic impacts. This report summarizes the analysis of one such category: institutional constraints - defined to include legal, organizational, and political barriers to the achievement of the scenario in the Northwest.

  18. Evaluation of colloid transport issues and recommendations for SKI performance assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickham, S. M.; Bennett, D. G.; Higgo, J. J. W. [Galson Sciences Ltd., Oakham (United Kingdom)

    2000-08-01

    The primary objective of this project was to develop recommendations to SKI for evaluating the potential significance of colloids in performance assessment (PA) studies by: Updating a previous review of the treatment of colloids in PA studies for radioactive waste repositories and to include information on PAs published in the period 1997-1999. We have reviewed sixteen PAs conducted in nine countries and have made the following observations: All PAs include colloid formation and colloid transport in their FEP list. Although some programmes have deferred consideration of colloidal radionuclide transport until further research has been performed, more recent PAs do account for the effects of colloids. PAs of disposal systems in which the waste canister is surrounded by a bentonite buffer do not consider the effect of colloids on the source term. These PAs assume that all colloids are filtered by the bentonite buffer and cannot escape from the near-field. PAs of disposal systems with no bentonite buffer have to account for mobilisation of radionuclides from the waste by colloids. The concentration of colloids that may form in the repository is a key uncertainty. Many PA programmes have modelled colloidal radionuclide transport in the geosphere using one-dimensional transport equations. No PA has included a comprehensive treatment of colloid transport using mechanistic modelling. Some PAs have not undertaken modelling of colloid transport in the geosphere, but have relied instead on arguments that such transport processes will be of low consequence to the performance of the disposal system. Five PAs have shown the effects of colloid transport through the geosphere to be potentially significant. For the disposal of spent nuclear fuel, SKB has developed the KBS-3 concept. For the disposal of long-lived low-level and intermediate-level radioactive waste, SKB has developed the SFL 3-5 concept. In the SFL 3-5 concept, waste is placed in underground disposal caverns and

  19. Open of chat rooms for discussing geological disposal issues and review of adequate approaches for offering the information using the internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JNC is doing publicity work to let the technical reliability for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) comprehended widely. But the information about geological disposal of HLW itself and its technology has not been spread and recognized. It has been required to offer the opportunity to discuss the geological disposal and its technology as our own issue. Recently the internet, which has such characteristics as two-way, instant and open communication means, has become used on business and for pleasure commonly. So the opportunity for discussing the topics related to geological disposal of HLW has been offered on the internet web site so-called 'Internet Forum' by JNC since fiscal year 1999. 'Internet Forum' or an assembly of chat rooms is being run on the web server which is not operated by JNC in order to provide the place where discussion on the issue can be done as fairly and objectively as possible. In this report, the results of Internet Forum in fiscal year 2000 comparing with that in fiscal year 1999 were shown and the adequate approaches of operating 'Internet Forum' and offering the information about geological disposal of HLW were reviewed. (author)

  20. Open of chat rooms for discussing geological disposal issues and review of adequate approaches for offering the information using the internet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takizawa, Masayuki; Ito, Toshikazu; Yabuta, Naohiro; Yoshizawa, Nobuaki; Tsunoda, Hirokazu [Mitsubishi Research Inst., Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    JNC is doing publicity work to let the technical reliability for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) comprehended widely. But the information about geological disposal of HLW itself and its technology has not been spread and recognized. It has been required to offer the opportunity to discuss the geological disposal and its technology as our own issue. Recently the internet, which has such characteristics as two-way, instant and open communication means, has become used on business and for pleasure commonly. So the opportunity for discussing the topics related to geological disposal of HLW has been offered on the internet web site so-called 'Internet Forum' by JNC since fiscal year 1999. 'Internet Forum' or an assembly of chat rooms is being run on the web server which is not operated by JNC in order to provide the place where discussion on the issue can be done as fairly and objectively as possible. In this report, the results of Internet Forum in fiscal year 2000 comparing with that in fiscal year 1999 were shown and the adequate approaches of operating 'Internet Forum' and offering the information about geological disposal of HLW were reviewed. (author)

  1. Regional Issue Identification and Assessment (RIIA): an analysis of the mid-range projection, Series C Scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honea, B.; Hillsman, E.

    1979-10-01

    The Department of Energy has hypothesized a number of alternate energy futures as part of its energy planning and analysis programs. How a proposed energy future called the Mid-Range Projection Series C Scenario would affect Federal Region VI (Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Texas, and New Mexico) is examined in this report. This scenario assumes a medium supply and a medium demand for fuel through 1990, and it incorporates the fuel-switching provisions of the Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination Act. The report portrays the major regional environmental, human health and safety, socioeconomic, and institutional effects that might result from the realization of the Series C Scenario. This discussion should serve as a basis for further assessments, as it identifies some issues of major concern for Region VI that must be addressed in more depth.

  2. An assessment of issues related to determination of time periods required for isolation of high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A commonly held perception is that disposal of spent nuclear fuel or high-level waste presents a risk of unprecedented duration. In 40 CFR 191, the EPA requires that projected releases of radioactivity be limited for 10,000 years after disposal with the intent that risks from the disposal repository be no greater than those from the uranium ore deposit from which the nuclear fuel was originally extracted. This study reviews issues involved in assessing compliance with the requirement. The determination of compliance is assumption dependent primarily due to uncertainties in dosi-metric data, and relative availability of the radioactivity for environmental transport and eventual assimilation by humans. A conclusion of this study is that, in time, a spent fuel disposal repository such as the projected Yucca Mountain Project Facility will become less hazardous than the original ore deposit

  3. Ventricular Assist Device implant (AB 5000 prototype cannula: In vitro assessment of MRI issues at 3-Tesla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencerina Samuel

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To evaluate MRI issues at 3-Tesla for a ventricular assist device (VAD. Methods The AB5000 Ventricle with a prototype Nitinol wire-reinforced In-Flow Cannula and Out-Flow Cannula attached (Abiomed, Inc., Danvers, MA was evaluated for magnetic field interactions, heating, and artifacts at 3-Tesla. MRI-related heating was assessed with the device in a gelled-saline-filled, head/torso phantom using a transmit/received RF body coil while performing MRI at a whole body averaged SAR of 3-W/kg for 15-min. Artifacts were assessed for the main metallic component of this VAD (atrial cannula using T1-weighted, spin echo and gradient echo pulse sequences. Results The AB5000 Ventricle with the prototype In-Flow Cannula and Out-Flow Cannula attached showed relatively minor magnetic field interactions that will not cause movement in situ. Heating was not excessive (highest temperature change, +0.8°C. Artifacts may create issues for diagnostic imaging if the area of interest is in the same area or close to the implanted metallic component of this VAD (i.e., the venous cannula. Conclusion The results of this investigation demonstrated that it would be acceptable for a patient with this VAD (AB5000 Ventricle with a prototype Nitinol wire-reinforced In-Flow Cannula and Out-Flow Cannula attached to undergo MRI at 3-Tesla or less. Notably, it is likely that the operation console for this device requires positioning a suitable distance (beyond the 100 Gauss line or in the MR control room from the 3-Tesla MR system to ensure proper function of the VAD.

  4. The Role of Integrated Modelling and Assessment for Decision-Making: Lessons from Water Allocation Issues in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakeman, A. J.; Guillaume, J. H. A.; El Sawah, S.; Hamilton, S.

    2014-12-01

    Integrated modelling and assessment (IMA) is best regarded as a process that can support environmental decision-making when issues are strongly contested and uncertainties pervasive. To be most useful, the process must be multi-dimensional and phased. Principally, it must be tailored to the problem context to encompass diverse issues of concern, management settings and stakeholders. This in turn requires the integration of multiple processes and components of natural and human systems and their corresponding spatial and temporal scales. Modellers therefore need to be able to integrate multiple disciplines, methods, models, tools and data, and many sources and types of uncertainty. These dimensions are incorporated into iteration between the various phases of the IMA process, including scoping, problem framing and formulation, assessing options and communicating findings. Two case studies in Australia are employed to share the lessons of how integration can be achieved in these IMA phases using a mix of stakeholder participation processes and modelling tools. One case study aims to improve the relevance of modelling by incorporating stakeholder's views of irrigated viticulture and water management decision making. It used a novel methodology with the acronym ICTAM, consisting of Interviews to elicit mental models, Cognitive maps to represent and analyse individual and group mental models, Time-sequence diagrams to chronologically structure the decision making process, an All-encompassing conceptual model, and computational Models of stakeholder decision making. The second case uses a hydro-economic river network model to examine basin-wide impacts of water allocation cuts and adoption of farm innovations. The knowledge exchange approach used in each case was designed to integrate data and knowledge bearing in mind the contextual dimensions of the problem at hand, and the specific contributions that environmental modelling was thought to be able to make.

  5. 開放式課程教材之著作權問題研究 Research on Copyright Issues of OpenCourseWare Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Wen Hsieh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available 開放式課程(OpenCourseWare自2002年美國麻省理工學院正式發布後,世界各地之大學紛紛無償地開放課程與教材於網路上,供大眾學習、分享。當教師在課堂上教學時,或多或少都會利用他人著作設計教材,一旦教材於網路上公開傳輸,原本屬於合理使用的教材即有侵權的隱憂。本研究旨在探討教師進行開放式課程教學時之著作權問題及其看法,主要目的包括:(一了解教師目前從事開放式課程教學及教材利用之情形;(二分析教師利用開放式課程教材之著作權問題;(三探討教師對於開放式課程教材之合理使用的看法。研究採半結構性訪談法,以參與國立台灣師範大學開放式課程計畫之教師為研究對象。最後並根據研究結果提出建議,以做為大學校院進行開放式課程之參考。Since Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT published OpenCourseWare (OCW in 2002, universities around the world continually and openly upload courses and teaching materials to the Internet and share with the people to use for free. However, teachers more or less use teaching materials designed by others when they give courses. Once these courses are uploaded to the Internet publicly, the fair use purposes of these teaching materials may confront problems of copyright infringement. The purposes of this study were: (1 To explore teachers’ usage of digital teaching materials; (2 To analyze the problems of copyright infringement when teachers using OpenCourseWare materials; (3 To discuss teachers’ opinions on issues about fair use doctrine of OpenCourseWare materials. This study uses methods through semi-structured interviews with teachers who participate in the project of National Taiwan Normal University OpenCourseWare (NTNU OCW. From the results of the study, recommendations for universities and colleges that publish OpenCourseWare are provided.

  6. Open source research and nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The paper will assess the utility of open source research for enhancing the collection and analysis of information related to nuclear safeguards. The International Centre for Security Analysis (ICSA) at King's College London adopts a cross-disciplinary approach for open source research relevant to nuclear safeguards by combining expertise in science and technology, political science, information technology and multiple languages including Arabic, Farsi, English, French, German, Japanese, Korean, Mandarin, Russian and Turkish. The paper will examine the following sets of issues related to open source research in the field of nuclear safeguards: - the various 'types' of open sources that are applicable to enhancing the analysis of nuclear safeguards issues (primary, secondary, technical and 'grey literature'); - the 'utility' of open source research in terms of enhancing the analysis of nuclear safeguards issues (contextual awareness, tip-off, response to unexpected contingencies); - the potential 'problems' associated with researching open sources related to nuclear safeguards issues (inaccuracy, bias, irrelevance, disinformation); - the 'challenges' involved in conducting open source research on nuclear safeguards issues (information overload, open versus closed societies. The paper will also highlight the challenges posed by open source analysis). The utility, problems and challenges associated with open source research in the field of nuclear safeguards will be illustrated with various thematic, regional and country-based examples. (author)

  7. Assessment of livestock slaughtered for food and meat inspection issues in selected abattoirs in Benue State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundu Shima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, many zoonotic diseases have emerged with serious negative consequences on humans. In the light of this, ante-mortem inspections were conducted, using body condition scoring to assess the health status of livestock presenting for slaughter, and to identify issues relating to meat inspection in four purposively selected government approved abattoirs in Benue State, Nigeria. The result of our assessment showed that 5.0% of the cattle and goats presented for slaughter during the investigation period were highly emaciated animals with a prevalence range of 0.0–12.1% with variance between abattoirs, whereas 37.9% were moderately emaciated and 57.2% had good body condition. Extreme emaciation was higher in cattle (6.7% compared to the goats (3.2%. The moderately high prevalence of emaciated animals intended for human consumption coupled with unorganized and inappropriate meat inspection in the studied abattoirs has serious public health implications. To prevent consumers from contacting zoonotic diseases, education of butchers and traders is necessary for thorough and effective inspections. In addition, animal traders should be encouraged to seek veterinary assistance for their sick animals. Meat inspectors should treat all emaciated animals as suspects, as emaciation could be a cause from underlying health problems.

  8. Assessment of environmental health and safety issues associated with the commercialization of unconventional gas recovery: Devonian shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify and examine potential public health and safety issues and the potential environmental impacts from recovery of natural gas from Devonian age shale. This document will serve as background data and information for planners within the government to assist in development of our new energy technologies in a timely and environmentally sound manner. This report describes the resource and the DOE eastern gas shales project in Section 2. Section 3 describes the new and developing recovery technologies associated with Devonian shale. An assessment of the environment, health and safety impacts associated with a typical fields is presented in Section 4. The typical field for this assessment occupies ten square miles and is developed on a 40-acre spacing (that is, there is a well in each 40-acre grid). This field thus has a total of 160 wells. Finally, Section 5 presents the conclusions and recommendations. A reference list is provided to give a greater plant. Based on the estimated plant cost and the various cases of operating income, an economic analysis was performed employing a profitability index criterion of discounted cash flow to determine an interest rate of return on the plant investment.

  9. Steam generation in line-focus solar collectors: A comparative assessment of thermal performance, operating stability and cost issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, L. M.; May, E. K.

    1982-04-01

    The engineering and system benefits of using direct steam (in situ) generation in line-focus collectors are assessed. The major emphasis of the analysis is a detailed thermal performance comparison of in situ systems (which utilize unfired boilers). The analysis model developed for this study is discussed in detail. An analysis of potential flow stability problems is also provided along with a cursory cost analysis and an assessment of freeze protection, safety, and control issues. Results indicated a significant thermal performance advantage over the more conventional oil and flash systems and the flow stability does not appear to be a significant problem. In particular, at steam temperatures of 220 C (430 F) under the chosen set of assumptions, annual delivered energy predictions indicate that the in situ system can deliver 15% more energy than an oil system and 12% more energy than flash system, with all of the systems using the same collector field. Further, the in situ system may result in a 10% capital cost reduction.

  10. Assessment of open source software for CBCT in detecting additional mental foramina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oséas Santos Junior

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate which post-processing imaging protocol would be better to analyze the additional mental foramen (AMF in preoperative planning with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT exams, and to test reproducibility of measurements, using open source software (OsiriX. The software was used to detect the cases of AMF from among 58 exams for dental implant planning in edentulous mandible areas-three cases were found. The case images were submitted to qualitative analysis using 2D orthogonal MPR, 3D-MPR and 3D volume rendering protocols by two oral and maxillofacial radiologists. Quantitative analysis used the 3D-MPR protocol; the closed polygon tool measured the mental foramen (MF and the AMF areas; the length tool measured the distance between foramina. The measurements were performed independently by the examiners, at two different times. Intra- and interexaminer agreement was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient. The panoramic view did not show the MF and the AMF clearly. The AMF could be detected in the parasagittal view. 2D Orthogonal MPR was effective to observe the AMF in some cases. The 3D-MPR and 3D view protocols were the most effective to locate and analyze the AMF. In conclusion, a 3D view improves visualization when anatomical points are not clearly visible. 3D-MPR was considered a more effective post-processing imaging protocol to observe foramina relationships. The high reproducibility of measurements for anatomical MF variations was established using specific tools featured in open source software for CBCT. OsiriX is realistic and recommended for preoperative planning.

  11. Final Report: Risk assessment for produced water discharges to Louisiana open bays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, A.F.; DePhillips, M.P.; Holtzman, S.

    1996-03-01

    Potential human health and environmental impacts from discharges of produced water to the Gulf of Mexico are of concern to regulators at the State and Federal levels, the public, environmental interest groups and industry. Current and proposed regulations require a zero discharge limit for coastal facilities, based primarily on studies in low energy, poorly flushed environments. However, produced water discharges in coastal Louisiana include a number of open bay sites, where potential human health and environmental impacts are likely to be smaller than those demonstrated for low energy canal environments, but greater than the minimal impacts associated with offshore discharges. Additional data and assessments are needed to support risk managers at the State and Federal levels in the development of regulations that protect human health and the environment without unnecessary cost to the economic welfare of the region and the nation. This project supports the Natural Gas and Oil Initiative objectives to: (1) improve coordination on environmental research; (2) streamline State and Federal regulation; (3) enhance State, and Federal regulatory decision making capability; (4) enhance dialogue through industry/government/public partnerships; and (5) work with States and Native American Tribes.

  12. Open issues in neutrino astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutrinos of astrophysical origin are messengers produced in stars, in explosive phenomena like core-collapse supernovae, in the accretion disks around black holes, or in the Earth's atmosphere. Their fluxes and spectra encode information on the environments that produce them. Such fluxes are modified in characteristic ways when neutrinos traverse a medium. Here the current understanding of neutrino flavour conversion in media is summarized. The importance of this domain for astrophysical observations is emphasized. Examples are given of the fundamental properties that research into astrophysical neutrinos has uncovered, or might reveal in the future. (copyright 2013 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Emerging issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some formal and informal mechanisms were implemented at the Ontario Ministry of the Environment that allow the identification of emerging environmental issues. The early warning is most often provided through the expertise of the personnel and their contacts. The Ministry commissioned a study to review the process, learn from the processes in place in other organizations, and implement the appropriate changes into its emerging issues procedure. The team conducting the review answered four specific questions. The first question was: What are the necessary elements of an emerging issues tool? The second question was: What are some of the best practices in other jurisdictions? It was followed by the question: How do those jurisdictions implement emerging issues models? The final question was: What implementation is appropriate for the Ontario Ministry of the Environment? The approach involved reviewing the appropriate literature and reviewing the best practices in place in other jurisdictions, both in the United States and in Europe. Senior officials in Canada and the United States were interviewed, and the procedure was identified and described. A case study concerning the acid rain problem in the 1960s and 1970s was used to test the developed procedure retroactively. This procedure involves a variation of the top-down, bottom-up input procedure at the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), with a formal issues scanning process, and the prioritizing and analysis of the steps. It was noted that if the procedure had been in place in the late 1960s in Ontario, it would have been possible to identify one or more impacts from the acid rain situation ten years earlier. Preventive and remedial action could have been implemented, leading to environmental and economic benefits for the province of Ontario. The broad involvement of stakeholders is required for an open and systematic prioritization of the issues. The authors concluded the study by identifying

  14. Open Standards, Open Source, and Open Innovation: Harnessing the Benefits of Openness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Committee for Economic Development, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Digitization of information and the Internet have profoundly expanded the capacity for openness. This report details the benefits of openness in three areas--open standards, open-source software, and open innovation--and examines the major issues in the debate over whether openness should be encouraged or not. The report explains each of these…

  15. Quality Assessment of Studies Published in Open Access and Subscription Journals: Results of a Systematic Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorino, Roberta; Milovanovic, Sonja; Stojanovic, Jovana; Efremov, Ljupcho; Amore, Rosarita; Boccia, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Along with the proliferation of Open Access (OA) publishing, the interest for comparing the scientific quality of studies published in OA journals versus subscription journals has also increased. With our study we aimed to compare the methodological quality and the quality of reporting of primary epidemiological studies and systematic reviews and meta-analyses published in OA and non-OA journals. Methods In order to identify the studies to appraise, we listed all OA and non-OA journals which published in 2013 at least one primary epidemiologic study (case-control or cohort study design), and at least one systematic review or meta-analysis in the field of oncology. For the appraisal, we picked up the first studies published in 2013 with case-control or cohort study design from OA journals (Group A; n = 12), and in the same time period from non-OA journals (Group B; n = 26); the first systematic reviews and meta-analyses published in 2013 from OA journals (Group C; n = 15), and in the same time period from non-OA journals (Group D; n = 32). We evaluated the methodological quality of studies by assessing the compliance of case-control and cohort studies to Newcastle and Ottawa Scale (NOS) scale, and the compliance of systematic reviews and meta-analyses to Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) scale. The quality of reporting was assessed considering the adherence of case-control and cohort studies to STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) checklist, and the adherence of systematic reviews and meta-analyses to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) checklist. Results Among case-control and cohort studies published in OA and non-OA journals, we did not observe significant differences in the median value of NOS score (Group A: 7 (IQR 7–8) versus Group B: 8 (7–9); p = 0.5) and in the adherence to STROBE checklist (Group A, 75% versus Group B, 80%; p = 0.1). The

  16. Quality Assessment of Studies Published in Open Access and Subscription Journals: Results of a Systematic Evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Pastorino

    Full Text Available Along with the proliferation of Open Access (OA publishing, the interest for comparing the scientific quality of studies published in OA journals versus subscription journals has also increased. With our study we aimed to compare the methodological quality and the quality of reporting of primary epidemiological studies and systematic reviews and meta-analyses published in OA and non-OA journals.In order to identify the studies to appraise, we listed all OA and non-OA journals which published in 2013 at least one primary epidemiologic study (case-control or cohort study design, and at least one systematic review or meta-analysis in the field of oncology. For the appraisal, we picked up the first studies published in 2013 with case-control or cohort study design from OA journals (Group A; n = 12, and in the same time period from non-OA journals (Group B; n = 26; the first systematic reviews and meta-analyses published in 2013 from OA journals (Group C; n = 15, and in the same time period from non-OA journals (Group D; n = 32. We evaluated the methodological quality of studies by assessing the compliance of case-control and cohort studies to Newcastle and Ottawa Scale (NOS scale, and the compliance of systematic reviews and meta-analyses to Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR scale. The quality of reporting was assessed considering the adherence of case-control and cohort studies to STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE checklist, and the adherence of systematic reviews and meta-analyses to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA checklist.Among case-control and cohort studies published in OA and non-OA journals, we did not observe significant differences in the median value of NOS score (Group A: 7 (IQR 7-8 versus Group B: 8 (7-9; p = 0.5 and in the adherence to STROBE checklist (Group A, 75% versus Group B, 80%; p = 0.1. The results did not change after

  17. Issues on Settlement of Final Expenses and Performance Assessment in the Course of Transition:Evidence from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü Wei

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the process and the performance of transition with the following logic:transition is an objective process in accordance with the general principles of economic history;the objectivity is embodied in the expected economic and social effects of transition,the profound economic and social changes in the course of transition,and the different problems facing different transitional stages.Transition is,at the same time,a subjective process involving the participation of the government and the public;the subjectivity is embodied in the thinking on transition,path selection,policy design,and process control.It requires evaluation,correction,and anticipation on the dynamic process with analysis tools and methods that are normally used to validate the subjective thoughts in the objective world to verify whether effects of the subjective action follow and develop the objective principles.It is under such a logical framework that issues on the settlement of final expenses and the performance assessment of transition raised in this paper focus on the improvement in traditional analysis tools and methods and further apply such improvement to China's course of transition.The rudimental premise in this study is the combination of the process of transition,all-roundness of development,and phases of evolution.

  18. Assessment of the implementation issues for fuel cells in domestic and small scale stationary power generation and CHP applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, G.; Cruden, A.; Hart, J.

    2002-07-01

    This report discusses implementation issues associated with the use of fuel cells in <10 kW domestic, small-scale power generation and combined heat and power (CHP) operations in the UK. The report examines the key issues (fuel cell system standards and certification, fuel infrastructure, commercial issues and competing CHP technologies), before discussing non-technical issues including finance, ownership, import and export configuration, pricing structure, customer acceptability, installation, operation and training of servicing and commissioning personnel. The report goes on to discuss market and technical drivers, grid connection issues and solutions, operations and maintenance. Recommendations for the future are made.

  19. ASSESSMENT IN EDUCATION: A CASE FOR QUALITY AND STANDARDS WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF OPEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION: A Case Study of One Zimbabwean University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington SAMKANGE

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to assess the assessment procedures used at one Open and Distance Learning (ODL institution in Zimbabwe. The study focused on the views and perceptions of current and former students of the university. The study also analyzed some documents on assessment procedures at the university. The study used the qualitative methodology and data was qualitatively analyzed. The focus was on fifty current and former students in the Bachelor of Education in Educational Management (BEDM and Master of Education in Educational Management (MEDM programmes. Results indicated that both current and former students were generally satisfied with the assessment methods used in their programmes. These included assignments, examinations and research projects/dissertations. It was noted that examinations had the highest weighting in both programmes. However, the study also noted that there were some practices that compromised quality if not carefully handled. These included the supervision of research projects and dissertations by only one supervisor per student. There were fears of bias in that regard. The study came up with a number of recommendations. These included the need to reconcile and align regulations in Tutorial Letters with General Information and Regulations currently in use. Other recommendations included the need to review the study period without compromising the quality of education for BEDM, and the need to deal with issues of plagiarism of assignments. It should also be mandatory for Masters’ students to attend a viva voce to defend their dissertations. Finally, ODL demands innovative assessment methods which should be clearly distinct from conventional modes of assessment.

  20. Soil Monitor: an open source web application for real-time soil sealing monitoring and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langella, Giuliano; Basile, Angelo; Giannecchini, Simone; Iamarino, Michela; Munafò, Michele; Terribile, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    Soil sealing is one of the most important causes of land degradation and desertification. In Europe, soil covered by impermeable materials has increased by about 80% from the Second World War till nowadays, while population has only grown by one third. There is an increasing concern at the high political levels about the need to attenuate imperviousness itself and its effects on soil functions. European Commission promulgated a roadmap (COM(2011) 571) by which the net land take would be zero by 2050. Furthermore, European Commission also published a report in 2011 providing best practices and guidelines for limiting soil sealing and imperviousness. In this scenario, we developed an open source and an open source based Soil Sealing Geospatial Cyber Infrastructure (SS-GCI) named as "Soil Monitor". This tool merges a webGIS with parallel geospatial computation in a fast and dynamic fashion in order to provide real-time assessments of soil sealing at high spatial resolution (20 meters and below) over the whole Italy. Common open source webGIS packages are used to implement both the data management and visualization infrastructures, such as GeoServer and MapStore. The high-speed geospatial computation is ensured by a GPU parallelism using the CUDA (Computing Unified Device Architecture) framework by NVIDIA®. This kind of parallelism required the writing - from scratch - all codes needed to fulfil the geospatial computation built behind the soil sealing toolbox. The combination of GPU computing with webGIS infrastructures is relatively novel and required particular attention at the Java-CUDA programming interface. As a result, Soil Monitor is smart because it can perform very high time-consuming calculations (querying for instance an Italian administrative region as area of interest) in less than one minute. The web application is embedded in a web browser and nothing must be installed before using it. Potentially everybody can use it, but the main targets are the

  1. Biohumoral and endocrine parameters in assessment of surgical trauma in open and laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radunović Miodrag

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Every surgical procedure causes metabolic, endocrine, and hemodynamic stress in the organism. The aim of this work was to assess the extent of trauma following each of the two types of cholecystectomy (traditional/open and laparoscopic by measuring palette of biochemical parameters. Methods. This prospective, single- center study included 120 patients subjected to elective cholecystectomy during the period of one year. Sixty patients were treated laparoscopically and 60 traditionally. Biohumoral and endocrine parameters were determined from 24-hour urine and blood. We measured adrenaline, noradrenaline, metabolites of corticosteroid hormones (17-hydroxyl and 17-keto steroids, C-reactive protein (CRP, albumin, glycemia, creatine-phosphokinase (CPK, lactate-dehydrogenase (LDH, red blood cells sedimentation and serum concentration of potassium. Results. We observed significantly lower levels of adrenaline (p < 0.01, noradrenaline (p < 0.05, dopamine (p < 0.01, 17-hydroxyl (p < 0.01 and 17-keto steroids (p < 0.01, glycemia (p < 0.01, CPK (p < 0.01, LDH (p < 0.01 and red blood cells sedimentation (p < 0.01 following laparoscopic cholecystectomy compared to traditional one. Significant increase in CRP levels was recorded postoperatively in both groups (p < 0.05, as well as significant decrease in serum albumin values (p < 0.05. Duration of the hospitalization following laparoscopic cholecystectomy was significantly shorter (p < 0.01. Conclusion. The intensity of organism response is proportional to the intensity of surgical trauma. Metabolic, tissue and neuroendocrine response of organism to trauma has lower intensity after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  2. Assessing soil erosion risk using RUSLE through a GIS open source desktop and web application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, L; Teodoro, A C; Gonçalves, J A; Soares, D; Cunha, M

    2016-06-01

    Soil erosion is a serious environmental problem. An estimation of the expected soil loss by water-caused erosion can be calculated considering the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). Geographical Information Systems (GIS) provide different tools to create categorical maps of soil erosion risk which help to study the risk assessment of soil loss. The objective of this study was to develop a GIS open source application (in QGIS), using the RUSLE methodology for estimating erosion rate at the watershed scale (desktop application) and provide the same application via web access (web application). The applications developed allow one to generate all the maps necessary to evaluate the soil erosion risk. Several libraries and algorithms from SEXTANTE were used to develop these applications. These applications were tested in Montalegre municipality (Portugal). The maps involved in RUSLE method-soil erosivity factor, soil erodibility factor, topographic factor, cover management factor, and support practices-were created. The estimated mean value of the soil loss obtained was 220 ton km(-2) year(-1) ranged from 0.27 to 1283 ton km(-2) year(-1). The results indicated that most of the study area (80 %) is characterized by very low soil erosion level (<321 ton km(-2) year(-1)) and in 4 % of the studied area the soil erosion was higher than 962 ton km(-2) year(-1). It was also concluded that areas with high slope values and bare soil are related with high level of erosion and the higher the P and C values, the higher the soil erosion percentage. The RUSLE web and the desktop application are freely available. PMID:27184749

  3. Magnetic Fusion Energy Plasma Interactive and High Heat Flux Components: Volume 5, Technical assessment of critical issues in the steady state operation of fusion confinement devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Critical issues for the steady state operation of plasma confinement devices exist in both the physics and technology fields of fusion research. Due to the wide range and number of these issues, this technical assessment has focused on the crucial issues associated with the plasma physics and the plasma interactive components. The document provides information on the problem areas that affect the design and operation of a steady state ETR or ITER type confinement device. It discusses both tokamaks and alternative concepts, and provides a survey of existing and planned confinement machines and laboratory facilities that can address the identified issues. A universal definition of steady state operation is difficult to obtain. From a physics point of view, steady state is generally achieved when the time derivatives approach zero and the operation time greatly exceeds the characteristic time constants of the device. Steady state operation for materials depends on whether thermal stress, creep, fatigue, radiation damage, or power removal are being discussed. For erosion issues, the fluence and availability of the machine for continuous operation are important, assuming that transient events such as disruptions do not limit the component lifetimes. The panel suggests, in general terms, that steady state requires plasma operation from 100 to 1000 seconds and an availability of more than a few percent, which is similar to the expectations for an ETR type device. The assessment of critical issues for steady state operation is divided into four sections: physics issues; technology issues; issues in alternative concepts; and devices and laboratory facilities that can address these problems

  4. Isotope biogeochemical assessment of natural biodegradation processes in open cast pit mining landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Christina; Knöller, Kay; Koschorreck, Matthias; Ussath, Maria; Hoth, Nils

    2014-05-01

    In Germany, a major share of the energy production is based on the burning of lignite from open cast pit mines. The remediation and re-cultivation of the former mining areas in the Lusatian and Central German lignite mining district is an enormous technical and economical challenge. After mine closures, the surrounding landscapes are threatened by acid mine drainage (AMD), i.e. the acidification and mineralization of rising groundwater with metals and inorganic contaminants. The high content of sulfur (sulfuric acid, sulfate), nitrogen (ammonium) and iron compounds (iron-hydroxides) deteriorates the groundwater quality and decelerates sustainable development of tourism in (former) mining landscapes. Natural biodegradation or attenuation (NA) processes of inorganic contaminants are considered to be a technically low impact and an economically beneficial solution. The investigations of the stable isotope compositions of compounds involved in NA processes helps clarify the dynamics of natural degradation and provides specific informations on retention processes of sulfate and nitrogen-compounds in mine dump water, mine dump sediment, and residual pit lakes. In an active mine dump we investigated zones where the process of bacterial sulfate reduction, as one very important NA process, takes place and how NA can be enhanced by injecting reactive substrates. Stable isotopes signatures of sulfur and nitrogen components were examined and evaluated in concert with hydrogeochemical data. In addition, we delineated the sources of ammonium pollution in mine dump sediments and investigated nitrification by 15N-labeling techniques to calculate the limit of the conversion of harmful ammonium to nitrate in residual mining lakes. Ultimately, we provided an isotope biogeochemical assessment of natural attenuation of sulfate and ammonium at mine dump sites and mining lakes. Also, we estimated the risk potential for water in different compartments of the hydrological system. In

  5. Geochemical assessments and classification of coal mine spoils for better understanding of potential salinity issues at closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Hee; Li, Xiaofang; Edraki, Mansour; Baumgartl, Thomas; Kirsch, Bernie

    2013-06-01

    Coal mining wastes in the form of spoils, rejects and tailings deposited on a mine lease can cause various environmental issues including contamination by toxic metals, acid mine drainage and salinity. Dissolution of salt from saline mine spoil, in particular, during rainfall events may result in local or regional dispersion of salts through leaching or in the accumulation of dissolved salts in soil pore water and inhibition of plant growth. The salinity in coal mine environments is from the geogenic salt accumulations and weathering of spoils upon surface exposure. The salts are mainly sulfates and chlorides of calcium, magnesium and sodium. The objective of the research is to investigate and assess the source and mobility of salts and trace elements in various spoil types, thereby predicting the leaching behavior of the salts and trace elements from spoils which have similar geochemical properties. X-ray diffraction analysis, total digestion, sequential extraction and column experiments were conducted to achieve the objectives. Sodium and chloride concentrations best represented salinity of the spoils, which might originate from halite. Electrical conductivity, sodium and chloride concentrations in the leachate decreased sharply with increasing leaching cycles. Leaching of trace elements was not significant in the studied area. Geochemical classification of spoil/waste defined for rehabilitation purposes was useful to predict potential salinity, which corresponded with the classification from cluster analysis based on leaching data of major elements. Certain spoil groups showed high potential salinity by releasing high sodium and chloride concentrations. Therefore, the leaching characteristics of sites having saline susceptible spoils require monitoring, and suitable remediation technologies have to be applied. PMID:23644772

  6. Bike Helmets and Black Riders: Experiential Approaches to Helping Students Understand Natural Hazard Assessment and Mitigation Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, S. A.; Kley, J.; Hindle, D.; Friedrich, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Defending society against natural hazards is a high-stakes game of chance against nature, involving tough decisions. How should a developing nation allocate its budget between building schools for towns without ones or making existing schools earthquake-resistant? Does it make more sense to build levees to protect against floods, or to prevent development in the areas at risk? Would more lives be saved by making hospitals earthquake-resistant, or using the funds for patient care? These topics are challenging because they are far from normal experience, in that they involve rare events and large sums. To help students in natural hazard classes conceptualize them, we pose tough and thought-provoking questions about complex issues involved and explore them together via lectures, videos, field trips, and in-class and homework questions. We discuss analogous examples from the students' experiences, drawing on a new book "Playing Against Nature, Integrating Science and Economics to Mitigate Natural Hazards in an Uncertain World". Asking whether they wear bicycle helmets and why or why not shows the cultural perception of risk. Individual students' responses vary, and the overall results vary dramatically between the US, UK, and Germany. Challenges in hazard assessment in an uncertain world are illustrated by asking German students whether they buy a ticket on public transportation - accepting a known cost - or "ride black" - not paying but risking a heavy fine if caught. We explore the challenge of balancing mitigation costs and benefits via the question "If you were a student in Los Angeles, how much more would you pay in rent each month to live in an earthquake-safe building?" Students learn that interdisciplinary thinking is needed, and that due to both uncertainties and sociocultural factors, no unique or right strategies exist for a particular community, much the less all communities. However, we can seek robust policies that give sensible results given

  7. Magnetic fusion energy plasma interactive and high heat flux components. Volume I. Technical assessment of the critical issues and problem areas in the plasma materials interaction field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technical assessment of the critical issues and problem areas in the field of plasma materials interactions (PMI) in magnetic fusion devices shows these problems to be central for near-term experiments, for intermediate-range reactor devices including D-T burning physics experiments, and for long-term reactor machines. Critical technical issues are ones central to understanding and successful operation of existing and near-term experiments/reactors or devices of great importance for the long run, i.e., ones which will require an extensive, long-term development effort and thus should receive attention now. Four subgroups were formed to assess the critical PMI issues along four major lines: (1) PMI and plasma confinement physics experiments; (2) plasma-edge modelling and theory; (3) surface physics; and (4) materials technology for in-vessel components and the first wall. The report which follows is divided into four major sections, one for each of these topics

  8. From the Editors: An assessment of open access journals: quality, prestige and social responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Pep Simo; Mercedes Garcia-Parra; Sílvia Sunyer Lazaro; Gloria Trullas; Josep Maria Jorda

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the new objectives and revises the last volume evolution, analyzing factors like prestige, quality, diffusion and social responsibility in science. It exposes a qualitative analysis of the maturity state like example of open access journal.

  9. Environmental Assessment of the Proposed Opening of Mathews Brake National Wildlife Refuge to Fishing

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This proposal calls for the opening of Mathews Brake NWR to sport fishing. General regulations pertaining to licenses, creel limits, and methods of taking fish will...

  10. Vaccine Wastage Assessment After Introduction of Open Vial Policy in Surat Municipal Corporation Area of India

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Prakash B.; Jayesh J. Rana; Jangid, Sunil G.; Neha R. Bavarva; Patel, Manan J.; Raj Kumar Bansal

    2015-01-01

    Background As per the vaccine management policy of the Government of India all vaccine vials opened for an immunization session were discarded at the end of that session, irrespective of the type of vaccine or the number of doses remaining in the vial prior to 2013. Subsequently, open vial policy (OVP) was introduced in 2013 and should reduce both vaccine wastage as well as governmental healthcare costs for immunization. This study evaluates the vaccine wastage after introduction of the O...

  11. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) Ecohydrological Model Circa 2015: Global Application Trends, Insights and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassman, P. W.; Arnold, J. G.; Srinivasan, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is one of the most widely used watershed-scale water quality models in the world. Over 2,000 peer-reviewed SWAT-related journal articles have been published and hundreds of other studies have been published in conference proceedings and other formats. The use of SWAT was initially concentrated in North America and Europe but has also expanded dramatically in other countries and regions during the past decade including Brazil, China, India, Iran, South Korea, Southeast Asia and eastern Africa. The SWAT model has proven to be a very flexible tool for investigating a broad range of hydrologic and water quality problems at different watershed scales and environmental conditions, and has proven very adaptable for applications requiring improved hydrologic and other enhanced simulation needs. We investigate here the various technological, networking, and other factors that have supported the expanded use of SWAT, and also highlight current worldwide simulation trends and possible impediments to future increased usage of the model. Examples of technological advances include easy access to web-based documentation, user-support groups, and SWAT literature, a variety of Geographic Information System (GIS) interface tools, pre- and post-processing calibration software and other software, and an open source code which has served as a model development catalyst for multiple user groups. Extensive networking regarding the use of SWAT has further occurred via internet-based user support groups, model training workshops, regional working groups, regional and international conferences, and targeted development workshops. We further highlight several important model development trends that have emerged during the past decade including improved hydrologic, cropping system, best management practice (BMP) and pollutant transport simulation methods. In addition, several current SWAT weaknesses will be addressed and key development needs will be

  12. The evolution of gas price: gas assessment and perspectives; The evolution of gas price on the American, Asian and European markets; Assessment of the organised gas market; Assessment of gas market opening; Gas price: the point of view of consumers and providers; Tariff, the formula which cannot be found: a new stage in an endless history; The diversity of the world gas industry: the Mediterranean situation on prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief introduction, this document contains the various contributions and interventions during round tables dealing with the evolution of gas price on American, Asian and European markets, an assessment of the organised gas market (model, references, members, and so on), an assessment of market gas opening, the point of view of consumers and providers on gas price. Then three articles address the issue of gas pricing in France, the developments of gas industry in the world (consumptions, production, perspectives for LNG) and the Mediterranean situation with respect to gas prices (trends and challenges)

  13. Natural radioactivity in lignite samples from open pit mines “Kolubara”, Serbia – risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal as fossil fuel mainly contains naturally occurring radionuclides from the uranium and thorium series and 40K. Use of coal, primarily in industry, as a result has dispersion of radioactive material from coal in and through air and water. The aim of this study was to determine the activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in coal samples from open pit mines “Kolubara” and to evaluate its effect on population health. The results showed that all measured and calculated values were below the limits recommended in international legislation. - Highlights: • Activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in coal samples were determined. • Effect on population health due to the activity of these radionuclides was estimated. • All samples were collected at different locations of the open pit mines “Kolubara”. • All measured and calculated values were below the recommended limits. • There is no enhanced radiation hazard for population nearby open pit mines

  14. Special Issue on Innovation through Open Data: A Review of the State-of-the-Art and an Emerging Research Agenda: Guest Editors’ Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuiderwijk, A.M.G.; Helbig, N.; Gil-García, J.R.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.

    2014-01-01

    For decades good governance scholarship has focused attention on the importance of government openness [26], [34]. Since the 1960s, Freedom of Information (FOI) legislation has formed the backbone of institutional support for opening information and documents [76] and participatory processes [4], [7

  15. Assessing the Impact of Security Behavior on the Awareness of Open-Source Intelligence: A Quantitative Study of IT Knowledge Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Daniel B., III

    2014-01-01

    There is a lack of literature linking end-user behavior to the availability of open-source intelligence (OSINT). Most OSINT literature has been focused on the use and assessment of open-source intelligence, not the proliferation of personally or organizationally identifiable information (PII/OII). Additionally, information security studies have…

  16. 3D laser scanning and open source GIS for solar potential assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    such as roof overhangs or building parts covered by e.g. vegetation are not represented in 2.5D raster data, they have been used for building detection and solar radiation modeling in many cases. This thesis aims to utilize the highest degree of information - the third dimension - of the laser scanning point cloud for both the detection of planar areas of buildings and solar radiation modeling. The algorithms and workflows developed in the framework of this thesis are implemented in Open Source GRASS and SAGA GIS allowing the integration of own modules and the use of existing visualization and spatial analysis tools to interpret and further process the results. Methods are demonstrated generating 2D GIS-ready information in the form of vector polygons and vector lines of the detected objects and their properties (e.g. area, total amount of the incoming solar energy). This offers the possibility for 'normal' GIS users such as spatial planners to analyze and further process the spatial information in standard GIS environments. In the first part of this thesis approaches for the detection and segmentation, respectively, of roof planes using 3D point cloud data acquired by Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) are presented. The detected roof planes are used as input for point cloud-based solar radiation modeling. Shadows of nearby objects are considered by modeling the 3D horizon of each point being reflected from a roof plane within the original laser scanning point cloud. As solar thermal and photovoltaic conversion systems can also be mounted on building facades the developed point cloud based solar radiation model is transferred on building walls extracted from Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS) data in order to assess their solar potential. The developed algorithms are completely executed within the computer's main memory and thus are not suitable for large study areas because the huge amount of point cloud data produced by LiDAR technology cannot be processed at once. In the

  17. Assessment of Hydrogen Sulfide Minimum Detection Limits of an Open Path Tunable Diode Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    During June 2007, U.S. EPA conducted a feasibility study to determine whether the EPA OTM 10 measurement approach, also known as radial plume mapping (RPM), was feasible. A Boreal open-path tunable diode laser (OP-TDL) to collect path-integrated hydrogen sulfide measurements alon...

  18. Massive Open Online Course Completion Rates Revisited: Assessment, Length and Attrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Katy

    2015-01-01

    This analysis is based upon enrolment and completion data collected for a total of 221 Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). It extends previously reported work (Jordan, 2014) with an expanded dataset; the original work is extended to include a multiple regression analysis of factors that affect completion rates and analysis of attrition rates…

  19. Assessment of the accuracy of coupled cluster perturbation theory for open-shell systems. I. Triples expansions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Janus J.; Matthews, Devin A.; Jørgensen, Poul; Gauss, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    The accuracy at which total energies of open-shell atoms and organic radicals may be calculated is assessed for selected coupled cluster perturbative triples expansions, all of which augment the coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) energy by a non-iterative correction for the effect of triple excitations. Namely, the second- through sixth-order models of the recently proposed CCSD(T-n) triples series [J. J. Eriksen et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 064108 (2014)] are compared to the acclaimed CCSD(T) model for both unrestricted as well as restricted open-shell Hartree-Fock (UHF/ROHF) reference determinants. By comparing UHF- and ROHF-based statistical results for a test set of 18 modest-sized open-shell species with comparable RHF-based results, no behavioral differences are observed for the higher-order models of the CCSD(T-n) series in their correlated descriptions of closed- and open-shell species. In particular, we find that the convergence rate throughout the series towards the coupled cluster singles, doubles, and triples (CCSDT) solution is identical for the two cases. For the CCSD(T) model, on the other hand, not only its numerical consistency, but also its established, yet fortuitous cancellation of errors breaks down in the transition from closed- to open-shell systems. The higher-order CCSD(T-n) models (orders n > 3) thus offer a consistent and significant improvement in accuracy relative to CCSDT over the CCSD(T) model, equally for RHF, UHF, and ROHF reference determinants, albeit at an increased computational cost.

  20. Assessment of the accuracy of coupled cluster perturbation theory for open-shell systems. I. Triples expansions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Janus J; Matthews, Devin A; Jørgensen, Poul; Gauss, Jürgen

    2016-05-21

    The accuracy at which total energies of open-shell atoms and organic radicals may be calculated is assessed for selected coupled cluster perturbative triples expansions, all of which augment the coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) energy by a non-iterative correction for the effect of triple excitations. Namely, the second- through sixth-order models of the recently proposed CCSD(T-n) triples series [J. J. Eriksen et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 064108 (2014)] are compared to the acclaimed CCSD(T) model for both unrestricted as well as restricted open-shell Hartree-Fock (UHF/ROHF) reference determinants. By comparing UHF- and ROHF-based statistical results for a test set of 18 modest-sized open-shell species with comparable RHF-based results, no behavioral differences are observed for the higher-order models of the CCSD(T-n) series in their correlated descriptions of closed- and open-shell species. In particular, we find that the convergence rate throughout the series towards the coupled cluster singles, doubles, and triples (CCSDT) solution is identical for the two cases. For the CCSD(T) model, on the other hand, not only its numerical consistency, but also its established, yet fortuitous cancellation of errors breaks down in the transition from closed- to open-shell systems. The higher-order CCSD(T-n) models (orders n > 3) thus offer a consistent and significant improvement in accuracy relative to CCSDT over the CCSD(T) model, equally for RHF, UHF, and ROHF reference determinants, albeit at an increased computational cost. PMID:27208931

  1. Comparative assessment of bone pose estimation using Point Cluster Technique and OpenSim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Rebecca L; Chaudhari, Ajit M W; Siston, Robert A

    2011-11-01

    Estimating the position of the bones from optical motion capture data is a challenge associated with human movement analysis. Bone pose estimation techniques such as the Point Cluster Technique (PCT) and simulations of movement through software packages such as OpenSim are used to minimize soft tissue artifact and estimate skeletal position; however, using different methods for analysis may produce differing kinematic results which could lead to differences in clinical interpretation such as a misclassification of normal or pathological gait. This study evaluated the differences present in knee joint kinematics as a result of calculating joint angles using various techniques. We calculated knee joint kinematics from experimental gait data using the standard PCT, the least squares approach in OpenSim applied to experimental marker data, and the least squares approach in OpenSim applied to the results of the PCT algorithm. Maximum and resultant RMS differences in knee angles were calculated between all techniques. We observed differences in flexion/extension, varus/valgus, and internal/external rotation angles between all approaches. The largest differences were between the PCT results and all results calculated using OpenSim. The RMS differences averaged nearly 5° for flexion/extension angles with maximum differences exceeding 15°. Average RMS differences were relatively small (OpenSim, suggesting that the choice of marker weighting is not critical to the results of the least squares inverse kinematics calculations. The largest difference between techniques appeared to be a constant offset between the PCT and all OpenSim results, which may be due to differences in the definition of anatomical reference frames, scaling of musculoskeletal models, and/or placement of virtual markers within OpenSim. Different methods for data analysis can produce largely different kinematic results, which could lead to the misclassification of normal or pathological gait. Improved

  2. Undergrounding issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a general review of British Columbia Hydro's rights-of-way policies, a task group was formed to explore and assess the technical, social, environmental, and economic issues related to the provision of suitable underground rights-of-way for distribution and transmission lines. Issues considered were: evaluations of undergrounding; designation of service areas as underground areas; the BC Hydro fund to assist municipalities in beautifying selected areas by placing existing overhead lines underground; community funding of undergrounding; underground options to transmission and distribution requirements; and long-range underground row planning. Key findings are as follows. Undergrounding is technically feasible and available for all BC Hydro operating voltages, but initial construction costs of undergrounding continue to exceed equivalent overhead by a significant margin. Undergrounding can contribute to the optimization of existing rights-of-way. Public safety is improved with undergrounding and long-term benefits to BC Hydro and society are provided by undergrounding, compared to overhead options. Customers have shown some willingness to contribute to the cost of undergrounding, and it is generally agreed that those communities that want undergrounding should pay for it. Policy recommendations are made under each of the issue areas, and justifications for the recommendations are given along with implementation costs and alternative options

  3. Critical Assessment of Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory for Excited States of Open-Shell Systems: II. Doublet-Quartet Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhendong; Liu, Wenjian

    2016-06-14

    Compared with closed-shell systems, open-shell systems place three additional challenges to time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) for electronically excited states: (a) the spin-contamination problem is a serious issue; (b) the exchange-correlation (XC) kernel may be numerically instable; and (c) the single-determinant description of open-shell ground states readily becomes energetically instable. Confined to flip-up single excitations, the spin-contamination problem can largely be avoided by using the spin-flip TD-DFT (SF-TD-DFT) formalism, provided that a noncollinear XC kernel is employed. As for the numerical instabilities associated with such a kernel, only an ad hoc scheme has been proposed so far, viz., the ALDA0 kernel, which amounts to setting the divergent components (arising from density gradients and kinetic energy density) simply to zero. The ground-state instability problem can effectively be avoided by introducing the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA) to TD-DFT. Therefore, on a general basis, the SF-TDA/ALDA0 Ansatz is so far the only promising means within the TD-DFT framework for flip-up single excitations of open-shell systems. To assess systematically the performance of SF-TDA/ALDA0, in total 61 low-lying quartet excited states of the benchmark set of 11 small radicals [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2016, 12, 238] are investigated with various XC functionals. Taking the MRCISD+Q (multireference configuration interaction with singles and doubles plus the Davidson correction) results as benchmark, it is found that the mean absolute errors of SF-TDA/ALDA0 with the SAOP (statistical averaging of model orbital potentials), global hybrid, and range-separated hybrid functionals are in the range of 0.2-0.4 eV. This is in line not only with the typical accuracy of TD-DFT for singlet and triplet excited states of closed-shell systems but also with the gross accuracy of spin-adapted TD-DFT for spin-conserving excited states of open-shell systems. PMID

  4. An empirical assessment of special accounting issues and financial attributes relating to the accounting treatment of translation gains and losses: the UK case

    OpenAIRE

    George Emmanuel Iatridis

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to assess the financial performance of firms that adopted or deferred the adoption of SSAP 20 “Foreign Currency Translation”. The focus of the study is to examine the impact of certain accounting issues, such as liquidity, hedging, foreign currency loans, managerial compensation, pre- and post SSAP 20 treatment of translation differences, etc, on the behaviour of firms. Design/methodology/approach – The paper follows the positive accounting theory context and utilise...

  5. Assessment of MRI issues at 3-Tesla for metallic surgical implants: findings applied to 61 additional skin closure staples and vessel ligation clips

    OpenAIRE

    Gill Amreeta; Shellock Frank G

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Purpose Metallic skin closure staples and vessel ligation clips should be tested at 3-Tesla to characterize MRI issues in order to ensure patient safety. Therefore, metallic surgical implants were assessed at 3-Tesla for magnetic field interactions, MRI-related heating, and artifacts. Methods A skin closure staple (Visistat Skin Stapler, staple, Polytetrafluoroethylene, PTFE, coated 316L/316LVM stainless steel; Teleflex Medical, Durham, NC) and a vessel ligation clip (Hemoclip Tradit...

  6. Special Issue on Innovation through Open Data: A Review of the State-of-the-Art and an Emerging Research Agenda: Guest Editors’ Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Zuiderwijk, A.M.G.; Helbig, N.; Gil-García, J.R.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.

    2014-01-01

    For decades good governance scholarship has focused attention on the importance of government openness [26], [34]. Since the 1960s, Freedom of Information (FOI) legislation has formed the backbone of institutional support for opening information and documents [76] and participatory processes [4], [79]. However, FOI represents a passive approach to releasing information. Persons or organizations must still request the information they want, referred to casually, as freedom of information reque...

  7. Standards-Based Classroom Assessments of English Proficiency: A Review of Issues, Current Developments, and Future Directions for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llosa, Lorena

    2011-01-01

    With the United States' adoption of a standards-based approach to education, most attention has focused on the large-scale, high-stakes assessments intended to measure students' mastery of standards for accountability purposes. Less attention has been paid to the role of standards-based assessments in the classroom. The purpose of this paper is to…

  8. Assessment as an Equity Issue in Higher Education: Comparing the Perceptions of First Year Students, Course Coordinators, and Academic Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goos, Merrilyn; Gannaway, Deanne; Hughes, Clair

    2011-01-01

    Assessment practices that aim to promote both quality and equity may be compromised in a higher education market where students are consumers and grades the currency exchanged for measures of success. In such a climate, academics report feeling pressured to make course content and assessment less challenging in order to obtain positive student…

  9. Issues in the Assessment of Literacy-Related Difficulties across Language Backgrounds: A Cross-Linguistic Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everatt, John; Smythe, Ian; Ocampo, Dina; Gyarmathy, Eva

    2004-01-01

    This paper focused on the assessment of phonological skills amongst children with developmental dyslexia. Findings from assessments of English and Hungarian monolingual children with and without literacy deficits and bilingual Filipino children with and without literacy deficits in English indicated that performance on phonological-based tasks…

  10. Assessment of Bilingual/Multilingual Pre-K-Grade 12 Students: A Critical Discussion of Past, Present, and Future Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    This article examines major unresolved challenges in the assessment of pre-K-grade 12 multilingual students in US public schools. The ethnic educator approach advocates for a change of paradigms in assessment, one that abandons the medical model to incorporate socio-constructivist theoretical perspectives and pluralistic and progressive social…

  11. Assessment of the environmental footprint of nuclear energy systems. Comparison between closed and open fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy perspectives for the current century are dominated by the anticipated significant increase of energy needs. Particularly, electricity consumption is anticipated to increase by a factor higher than two before 2050. Energy choices are considered as structuring political choices that implies a long-standing and stable policy based on objective criteria. LCA (life cycle analysis) is a structured basis for deriving relevant indicators which can allow the comparison of a wide range of impacts of different energy sources. Among the energy-mix, nuclear power is anticipated to have very low GHG-emissions. However, its viability is severely addressed by the public opinion after the Fukushima accident. Therefore, a global LCA of the French nuclear fuel cycle was performed as a reference model. Results were compared in terms of impact with other energy sources. It emphasized that the French nuclear energy is one of the less impacting energy, comparable with renewable energy. In a second, part, the French scenario was compared with an equivalent open fuel cycle scenario. It demonstrates that an open fuel cycle would require about 16% more natural uranium, would have a bigger environmental footprint on the “non radioactive indicators” and would produce a higher volume of high level radioactive waste. - Highlights: • A life cycle analysis of the French close nuclear fuel cycle is performed. • The French nuclear energy is one of the less environmental impacting energy. • The French close fuel cycle is compared to an equivalent open fuel cycle. • An open fuel cycle would have a bigger environmental impact than the French fuel cycle. • Spent nuclear fuel recycling has a positive impact on the environmental footprint

  12. An open trial assessment of "The Number Race", an adaptive computer game for remediation of dyscalculia.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Anna,; Revkin, Susannah,; Cohen, David; Cohen, Laurent D.; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a companion article 1, we described the development and evaluation of software designed to remediate dyscalculia. This software is based on the hypothesis that dyscalculia is due to a "core deficit" in number sense or in its access via symbolic information. Here we review the evidence for this hypothesis, and present results from an initial open-trial test of the software in a sample of nine 7-9 year old children with mathematical difficulties. METHODS: Children completed adapt...

  13. An open trial assessment of "The Number Race", an adaptive computer game for remediation of dyscalculia.

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen Laurent; Cohen David; Revkin Susannah K; Wilson Anna J; Dehaene Stanislas

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background In a companion article 1, we described the development and evaluation of software designed to remediate dyscalculia. This software is based on the hypothesis that dyscalculia is due to a "core deficit" in number sense or in its access via symbolic information. Here we review the evidence for this hypothesis, and present results from an initial open-trial test of the software in a sample of nine 7–9 year old children with mathematical difficulties. Methods Children complete...

  14. AEGIS Platforms: Using KVA Analysis to Assess Open Architecture in Sustaining Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, Jameson R.; Ahart, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    Sponsored Report (for Acquisition Research Program) The purpose of this thesis is to estimate the potential performance improvement in sustaining engineering (SE) when an Open Architecture (OA) approach to system development is used. Its basis is that in Integrated Warfare Systems (IWS) acquisition, 80% of total lifecycle costs occur during the Operation and Support phase. This statistic demonstrates the necessity of measuring how the OA approach will affect software upgrades and maintena...

  15. Massive Open Online Course Completion Rates Revisited: Assessment, Length and Attrition

    OpenAIRE

    Katy Jordan

    2015-01-01

    This analysis is based upon enrolment and completion data collected for a total of 221 Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). It extends previously reported work (Jordan, 2014) with an expanded dataset; the original work is extended to include a multiple regression analysis of factors that affect completion rates and analysis of attrition rates during courses. Completion rates (defined as the percentage of enrolled students who completed the course) vary from 0.7% to 52.1%, with a median value ...

  16. Assessing the Use of Social Media in Massive Open Online Courses

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Suhang; Kotzias, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    The study explores whether the use of Twitter in Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) promotes the interaction among learners. The social network analysis shows that instructors still play a very central role in the social media communication and the communication network between students shrinking over time. The mere use of social media fails to promote learner-learner interaction. More research is needed for understanding learner motivation and how instructional design can help increase thei...

  17. Assessment of Open Source GIS Software for Water Resources Management in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    CHEN Daoyi; Carmona Moreno, Cesar; LEONE Andrea; SHAMS Shahriar

    2008-01-01

    The European Commission is developing, under the responsibility of the Joint Research Centre and in close collaboration with international and national partners, the Water Knowledge Management Platform. This platform will integrate a dynamic management of different support tools and guidelines for the water management sector in developing countries. The support tools will be based on open source desktop GIS technologies in order to provide the final users in developing countries with a susta...

  18. Assessment of open source GIS software for water resources management in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    CHEN Daoyi; SHAMS Shahriar; Carmona Moreno, Cesar; LEONE Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The European Commission is developing, under the responsibility of the Joint Research Centre and in close collaboration with international and national partners, the Water Knowledge Management Platform. This platform will integrate a dynamic management of different support tools and guidelines for the water management sector in developing countries. The support tools will be based on open source desktop GIS technologies in order to provide the final users in developing countries with a sustai...

  19. Assessment of environmental health and safety issues associated with the commercialization of unconventional gas recovery: Tight Western Sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedel, E.F.; Cowan, C.E.; McLaughlin, T.J.

    1980-02-01

    Results of a study to identify and evaluate potential public health and safety problems and the potential environmental impacts from recovery of natural gas from Tight Western Sands are reported. A brief discussion of economic and technical constraints to development of this resource is also presented to place the environmental and safety issues in perspective. A description of the resource base, recovery techniques, and possible environmental effects associated with tight gas sands is presented.

  20. Assessing the state/nation distributional equity issues associated with the proposed Yucca Mountain repository: A conceptual approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses one quite specific part of this broad range of issues -- the distribution of impacts to the state of Nevada and to the nation likely to be associated with the proposed Yucca Mountain repository. As such, it is one of four analyses of the overall equity problems and needs to be read in conjunction with our proposed overall framework for the equity studies and the several other specific analyses. The objective of this report is to consider how an analysis might be made of the distribution of projected outcomes between the state and nation. At the same time, it needs to be clear that no attempt will be made actually to implement the analysis that is proposed. What follows is a conceptual statement that identifies the analytical issues and problems and proposes an approach for overcoming them. Significantly, it must be remembered that this report will not address procedural equity issues between the state and nation for this is the subject of a separate analysis. 10 refs., 2 figs

  1. Aggression and social withdrawal as viewed by children's peers: conceptual issues in assessment and implications for intervention.

    OpenAIRE

    Younger, A J; B. H. Schneider; Daniels, T.

    1991-01-01

    Children's peer assessments of aggressive and withdrawn behavior are fundamentally related to developmental changes in their understanding of others. This article synthesizes research relevant to the thesis that peer assessments are dependent on children's ability both to recall the previous behavior of their peers and to predict their likely future behavior. Social schema theory, borrowed from adult social psychology, is highly relevant to such recall and prediction. Age differences, affecti...

  2. Vietnam : Managing Public Expenditure for Poverty Reduction and Growth, Public Expenditure Review and Integrated Fiduciary Assessment, Volume 2, Sectoral Issues

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    This Public Expenditure Review and Integrated Fiduciary Assessment (PER-FA) reviews and assesses the contribution that public expenditure has made to poverty reduction, and growth in Vietnam in recent years, and, identifies priorities and actions for strengthening that contribution over the coming years, through better resource allocation, and better public expenditure management. Fiscal trends have been positive, both in terms of revenue collection and expenditure outturns, resulting in a su...

  3. Assessment of the possible reuse of MSW coming from landfill mining of old open dumpsites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, S; Caniani, D; Grieco, E; Lioi, D S; Mancini, I M

    2014-03-01

    The present study addresses the theme of recycling potential of old open dumpsites by using landfill mining. Attention is focused on the possible reuse of the residual finer fraction (mined material, sampled in the old open dumpsite of Lavello (Southern Italy). We propose a protocol of analysis of the landfill material that links chemical analyses and environmental bioassays. This protocol is used to evaluate the compatibility of the residual matrix for the disposal in temporary storages and the formation of "bio-soils" to be used in geo-environmental applications, such as the construction of barrier layers of landfills, or in environmental remediation activities. Attention is mainly focused on the presence of heavy metals and on the possible interaction with test organisms. Chemical analyses of the residual matrix and leaching tests showed that the concentration of heavy metals is always below the legislation limits. Biological acute tests (with Lepidum sativum, Vicia faba and Lactuca sativa) do not emphasize adverse effects to the growth of the plant species, except the bioassay with V. faba, which showed a dose-response effect. The new developed chronic bioassay test with Spartium junceum showed a good adaptation to stress conditions induced by the presence of the mined landfill material. In conclusion, the conducted experimental activities demonstrated the suitability of the material to be used for different purposes. PMID:24412012

  4. The use of aquatic bioconcentration factors in ecological risk assessments: Confounding issues, laboratory v/s modeled results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioconcentration in aquatic systems is generally taken to refer to contaminant uptake through non-ingestion pathways (i.e., dermal and respiration uptake). Ecological risk assessments performed on aquatic systems often rely on published data on bioconcentration factors to calibrate models of exposure. However, many published BCFs, especially those from in situ studies, are confounded by uptake from ingestion of prey. As part of exposure assessment and risk analysis of the Columbia River's Hanford Reach, the authors tested a methodology to estimate radionuclide BCFs for several aquatic species in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. The iterative methodology solves for BCFs from known body burdens and environmental media concentrations. This paper provides BCF methodology description comparisons of BCF from literature and modeled values and how they were used in the exposure assessment and risk analysis of the Columbia River's Hanford Reach

  5. Measuring Principal Performance: How Rigorous Are Commonly Used Principal Performance Assessment Instruments? A Quality School Leadership Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Christopher; Clifford, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    This brief reviews the publicly available principal assessments and points superintendents and policy makers toward strong instruments to measure principal performance. Specifically, the measures included in this review are expressly intended to evaluate principal performance and have varying degrees of publicly available evidence of psychometric…

  6. Final Report for the ZERT Project: Basic Science of Retention Issues, Risk Assessment & Measurement, Monitoring and Verification for Geologic Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spangler, Lee; Cunningham, Alfred; Lageson, David; Melick, Jesse; Gardner, Mike; Dobeck, Laura; Repasky, Kevin; Shaw, Joseph; Bajura, Richard; McGrail, B Peter; Oldenburg, Curtis M; Wagoner, Jeff; Pawar, Rajesh

    2011-03-31

    ZERT has made major contributions to five main areas of sequestration science: improvement of computational tools; measurement and monitoring techniques to verify storage and track migration of CO{sub 2}; development of a comprehensive performance and risk assessment framework; fundamental geophysical, geochemical and hydrological investigations of CO{sub 2} storage; and investigate innovative, bio-based mitigation strategies.

  7. Radiocarbon-based impact assessment of open biomass burning on regional carbonaceous aerosols in North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of total suspended particulates (TSPs) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were collected from 29th May to 1st July, 2013 at a regional background site in Bohai Rim, North China. Mass concentrations of particulate matter and carbonaceous species showed a total of 50% and 97% of the measured TSP and PM2.5 levels exceeded the first grade national standard of China, respectively. Daily concentrations of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were detected 7.3 and 2.5 μg m−3 in TSP and 5.2 and 2.0 μg m−3 in PM2.5, which accounted 5.8% and 2.0% of TSP while 5.6% and 2.2% for PM2.5, respectively. The concentrations of OC, EC, TSP and PM2.5 were observed higher in the day time than those in the night time. The observations were associated with the emission variations from anthropogenic activities. Two merged samples representing from south and north source areas were selected for radiocarbon analysis. The radiocarbon measurements showed 74% of water-insoluble OC (WINSOC) and 59% of EC in PM2.5 derived from biomass burning and biogenic sources when the air masses were from south region, and 63% and 48% for the air masses from north, respectively. Combined with backward trajectories and daily burned area, open burning of agricultural wastes was found to be predominating, which was confirmed by the potential source contribution function (PSCF). - Highlights: • PM2.5 and TSP samples collected at Yellow River Delta were analyzed for OC and EC. • OC, EC, TSP and PM2.5 concentrations were higher in daytime than in nighttime. • Radiocarbon (14C) tracer, backward trajectories, and fire counts were used for the analysis. • Agricultural waste open burning was a main contributor to summer PM2.5, OC and EC

  8. [The Current State of Intercultural Opening in Psychosocial Services--The Results of an Assessment in an Inner-City District of Berlin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penka, Simone; Faißt, Hanna; Vardar, Azra; Borde, Theda; Mösko, Mike Oliver; Dingoyan, Demet; Schulz, Holger; Koch, Uwe; Kluge, Ulrike; Heinz, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    The need for intercultural opening of supply facilities for improving access and treatment of people with migration background is acknowledged in Germany. The purpose of the survey was to determine the current state of intercultural opening of psychosocial services in one Berlin district. 127 representatives of institutions were interviewed using a semi-structured assessment tool. The response rate was very high. The cross-cultural opening was implemented on a small scale. Staff as well as users with migration background were underrepresented. Varying and missing standardized documentation as well as problems in assessing users with migration background might be responsible for their low utilization rates. The use of professional interpreters was often not implemented. To judge the low level of implementation of cross-cultural opening in the psychosocial supply system in general, a review of responsible causes is required. PMID:26039370

  9. THE ASSESSMENT OF THE ROLE OF AGRI-ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAM IN THE PERCEPTION BY FARMERS SELECTED ASPECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz R. Mroczek

    2014-10-01

    Agricultural producers in the Podkarpackie voivodeship are seeking new opportunities and they see a chance for the development of their farms also in agri-environmental program. Survey research has shown that the majority of the farmers decided to participate in the agri-environmental actions for economic reasons and in the extent of their knowledge and the way in which they perceive environmental issues do not differ much from the surveyed parties who do not carry out agrienvironmental program. Even thought they composted organic waste, do not dispose them in the illegal dumpsites and they claim (98% that they comply with the Code of Good Agricultural Practice (while in the group who do not realize the program that answer was provided only by 20% of the respondents, they did not recognize the threat to the environment due to the deterioration of biodiversity.

  10. Environmental impact assessment (EIA) in development cooperation. A presentation of development challenges and research issues in developing countries and donor agencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristoffersen, Harald

    1997-12-31

    This document discusses some development challenges and research needs related to environmental impact assessment (EIA) in development cooperation. After a general introduction to basic principles of EIA, the document deals with some general conditions for EIA in developing countries and in donor agencies. Through a presentation of experiences with EIA from selected donor agencies (with emphasis on NORAD) the report ends up with focusing on some research issues that may come up with recommendations for improving EIA practices in developing countries and donor agencies. 37 refs., 6 figs., 3 refs.

  11. Analysis of Open Access Landscape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Helen Doyle; Andy Gass; Debra Lappin; Rebecca Kennison

    2005-01-01

    This paper is created by bounding 5 editorials of Public Library of Science (PLoS ) which have written on various aspects of open access. It covers wide range topics of important open access issues, such as from paying for open access to copyright to open access as a public issue, which may be more or less of interest of our audience.

  12. Assessment of the accuracy of coupled cluster perturbation theory for open-shell systems. II. Quadruples expansions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Janus J.; Matthews, Devin A.; Jørgensen, Poul; Gauss, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    We extend our assessment of the potential of perturbative coupled cluster (CC) expansions for a test set of open-shell atoms and organic radicals to the description of quadruple excitations. Namely, the second- through sixth-order models of the recently proposed CCSDT(Q-n) quadruples series [J. J. Eriksen et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 064108 (2014)] are compared to the prominent CCSDT(Q) and ΛCCSDT(Q) models. From a comparison of the models in terms of their recovery of total CC singles, doubles, triples, and quadruples (CCSDTQ) energies, we find that the performance of the CCSDT(Q-n) models is independent of the reference used (unrestricted or restricted (open-shell) Hartree-Fock), in contrast to the CCSDT(Q) and ΛCCSDT(Q) models, for which the accuracy is strongly dependent on the spin of the molecular ground state. By further comparing the ability of the models to recover relative CCSDTQ total atomization energies, the discrepancy between them is found to be even more pronounced, stressing how a balanced description of both closed- and open-shell species—as found in the CCSDT(Q-n) models—is indeed of paramount importance if any perturbative CC model is to be of chemical relevance for high-accuracy applications. In particular, the third-order CCSDT(Q-3) model is found to offer an encouraging alternative to the existing choices of quadruples models used in modern computational thermochemistry, since the model is still only of moderate cost, albeit markedly more costly than, e.g., the CCSDT(Q) and ΛCCSDT(Q) models.

  13. Direct assessment of tensile stress-crack opening behavior of Strain Hardening Cementitious Composites (SHCC)

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, E. N. B.; Fischer, G.; Barros, Joaquim A. O.

    2012-01-01

    The process of designing Strain Hardening Cementitious Composites (SHCC) is driven by the need to achieve certain performance parameters in tension. These are typically the pseudo-strain hardening behavior and the ability to develop multiple cracks. The assessment of the tensile load-deformation of these materials is therefore of great importance and is frequently carried out by characterizing the material tensile stress-strain behavior. In this paper an alternative approach...

  14. Weight Assessment for Fuselage Shielding on Aircraft With Open-Rotor Engines and Composite Blade Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Kelly; Pereira, Michael; Kohlman, Lee; Goldberg, Robert; Envia, Edmane; Lawrence, Charles; Roberts, Gary; Emmerling, William

    2013-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has been engaged in discussions with airframe and engine manufacturers concerning regulations that would apply to new technology fuel efficient "openrotor" engines. Existing regulations for the engines and airframe did not envision features of these engines that include eliminating the fan blade containment systems and including two rows of counter-rotating blades. Damage to the airframe from a failed blade could potentially be catastrophic. Therefore the feasibility of using aircraft fuselage shielding was investigated. In order to establish the feasibility of this shielding, a study was conducted to provide an estimate for the fuselage shielding weight required to provide protection from an open-rotor blade loss. This estimate was generated using a two-step procedure. First, a trajectory analysis was performed to determine the blade orientation and velocity at the point of impact with the fuselage. The trajectory analysis also showed that a blade dispersion angle of 3deg bounded the probable dispersion pattern and so was used for the weight estimate. Next, a finite element impact analysis was performed to determine the required shielding thickness to prevent fuselage penetration. The impact analysis was conducted using an FAA-provided composite blade geometry. The fuselage geometry was based on a medium-sized passenger composite airframe. In the analysis, both the blade and fuselage were assumed to be constructed from a T700S/PR520 triaxially-braided composite architecture. Sufficient test data on T700S/PR520 is available to enable reliable analysis, and also demonstrate its good impact resistance properties. This system was also used in modeling the surrogate blade. The estimated additional weight required for fuselage shielding for a wing- mounted counterrotating open-rotor blade is 236 lb per aircraft. This estimate is based on the shielding material serving the dual use of shielding and fuselage structure. If the

  15. Radiocarbon-based impact assessment of open biomass burning on regional carbonaceous aerosols in North China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zong, Zheng [Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Chen, Yingjun, E-mail: yjchen@yic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Tian, Chongguo, E-mail: cgtian@yic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Fang, Yin [Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Wang, Xiaoping [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Huang, Guopei; Zhang, Fan [Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Samples of total suspended particulates (TSPs) and fine particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}) were collected from 29th May to 1st July, 2013 at a regional background site in Bohai Rim, North China. Mass concentrations of particulate matter and carbonaceous species showed a total of 50% and 97% of the measured TSP and PM{sub 2.5} levels exceeded the first grade national standard of China, respectively. Daily concentrations of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were detected 7.3 and 2.5 μg m{sup −3} in TSP and 5.2 and 2.0 μg m{sup −3} in PM{sub 2.5}, which accounted 5.8% and 2.0% of TSP while 5.6% and 2.2% for PM{sub 2.5}, respectively. The concentrations of OC, EC, TSP and PM{sub 2.5} were observed higher in the day time than those in the night time. The observations were associated with the emission variations from anthropogenic activities. Two merged samples representing from south and north source areas were selected for radiocarbon analysis. The radiocarbon measurements showed 74% of water-insoluble OC (WINSOC) and 59% of EC in PM{sub 2.5} derived from biomass burning and biogenic sources when the air masses were from south region, and 63% and 48% for the air masses from north, respectively. Combined with backward trajectories and daily burned area, open burning of agricultural wastes was found to be predominating, which was confirmed by the potential source contribution function (PSCF). - Highlights: • PM{sub 2.5} and TSP samples collected at Yellow River Delta were analyzed for OC and EC. • OC, EC, TSP and PM{sub 2.5} concentrations were higher in daytime than in nighttime. • Radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) tracer, backward trajectories, and fire counts were used for the analysis. • Agricultural waste open burning was a main contributor to summer PM{sub 2.5}, OC and EC.

  16. Scope for animal welfare education in open and distance learning: findings from a needs assessment study in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidhar, P V K; Jayasimha, N G

    2015-12-01

    The objectives of this study were twofold: to assess the demand for animal welfare education by open and distance learning (ODL) and to identify content to be covered in an ODL animal welfare programme. Through email, personal interviews and online surveys, data were collected from 161 respondents. The key survey questions were on: the need and reasons for providing animal welfare education through ODL; entry-level qualifications; job/career prospects; duration of the programme, and suggestions on course content. The majority of respondents felt that there was a need for a one-year ODL academic programme on animal welfare. In the light of the findings of this study and related discussions, the authors recommend that online and ODL programmes in animal welfare be developed to meet the continuing educational needs of veterinary students, working veterinarians, para-veterinarians and other stakeholders closely related to animal welfare. PMID:27044145

  17. System Noise Assessment and the Potential for a Low Noise Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft with Open Rotor Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Russell H.; Burley, Casey L.; Lopes, Leonard V.; Bahr, Christopher J.; Gern, Frank H.; VanZante, Dale E.

    2014-01-01

    An aircraft system noise assessment was conducted for a hybrid wing body freighter aircraft concept configured with three open rotor engines. The primary objective of the study was to determine the aircraft system level noise given the significant impact of installation effects including shielding the open rotor noise by the airframe. The aircraft was designed to carry a payload of 100,000 lbs on a 6,500 nautical mile mission. An experimental database was used to establish the propulsion airframe aeroacoustic installation effects including those from shielding by the airframe planform, interactions with the control surfaces, and additional noise reduction technologies. A second objective of the study applied the impacts of projected low noise airframe technology and a projection of advanced low noise rotors appropriate for the NASA N+2 2025 timeframe. With the projection of low noise rotors and installation effects, the aircraft system level was 26.0 EPNLdB below Stage 4 level with the engine installed at 1.0 rotor diameters upstream of the trailing edge. Moving the engine to 1.5 rotor diameters brought the system level noise to 30.8 EPNLdB below Stage 4. At these locations on the airframe, the integrated level of installation effects including shielding can be as much as 20 EPNLdB cumulative in addition to lower engine source noise from advanced low noise rotors. And finally, an additional set of technology effects were identified and the potential impact at the system level was estimated for noise only without assessing the impact on aircraft performance. If these additional effects were to be included it is estimated that the potential aircraft system noise could reach as low as 38.0 EPNLdB cumulative below Stage 4.

  18. Quality assessment of mined MSW from an open dumpsite for recycling potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prechthai, Tawach; Padmasri, Maddala; Visvanathan, Chettiyappan [Environmental Engineering and Management Program, School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology, PO Box 4, Klong Luang Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand)

    2008-12-15

    A study on recycling potential was performed on the stabilized municipal solid waste from Nonthaburi dumpsite in Thailand. The waste was excavated and subjected to separation process using trommel screen with screen openings of 25 mm and 50 mm. The screened wastes were classified into three fractions based on the sizes such as fine fraction (<25 mm), medium fraction (25-50 mm) and large fraction (>50 mm). The waste composition, physical and chemical characteristics of each waste fraction were determined to evaluate suitability of waste for recycling. The possible phytotoxicity of waste to be used as compost was explored by conducting seed germination and root elongation test of rice plant (Oryza sativa L.). The dumpsite was observed to be heterogeneous and mainly composed of plastics and soil. The trommel screen, proved to be effective in separating the waste fractions that can be used as feedstock for alternative applications of solid waste, particularly where the metal content of the product is a critical parameter. By screening, approximately 69% of soil was removed from waste and the remaining 31% was found in the waste fractions >50 mm size. The quality of waste fraction >50 mm composed mainly of plastics showed high potential for recycling as refuse derived fuel (RDF) and waste fraction <25 mm with soil as compost. The remaining waste fractions between 25 mm and 50 mm composed of non-combustible waste, which needs to be landfilled. (author)

  19. Biomasfor: an open-source holistic model for the assessment of sustainable forest bioenergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacchelli S

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an open-source spatial analysis model (Biomasfor that can quantify the availability of forest wood-energy biomass in the light of ecological and economic sustainability. Several multi-functionality parameters were evaluated to highlight the potential impact of biomass extraction on different forest functions. The multistep approach used and the model’s internal structure permit the use of the model with highly differentiated input datasets. The introduction of biomass demand evaluation allows the quantification of the wood-energy supply/demand. The analysis is focused on the province of Trento (northeastern Italian Alps. The results are based on a scenario evaluation characterised by several degrees of biomass extraction and by a sensitivity analysis of biomass price, as well as on a typology of mechanisation. The model outputs define a reduction in biomass availability with the introduction of technical, economic and multi-functionality parameters. Furthermore, considerations on territorial characteristics outline the importance of woodchip production as a means of avoiding carbon dioxide emissions and achieving low-impact reductions of the risk of fires. The model appears to be an effective tool in bioenergy planning, particularly for the following purposes: (i the estimation of the biomass supply/demand ratio under different scenarios; (ii a preliminary analysis of biomass quality; and (iii the influence of local environmental, economic and logistical characteristics on biomass production.

  20. Near-infrared spectroscopy assessed cerebral oxygenation during open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik; Nielsen, H B; Secher, N H

    2016-01-01

    not prevent an increase in ScO2 by 2 % (-1 to 4; P < 0.001) as EtCO2 increased 0.5 kPa (0.1-1.0; P < 0.001) despite an increase in ventilation by 1.8 l min(-1) (0.9-2.7; P < 0.001). Changes in ScO2 related to those in EtCO2 (r = 0.41; P = 0.0001) and cerebral deoxygenation (-15 %) was noted in three......During open abdominal aortic aneurism (AAA) repair cerebral blood flow is challenged. Clamping of the aorta may lead to unintended hyperventilation as metabolism is reduced by perfusion of a smaller part of the body and reperfusion of the aorta releases vasodilatory substances including CO2. We...... intend to adjust ventilation according end-tidal CO2 tension (EtCO2) and here evaluated to what extent that strategy maintains frontal lobe oxygenation (ScO2) as determined by near infrared spectroscopy. For 44 patients [5 women, aged 70 (48-83) years] ScO2, mean arterial pressure (MAP), EtCO2, and...

  1. Assessment of polygenic effects links primary open-angle glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Craig, Jamie E; Burdon, Kathryn P; Wang, Jie Jin; Vote, Brendan J; Souzeau, Emmanuelle; McAllister, Ian L; Isaacs, Timothy; Lake, Stewart; Mackey, David A; Constable, Ian J; Mitchell, Paul; Hewitt, Alex W; MacGregor, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are leading causes of irreversible blindness. Several loci have been mapped using genome-wide association studies. Until very recently, there was no recognized overlap in the genetic contribution to AMD and POAG. At genome-wide significance level, only ABCA1 harbors associations to both diseases. Here, we investigated the genetic architecture of POAG and AMD using genome-wide array data. We estimated the heritability for POAG (h(2)g = 0.42 ± 0.09) and AMD (h(2)g = 0.71 ± 0.08). Removing known loci for POAG and AMD decreased the h(2)g estimates to 0.36 and 0.24, respectively. There was evidence for a positive genetic correlation between POAG and AMD (rg = 0.47 ± 0.25) which remained after removing known loci (rg = 0.64 ± 0.31). We also found that the genetic correlation between sexes for POAG was likely to be less than 1 (rg = 0.33 ± 0.24), suggesting that differences of prevalence among genders may be partly due to heritable factors. PMID:27241461

  2. Assessment of polygenic effects links primary open-angle glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Craig, Jamie E.; Burdon, Kathryn P.; Wang, Jie Jin; Vote, Brendan J.; Souzeau, Emmanuelle; McAllister, Ian L.; Isaacs, Timothy; Lake, Stewart; Mackey, David A.; Constable, Ian J.; Mitchell, Paul; Hewitt, Alex W.; MacGregor, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are leading causes of irreversible blindness. Several loci have been mapped using genome-wide association studies. Until very recently, there was no recognized overlap in the genetic contribution to AMD and POAG. At genome-wide significance level, only ABCA1 harbors associations to both diseases. Here, we investigated the genetic architecture of POAG and AMD using genome-wide array data. We estimated the heritability for POAG (h2g = 0.42 ± 0.09) and AMD (h2g = 0.71 ± 0.08). Removing known loci for POAG and AMD decreased the h2g estimates to 0.36 and 0.24, respectively. There was evidence for a positive genetic correlation between POAG and AMD (rg = 0.47 ± 0.25) which remained after removing known loci (rg = 0.64 ± 0.31). We also found that the genetic correlation between sexes for POAG was likely to be less than 1 (rg = 0.33 ± 0.24), suggesting that differences of prevalence among genders may be partly due to heritable factors. PMID:27241461

  3. A Novel, Open Access Method to Assess Sleep Duration Using a Wrist-Worn Accelerometer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent T van Hees

    Full Text Available Wrist-worn accelerometers are increasingly being used for the assessment of physical activity in population studies, but little is known about their value for sleep assessment. We developed a novel method of assessing sleep duration using data from 4,094 Whitehall II Study (United Kingdom, 2012-2013 participants aged 60-83 who wore the accelerometer for 9 consecutive days, filled in a sleep log and reported sleep duration via questionnaire. Our sleep detection algorithm defined (nocturnal sleep as a period of sustained inactivity, itself detected as the absence of change in arm angle greater than 5 degrees for 5 minutes or more, during a period recorded as sleep by the participant in their sleep log. The resulting estimate of sleep duration had a moderate (but similar to previous findings agreement with questionnaire based measures for time in bed, defined as the difference between sleep onset and waking time (kappa = 0.32, 95%CI:0.29,0.34 and total sleep duration (kappa = 0.39, 0.36,0.42. This estimate was lower for time in bed for women, depressed participants, those reporting more insomnia symptoms, and on weekend days. No such group differences were found for total sleep duration. Our algorithm was validated against data from a polysomnography study on 28 persons which found a longer time window and lower angle threshold to have better sensitivity to wakefulness, while the reverse was true for sensitivity to sleep. The novelty of our method is the use of a generic algorithm that will allow comparison between studies rather than a "count" based, device specific method.

  4. Proceedings of the distributed utility valuation project institutional issues workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    These proceedings summarize the discussions during a one-day working session on institutional issues related to the distributed utility (DU) concept. The purpose of the session was to provide an initial assessment of the {open_quotes}institutional{close_quotes} issues, including legal, regulatory, industry structure, utility organization, competition, and related matters that may affect the development and the relationships among distributed utility stakeholders. The assessment was to identify institutional barriers to utilities realizing benefits of the distributed concept (should these benefits be confirmed), as well as to identify opportunities for utilities and other stakeholders for moving ahead to more easily capture these benefits.

  5. [Issues and current limits for immunohistochemical assessment of PD-L1 status in bronchial biopsies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Véronique; Ilie, Marius; Long, Elodie; Butori, Catherine; Lassalle, Sandra; Washetine, Kevin; Lalve, Salomé; Marquette, Charles-Hugo; Soria, Jean-Charles; Hofman, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Immunotherapy targeting the PD-L1/PD-1 axis has shown recently some promising results in metastatic lung cancer patients. This treatment seems to be more effective when a high expression of PD-L1 is detected by immunohistochemistry in bronchial biopsies. In this regard, this targeted therapy will be proposed soon in metastatic lung cancer patients. This immunotherapy could be dependent to the immunohistochemical (IHC) assessment of PD-L1 expression, thus considered as a companion diagnostic test. This near perspective poses challenges with regard to the positivity threshold value for PD-L1 expression before therapy administration, the positive cellular compartment (tumour cells and/or immune cells), the percentage of positive cells and the clone which is used. A couple of patients have a good response to treatment targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis despite the absence or a weak PD-L1 expression. However the assessment of PD-L1 expression by immunohistochemistry will be the only mandatory approach before therapeutic strategies targeting the PD1/PD-L1 axis for lung cancer patients. In this review, the main challenges of using PD-L1 immunohistochemistry as a potential companion diagnostic tool for metastatic lung cancer patient immunotherapy will be discussed. PMID:26920041

  6. Assessment of atmospheric impacts of biomass open burning in Kalimantan, Borneo during 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Mastura

    2013-10-01

    Biomass burning from the combustion of agricultural wastes and forest materials is one of the major sources of air pollution. The objective of the study is to investigate the major contribution of the biomass open burning events in the island of Borneo, Indonesia to the degradation of air quality in equatorial Southeast Asia. A total of 10173 active fire counts were detected by the MODIS Aqua satellite during August 2004, and consequently, elevated the PM10 concentration levels at six air quality stations in the state of Sarawak, in east Malaysia, which is located in northwestern Borneo. The PM10 concentrations measured on a daily basis were above the 50 μg m-3 criteria as stipulated by the World Health Organization Air Quality Guidelines for most of the month, and exceeded the 24-h Recommended Malaysian Air Quality Guidelines of 150 μg m-3 on three separate periods from the 13th to the 30th August 2004. The average correlation between the ground level PM10 concentrations and the satellite derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) of 0.3 at several ground level air quality stations, implied the moderate relationship between the aerosols over the depth of the entire column of atmosphere and the ground level suspended particulate matter. Multiple regression for meteorological parameters such as rainfall, windspeed, visibility, mean temperature, relative humidity at two stations in Sarawak and active fire counts that were located near the centre of fire activities were only able to explain for 61% of the total variation in the AOD. The trajectory analysis of the low level mesoscale meteorological conditions simulated by the TAPM model illustrated the influence of the sea and land breezes within the lowest part of the planetary boundary layer, embedded within the prevailing monsoonal southwesterlies, in circulating the aged and new air particles within Sarawak.

  7. Czech Republic; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1999-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper on the Czech Republic discusses issues relating to the enterprise sector and corporate governance. This includes an overview and assessment of enterprise performance along with a discussion of the concept of corporate governance and its application in the Czech Republic, including how corporate governance practices compare in an international context. The paper discusses issues related to financial sector performance and restructuring. It also takes stock of banking...

  8. Fusion Canada issue 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue the opening of the Garching ITER site, a CCFM/TdeV update,a tritium release field test, measuring radial profile of plasma current density on TdeV, power supplies for TdeV, 5th International Tritium Technology conference, and 1994 basic tritium course. 4 figs

  9. 開放式課程教材之著作權問題研究 Research on Copyright Issues of OpenCourseWare Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Hui-Wen Hsieh; Chao-Chen Chen

    2011-01-01

    開放式課程(OpenCourseWare)自2002年美國麻省理工學院正式發布後,世界各地之大學紛紛無償地開放課程與教材於網路上,供大眾學習、分享。當教師在課堂上教學時,或多或少都會利用他人著作設計教材,一旦教材於網路上公開傳輸,原本屬於合理使用的教材即有侵權的隱憂。本研究旨在探討教師進行開放式課程教學時之著作權問題及其看法,主要目的包括:(一)了解教師目前從事開放式課程教學及教材利用之情形;(二)分析教師利用開放式課程教材之著作權問題;(三)探討教師對於開放式課程教材之合理使用的看法。研究採半結構性訪談法,以參與國立台灣師範大學開放式課程計畫之教師為研究對象。最後並根據研究結果提出建議,以做為大學校院進行開放式課程之參考。Since Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) published OpenCourseWare (OCW) in 2002, universities around the world continually and openly upload courses and teaching materials ...

  10. Against the Odds Exhibition Opens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Against the Odds Exhibition Opens Past Issues / Spring 2008 ... Research in Bethesda. Photo courtesy of Bill Branson "Against the Odds" is a remarkable story of achievement ...

  11. Assessment of economic factors affecting the satellite power system. Volume 2: The systems implications of rectenna siting issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, P. K.; Bugos, B. J.; Csigi, K. I.; Glaser, P. E.; Schimke, G. R.; Thomas, R. G.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility was evaluated of finding potential sites for Solar Power Satellite (SPS) receiving antennas (rectennas) in the continental United States, in sufficient numbers to permit the SPS to make a major contribution to U.S. generating facilities, and to give statistical validity to an assessment of the characteristics of such sites and their implications for the design of the SPS system. It is found that the cost-optimum power output of the SPS does not depend on the particular value assigned to the cost per unit area of a rectenna and its site, as long as it is independent of rectenna area. Many characteristics of the sites chosen affect the optimum design of the rectenna itself.

  12. Heat, Human Performance, and Occupational Health: A Key Issue for the Assessment of Global Climate Change Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellstrom, Tord; Briggs, David; Freyberg, Chris; Lemke, Bruno; Otto, Matthias; Hyatt, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    Ambient heat exposure is a well-known health hazard, which reduces human performance and work capacity at heat levels already common in tropical and subtropical areas. Various health problems have been reported. Increasing heat exposure during the hottest seasons of each year is a key feature of global climate change. Heat exhaustion and reduced human performance are often overlooked in climate change health impact analysis. Later this century, many among the four billion people who live in hot areas worldwide will experience significantly reduced work capacity owing to climate change. In some areas, 30-40% of annual daylight hours will become too hot for work to be carried out. The social and economic impacts will be considerable, with global gross domestic product (GDP) losses greater than 20% by 2100. The analysis to date is piecemeal. More analysis of climate change-related occupational health impact assessments is greatly needed. PMID:26989826

  13. On the measurement of pilot perceptual workload - A comparison of assessment techniques addressing sensitivity and intrusion issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casali, J. G.; Wierwille, W. W.

    1984-01-01

    A flight simulator-based study was conducted to examine fourteen distinct mental workload estimation measures, including opinion, secondary task, physiological, and primary task measures. Both the relative sensitivity of the measures to changes in mental workload and the differential intrusion of the changes on primary task performance were assessed. The flight task was varied in difficulty by manipulation of the presentation rate and complexity of a hazard-perception task that required each of 48 licensed pilots to rely heavily on their perceptual abilities. Three rating scales (Modified Cooper-Harper, Multi-descriptor, and Workload-Compensation-Interference/Technical Effectiveness), two secondary task measures (time estimation and tapping regularity), one physiological measure (respiration frequency), and one primary task measure (danger-condition response time) were reliable indicants of workload changes. Recommendations for applying the workload measures are presented.

  14. An analysis of operational experience during low power and shutdown and a plan for addressing human reliability assessment issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent nuclear power plant events (e.g. Chernobyl, Diablo Canyon, and Vogtle) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reports (e.g. NUREG-1449) have led to concerns regarding human reliability during low power and shutdown (LP ampersand S) conditions and limitations of human reliability analysis (HRA) methodologies in adequately representing the LP ampersand S environment. As a result of these concerns, the NRC initiated two parallel research projects to assess the influence of LP ampersand S conditions on human reliability through an analysis of operational experience at pressurized water reactors (PWRs) an boiling water reactors (BWRs). These research projects, performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory for PWRS, and Sandia National Laboratories for BWRs, identified unique aspects of human performance during LP ampersand S conditions and provided a program plan for research and development necessary to improve existing HRA methodologies. This report documents the results of the analysis of LP ampersand S operating experience and describes the improved HRA program plan

  15. Methodological Issues And Formation Principles Of Effectiveness Assessment System Of The Territory Management Taking Into Account Strategic Development Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena Aleksandrovna Petrova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the work, the results of multiple-factor interrelation of indicators of efficiency of a regional control system and the main indicators of socio-economic development of territories, results of the analysis of interrelation of indicators of activity of local governments and indicators of socio-economic development of municipalities on the basis of the modern economic-mathematical device are presented. For the use of formal tools of the initial analysis of correlations the socio-economic system of the region is presented in space of the main indicators of socio-economic development of the territory, indicators of efficiency of bodies of the regional power and efficiency of local governments. The analysis is made on values of the indicators calculated for regions of the Russian Federation during 2008-2010 and on values of eleven indicators, calculated for the Volgograd region during 2010-2012. Weak dependence between the subject — object signs as economic systems of mesolevel, and signs of municipal control systems is, as a result, established. The technique of an assessment of efficiency of executive authorities applied now at various levels of managing allows to estimate their activity only on the generalized statistics, which are not reflecting the specific tasks, conditions and features of various regions. It demands further development of existing approaches to an assessment of efficiency of public administration in the direction of the accounting of strategic reference points of the territory, formation of adequate system of indicators, and also development of methodical tools of regional measurements.

  16. An open-database of Grape Harvest dates for climate research: data description and quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daux, V.; Garcia de Cortazar-Atauri, I.; Yiou, P.; Chuine, I.; Garnier, E.; Ladurie, E. Le Roy; Mestre, O.; Tardaguila, J.

    2011-11-01

    We present a dataset of grape harvest dates (GHD) series that has been compiled from international and non-translated French and Spanish literature and from unpublished documentary sources from public organizations and from wine-growers. As of June 2011, this GHD dataset comprises 378 series mainly from France (93% of the data) as well as series from Switzerland, Italy, Spain and Luxembourg. The series have variable length and contain gaps of variable sizes. The longest and most complete ones are from Burgundy, Switzerland, Southern Rhône valley, Jura and Ile-de-France. The GHD series were grouped into 27 regions according to their location, to geomorphological and geological criteria, and to past and present grape varieties. The GHD regional composite series (GHD-RCS) were calculated and compared pairwise to assess the quality of the series. Significant (p-value Internet. It should allow a variety of climate studies, including reconstructions of atmospheric circulation over Western Europe.

  17. Emotional Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / Care for Duchenne / Emotional Issues Print Email Emotional Issues Duchenne’s emotional toll on a child can manifest in a ... important things you can provide to ensure the emotional health of your child. Parents of a child ...

  18. Open Access Policy Update

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Heather

    2007-01-01

    This presentation explores the status of open access policy developments internationally, and particularly in Canada, as of April 2007. While open access resources are substantial, and growing rapidly, the primary issue for open access archives (institutional repositories) is content acquisition, and few researchers fully understand open access, illustrating an ongoing need for policy. Open access policy initiatives are happening around the world. Sherpa Juliet lists more than 20 funding a...

  19. Assessment of biomass open burning emissions in Indonesia and potential climate forcing impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permadi, Didin Agustian; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an emission inventory (EI) for biomass open burning (OB) sources including forest, agro-residue and municipal solid waste (MSW) in Indonesia for year 2007. The EI covered toxic air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHGs) and was presented as annual and monthly average for every district, and further on a grid of 0.25° × 0.25°. A rigorous analysis of activity data and emission factor ranges was done to produce the low, best and high emission estimates for each species. Development of EI methodology for MSW OB which, to our best knowledge, has not been presented in detail in the literature was a focus of this paper. The best estimates of biomass OB emission of toxic air pollutants for the country, in Gg, were: 9.6 SO2; 98 NOx; 7411 CO; 335 NMVOC; 162 NH3; 439 PM10; 357 PM2.5; 24 BC; and 147 OC. The best emission estimates of GHGs, in Gg, were: 401 CH4, 57,247 CO2; and 3.6 N2O. The low and high values of the emission estimates for different species were found to range from -86% to +260% of the corresponding best estimates. Crop residue OB contributed more than 80% of the total biomass OB emissions, followed by forest fire of 2-12% (not including peat soil fire emission) and MSW (1-8%). An inter-annual active fires count for Indonesia showed relatively low values in 2007 which may be attributed to the high rainfall intensity under the influence of La Niña climate pattern in the year. Total estimated net climate forcing from OB in Indonesia was 110 (20 year horizon) and 73 (100 year horizon) Tg CO2 equivalents which is around 0.9-1.1% of that reported for the global biomass OB for both time horizons. The spatial distribution showed higher emissions in large urban areas in Java and Sumatra Island, while the monthly emissions indicated higher values during the dry months of August-October.

  20. Methodological issues in assessing changes in costs pre- and post-medication switch: a schizophrenia study example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyhuis Allen W

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia is a severe, chronic, and costly illness that adversely impacts patients' lives and health care payer budgets. Cost comparisons of treatment regimens are, therefore, important to health care payers and researchers. Pre-Post analyses ("mirror-image", where outcomes prior to a medication switch are compared to outcomes post-switch, are commonly used in such research. However, medication changes often occur during a costly crisis event. Patients may relapse, be hospitalized, have a medication change, and then spend a period of time with intense use of costly resources (post-medication switch. While many advantages and disadvantages of Pre-Post methodology have been discussed, issues regarding the attributability of costs incurred around the time of medication switching have not been fully investigated. Methods Medical resource use data, including medications and acute-care services (hospitalizations, partial hospitalizations, emergency department were collected for patients with schizophrenia who switched antipsychotics (n = 105 during a 1-year randomized, naturalistic, antipsychotic cost-effectiveness schizophrenia trial. Within-patient changes in total costs per day were computed during the pre- and post-medication change periods. In addition to the standard Pre-Post analysis comparing costs pre- and post-medication change, we investigated the sensitivity of results to varying assumptions regarding the attributability of acute care service costs occurring just after a medication switch that were likely due to initial medication failure. Results Fifty-six percent of all costs incurred during the first week on the newly initiated antipsychotic were likely due to treatment failure with the previous antipsychotic. Standard analyses suggested an average increase in cost-per-day for each patient of $2.40 after switching medications. However, sensitivity analyses removing costs incurred post-switch that were potentially

  1. Experience of analyzing legislative and scientific components while choosing the assessment criteria in open competitions on design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshetova Anna Yur'evna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This research study defines the right of the customer to carry out public procurement for design objects of capital construction in the form of open competition, offers the comparative analysis of the evaluation criteria based on the old and the new legislative framework for public procurement. It was assumed, there in the legislation is no clear conceptual framework governing the selection of the evaluation criteria, the same as a method for improving the selection criteria for the assessment of the State order for the design. The process of public procurement in the Russian Federation beginning from 01.01.2014 g. is regulated by the federal law no. 44-FZ from 05.04.2013 “On the contract system in the procurement of goods, works and services for public and municipal needs” (hereinafter - the Law of the contract system. Open competition remains the most carefully prepared and developed of all the procedures for procurement. However, in practice the customers continued to violate the normative and legal regulation of public procurement. One of the most troublesome aspects of the Russian legislation is the criteria defined by customers to evaluate the participants who submitted their applications for the contest. Here we would like to note that according to the Law on contract system such criteria as “term of work performance” and “term and volume of providing the guarantee for quality of the works” aren’t subject to an assessment, in comparison with the Law on government procurements existing earlier. However, as scientific researches in the field show, these criteria were very essential and necessary for assessing the applications. The analysis of the past competitions showed that with the criterion “quality of works” the customer, in most cases, doesn’t establish any certain requirements to the participant of purchase. He asks to supply only the so-called offer on quality of works consisting in the detailed description of

  2. Review of scenario selection approaches for performance assessment of high-level waste repositories and related issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The selection of scenarios representing plausible realizations of the future conditions-with associated probabilities of occurrence-that can affect the long-term performance of a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository is the commonly used method for treating the uncertainty in the prediction of the future states of the system. This method, conventionally referred to as the ''scenario approach,'' while common is not the only method to deal with this uncertainty; other method ''ch as the environmental simulation approach (ESA), have also been proposed. Two of the difficulties with the scenario approach are the lack of uniqueness in the definition of the term ''scenario'' and the lack of uniqueness in the approach to formulate scenarios, which relies considerably on subjective judgments. Consequently, it is difficult to assure that a complete and unique set of scenarios can be defined for use in a performance assessment. Because scenarios are key to the determination of the long-term performance of the repository system, this lack of uniqueness can present a considerable challenge when attempting to reconcile the set of scenarios, and their level of detail, obtained using different approaches, particularly among proponents and regulators of a HLW repository

  3. Review of scenario selection approaches for performance assessment of high-level waste repositories and related issues.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banano, E.J. [Beta Corporation International, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Baca, R.G. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses

    1995-08-01

    The selection of scenarios representing plausible realizations of the future conditions-with associated probabilities of occurrence-that can affect the long-term performance of a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository is the commonly used method for treating the uncertainty in the prediction of the future states of the system. This method, conventionally referred to as the ``scenario approach,`` while common is not the only method to deal with this uncertainty; other method ``ch as the environmental simulation approach (ESA), have also been proposed. Two of the difficulties with the scenario approach are the lack of uniqueness in the definition of the term ``scenario`` and the lack of uniqueness in the approach to formulate scenarios, which relies considerably on subjective judgments. Consequently, it is difficult to assure that a complete and unique set of scenarios can be defined for use in a performance assessment. Because scenarios are key to the determination of the long-term performance of the repository system, this lack of uniqueness can present a considerable challenge when attempting to reconcile the set of scenarios, and their level of detail, obtained using different approaches, particularly among proponents and regulators of a HLW repository.

  4. Student perspectives about mobile learning initiatives at Open University of Brazil: the mobile phone issue - doi: 10.4025/actascieduc.v32i2.11545

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otacilio Antunes Santana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The objectives of this study were to verify if students of Open University of Brazil approve of mobile learning (m-learning initiatives, to identify the students' perspectives about m-learning, to develop a model of instructional design for m-learning environments, and to quantify student satisfaction with the presented model. 1,328 students agreed to participate in this study, all students of Open University of Brazil. They were questioned about their perspectives on m-learning at this university and if they agree with this educational model. The students agreed with the possible implementation of m-learning at this university, especially through mobiles phones. Collectively, the main ideas that the students offered to improve the efficiency of knowledge construction were classified into three groups: theory, practice, and interactivity. They also agreed with an instructional design model that was developed and shown to the three groups.  

  5. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE COMPUTER LITERACY LEVEL OF OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING STUDENTS IN LAGOS STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OSUJI, U. S. A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria has embraced the Open and Distance Learning (ODL mode of education in order to make education affordable and to reach the teaming population of qualified citizens yearning to have quality education but are left out of it. Most universities in the country run the single mode conventional system of education; some run the dual mode while two institutions run the single mode distance education. The groundswell of interest is how computers can best be used to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the ODL system of education in the country. This led to the assessment of the computer literacy level of the distance learning students who are the beneficiaries of the ODL system in Lagos state. A sample of 858 ODL students from University of Lagos, National Teachers Institute (NTI and National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN were used for the study. A self- developed questionnaire, made up of 15 items was administered to the respondents. The data collected were used to answer four research questions and test one hypothesis. It was found that 54.20% are computer literate; there exists gender differences in the computer literacy with 23.78% female and 30.42% male. There are also age differences. Some of the problems include lack of access to computers, inadequate electricity supply, slow broadband and high cost of internet access. The research hypothesis that there is no significant difference between the observed and the expected computer literacy level of the ODL students in Lagos state was rejected. Based on the results some conclusions and recommendations were made.

  6. Toxicity assessment of atmospheric particulate matter in the Mediterranean and Black Seas open waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Sofia R; Dachs, Jordi; van Drooge, Barend L; Castro-Jiménez, Javier; Navarro-Martín, Laia; Barata, Carlos; Vieira, Natividade; Guimarães, Laura; Piña, Benjamin

    2016-03-01

    Atmospheric deposition of particulate matter (PM) is recognized as a relevant input vector for toxic compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), into the marine environment. In this work we aimed to analyse the biological activity and potential adverse effects of PM constituents to aquatic organisms. Organic extracts of atmospheric PM samples from different sub-basins of the Mediterranean and Black Seas were screened using different toxicological tests. A yeast-based assay (AhR-RYA) revealed that dioxin-like activity correlated with the concentration of total PAHs in the PM samples, as well as with their predicted toxic equivalent values (TEQs). Although the zebrafish embryotoxicity test (the ZET assay) showed no major phenotypical adverse effects, up-regulation of mRNA expression of cyp1a, fos and development-related genes (previously described as related to PM toxicity) was observed in exposed embryos when compared to controls. Results showed that mRNA patterns of the studied genes followed a similar geographic distribution to both PAH content and dioxin-like activity of the corresponding extracts. The analysis also showed a distinct geographical pattern of activation of pancreatic markers previously related to airborne pollution, probably indicating a different subset of uncharacterized particle-bound toxicants. We propose the combination of the bioassays tested in the present study to be applied to future research with autochthonous species to assess exposure and potential toxic effects of ambient PM. The present study emphasizes the need for more in-depth studies into the toxic burden of atmospheric PM on aquatic ecosystems, in order to improve future regulatory guidelines. PMID:26745302

  7. Development of a comprehensive measure to assess clinical issues in dual diagnosis patients: The Substance Use Event Survey for Severe Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Melanie E; Bellack, Alan S; Gearon, Jean S

    2006-12-01

    This paper provides a description of The Substance Use Event Survey for Severe Mental Illness (SUESS), a brief (20-30 min) interview that assesses clinical issues and domains that are relevant patients with substance use disorders and severe mental illness. First, we discuss the need for a new clinical measure for dual diagnosis patients, as well as our process of creating domains and items and developing the content of the assessment. Second, we provide a first look at the performance of the SUESS in a large sample of dually diagnosed patients from several large scale studies, including how patients responded to the instrument and their ability to complete the items. Third, we present initial reliability data on the SUESS. Finally, we include some initial validity data, including comparison of the self-report of substance use questions to urinalysis results, and verification of the service use information from medical record review. The SUESS appears to be a useful assessment that is tolerated and understood by dual diagnosis patients, and shows good preliminary reliability and validity. PMID:16678352

  8. Critical Assessment of TD-DFT for Excited States of Open-Shell Systems: I. Doublet-Doublet Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhendong; Liu, Wenjian

    2016-01-12

    A benchmark set of 11 small radicals is set up to assess the performance of time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) for the excited states of open-shell systems. Both the unrestricted (U-TD-DFT) and spin-adapted (X-TD-DFT) formulations of TD-DFT are considered. For comparison, the well-established EOM-CCSD (equation-of-motion coupled-cluster with singles and doubles) is also used. In total, 111 low-lying singly excited doublet states are accessed by all the three approaches. Taking the MRCISD+Q (multireference configuration interaction with singles and doubles plus the Davidson correction) results as the benchmark, it is found that both U-TD-DFT and EOM-CCSD perform well for those states dominated by singlet-coupled single excitations (SCSE) from closed-shell to open-shell, open-shell to vacant-shell, or closed-shell to vacant-shell orbitals. However, for those states dominated by triplet-coupled single excitations (TCSE) from closed-shell to vacant-shell orbitals, both U-TD-DFT and EOM-CCSD fail miserably due to severe spin contaminations. In contrast, X-TD-DFT provides balanced descriptions of both SCSE and TCSE. As far as the functional dependence is concerned, it is found that, when the Hartree-Fock ground state does not suffer from the instability problem, both global hybrid (GH) and range-separated hybrid (RSH) functionals perform grossly better than pure density functionals, especially for Rydberg and charge-transfer excitations. However, if the Hartree-Fock ground state is instable or nearly instable, GH and RSH tend to underestimate severely the excitation energies. The SAOP (statistically averaging of model orbital potentials) performs more uniformly than any other density functionals, although it generally overestimates the excitation energies of valence excitations. Not surprisingly, both EOM-CCSD and adiabatic TD-DFT are incapable of describing excited states with substantial double excitation characters. PMID:26672389

  9. A divergent synthetic approach to diverse molecular scaffolds: assessment of lead-likeness using LLAMA, an open-access computational tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomer, Ignacio; Empson, Christopher J; Craven, Philip; Owen, Zachary; Doveston, Richard G; Churcher, Ian; Marsden, Stephen P; Nelson, Adam

    2016-06-01

    Complementary cyclisation reactions of hex-2-ene-1,6-diamine derivatives were exploited in the synthesis of alternative molecular scaffolds. The value of the synthetic approach was analysed using LLAMA, an open-access computational tool for assessing the lead-likeness and novelty of molecular scaffolds. PMID:27145833

  10. An open-database of Grape Harvest dates for climate research: data description and quality assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Daux

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a dataset of grape harvest dates (GHD series that has been compiled from international and non-translated French and Spanish literature and from unpublished documentary sources from public organizations and from wine-growers. As of June 2011, this GHD dataset comprises 378 series mainly from France (93% of the data as well as series from Switzerland, Italy, Spain and Luxembourg. The series have variable length and contain gaps of variable sizes. The longest and most complete ones are from Burgundy, Switzerland, Southern Rhône valley, Jura and Ile-de-France.

    The GHD series were grouped into 27 regions according to their location, to geomorphological and geological criteria, and to past and present grape varieties. The GHD regional composite series (GHD-RCS were calculated and compared pairwise to assess the quality of the series. Significant (p-value < 0.001 and strong correlations exist between most of them. As expected, the correlations tended to be higher when the vineyards are closer, the highest correlation (R = 0.91 being obtained between the High Loire Valley and the Ile-de-France GHD-RCS.

    The strong dependence of vine cycle on temperature and, therefore, the strong link between GHD and the temperature of the growing season was also used to test the quality of the GHD series. The strongest correlations are obtained between the GHD-RCS and the temperature series of the nearest weather stations. Moreover, the GHD-RCS/temperature correlation maps show spatial patterns similar to temperature correlation maps. The stability of the correlations over time is explored. The most striking feature is their generalized deterioration at the late 19th–early 20th turning point. The possible effects on the GHD of the phylloxera crisis, which took place at this time, are discussed.

    The median of the standardized GHD-RCS was calculated. The distribution of the extreme years of this general synthetic series is

  11. Regional Issue Identification and Assessment (RIIA): an analysis of the Mid-Range Projection Series C Scenario. Executive summary for Federal Region IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honea, B.; Hillsman, E.

    1979-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has hypothesized a number of alternate energy futures as part of its energy planning and analysis programs. In this report, which is part of DOE's Regional Issue Identification and Assessment (RIIA) Program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory examines how a proposed energy future called the Mid-Range Projection Series C Scenario would affect Federal Region IV (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee). This scenario, to be called the Series C Scenario, assumes a medium supply and a medium demand for fuel through 1990, and it incorporates the fuel switching provisions of the Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination Act. The report portrays the major regional environmental, human health and safety, socioeconomic, and institutional effects that might result from the implementation of the Series C Scenario.

  12. Assessment of MRI issues at 3-Tesla for metallic surgical implants: findings applied to 61 additional skin closure staples and vessel ligation clips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill Amreeta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Metallic skin closure staples and vessel ligation clips should be tested at 3-Tesla to characterize MRI issues in order to ensure patient safety. Therefore, metallic surgical implants were assessed at 3-Tesla for magnetic field interactions, MRI-related heating, and artifacts. Methods A skin closure staple (Visistat Skin Stapler, staple, Polytetrafluoroethylene, PTFE, coated 316L/316LVM stainless steel; Teleflex Medical, Durham, NC and a vessel ligation clip (Hemoclip Traditional, stainless steel; Teleflex Medical, Durham, NC that represented the largest metallic sizes made from materials with the highest magnetic susceptibilities (i.e., based on material information among 61 other surgical implants (52 metallic implants, 9 nonmetallic implants underwent evaluation for magnetic field interactions, MRI-related heating, and artifacts using standardized techniques. MRI-related heating was assessed by placing each implant in a gelled-saline-filled phantom with MRI performed using a transmit/receive RF body coil at an MR system reported, whole body averaged SAR of 2.9-W/kg for 15-min. Artifacts were characterized using T1-weighted, SE and GRE pulse sequences. Results Each surgical implant showed minor magnetic field interactions (20- and 27-degrees, which is acceptable from a safety consideration. Heating was not substantial (highest temperature change, ≤ 1.6°C. Artifacts may create issues if the area of interest is in the same area or close to the respective surgical implant. Conclusions The results demonstrated that it would be acceptable for patients with these metallic surgical implants to undergo MRI at 3-Tesla or less. Because of the materials and dimensions of the surgical implants that underwent testing, these findings pertain to 61 additional similar implants.

  13. Review of fullerene toxicity and exposure--appraisal of a human health risk assessment, based on open literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschberger, Karin; Johnston, Helinor J; Stone, Vicki; Aitken, Robert J; Tran, C Lang; Hankin, Steven M; Peters, Sheona A K; Christensen, Frans M

    2010-12-01

    Fullerenes have gained considerable attention due to their anti-oxidant and radical scavenging properties. Their current applications include targeted drug delivery, energy application, polymer modifications and cosmetic products. The production of fullerenes and their use in consumer products is expected to increase in future. This study aims to investigate the feasibility and challenges associated with conducting a human health risk assessment for fullerenes based on the open literature, utilising an approach similar to that of a classical regulatory risk assessment. Available data relates to different types of fullerenes (with varying size, surface chemistry, solubility, aggregation/agglomeration) and care should therefore be taken when drawing general conclusions across the parameters. Pristine fullerenes have shown low toxicity and there is probably no risks expected for humans exposed to fullerenes in the workplace under good hygiene conditions. The main concern for consumers is exposure via direct dermal application of fullerenes present in cosmetics. Available studies do not indicate a short term risk from the tested fullerene types, however no extrapolation to all fullerene types and to chronic exposure can be made. In conclusion, the current dataset on fullerenes in relation to both, human exposure and hazard is limited and does not allow reaching any definite conclusions suitable for regulatory decision making. Main future work should focus on generating occupational and consumer exposure data, as well as suitable data on toxicokinetics and potential toxic effects following repeated inhalation and dermal exposure allowing to determine a NOAEL. It seems also relevant to clarify whether certain fullerene types may potentially induce genotoxic and/or carcinogenic effects via physiologically relevant routes. PMID:20800639

  14. Assessment of exposure to pesticides during mixing/loading and spraying of tomatoes in the open field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprea, Maria Cristina; Bosi, Anna; Manara, Michele; Mazzocchi, Barbara; Pompini, Alessandra; Sormani, Francesca; Lunghini, Liana; Sciarra, Gianfranco

    2016-06-01

    Some evidence of exposure-response of metolachlor and pendimethalin for lung cancer and an association of metribuzin with risk of glioma have been reported. The primary objectives in this study were to evaluate exposure and occupational risk during mixing/loading of pesticides and during their application to tomatoes cultivated in open fields. Sixteen farmers were sampled. Respiratory exposure was estimated by personal air sampling using fiberglass filters in a IOM device. Dermal exposure was assessed using skin pads and hand washing. Absorbed doses were estimated assuming 100% lung retention, and 50% or 10% skin absorption for metribuzin, and pendimethalin and metolachlor, respectively. The three pesticides were quantified by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in all matrices. Metolachlor was used as a tracer of contamination of clothes and tractors unrelated to the exposure monitored. Respiratory exposure to metribuzin, used in granular form, was on average more than one order of magnitude higher than exposure to pendimethalin, used in the form of microencapsulated liquid. The actual doses were 0.067-8.08 µg/kg bw, 0.420-12.6 µg/kg bw, and 0.003-0.877 µg/kg bw for pendimethalin, metribuzin, and metolachlor, respectively. Dermal exposure was about 88% of the actual dose for metribuzin and more than 95%, for pendimethalin and metolachlor. For risk assessment, the total absorbed doses (sum of respiratory and skin absorbed doses) were compared with the AOEL for each compound. The actual and absorbed doses of the three pesticides were always lower than the acceptable operator exposure level (AOEL), which are reported to be 234 µg/kg bw, 20 µg/kg bw, and 150 µg/kg bw for pendimethalin, metribuzin, and metolachlor, respectively. In any case, personal protective equipment and spraying devices should be chosen with care to minimize exposure. PMID:26853603

  15. Assessment of the accuracy of coupled cluster perturbation theory for open-shell systems. II. Quadruples expansions

    CERN Document Server

    Eriksen, Janus J; Jørgensen, Poul; Gauss, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    We extend our assessment of the potential of perturbative coupled cluster (CC) expansions for a test set of open-shell species to the description of quadruple excitations. In doing so, we compare the prominent CCSDT(Q) and lambda-CCSDT(Q) (a-CCSDT(Q)) models, in which the CC singles, doubles, and triples (CCSDT) energy is augmented by similar corrections for quadruple excitations, to the second- through sixth-order models of the CCSDT(Q-n) quadruples series, which is based on a CCSDT rather than an HF zeroth-order state. By comparing the models in terms of the size-intensive recovery of as well as the total deviation from the quadruples contribution to CC singles, doubles, triples, and quadruples (CCSDTQ) energies, we find (i) that the accuracy offered by the CCSDT(Q) and a-CCSDT(Q) models is strongly dependent on the spin of the molecular ground state - like for the CCSD(T) model in the first part of the present series [arXiv:1512.02846] - and (ii) that the performance of the CCSDT(Q-n) models is practically...

  16. Promoting knowledge integration of scientific principles and environmental stewardship: Assessing an issue-based approach to teaching evolution and marine conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Timothy David

    2005-11-01

    Students and citizens need to apply science to important issues every day. Yet the design of science curricula that foster integration of science and everyday decisions is not well understood. For example, can curricula be designed that help learners apply scientific reasons for choosing only environmentally sustainable seafood for dinner? Learners must develop integrated understandings of scientific principles, prior experiences, and current decisions in order to comprehend how everyday decisions impact environmental resources. In order to investigate how such integrated understandings can be promoted within school science classes, research was conducted with an inquiry-oriented curriculum that utilizes technology and a visit to an informal learning environment (aquarium) to promote the integration of scientific principles (adaptation) with environmental stewardship. This research used a knowledge integration approach to teaching and learning that provided a framework for promoting the application of science to environmental issues. Marine biology, often forsaken in classrooms for terrestrial biology, served as the scientific context for the curriculum. The curriculum design incorporated a three-phase pedagogical strategy and new technology tools to help students integrate knowledge and experiences across the classroom and aquarium learning environments. The research design and assessment protocols included comparisons among and within student populations using two versions of the curriculum: an issue-based version and a principle-based version. These inquiry curricula were tested with sophomore biology students attending a marine-focused academy within a coastal California high school. Pretest-posttest outcomes were compared between and within the curricular treatments. Additionally, comparisons were made between the inquiry groups and seniors in an Advanced Placement biology course who attend the same high school. Results indicate that the inquiry curricula

  17. Individual mobility: issues and assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, D. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Center for Technology, Policy and Industrial Development, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Problems relating to mobility will intensify in developing countries due to explosive growth in motorization. In the Western countries, individual travel needs will change as a result of demographics (e.g. an increase in the elderly population, working women and single person households), and new information and communication technology. Increased congestion and global warming are the principal concerns that impact mobility. To respond to these concerns, significant mobility improvements can be realized by replicating successful mobility strategies that have been implemented in some cities throughout the world. However, a more fundamental reappraisal will be necessary that considers mobility in an overall sustainability context. Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) may provide a framework for a new mobility infrastructure that enables implementation of a dynamic transportation system. Such a system can adapt on a real-time basis to customer needs and social concerns. ITS enables pricing and control strategies to be more easily utilized on an episodic basis. Development of a rational approach to sustainable mobility requires the public and private sectors as well as various stakeholders to develop a shared vision of the future, since mobility goes beyond national and competitive interests. (author) 3 figs.

  18. Issues in Phonological Awareness Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindamood, Patricia C.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This paper argues that the ability to rapidly compare phonemes is a primary sensory-cognitive function underlying self-correction in word recognition and spelling and thus, indirectly, reading comprehension. Such phonological defects can be addressed both preventively and remedially using procedures that are fundamentally different from typical…

  19. Revision, uptake and coding issues related to the open access Orchard Sports Injury Classification System (OSICS versions 8, 9 and 10.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Orchard

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available John Orchard1, Katherine Rae1, John Brooks2, Martin Hägglund3, Lluis Til4, David Wales5, Tim Wood61Sports Medicine at Sydney University, Sydney NSW Australia; 2Rugby Football Union, Twickenham, England, UK; 3Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 4FC Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain; 5Arsenal FC, Highbury, England, UK; 6Tennis Australia, Melbourne, Vic, AustraliaAbstract: The Orchard Sports Injury Classification System (OSICS is one of the world’s most commonly used systems for coding injury diagnoses in sports injury surveillance systems. Its major strengths are that it has wide usage, has codes specific to sports medicine and that it is free to use. Literature searches and stakeholder consultations were made to assess the uptake of OSICS and to develop new versions. OSICS was commonly used in the sports of football (soccer, Australian football, rugby union, cricket and tennis. It is referenced in international papers in three sports and used in four commercially available computerised injury management systems. Suggested injury categories for the major sports are presented. New versions OSICS 9 (three digit codes and OSICS 10.1 (four digit codes are presented. OSICS is a potentially helpful component of a comprehensive sports injury surveillance system, but many other components are required. Choices made in developing these components should ideally be agreed upon by groups of researchers in consensus statements.Keywords: sports injury classification, epidemiology, surveillance, coding

  20. Open Hardware Business Models

    OpenAIRE

    Edy Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    In the September issue of the Open Source Business Resource, Patrick McNamara, president of the Open Hardware Foundation, gave a comprehensive introduction to the concept of open hardware, including some insights about the potential benefits for both companies and users. In this article, we present the topic from a different perspective, providing a classification of market offers from companies that are making money with open hardware.

  1. Open Access in Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Machovec, George; Morrison, Heather; Whitehead, Heather

    2006-01-01

    This session addressed some of the practical issues arising from open access. The Colorado Alliance of Research Libraries (CARL) links members with open access resources through the Gold Rush service, which includes 80 open access title lists. Librarians at the Colorado School of Mines have collaborated to develop a subject specialized list of titles - for their own library, and to share with all CARL members through Gold Rush. E-LIS, the Open Archive for Library and Information Studies...

  2. The concept of "intercultural opening": the development of an assessment tool for the appraisal of its current implementation in the mental health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penka, S; Kluge, U; Vardar, A; Borde, T; Ingleby, D

    2012-06-01

    The German concept of "intercultural opening" is an approach to facilitating migrants' access to the health care system and improving the care they receive. No data exist concerning the current status of the implementation of this approach in Germany, and the concept has never been analysed in practice. To assess the status of "intercultural opening" in the German mental health care system and to further analyse the concept, we developed a tool by combining pre-existing instruments. In order to review the preliminary tool we combined experts' knowledge by carrying out a consensusoriented, expert-based Delphi process with actual practice by piloting the instrument in each type of institution to be assessed. The assessment tool thus developed(1) is the first one to evaluate the current status of "intercultural opening" in the community mental health care system in Germany from a broad perspective. This paper is intended to present the development process of our assessment tool for demonstrating the benefits of this approach and as a model for future studies, as well as to increase transparency in relation to the current German approach to health care structures in dealing with migrants. PMID:22863253

  3. Namibia: Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

    2014-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper explores the question of what kind of structural policies could boost productivity growth in small middle-income countries (SMICs), including Namibia. The findings suggest that although macroeconomic stability and trade openness are necessary for productivity growth, they are not sufficient. SMICs need to improve the quality of their public spending, most notably on education to minimize the skill mismatch in the labor market, reduce the regulatory burden on firms, ...

  4. ECMR’13 Special Issue

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade-Cetto, Juan; Frese, Udo; Moritz, Tenorth

    2015-01-01

    This special issue contains extended versions of the best papers from the 6th European Conference on Mobile Robots (ECMR). ECMR is a biennial European forum, internationally open, that allows roboticists throughout Europe to become acquainted with the latest research accomplishments and innovations in mobile robotics and mobile human–robot systems. ECMR covers most aspects of mobile robotics research and machine intelligence, including (but not limited to) the following topics: multi-sensor f...

  5. Three-dimensional plasma transport in open chaotic magnetic fields. A computational assessment for tokamak edge layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of nuclear fusion as an alternative energy source requires the research on magnetically confined, high temperature plasmas. In particular, the quantification of plasma flows in the domain near exposed material surfaces of the plasma container by computer simulations is of key importance, both for guiding interpretation of present fusion experiments and for aiding the ongoing design activities for large future devices such as ITER, W7-X or the DEMO reactor. There is a large number of computational issues related to the physics of hot, fully ionized and magnetized plasmas near surfaces of the vacuum chamber. This thesis is dedicated to one particular such challenge, namely the numerical quantification of self-consistent kinetic neutral gas and plasma fluid flows in very complex 3D (partially chaotic) magnetic fields, in the absence of any common symmetries for plasma and neutral gas dynamics. Such magnetic field configurations are e.g. generated by externally applied magnetic perturbations at the plasma edge, and are of great interest for the control of particle and energy exhausts. In the present thesis the 3D edge plasma and neutral particle transport code EMC3-EIRENE is applied to two distinct configurations of open chaotic magnetic system: at the TEXTOR and DIII-D tokamaks. Improvements of the edge transport model and extensions of the transport code are presented, which have allowed such simulations for the first time for 3D scenarios at DIII-D with ITER similar plasmas. A strong 3D effect of the chaotic magnetic field on the DIII-D edge plasma is found and analyzed in detail. It is found that a pronounced striation pattern of target particle and heat fluxes at DIII-D can only be obtained up to a certain upper limiting level of anomalous cross-field transport. Hence, in comparison to experimental data, these findings allow to narrow down the range of this model parameter. One particular interest at TEXTOR is the achievement of a regime with

  6. An open-access database of grape harvest dates for climate research: data description and quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daux, V.; Garcia de Cortazar-Atauri, I.; Yiou, P.; Chuine, I.; Garnier, E.; Ladurie, E. Le Roy; Mestre, O.; Tardaguila, J.

    2012-09-01

    We present an open-access dataset of grape harvest dates (GHD) series that has been compiled from international, French and Spanish literature and from unpublished documentary sources from public organizations and from wine-growers. As of June 2011, this GHD dataset comprises 380 series mainly from France (93% of the data) as well as series from Switzerland, Italy, Spain and Luxemburg. The series have variable length (from 1 to 479 data, mean length of 45 data) and contain gaps of variable sizes (mean ratio of observations/series length of 0.74). The longest and most complete ones are from Burgundy, Switzerland, Southern Rhône valley, Jura and Ile-de-France. The most ancient harvest date of the dataset is in 1354 in Burgundy. The GHD series were grouped into 27 regions according to their location, to geomorphological and geological criteria, and to past and present grape varieties. The GHD regional composite series (GHD-RCS) were calculated and compared pairwise to assess their reliability assuming that series close to one another are highly correlated. Most of the pairwise correlations are significant (p-value phylloxera crisis, which took place at this time, are discussed. The median of all the standardized GHD-RCS was calculated. The distribution of the extreme years of this general series is not homogenous. Extremely late years all occur during a two-century long time window from the early 17th to the early 19th century, while extremely early years are frequent during the 16th and since the mid-19th century.

  7. Bioethical issues in the development of biopharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Zoran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of biopharmaceuticals is a challenging issue in bioethics. Unlike conventional, small molecular weight drugs, biopharmaceuticals are proteins derived from DNA technology and hybrid techniques with complex three dimensional structures. Immunogenicity of biopharmaceuticals should always be tested in clinical settings due to low predictive value of preclinical animal models. However, non-human primates (NHP and transgenic mice could be used to address certain aspects of immunogenicity. Substantial efforts have been made to reduce NHP use in biopharmaceutical drug development, e.g. study design improvements and changes in regulatory policy. In addition, several expert groups are active in this field (e.g. NC3Rs, BioSafe, and Biopharmaceutical Technical Group. Despite that, there is an increasing trend of use of NHP in preclinical safety testing of biopharmaceuticals, especially regarding monoclonal antibodies. Other potential bioethical issues related biopharmaceutical drug development are their cost/effectiveness ratio, clinical safety assessment, production of biosimilars, and comparison of their efficacy with placebo in countries without intention to market. Identification of the human genome has opened many new bioethical issues. Development of biopharmaceuticals is an important bioethical issue for several reasons. It connects all aspects of contemporary bioethics: bio­medicine (e.g. clinical trials in vulnerable subjects, animal welfare and the most recent ad­vances in biotechnology. In particular, biopharmaceutical drug development is a challenging issue regarding treatment of rare diseases.

  8. Design of Cycle 3 of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, 2013-2022: Part 1: Framework of Water-Quality Issues and Potential Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Gary L.; Belitz, Kenneth; Essaid, Hedeff I.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Hoos, Anne B.; Lynch, Dennis D.; Munn, Mark D.; Wolock, David W.

    2010-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Congress established the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program to develop long-term, nationally consistent information on the quality of the Nation's streams and groundwater. Congress recognized the critical need for this information to support scientifically sound management, regulatory, and policy decisions concerning the increasingly stressed water resources of the Nation. The long-term goals of NAWQA are to: (1) assess the status of water-quality conditions in the United States, (2) evaluate long-term trends in water-quality conditions, and (3) link status and trends with an understanding of the natural and human factors that affect water quality. These goals are national in scale, include both surface water and groundwater, and include consideration of water quality in relation to both human uses and aquatic ecosystems. Since 1991, NAWQA assessments and findings have fostered and supported major improvements in the availability and use of unbiased scientific information for decisionmaking, resource management, and planning at all levels of government. These improvements have enabled agencies and stakeholders to cost-effectively address a wide range of water-quality issues related to natural and human influences on the quality of water and potential effects on aquatic ecosystems and human health (http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa/xrel.pdf). NAWQA, like all USGS programs, provides policy relevant information that serves as a scientific basis for decisionmaking related to resource management, protection, and restoration. The information is freely available to all levels of government, nongovernmental organizations, industry, academia, and the public, and is readily accessible on the NAWQA Web site and other diverse formats to serve the needs of the water-resource community at different technical levels. Water-quality conditions in streams and groundwater are described in more than 1,700 publications (available

  9. Public participation in environmental issues in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is natural in a democratic society that people request more participation in the decision making process. The once centralized government was however reluctant to open more room in this regard concerning the nuclear power industry and radioactive waste management. The environmental impact assessment provided the statuary ground, although limited, for public participation in the environmental issues. A comprehensive social communication program which consists of public information, public education, public relation, and public participation must be established to ensure the smooth realization of a development project. This paper described the relevant situations in Taiwan and recommended various practices to alleviate the NIMBY syndrome. These descriptions and recommendations would be useful particularly for the third world countries facing emerging environmental issues in the near future

  10. The 1990 NPT review conference: context and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 20 August 1990, some hundreds of diplomats, government officials, nuclear energy specialists, arms control experts and representatives of non-governmental organisations and the press will gather in Geneva for the opening of the Fourth Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Review Conference. NPT review conferences review the Treaty's operation 'with a view to assuring that the purposes of the preamble and the provisions of this Treaty are being realised' (Article VII.3). Holding NPT review conferences at regular intervals also serves to focus international attention upon non-proliferation issues once every five years. The purpose, scope and nature of the conferences is discussed and the main issues for 1990 assessed. (author)

  11. Overview of the program to assess the reliability of emerging nondestructive techniques open testing and study of flaw type effect on NDE response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Komura, Ichiro; Kim, Kyung-cho; Zetterwall, Tommy; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Prokofiev, Iouri

    2016-02-01

    In February 2012, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) executed agreements with VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Japan (NRA, former JNES), Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM), and Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) to establish the Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques (PARENT). The goal of PARENT is to investigate the effectiveness of current emerging and perspective novel nondestructive examination procedures and techniques to find flaws in nickel-alloy welds and base materials. This is done by conducting a series of open and blind international round-robin tests on a set of large-bore dissimilar metal welds (LBDMW), small-bore dissimilar metal welds (SBDMW), and bottom-mounted instrumentation (BMI) penetration weld test blocks. The purpose of blind testing is to study the reliability of more established techniques and included only qualified teams and procedures. The purpose of open testing is aimed at a more basic capability assessment of emerging and novel technologies. The range of techniques applied in open testing varied with respect to maturity and performance uncertainty and were applied to a variety of simulated flaws. This paper will include a brief overview of the PARENT blind and open testing techniques and test blocks and present some of the blind testing results.

  12. Magnetic fusion energy plasma interactive and high heat flux components. Volume II. Technical assessment of the critical issues and problem areas in high heat flux materials and component development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technical assessment of the critical issues and problem areas for high heat flux materials and components (HHFMC) in magnetic fusion devices shows these problems to be of critical importance for the successful operation of near-term fusion experiments and for the feasibility and attractiveness of long-term fusion reactors. A number of subgroups were formed to assess the critical HHFMC issues along the following major lines: (1) source conditions, (2) systems integration, (3) materials and processes, (4) thermal hydraulics, (5) thermomechanical response, (6) electromagnetic response, (7) instrumentation and control, and (8) test facilities. The details of the technical assessment are presented in eight chapters. The primary technical issues and needs for each area are highlighted

  13. An assessment of the role mass market demand response could play in contributing to the management of variable generation integration issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The penetration of wind and solar generating resources is expected to dramatically increase in the United States over the coming years. It is widely understood that large scale deployment of these types of renewable energy sources (e.g., wind, solar) that have variable and less predictable production characteristics than traditional thermal resources poses integration challenges for bulk power system operators. At present, bulk power system operators primarily utilize strategies that rely on existing thermal generation resources and improved wind and solar energy production forecasts to manage this uncertainty; a host of additional options are also envisioned for the near future including demand response (DR). There are well-established bodies of research that examine variable generation integration issues as well as demand response potential; but, the existing literature that provides a comparative assessment of the two neither treats this topic comprehensively nor in a highly integrated fashion. Thus, this paper seeks to address these missing pieces by considering the full range of opportunities and challenges for mass market DR rates and programs to support integration of variable renewable generation. - Highlights: ► Mass market demand response can help manage the integration of renewable resources. ► To be more effective, retail electricity rates must apply contemporaneous prices. ► Demand response programs will require shorter duration and more frequent events. ► Mass market customers will likely need to accept control technology. ► Market rules and regulatory policies must change to expand demand response's role.

  14. Disability Issues are Women's Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Mijoo Kim

    2009-01-01

    Mijoo Kim from Women with Disabilities Arts and Culture Network, Korea, speaks on behalf of women with disabilities when she underlines that disability issues are women's issues. She asks why women with disabilities have been invisible in the women's movement, based on her work over the past 15 years in the movement of women with disabilities in Korea and internationally. Development (2009) 52, 230–232. doi:10.1057/dev.2009.10

  15. Stability Assessment and Optimization Design of Lakeside Open-Pit Slope considering Fluid-Solid Coupling Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Wenchen Fan; Ping Cao; Ke Zhang; Kaihui Li; Chong Chen

    2015-01-01

    Chengmenshan copper mine, located at Jiujiang city in the Jiangxi Province, is a rarely lakeside open-pit mine in China. Since the open-pit is very close to Sai Lake, the seasonally changed water level and the distance between lake and slope have great influence to the stability of open-pit slope. Based on the drill data and geological sections, a numerical model of the slope is built. With the fluid-mechanical interaction associated, the stability of the slopes is numerically analyzed, in wh...

  16. Disappearing Act: Persistence and Attrition of Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) in an Open Access Medical Journal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraja, Aragudige; Joseph, Shine A.; Polen, Hyla H.; Clauson, Kevin A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to assess and catalogue the magnitude of URL attrition in a high-impact, open access (OA) general medical journal. Design/methodology/approach: All "Public Library of Science Medicine (PLoS Medicine)" articles for 2005-2007 were evaluated and the following items were assessed: number of entries per issue; type of…

  17. An open-access database of grape harvest dates for climate research: data description and quality assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Daux

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an open-access dataset of grape harvest dates (GHD series that has been compiled from international, French and Spanish literature and from unpublished documentary sources from public organizations and from wine-growers. As of June 2011, this GHD dataset comprises 380 series mainly from France (93% of the data as well as series from Switzerland, Italy, Spain and Luxemburg. The series have variable length (from 1 to 479 data, mean length of 45 data and contain gaps of variable sizes (mean ratio of observations/series length of 0.74. The longest and most complete ones are from Burgundy, Switzerland, Southern Rhône valley, Jura and Ile-de-France. The most ancient harvest date of the dataset is in 1354 in Burgundy.

    The GHD series were grouped into 27 regions according to their location, to geomorphological and geological criteria, and to past and present grape varieties. The GHD regional composite series (GHD-RCS were calculated and compared pairwise to assess their reliability assuming that series close to one another are highly correlated. Most of the pairwise correlations are significant (p-value < 0.001 and strong (mean pairwise correlation coefficient of 0.58. As expected, the correlations tend to be higher when the vineyards are closer. The highest correlation (R = 0.91 is obtained between the High Loire Valley and the Ile-de-France GHD-RCS.

    The strong dependence of the vine cycle on temperature and, therefore, the strong link between the harvest dates and the temperature of the growing season was also used to test the quality of the GHD series. The strongest correlations are obtained between the GHD-RCS and the temperature series of the nearest weather stations. Moreover, the GHD-RCS/temperature correlation maps show spatial patterns similar to temperature correlation maps. The stability of the correlations over time is explored. The most striking feature is their generalised deterioration at the

  18. Tentative Study of Government-Industry-Academia Cooperative Innovation Ability Assessment Issues(1)%官产学合作创新能力评价问题初探(上)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马飞虹

    2012-01-01

    创新能力,尤其是国家创新能力是一个国家实现发展经济、提升国家科技水平、增强国际竞争力、以及保证国家可持续发展的动力所在.中国在经历了30多年的改革开放和自主创新发展之后,国民经济发展取得了举世瞩目的成就,国家竞争力大大增强.但是,当今中国在经济高速发展的进程中,与世界上发达国家相比,却在国家创新能力和创新水平方面存在着相当大的差距,这种差距已成了落实国家发展战略和国家可持续发展的瓶颈,这是必须高度重视和认真对待的问题.突破这一瓶颈的关键就在于,必须强化国家的创新能力.或者说,强化以知识创新、技术创新和制度创新及其三者的融合创新为主要内容的官产学合作创新,进而提高官产学合作创新能力与水平,以促进国家创新系统的建设与发展.为此,对官产学合作创新能力评价过程中的创新能力理论模型与评价体系、创新能力评价综合指数,以及创新能力影响因素的仿真分析等问题进行了初步的研究.%Innovation ability, especially national innovation ability, is a driving force behind a country' s ability to achieve economic development, improve national level of technology, enhance international competitiveness and ensure national sustainability. After over three decades of reform and opening-up as well as proactive, innovative development, China has made eye—catching achievements in national economic development, with significantly improved national competitiveness. However, China still lag far behind developed countries in terms of national innovation ability and performance in the course of rapid economic development, which has become a bottleneck to the implementation of the national development strategy and national sustainability. This is an issue we must give much attention and seriously address. The author believes to overcome such bottleneck requires enhancing

  19. Tentative Study on Government-Industry-Academia Cooperative Innovation Ability Assessment Issues (2)%官产学合作创新能力评价问题初探(下)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马飞虹

    2012-01-01

    创新能力,尤其是国家创新能力是一个国家实现发展经济、提升国家科技水平、增强国际竞争力、以及保证国家可持续发展的动力所在.中国在经历了30多年的改革开放和自主创新发展之后,国民经济发展取得了举世瞩目的成就,国家竞争力大大增强.但是,当今中国在经济高速发展的进程中,与世界上发达国家相比,却在国家创新能力和创新水平方面存在着相当大的差距,这种差距已成了落实国家发展战略和国家可持续发展的瓶颈,这是必须高度重视和认真对待的问题.突破这一瓶颈的关键就在于,必须强化国家的创新能力.或者说,强化以知识创新、技术创新和制度创新及其三者的融合创新为主要内容的官产学合作创新,进而提高官产学合作创新能力与水平,以促进国家创新系统的建设与发展.为此,对官产学合作创新能力评价过程中的创新能力理论模型与评价体系、创新能力评价综合指数,以及创新能力影响因素的仿真分析等问题进行了初步的研究.%Innovation ability, especially national innovation ability, is a driving force behind a country's ability to achieve economic development, improves national level of technology, enhances international competitiveness and ensures national sustainabitity. After over three decades of reform and opening - up as well as proactive, innovative development , China has made eye - catching achievements in national economic development, with significantly improved national competitiveness. However, China still lag far behind developed countries in terms of national innovation ability and performance in the course of rapid economic development, which has become a bottleneck to the implementation of the national development strategy and national sustainability. This is an issue we must give much attention and seriously address. The author believes to overcome such bottleneck requires

  20. Sanskrit Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Barbara Stoler, Ed.

    1971-01-01

    This issue of "Mahfil" is devoted to Sanskrit literature and contains a note on Sanskrit pronunciation and selections of Sanskrit literature. It also contains articles analyzing and discussing various aspects of the literature, including "Sanskrit Rhetoric and Poetic,""The Creative Role of the Goddess Vac in the 'Rgveda,'""Vedic and Epic…