WorldWideScience

Sample records for assessment mitigation options

  1. Cross-sectoral assessment of mitigation options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, K.

    1997-01-01

    The paper addresses the relationship between national economic and social development objectives and climate change mitigation, with national studies for Tanzania and Zimbabwe as the starting point. The main activities driving GHG emissions in these countries are evaluated in order to identify key...... gas emissions, Forestry, land use and agriculture are at the same time key economic and social development areas, This means that options leading to improved performance of these activities can reduce future greenhouse gas emissions and imply increasing welfare, A potential for win-win options has...... emission sources and gases. The paper reports the result of the integrated assessment of CO2 and CH4 reduction options for energy, agriculture, forestry and waste management for Zimbabwe, This leads up to a final discussion on methodological issues involved in cross-sectoral mitigation assessment. (C) 1997...

  2. Essays on mitigation options

    OpenAIRE

    Peinl, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Die kumulative Dissertation "Essays on mitigation options" untersucht in drei Artikeln Wälder, Erneuerbare Energien sowie technologische Treibhausgassenken (carbon capture and storage (CCS) als wesentliche Vermeidungsoptionen im Kontext des Klimawandels. Der erste Artikel analysiert im Rahmen eines forstökonomischen, dynamischen Partialmodells grundlegende theoretische Bedingungen einer erweiterten forstlichen Kohlenstoffeinspeicherung. Der zweite Artikel untersucht im Rahmen eines allgemeine...

  3. Integrated economic assessment of energy and forestry mitigation options using MARKAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There have been a number of economic assessment of GHG mitigation studies carried out in Indonesia. Several alternative mitigation options for energy and non-energy sectors have been described and the economic assessment of the options has been done for each sectors. However, most of the economic assessment particularly for non-energy sector, was not to find a least cost option but the lowest cost options. A program called MARKAL developed by a consortium of energy specialists from more than a dozen countries in the early 1980s, is a program that can be used for optimization, so that the least cost options could be selected. Indonesia has used this program intensively for energy system analysis. Attempt to use this program for other sector has not been developed as this program was designed for energy sector. Therefore, using MARKAL for other sector, all activities of the other sectors should be treated as energy activities. This study is aimed to use MARKAL for analysing both energy and forestry sector together. This paper described briefly the methodology of using MARKAL for both energy and forestry sectors. As the activities in energy sector have unique characteristics, thus only forest activities are described in more detail. (au)

  4. Beyond pure offsetting: Assessing options to generate Net-Mitigation-Effects in carbon market mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current project-based carbon market mechanisms such as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and the Joint Implementation (JI) do not have a direct impact on global greenhouse gas emission levels, because they only replace or offset emissions. Nor do they contribute to host country's national greenhouse gas emission reduction targets. Contributions to net emission reductions in host countries is likely to become mandatory in new mechanisms under development such as in the framework for various approaches, a new market-based mechanism and even in a reformed JI. This research analysed the question if approaches for carbon market-based mechanisms exist that allow the generation of net emission reductions in host countries while keeping project initiation attractive. We present a criteria-based assessment method and apply it for four generic options in existing mechanisms and derive implications for future mechanism frameworks. We identified the application of “discounts” on the amount of avoided emissions for the issuance of carbon credits and “standardisation below business as usual” as most promising options over “limiting the crediting period” and “over-conservativeness”. We propose to apply these options differentiated over project types based on internal rate of return to ensure cost-efficiency and attractiveness. - Highlights: • Options for net emission reductions of market-based mechanisms are assessed. • Research combines past and current views for project and sector-based mechanisms. • Implementation ensures initiation of mitigation activities is not discouraged. • Important insights for methodological design of new market-based mechanisms. • Profitability-based approach for project-based mechanisms suggested

  5. Assessment of the mitigation options in the energy system in Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christov, C.; Vassilev, C.; Simenova, K. [and others

    1996-12-31

    Bulgaria signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the UNCEP in Rio in June 1992. The parliament ratified the Convention in March 1995. In compliance with the commitments arising under the Convention, Bulgaria elaborates climate change polity. The underlying principles in this policy are Bulgaria to joint the international efforts towards solving climate change problems to the extent that is adequate to both the possibilities of national economy and the options to attract foreign investments. All policies and measures implemented should be as cost-effective as possible. The Bulgarian GHG emission profile reveals the energy sector as the most significant emission source and also as an area where the great potential for GHG emissions reduction exists. This potential could be achieved in many cases by relatively low cost or even no-cost options. Mitigation analysis incorporates options in energy demand and energy supply within the period 1992-2020.

  6. Regional transport sector mitigation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Peter [EECG Consultants, Gaborone (Botswana)

    1998-10-01

    The rationale for conducting climate change mitigation studies in the transport sector is on the premise that: The transport sector is the second largest consumer of fossil fuels in the region; The regional transport sector is an area with high opportunity for infrastructural development under UNFCCC financial mechanism; The regional transport sector is crucial in the SADC region for trade and coupled with the Trade Protocol will play a major role in development hence the need to make it efficient in terms of energy demand and provision of services; The sector offers many mitigation options but with a challenge to evaluate their energy saving and GHG saving potential and yet there is need to quantify possible emission reduction for possible future emission trading. This is also a sector with potential to qualify for financing through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) recently stipulated in the Kyoto Protocol. (au)

  7. Rockfall hazard assessment, risk quantification, and mitigation options for reef cove resort development, False Cape, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlotfeldt, P.

    2009-04-01

    GIS and 2-D rock fall simulations were used as the primary tools during a rock fall hazard assessment and analyses for a major resort and township development near Cairns, Queensland in Australia. The methods used included 1) the development of a digital elevation model (DEM); undertaking rock fall trajectory analyses to determine the end points of rockfalls, the distribution of kinetic energy for identified rock fall runout Zones, and 3) undertaking event tree analyses based on a synthesis of all data in order to establish Zones with the highest risk of fatalities. This paper describes the methodology used and the results of this work. Recommendations to mitigate the hazard included having exclusions zones with no construction, scaling (including trim blasting), construction of berms and rockfall catch fences. Keywords: GIS, rockfall simulation, rockfall runout Zones, mitigation options INTRODUCTION False Cape is located on the east side of the Trinity inlet near Cairns (Figure 1). Construction is underway for a multi-million dollar development close the beach front. The development will ultimately cover about 1.5 km of prime coast line. The granite slopes above the development are steep and are covered with a number of large, potentially unstable boulders. Sheet jointing is present in the in-situ bedrock and these combined with other tectonic joint sets have provided a key mechanism for large side down slope on exposed bedrock. With each rock fall (evidence by boulders strew in gullies, over the lower parts of the slope, and on the beach) the failure mechanism migrates upslope. In order for the Developer to proceed with construction he needs to mitigate the identified rock fall hazard. The method used to study the hazard and key finding are presented in this paper. Discussion is provided in the conclusion on mitigation options. KEY METHODS USED TO STUDY THE HAZARD In summary the methods used to study the hazard for the False Cape project include; 1. The

  8. An assessment of the potentials of nuclear power and carbon capture and storage in the long-term global warming mitigation options based on Asian Modeling Exercise scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an evaluation of global warming mitigation options based on scenarios from the Asian Modeling Exercise. Using an extended version of the integrated assessment model MARIA-23 (Multiregional Approach for Resource and Industry Allocation), we analyze nuclear fuel recycling options, carbon capture and storage technologies (CCS), and biomass utilization. To assess the potential implications of decreased social acceptance of nuclear power in the wake of the Fukushima nuclear accident, additional scenarios including a nuclear power expansion limitation, are analyzed. We also evaluate MARIA-23 model simulation estimates of long-term contributions and interrelationships among nuclear power, biomass, and CCS. Finally, potential costs of nuclear limitation under carbon control policies are assessed. The simulation results in this paper suggest the following: (1) under the reference scenario, global GDP losses in climate limitation scenarios range from 1.3% per year to 3.9% per year in 2060, rising to between 3.5% per year and 4.5% per year in 2100; (2) the use of nuclear fuel reprocessing technologies increase rapidly in all carbon control policy scenarios; (3) under a scenario where the price of CO2 is $30 and nuclear power expansion is strictly limited, GDP losses increase significantly—from 4.5% per year to 6.4% per year by 2100; (4) nuclear power and CCS are substitute mitigation technologies. With nuclear power technology available CCS deployment reaches approximately 15,000 Mt-CO2 per year by 2010; without a nuclear power option, CCS deployment rises to more than 80,000 Mt-CO2 per year; and (5) biomass utilization cannot fully compensate for limitations to nuclear power expansion in policy scenarios. In addition to examining the role of these three technologies on global scales, we report results for several major Asian regions, namely Japan, China, and India. China tends to deploy nuclear power (if available) in response to rapidly growing power

  9. Mitigation assessment results and priorities in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Zongxin; Wei Zhihong [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper energy related CO2 emission projections of China by 2030 are given. CO2 mitigation potential and technology options in main fields of energy conservation and energy substitution are analyzed. CO2 reduction costs of main mitigation technologies are estimated and the AHP approach is used for helping assessment of priority technologies.

  10. Mitigation options for the industrial sector in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelil, I.A.; El-Touny, S.; Korkor, H. [Organization for Energy Conservation and Planning (OECP), Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-12-31

    Though its contribution to the global Greenhouse gases emission is relatively small, Egypt has signed and ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) and has been playing an active role in the international efforts to deal with such environmental challenges. Energy efficiency has been one of the main strategies that Egypt has adopted to improve environmental quality and enhance economic competitiveness. This paper highlights three initiatives currently underway to improve energy efficiency of the Egyptian industry. The first is a project that has been recently completed by OECP to assess potential GHG mitigation options available in Egypt`s oil refineries. The second initiative is an assessment of GHG mitigation potential in the Small and Medium size Enterprises (SME) in the Mediterranean city of Alexandria. The third one focuses on identifying demand side management options in some industrial electricity consumers in the same city.

  11. Mitigation Options in Forestry, Land-Use, Change and Biomass Burning in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makundi, Willy R.

    1998-06-01

    Mitigation options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and sequester carbon in land use sectors are describe in some detail. The paper highlights those options in the forestry sector, which are more relevant to different parts of Africa. It briefly outlines a bottom-up methodological framework for comprehensively assessing mitigation options in land use sectors. This method emphasizes the application of end-use demand projections to construct a baseline and mitigation scenarios and explicitly addresses the carbon storage potential on land and in wood products, as well as use of wood to substitute for fossil fuels. Cost-effectiveness indicators for ranking mitigation options are proposed, including those, which account for non-carbon monetary benefits such as those derived from forest products, as well as opportunity cost of pursuing specific mitigation option. The paper finally surveys the likely policies, barriers and incentives to implement such mitigation options in African countries .

  12. Mitigation options in forestry, land-use change and biomass burning in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makundi, Willy R.L. [Univ. of California, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (United States)

    1998-10-01

    Mitigation options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and sequester carbon in land use sectors are described in some detail. The paper highlights those options in the forestry sector, which are more relevant to different parts of Africa. It briefly outlines a bottom-up methodological framework for comprehensively assessing mitigation options in land use sectors. This method emphasizes the application of end-use demand projections to construct baseline and mitigation scenarios and explicitly addresses the carbon storage potential on land an in wood products, as well as use of wood to substitute for fossil fuels. Cost-effectiveness indicators for ranking mitigation options are proposed, including those which account for non-carbon monetary benefits such as those derived from forest products, as well as opportunity cost of pursuing specific mitigation option. The paper finally surveys the likely policies, barriers and incentives to implement such mitigation options in African countries. (au) 13 refs.

  13. Mitigation options in forestry, land-use change and biomass burning in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitigation options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and sequester carbon in land use sectors are described in some detail. The paper highlights those options in the forestry sector, which are more relevant to different parts of Africa. It briefly outlines a bottom-up methodological framework for comprehensively assessing mitigation options in land use sectors. This method emphasizes the application of end-use demand projections to construct baseline and mitigation scenarios and explicitly addresses the carbon storage potential on land an in wood products, as well as use of wood to substitute for fossil fuels. Cost-effectiveness indicators for ranking mitigation options are proposed, including those which account for non-carbon monetary benefits such as those derived from forest products, as well as opportunity cost of pursuing specific mitigation option. The paper finally surveys the likely policies, barriers and incentives to implement such mitigation options in African countries. (au) 13 refs

  14. Report on adaptation and mitigation options in the showcase farms

    OpenAIRE

    Stienezen, M.W.J.; Sillebak Kristensen, Ib; Olesen, J.E.; Hutchings, N.; Mogensen, Lisbeth; Barioni, Luis; Veloso, Rui

    2015-01-01

    This deliverable collates the information on simulated effects of mitigation and adaptation options at the farm scale in the non-European study regions from AnimalChange, primarily using the FarmAC model for the mitigation options, and applying semi quantitative modelling for the adaptation options

  15. Greenhouse gas mitigation options for Washington State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, N.

    1996-04-01

    President Clinton, in 1993, established a goal for the United States to return emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. One effort established to help meet this goal was a three part Environmental Protection Agency state grant program. Washington State completed part one of this program with the release of the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory and 2010 projected inventory. This document completes part two by detailing alternative greenhouse gas mitigation options. In part three of the program EPA, working in partnership with the States, may help fund innovative greenhouse gas reduction strategies. The greenhouse gas control options analyzed in this report have a wide range of greenhouse gas reductions, costs, and implementation requirements. In order to select and implement a prudent mix of control strategies, policy makers need to have some notion of the potential change in climate, the consequences of that change and the uncertainties contained therein. By understanding the risks of climate change, policy makers can better balance the use of scarce public resources for concerns that are immediate and present against those that affect future generations. Therefore, prior to analyzing alternative greenhouse gas control measures, this report briefly describes the phenomenon and uncertainties of global climate change, and then projects the likely consequences for Washington state.

  16. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options Database(GMOD)and Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options Database (GMOD) is a decision support database and tool that provides cost and performance information for GHG mitigation options for the power, cement, refinery, landfill and pulp and paper sectors. The GMOD includes approximately 450 studies fo...

  17. Greenhouse gases mitigation options and strategies for Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mwandosya, M.J.; Meena, H.E.

    1996-12-31

    Tanzania became a party to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UN FCCC) when she ratified the Convention in March, 1996. Now that Tanzania and other developing countries are Parties to the UN FCCC, compliance with its provisions is mandatory. The legal requirements therefore provide a basis for their participation in climate change studies and policy formulation. All parties to the Convention are required by Article 4.1 of the United Nations Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) to develop, periodically update, publish, and make available national inventories of anthropogenic emissions and removal of greenhouse gases that are not controlled by the Montreal Protocol. This study on possible options for the mitigation of greenhouse gases in Tanzania is a preliminary effort towards the fulfilment of the obligation. In order to fulfil their obligations under the UN FCCC and have a meaningful mitigation assessment, identification and quantification of anthropogenic sources of atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases in the country was undertaken. In this respect, the study of anthropogenic emissions by source and removals by sink of GHGs in Tanzania was done with the main objective of increasing the quantity and quality of base-line data available in order to further scientific understanding of the relationship of greenhouse gas emissions to climate change. Furthermore, the study facilitated identification of national policy and technological options that could reduce the level of emissions in the country.

  18. Towards a representative assessment of methane and nitrous oxide emissions and mitigation options from manure management of beef cattle feedlots in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, C; Cerri, C. E. P.,; Dorich, C. D.; Maia, S. M. F.; Bernoux, MARTIAL,; Cerri, C.C.

    2015-01-01

    We conducted an inventory to estimate methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from beef cattle feedlot manure in Brazil for the year of 2010. The aim was to determine (CH4) and (N2O) emissions from beef cattle feedlot manure in Brazil using the IPCC United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change approach and present a framework that structures priority research for decreasing uncertainties and assessing mitigation scenarios. The analysis consisted of the use of specific farm...

  19. Report on farm scale eco-efficiency of mitigation and adaption options : D10.3

    OpenAIRE

    Silleback Kristensen, Ib; Olesen, Jörgen E.; Hutchings, Nicholas John; Mogensen, Lisbeth; Faverdin, Philippe; Topp, Kairsty; Barradas, Ana; Godinho, Bruno; O'Brien, Donal; Shalloo, Laurence; Holshof , Gertjan; Perdok, Hink; Stienezen , Marcia

    2015-01-01

    This deliverable collates the information on simulated effects of mitigation and adaptation options at the farm scale in Europe, primarily using the FarmAC model for the mitigation options, and applying semi quantitative modelling for the adaptation options.

  20. Report on farm scale eco-efficiency of mitigation and adaption options. D10.3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ib Sillebak; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Hutchings, Nicholas John;

    2015-01-01

    This deliverable collates the information on simulated effects of mitigation and adaptation options at the farm scale in Europe, primarily using the FarmAC model for the mitigation options, and applying semi quantitative modelling for the adaptation options....

  1. Cost effectiveness of GHG mitigation options and policy implication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, K. S. [Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-04-01

    This paper represents the summary findings and conclusions of several studies implemented about microeconomics and macroeconomics marginal costs of GHG abatement policies. Financial, economic, and, where possible, environmental microeconomics costs of reducing GHGs are estimated by a World Bank team. Six energy-related CO{sub 2} mitigation policy options are applied to estimate the macroeconomics costs of GHG emission reduction, the macroeconomics impacts on the Chinese economy. In terms of policy, conservation is a better option to cope with a restrictive mitigation constraint, assuming a developing country can achieve planned energy-saving targets. Without a CO{sub 2} emission constraint or with less restrictive CO{sub 2} emission constraints, however, the simulation results indicate that a conservation strategy may be less attractive than fuel substitution in a developing country, mainly due to the economic dampening effect of reduced production in the energy sectors. This finding suggests that an often-cited costless or negative-cost energy conservation policy may not be a better option when a less restrictive mitigation target is in force. This does not mean that the potential for energy efficiency improvements in a developing country is not worthwhile, but that the overall macroeconomics impacts should be considered before implementing the policy option. (author). 9 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Bioenergy and climate change mitigation: an assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creutzig, Felix; Ravindranath, N. H.; Berndes, Göran;

    2015-01-01

    -scale deployment (>200 EJ), together with BECCS, could help to keep global warming below 2° degrees of preindustrial levels; but such high deployment of land-intensive bioenergy feedstocks could also lead to detrimental climate effects, negatively impact ecosystems, biodiversity and livelihoods. The integration......Bioenergy deployment offers significant potential for climate change mitigation, but also carries considerable risks. In this review, we bring together perspectives of various communities involved in the research and regulation of bioenergy deployment in the context of climate change mitigation......: Land-use and energy experts, land-use and integrated assessment modelers, human geographers, ecosystem researchers, climate scientists and two different strands of life-cycle assessment experts. We summarize technological options, outline the state-of-the-art knowledge on various climate effects...

  3. Potential GHG mitigation options for agriculture in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erda, Lin; Yue, Li; Hongmin, Dong [Agrometeorology Institute, Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    Agriculture contributes more or less to anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O). China`s agriculture accounts for about 5-15% of total emissions for these gases. Land-use changes related to agriculture are not major contributors in China. Mitigation options are available that could result in significant decrease in CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from agricultural systems. If implemented, they are likely to increase crop and animal productivity. Implementation has the potential to decrease CH{sub 4} emissions from rice, ruminants, and animal waste by 4-40%. The key to decreasing N{sub 2}O emissions is improving the efficiency of plant utilization of fertilizer N. This could decrease N{sub 2}O emissions from agriculture by almost 20%. Using animal waste to produce CH{sub 4} for energy and digested manure for fertilizer may at some time be cost effective. Economic analyses of options proposed should show positive economic as well as environmental benefits.

  4. Energy supply options for climate change mitigation and sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobran, Flavio

    2010-09-15

    Modern society is dependent on fossil fuels for its energy needs, but their combustion is producing emissions of greenhouse gases that cause global warming. If these emissions remain unconstrained they risk of producing significant impacts on humanity and ecosystems. Replacement of fossil fuels with alternative energy sources can stabilize anthropogenic global warming and thus reduce the climate change impacts. The deployment of alternative energy supply technologies should be based on objectives that are consistent with sustainability indicators and incorporate quantitative risk assessment multiattribute utility decision methodologies capable of ascertaining effective future energy supply options.

  5. Modelling mitigation options to reduce diffuse nitrogen water pollution from agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouraoui, Fayçal; Grizzetti, Bruna

    2014-01-15

    Agriculture is responsible for large scale water quality degradation and is estimated to contribute around 55% of the nitrogen entering the European Seas. The key policy instrument for protecting inland, transitional and coastal water resources is the Water Framework Directive (WFD). Reducing nutrient losses from agriculture is crucial to the successful implementation of the WFD. There are several mitigation measures that can be implemented to reduce nitrogen losses from agricultural areas to surface and ground waters. For the selection of appropriate measures, models are useful for quantifying the expected impacts and the associated costs. In this article we review some of the models used in Europe to assess the effectiveness of nitrogen mitigation measures, ranging from fertilizer management to the construction of riparian areas and wetlands. We highlight how the complexity of models is correlated with the type of scenarios that can be tested, with conceptual models mostly used to evaluate the impact of reduced fertilizer application, and the physically-based models used to evaluate the timing and location of mitigation options and the response times. We underline the importance of considering the lag time between the implementation of measures and effects on water quality. Models can be effective tools for targeting mitigation measures (identifying critical areas and timing), for evaluating their cost effectiveness, for taking into consideration pollution swapping and considering potential trade-offs in contrasting environmental objectives. Models are also useful for involving stakeholders during the development of catchments mitigation plans, increasing their acceptability. PMID:23998504

  6. Sensitivity of Space Launch System Buffet Forcing Functions to Buffet Mitigation Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatak, David J.; Sekula, Martin K.; Rausch, Russ D.

    2016-01-01

    Time-varying buffet forcing functions arise from unsteady aerodynamic pressures and are one of many load environments, which contribute to the overall loading condition of a launch vehicle during ascent through the atmosphere. The buffet environment is typically highest at transonic conditions and can excite the vehicle dynamic modes of vibration. The vehicle response to these buffet forcing functions may cause high structural bending moments and vibratory environments, which can exceed the capabilities of the structure, or of vehicle components such as payloads and avionics. Vehicle configurations, protuberances, payload fairings, and large changes in stage diameter can trigger undesirable buffet environments. The Space Launch System (SLS) multi-body configuration and its structural dynamic characteristics presented challenges to the load cycle design process with respect to buffet-induced loads and responses. An initial wind-tunnel test of a 3-percent scale SLS rigid buffet model was conducted in 2012 and revealed high buffet environments behind the booster forward attachment protuberance, which contributed to reduced vehicle structural margins. Six buffet mitigation options were explored to alleviate the high buffet environments including modified booster nose cones and fences/strakes on the booster and core. These studies led to a second buffet test program that was conducted in 2014 to assess the ability of the buffet mitigation options to reduce buffet environments on the vehicle. This paper will present comparisons of buffet forcing functions from each of the buffet mitigation options tested, with a focus on sectional forcing function rms levels within regions of the vehicle prone to high buffet environments.

  7. Technical options for the mitigation of direct methane and nitrous oxide emissions from livestock: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerber, P.J.; Hristov, A.N.; Henderson, B.L.; Makkar, H.P.S.; Oh, J.; Lee, C.; Meinen, R.; Montes, F.; Ott, T.; Firkins, J.; Rotz, A.; Dell, C.; Adesogan, A.T.; Yang, W.Z.; Tricarico, J.M.; Kebreab, E.; Waghorn, G.; Dijkstra, J.; Oosting, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    Although livestock production accounts for a sizeable share of global greenhouse gas emissions, numerous technical options have been identified to mitigate these emissions. In this review, a subset of these options, which have proven to be effective, are discussed. These include measures to reduce C

  8. How Do We Prioritize the GHG Mitigation Options?

    OpenAIRE

    Timilsina, Govinda; Sikharulidze, Anna; Karapoghosyan, Eduard; Shatvoryan, Suren

    2016-01-01

    Armenia and Georgia are taking the climate change agenda seriously and contributing to efforts for mitigating global climate change through various ways, including preparation of low-carbon development strategies for their future economic growth. The improvement of energy efficiency is one of the key elements of the low-carbon development strategies. This study develops a methodology to es...

  9. Greenhouse gas mitigation options in the forestry sector of The Gambia: Analysis based on COMAP model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jallow, B.P.

    1996-12-31

    Results of the 1993 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory of The Gambia showed net CO{sub 2} emissions of over (1.66 x 10{sup 6} tons) and 1% was due to uptake by plantations (0.01 x 10{sup 6} tons). This is a clear indication that there is need to identify changes in the land-use policy, law and tenure that discourages forest clearing at the same time significantly influencing the sustainable distribution of land among forestry, rangeland and livestock, and agriculture. About 11% of the total area of The Gambia is either fallow or barren flats that once supported vegetation and hence is still capable of supporting vegetation. The US Country Study Programme has provided the Government of The Gambia through the National Climate Committee funds to conduct Assessment of Mitigation Options to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions. The Forestry Sector is one area for which assessment is being conducted. The assessment is expected to end in September 1996. The Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis Process (COMAP) is one of the Models supplied to the National Climate Committee by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, on behalf of the US Country Study Programme, and is being used to conduct the analysis in The Gambia.

  10. Agricultural mitigation of greenhouse gases: Science and policy options

    OpenAIRE

    Paustian, L.; Babcock, B.; Hatfield, Jerry L.; Lal, R.; McCarl, Bruce A.; McLaughlin, S.; Mosier, A.; Rice, C.; Roberton, G.P.; Rosenberg, N.; Rosenzweig, C.

    2001-01-01

    The focus of a forthcoming Council on Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST) report is to summarize and synthesize the most recent research on the potential to mitigate GHG emissions through improvements in agricultural and land management practices. The report is designed to inform policy and decision makers in government and industry, agricultural producers, environmental and other nongovernmental organizations, and the general public. A major objective of the report has been to bring t...

  11. Greenhouse gas emission mitigation in the Sri Lanka power sector supply side and demand side options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijayatunga, P.D.C. [University of Moratuwa (Sri Lanka). Centre for Energy Studies; Fernando, W.J.L.S. [Sri Lanka Energy Managers Association, Colombo (Sri Lanka); Shrestha, R.M. [Asian Inst. of Technology, Pathumthani (Thailand). Energy Program

    2003-12-01

    Sri Lanka has had a hydropower dominated electricity generation sector for many years with a gradually decreasing percentage contribution from hydroresources. At the same time, the thermal generation share has been increasing over the years. Therefore, the expected fuel mix in the future in the large scale thermal generation system would be dominated by petroleum products and coal. This will result in a gradual increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) and other environmental emissions in the power sector and, hence, require special attention to possible mitigation measures. This paper analyses both the supply side and demand side (DSM) options available in the Sri Lanka power sector in mitigating emissions in the sector considering the technical feasibility and potential of such options. Further, the paper examines the carbon abatement costs associated with such supply side and DSM interventions using an integrated resource planning model, which is not used in Sri Lanka at present. The sensitivities of the final generation costs and emissions to different input parameters, such as discount rates, fuel prices and capital costs, are also presented in the paper. It is concluded that while some DSM measures are economically attractive as mitigation measures, all the supply side options have a relatively high cost of mitigation, particularly in the context of GHG emission mitigation. Further it is observed that when compared with the projected price of carbon under different global carbon trading scenarios, these supply side options cannot provide economically beneficial CO{sub 2} mitigation in countries like Sri Lanka. (author)

  12. Greenhouse gas emission mitigation in the Sri Lanka power sector supply side and demand side options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Lanka has had a hydropower dominated electricity generation sector for many years with a gradually decreasing percentage contribution from hydroresources. At the same time, the thermal generation share has been increasing over the years. Therefore, the expected fuel mix in the future in the large scale thermal generation system would be dominated by petroleum products and coal. This will result in a gradual increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) and other environmental emissions in the power sector and, hence, require special attention to possible mitigation measures. This paper analyses both the supply side and demand side (DSM) options available in the Sri Lanka power sector in mitigating emissions in the sector considering the technical feasibility and potential of such options. Further, the paper examines the carbon abatement costs associated with such supply side and DSM interventions using an integrated resource planning model, which is not used in Sri Lanka at present. The sensitivities of the final generation costs and emissions to different input parameters, such as discount rates, fuel prices and capital costs, are also presented in the paper. It is concluded that while some DSM measures are economically attractive as mitigation measures, all the supply side options have a relatively high cost of mitigation, particularly in the context of GHG emission mitigation. Further it is observed that when compared with the projected price of carbon under different global carbon trading scenarios, these supply side options cannot provide economically beneficial CO2 mitigation in countries like Sri Lanka

  13. Carbon mitigation potential and costs of forestry options in Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, the Philippines and Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, J.; Makundi, W.; Andrasko, K.; Boer, R.; Ravindranath, N.; Sudha, P.; Rao, S.; Lasco, R.; Pulhin, F.; Masera, O.; Ceron, A.; Ordonez, J.; Deying, X.; Zhang, X.; Zuomin, S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes studies of carbon (C) mitigation potential and costs of about 40 forestry options in seven developing countries. Each study uses the same methodological approach - Comprehensive Mitigation Assessment Process (COMAP) - to estimate the above parameters between 2000 and 2030. The approach requires the projection of baseline and mitigation land-use scenarios. Coupled with data on a per ha basis on C sequestration or avoidance, and costs and benefits, it allows the estimation of monetary benefit per Mg C, and the total costs and carbon potential. The results show that about half (3.0 Pg C) the cumulative mitigation potential of 6.2 Petagram (Pg) C between 2000 and 2030 in the seven countries (about 200 x 106 Mg C yr-1) could be achieved at a negative cost and the remainder at costs ranging up to $100 Mg C-1. About 5 Pg C could be achieved, at a cost less than $20 per Mg C. Negative cost potential indicates that non-carbon revenue is sufficient to offset direct costs of these options. The achievable potential is likely to be smaller, however, due to market, institutional, and sociocultural barriers that can delay or prevent the implementation of the analyzed options.

  14. Addressing mitigation options within the South African country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, Gina [Eskom (South Africa)

    1998-10-01

    The South African Country Study Programme is being executed under the auspices of the South African Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAandT). The full study comprises the following four components, each headed by a technical coordinator: the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory; a study of South Africa`s vulnerability to climate change and possible adaptation strategies; potential mitigation actions and; policy development. Ideally, these components should be executed in sequence. However, in view of South Africa`s commitments in terms of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) and the need to draw up a national communication, it was decided to execute the components simultaneously, with an emphasis on coordination between the components. (EG)

  15. Addressing mitigation options within the South African country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The South African Country Study Programme is being executed under the auspices of the South African Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEA and T). The full study comprises the following four components, each headed by a technical coordinator: the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory; a study of South Africa's vulnerability to climate change and possible adaptation strategies; potential mitigation actions and; policy development. Ideally, these components should be executed in sequence. However, in view of South Africa's commitments in terms of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) and the need to draw up a national communication, it was decided to execute the components simultaneously, with an emphasis on coordination between the components. (EG)

  16. An evaluation of greenhouse gas mitigation options for coal-fired power plants in the US Great Lakes States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froese, Robert E.; Miller, Chris A. [School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Dr., Houghton, MI 49931-1295 (United States); Shonnard, David R.; Koers, Ken P. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Dr., Houghton, MI 49931-1295 (United States); Johnson, Dana M. [School of Business and Economics, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Dr., Houghton, MI 49931-1295 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    We assessed options for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generation in the US Great Lakes States, a region heavily dependent on coal-fired power plants. A proposed 600 MW power plant in northern Lower Michigan, USA provided context for our evaluation. Options to offset fossil CO{sub 2} emissions by 20% included biomass fuel substitution from (1) forest residuals, (2) short-rotation woody crops, or (3) switchgrass; (4) biologic sequestration in forest plantations; and (5) geologic sequestration using CO{sub 2} capture. Review of timber product output data, land cover data, and expected energy crop productivity on idle agriculture land within 120 km of the plant revealed that biomass from forestry residuals has the potential to offset 6% and from energy crops 27% of the annual fossil fuel requirement. Furthermore, annual forest harvest in the region is only 26% of growth and the surplus represents a large opportunity for forest products and bioenergy applications. We used Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to compare mitigation options, using fossil energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions per unit electricity generation as criteria. LCA results revealed that co-firing with forestry residuals is the most attractive option and geologic sequestration is the least attractive option, based on the two criteria. Biologic sequestration is intermediate but likely infeasible because of very large land area requirements. Our study revealed that biomass feedstock potentials from land and forest resources are not limiting mitigation activities, but the most practical approach is likely a combination of options that optimize additional social, environmental and economic criteria. (author)

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions from Thailand’s transport sector: Trends and mitigation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid growth of population and economy during the past two decades has resulted in continuing growth of transport’s oil demand and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The objectives of this study are to examine pattern and growth in energy demand as well as related GHG emissions from the transport sector and to analyze potential pathways of energy demand and GHG emissions reduction from this sector of the measures being set by the Thai Government. A set of econometric models has been developed to estimate the historical trend of energy demand and GHG emissions in the transport sector during 1989–2007 and to forecast future trends to 2030. Two mitigation option scenarios of fuel switching and energy efficiency options have been designed to analyze pathways of energy consumption and GHG emissions reduction potential in Thailand’s transport sector compared with the baseline business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, which assumed to do nothing influences the long-term trends of transport energy demand. It has been found that these two mitigation options can reduce the GHG emissions differently. The fuel-switching option could significantly reduce the amount of GHG emissions in a relatively short time frame, albeit it will be limited by its supply resources, whereas the energy efficiency option is more effective for GHG emissions mitigation in the long term. Therefore, both measures should be implemented simultaneously for both short and long term mitigation effects in order to more effectively achieve GHG emissions reduction target.

  18. Assessment of GHG mitigation technology measures in Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raptsoun, N.; Parasiouk, N.

    1996-12-31

    In June 1992 the representatives of 176 countries including Ukraine met in Rio de Janeiro at the UN Conference to coordinate its efforts in protecting and guarding the environment. Signature of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change by around 150 countries indicates that climate change is potentially a major threat to the world`s environment and economic development. The project {open_quotes}Country Study on Climate Change in Ukraine{close_quotes} coordinated by the Agency for Rational Energy Use and Ecology (ARENIA-ECO) and supported by the US Country Studies Program Support for Climate Change Studies. The aim of the project is to make the information related to climate change in Ukraine available for the world community by using the potential of Ukrainian research institutes for further concerted actions to solve the problem of climate change on the global scale. The project consists of four elements: (1) the development of the GHG Inventory in Ukraine; (2) assessments of ecosystems-vulnerability to climate change and adaptation options; and (3) mitigation options analysis; (4) public education and outreach activities. This paper contains the main results of the third element for the energy and non-energy sectors. Main tasks of the third element were: (1) to select, test and describe or develop the methodology for mitigation options assessment; (2) to analyze the main sources of GHG emissions in Ukraine; (3) to give the macro economic analysis of Ukrainian development and the development of main economical sectors industry, energy, transport, residential, forestry and agriculture; (4) to forecast GHG emissions for different scenarios of the economic development; and (5) to analyze the main measures to mitigate climate change.

  19. Information security risk assessment, aggregation, and mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Voss, T.; Lenstra, Arjen K.

    2004-01-01

    As part of their compliance process with the Basel 2 operational risk management requirements, banks must define how they deal with information security risk management. In this paper we describe work in progress on a new quantitative model to assess and aggregate information security risks that is currently under development for deployment. We show how to find a risk mitigation strategy that is optimal with respect to the model used and the available budget.

  20. Renewable and low-carbon energies as mitigation options of climate change for China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urban, F.; Benders, R. M. J.; Moll, H. C.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how renewable and low-carbon energies can serve as mitigation options of climate change in China's power sector. Our study is based on scenarios developed in PowerPlan, a bottom-up model simulating a countries' power sector and its emissions. We first adjusted the model to Chi

  1. Renewable and low-carbon energies as mitigation options of climate change for China

    OpenAIRE

    Urban, F.; Benders, R.M.J.; Moll, H.C.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how renewable and low-carbon energies can serve as mitigation options of climate change in China's power sector. Our study is based on scenarios developed in PowerPlan, a bottom-up model simulating a countries' power sector and its emissions. We first adjusted the model to China's present-day economy and power sector. We then developed different scenarios based on story lines for possible future developments in China. We simulated China's carbon-based electricity produc...

  2. 77 FR 26292 - Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy Assessments: Social Science Methodologies to Assess Goals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... Mitigation Strategy Assessments: Social Science Methodologies to Assess Goals Related to Knowledge.'' The... an issue paper entitled ``Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy Assessments: Social Science...' knowledge about drugs' risks; (2) share current FDA experience regarding social science assessments...

  3. Assessment of synfuel spill cleanup options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petty, S.E.; Wakamiya, W.; English, C.J.; Strand, J.A.; Mahlum, D.D.

    1982-04-01

    Existing petroleum-spill cleanup technologies are reviewed and their limitations, should they be used to mitigate the effects of synfuels spills, are discussed. The six subsections of this report address the following program goals: synfuels production estimates to the year 2000; possible sources of synfuel spills and volumes of spilled fuel to the year 2000; hazards of synfuels spills; assessment of existing spill cleanup technologies for oil spills; assessment of cleanup technologies for synfuel spills; and disposal of residue from synfuel spill cleanup operations. The first goal of the program was to obtain the most current estimates on synfuel production. These estimates were then used to determine the amount of synfuels and synfuel products likely to be spilled, by location and by method of transportation. A review of existing toxicological studies and existing spill mitigation technologies was then completed to determine the potential impacts of synthetic fuel spills on the environment. Data are presented in the four appendixes on the following subjects: synfuel production estimates; acute toxicity of synfuel; acute toxicity of alcohols.

  4. Analysis and Optimization of Carbon Dioxide Emission Mitigation Options in the Cement Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed B. Shammakh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The cement industry is responsible for approximately 5% of global anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions emitting nearly 900 kg of CO2 for every 1000 kg of cement produced. Effective control strategies to mitigate these emissions are discussed and a mathematical programming model able to suggest the best cost effective strategy is outlined. Control costs consisting of operating and investment costs along with the efficiency of control options are taken into account in the model. A representative case study from the cement industry was considered in order to illustrate the use of the model in giving optimal control strategies. Efficiency improvement measures were found to be effective options for reduction targets up to 10 %. The model suggested that fuel switching and carbon capture must be considered at reduction targets higher than 10%. The cost of cement production was shown to increase dramatically with an increase in reduction target.

  5. Assessment of alternative mitigation concepts for Hanford flammable gas tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a review and assessment of four selected mitigation concepts: pump jet mixing, sonic vibration, dilution, and heating. Though the relative levels of development of these concepts are quite different, some definite conclusions are made on their comparative feasibility. Key findings of this report are as follows. A mixer pump has proven to be a safe and effective active mitigation method in Tank 241-SY-101, and the authors are confident that mixer pumps will effectively mitigate other tanks with comparable waste configurations and properties. Low-frequency sonic vibration is also predicted to be effective for mitigation. Existing data cannot prove that dilution can mitigate gas release event (GRE) behavior. However, dilution is the only concept of the four that potentially offers passive mitigation. Like dilution, heating the waste cannot be proven with available information to mitigate GRE behavior. The designs, analyses, and data from which these conclusions are derived are presented along with recommendations

  6. Assessment of alternative mitigation concepts for Hanford flammable gas tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, C.W.; Schienbein, L.A.; Hudson, J.D.; Eschbach, E.J.; Lessor, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    This report provides a review and assessment of four selected mitigation concepts: pump jet mixing, sonic vibration, dilution, and heating. Though the relative levels of development of these concepts are quite different, some definite conclusions are made on their comparative feasibility. Key findings of this report are as follows. A mixer pump has proven to be a safe and effective active mitigation method in Tank 241-SY-101, and the authors are confident that mixer pumps will effectively mitigate other tanks with comparable waste configurations and properties. Low-frequency sonic vibration is also predicted to be effective for mitigation. Existing data cannot prove that dilution can mitigate gas release event (GRE) behavior. However, dilution is the only concept of the four that potentially offers passive mitigation. Like dilution, heating the waste cannot be proven with available information to mitigate GRE behavior. The designs, analyses, and data from which these conclusions are derived are presented along with recommendations.

  7. Comprehensive mitigation assessment process (COMAP) - Description and instruction manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makundi, Willy; Sathaye, Jayant

    2001-11-09

    In order to prepare policies and plans to reduce GHG emissions, national policy-makers need information on the costs and benefits of different mitigation options in addition to their carbon implications. Policy-makers must weigh the costs, benefits, and impacts of climate change mitigation and adaptation options, in the face of competition for limited resources. The policy goal for mitigation options in the land use sector is to identify which mix of options is likely to best achieve the desired forestry service and production objectives at the least cost, while attempting to maximize economic and social benefits, and minimize negative environmental and social impacts. Improved national-level cost estimates of response options in the land use sector can be generated by estimating the costs and benefits of different forest management practices appropriate for specific country conditions which can be undertaken within the constraint of land availability and its opportunity cost. These co st and land use estimates can be combined to develop cost curves, which would assist policy-makers in constructing policies and programs to implement forest responses.

  8. Sustainability of arsenic mitigation interventions – an evaluation of different alternative safe drinking water options provided in Matlab, an arsenic hot spot in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMED eHOSSAIN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The wide spread occurrence of geogenic arsenic (As in Bangladesh groundwater drastically reduced the safe water access across the country. Since its discovery in 1993, different mitigation options tested at household and community scale have resulted in limited success. In an arsenic hotspot of southeastern Bangladesh, 841 arsenic removal filter (ARF, 190 surface water filter membrane, 23 pond sand filter (PSF, 147 rain water harvester (RWH and 59 As-safe tubewell were distributed among the severely exposed population by AsMat, a Sida supported project. After three-four years of providing these safe water options, this study was carried out during 2010-2011 for performance analysis of these options, in terms of technical viability and effectiveness and thus to evaluate the preference of different options to the end users. Household and community based surveys were done to make an assessment of the current water use pattern as impact of the distributed options, overall condition of the options provided and to identify the reasons why these options are in use and/or abandoned. In total, 284 households were surveyed and information was collected for 23 PSF, 147 RWH and 59 tubewells. None of the filters was found in use. Among other options distributed, 13% of PSF, 40% RWH and 93% of tubewell were found functioning. In all cases, tubewells were found As-safe. About 89% of households are currently using tubewell water which was 58% before. Filter was abandoned for high cost and complicated maintenance. The use of RWH and PSF was not found user friendly and ensuring year round water quality is a big challenge. Arsenic-safe tubewell was found as a widely accepted option mainly because of its easy operation and availability of water, good water quality and negligible maintenance. This study validated tubewell as the most feasible option and holds significance for planning water supply projects, improving mitigation policy as well as developing awareness

  9. Mitigation implications of midcentury targets that preserve long-term climate policy options

    OpenAIRE

    O'Neill, B.C.; Riahi, K.; Keppo, I.

    2010-01-01

    Midcentury targets have been proposed as a guide to climate change policy that can link long-term goals to shorter-term actions. However no explicit mitigation analyses have been carried out of the relationship between midcentury conditions and longer-term outcomes. Here we use an integrated assessment modeling framework with a detailed representation of the energy sector to examine the dependence of climate change outcomes in 2100 on emissions levels, atmospheric concentrations, and technolo...

  10. Energy-saving options for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from the Mongolian energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorjpurev, J.; Purevjal, O.; Erdenechimeg, Ch. [and others

    1996-12-31

    The Energy sector is the largest contributor to GHG emission in Mongolia. The Energy sector emits 54 percent of CO2 and 4 percent of methane. All emissions of other greenhouse gases are accounted from energy related activities. The activities in this sector include coal production, fuel combustion, and biomass combustion at the thermal power stations and in private houses (stoves) for heating purposes. This paper presents some important Demand-side options considered for mitigation of CO2 emissions from energy sector such as Energy Conservation in Industrial Sector and in Buildings. Changes in energy policies and programmes in the Mongolian situation that promote more efficient and sustainable practices are presented in the paper. These energy saving measures will not only help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but will also promote economic development and alleviate other environmental problems.

  11. A Comparative Assessment of Different Options to Reduce CO2 Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Messner, S; Nakicenovic, N.

    1992-01-01

    The IIASA research project on Environmentally Compatible Energy Strategies includes the assessment of options and measures for mitigating global CO2 emissions. The basis of this assessment is the comparative inventory of technological and economic measures including efficiency improvement, conservation, enhanced use of low-carbon fuels, carbon free sources of energy and measures for removing carbon from fuels, flue gases and also from the atmosphere such as afforestation, and finally also me...

  12. Mitigation options for methane emissions from rice fields in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantin, R.S.; Buendia, L.V.; Wassmann, R. [International Rice Research Institute, Laguna (Philippines)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The contribution of Philippine rice production to global methane emission and breakthroughs in methane emission studies conducted in the country are presented in this paper. A significant impact in the reduction of GHG emissions from agriculture can be achieved if methane emissions from ricefields can be abated. This study presents the contribution of Philippine rice cultivation to global methane emission and breakthroughs in methane emission studies in the country which address the issue of mitigation. Using the derived emission factors from local measurements, rice cultivation contributes 566.6 Gg of methane emission in the Philippines. This value is 62% of the total methane emitted from the agriculture sector. The emission factors employed which are 78% of the IPCC value for irrigated rice and 95% for rainfed rice were derived from measurements with an automatic system taken during the growth duration in the respective ecosystems. Plots drained for 2 weeks at midtillering and before harvest gave a significant reduction in methane emission as opposed to continuously flooded plots and plots drained before harvest. The cultivar Magat reduced methane emission by 50% as compared to the check variety IR72. The application of ammonium sulfate instead of urea reduced methane emission by 10% to 34%. Addition of 6 t ha{sup {minus}1} phosphogypsum in combination with urea reduced emission by 74% as opposed to plots applied with urea alone. It is also from the results of such measurements that abatement strategies are based as regards to modifying treatments such as water management, fertilization, and choice of rice variety. It is not easy to identify and recommend mitigation strategies that will fit a particular cropping system. However, the identified mitigation options provide focus for the abatement of methane emission from ricefields.

  13. Cotton and Climate Change: Impacts and Options to mitigate and adapt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ton, P.

    2012-04-01

    Cotton & Climate change: Impacts and Options to mitigate and adapt. Climate change will have major impacts on cotton production and trade depending on production location. This report to be presented analyses the impacts of climate change on cotton production and trade in the main producing areas world-wide, and the options available to mitigate and to adapt to these impacts. Cotton production is both a contributor to climate change and subject to its impacts. Agricultural production, processing, trade and consumption contribute up to 40% of the world's emissions when forest clearance is included in the calculation. Cotton production contributes to between 0.3% and 1% of total global GHG emissions. Cotton has a certain resilience to high temperatures and drought due to its vertical tap root. The crop is, however, sensitive to water availability, particularly at the height of flowering and boll formation. Rising temperatures favour plant development, unless day temperatures exceed 32°C. New production areas may be established where cotton was not grown before. Increases in atmospheric CO2 will also favour plant development. In turn, increased pests, water stress, diseases, and weather extremes will pose adaptation challenges. Overall, the negative impacts of climate change on cotton production relate to the reduced availability of water for irrigation, in particular in Xinjiang (China), Pakistan, Australia and the western United States. Heat stress risks creating depressed yields in Pakistan in particular, while in other countries limited increases in temperatures could favour cotton plant growth and lengthen the cotton growing season. The impacts of climate change on rainfall will likely be positive in the Yellow River area (China), in India, the south-eastern United States and south-eastern Anatolia (Turkey). Impacts on rainfall in Brazil and West and Central Africa are unclear. Mitigation and adaptation to climate change in cotton production, as in agriculture

  14. Assessing climate change mitigation technology interventions by international institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Coninck, Heleen; Puig, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Accelerating the international use of climate mitigation technologies is key if effortsto curb climate change are to succeed, especially in developing countries, where weakdomestic technological innovation systems constrain the uptake of climate change mitigationtechnologies. Several...... intergovernmental agencies have set up specific programmes to supportthe diffusion of climate mitigation technologies. Using a simplified technological innovationsystem-based framework, this paper aims to systematically review these programmes, with thedual aim of assessing their collective success in promoting...

  15. Hellsgate Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project. Preliminary Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration proposes funding the Hellsgate Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project in cooperation with the Colville Convederated Tribes and Bureau of Indian Affairs. This Preliminary Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and managing property for wildlife and wildlife habitat within a large project area. The Propose action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wild life habitat that was adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams and their reservoirs.

  16. Integration of Regional Mitigation Assessment and Conservation Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. McCoy

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Government agencies that develop infrastructure such as roads, waterworks, and energy delivery often impact natural ecosystems, but they also have unique opportunities to contribute to the conservation of regional natural resources through compensatory mitigation. Infrastructure development requires a planning, funding, and implementation cycle that can frequently take a decade or longer, but biological mitigation is often planned and implemented late in this process, in a project-by-project piecemeal manner. By adopting early regional mitigation needs assessment and planning for habitat-level impacts from multiple infrastructure projects, agencies could secure time needed to proactively integrate these obligations into regional conservation objectives. Such practice can be financially and ecologically beneficial due to economies of scale, and because earlier mitigation implementation means potentially developable critical parcels may still be available for conservation. Here, we compare the integration of regional conservation designs, termed greenprints, with early multi-project mitigation assessment for two areas in California, USA. The expected spatial extent of habitat impacts and associated mitigation requirements from multiple projects were identified for each area. We used the reserve-selection algorithm MARXAN to identify a regional greenprint for each site and to seek mitigation solutions through parcel acquisition that would contribute to the greenprint, as well as meet agency obligations. The two areas differed in the amount of input data available, the types of conservation objectives identified, and local land-management capacity. They are representative of the range of conditions that conservation practitioners may encounter, so contrasting the two illustrates how regional advanced mitigation can be generalized for use in a wide variety of settings. Environmental organizations can benefit from this approach because it provides a

  17. Dolomite application to acidic soils: a promising option for mitigating N2O emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaaban, Muhammad; Peng, Qi-An; Hu, Ronggui; Wu, Yupeng; Lin, Shan; Zhao, Jinsong

    2015-12-01

    Soil acidification is one of the main problems to crop productivity as well as a potent source of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O). Liming practice is usually performed for the amelioration of acidic soils, but the effects of dolomite application on N2O emissions from acidic soils are still not well understood. Therefore, a laboratory study was conducted to examine N2O emissions from an acidic soil following application of dolomite. Dolomite was applied to acidic soil in a factorial design under different levels of moisture and nitrogen (N) fertilizer. Treatments were as follows: dolomite was applied as 0, 1, and 2 g kg(-1) soil (named as CK, L, and H, respectively) under two levels of moisture [i.e., 55 and 90 % water-filled pore space (WFPS)]. All treatments of dolomite and moisture were further amended with 0 and 200 mg N kg(-1) soil as (NH4)2SO4. Soil properties such as soil pH, mineral N (NH4 (+)-N and NO3 (-)-N), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and soil N2O emissions were analyzed throughout the study period. Application of N fertilizer rapidly increased soil N2O emissions and peaked at 0.59 μg N2O-N kg(-1) h(-1) under 90 % WFPS without dolomite application. The highest cumulative N2O flux was 246.32 μg N2O-N kg(-1) under 90 % WFPS without dolomite addition in fertilized soil. Addition of dolomite significantly (p ≤ 0.01) mitigated N2O emissions as soil pH increased, and H treatment was more effective for mitigating N2O emissions as compared to L treatment. The H treatment decreased the cumulative N2O emissions by up to 73 and 67 % under 55 and 90 % WFPS, respectively, in fertilized soil, and 60 and 68 % under 55 and 90 % WFPS, respectively, in unfertilized soil when compared to those without dolomite addition. Results demonstrated that application of dolomite to acidic soils is a promising option for mitigating N2O emissions.

  18. Narrative scenario development based on cross-impact analysis for the evaluation of global-warming mitigation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Social, technological, economic and environmental issues should be considered comprehensively for the evaluation of global-warming mitigation options. Existing integrated assessment models include assessment of quantitative factors; however, these models do not explicitly consider interactions among qualitative factors in the background - for example, introductions of nuclear power stations interact with social acceptability. In this paper, we applied a technological forecasting method - the cross-impact method - which explicitly deals with the relationships among relevant factors, and we then developed narrative scenarios having consistency with qualitative social contexts. An example of developed scenarios in 2050, assuming the global population and the gross domestic product are the same as those of the A1 scenario of the IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios, tells us that: (1) the Internet will be extensively used in all regions; (2) the global unified market will appear; (3) regional cultures will tend to converge; (4) long-term investments (of more than 30 years) will become difficult and therefore nuclear-power stations will not increase so remarkably; (5) the self-sufficient supply and diversification of primary energy sources will not progress so rapidly; and (6) due to the widespread use of the Internet, people will be more educated in global environmental issues and environmental costs will be more socially acceptable

  19. Assessing Pinyon Juniper Feedstock Properties and Utilization Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gresham, Garold Linn [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kenney, Kevin Louis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Pinyon-juniper woodlands are a major ecosystem type found in the Southwest and the Intermountain West regions of the United States. These ecosystems are characterized by the presence of several different species of pinyon pine and juniper as the dominant plant cover. Since the 1800s, pinyon-juniper woodlands have rapidly expanded their range at the expense of existing ecosystems. Additionally, existing woodlands have become more dense, potentially increasing fire hazards. Land managers responsible for these areas often desire to reduce pinyonjuniper coverage on their lands for a variety of reasons, including restoration to previous vegetative cover, mitigation of fire risk, and improvement in wildlife habitat. However, the cost of clearing or thinning pinyon-juniper stands can be prohibitive. One reason for this is the lack of utilization options for the resulting biomass that could help recover some of the cost of pinyonjuniper stand management. The goal of this project was to assess the feedstock characteristics of biomass from a pinyon-juniper harvest so that potential applications for the biomass may be evaluated.

  20. Mitigation of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from animal operations: II. A review of manure management mitigation options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montes, F.; Meinen, R.; Dell, C.; Rotz, A.; Hristov, A.N.; Oh, J.; Waghorn, G.; Gerber, P.J.; Henderson, B.L.; Makkar, H.P.S.; Dijkstra, J.

    2013-01-01

    This review analyzes published data on manure management practices used to mitigate methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from animal operations. Reducing excreted nitrogen (N) and degradable organic carbon (C) by diet manipulation to improve the balance of nutrient inputs with production

  1. Assessing NEO hazard mitigation in terms of astrodynamics and propulsion systems requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remo, John L

    2004-05-01

    Uncertainties associated with assessing valid near-Earth object (NEO) threats and carrying out interception missions place unique and stringent burdens on designing mission architecture, astrodynamics, and spacecraft propulsion systems. A prime uncertainty is associated with the meaning of NEO orbit predictability regarding Earth impact. Analyses of past NEO orbits and impact probabilities indicate uncertainties in determining if a projected NEO threat will actually materialize within a given time frame. Other uncertainties regard estimated mass, composition, and structural integrity of the NEO body. At issue is if one can reliably estimate a NEO threat and its magnitude. Parameters that determine NEO deflection requirements within various time frames, including the terminal orbital pass before impact, and necessary energy payloads, are quantitatively discussed. Propulsion system requirements for extending space capabilities to rapidly interact with NEOs at ranges of up to about 1 AU (astronomical unit) from Earth are outlined. Such missions, without gravitational boosts, are deemed critical for a practical and effective response to mitigation. If an impact threat is confirmed on an immediate orbital pass, the option for interactive reconnaissance, and interception, and subsequent NEO orbit deflection must be promptly carried out. There also must be an option to abort the mitigation mission if the NEO is subsequently found not to be Earth threatening. These options require optimal decision latitude and operational possibilities for NEO threat removal while minimizing alarm. Acting too far in advance of the projected impact could induce perturbations that ultimately exacerbate the threat. Given the dilemmas, uncertainties, and limited options associated with timely NEO mitigation within a decision making framework, currently available propulsion technologies that appear most viable to carry out a NEO interception/mitigation mission within the greatest margin of

  2. Mitigation of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from animal operations: III. A review of animal management mitigation options

    OpenAIRE

    Hristov, A.N.; Ott, T.; Tricarico, J; Rotz, A.; Waghorn, G; Adesogan, A.T.; Dijkstra, J.; Montes, F.; Oh, J; Kebreab, E.; Oosting, S.J.; Gerber, P.J.; Henderson, B.L.; H. P. S. Makkar; Firkins, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this review was to analyze published data on animal management practices that mitigate enteric methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from animal operations. Increasing animal productivity can be a very effective strategy for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit of livestock product. Improving the genetic potential of animals through planned cross-breeding or selection within breeds and achieving this genetic potential through proper nutrition and improvements...

  3. Assessing the Garman-Kohlhagen option pricing model

    OpenAIRE

    Gros, Guillaume

    2009-01-01

    The well-known Black Scholes model has been improved, tested by the academicians since it has seen the light of the day in 1973. Literature is much less plethoric about the Garman-Kohlhagen model (its extension to FX option valuation). This study will confront that model to the reality of FX options market. By using two sets of data representative of the most traded currency pairs on the forex, EUR / USD and EUR / GBP, we assess how it performs. Keywords: FX options, option pricing, Black...

  4. Engineering Options Assessment Report. Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anast, Kurt Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-13

    This report examines and assesses the available systems and facilities considered for carrying out remediation activities on remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The assessment includes a review of the waste streams consisting of 60 RNS, 29 above-ground UNS, and 79 candidate below-ground UNS containers that may need remediation. The waste stream characteristics were examined along with the proposed treatment options identified in the Options Assessment Report . Two primary approaches were identified in the five candidate treatment options discussed in the Options Assessment Report: zeolite blending and cementation. Systems that could be used at LANL were examined for housing processing operations to remediate the RNS and UNS containers and for their viability to provide repackaging support for remaining LANL legacy waste.

  5. Engineering Options Assessment Report: Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anast, Kurt Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-18

    This report examines and assesses the available systems and facilities considered for carrying out remediation activities on remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The assessment includes a review of the waste streams consisting of 60 RNS, 29 aboveground UNS, and 79 candidate belowground UNS containers that may need remediation. The waste stream characteristics were examined along with the proposed treatment options identified in the Options Assessment Report . Two primary approaches were identified in the five candidate treatment options discussed in the Options Assessment Report: zeolite blending and cementation. Systems that could be used at LANL were examined for housing processing operations to remediate the RNS and UNS containers and for their viability to provide repackaging support for remaining LANL legacy waste.

  6. Engineering Options Assessment Report. Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report examines and assesses the available systems and facilities considered for carrying out remediation activities on remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The assessment includes a review of the waste streams consisting of 60 RNS, 29 above-ground UNS, and 79 candidate below-ground UNS containers that may need remediation. The waste stream characteristics were examined along with the proposed treatment options identified in the Options Assessment Report . Two primary approaches were identified in the five candidate treatment options discussed in the Options Assessment Report: zeolite blending and cementation. Systems that could be used at LANL were examined for housing processing operations to remediate the RNS and UNS containers and for their viability to provide repackaging support for remaining LANL legacy waste.

  7. Toward a protocol for quantifying the greenhouse gas balance and identifying mitigation options in smallholder farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstock, T. S.; Rufino, M. C.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Wollenberg, E.

    2013-06-01

    GHG budgets for developing economies. This dearth of information constrains the capacity to transition to low-carbon agricultural development, opportunities for smallholders to capitalize on carbon markets, and the negotiating position of developing countries in global climate policy discourse. Concerns over the poor state of information, in terms of data availability and representation, have fueled appeals for new approaches to quantifying GHG emissions and removals from smallholder agriculture, for both existing conditions and mitigation interventions (Berry and Ryan 2013, Olander et al 2013). Considering the dependence of quantification approaches on data and the current data deficit for smallholder systems, it is clear that in situ measurements must be a core part of initial and future strategies to improve GHG inventories and develop mitigation measures for smallholder agriculture. Once more data are available, especially for farming systems of high priority (e.g., those identified through global and regional rankings of emission hotspots or mitigation leverage points), better cumulative estimates and targeted actions will become possible. Greenhouse gas measurements in agriculture are expensive, time consuming, and error prone. These challenges are exacerbated by the heterogeneity of smallholder systems and landscapes and the diversity of methods used. Concerns over methodological rigor, measurement costs, and the diversity of approaches, coupled with the demand for robust information suggest it is germane for the scientific community to establish standards of measurements—'a protocol'—for quantifying GHG emissions from smallholder agriculture. A standard protocol for use by scientists and development organizations will help generate consistent, comparable, and reliable data on emissions baselines and allow rigorous comparisons of mitigation options. Besides enhancing data utility, a protocol serves as a benchmark for non-experts to easily assess data

  8. Study of the Cherokee Nuclear Station: projected impacts, monitoring plan, and mitigation options for Cherokee County, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peelle, E.; Schweitzer, M.; Scharre, P.; Pressman, B.

    1979-07-01

    This report inventories Cherokee County's capabilities and CNS project characteristics, projects expected impacts from the interaction of the two defines four options for Cherokee County decision makers, and presents a range of possible mitigation and monitoring plans for dealing with the problems identified. The four options and general implementation guidelines for each are presented after reviewing pertinent features of other mitigation and monitoring plans. The four options include (1) no action, (2) preventing impacts by preventing growth, (3) selective growth in designated areas as services can be supplied, and (4) maximum growth designed to attract as many in-movers as possible through a major program of capital investiments in public and private services. With the exception of the no action option, all plans deal with impacts according to some strategy determined by how the County wishes to manage growth. Solutions for impact problems depend on which growth strategy is selected and what additional resources are secured during the impact period. A monitoring program deals with the problems of data and projections uncertainty, while direct action is proposed to deal with the institutional problems of delay of the needed access road, timeing and location problems from the tax base mismatch, and lack of local planning capability.

  9. Study of the Cherokee Nuclear Station: projected impacts, monitoring plan, and mitigation options for Cherokee County, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report inventories Cherokee County's capabilities and CNS project characteristics, projects expected impacts from the interaction of the two defines four options for Cherokee County decision makers, and presents a range of possible mitigation and monitoring plans for dealing with the problems identified. The four options and general implementation guidelines for each are presented after reviewing pertinent features of other mitigation and monitoring plans. The four options include (1) no action, (2) preventing impacts by preventing growth, (3) selective growth in designated areas as services can be supplied, and (4) maximum growth designed to attract as many in-movers as possible through a major program of capital investiments in public and private services. With the exception of the no action option, all plans deal with impacts according to some strategy determined by how the County wishes to manage growth. Solutions for impact problems depend on which growth strategy is selected and what additional resources are secured during the impact period. A monitoring program deals with the problems of data and projections uncertainty, while direct action is proposed to deal with the institutional problems of delay of the needed access road, timeing and location problems from the tax base mismatch, and lack of local planning capability

  10. Mitigation and adaptation cost assessment: Concepts, methods and appropriate use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The present report on mitigation and adaptation costs addresses the complex issue of identifying synergies and tradeoffs between national priorities and mitigation policies, an issue that requires the integration of various disciplines so as to provide a comprehensive overview of future development trends, available technologies and economic policies. Further, the report suggests a new conceptual framework for treating the social aspects in assessing mitigation and adaptation costs in climate change studies. The impacts of certain sustainability indicators such as employment and poverty reduction on mitigation costing are also discussed in the report. Among the topics to be considered by over 120 distinguished international experts, are the elements of costing methodologies at both the micro and macro levels. Special effort will be made to include the impacts of such parameters as income, equity, poverty, employment and trade. Hence, the contents of this report are highly relevant to the authors of the Third Working Group in the development of the TAR. The report contains a chapter on Special Issues and Problems Related to Cost Assessment for Developing Countries. This chapter will provide valuable background in the further development of these concepts in the TAR because it is an area that has not received due attention in previous work. (au)

  11. Mitigation and adaptation cost assessment: Concepts, methods and appropriate use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report on mitigation and adaptation costs addresses the complex issue of identifying synergies and tradeoffs between national priorities and mitigation policies, an issue that requires the integration of various disciplines so as to provide a comprehensive overview of future development trends, available technologies and economic policies. Further, the report suggests a new conceptual framework for treating the social aspects in assessing mitigation and adaptation costs in climate change studies. The impacts of certain sustainability indicators such as employment and poverty reduction on mitigation costing are also discussed in the report. Among the topics to be considered by over 120 distinguished international experts, are the elements of costing methodologies at both the micro and macro levels. Special effort will be made to include the impacts of such parameters as income, equity, poverty, employment and trade. Hence, the contents of this report are highly relevant to the authors of the Third Working Group in the development of the TAR. The report contains a chapter on Special Issues and Problems Related to Cost Assessment for Developing Countries. This chapter will provide valuable background in the further development of these concepts in the TAR because it is an area that has not received due attention in previous work. (au)

  12. A Risk-Based Strategy for Evaluating Mitigation Options for Process-Formed Compounds in Food

    OpenAIRE

    Hanlon, Paul; Brorby, Gregory P.; Krishan, Mansi

    2016-01-01

    Processing (eg, cooking, grinding, drying) has changed the composition of food throughout the course of human history; however, awareness of process-formed compounds, and the potential need to mitigate exposure to those compounds, is a relatively recent phenomenon. In May 2015, the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI North America) Technical Committee on Food and Chemical Safety held a workshop on the risk-based process for mitigation of process-formed com...

  13. Evaluating the Contribution of Soil Carbon to Global Climate Change Mitigation in an Integrated Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, A. M.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Clarke, L. E.

    2006-12-01

    Assessing the contribution of terrestrial carbon sequestration to national and international climate change mitigation requires integration across scientific and disciplinary boundaries. In a study for the US Climate Change Technology Program, site based measurements and geographic data were used to develop a three- pool, first-order kinetic model of global agricultural soil carbon (C) stock changes over 14 continental scale regions. This model was then used together with land use scenarios from the MiniCAM integrated assessment model in a global analysis of climate change mitigation options. MiniCAM evaluated mitigation strategies within a set of policy environments aimed at achieving atmospheric CO2 stabilization by 2100 under a suite of technology and development scenarios. Adoption of terrestrial sequestration practices is based on competition for land and economic markets for carbon. In the reference case with no climate policy, conversion of agricultural land from conventional cultivation to no tillage over the next century in the United States results in C sequestration of 7.6 to 59.8 Tg C yr-1, which doubles to 19.0 to 143.4 Tg C yr-1 under the most aggressive climate policy. Globally, with no carbon policy, agricultural C sequestration rates range from 75.2 to 18.2 Tg C yr-1 over the century, with the highest rates occurring in the first fifty years. Under the most aggressive global climate change policy, sequestration in agricultural soils reaches up to 190 Tg C yr-1 in the first 15 years. The contribution of agricultural soil C sequestration is a small fraction of the total global carbon offsets necessary to reach the stabilization targets (9 to 20 Gt C yr-1) by the end of the century. This integrated assessment provides decision makers with science-based estimates of the potential magnitude of terrestrial C sequestration relative to other greenhouse gas mitigation strategies in all sectors of the global economy. It also provides insight into the

  14. A Risk-Based Strategy for Evaluating Mitigation Options for Process-Formed Compounds in Food: Workshop Proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Paul; Brorby, Gregory P; Krishan, Mansi

    2016-05-01

    Processing (eg, cooking, grinding, drying) has changed the composition of food throughout the course of human history; however, awareness of process-formed compounds, and the potential need to mitigate exposure to those compounds, is a relatively recent phenomenon. In May 2015, the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI North America) Technical Committee on Food and Chemical Safety held a workshop on the risk-based process for mitigation of process-formed compounds. This workshop aimed to gain alignment from academia, government, and industry on a risk-based process for proactively assessing the need for and benefit of mitigation of process-formed compounds, including criteria to objectively assess the impact of mitigation as well as research needed to support this process. Workshop participants provided real-time feedback on a draft framework in the form of a decision tree developed by the ILSI North America Technical Committee on Food and Chemical Safety to a panel of experts, and they discussed the importance of communicating the value of such a process to the larger scientific community and, ultimately, the public. The outcome of the workshop was a decision tree that can be used by the scientific community and could form the basis of a global approach to assessing the risks associated with mitigation of process-formed compounds. PMID:27102178

  15. Framework for multi-scale integrated impact analyses of climate change mitigation options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez-Soba, M.; Parr, T.; Roupioz, L.F.S.; Winograd, M.; Peña-Claros, M.; Varela Ortega, C.; Ascarrunz, N.; Balvanera, P.; Bholanath, P.; Equihua, M.; Guerreiro, L.; Jones, L.; Maass, M.; Thonicke, K.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical forest ecosystems are hotspots for biodiversity and represent one of the largest terrestrial carbon stocks, making their role in climate change mitigation (CCM) programmes increasingly important (e.g. REDD+). In Latin America these ecosystems suffer from high land use pressures that have re

  16. Aquarius Radiometer RFI Detection, Mitigation, and Impact Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, Christopher; Chen, David; Le Vine, David; de Matthaeis, Paolo; Piepmeier, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    The Aquarius/SAC-D satellite was launched on 10 June 2011 into a sun-synchronous polar orbit and the Aquarius microwave radiometers [1] became operational on 25 August 2011. Since that time, it has been measuring brightness temperatures at 1.4 GHz with vertical, horizontal and 3rd Stokes polarizations . Beginning well before the launch, there has been the concern that Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) could have an appreciable presence. This concern was initiated by, among other things, its prevalence in both early [2] and more recent [3,4] aircraft field experiments using 1.4 GHz radiometers, as well as by the strong RFI environment encountered during the recent ESA SMOS mission, also at 1.4 GHz [5]. As a result, a number of methods for RFI detection and mitigation have been developed and tested. One in particular, "glitch detection" and "pulse blanking" mitigation has been adapted for use by Aquarius [6, 7]. The early on-orbit performance of the Aquarius RFI detection and mitigation algorithm is presented here, together with an assessment of the global RFI environment at 1.4 GHz which can be derived from the Aquarius results.

  17. Greenhouse gas mitigation options in Brazil for land-use change, livestock and agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Cerri, C. C.,; BERNOUX, MARTIAL,; Maia, S. M. F.,; Cerri, C. E. P.,; Costa, Ciniro Junior,; Feigl, B. J.,; Frazao, L. A.; Mello, F. F. D.,; Galdos, M. V.; Moreira, C. S.,; Carvalho, J. L. N.,

    2010-01-01

    National inventories of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (implementation of the National Communications) are organized according to five main sectors, namely: Energy, Industrial Processes, Agriculture, Land-Use Change and Forestry (LUCF) and Waste. The objective of this study was to review and calculate the potential of greenhouse gas mitigation strategies in Brazil for the Agricultural and LUCF. The first step consisted in an analysis of Brazilian official and unofficial document...

  18. Listeria monocytogenes in Retail Delicatessens: An Interagency Risk Assessment-Risk Mitigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Daniel; Pouillot, Régis; Hoelzer, Karin; Tang, Jia; Dennis, Sherri B; Kause, Janell R

    2016-07-01

    Cross-contamination, improper holding temperatures, and insufficient sanitary practices are known retail practices that may lead to product contamination and growth of Listeria monocytogenes. However, the relative importance of control options to mitigate the risk of invasive listeriosis from ready-to-eat (RTE) products sliced or prepared at retail is not well understood. This study illustrates the utility of a quantitative risk assessment model described in a first article of this series (Pouillot, R., D. Gallagher, J. Tang, K. Hoelzer, J. Kause, and S. B. Dennis, J. Food Prot. 78:134-145, 2015) to evaluate the public health impact associated with changes in retail deli practices and interventions. Twenty-two mitigation scenarios were modeled and evaluated under six different baseline conditions. These scenarios were related to sanitation, worker behavior, use of growth inhibitors, cross-contamination, storage temperature control, and reduction of the level of L. monocytogenes on incoming RTE food products. The mean risk per serving of RTE products obtained under these scenarios was then compared with the risk estimated in the baseline condition. Some risk mitigations had a consistent impact on the predicted listeriosis risk in all baseline conditions (e.g. presence or absence of growth inhibitor), whereas others were greatly dependent on the initial baseline conditions or practices in the deli (e.g. preslicing of products). Overall, the control of the bacterial growth and the control of contamination at its source were major factors of listeriosis risk in these settings. Although control of cross-contamination and continued sanitation were also important, the decrease in the predicted risk was not amenable to a simple solution. Findings from these predictive scenario analyses are intended to encourage improvements to retail food safety practices and mitigation strategies to control L. monocytogenes in RTE foods more effectively and to demonstrate the utility of

  19. Listeria monocytogenes in Retail Delicatessens: An Interagency Risk Assessment-Risk Mitigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Daniel; Pouillot, Régis; Hoelzer, Karin; Tang, Jia; Dennis, Sherri B; Kause, Janell R

    2016-07-01

    Cross-contamination, improper holding temperatures, and insufficient sanitary practices are known retail practices that may lead to product contamination and growth of Listeria monocytogenes. However, the relative importance of control options to mitigate the risk of invasive listeriosis from ready-to-eat (RTE) products sliced or prepared at retail is not well understood. This study illustrates the utility of a quantitative risk assessment model described in a first article of this series (Pouillot, R., D. Gallagher, J. Tang, K. Hoelzer, J. Kause, and S. B. Dennis, J. Food Prot. 78:134-145, 2015) to evaluate the public health impact associated with changes in retail deli practices and interventions. Twenty-two mitigation scenarios were modeled and evaluated under six different baseline conditions. These scenarios were related to sanitation, worker behavior, use of growth inhibitors, cross-contamination, storage temperature control, and reduction of the level of L. monocytogenes on incoming RTE food products. The mean risk per serving of RTE products obtained under these scenarios was then compared with the risk estimated in the baseline condition. Some risk mitigations had a consistent impact on the predicted listeriosis risk in all baseline conditions (e.g. presence or absence of growth inhibitor), whereas others were greatly dependent on the initial baseline conditions or practices in the deli (e.g. preslicing of products). Overall, the control of the bacterial growth and the control of contamination at its source were major factors of listeriosis risk in these settings. Although control of cross-contamination and continued sanitation were also important, the decrease in the predicted risk was not amenable to a simple solution. Findings from these predictive scenario analyses are intended to encourage improvements to retail food safety practices and mitigation strategies to control L. monocytogenes in RTE foods more effectively and to demonstrate the utility of

  20. Hellsgate Winter Range: Wildlife mitigation project. Final environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the Hellsgate Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Colville Confederated Tribes and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The proposed action would allow the sponsors to secure property and conduct wildlife management activities within the boundaries of the Colville Indian Reservation. This Final Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and managing property for wildlife and wildlife habitat within a large project area. This area consists of several separated land parcels, of which 2,000 hectares (4,943 acres) have been purchased by BPA and an additional 4,640 hectares (11,466 acres) have been identified by the Colville Confederated Tribes for inclusion in the Project. Four proposed activities (habitat protection, habitat enhancement, operation and maintenance, and monitoring and evaluation) are analyzed. The proposed action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wildlife habitat that was adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams and their reservoirs

  1. Blue Creek Winter Range: Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund that portion of the Washington Wildlife Agreement pertaining to the Blue Creek Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Spokane Tribe, Upper Columbia United Tribes, and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). If fully implemented, the proposed action would allow the sponsors to protect and enhance 2,631 habitat units of big game winter range and riparian shrub habitat on 2,185 hectares (5,400 acres) of Spokane Tribal trust lands, and to conduct long term wildlife management activities within the Spokane Indian Reservation project area. This Final Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of securing land and conducting wildlife habitat enhancement and long term management activities within the boundaries of the Spokane Indian Reservation. Four proposed activities (habitat protection, habitat enhancement, operation and maintenance, and monitoring and evaluation) are analyzed. The proposed action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wildlife habitat adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee Dam and its reservoir

  2. Hellsgate Winter Range: Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BPA proposes to fund the Hellsgate Winter Range: Wildlife Mitigation Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Colville Confederated Tribes and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The Project is intended to mitigate for wildlife and wildlife habitat adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams and their reservoirs. The Project would allow the sponsors to secure land and conduct wildlife habitat improvement and long-term management activities within the boundaries of the Colville Indian Reservation. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0940) evaluating the potential environmental effects of the proposed Project (Alternative B) and No Action (Alternative A). Protection and re-establishment of riparian and upland habitat on the Colville Indian Reservation, under Alternative B, would not have a significant adverse environmental impact because: (1) there would be only limited, mostly short-term adverse impacts on soils, water quality, air quality, vegetation, and wildlife (including no effect on endangered species); and (2) there would be no adverse effect on water quantity, cultural resources, or land use. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI

  3. Hellsgate Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-03-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the Hellsgate Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Colville Confederated Tribes and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The proposed action would allow the sponsors to secure property and conduct wildlife management activities within the boundaries of the Colville Indian Reservation. This Final Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and managing property for wildlife and wildlife habitat within a large project area. This area consists of several separated land parcels, of which 2,000 hectares (4,943 acres) have been purchased by BPA and an additional 4,640 hectares (11,466 acres) have been identified by the Colville Confederated Tribes for inclusion in the Project. Four proposed activities (habitat protection, habitat enhancement, operation and maintenance, and monitoring and evaluation) are analyzed. The proposed action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wildlife habitat that was adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams and their reservoirs.

  4. Blue Creek Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project : Final Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs; Spokane Tribe of the Spokane Reservation, Washington

    1994-11-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund that portion of the Washington Wildlife Agreement pertaining to the Blue Creek Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Spokane Tribe, Upper Columbia United Tribes, and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). If fully implemented, the proposed action would allow the sponsors to protect and enhance 2,631 habitat units of big game winter range and riparian shrub habitat on 2,185 hectares (5,400 acres) of Spokane Tribal trust lands, and to conduct long term wildlife management activities within the Spokane Indian Reservation project area. This Final Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of securing land and conducting wildlife habitat enhancement and long term management activities within the boundaries of the Spokane Indian Reservation. Four proposed activities (habitat protection, habitat enhancement, operation and maintenance, and monitoring and evaluation) are analyzed. The proposed action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wildlife habitat adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee Dam and its reservoir.

  5. A review of accidents, prevention and mitigation options related to hazardous gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistics on industrial accidents are incomplete due to lack of specific criteria on what constitutes a release or accident. In this country, most major industrial accidents were related to explosions and fires of flammable materials, not to releases of chemicals into the environment. The EPA in a study of 6,928 accidental releases of toxic chemicals revealed that accidents at stationary facilities accounted for 75% of the total number of releases, and transportation accidents for the other 25%. About 7% of all reported accidents (468 cases) resulted in 138 deaths and 4,717 injuries ranging from temporary respiratory problems to critical injuries. In-plant accidents accounted for 65% of the casualties. The most efficient strategy to reduce hazards is to choose technologies which do not require the use of large quantities of hazardous gases. For new technologies this approach can be implemented early in development, before large financial resources and efforts are committed to specific options. Once specific materials and options have been selected, strategies to prevent accident initiating events need to be evaluated and implemented. The next step is to implement safety options which suppress a hazard when an accident initiating event occurs. Releases can be prevented or reduced with fail-safe equipment and valves, adequate warning systems and controls to reduce and interrupt gas leakage. If an accident occurs and safety systems fail to contain a hazardous gas release, then engineering control systems will be relied on to reduce/minimize environmental releases. As a final defensive barrier, the prevention of human exposure is needed if a hazardous gas is released, in spite of previous strategies. Prevention of consequences forms the final defensive barrier. Medical facilities close by that can accommodate victims of the worst accident can reduce the consequences of personnel exposure to hazardous gases

  6. Fighting Forest Fires - An Assessment of Policy Options in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Luthfi Fatah; Udiansyah

    2010-01-01

    Uncontrolled forest fires are one of the key causes of habitat destruction in Indonesia. The haze they produce causes significant pollution problems for people in the country and in surrounding nations. This study has highlighted the root causes of the fires and assessed a range of potential new policy options to improve the situation. The study finds that the weak enforcement of forest conservation rules and regulations is a key problem and that this is caused by wide range of resource and i...

  7. Use of wastes as option for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions in the Brazilian power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luciano Basto; Henriques, Rachel Martins [Virtual Institute of Climate Change (IVIG/COPPE/UFRJ), Caixa Postal 68565, CEP 21945-970, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Pereira, Amaro Olimpio Jr. [Center for Integrated Studies of the Environment and Climate Change (CentroClima/COPPE/UFRJ), Caixa Postal 68565, CEP 21945-970, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2010-12-15

    The present study presents an analysis of the options available for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions in the Brazilian power sector. The objective is to verify the potential use of wastes for electrical energy generation and its competitiveness in comparison with other sources of renewable energy. A comparison was made using marginal abatement cost curves derived from a reference scenario obtained from earlier studies dealing with the expansion of the Brazilian power sector. The results showed that the availability of wastes is significant and that they can be used at a cost 20-60% lower than that of wind power generation, a subsidized source of energy in Brazil. It can therefore be concluded that it would be more efficient if incentives were applied to the use of wastes for electrical power generation since it offers socio-environmental benefits which go far beyond the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions. (author)

  8. 2007 status of climate change: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Summary for Policy-makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Working Group III contribution to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) focuses on new literature on the scientific, technological, environmental, economic and social aspects of mitigation of climate change, published since the IPCC Third Assessment Report (TAR) and the Special Reports on CO2 Capture and Storage (SRCCS) and on Safeguarding the Ozone Layer and the Global Climate System (SROC).The main aim of this summary report is to assess options for mitigating climate change. Several aspects link climate change with development issues. This report explores these links in detail, and illustrates where climate change and sustainable development are mutually reinforcing. Economic development needs, resource endowments and mitigative and adaptive capacities differ across regions. There is no one-size-fits-all approach to the climate change problem, and solutions need to be regionally differentiated to reflect different socio-economic conditions and, to a lesser extent, geographical differences. Although this report has a global focus, an attempt is made to differentiate the assessment of scientific and technical findings for the various regions. Given that mitigation options vary significantly between economic sectors, it was decided to use the economic sectors to organize the material on short- to medium-term mitigation options. Contrary to what was done in the Third Assessment Report, all relevant aspects of sectoral mitigation options, such as technology, cost, policies etc., are discussed together, to provide the user with a comprehensive discussion of the sectoral mitigation options. The report is organised into six sections after the introduction: - Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends; - Mitigation in the short and medium term, across different economic sectors (until 2030); - Mitigation in the long-term (beyond 2030); - Policies, measures and instruments to mitigate climate change; - Sustainable development and climate change mitigation; - Gaps in

  9. Behavioural Climate Change Mitigation Options and Their Appropriate Inclusion in Quantitative Longer Term Policy Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, J.; Schroten, A.; Bles, M.; Sevenster, M.; Markowska, A.; Smit, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Rohde, C.; Duetschke, E.; Koehler, J.; Gigli, M. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany); Zimmermann, K.; Soboh, R.; Van ' t Riet, J. [Landbouw Economisch Instituut LEI, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    Changes in consumer behaviour can lead to major reductions in greenhouse gas emissions in the European Union, particularly in the areas of transport, housing and food. Behavioural changes can complement technological changes and can allow emission reduction targets to be achieved more cost-effectively overall. The study identifies 36 options for behavioural change that would cut greenhouse gas emissions. Of these, 11 particularly relevant options have been studied in detail. They include shifting to a more healthy and balanced diet, eating less meat and dairy products, buying and using a smaller car or an electric car, teleworking, adjusting room temperature and optimising ventilation. For each of the behavioural changes studied in depth, emission reduction potentials have been quantified for 2020, 2030 and 2050. The study identifies barriers to implementing the changes, and quantifies the likely effects of policy packages which could overcome these barriers. The results show that the behavioural changes that could take place simultaneously have the potential to save emissions totalling up to about 600 million tonnes of CO2-equivalent a year in 2020. This is about one-quarter of the projected annual emissions from sectors not covered by the EU emissions trading system. The savings potential is particularly high in the area of food.

  10. Mitigation of agriculture emissions in the tropics: comparing forest land-sparing options at the national level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Carter

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Emissions from agriculture-driven deforestation are of global concern, but forest land-sparing interventions such as agricultural intensification and utilization of available land offer opportunities for mitigation. In many tropical countries, where agriculture is the major driver of deforestation, interventions in the agriculture sector can reduce deforestation emissions as well as reducing emissions in the agriculture sector. Our study uses a novel approach to quantify agriculture-driven deforestation and associated emissions in the tropics. Emissions from agriculture-driven deforestation in the tropics between 2000 and 2010 are 4.3 Gt CO2 eq yr−1 (97 countries. We investigate the national potential to mitigate these emissions through forest land-sparing interventions, which can potentially be implemented under REDD+. We consider intensification, and utilization of available non-forested land as forest land-sparing opportunities since they avoid the expansion of agriculture into forested land. In addition, we assess the potential to reduce agriculture emissions on existing agriculture land, interventions that fall under climate-smart agriculture (CSA. The use of a systematic framework demonstrates the selection of mitigation interventions by considering sequentially the level of emissions, mitigation potential of various interventions, enabling environment and associated risks to livelihoods at the national level. Our results show that considering only countries with high emissions from agriculture-driven deforestation, where there is a potential for forest-sparing interventions, and where there is a good enabling environment (e.g. effective governance or engagement in REDD+, the potential to mitigate is 1.3 Gt CO2 eq yr−1 (20 countries of 78 with sufficient data. For countries where we identify agriculture emissions as priority for mitigation, up to 1 Gt CO2 eq yr−1 could be reduced from the agriculture sector including livestock. Risks

  11. SY Tank Farm ventilation isolation option risk assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, T.B.; Morales, S.D.

    1994-03-01

    The safety of the 241-SY Tank Farm ventilation system has been under extensive scrutiny due to safety concerns associated with tank 101-SY. Hydrogen and other gases are generated and trapped in the waste below the liquid surface. Periodically, these gases are released into the dome space and vented through the exhaust system. This attention to the ventilation system has resulted in the development of several alternative ventilation system designs. The ventilation system provides the primary means of mitigation of accidents associated with flammable gases. This report provides an assessment of various alternatives ventilation system designs.

  12. Application of an extreme winter storm scenario to identify vulnerabilities, mitigation options, and science needs in the Sierra Nevada mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Christine M.; Dettinger, Michael; McCarthy, Maureen; Schaller, Kevin D.; Wellborn, Toby; Cox, Dale A.

    2016-01-01

    In the Sierra Nevada mountains (USA), and geographically similar areas across the globe where human development is expanding, extreme winter storm and flood risks are expected to increase with changing climate, heightening the need for communities to assess risks and better prepare for such events. In this case study, we demonstrate a novel approach to examining extreme winter storm and flood risks. We incorporated high-resolution atmospheric–hydrologic modeling of the ARkStorm extreme winter storm scenario with multiple modes of engagement with practitioners, including a series of facilitated discussions and a tabletop emergency management exercise, to develop a regional assessment of extreme storm vulnerabilities, mitigation options, and science needs in the greater Lake Tahoe region of Northern Nevada and California, USA. Through this process, practitioners discussed issues of concern across all phases of the emergency management life cycle, including preparation, response, recovery, and mitigation. Interruption of transportation, communications, and interagency coordination were among the most pressing concerns, and specific approaches for addressing these issues were identified, including prepositioning resources, diversifying communications systems, and improving coordination among state, tribal, and public utility practitioners. Science needs included expanding real-time monitoring capabilities to improve the precision of meteorological models and enhance situational awareness, assessing vulnerabilities of critical infrastructure, and conducting cost–benefit analyses to assess opportunities to improve both natural and human-made infrastructure to better withstand extreme storms. Our approach and results can be used to support both land use and emergency planning activities aimed toward increasing community resilience to extreme winter storm hazards in mountainous regions.

  13. CO2-mitigation options for the offshore oil and gas sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Tock, Laurence; Breuhaus, Peter;

    2016-01-01

    The offshore extraction of oil and gas is an energy-intensive process leading to the production of CO2and methane, discharged into the atmosphere, and of chemicals, rejected into the sea. The taxation of these emissions, in Norway, has encouraged the development of more energy-effcient and enviro......The offshore extraction of oil and gas is an energy-intensive process leading to the production of CO2and methane, discharged into the atmosphere, and of chemicals, rejected into the sea. The taxation of these emissions, in Norway, has encouraged the development of more energy......, using thermodynamic, economic and environmental indicators. The results indicate the benets of all these options, as the total CO2-emissions can be reduced by more than 15% in all cases, while the avoidance costs vary widely and are highly sensitive to the natural gas price and CO2-tax....

  14. Nitrous oxide emission related to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and mitigation options from N fertilization in a tropical soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Johnny R.; Cassman, Noriko A.; Kielak, Anna M.; Pijl, Agata; Carmo, Janaína B.; Lourenço, Kesia S.; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J.; Cantarella, Heitor; Kuramae, Eiko E.

    2016-07-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) from nitrogen fertilizers applied to sugarcane has high environmental impact on ethanol production. This study aimed to determine the main microbial processes responsible for the N2O emissions from soil fertilized with different N sources, to identify options to mitigate N2O emissions, and to determine the impacts of the N sources on the soil microbiome. In a field experiment, nitrogen was applied as calcium nitrate, urea, urea with dicyandiamide or 3,4 dimethylpyrazone phosphate nitrification inhibitors (NIs), and urea coated with polymer and sulfur (PSCU). Urea caused the highest N2O emissions (1.7% of N applied) and PSCU did not reduce cumulative N2O emissions compared to urea. NIs reduced N2O emissions (95%) compared to urea and had emissions comparable to those of the control (no N). Similarly, calcium nitrate resulted in very low N2O emissions. Interestingly, N2O emissions were significantly correlated only with bacterial amoA, but not with denitrification gene (nirK, nirS, nosZ) abundances, suggesting that ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, via the nitrification pathway, were the main contributors to N2O emissions. Moreover, the treatments had little effect on microbial composition or diversity. We suggest nitrate-based fertilizers or the addition of NIs in NH4+-N based fertilizers as viable options for reducing N2O emissions in tropical soils and lessening the environmental impact of biofuel produced from sugarcane.

  15. Nitrous oxide emission related to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and mitigation options from N fertilization in a tropical soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Johnny R; Cassman, Noriko A; Kielak, Anna M; Pijl, Agata; Carmo, Janaína B; Lourenço, Kesia S; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J; Cantarella, Heitor; Kuramae, Eiko E

    2016-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) from nitrogen fertilizers applied to sugarcane has high environmental impact on ethanol production. This study aimed to determine the main microbial processes responsible for the N2O emissions from soil fertilized with different N sources, to identify options to mitigate N2O emissions, and to determine the impacts of the N sources on the soil microbiome. In a field experiment, nitrogen was applied as calcium nitrate, urea, urea with dicyandiamide or 3,4 dimethylpyrazone phosphate nitrification inhibitors (NIs), and urea coated with polymer and sulfur (PSCU). Urea caused the highest N2O emissions (1.7% of N applied) and PSCU did not reduce cumulative N2O emissions compared to urea. NIs reduced N2O emissions (95%) compared to urea and had emissions comparable to those of the control (no N). Similarly, calcium nitrate resulted in very low N2O emissions. Interestingly, N2O emissions were significantly correlated only with bacterial amoA, but not with denitrification gene (nirK, nirS, nosZ) abundances, suggesting that ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, via the nitrification pathway, were the main contributors to N2O emissions. Moreover, the treatments had little effect on microbial composition or diversity. We suggest nitrate-based fertilizers or the addition of NIs in NH4(+)-N based fertilizers as viable options for reducing N2O emissions in tropical soils and lessening the environmental impact of biofuel produced from sugarcane. PMID:27460335

  16. Debris flow hazards mitigation--Mechanics, prediction, and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers presented at the Fourth International Conference on Debris-Flow Hazards Mitigation: Mechanics, Prediction, and Assessment held in Chengdu, China, September 10-13, 2007. The papers cover a wide range of topics on debris-flow science and engineering, including the factors triggering debris flows, geomorphic effects, mechanics of debris flows (e.g., rheology, fluvial mechanisms, erosion and deposition processes), numerical modeling, various debris-flow experiments, landslide-induced debris flows, assessment of debris-flow hazards and risk, field observations and measurements, monitoring and alert systems, structural and non-structural countermeasures against debris-flow hazards and case studies. The papers reflect the latest devel-opments and advances in debris-flow research. Several studies discuss the development and appli-cation of Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) technologies in debris-flow hazard/risk assessment. Timely topics presented in a few papers also include the development of new or innovative techniques for debris-flow monitoring and alert systems, especially an infra-sound acoustic sensor for detecting debris flows. Many case studies illustrate a wide variety of debris-flow hazards and related phenomena as well as their hazardous effects on human activities and settlements.

  17. Sustainability of arsenic mitigation interventions—an evaluation of different alternative safe drinking water options provided in Matlab, an arsenic hot spot in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Mohammed; Rahman, Shamsun N.; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Jacks, Gunnar; Saha, Ratnajit; Rahman, Marina

    2015-01-01

    The wide spread occurrence of geogenic arsenic in Bangladesh groundwater drastically reduced the safe water access across the country. Since its discovery in 1993, different mitigation options tested at household and community scale have resulted in limited success. The main challenge is to develop a simple, cost-effective, and socially acceptable option which the users can install, operate and maintain by themselves. In an arsenic hotspot of southeastern Bangladesh, 841 arsenic removal filte...

  18. Environmental assessment of current and future Swiss electricity supply options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Options for near future electricity supply are currently one of the main topics in the Swiss energy policy debate. Contrary to the total energy demand per capita the trend of rising electricity demand per capita is still visible. This paper presents a comparative environmental assessment of a broad portfolio of current and future electricity generation technologies including nuclear, fossil, and renewable power plants with their associated energy chains. The evaluation, based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), is carried out quantifying ten different environmental indicators, grouped in the categories greenhouse gas emissions, consumption of resources, waste, and impact on ecosystems. Hydropower shows minimal environmental impacts for all indicators; for other systems, the picture is diverse. The comparison of non-aggregated indicators allows preliminary conclusions about the environmental performance of the assessed systems. Establishing ranking of technologies calls for aggregating the indicators, which can be done by weighting of the indicators based on individual or stakeholder group preferences, either within a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) framework or with Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methods. Calculating total costs of electricity by adding external costs due to impacts on human health and ecosystems to the electricity production costs poses another option for ranking of technologies. (authors)

  19. Pediatric insomnia: new insights in clinical assessment and treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Oliviero; Angriman, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disorders in children can compromise quality of life of both children and families and chronic sleep deprivations is associated with poorer developmental outcome, overweight and behavioral disturbances. Clinicians should incorporate questions about sleep into their routine health assessment, and the assessment of insomnia should follow a medical approach primary and secondary contributing factors should be assessed, as well as maladaptive behaviors related to sleep. A careful examination of sleep/wake schedule, abnormal movements or behavior during sleep, and daytime consequences of sleep disruption or deprivation is mandatory. Sleeping environment, and bedtime routines should be examined to identify behavioral issues related to sleep. Polysomnography is not routinely indicated for children with insomnia, but actigraphy can give an objective estimation of sleep parameters. The Authors propose a new classification of pediatric insomnia, based on both genetic and clinical aspects, and suggest specific treatment options, including sleep hygiene, behavioral strategies and pharmacological treatment. PMID:26742668

  20. Comparative assessment of electricity generation options in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a country specific data base on energy sources, facilities and technologies is presented in this paper. It also identified feasible national electricity generating options and electric power system expansion alternatives for the period 2000-2020, and conducted comparative assessments of these options based on economic and environmental considerations. The possible role of nuclear power in the country's future electric energy was also studied. The comparison of three electricity generating options were considered: coal-fired thermal power plant without flue gas desulfurization (FGD), coal-fired thermal power plant with FGD and combined cycle power plant with 300 MW generating capacity each. Based on the analysis of three alternatives, the use of coal-fired power plants equipped with flue gas desulfurization (FGD) should be seriously considered. The government is expected to pursue the full development of local energy sources such as hydropower, geothermal, coal, natural gas and other new and renewable energy sources. However, there will still be a major need for imported oil and coal fuel which will likely supply unidentified energy sources beyond 2010. In the case of nuclear power, the government has not firmed up definite plans for any construction of nuclear power plants after 2010. However, the long term energy development plan still includes the operation of at least two nuclear power plants by the 2020 and this long term range program has not been revised in the recent published updates. (Author)

  1. Brent Spar abandonment - Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO) assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possible methods of abandoning or re-using the Brent Spar storage and tanker offloading facility following its decommissioning in 1991 are discussed. The report assesses six of the thirteen possible methods, including horizontal dismantling and onshore disposal, vertical dismantling and onshore disposal, in-field disposal, deep water disposal, refurbishment and re-use, and continued maintenance, in order to determine the Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO). The BPEO covers technical feasibility risks to health and safety of the work force, environmental impacts, public acceptability and costs. (UK)

  2. Heat in the city - an inventory of knowledge and knowledge deficiencies regarding heat stress in Dutch cities and options for its mitigation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salcedo Rahola, T.B.; Van Oppen, P.; Mulder, K.

    2009-01-01

    This report gives an overview of heat stress problems in urban areas of the Netherlands and various options for mitigating this stress. Climate change is causing more occurrences of heat waves. Urban areas in particular will suffer the most, as they are warmer than the countryside. * What is kn

  3. Assessing the Option to Abandon an Investment Project by the Binomial Options Pricing Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Cruz Rambaud

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Usually, traditional methods for investment project appraisal such as the net present value (hereinafter NPV do not incorporate in their values the operational flexibility offered by including a real option included in the project. In this paper, real options, and more specifically the option to abandon, are analysed as a complement to cash flow sequence which quantifies the project. In this way, by considering the existing analogy with financial options, a mathematical expression is derived by using the binomial options pricing model. This methodology provides the value of the option to abandon the project within one, two, and in general n periods. Therefore, this paper aims to be a useful tool in determining the value of the option to abandon according to its residual value, thus making easier the control of the uncertainty element within the project.

  4. Willow Creek Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    Today`s notice announces BPA`s proposal to fund land acquisition or acquisition of a conservation easement and a wildlife management plan to protect and enhance wildlife habitat at the Willow Creek Natural Area in Eugene, Oregon. This action would provide partial mitigation for wildlife and wildlife habitat lost by the development of Federal hydroelectric projects in the Willamette River Basin. The project is consistent with BPA`s obligations under provisions of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 as outlined by the Northwest Power Planning Council`s 1994 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. BPA has prepared an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1023) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  5. Willow Creek Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today's notice announces BPA's proposal to fund land acquisition or acquisition of a conservation easement and a wildlife management plan to protect and enhance wildlife habitat at the Willow Creek Natural Area in Eugene, Oregon. This action would provide partial mitigation for wildlife and wildlife habitat lost by the development of Federal hydroelectric projects in the Willamette River Basin. The project is consistent with BPA's obligations under provisions of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 as outlined by the Northwest Power Planning Council's 1994 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. BPA has prepared an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1023) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI

  6. Life cycle framework for assessment of site remediation options: Investigation of six remedial options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, M.L.; Page, C.A. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Geography; Campbell, M. [Metro Toronto Teaching Health Units, North York, Ontario (Canada); McKenna, S. [City of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Public Health

    1997-12-31

    A Life Cycle Framework (LCF), incorporating Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Life Cycle Management (LCM) methodologies, has been developed to investigate environmental and human health burdens associated with contaminated sites and issuing from site remediation activities. The objective is to provide a tool that can guide decisions on the choice of methods that minimize environmental burden and/or to identify particular activities or processes within a remediation method that contribute most to that burden. The LCF approach is useful because it provides a systematic means of encompassing most activities within a remediation method, including those occurring beyond the contaminated site per se, and over the long term. The LCA component is used for in-depth, quantitative study of remediation options, while the more streamlined LCM is used where qualitative information and analysis is sought. The following generic remedial options were investigated using the LCM approach: no action, encapsulation, excavation and disposal, vapor extraction, in-site bioremediation, and soil washing. The analysis highlighted potential impacts for no-action, encapsulation, and excavation and disposal that involve land use and land consumption; no-action and encapsulation also effect ecosystem and human health through contaminants remaining on-site; and excavation and disposal potentially contribute to acid rain, global warming, air pollution and depletion of primary energy sources through transportation. Important potential impacts, associated with in-situ bioremediation and vapor extraction relate to contaminants remaining on-site. In addition, for in-situ bioremediation and soil washing there is concern for potential discharge of process chemicals, while for soil washing there is potential for airborne transport of contaminants to other media.

  7. Northeast Oregon Wildlife Mitigation Project : Final Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Nez Perce Tribe

    1996-08-01

    Development of the hydropower system in the Columbia River Basin has had far-reaching effects on many species of wildlife. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is responsible for mitigating the loss of wildlife habitat caused by the Federal portion of this system, as allocated to the purpose of power production. BPA needs to mitigate for loss of wildlife habitat in the Snake River Subbasin.

  8. Greenhouse gas mitigation in animal production: towards an integrated life cycle sustainability assessment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de I.J.M.; Cederberg, C.; Eady, S.; Gollnow, S.; Kristensen, T.; Macleod, M.; Meul, M.; Nemecek, T.; Phong, L.T.; Thoma, G.; Werf, H.M.G.; Williams, A.G.; Zonderland-Thomassen, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The animal food chain contributes significantly to emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). We explored studies that addressed options to mitigate GHG emissions in the animal production chain and concluded that most studies focused on production systems in developed countries and on a single GHG. They d

  9. Technology assessment of various coal-fuel options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology assessment (TA) study of coal-based fuels presented in this report was performed for the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology. Its goal was to support decision-making of the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology in the field of coal conversion. Various technical options of coal liquefaction have been analyzed on the basis of hard coal as well as lignite -- direct liquefaction of coal (hydrogenation) and different possibilities of indirect liquefaction, that is the production of fuels (methanol, gasoline) by processing products of coal gasification. The TA study takes into consideration the entire technology chain from coal mining via coal conversion to the utilization of coal-based fuels in road transport. The analysis focuses on costs of the various options, overall economic effects, which include effects on employment and public budgets, and on environmental consequences compared to the use of liquid fuels derived from oil. Furthermore, requirements of infrastructure and other problems of the introduction of coal-based fuels as well as prospects for the export of technologies of direct and indirect coal liquefaction have been analyzed in the study. 14 figs., 10 tabs

  10. ASTRID power conversion system: Assessment on steam and gas options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conclusion: ◆ Two power conversion systems have been investigated for the ASTRID prototype. ◆ Steam PCS: • Most mature system based on a well-developed turbomachinery technology. • High plant efficiency. • Studies on steam generators designs and leak detection systems in progress with the aim of reducing the risk of large SWRs and of limiting its consequences. • Design and licensing safety assessment of a SFR must deal with the Sodium Water Air reaction (SWAR). ◆ Gas PCS: • Strong advantage as it inherently eliminates the SWR and SWAR risks. • Very innovative option: major breakthroughs but feasibility and viability not yet demonstrated. • Remaining technological challenges but no showstopper indentified. • General architecture: investigations in progress to improve performances, operability and maintainability

  11. Urban flood risk mitigation: from vulnerability assessment to resilient city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serre, D.; Barroca, B.

    2009-04-01

    Urban flood risk mitigation: from vulnerability assessment to resilient city Bruno Barroca1, Damien Serre2 1Laboratory of Urban Engineering, Environment and Building (L G U E H) - Université de Marne-la-Vallée - Pôle Ville, 5, Bd Descartes - Bâtiment Lavoisier - 77454 Marne la Vallée Cedex 2 - France 2City of Paris Engineering School, Construction - Environment Department, 15 rue Fénelon, 75010 Paris, France In France, as in Europe and more generally throughout the world, river floods have been increasing in frequency and severity over the last ten years, and there are more instances of rivers bursting their banks, aggravating the impact of the flooding of areas supposedly protected by flood defenses. Despite efforts made to well maintain the flood defense assets, we often observe flood defense failures leading to finally increase flood risk in protected area during major flood events. Furthermore, flood forecasting models, although they benefit continuous improvements, remain partly inaccurate due to uncertainties populated all along data calculation processes. These circumstances obliged stakeholders and the scientific communities to manage flood risk by integrating new concepts like stakes management, vulnerability assessments and more recently urban resilience development. Definitively, the goal is to reduce flood risk by managing of course flood defenses and improving flood forecasting models, but also stakes and vulnerability of flooded areas to achieve urban resilience face to flood events. Vulnerability to flood is essentially concentrated in urban areas. Assessing vulnerability of a city is very difficult. Indeed, urban area is a complex system composed by a sum of technical sub-systems as complex as the urban area itself. Assessing city vulnerability consists in talking into account each sub system vulnerability and integrating all direct and indirect impacts generally depending from city shape and city spatial organization. At this time, although

  12. Sustainability of arsenic mitigation interventions – an evaluation of different alternative safe drinking water options provided in Matlab, an arsenic hot spot in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    MOHAMMED eHOSSAIN; Shamsun Naima Rahman; Prosun eBhattacharya; Gunnar eJacks; Ratnajit eSaha; Marina eRahman

    2015-01-01

    The wide spread occurrence of geogenic arsenic (As) in Bangladesh groundwater drastically reduced the safe water access across the country. Since its discovery in 1993, different mitigation options tested at household and community scale have resulted in limited success. In an arsenic hotspot of southeastern Bangladesh, 841 arsenic removal filter (ARF), 190 surface water filter membrane, 23 pond sand filter (PSF), 147 rain water harvester (RWH) and 59 As-safe tubewell were distributed among ...

  13. Application of probabilistic safety assessment in CPR1000 severe accident prevention and mitigation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) and severe accident study was discussed. Also how to apply PSA in severe accident prevention and mitigation was elaborated. PSA can find the plant vulnerabilities of severe accidents prevention and mitigation. Some modifications or improvements focusing on these vulnerabilities can be put forward. PSA also can assess the efficient of these actions for decision-making. According to CPR1000 unit severe accident analysis, an example for the process and method on how to use PSA to enhance the ability to deal with severe accident prevention and mitigation was set forth. (authors)

  14. Assessment of three mitigation techniques for permafrost protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders Stuhr

    . This problem, has in the last decades, been amplified by the climate warming, which has been most evident in the arctic regions. The construction of a road embankment usually results in an increased mean annual surface temperature, which will increase the thawing of permafrost and expose the road embankment......The presence of permafrost is an important aspect in civil engineering in arctic regions. The construction of engineering structures, such as road and airfield embankments, will change the thermal regime of the ground, and may lead to permafrost degradation under or adjacent to such structures...... to thaw settlements. To avoid or at least minimize the damages caused by thaw settlements, different mitigation techniques have been developed. This thesis concerns laboratory tests and field studies of three mitigation techniques: air convection embankment, heat drain and reflective surfaces. The main...

  15. The role of biomass in climate change mitigation : Assessing the long-term dynamics of bioenergy and biochemicals in the land and energy systems

    OpenAIRE

    Daioglou, V.

    2016-01-01

    Scientific literature addressing climate change mitigation options have highlighted the potentially important role of biomass as a substitute for fossil fuels in the provision of energy and materials. However significant uncertainties remain concerning the drivers and constraints of the available biomass, the overall greenhouse gas (GHG) benefit, and the most effective supply and demand chains. This thesis builds on the IMAGE integrated assessment model in order to improve the representation ...

  16. Climate change mitigation studies in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Sri Lanka, Climate Change Mitigation Studies have received low priority and have been limited to an ADB-sponsored preliminary study followed by an initial assessment of some mitigation options in the energy and agricultural sectors, with technical assistance from the US Country Studies Program. The major focus was on options of the mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector. Owing to funding constraints, only the potential for reduction of carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the various mitigation options were quantified; analysis of monetary costs and benefits or policy/programs for adoption of the options were not undertaken. For the non-energy sector, a very limited study on mitigation of methane emissions from rice fields was carried out. (au)

  17. Climate change mitigation studies in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickramaratne, Rupa [Ministry of Forestry and Environment, GEF/UNDP Enabling Activity Project (Sri Lanka)

    1998-12-01

    In Sri Lanka, Climate Change Mitigation Studies have received low priority and have been limited to an ADB-sponsored preliminary study followed by an initial assessment of some mitigation options in the energy and agricultural sectors, with technical assistance from the US Country Studies Program. The major focus was on options of the mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector. Owing to funding constraints, only the potential for reduction of carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the various mitigation options were quantified; analysis of monetary costs and benefits or policy/programs for adoption of the options were not undertaken. For the non-energy sector, a very limited study on mitigation of methane emissions from rice fields was carried out. (au)

  18. The role of renewable energy in global warming mitigation - A critique of trusted assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two recent Congressionally-commissioned studies - one by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) and the other by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) - support the position that action should be taken now to reduce emissions causing global warming, and find that significant reductions can be achieved at relatively low cost. The authors accept these general conclusions, but take issue with the mix of energy options judged to be the most promising for reacting reduction targets. Specifically, they challenge the impression given in both reports that renewable energy will be, at best, an insignificant element in achieving greenhouse gas reductions. The OTA and NAS studies are important because it is generally assumed that they are based on rigorous, objective analysis and do not contain significant biases. Upon inspection of the recent greenhouse mitigation studies, however, several shortcomings are apparent, the most egregious of which was a general failure to re-evaluate renewables based on recent evidence. Over the last decade, advances in technology have reduced the costs of solar and wind electricity by 60-75% and increased reliability to the point where these resources, along with geothermal and biomass, can now compete with conventional electric plants in some markets, especially those in which environmental benefits are considered. These resources must be accurately valued to optimize carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction strategies. This article identifies the various ways in which these reports have failed in this task

  19. Mitigation of global greenhouse gas emissions from waste: conclusions and strategies from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report. Working Group III (Mitigation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogner, Jean; Pipatti, Riitta; Hashimoto, Seiji; Diaz, Cristobal; Mareckova, Katarina; Diaz, Luis; Kjeldsen, Peter; Monni, Suvi; Faaij, Andre; Gao, Qingxian; Zhang, Tianzhu; Ahmed, Mohammed Abdelrafie; Sutamihardja, R T M; Gregory, Robert

    2008-02-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from post-consumer waste and wastewater are a small contributor (about 3%) to total global anthropogenic GHG emissions. Emissions for 2004-2005 totalled 1.4 Gt CO2-eq year(-1) relative to total emissions from all sectors of 49 Gt CO2-eq year(-1) [including carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and F-gases normalized according to their 100-year global warming potentials (GWP)]. The CH4 from landfills and wastewater collectively accounted for about 90% of waste sector emissions, or about 18% of global anthropogenic methane emissions (which were about 14% of the global total in 2004). Wastewater N2O and CO2 from the incineration of waste containing fossil carbon (plastics; synthetic textiles) are minor sources. Due to the wide range of mature technologies that can mitigate GHG emissions from waste and provide public health, environmental protection, and sustainable development co-benefits, existing waste management practices can provide effective mitigation of GHG emissions from this sector. Current mitigation technologies include landfill gas recovery, improved landfill practices, and engineered wastewater management. In addition, significant GHG generation is avoided through controlled composting, state-of-the-art incineration, and expanded sanitation coverage. Reduced waste generation and the exploitation of energy from waste (landfill gas, incineration, anaerobic digester biogas) produce an indirect reduction of GHG emissions through the conservation of raw materials, improved energy and resource efficiency, and fossil fuel avoidance. Flexible strategies and financial incentives can expand waste management options to achieve GHG mitigation goals; local technology decisions are influenced by a variety of factors such as waste quantity and characteristics, cost and financing issues, infrastructure requirements including available land area, collection and transport considerations, and regulatory constraints

  20. Mitigation of global greenhouse gas emissions from waste: conclusions and strategies from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report. Working Group III (Mitigation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogner, Jean; Pipatti, Riitta; Hashimoto, Seiji; Diaz, Cristobal; Mareckova, Katarina; Diaz, Luis; Kjeldsen, Peter; Monni, Suvi; Faaij, Andre; Gao, Qingxian; Zhang, Tianzhu; Ahmed, Mohammed Abdelrafie; Sutamihardja, R T M; Gregory, Robert

    2008-02-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from post-consumer waste and wastewater are a small contributor (about 3%) to total global anthropogenic GHG emissions. Emissions for 2004-2005 totalled 1.4 Gt CO2-eq year(-1) relative to total emissions from all sectors of 49 Gt CO2-eq year(-1) [including carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and F-gases normalized according to their 100-year global warming potentials (GWP)]. The CH4 from landfills and wastewater collectively accounted for about 90% of waste sector emissions, or about 18% of global anthropogenic methane emissions (which were about 14% of the global total in 2004). Wastewater N2O and CO2 from the incineration of waste containing fossil carbon (plastics; synthetic textiles) are minor sources. Due to the wide range of mature technologies that can mitigate GHG emissions from waste and provide public health, environmental protection, and sustainable development co-benefits, existing waste management practices can provide effective mitigation of GHG emissions from this sector. Current mitigation technologies include landfill gas recovery, improved landfill practices, and engineered wastewater management. In addition, significant GHG generation is avoided through controlled composting, state-of-the-art incineration, and expanded sanitation coverage. Reduced waste generation and the exploitation of energy from waste (landfill gas, incineration, anaerobic digester biogas) produce an indirect reduction of GHG emissions through the conservation of raw materials, improved energy and resource efficiency, and fossil fuel avoidance. Flexible strategies and financial incentives can expand waste management options to achieve GHG mitigation goals; local technology decisions are influenced by a variety of factors such as waste quantity and characteristics, cost and financing issues, infrastructure requirements including available land area, collection and transport considerations, and regulatory constraints

  1. Assessment, Planning, and Execution Considerations for Conjunction Risk Assessment and Mitigation Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigm, Ryan C.; Levi, Joshua A.; Mantziaras, Dimitrios C.

    2010-01-01

    An operational Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis (CARA) concept is the real-time process of assessing risk posed by close approaches and reacting to those risks if necessary. The most effective way to completely mitigate conjunction risk is to perform an avoidance maneuver. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has implemented a routine CARA process since 2005. Over this period, considerable experience has been gained and many lessons have been learned. This paper identifies and presents these experiences as general concepts in the description of the Conjunction Assessment, Flight Dynamics, and Flight Operations methodologies and processes. These general concepts will be tied together and will be exemplified through a case study of an actual high risk conjunction event for the Aura mission.

  2. Addressing Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Together: A Global Assessment of Agriculture and Forestry Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsager, Rico; Locatelli, Bruno; Chazarin, Florie

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation and mitigation share the ultimate purpose of reducing climate change impacts. However, they tend to be considered separately in projects and policies because of their different objectives and scales. Agriculture and forestry are related to both adaptation and mitigation: they contribute...... to greenhouse gas emissions and removals, are vulnerable to climate variations, and form part of adaptive strategies for rural livelihoods. We assessed how climate change project design documents (PDDs) considered a joint contribution to adaptation and mitigation in forestry and agriculture in the tropics......, by analyzing 201 PDDs from adaptation funds, mitigation instruments, and project standards [e.g., climate community and biodiversity (CCB)]. We analyzed whether PDDs established for one goal reported an explicit contribution to the other (i.e., whether mitigation PDDs contributed to adaptation and vice versa...

  3. SPECIAL TOPICS-Mitigation of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from animal operations: III. A review of animal management mitigation options

    OpenAIRE

    Hristov, AN; Ott, T.; Tricarico, J; Rotz, A.; Waghorn, G; Adesogan, A; Dijkstra, J.; Montes, F.; Oh, J; Kebreab, E.; Oosting, SJ; Gerber, PJ; Henderson, B.; Makkar, HPS.; Firkins, JL

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this review was to analyze published data on animal management practices that mitigate enteric methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from animal operations. Increasing animal productivity can be a very effective strategy for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit of livestock product. Improving the genetic potential of animals through planned cross-breeding or selection within breeds and achieving this genetic potential through proper nutrition and improvements...

  4. Applying real options analysis to assess cleaner energy development strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy industry, accounts for the largest portion of CO2 emissions, is facing the issue of compliance with the national clean energy policy. The methodology for evaluating the energy mix policy is crucial because of the characteristics of lead time embedded with the power generation facilities investment and the uncertainty of future electricity demand. In this paper, a modified binomial model based on sequential compound options, which may account for the lead time and uncertainty as a whole is established, and a numerical example on evaluating the optional strategies and the strategic value of the cleaner energy policy is also presented. It is found that the optimal decision at some nodes in the binomial tree is path dependent, which is different from the standard sequential compound option model with lead time or time lag concept. The proposed modified binomial sequential compound real options model can be generalized and extensively applied to solve the general decision problems that deal with the long lead time of many government policies as well as capital intensive investments. - Highlights: → Introducing a flexible strategic management approach for government policy making. → Developing a modified binomial real options model based on sequential compound options. → Proposing an innovative model for managing the long term policy with lead time. → Applying to evaluate the options of various scenarios of cleaner energy strategies.

  5. Natural risk assessment and decision planning for disaster mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fiorucci

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, decisional models are introduced aiming at defining a general framework for natural disaster mitigation. More specifically, an integrated approach based on system modelling and optimal resource assignment is presented in order to support the decision makers in pre-operational and real-time management of forest fire emergencies. Some strategies for pre-operative and real time risk management will be described and formalized as optimal resource assignment problems. To this end, some models capable to describe the resources dynamics will be introduced, both in pre-operative phase and in real-time phase.

  6. Assessment of DOE radioactive scrap metal disposition options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, C.R.; Kasper, K.M. [Waste Policy Institute, Morgantown, WV (United States); Bossart, S.J. [Department of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The DOE has amassed a large amount of radioactively-contaminated scrap metal (RSM) as a result of past operations and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) projects. The volume of RSM will continue to increase as a result of the D&D of more than 6,000 surplus facilities and many of the 14,000 operating facilities in the DOE complex. RSM can be either surface contaminated or volumetrically contaminated, or both, with varying amounts of radioactivity. Several options exist for the disposition of this RSM, including disposal as radioactive waste, recycling by decontamination and free-release for unrestricted use, or recycling for restricted reuse inside a DOE controlled area. The DOE Office of Science and Technology (EM-50) has been actively investing in technology and strategy development in support of restricted-reuse RSM recycling for the past several years. This paper will assess the nature of the RSM recycling issue, review past investment by DOE to develop technologies and strategies to recycle RSM, and then discuss some recommendations concerning future investments in support of RSM management. Available information on the supply of RSM will be presented in Section II. The regulatory and policy framework concerning recycling RSM will be presented in Section III. A review of DOE investment in RSM recycling technology and current programs will be presented in Section IV. The current and projected industrial capacity will be described in Section V. And, finally, a discussion of issues and recommendations regarding DOE technology development interests in RSM recycling will be presented in Section VI and VII, respectively.

  7. Budgeting of major nutrients and the mitigation options for nutrient mining in semi-arid tropical agro-ecosystem of Tamil Nadu, India using NUTMON model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendran, U; Rama Subramoniam, S; Raja, P; Kumar, V; Murugappan, V

    2016-04-01

    Mining of nutrients from soil is a major problem in developing countries causing soil degradation and threaten long-term food production. The present study attempts to apply NUTrient MONitoring (NUTMON) model for carrying out nutrient budgeting to assess the stocks and flows of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) in defined geographical unit based on the inputs, viz., mineral fertilizers, manures, atmospheric deposition, and sedimentation, and outputs, viz., harvested crop produces, residues, leaching, denitrification, and erosion losses. The study area covers Coimbatore and Erode Districts, which are potential agricultural areas in western agro-ecological zone of Tamil Nadu, India. The calculated nutrient balances for both the districts at district scale, using NUTMON methodology, were negative for nitrogen (N -3.3 and -10.1 kg ha(-1)) and potassium (K -58.6 and -9.8 kg ha(-1)) and positive for phosphorus (P +14.5 and 20.5 kg ha(-1)). Soil nutrient pool has to adjust the negative balance of N and K; there will be an expected mining of nutrient from the soil reserve. A strategy was attempted for deriving the fertilizer recommendation using Decision Support System for Integrated Fertilizer Recommendation (DSSIFER) to offset the mining in selected farms. The results showed that when DSSIFER recommended fertilizers are applied to crops, the nutrient balance was positive. NUTMON-Toolbox with DSSIFER would serve the purpose on enhancing soil fertility, productivity, and sustainability. The management options to mitigate nutrient mining with an integrated system approach are also discussed. PMID:27021693

  8. Assessing uncertainty in the cost-effectiveness of agricultural greenhouse gas mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Eory, Vera; Topp, Cairistiona F.E.; Moran, Dominic; Butler, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Information on the uncertainty of quantitative results feeding into public decision making is essential for designing robust policies. However, this information is often not available in relation to the economics of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation in agriculture. This paper analyses the uncertainty of the mitigation estimates provided by a Marginal Abatement Cost Curve (MACC). The case study is based on the GHG MACC developed for Scottish agricultural soils. The qualitative assessment disenta...

  9. Bioenergy options. Multidisciplinary participatory method for assessing bioenergy options for rural villages in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauzeni, A.S.; Masao, H.P.; Sawe, E.N.; Shechambo, F.C. [Dar Es Salaam Univ. (Tanzania). Inst. of Resource Assessment; Ellegaard, A. [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    In Tanzania, like in many other developing countries in Southern and Eastern Africa, bioenergy planning has received relatively little attention, compared to planning for `modern` energy sources, although it accounts for about 90% of the country`s energy supply. As a result there is less understanding of the complexity and diversity of bioenergy systems. There is a lack of reliable data and information on bio-resources, their consumption and interaction with social, economic, institutional and environmental factors. This is largely due to lack of adequately developed and easily understood methods of data and information development, analysis and methods of evaluating available bioenergy options. In order to address the above constraints a project was initiated where the general objective was to develop and test a multi-disciplinary research method for identifying bioenergy options that can contribute to satisfying the energy needs of the rural household, agricultural and small scale industrial sectors, promote growth and facilitate sustainable development. The decision on the development and testing of a multidisciplinary research method was based on the fact that in Tanzania several bioenergy programmes have been introduced e.g. tree planting, improved cookstoves, biogas, improved charcoal making kilns etc. for various purposes including combating deforestation; promoting economic growth, substitution of imported petroleum fuels, health improvement, and raising standards of living. However efforts made in introducing these programmes or interventions have met with limited success. This situation prevails because developed bioenergy technologies are not being adopted in adequate numbers by the target groups. There are some indications from the study that some of the real barriers to effective bioenergy interventions or adoption of bioenergy technologies lie at the policy level and not at the project level. After the development and testing of the methodology

  10. Assessment of the need and options for a climate act; Arviointi ilmastolain vaihtoehdoista ja tarpeellisuudesta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokko, K.; Helenius, H.; Juhola, S.; Kulmala, M.; Ollikainen, M.; Savolainen, I.; Seppaelae, J.

    2012-11-15

    This report examines the need for a Climate Act and explores its various options. Current climate regulation reveals significant weaknesses and deficiencies, particularly in planning and coordinating the guidance activities of public authorities in the area of climate change mitigation and adaptation. The weaknesses and deficiencies are aimed to correct by using the regulation of monitoring, reporting and planning under one of the options for a Climate Act. In addition to presenting the current model and the model of a framework act (2+), this report describes the British climate act model and the model outlined in a preliminary report by Ekroos and Warsta. Moreover, the report includes an assessment of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the different models. In the current model, climate regulation that guides the activities of public authorities is not only strategy-driven, but also, with regard to substantive climate regulation that guides private stakeholders, disintegrated and not always robust enough. The climate policy measures of Finnish public authorities contain gaps that should be filled with a government-coordinated Climate Act. The Act should set binding long- and short-term objectives for climate change mitigation and adaptation, and the objectives should translate into efficient public action through particularly designed policy programmes. In addition, monitoring both the achievement of these objectives and greenhouse gas emissions could benefit from regulation, and parliamentary scrutiny could be increased in the area of climate policy. The Climate Act and the objectives enshrined in it will increase the predictability of climate policy as well as harmonise and assemble disparate regulations. Recording the guiding principles in a separate section of the Act would reinforce their role in decision-making based on the Act. The Climate Act should apply not only to the emissions trading sector and non-ETS (emissions trading scheme

  11. Comparative assessment of electricity generation options for Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an approach to the evaluation of sustainability of energy options for the electricity generation in Mexico. The study evaluated technologies that could be planned in the short term because their high maturity. The purpose was to rank the energy options based on the evaluation of a set of criteria grouped in impact areas for each dimension of the sustainability: economic, environmental and social. Obviously, no single technology exhibited superior performance on the basis of all the criteria and it was necessary to apply a mult criteria decision analysis (MCDA). In total this study all the decision elements were combined and integrated in an inference fuzzy logic system that takes into account the weights of different indicators. The methodology was applied to compare five technologies based on wind, nuclear, natural gas, coal, hydro and oil resources under the current Mexican conditions. In view of the features of the energy options, oil and gas are subject to limited energy resources. Coal and oil show relatively unfavorable ecological and accident risk characteristics. Gas is by far the option with the best performance among the fossil fuel options. In the case of nuclear energy, the economic, environmental and health indicators are highly favorable, however, social indicators for nuclear energy are unfavorable but they are also very controversial and additional studies must be carried out. The global sustainability of hydro, nuclear, wind and natural gas resulted very close; so these energy options must be considered in the generation expansion planning studies to search the expansion plans with the better combination of generation, energetic diversification and emissions, between other criteria

  12. Simulating N2O emissions from irrigated cotton wheat rotations in Australia using DAYCENT: Mitigation options by optimized fertilizer and irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Clemens; DelGrosso, Stephen; Parton, William; Rowlings, David; Grace, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Irrigation and fertilization do not only stimulate plant growth, but also accelerate microbial C- and N-turnover in the soil and thus can lead to enhanced emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) from soils. In Australia there are more than 2 million hectares of agricultural land under irrigation and research has now focused on a combination of nitrogen fertilizer and irrigation management to maintain crop yields, maximize nitrogen use efficiency and reduce N2O emissions. Process-based models are now being used to estimate N2O emissions and assess mitigation options of N2O fluxes by improving management at field, regional and national scales. To insure that model predictions are reliable it is important to rigorously test the model so that uncertainty bounds for N2O emissions can be reduced and the impacts of different management practices on emissions can be better quantified. We used high temporal frequency dataset of N2O emissions to validate the performance of the agroecosystem model DayCent to simulate daily N2O emissions from sub-tropical vertisols under different irrigation intensities. Furthermore, we evaluated potential N2O mitigation strategies in irrigated cotton-wheat rotations in Australia by simulating different fertilizer and irrigation management scenarios over a climatically variable 25 year time span. DayCent accurately predicted soil moisture dynamics and the timing and magnitude of high fluxes associated with fertilizer additions and irrigation events. At the daily scale we found a good correlation of predicted vs. measured N2O fluxes (r2 = 0.52), confirming that DayCent can be used to test agricultural practices for mitigating N2O emission from irrigated cropping systems. The simulations of different fertilization and irrigation practices in cotton-wheat rotations over a 25 year time frame clearly showed that there is scope for reducing N2O emissions by modified fertilizer and irrigation management. For wheat and for cotton the model predicted that a

  13. Agrochemical spray drift; assessment and mitigation--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felsot, Allan S; Unsworth, John B; Linders, Jan B H J; Roberts, Graham; Rautman, Dirk; Harris, Caroline; Carazo, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    During application of agrochemicals spray droplets can drift beyond the intended target to non-target receptors, including water, plants and animals. Factors affecting this spray drift include mode of application, droplet size, which can be modified by the nozzle types, formulation adjuvants, wind direction, wind speed, air stability, relative humidity, temperature and height of released spray relative to the crop canopy. The rate of fall of spray droplets depends upon the size of the droplets but is modified by entrainment in a mobile air mass and is also influenced by the rate of evaporation of the liquid constituting the aerosol. The longer the aerosol remains in the air before falling to the ground (or alternatively striking an object above ground) the greater the opportunity for it to be carried away from its intended target. In general, all size classes of droplets are capable of movement off target, but the smallest are likely to move the farthest before depositing on the ground or a non-target receptor. It is not possible to avoid spray drift completely but it can be minimized by using best-management practices. These include using appropriate nozzle types, shields, spray pressure, volumes per area sprayed, tractor speed and only spraying when climatic conditions are suitable. Field layout can also influence spray drift, whilst crop-free and spray-free buffer zones and windbreak crops can also have a mitigating effect. Various models are available to estimate the environmental exposure from spray drift at the time of application. PMID:20981606

  14. Options for sustainable passenger transport: an assessment of policy choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugel, J.M.; Rienstra, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    If the current trends in transport are not changed, a sustainable transport system is not feasible. In order to achieve such a state, new technologiesmay be an interesting option. In this context several success and failure factors for the introduction of new technologies are analyzed in this articl

  15. Addressing Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Together: A Global Assessment of Agriculture and Forestry Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongsager, Rico; Locatelli, Bruno; Chazarin, Florie

    2016-02-01

    Adaptation and mitigation share the ultimate purpose of reducing climate change impacts. However, they tend to be considered separately in projects and policies because of their different objectives and scales. Agriculture and forestry are related to both adaptation and mitigation: they contribute to greenhouse gas emissions and removals, are vulnerable to climate variations, and form part of adaptive strategies for rural livelihoods. We assessed how climate change project design documents (PDDs) considered a joint contribution to adaptation and mitigation in forestry and agriculture in the tropics, by analyzing 201 PDDs from adaptation funds, mitigation instruments, and project standards [e.g., climate community and biodiversity (CCB)]. We analyzed whether PDDs established for one goal reported an explicit contribution to the other (i.e., whether mitigation PDDs contributed to adaptation and vice versa). We also examined whether the proposed activities or expected outcomes allowed for potential contributions to the two goals. Despite the separation between the two goals in international and national institutions, 37% of the PDDs explicitly mentioned a contribution to the other objective, although only half of those substantiated it. In addition, most adaptation (90%) and all mitigation PDDs could potentially report a contribution to at least partially to the other goal. Some adaptation project developers were interested in mitigation for the prospect of carbon funding, whereas mitigation project developers integrated adaptation to achieve greater long-term sustainability or to attain CCB certification. International and national institutions can provide incentives for projects to harness synergies and avoid trade-offs between adaptation and mitigation.

  16. Addressing Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Together: A Global Assessment of Agriculture and Forestry Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongsager, Rico; Locatelli, Bruno; Chazarin, Florie

    2016-02-01

    Adaptation and mitigation share the ultimate purpose of reducing climate change impacts. However, they tend to be considered separately in projects and policies because of their different objectives and scales. Agriculture and forestry are related to both adaptation and mitigation: they contribute to greenhouse gas emissions and removals, are vulnerable to climate variations, and form part of adaptive strategies for rural livelihoods. We assessed how climate change project design documents (PDDs) considered a joint contribution to adaptation and mitigation in forestry and agriculture in the tropics, by analyzing 201 PDDs from adaptation funds, mitigation instruments, and project standards [e.g., climate community and biodiversity (CCB)]. We analyzed whether PDDs established for one goal reported an explicit contribution to the other (i.e., whether mitigation PDDs contributed to adaptation and vice versa). We also examined whether the proposed activities or expected outcomes allowed for potential contributions to the two goals. Despite the separation between the two goals in international and national institutions, 37 % of the PDDs explicitly mentioned a contribution to the other objective, although only half of those substantiated it. In addition, most adaptation (90 %) and all mitigation PDDs could potentially report a contribution to at least partially to the other goal. Some adaptation project developers were interested in mitigation for the prospect of carbon funding, whereas mitigation project developers integrated adaptation to achieve greater long-term sustainability or to attain CCB certification. International and national institutions can provide incentives for projects to harness synergies and avoid trade-offs between adaptation and mitigation.

  17. Least cost supply-side options for mitigating greenhouse gas and other harmful emissions from the power sector. Sri Lanka case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernando, W.J.L.S. [Sri Lanka Energy Managers' Association, Colombo (Sri Lanka); Priyantha, D.C. [Wijayatunga Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Moratuwa, Moratuwa (Sri Lanka); Shrestha, Ram [Energy Program, Asian Institute of Technology, Klong Luang, Pathumthani (Thailand)

    2002-03-01

    Sri Lanka is predominantly a fossil fuel-importing country with relatively high rainfall mainly in the central hilly region. This factor has led to its heavy dependence on hydro-power to satisfy its power generation needs during the past century since electricity was first introduced into the country. However, the economic hydro-power resources are limited, as Sri Lanka has already exploited the major component of these economic resources. The long-term least-cost option of power generation has given rise to the installation of approximately 600 MW of oil-fired plants. Further, this planning process will result in the addition of 1800 MW of coal-fired plants within the next 15 years. These thermal plant additions will undoubtedly increase harmful emissions, which at present stand at a relatively low level, from the power sector. This paper analyses various clean coal options and renewable energy technologies as supply-side options for mitigating harmful emissions from the power sector, considering their technical potential and economic feasibility with emphasis on carbon dioxide emissions, given their global warming potential. The sensitivities of the results of the study to different input parameters are also presented in the paper. It is concluded that the least expensive supply-side options for emission reduction in Sri Lanka are the use of renewable energy technologies such as wind power and fuelwood-fired dendrothermal plants. Further, in percentage terms, the incremental cost of these reductions is only half the value of the emission reductions achieved.

  18. Assessment and Propagation of Input Uncertainty in Tree-based Option Pricing Models

    OpenAIRE

    Gzyl, Henryk; Molina, German; ter Horst, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a practical example on the assessment and propagation of input uncertainty for option pricing when using tree-based methods. Input uncertainty is propagated into output uncertainty, reflecting that option prices are as unknown as the inputs they are based on. Option pricing formulas are tools whose validity is conditional not only on how close the model represents reality, but also on the quality of the inputs they use, and those inputs are usually not observable. W...

  19. Assessment of management to mitigate anthropogenic effects on large whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Hoop, Julie M; Moore, Michael J; Barco, Susan G; Cole, Timothy V N; Daoust, Pierre-Yves; Henry, Allison G; McAlpine, Donald F; McLellan, William A; Wimmer, Tonya; Solow, Andrew R

    2013-02-01

    United States and Canadian governments have responded to legal requirements to reduce human-induced whale mortality via vessel strikes and entanglement in fishing gear by implementing a suite of regulatory actions. We analyzed the spatial and temporal patterns of mortality of large whales in the Northwest Atlantic (23.5°N to 48.0°N), 1970 through 2009, in the context of management changes. We used a multinomial logistic model fitted by maximum likelihood to detect trends in cause-specific mortalities with time. We compared the number of human-caused mortalities with U.S. federally established levels of potential biological removal (i.e., species-specific sustainable human-caused mortality). From 1970 through 2009, 1762 mortalities (all known) and serious injuries (likely fatal) involved 8 species of large whales. We determined cause of death for 43% of all mortalities; of those, 67% (502) resulted from human interactions. Entanglement in fishing gear was the primary cause of death across all species (n = 323), followed by natural causes (n = 248) and vessel strikes (n = 171). Established sustainable levels of mortality were consistently exceeded in 2 species by up to 650%. Probabilities of entanglement and vessel-strike mortality increased significantly from 1990 through 2009. There was no significant change in the local intensity of all or vessel-strike mortalities before and after 2003, the year after which numerous mitigation efforts were enacted. So far, regulatory efforts have not reduced the lethal effects of human activities to large whales on a population-range basis, although we do not exclude the possibility of success of targeted measures for specific local habitats that were not within the resolution of our analyses. It is unclear how shortfalls in management design or compliance relate to our findings. Analyses such as the one we conducted are crucial in critically evaluating wildlife-management decisions. The results of these analyses can provide

  20. Assessing the Tax Liability Using an Option-Based Model

    OpenAIRE

    Vlachý, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This Thesis uses several forms of a single-period option-based model to analyze the incidence of income tax under uncertainty, focusing on the various effects of tax asymmetries and observing the distinct features of individual and corporate taxation. Two particular applications are being advanced. The one strives to establish the economic effects of tax-deductibility, motivated initially by a thin-capitalization measure brought forth under the framework of the recent Czech public-finance ref...

  1. The southern Brazilian grassland biome: soil carbon stocks, fluxes of greenhouse gases and some options for mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillar, V D; Tornquist, C G; Bayer, C

    2012-08-01

    The southern Brazilian grassland biome contains highly diverse natural ecosystems that have been used for centuries for grazing livestock and that also provide other important environmental services. Here we outline the main factors controlling ecosystem processes, review and discuss the available data on soil carbon stocks and greenhouse gases emissions from soils, and suggest opportunities for mitigation of climatic change. The research on carbon and greenhouse gases emissions in these ecosystems is recent and the results are still fragmented. The available data indicate that the southern Brazilian natural grassland ecosystems under adequate management contain important stocks of organic carbon in the soil, and therefore their conservation is relevant for the mitigation of climate change. Furthermore, these ecosystems show a great and rapid loss of soil organic carbon when converted to crops based on conventional tillage practices. However, in the already converted areas there is potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by using cropping systems based on no soil tillage and cover-crops, and the effect is mainly related to the potential of these crop systems to accumulate soil organic carbon in the soil at rates that surpass the increased soil nitrous oxide emissions. Further modelling with these results associated with geographic information systems could generate regional estimates of carbon balance.

  2. Using Online Tools to Assess Public Responses to Climate Change Mitigation Policies in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nophea Sasaki

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available As a member of the Annex 1 countries to the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Japan is committed to reducing 6% of the greenhouse gas emissions. In order to achieve this commitment, Japan has undertaken several major mitigation measures, one of which is the domestic measure that includes ecologically friendly lifestyle programs, utilizing natural energy, participating in local environmental activities, and amending environmental laws. Mitigation policies could be achieved if public responses were strong. As the internet has increasingly become an online platform for sharing environmental information, public responses to the need for reducing greenhouse gas emissions may be assessed using available online tools. We used Google Insights for Search, Google AdWords Keyword Tool, and Google Timeline View to assess public responses in Japan based on the interest shown for five search terms that define global climate change and its mitigation policies. Data on online search interests from January 04, 2004 to July 18, 2010 were analyzed according to locations and categories. Our study suggests that the search interests for the five chosen search terms dramatically increased, especially when new mitigation policies were introduced or when climate change related events were organized. Such a rapid increase indicates that the Japanese public strongly responds to climate change mitigation policies.

  3. Land use and desertification in the Binh Thuan Province of Southeastern Vietnam: mitigation and adaptation options now and under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, A.; Le Trinh, H.; Pham Ha, L.; Hens, L.

    2012-04-01

    Desertification and drought affects approximately 300,000 ha of land in the southeastern provinces of Vietnam, much of which is located on agricultural land and forest in the Binh Thuan Province. The methodology for analysing mitigation and adaptation options follows a chain of risk approach that includes a spatio-temporal characterisation of (1) the hazard, (2) the bio-physical and socio-economic impact, (3) the vulnerability to different activities as related to land uses, and (4) risk management options. The present forms of land degradation include sand dune formation and severe erosion (63%), degradation due to laterisation (14%), salinisation (13%), and rock outcrops (10%). The climate is characterized by a distinct dry season with high temperatures, a lot of sunshine and a warm land wind resulting in high evapotranspiration rates. Delays in the onset of the rainy season, e.g. with 20 days in 2010, cause a shift in the growing season. Damages due to drought are estimated at hundreds billion VND (US 1 = VND 20,8900) and contribute to poverty in the rural areas. The current risk-exposure is exacerbated further by climate change. Combined effects of desertification and climate change cause increased degradation of natural resources including land cover. At the same time land use changes are crucial in influencing responses to climate change and desertification. A further SWOT analysis combined with spatio-temporal analysis for each of the major sectors (agriculture, forestry and nature protection, urban and rural development, water resources and fisheries, industry) demonstrates a series of adaptation and mitigation options. Land is a valuable and limited resource. An integrated approach to land use and management is therefore essential to combat environmental hazards such as desertification and climate change.

  4. Assessment of Management to Mitigate Anthropogenic Effects on Large Whales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Hoop, Julie M; Moore, Michael J; Barco, Susan G; Cole, Timothy VN; Daoust, Pierre-Yves; Henry, Allison G; McAlpine, Donald F; McLellan, William A; Wimmer, Tonya; Solow, Andrew R

    2013-01-01

    Abstract United States and Canadian governments have responded to legal requirements to reduce human-induced whale mortality via vessel strikes and entanglement in fishing gear by implementing a suite of regulatory actions. We analyzed the spatial and temporal patterns of mortality of large whales in the Northwest Atlantic (23.5°N to 48.0°N), 1970 through 2009, in the context of management changes. We used a multinomial logistic model fitted by maximum likelihood to detect trends in cause-specific mortalities with time. We compared the number of human-caused mortalities with U.S. federally established levels of potential biological removal (i.e., species-specific sustainable human-caused mortality). From 1970 through 2009, 1762 mortalities (all known) and serious injuries (likely fatal) involved 8 species of large whales. We determined cause of death for 43% of all mortalities; of those, 67% (502) resulted from human interactions. Entanglement in fishing gear was the primary cause of death across all species (n = 323), followed by natural causes (n = 248) and vessel strikes (n = 171). Established sustainable levels of mortality were consistently exceeded in 2 species by up to 650%. Probabilities of entanglement and vessel-strike mortality increased significantly from 1990 through 2009. There was no significant change in the local intensity of all or vessel-strike mortalities before and after 2003, the year after which numerous mitigation efforts were enacted. So far, regulatory efforts have not reduced the lethal effects of human activities to large whales on a population-range basis, although we do not exclude the possibility of success of targeted measures for specific local habitats that were not within the resolution of our analyses. It is unclear how shortfalls in management design or compliance relate to our findings. Analyses such as the one we conducted are crucial in critically evaluating wildlife-management decisions. The results of these analyses can

  5. 76 FR 30639 - Final Environmental Assessment and Mitigated Finding of No Significant Impact; Giant Miscanthus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... on April 8, 2011 (76 FR 19741) and used additional inputs from the Natural Resources Conservation... on October 27, 2010 (75 FR 65995-66007) is incorporated by reference in the EA. FSA considered the... Commodity Credit Corporation Farm Service Agency Final Environmental Assessment and Mitigated Finding of...

  6. Building damage classification and loss assessment for risk mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to present a uniform procedure for examining and reporting building damage both in urban and in rural areas so that a data bank on earthquake effects might be established and used for the effective estimation of economic losses. Assessment of direct economic losses is illustrated by a summary presentation of earthquake damage classification performed on 16,478 residential buildings and on all 57,640 buildings damaged by the earthquake of July 26, 1963 in Skopje and April 15, 1979 in Montenegro earthquakes, respectively. Use of these methods and procedures will yield an adequate volume of data to assist community and national authorities in the elaboration and performance of effective seismic risk reduction programmes. (author). 19 refs, 6 figs, 5 tabs

  7. Climate change mitigation and adaptation in strategic environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Countries are implementing CO2 emission reduction targets in order to meet a globally agreed global warming limit of +2 °C. However, it was hypothesised that these national reduction targets are not translated to regional or state level planning, and are not considered through Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in order to meet emission reduction obligations falling on the transport, energy, housing, agriculture, and forestry sectors. SEAs of land use plans in the German state of Saxony, and the English region of the East of England were examined for their consideration of climate change impacts based on a set of criteria drawn from the literature. It was found that SEAs in both cases failed to consider climate change impacts at scales larger than the boundary of the spatial plan, and that CO2 reduction targets were not considered. This suggests a need for more clarity in the legal obligations for climate change consideration within the text of the SEA Directive, a requirement for monitoring of carbon emissions, a need for methodological guidance to devolve global climate change targets down to regional and local levels, and a need for guidance on properly implementing climate change protection in SEA. - Highlights: ► Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEA) of 12 land use plans from Germany and England have been examined. ► SEA failed to consider climate change impacts at scales larger than the boundary of the land use plans. ► SEA should be an important instrument for climate protection. ► Concrete steps for climate protection mainstreaming into SEA at the European Union and national levels have been suggested.

  8. Economic assessment of climate adaptation options for urban drainage design in Odense, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Halsnæs, Kirsten; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    adaptation requires better flood risk quantification and assessment of appropriate adaptation actions in term of costs and benefits. This paper presents an economic assessment of three prevailing climate adaptation options for urban drainage design in a Danish case study, Odense. A risk-based evaluation...... framework is used to give detailed insights of the physical and economic feasibilities of each option. Estimation of marginal benefits of adaptation options are carried out through a step-by-step cost-benefit analysis. The results are aimed at providing important information for decision making on how best...... to adapt to urban pluvial flooding due to climate impacts in cities....

  9. Assessment of selected CCS technologies in electricity and synthetic fuel production for CO2 mitigation in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the actions proposed to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in South Africa (SA) is to install carbon capture and storage (CCS) at new energy-producing plants. This paper aims to evaluate the costs and GHG emissions of implementing CCS at a coal-fired integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant, at a coal fired ultra-supercritical (USC) power plant, at a synthetic fuel coal-to-liquid (CTL) plant and at a gas-to-liquid (GTL) plant for SA. The approach for comparing of these CCS applications is based on a combination of a techno-economic analysis with a life-cycle assessment. As expected, the generating costs in plants with CCS are higher than without CCS for all case studies. GHG-abatement costs in 2040 are shown to be the lowest for the IGCC power plant at 173 ZAR07/t CO2eq, followed by the USC power plant at 227 ZAR07/t CO2eq. These costs are considerably higher for the CTL and GTL plants. The results show that from an economic perspective, CCS might be an attractive option for CO2 mitigation in SA especially for the electricity sector. However, a prerequisite for the implementation of CCS is that the technology reaches commercial scale for the investigated options and is socially accepted. - Highlights: • Analysis of costs of implementing CCS at IGCC, USC, CTL, GTL plants in South Africa. • Analysis of the life cycle emissions and GHG abatement costs for 2025 and 2040. • Generating costs of for IGCC plants are lowest whereas those of GTL are the highest. • The highest potential in mitigating GHG (84%) was found for IGCC plants. • The GHG abatement costs are lowest for the IGCC with CCS (170 ZAR/t CO2eq in 2025)

  10. Defense Waste Processing Facility: Report of task force on options to mitigate the effect of nitrite on DWPF operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, D. (ed.); Marek, J.C.

    1992-03-01

    The possibility of accumulating ammonium nitrate (an explosive) as well as organic compounds in the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell Vent System was recently discovered. A task force was therefore organized to examine ways to avoid this potential hazard. Of thirty-two processing/engineering options screened, the task force recommended five options, deemed to have the highest technical certainty, for detailed development and evaluation: Radiolysis of nitrite in the tetraphenylborate precipitate slurry feed in a new corrosion-resistant facility. Construction of a Late Washing Facility for precipitate washing before transfer to the DWPF; Just-in-Time'' precipitation; Startup Workaround by radiolysis of nitrite in the existing corrosion-resistant Pump Pit tanks; Ammonia venting and organics separation in the DWPF; and, Estimated costs and schedules are included in this report.

  11. Renewable Energy Production from Waste to Mitigate Climate Change and Counteract Soil Degradation - A Spatial Explicit Assessment for Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraxner, Florian; Yoshikawa, Kunio; Leduc, Sylvain; Fuss, Sabine; Aoki, Kentaro; Yamagata, Yoshiki

    2014-05-01

    Waste production from urban areas is growing faster than urbanization itself, while at the same time urban areas are increasingly contributing substantial emissions causing climate change. Estimates indicate for urban residents a per capita solid waste (MSW) production of 1.2 kg per day, subject to further increase to 1.5 kg beyond 2025. Waste water and sewage production is estimated at about 260 liters per capita and day, also at increasing rates. Based on these figures, waste - including e.g. MSW, sewage and animal manure - can generally be assumed as a renewable resource with varying organic components and quantity. This paper demonstrates how new and innovative technologies in the field of Waste-to-Green Products can help in various ways not only to reduce costs for waste treatment, reduce the pressure on largely overloaded dump sites, and reduce also the effect of toxic materials at the landfill site and by that i.e. protect the groundwater. Moreover, Waste-to-Green Products can contribute actively to mitigating climate change through fossil fuel substitution and carbon sequestration while at the same time counteracting negative land use effects from other types of renewable energy and feedstock production through substitution. At the same time, the co-production and recycling of fertilizing elements and biochar can substantially counteract soil degradation and improve the soil organic carbon content of different land use types. The overall objective of this paper is to assess the total climate change mitigation potential of MSW, sewage and animal manure for Japan. A techno-economic approach is used to inform the policy discussion on the suitability of this substantial and sustainable mitigation option. We examine the spatial explicit technical mitigation potential from e.g. energy substitution and carbon sequestration through biochar in rural and urban Japan. For this exercise, processed information on respective Japanese waste production, energy demand

  12. U.S. Postal Service radon assessment and mitigation program. Progress report, September 1993--November 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1992, the US Postal Service (USPS) entered into an Interagency Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) whereby DOE would provide technical assistance in support of the USPS Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program. To aid in this effort, DOE tasked the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP), which is managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for DOE under contract AC05-84OR21400. Since that time, HAZWRAP has developed and finalized the sampling protocol, mitigation diagnostic protocol, and the quality assurance and quality control procedures. These procedures were validated during the Protocol Validation (1992-1993) and Pilot Study (1993-1994) phases of the program. To date, HAZWRAP has performed approximately 16,000 radon measurements in 250 USPS buildings. Mitigation diagnostics have been performed in 27 buildings. Thus far, 13% of the measurements have been above the Environmental Protection Agency action level of 4 pCi/L. This report summarizes the pilot program radon testing data and mitigation diagnostic data for 22 sites and contains recommendations for mitigation diagnostics

  13. Global assessment of technological innovation for climate change adaptation and mitigation in developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenle, Ademola A; Azadi, Hossein; Arbiol, Joseph

    2015-09-15

    Concerns about mitigating and adapting to climate change resulted in renewing the incentive for agricultural research investments and developing further innovation priorities around the world particularly in developing countries. In the near future, development of new agricultural measures and proper diffusion of technologies will greatly influence the ability of farmers in adaptation and mitigation to climate change. Using bibliometric approaches through output of academic journal publications and patent-based data, we assess the impact of research and development (R&D) for new and existing technologies within the context of climate change mitigation and adaptation. We show that many developing countries invest limited resources for R&D in relevant technologies that have great potential for mitigation and adaption in agricultural production. We also discuss constraints including weak infrastructure, limited research capacity, lack of credit facilities and technology transfer that may hinder the application of innovation in tackling the challenges of climate change. A range of policy measures is also suggested to overcome identified constraints and to ensure that potentials of innovation for climate change mitigation and adaptation are realized.

  14. U.S. Postal Service radon assessment and mitigation program. Progress report, September 1993--November 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez, L.E.; Petty, J.L. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    In 1992, the US Postal Service (USPS) entered into an Interagency Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) whereby DOE would provide technical assistance in support of the USPS Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program. To aid in this effort, DOE tasked the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP), which is managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for DOE under contract AC05-84OR21400. Since that time, HAZWRAP has developed and finalized the sampling protocol, mitigation diagnostic protocol, and the quality assurance and quality control procedures. These procedures were validated during the Protocol Validation (1992-1993) and Pilot Study (1993-1994) phases of the program. To date, HAZWRAP has performed approximately 16,000 radon measurements in 250 USPS buildings. Mitigation diagnostics have been performed in 27 buildings. Thus far, 13% of the measurements have been above the Environmental Protection Agency action level of 4 pCi/L. This report summarizes the pilot program radon testing data and mitigation diagnostic data for 22 sites and contains recommendations for mitigation diagnostics.

  15. Assess/Mitigate Risk through the Use of Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was requested to perform an independent assessment of the mitigation of the Constellation Program (CxP) Risk 4421 through the use of computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools. With the cancellation of the CxP, the assessment goals were modified to capture lessons learned and best practices in the use of CASE tools. The assessment goal was to prepare the next program for the use of these CASE tools. The outcome of the assessment is contained in this document.

  16. An Assessment of Nigerian Stakeholders’ the Perception of Environmental Offset as Mitigation Measures and Its’ Implication for Sustainable Industrial Development in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Mmom

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available An important tool for sustainable development in any country is Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA, and an important component of EIA is impact mitigation. In most cases, certain unwanted impacts of development projects are left without mitigation thereby reducing the gains of such developments. Thus, emerging in current literature is the concept of Environmental offset which provides a leeway for residual impacts of development projects. This study therefore assesses the perception and level of application of the environmental offset strategy by EIA Practitioners and other stakeholders in the mitigation of negative environmental impacts of developments in the Niger Delta, Nigeria as that would have significant implication for sustainable development efforts in Nigeria. The study found out that there is negative perception among the host communities about the suitability of offset as mitigation measure. Even though the EIA practitioners considers Environmental offset as a viable option, its adoption has been marred by the misgiving of the local people. This misgiving could be attributed to the long period of neglect and abandonment which has led to abject poverty in the region and loss of confidence in any institutional frameworks. Thus, this study concludes that the drive towards sustainable Development in Nigeria would remain a mirage unless the local people are properly integrated in the scheme of things.

  17. Assessment of Controversial Pediatric Asthma Management Options Using GRADE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boluyt, Nicole; Rottier, Bart L.; de Jongste, Johan C.; Riemsma, Rob; Vrijlandt, Elianne J. L. E.; Brand, Paul L. P.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To develop explicit and transparent recommendations on controversial asthma management issues in children and to illustrate the usefulness of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach in rating the quality of evidence and strength of recommend

  18. Assessing alternative options for allocating oil revenue in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper focuses on medium-term effects of alternative windfall management strategies for a resource abundant country where the resource revenues are expected to last over a prolonged period. In particular, the trade-off between spending and saving is analyzed within the framework of a recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium model. The model is further validated against historical data available for 2001–2010. The total factor productivity is calculated endogenously in the model based on a function that reflects the changes in factor productivity. The results suggest that saving oil revenues, whether in an oil fund or through physical investment in domestic sectors, leads to a higher economic growth. However, physical investment is superior in the short to medium term based on the resultant GDP while creating an oil fund might be more beneficial in the post oil era. - Highlights: • A recursive dynamic general equilibrium model is applied for Iran. • The total factor productivity is calculated endogenously. • Alternative revenue allocation options are investigated. • Physical investment of oil windfalls leads to higher economic growth in medium run. • Financial investment of oil revenues leads to higher economic growth in long run

  19. A multi-criteria decision analysis assessment of waste paper management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanan, Deirdre; Burnley, Stephen; Cooke, David

    2013-03-01

    The use of Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) was investigated in an exercise using a panel of local residents and stakeholders to assess the options for managing waste paper on the Isle of Wight. Seven recycling, recovery and disposal options were considered by the panel who evaluated each option against seven environmental, financial and social criteria. The panel preferred options where the waste was managed on the island with gasification and recycling achieving the highest scores. Exporting the waste to the English mainland for incineration or landfill proved to be the least preferred options. This research has demonstrated that MCDA is an effective way of involving community groups in waste management decision making.

  20. Navy Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program: Work/quality assurance project plan screening phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1987, the military services of the United States were tasked to take appropriate action to establish an indoor radon assessment and mitigation program. As a result, the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFACENGCOM) was assigned the responsibility of identifying potential hazards to personnel from exposure to naturally occurring radon gas and prioritizing corrective actions and to coordinating these actions with the major claimants. NAVRAMP is based upon current US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines. The program has been separated into four phases. The screening phase will concentrate on evaluating radon levels, based on statistical samples, in those buildings that have been determined to be at most at risk to elevated levels of radon, such as base housing, schools, day-care centers, hospitals, brigs, Base Officer Quarters, and Base Enlisted Quarters. During the assessment phase, every building that contains personnel for over 4 h/day will be evaluated. Mitigation work will be accomplished by Navy or Navy-contracted personnel. HAZWRAP services during the mitigation phase will consist of determining the extent of reduction in radon levels after the mitigation effort. 7 refs., 11 figs

  1. Assessment and mitigation of the environmental burdens to air from land applied food-based digestate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) of putrescible urban waste for energy recovery has seen rapid growth over recent years. In order to ascertain its systems scale sustainability, however, determination of the environmental fate of the large volume of digestate generated during the process is indispensable. This paper evaluates the environmental burdens to air associated with land applied food-based digestate in terms of primary pollutants (ammonia, nitrogen dioxide) and greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide). The assessments have been made in two stages – first, the emissions from surface application of food-based digestate are quantified for the business as usual (BAU). In the next step, environmental burden minimisation potentials for the following three mitigation measures are estimated – mixed waste digestate (MWD), soil-incorporated digestate (SID), and post-methanated digestate (PMD). Overall, the mitigation scenarios demonstrated considerable NH3, CH4 and N2O burden minimisation potentials, with positive implications for both climate change and urban pollution. - Highlights: • In situ air pollution assessment of land applied digestate is performed. • Environmental burden minimisation scenarios for digestate bio fertiliser presented. • Food-based digestate show high ammonia volatilisation potential. • Soil incorporated digestate effectively reduces NH3 but elevates N2O emissions. • Managing digestate emissions mitigate both climate change and air pollution. - In situ monitoring and analyses demonstrate the role of post-processing in greenhouse gases and air pollution mitigation from food-based digestate use as bio fertiliser

  2. Beyond pure offsetting: Assessing options to generate Net-Mitigation-Effects in carbon market mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warnecke, C.; Wartmann, S.; Hoehne, N.E.; Blok, K.

    2014-01-01

    The current project-based carbon market mechanisms such as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and the Joint Implementation (JI) do not have a direct impact on global greenhouse gas emission levels, because they only replace or offset emissions. Nor do they contribute to host country¿s national gr

  3. Beyond pure offsetting: Assessing options to generate Net-Mitigation-Effects in carbon market mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warnecke, C.; Wartmann, S.; Hohne, N.; Blok, Kornelis

    2014-01-01

    The current project-based carbon market mechanisms such as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and the Joint Implementation (JI) do not have a direct impact on global greenhouse gas emission levels, because they only replace or offset emissions. Nor do they contribute to host country׳s national gr

  4. Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, S.

    2010-05-01

    This report provides an overview of a technical report on an assessment NREL conducted in Greensburg, Kansas, to identify potential opportunities to develop a biomass pelletization or briquetting plant in the region. See NREL/TP-7A2-45843 for the Executive Summary of this report.

  5. Real Options: a proposal to assess R&D projects at agricultural public research centers

    OpenAIRE

    Luzia Vedovoto Graciela; Prior Diego

    2015-01-01

    Investment decisions in research and development (R&D) are important to the success of organizations, especially for public research. This paper evaluates an R&D project (seed breeding) using the traditional method, the Net Present Value, and the more contemporaneous technique of real options. Economic Surplus Theory and Monte Carlo simulations are used to estimate social benefits. The results indicate that the real-options approach is a useful tool for assessing R&D public projects.

  6. Wenchuan Earthquake Surface Fault Rupture and Disaster: A Lesson on Seismic Hazard Assessment and Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Du

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ms 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake occurred along the Longmenshan Faults in China and was a great disaster. Most of the damage and casualties during the quake were concentrated along surface rupture zones: the 240-km-long Beichuan-Yingxiu Fault and the 70-km-long Jiangyou-Guanxian Fault. Although the Longmenshan Faults are well known and studied, the surface Fault ruptures were not considered in mitigation planning, and the associated ground-motion hazard was therefore underestimated. Not considering Fault rupture and underestimating ground-motion hazard contributed to the disastrous effects of the earthquake. The lesson from the Wenchuan earthquake disaster is that the fault rupture hazard must be assessed and considered in mitigation. Furthermore, the deterministic approach is more appropriate for fault rupture hazard assessment than the probabilistic approach.

  7. Combination of Assessment Indicators for Policy Support on Water Scarcity and Pollution Mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Yang; Junnian Song; Yoshiro Higano; Jie Tang

    2016-01-01

    Given increasing concern about seeking solutions to water scarcity and pollution (WSP), this paper is intent on developing significant assessment indicators as decision variables for providing reference for policy proposals on the mitigation of WSP. An indicator package consisting of footprints of freshwater consumption (FC) and water pollutant discharge (WPD), virtual contents of freshwater and water pollutants, and inter-sectoral linkages in terms of industrial production, FC and WPD has be...

  8. Radiological assessments of land disposal options: recent model developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes progress in the development of methodologies and models for assessing the radiological impact of the disposal of low and intermediate level wastes by (i) shallow land burial in simple trenches (land 1), (ii) shallow land burial in engineered facilities (land 2), and (iii) emplacement in mined repositories or existing cavities (land 3/4). In particular the report describes wasteform leaching models, for unconditioned and cemented waste, the role of engineered barriers of a shallow land burial facility in reducing the magnitude of doses arising from groundwater contact and a detailed consideration of the interactions between radioactive carbon and various media. (author)

  9. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options in ISEEM Global Energy Model: 2010-2050 Scenario Analysis for Least-Cost Carbon Reduction in Iron and Steel Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karali, Nihan; Xu, Tengfang; Sathaye, Jayant

    2013-12-01

    The goal of the modeling work carried out in this project was to quantify long-term scenarios for the future emission reduction potentials in the iron and steel sector. The main focus of the project is to examine the impacts of carbon reduction options in the U.S. iron and steel sector under a set of selected scenarios. In order to advance the understanding of carbon emission reduction potential on the national and global scales, and to evaluate the regional impacts of potential U.S. mitigation strategies (e.g., commodity and carbon trading), we also included and examined the carbon reduction scenarios in China’s and India’s iron and steel sectors in this project. For this purpose, a new bottom-up energy modeling framework, the Industrial Sector Energy Efficiency Modeling (ISEEM), (Karali et al. 2012) was used to provide detailed annual projections starting from 2010 through 2050. We used the ISEEM modeling framework to carry out detailed analysis, on a country-by-country basis, for the U.S., China’s, and India’s iron and steel sectors. The ISEEM model applicable to iron and steel section, called ISEEM-IS, is developed to estimate and evaluate carbon emissions scenarios under several alternative mitigation options - including policies (e.g., carbon caps), commodity trading, and carbon trading. The projections will help us to better understand emission reduction potentials with technological and economic implications. The database for input of ISEEM-IS model consists of data and information compiled from various resources such as World Steel Association (WSA), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), China Steel Year Books, India Bureau of Mines (IBM), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and recent LBNL studies on bottom-up techno-economic analysis of energy efficiency measures in the iron and steel sector of the U.S., China, and India, including long-term steel production in China. In the ISEEM-IS model, production technology and manufacturing details are

  10. Vulnerability assessment and mitigation for the Chinese railway system under floods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economy of China and the travel needs of its citizens depend significantly on the continuous and reliable services provided by its railway system. However, this system is subject to frequent natural hazards, such as floods, earthquakes, and debris flow. A mechanism to assess the railway system vulnerability under these hazards and the design of effective vulnerability mitigation strategies are essential to the reliable functioning of the railway system. This article proposes a comprehensive methodology to quantitatively assess the railway system vulnerability under floods using historical data and GIS technology. The proposed methodology includes a network representation of the railway system, the generation of flood event scenarios, a method to estimate railway link vulnerability, and a quantitative vulnerability value computation approach. The railway system vulnerability is evaluated in terms of its service disruption related to the number of interrupted trains and the durations of interruption. A maintenance strategy to mitigate vulnerability is proposed that simultaneously considers link vulnerability and number of trains using it. Numerical experiments show that the flood-induced vulnerability of the proposed representation of the Chinese railway system reaches its maximum monthly value in July, and the proposed vulnerability mitigation strategy is more effective compared to other strategies. - Highlights: • We propose a methodology to assess flood-induced railway system vulnerability. • Railway system vulnerability is evaluated in terms of its service disruption. • Chinese railway system reaches its maximum monthly vulnerability in July. • We propose an effective maintenance strategy considering link vulnerability and burden

  11. 2007 status of climate change: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Summary for Policy-makers; Bilan 2007 des changements climatiques: l'attenuation des changements climatiques. Contribution du Groupe de travail 3 au quatrieme rapport d'evaluation du Groupe d'Experts Intergouvernemental sur l'Evolution du Climat (GIEC). Resume a l'attention des decideurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, T.; Bashmakov, I.; Bernstein, L.; Bogner, J.; Bosch, P.; Dave, R.; Davidson, O.; Fisher, B.; Grubb, M.; Gupta, S.; Halsnaes, K.; Heij, B.; Kahn Ribeiro, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Levine, M.; Martino, D.; Masera Cerutti, O.; Metz, B.; Meyer, L.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Najam, A.; Nakicenovic, N.; Holger Rogner, H.; Roy, J.; Sathaye, J.; Schock, R.; Shukla, P.; Sims, R.; Smith, P.; Swart, R.; Tirpak, D.; Urge-Vorsatz, D.; Dadi, Z

    2007-07-01

    The Working Group III contribution to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) focuses on new literature on the scientific, technological, environmental, economic and social aspects of mitigation of climate change, published since the IPCC Third Assessment Report (TAR) and the Special Reports on CO{sub 2} Capture and Storage (SRCCS) and on Safeguarding the Ozone Layer and the Global Climate System (SROC).The main aim of this summary report is to assess options for mitigating climate change. Several aspects link climate change with development issues. This report explores these links in detail, and illustrates where climate change and sustainable development are mutually reinforcing. Economic development needs, resource endowments and mitigative and adaptive capacities differ across regions. There is no one-size-fits-all approach to the climate change problem, and solutions need to be regionally differentiated to reflect different socio-economic conditions and, to a lesser extent, geographical differences. Although this report has a global focus, an attempt is made to differentiate the assessment of scientific and technical findings for the various regions. Given that mitigation options vary significantly between economic sectors, it was decided to use the economic sectors to organize the material on short- to medium-term mitigation options. Contrary to what was done in the Third Assessment Report, all relevant aspects of sectoral mitigation options, such as technology, cost, policies etc., are discussed together, to provide the user with a comprehensive discussion of the sectoral mitigation options. The report is organised into six sections after the introduction: - Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends; - Mitigation in the short and medium term, across different economic sectors (until 2030); - Mitigation in the long-term (beyond 2030); - Policies, measures and instruments to mitigate climate change; - Sustainable development and climate change mitigation; - Gaps in

  12. A multi-criteria decision analysis assessment of waste paper management options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanan, Deirdre [Department of Design, Development, Environment and Materials, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Burnley, Stephen, E-mail: s.j.burnley@open.ac.uk [Department of Design, Development, Environment and Materials, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Cooke, David [Department of Design, Development, Environment and Materials, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Isolated communities have particular problems in terms of waste management. ► An MCDA tool allowed a group of non-experts to evaluate waste management options. ► The group preferred local waste management solutions to export to the mainland. ► Gasification of paper was the preferred option followed by recycling. ► The group concluded that they could be involved in the decision making process. - Abstract: The use of Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) was investigated in an exercise using a panel of local residents and stakeholders to assess the options for managing waste paper on the Isle of Wight. Seven recycling, recovery and disposal options were considered by the panel who evaluated each option against seven environmental, financial and social criteria. The panel preferred options where the waste was managed on the island with gasification and recycling achieving the highest scores. Exporting the waste to the English mainland for incineration or landfill proved to be the least preferred options. This research has demonstrated that MCDA is an effective way of involving community groups in waste management decision making.

  13. An integrated approach to risk assessment and mitigating the CBRN threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CBRN mass casualty events threat mitigation remains today the highest international priority. Although significant progress has been made, the national security requirements for efforts to combat Weapons of Mass Destruction and Weapons of Mass Disruption will be of the highest national priority in the near future. An integration of a number of approaches is essential in the risk assessment and mitigating the CBRN treat. Preparedness measures and procedures, engineering, science and technology, policy, medical, and emergency response are essential to reduce the threat from the proliferation and use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Improved coordination between international, public and private security entities is also essential task to hopefully prevent the terrorist attacks. In this lecture, it will be presented very important scientific approach to risk assessment of potential use of nuclear, radiological, biological or chemical weapons in terrorist actions. An integrated approach for mitigating the CBRN threat, crisis management and preparedness measures for prevention and reduction of potential consequences, will be presented.(author)

  14. Optimum cooling of data centers application of risk assessment and mitigation techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Jun; Das, Diganta; Pecht, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    This book provides data center designers and operators with methods by which to assess and mitigate the risks associated with utilization of optimum cooling solutions. The goal is to provide readers with sufficient knowledge to implement measures such as free air cooling or direct liquid immersion cooling properly, or combination of existing and emerging cooling technologies in data centers, base stations, and server farms. This book also: Discusses various telecommunication infrastructures, with an emphasis on data centers and base stations Covers the most commonly known energy and power management techniques, as well as emerging cooling solutions for data centers Describes the risks to the electronic equipment fitted in these installations and the methods of risk mitigation Devotes  a particular focus to an up-to-date review of the emerging cooling methods (such as free air cooling and direct liquid immersion cooling) and tools and best practices for designers, technology developers, installation operators...

  15. Conforth Ranch (Wanaket) Wildlife Mitigation Project : Draft Management Plan and Draft Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Reservation, Oregon.

    1995-03-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to mitigate for loss of wildlife habitat caused by the development of Columbia River Basin hydroelectric projects, including McNary dam. The proposed wildlife mitigation project involves wildlife conservation on 1140 hectares (ha)(2817 acres) of land (including water rights) in Umatilla County, Oregon. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA)(DOE/EA- 1016) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  16. An Integrated Assessment of Water Scarcity Effects on Energy and Land Use Decisions and Mitigation Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazi, M. I.; Kim, S. H.; Liu, L.; Liu, Y.; Calvin, K. V.; Leon, C.; Edmonds, J.; Kyle, P.; Patel, P.; Wise, M. A.; Davies, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    Water is essential for the world's food supply, for energy production, including bioenergy and hydroelectric power, and for power system cooling. Water is already scarce in many regions and could present a critical constraint as society attempts simultaneously to mitigate climate forcing and adapt to climate change, and to provide food for an increasing population. We use the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), where interactions between population, economic growth, energy, land and water resources interact simultaneously in a dynamically evolving system, to investigate how water scarcity affects energy and land use decisions as well as mitigation policies. In GCAM, competing claims on water resources from all claimants—energy, land, and economy—are reconciled with water resource availability—from renewable water, non-renewable groundwater sources and desalinated water—across 235 major river basins. Limits to hydrologic systems have significant effects on energy and land use induced emissions via constraints on decisions of their use. We explore these effects and how they evolve under climate change mitigation policies, which can significantly alter land use patterns, both by limiting land use change emissions and by increasing bioenergy production. The study also explores the mitigation scenarios in the context of the shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs). We find that previous estimates of global water withdrawal projections are overestimated, as our simulations show that it is more economical in some basins to alter agricultural and energy activities rather than utilize non-renewable groundwater or desalinated water. This study highlights the fact that water is a binding factor in agriculture, energy and land use decisions in integrated assessment models (IAMs), and stresses the crucial role of water in regulating agricultural commodities trade and land-use and energy decisions.

  17. Thermo-Economic Modelling and Process Integration of CO2-Mitigation Options on Oil and Gas Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Tock, Laurence; Breuhaus, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    The offshore extraction of oil and gas is an energy-intensive process associated with large CO2 and CH4 emissions to the atmosphere and chemicals to the sea. The taxation of these emissions has encouraged the development of more energy-efficient and environmental-friendly solutions, of which three...... are assessed in this paper. The integration of steam bottoming cycles on the gas turbines or of lowtemperature power cycles on the export gas compression can result either in an additional power output, or in a greater export of natural gas. Another possibility is to implement a CO2-capture unit, which allows...

  18. Life Cycle Assessment: A Tool for Evaluating and Comparing Different Treatment Options for Plastic Wastes from Old Television Sets

    OpenAIRE

    Dodbiba, G.; Furuyama, T.; Takahashi, K.; Sadaki, J; Fujita, T.

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, energy recovery and mechanical recycling, two treatment options for plastic wastes from discarded television sets, have been assessed and compared in the context of the life cycle assessment methodology (LCA). The environmental impact of each option was assessed by calculating the depletion of abiotic resources (ADP) and the global warming potential (GWP). Then, the indicators were compared, and the option with the smaller environmental impact was selected. The main findi...

  19. Mitigating amphibian chytridiomycosis in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Trenton W. J.; Schmidt, Benedikt R.; Martel, An; Pasmans, Frank; Muths, Erin L.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Weldon, Che; Fisher, Matthew C.; Bosch, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians across the planet face the threat of population decline and extirpation caused by the disease chytridiomycosis. Despite consensus that the fungal pathogens responsible for the disease are conservation issues, strategies to mitigate their impacts in the natural world are, at best, nascent. Reducing risk associated with the movement of amphibians, non-amphibian vectors and other sources of infection remains the first line of defence and a primary objective when mitigating the threat of disease in wildlife. Amphibian-associated chytridiomycete fungi and chytridiomycosis are already widespread, though, and we therefore focus on discussing options for mitigating the threats once disease emergence has occurred in wild amphibian populations. All strategies have shortcomings that need to be overcome before implementation, including stronger efforts towards understanding and addressing ethical and legal considerations. Even if these issues can be dealt with, all currently available approaches, or those under discussion, are unlikely to yield the desired conservation outcome of disease mitigation. The decision process for establishing mitigation strategies requires integrated thinking that assesses disease mitigation options critically and embeds them within more comprehensive strategies for the conservation of amphibian populations, communities and ecosystems.

  20. A cost–benefit analysis of mitigation options for optimal management of risks posed by flow-like phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narasimhan, Harikrishna; Ferlisi, Settimio; Cascini, Leonardo;

    2016-01-01

    Decisions associated with life safety risk management of natural hazards can involve significant potential consequences for public safety. Given possible limitations to available societal resources, it is therefore necessary to establish a clear and rational basis for the allocation of resources...... towards risk management. A viable approach for utilising life safety risk assessment in public safety decisions that are aimed at improving the welfare of the public and other stakeholders is described in this paper. This approach is conceptually based on the principles of the Life Quality Index (LQI...... for reducing the risks posed by different rainfall-induced flow-like phenomena—which include hyperconcentrated flows, debris flows and landslides on open slopes—in the municipality of Nocera Inferiore (located in the Campania region in southern Italy) is then described. As demonstrated through the case study...

  1. Integrated assessment of vulnerability to climate change and adaptation options in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent decades, it has become increasingly clear that the global climate is becoming warmer and that regional climates are changing. This report summarizes the results of an integrated assessment of vulnerability to climate change and adaptation options in the Netherlands carried out between July 2000 and July 2001 within the framework of the Dutch National Research Program on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP-2). The project's main aims were: - to provide an overview of scientific insights, expert judgements and stakeholders' perceptions of current and future impacts (positive and negative) of climate change for several economic sectors, human health, and natural systems in the Netherlands, considering various cross-sectoral interactions, - to develop a set of adaptation options for these sectors through a participatory process with the main stakeholders, - to perform an integrated assessment of cross-sectoral interactions of climate change impacts and adaptation options. Climate change impacts and adaptation options have been investigated for several important economic sectors (including agriculture, forestry, fisheries, industry, energy, transport, insurance and recreation and tourism), human health and natural systems (including soils, water and biodiversity issues).The results of this study are based on literature survey, a dialogue with experts and stakeholders. We are convinced that the report represents the most essential and relevant aspects of the impacts and adaptation options for climate change in the Netherlands, given the scenario setting of this study, the state of the art of current scientific knowledge, and today's expert and stakeholders' perceptions of the issues at stake. 215 refs

  2. Assessing the Impact of Active Land Management in Mitigating Wildfire Threat to Source Water Supply Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladon, K. D.; Silins, U.; Emelko, M. B.; Flannigan, M.; Dupont, D.; Robinne, F.; Wang, X.; Parisien, M. A.; Stone, M.; Thompson, D. K.; Tymstra, C.; Schroeder, D.; Kienzle, S. W.; Anderson, A.

    2014-12-01

    The vast majority of surface water supplies in Alberta originates in forested regions of the province, and supports approximately 94 municipal utilities, 208 communities, and 67% of the provincial population. These surface water supplies are highly vulnerable to contamination inputs and changing water conditions associated with wildfires. A provincial scale risk analysis framework is being used to investigate the magnitude and likelihood of wildfire occurrence in source water regions to evaluate the potential for altered water quality and quantity. The initial analysis identified which forested regions and which municipal drinking water treatment facilities are most at risk from wildfire. The efficacy of several current and potential landscape treatments to mitigate wildfire threats, along with the likely outcome of these treatments on mitigation of potential impacts of wildfire to drinking water treatment, are being modeled. A Monte Carlo modeling approach incorporating wildfire regime characteristics is used to simulate the ignition and growth of wildfires and generate outcome distributions for the different mitigation strategies. Cumulative changes in water quality at large river basin scales are being modeled and linked to water treatment impacts with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). A critical foundation of this approach is the close interaction of a large, trans-disciplinary team of researchers capable of integrating highly diverse issues of landscape wildfire dynamics, cross-scale water supply issues, and their linkage to downstream risks to drinking water treatment engineering.

  3. Washington wildlife mitigation projects. Final programmatic environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the portion of the Washington Wildlife Mitigation Agreement (Agreement) pertaining to wildlife habitat mitigation projects to be undertaken in a cooperative effort with the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). This Agreement serves to establish a monetary budget funded by BPA for projects proposed by Washington Wildlife Coalition members and approved by BPA to protect, mitigate, and improve wildlife and/or wildlife habitat within the State of Washington that has been affected by the construction of Federal dams along the Columbia River. This Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and/or improving wildlife habitat within five different project areas. These project areas are located throughout Grant County and in parts of Okanogan, Douglas, Adams, Franklin, Kittias, Yakima, and Benton Counties. The multiple projects would involve varying combinations of five proposed site-specific activities (habitat improvement, operation and maintenance, monitoring and evaluation, access and recreation management, and cultural resource management). All required Federal, State, and tribal coordination, permits and/or approvals would be obtained prior to ground-disturbing activities

  4. Washington Wildlife Mitigation Projects : Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Washington (State). Dept. of Fish and Wildlife.

    1996-08-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the portion of the Washington Wildlife Mitigation Agreement (Agreement) pertaining to wildlife habitat mitigation projects to be undertaken in a cooperative effort with the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). This Agreement serves to establish a monetary budget funded by BPA for projects proposed by Washington Wildlife Coalition members and approved by BPA to protect, mitigate, and improve wildlife and/or wildlife habitat within the State of Washington that has been affected by the construction of Federal dams along the Columbia River. This Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and/or improving wildlife habitat within five different project areas. These project areas are located throughout Grant County and in parts of Okanogan, Douglas, Adams, Franklin, Kittias, Yakima, and Benton Counties. The multiple projects would involve varying combinations of five proposed site-specific activities (habitat improvement, operation and maintenance, monitoring and evaluation, access and recreation management, and cultural resource management). All required Federal, State, and tribal coordination, permits and/or approvals would be obtained prior to ground-disturbing activities.

  5. Simultaneous Assessment of Acidogenesis-Mitigation and Specific Bacterial Growth-Inhibition by Dentifrices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Forbes

    Full Text Available Dentifrices can augment oral hygiene by inactivating bacteria and at sub-lethal concentrations may affect bacterial metabolism, potentially inhibiting acidogenesis, the main cause of caries. Reported herein is the development of a rapid method to simultaneously measure group-specific bactericidal and acidogenesis-mitigation effects of dentifrices on oral bacteria. Saliva was incubated aerobically and anaerobically in Tryptone Soya Broth, Wilkins-Chalgren Broth with mucin, or artificial saliva and was exposed to dentifrices containing triclosan/copolymer (TD; sodium fluoride (FD; stannous fluoride and zinc lactate (SFD1; or stannous fluoride, zinc lactate and stannous chloride (SFD2. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC were determined turbidometrically whilst group-specific minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC were assessed using growth media and conditions selective for total aerobes, total anaerobes, streptococci and Gram-negative anaerobes. Minimum acid neutralization concentration (MNC was defined as the lowest concentration of dentifrice at which acidification was inhibited. Differences between MIC and MNC were calculated and normalized with respect to MIC to derive the combined inhibitory and neutralizing capacity (CINC, a cumulative measure of acidogenesis-mitigation and growth inhibition. The overall rank order for growth inhibition potency (MIC under aerobic and anaerobic conditions was: TD> SFD2> SFD1> FD. Acidogenesis-mitigation (MNC was ordered; TD> FD> SFD2> SFD1. CINC was ordered TD> FD> SFD2> SFD1 aerobically and TD> FD> SFD1> SFD2 anaerobically. With respect to group-specific bactericidal activity, TD generally exhibited the greatest potency, particularly against total aerobes, total anaerobes and streptococci. This approach enables the rapid simultaneous evaluation of acidity mitigation, growth inhibition and specific antimicrobial activity by dentifrices.

  6. Methane : its role in climate change and options for control

    OpenAIRE

    Amstel, van, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    This study on CH4, (its role in climate change and options for control), aimed at a scenario analysis to assess future climate change under reduced methane emissions. At the same time improving the quality of CH4 emission inventories and estimating the costs of emission reductions between 2010 and 2100. In this thesis 28 major options to control or mitigate methane emissions from different sources were identified. The effectiveness and costs of these options were assessed. This resulted in a ...

  7. Assessing climate adaptation options and uncertainties for cereal systems in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, K.; Sultan, B.; Biasutti, M.; Lobell, D. B.

    2015-12-01

    The already fragile agriculture production system in West Africa faces further challenges in meeting food security in the coming decades, primarily due to a fast increasing population and risks of climate change. Successful adaptation of agriculture should not only benefit in the current climate but should also reduce negative (or enhance positive) impacts for climate change. Assessment of various possible adaptation options and their uncertainties provides key information for prioritizing adaptation investments. Here, based on the several robust aspects of climate projections in this region (i.e. temperature increases and rainfall pattern shifts), we use two well-validated crop models (i.e. APSIM and SARRA-H) and an ensemble of downscaled climate forcing to assess five possible and realistic adaptation options (late sowing, intensification, thermal time increase, water harvesting and increased resilience to heat stress) in West Africa for the staple crop production of sorghum. We adopt a new assessment framework to account for both the impacts of adaptation options in current climate and their ability to reduce impacts of future climate change, and also consider changes in both mean yield and its variability. Our results reveal that most proposed "adaptation options" are not more beneficial in the future than in the current climate, i.e. not really reduce the climate change impacts. Increased temperature resilience during grain number formation period is the main adaptation that emerges. We also find that changing from the traditional to modern cultivar, and later sowing in West Sahel appear to be robust adaptations.

  8. Assessing existing drought monitoring and forecasting capacities, mitigation and adaptation practices in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyabeze, W. R.; Dlamini, L.; Lahlou, O.; Imani, Y.; Alaoui, S. B.; Vermooten, J. S. A.

    2012-04-01

    Drought is one of the major natural hazards in many parts of the world, including Africa and some regions in Europe. Drought events have resulted in extensive damages to livelihoods, environment and economy. In 2011, a consortium consisting of 19 organisations from both Africa and Europe started a project (DEWFORA) aimed at developing a framework for the provision of early warning and response through drought impact mitigation for Africa. This framework covers the whole chain from monitoring and vulnerability assessment to forecasting, warning, response and knowledge dissemination. This paper presents the first results of the capacity assessment of drought monitoring and forecasting systems in Africa, the existing institutional frameworks and drought mitigation and adaptation practices. Its focus is particularly on the historical drought mitigation and adaptation actions identified in the North Africa - Maghreb Region (Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia) and in the Southern Africa - Limpopo Basin. This is based on an extensive review of historical drought experiences. From the 1920's to 2009, the study identified 37 drought seasons in the North African - Maghreb Region and 33 drought seasons in the Southern Africa - Limpopo Basin. Existing literature tends to capture the spatial extent of drought at national and administrative scale in great detail. This is driven by the need to map drought impacts (food shortage, communities affected) in order to inform drought relief efforts (short-term drought mitigation measures). However, the mapping of drought at catchment scale (hydrological unit), required for longer-term measures, is not well documented. At regional level, both in North Africa and Southern Africa, two organisations are involved in drought monitoring and forecasting, while at national level 22 organisations are involved in North Africa and 37 in Southern Africa. Regarding drought related mitigation actions, the inventory shows that the most common actions

  9. Residual flood-risk: assessing the effectiveness of alternative large-scale mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carisi, Francesca; Domeneghetti, Alessio; Castellarin, Attilio

    2016-04-01

    The EU Flood Directive (2007/60/CE) requires institutions and public bodies, in order to formulate robust flood-risk management strategies for large European rivers, to address several fundamental tasks. For instance, they have to address the problem of flood-risk mitigation from a global perspective (i.e., entire middle-lower river reaches) by identifying critical reaches, inundation areas and corresponding overflow volumes. To this aim, we focus on the identification of large-scale flood risk mitigation strategies for the middle-lower reach of the Po river, the longest Italian river and the largest in terms of streamflow. We refer to the so-called residual flood-risk and in particular to its portion referring to the possibility to experience events associated with larger return periods than the reference one (e.g. ~200 years in our case). In particular, being a further levee heightening not technically viable nor economically conceivable for the case study, the study develops and tests the applicability of a quasi-2D hydraulic model for the identification of large-scale flood-risk mitigation strategies relative to a 500-year flood event. In particular, we consider and model in the study different geometrical configurations of the main embankment system for a ~400km reach stretching from Isola S.Antonio to the Po river delta in the Adriatic Sea: overtopping without levee breaching, overtopping and natural levee breaching, overtopping and forced levee breaching. The simulations enable the assessment of the overflowed volumes and water depths on flooded areas. Expected damages are estimated using simplified graphical tools, which we termed "Vulnerability Hypsometric Curves" (HVCs) and report the extent of the area for a given land use category that is located below a certain elevation. The analysis aims at finding the optimal configuration that minimizes the expected damages in the areas prone to flood. The outcomes of our study indicate that coupling a large

  10. Earthquake Hazard Mitigation Using a Systems Analysis Approach to Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, M.; Eguchi, R. T.

    2015-12-01

    The earthquake hazard mitigation goal is to reduce losses due to severe natural events. The first step is to conduct a Seismic Risk Assessment consisting of 1) hazard estimation, 2) vulnerability analysis, 3) exposure compilation. Seismic hazards include ground deformation, shaking, and inundation. The hazard estimation may be probabilistic or deterministic. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) is generally applied to site-specific Risk assessments, but may involve large areas as in a National Seismic Hazard Mapping program. Deterministic hazard assessments are needed for geographically distributed exposure such as lifelines (infrastructure), but may be important for large communities. Vulnerability evaluation includes quantification of fragility for construction or components including personnel. Exposure represents the existing or planned construction, facilities, infrastructure, and population in the affected area. Risk (expected loss) is the product of the quantified hazard, vulnerability (damage algorithm), and exposure which may be used to prepare emergency response plans, retrofit existing construction, or use community planning to avoid hazards. The risk estimate provides data needed to acquire earthquake insurance to assist with effective recovery following a severe event. Earthquake Scenarios used in Deterministic Risk Assessments provide detailed information on where hazards may be most severe, what system components are most susceptible to failure, and to evaluate the combined effects of a severe earthquake to the whole system or community. Casualties (injuries and death) have been the primary factor in defining building codes for seismic-resistant construction. Economic losses may be equally significant factors that can influence proactive hazard mitigation. Large urban earthquakes may produce catastrophic losses due to a cascading of effects often missed in PSHA. Economic collapse may ensue if damaged workplaces, disruption of utilities, and

  11. Post-mitigation impact risk assessment for NASA's DART kinetic impactor mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggl, Siegfried; Hestroffer, Daniel; DART, AIM

    2016-10-01

    Field-testing kinetic impactors to deflect potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs) is essential to better understand the challenges of future asteroid impact threat mitigation. The Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment mission (AIDA, Cheng et al. 2016), a collaborative effort between NASA and ESA, offers a timely opportunity to validate kinetic impact deflection strategies. Although the main goal of NASA's kinetic impactor (DART) is to change the circumprimary orbit of (65803) Didymos' moonlet, the imparted momentum will also slightly change the heliocentric orbit of the whole binary asteroid system. Given the high degree of non-linearity of the near-Earth dynamical environment, however, even a small change in initial conditions can affect long term predictions of the encounter distances between Didymos and the Earth. Belonging to the dynamical class of PHAs, (65803) Didymos has several encounters with the Earth over the upcoming decades, some of which are closer than 20 lunar distances. In order to confirm that no planetary safety issues arise as a consequence of DART, we conducted a post-mitigation impact risk assessment (PMIRA, Eggl et al. 2015) for the currently foreseen DART impact trajectories. In this contribution we present the latest PMIRA results and discuss the role of ESA's AIM spacecraft in reducing uncertainties arising in the deflection process.

  12. Systematic approach to assess and mitigate longwall subsidence influences on surface structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Yi

    2008-01-01

    The surface subsidence process associated with Iongwall mining operations isoften capable of causing disturbances to various surface structures. Inadequate consid-erations of the subsidence influences could result in poor public relation with local resi-dents and regulatory agencies, uneconomic operations, hazardous conditions, etc. A sys-tematic approach to assess and mitigate influences caused by Iongwall subsidence hadbeen developed and adopted to minimize the severity of these potential problems. Theapproach included accurate prediction of final and dynamic surface movements and de-formations, assessment of the severities and locations of the potential disturbances, anddesign and implementation of proper mitigation measures. The approach had been suc-cessfully applied at many Iongwall mining companies on numerous and various residential,farming, public and industrial structures. As a matter of fact, the state of Pennsylvania, thestate with largest number of Iongwall mines and highest Iongwall production in U.S., wouldlike to use such approach as the standards in dealing with Iongwall subsidence cases.

  13. Assessing indoor air quality options: Final environmental impact statement on new energy-efficient home programs: Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the impact of energy conservation measures on indoor air quality in various size residential buildings. This volume includes appendices on ventilation rates, indoor pollutant levels, health effects, human risk assessment, radon, fiberglass hazards, tobacco smoke, mitigation

  14. Eco-efficiency improvements in industrial water-service systems: assessing options with stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levidow, Les; Lindgaard-Jørgensen, Palle; Nilsson, Asa; Skenhall, Sara Alongi; Assimacopoulos, Dionysis

    2014-01-01

    The well-known eco-efficiency concept helps to assess the economic value and resource burdens of potential improvements by comparison with the baseline situation. But eco-efficiency assessments have generally focused on a specific site, while neglecting wider effects, for example, through interactions between water users and wastewater treatment (WWT) providers. To address the methodological gap, the EcoWater project has developed a method and online tools for meso-level analysis of the entire water-service value chain. This study investigated improvement options in two large manufacturing companies which have significant potential for eco-efficiency gains. They have been considering investment in extra processes which can lower resource burdens from inputs and wastewater, as well as internalising WWT processes. In developing its methodology, the EcoWater project obtained the necessary information from many agents, involved them in the meso-level assessment and facilitated their discussion on alternative options. Prior discussions with stakeholders stimulated their attendance at a workshop to discuss a comparative eco-efficiency assessment for whole-system improvement. Stakeholders expressed interest in jointly extending the EcoWater method to more options and in discussing investment strategies. In such ways, optimal solutions will depend on stakeholders overcoming fragmentation by sharing responsibility and knowledge.

  15. Environmental assessment of different management options for individual waste fractions by means of life-cycle assessment modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredi, Simone; Tonini, Davide; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    with composting (for “organics”) and incineration (for “recyclable paper”). This however requires high degree of control over gas and leachate emissions, high gas collection efficiency and extensive gas utilization at the landfill. For the other waste fractions, recycling and incineration are favourable, although......Several alternatives exist for handling of individual waste fractions, including recycling, incineration and landfilling. From an environmental point of view, the latter is commonly considered as the least desirable option. Many studies based on life-cycle assessment (LCA) highlight......, by means of LCA-modelling, aims at comparing the environmental performance of three major management options (landfilling, recycling and incineration or composting) for a number of individual waste fractions. The landfilling option is here approached comprehensively, accounting for all technical...

  16. Kootenai River Floodplain Ecosystem Operational Loss Assessment, Protection, Mitigation and Rehabilitation, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merz, Norm [Kootenai Tribe of Idaho

    2009-02-18

    The overarching goals of the 'Kootenai River Floodplain Ecosystem Operational Loss Assessment, Protection, Mitigation and Rehabilitation' Project (BPA Project No.2002-011-00) are to: (1) assess abiotic and biotic factors (i.e., geomorphologic, hydrological, aquatic and riparian/floodplain communities) in determining a definitive composition of ecological integrity, (2) develop strategies to assess and mitigate losses of ecosystem functions, and (3) produce a regional operational loss assessment framework. To produce a scientifically defensible, repeatable, and complete assessment tool, KTOI assembled a team of top scientists in the fields of hydrology, hydraulics, ornithology, entomology, statistics, and river ecology, among other expertise. This advisory team is known as the Research Design and Review Team (RDRT). The RDRT scientists drive the review, selection, and adaptive management of the research designs to evaluate the ecologic functions lost due to the operation of federal hydropower facilities. The unique nature of this project (scientific team, newest/best science, adaptive management, assessment of ecological functions, etc.) has been to work in a dynamic RDRT process. In addition to being multidisciplinary, this model KTOI project provides a stark contrast to the sometimes inflexible process (review, re-review, budgets, etc.) of the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The project RDRT is assembled annually, with subgroups meeting as needed throughout the year to address project issues, analyses, review, and interpretation. Activities of RDRT coordinated and directed the selection of research and assessment methodologies appropriate for the Kootenai River Watershed and potential for regional application in the Columbia River Basin. The entire RDRT continues to meet annually to update and discuss project progress. RDRT Subcontractors work in smaller groups throughout the year to meet project objectives. Determining the extent to

  17. Assessment of potential greenhouse gas mitigation of available household solid waste treatment technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Minh Giang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Current household solid waste treatment practices in most cities in Vietnam caused a great amount of direct greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Available solid waste treatment technologies should be seriously taken  into consideration as a wedge of GHG mitigation in waste sector base on presently Vietnamese economic conditions. This study aim to evaluate the potential amount of GHG mitigation from current domestic solid waste treatment technologies in Vietnam including landfills and composting from various management scenarios. In oder to use Tier 2 model of IPCC 2006 for GHG estimation from landfills, an analysis on current household solid waste management system of the city was obtained by using material flow analysis approach. A case study in Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam was carried out in this research. As a result, there was a reduced of over 70% of the amount of CH4 emissions and  up to 53% of total GHG saving (CO2-eq from avoiding organic waste to landfill. In addition, applying an energy recovery from LFG system to available landfills would lead to aproximately 75% of GHG saved compare to current emission of waste sector.Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.10-16Citation: Giang, H.M.,Luong, N.D., and Huong, L.T.M.2013. Assessment of potential greenhouse gas mitigation of available household solid waste treatment technologies. . Waste Technology 1(1:6-9. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.10-16

  18. Securing Water for Wetland Conservation in China - An Assessment of Policy Options

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Jian; Wang Xiaoxia; Niu Kunyu; Li Shushan

    2010-01-01

    Wetlands are one of the world's most ecologically important and productive ecosystems. They face many challenges, one of the most sifnificant being the disruption of the water supplies that feed them. As the flow of water entering a wetland is diverted to other uses, the werland's ecosystme is damaged. This problem affects many wetland areas in China. This study assesses the situation in the Qixinghe Wetlands which lie in the country's Sanjiang Plain. The study hifhlights two policy options t...

  19. Republic of the Marshall Islands. Energy Project Development Options and Technical Assessment (2013)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, Misty Dawn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Olis, Dan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ness, J. Erik [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The advancement of renewable energy and energy efficient technologies continues to be fluid. There are many technical opportunities and strategies that can be utilized to guide communities to deploy cost-effective commercial alternative energy options; however, to achieve aggressive economic, environmental, and security goals, it requires a comprehensive, integrated approach. This document reports on the initial findings of an energy assessment that was conducted for the Republic of the Marshall Islands.

  20. Informed public opinion in the Netherlands. Evaluation of CO2 capture and storage technologies in comparison with other CO2 mitigation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Best-Waldhober, M. [Energy Research of the Netherlands ECN, Unit Policy Studies, Radarweg 60, 1043 NT Amsterdam (Netherlands); Daamen, D.D.L. [Centre for Energy and Environmental Studies, Dept. of Psychology, Leiden University, Wassenaarseweg 52, 2333 AK Leiden (Netherlands); Ramirez-Ramirez, A.; Faaij, A. [Copernicus Institute, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, Budapestlaat 6, 3584 CD Utrecht (Netherlands); Hendriks, C.; De Visser, E. [Ecofys Netherlands, Kanaalweg 16-a, 3526 KL Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15

    In this study, 995 respondents in a representative sample of the Dutch general population are set in the situation of policymakers: they are faced with the issue of fulfilling the Dutch demand for energy in 2030 in such a way that emissions of carbon dioxide will be reduced by 50%. In the Information-Choice Questionnaire (ICQ) that was developed for this, respondents evaluated information from experts on seven options for CO2 emission reduction and their consequences. Two CCS options were compared to two energy efficiency options, a wind energy option, a biomass energy option, and a nuclear energy option. Results show that people are not that enthusiastic regarding the two CCS options. These are evaluated 5.3 and 5.9 on average on a scale of 1-10 and not often chosen as one of the three preferred options, but they are also rarely rejected. Most of the other options in the questionnaire were evaluated rather positively, except nuclear energy and the more ambitious efficiency option. Analysis shows that the evaluation of the information regarding consequences moderately influences how options are evaluated overall. The results further indicate that the CCS options are evaluated less positively due to the comparison with other options.

  1. Emergy-based sustainability assessment of different energy options for green buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We apply Emergy to assess environmental impact of different energy options. • We develop a new index to assess the anthropogenic heat emission. • The way of electricity produced is crucial to the total environmental load. • The direct-fired lithium-bromide absorption type shows highest environmental load. - Abstract: It is necessary to minimize the environmental impact and utilize natural resources in a sustainable and efficient manner in the early design stage of developing an environmentally-conscious design for a heating, ventilating and air-conditioning system. Energy supply options play a significant role in the total environmental load of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems. To assess the environmental impact of different energy options, a new method based on Emergy Analysis is proposed. Emergy Accounting, was first developed and widely used in the area of ecological engineering, but this is the first time it has been used in building service engineering. The environmental impacts due to the energy options are divided into four categories under the Emergy Framework: the depletion of natural resources, the greenhouse effect (carbon dioxide equivalents), the chemical rain effect (sulfur dioxide equivalents), and anthropogenic heat release. The depletion of non-renewable natural resources is indicated by the Environmental Load Ratio, and the environmental carrying capacity is developed to represent the environmental service to dilute the pollutants and anthropogenic heat released. This Emergy evaluation method provides a new way to integrate different environmental impacts under the same framework and thus facilitates better system choices. A case study of six different kinds of energy options consisting of renewable and non-renewable energy was performed by using Emergy Theory, and thus their relative environmental impacts were compared. The results show that the method of electricity generation in energy sources, especially

  2. Geoethical issues in long-term assessment of geohazards and related mitigation policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinti, Stefano; Armigliato, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Long-term assessment of large-impact and relatively (or very) infrequent geohazards like earthquakes, tsunamis and volcanic eruptions is nowadays a common practice for geoscientists and many groups have been and are involved in producing global and regional hazard maps in response of an increasing demand of the society. Though the societal needs are the basic motivations for such studies, often this aspect is not pondered enough and a lack of communication between geoscientists and the society might be a serious limit to the effective exploitation of the hazard assessment products and to the development of adequate mitigation policies. This paper is an analysis of the role of geoscientists in the process of the production of long-term assessments of dangerous natural phenomena (such as mapping of seismic, tsunami and volcanic hazards), with special emphasis given to the role of communicators and disseminators (with respect to the general public, to authorities, to restricted specialized audiences…), but also of providers of active support to the planners who should be given key elements for making decision. Geoethics imposes geoscientists to take clear and full responsibilities on the products resulting from their assessments, but also to be aware that these products are valuable insofar they are scientifically sound, known, understandable, and utilizable by a wide universe of users.

  3. Carbon mitigation with biomass: An engineering, economic and policy assessment of opportunities and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, James S., III

    2007-12-01

    Industrial bio-energy systems provide diverse opportunities for abating anthropogenic greenhouse gas ("GHG") emissions and for advancing other important policy objectives. The confluence of potential contributions to important social, economic, and environmental policy objectives with very real challenges to deployment creates rich opportunities for study. In particular, the analyses developed in this thesis aim to increase understanding of how industrial bio-energy may be applied to abate GHG emissions in prospective energy markets, the relative merits of alternate bio-energy systems, the extent to which public support for developing such systems is justified, and the public policy instruments that may be capable of providing such support. This objective is advanced through analysis of specific industrial bio-energy technologies, in the form of bottom-up engineering-economic analyses, to determine their economic performance relative to other mitigation options. These bottom-up analyses are used to inform parameter definitions in two higher-level stochastic models that explicitly account for uncertainty in key model parameters, including capital costs, operating and maintenance costs, and fuel costs. One of these models is used to develop supply curves for electricity generation and carbon mitigation from biomass-coal cofire in the U.S. The other is used to characterize the performance of multiple bio-energy systems in the context of a competitive market for low-carbon energy products. The results indicate that industrial bio-energy systems are capable of making a variety of potentially important contributions under scenarios that value anthropogenic GHG emissions. In the near term, cofire of available biomass in existing coal fired power plants has the potential to provide substantial emissions reductions at reasonable costs. Carbon prices between 30 and 70 per ton carbon could induce reductions in U.S. carbon emissions by 100 to 225 megatons carbon ("Mt

  4. Multidisciplinary assessment of pesticide mitigation in soil amended with vermicomposted agroindustrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Jean Manuel; Beguet, Jérèmie; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice; Romero, Esperanza

    2016-03-01

    Soil organic amendment affects biotic and abiotic processes that control the fate of pesticides, but the treatment history of the soil is also relevant. These processes were assessed in a multidisciplinary study with the aim of optimizing pesticide mitigation in soils. Soil microcosms pre-treated (E2) or not with diuron (E1) were amended with either winery (W) or olive waste (O) vermicomposts. Herbicide dissipation followed a double first-order model in E1 microcosms, but a single first-order model in E2. Also, diuron persistence was longer in E1 than in E2 (E1-DT50>200 day(-1), E2-DT50vermicompost increased enzymatic activities in both experiments, but diuron-degrading genetic potential (puhB) was quantified only in E2 microcosms in accordance with reduced diuron persistence. Therefore, O-vermicompost addition favoured the proliferation of diuron degraders, increasing the soil diuron-depuration capability. PMID:26590874

  5. Preliminary Assessment for the Mitigative Effectiveness of External Injection during Extended SBO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S. Y.; Ahn, K. I. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The NRC performed the state-of-the-art reactor consequence analyses (SOARCA) project to develop best estimates of the offsite consequences for potential severe reactor accidents for two pilot plants: the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station and the Surry Power Station. The short-term station blackout (STSBO) and long-term station blackout (LTSBO) were identified as one of major groups of accident scenarios for analysis. Both types of SBOs involve a loss of all alternating current (AC) power. SOARCA-like analyses, which were limited to accident progression except offsite consequences, were performed for OPR-1000 PWR. This paper illustrates the preliminary assessment for the mitigative effectiveness of external cooling water injection strategies using fire trucks during the potential extended station blackout accident.

  6. Current issues in dietary acrylamide:formation,mitigation and risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, F.; Salome Mariotti, M.; Granby, Kit

    2014-01-01

    the investigation of AA precursors, mechanisms of AA formation and AA mitigation technologies in potato, cereal and coffee products. Additionally, most relevant issues of AA risk assessment are discussed. New technologies tested from laboratory to industrial scale face, as a major challenge, the reduction of AA...... content of browned food, while still maintaining its attractive organoleptic properties. Reducing sugars such as glucose and fructose are the major contributors to AA in potato-based products. On the other hand, the limiting substrate of AA formation in cereals and coffee is the free amino acid asparagine....... For some products the addition of glycine or asparaginase reduces AA formation during baking. Since, for potatoes, the limiting substrate is reducing sugars, increases in sugar content in potatoes during storage then introduce some difficulties and potentially quite large variations in the AA content...

  7. HySEA model verification for Tohoku 2011 Tsunami. Application for mitigation tsunami assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Jorge; González-Vida, José Manuel; García, Javier; Castro, Manuel; Ortega, Sergio; de la Asunción, Marc

    2015-04-01

    In many aspects Tohoku-Oki 2011 mega tsunami has changed our perception of tsunami risk. The tsunami-HySEA model is used to numerically simulate this event and observed data will we used to verify the model results. Three nested meshes of enhanced resolution (4 arc-min, 32 arc-sec and 2 arc-sec) will be used by the numerical model. The propagation mesh covers all Pacific Ocean with more of 7 million cells. An intermediate mesh with 5 millions cells contains the Japanese archipelago and, finally, two finer meshes, with nearly 8 and 6 millions cells, cover Iwate and Miyagi Prefectures at Tohoku region, the most devastated areas hit by the tsunami. The presentation will focus on the impact of the tsunami wave in these two areas and comparisons with observed data will be performed. DART buoys time series, inundation area and observed runup is used to assess model performance. The arrival time of the leading flooding wave at the vicinity of the Senday airport, as recorded by video cameras, is also used as verification data for the model. After this tsunami, control forests as well as breakwaters has been discussed as suitable mitigation infrastructures. As particular case, we will analyse the evolution of the tsunami in the area around the Sendai airport (Miyagi Prefecture) and its impact on the airport. A second simulation has been performed, assuming the existence of a coastal barrier protecting the area. The role of this barrier in modifying tsunami wave evolution and mitigating flooding effects on the airport area are discussed. The protection effect of the breakwaters near Kamaishi (Iwate Prefecture) is also assessed. The numerical model shows how these structures, although did not provide a full protection to tsunami waves, they helped to largely mitigate its effects in the area. Acknowledgements. This research has been partially supported by the Junta de Andalucía research project TESELA (P11-RNM7069), the Spanish Government Research project DAIFLUID (MTM2012

  8. The environmental assessment of nuclear materials disposition options: A transportation perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy has undertaken a program to evaluate and select options for the long-term storage and disposition of fissile materials declared surplus to defense needs as a result of the end of the Cold War. The transport of surplus fissile material will be an important and highly visible aspect of the environmental impact studies and other planning documents required for implementation of the disposition options. This report defines the roles and requirements for transportation of fissile materials in the program, and discusses an existing methodology for determining the environmental impact in terms of risk. While it will be some time before specific alternatives are chosen that will permit the completion of detailed risk calculations, the analytical models for performing the probabilistic risk assessments already exist with much of the supporting data related to the transportation system. This report summarizes the various types of data required and identifies sources for that data

  9. An assessment of potential hydrologic and ecologic impacts of constructing mitigation wetlands, Rifle, Colorado, UMTRA project sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This-assessment examines the consequences and risks that could result from the proposed construction of mitigation wetlands at the New and Old Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites near Rifle, Colorado. Remediation of surface contamination at those sites is now under way. Preexisting wetlands at or near the Old and New Rifle sites have been cleaned up, resulting in the loss of 0.7 and 10.5 wetland acres (ac) (0.28 and 4.2 hectares [ha]) respectively. Another 9.9 ac (4.0 ha) of wetlands are in the area of windblown contamination west of the New Rifle site. The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) has jurisdiction over the remediated wetlands. Before remedial action began, and before any wetlands were eliminated, the USACE issued a Section 404 Permit that included a mitigation plan for the wetlands to be lost. The mitigation plan calls for 34.2 ac (1 3.8 ha) of wetlands to be constructed at the south end and to the west of the New Rifle site. The mitigation wetlands would be constructed over and in the contaminated alluvial aquifer at the New Rifle site. As a result of the hydrologic characteristics of this aquifer, contaminated ground water would be expected to enter the environment through the proposed wetlands. A preliminary assessment was therefore required to assess any potential ecological risks associated with constructing the mitigation wetlands at the proposed location

  10. Implementation and assessment of improved models and options in TRAC-BF1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Analytis, G.Th. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-07-01

    A summary of modifications and options introduced in TRAC-BF1 is presented and it is shown that the predicting capabilities of the modified version of the core are greatly improved. These changes include the introduction of a different heat transfer package during reflooding, the implementation of a simple single-phase limit procedure for forcing the two phases to acquire the same velocity if one phase disappears, a close assessment of the annular flow interfacial shear correlation, implementation of a simple radiation model which seems to alleviate some numerical-oscillations problems induced by the existing highly complex model. Furthermore, different options were introduced and tested like upwinding some terms of the momentum equations (which seems to solve a number of problems reported in the past), the second upwind scheme for the convective terms of the phasic momentum equations and the implementation and assessment of a completely different annular flow interfacial shear correlation. The modified TRAC-BF1 is assessed against some bottom-flooding separate-effect experiments, a `benchmark` top flooding simulation as well as against the TLTA test Nr. 6423. In the process of this task, the different options are assessed and discussed and is shown that the predictions of the modified code are physically sound and close to the measurements, while almost all the predicted variables are free of unphysical spurious oscillations. The modifications introduced solve a number of problems associated with the frozen version of the code and result in a version which can be confidently used for LB-LOCA analyses. (author) 19 figs., 16 refs.

  11. Assessment, prevention and mitigation of landslide hazard in the Lesser Himalaya of Himachal Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patra Punyatoya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Landslides are destructive geological processes that have globally caused deaths and destruction to property worth billion dollars. Landslide occurrences are widespread and prolific in India covering more than 15 per cent of the total area. These are mostly concentrated in the Himalayan belt, parts of Meghalaya Plateau, Nilgiri Hills, Western and Eastern Ghats. The slope failure in the hilly terrain is due to geological processes and events. The frequency and magnitude of slope failure also increased due to anthropogenic activities such as road construction, deforestation and urban expansion. Keeping all these problems in mind research focuses on the Lesser Himalaya of Himachal Himalaya as it falls under very high risk zone in case of landslides and comprise of three objectives. They are: a to analyse the spatial pattern of landslides in the Lesser Himalaya, b to assess the causes of landslides vulnerability in the study region and c to suggests some preventive measures to mitigate landslides. In this work an attempt has been made to collect data on landslides incidences and damage from the secondary sources like Geological Survey of India, Building Material and Technology Promotion council from Ministry of Urban Affairs. The methodologies adopted for data analysis are simple tabulations, bar diagrams, statistical and mapping techniques to represent the Landslide vulnerability of the Lesser Himalaya. The analysis of the study reveals that there is increase in the number of landslides. The spatial pattern of landslide shows linear patterns, viz. along roads, rivers or lineaments/ faults. Besides, heavy rainfall, floods and earthquakes enhance the vulnerability condition. The landslides may be part and parcel of the Himalayan landscape, but they can be mitigated by some suitable measures. Few methods of landslide prevention in the study region have been suggested.

  12. ANDROS: A code for Assessment of Nuclide Doses and Risks with Option Selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ANDROS (Assessment of Nuclide Doses and Risks with Option Selection) is a computer code written to compute doses and health effects from atmospheric releases of radionuclides. ANDROS has been designed as an integral part of the CRRIS (Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System). ANDROS reads air concentrations and environmental concentrations of radionuclides to produce tables of specified doses and health effects to selected organs via selected pathways (e.g., ingestion or air immersion). The calculation may be done for an individual at a specific location or for the population of the whole assessment grid. The user may request tables of specific effects for every assessment grid location. Along with the radionuclide concentrations, the code requires radionuclide decay data, dose and risk factors, and location-specific data, all of which are available within the CRRIS. This document is a user manual for ANDROS and presents the methodology used in this code

  13. ANDROS: A code for Assessment of Nuclide Doses and Risks with Option Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begovich, C.L.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Ohr, S.Y.; Chester, R.O.

    1986-11-01

    ANDROS (Assessment of Nuclide Doses and Risks with Option Selection) is a computer code written to compute doses and health effects from atmospheric releases of radionuclides. ANDROS has been designed as an integral part of the CRRIS (Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System). ANDROS reads air concentrations and environmental concentrations of radionuclides to produce tables of specified doses and health effects to selected organs via selected pathways (e.g., ingestion or air immersion). The calculation may be done for an individual at a specific location or for the population of the whole assessment grid. The user may request tables of specific effects for every assessment grid location. Along with the radionuclide concentrations, the code requires radionuclide decay data, dose and risk factors, and location-specific data, all of which are available within the CRRIS. This document is a user manual for ANDROS and presents the methodology used in this code.

  14. Climate change mitigation options in the rural land use sector: Stakeholders’ perspectives on barriers, enablers and the role of policy in North East Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Farmers are mainly willing to expand the uptake of mitigation practices they already implement. • Main barriers and enablers to uptake are physical–environmental constraints and personal values. • Farmers consider that agriculture is a “special case” because their function is to produce food. • Lack of incentives is not the main barrier to the uptake of mitigation practices. • Policies should allow differentiation, and mitigation measures should be integrated with other mechanisms. - Abstract: The rural land use sector could potentially mitigate a large amount of GHG emissions. Implementation requires the engagement of farmers and other land managers. Understanding the barriers and enablers for the uptake of these practices is essential both to inform policy-makers and to achieve effective policy outreach. In Scotland, the rural land use sector is subject to a greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction target of 21% by 2020 relative to 1990 levels. This study contributes to the body of research on stakeholders’ perspectives about suitability of climate change mitigation practices at the regional level. Mixed-methods were used to collect the data, namely participatory workshops with scientists and relevant stakeholders, a farmer questionnaire, and focus groups with farmers. Findings show that farmers were mainly willing to expand the uptake of mitigation practices they were already implementing because they consider these are the most cost-effective. Barriers to the implementation of mitigation practices are mainly related to physical–environmental constraints, lack of information and education and personal interests and values. Similarly, enablers are also related to physical–environmental factors and personal interests and values. Economic incentives, voluntary approaches and provision of information have been identified by workshop participants as the most favourable approaches needed to promote the uptake of technically feasible

  15. Assessment of options for the treatment of Sizewell PWR liquid effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the origins of PWR liquid waste streams, their composition and rates of arising. Data has been collected from operational PWRs and estimates obtained for Sizewell B PWR liquid waste streams. Current liquid waste treatment practices are reviewed and assessments made of established and novel treatment techniques which could be applicable to Sizewell B. A short list of treatment options is given and recommendations are made relating to established treatment technologies suitable for Sizewell B and also to development work on more novel treatments which could lead to a reduction in waste disposal volumes. (author)

  16. Assessment of back-end RFI mitigation techniques in passive remote sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Querol Borràs, Jorge; Alonso Arroyo, Alberto; Onrubia Ibáñez, Raúl; Pascual Biosca, Daniel; Camps Carmona, Adriano José

    2015-01-01

    Radio-Frequency Interference (RFI) is a growing problem specially for those systems that work with low power signals such as passive remote sensing instruments. Consequently, RFI mitigation techniques are currently under development. This works aims at evaluating back-end mitigation algorithms in terms of their probability of detection and mitigation performance. Results show that Wavelet Denoising (WD), and Multiresolution Fourier Transform (MFT) are the best techniques ...

  17. Mitigation for one & all: An integrated framework for mitigation of development impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emerging development policies and lending standards call for consideration of ecosystem services when mitigating impacts from development, yet little guidance exists to inform this process. Here we propose a comprehensive framework for advancing both biodiversity and ecosystem service mitigation. We have clarified a means for choosing representative ecosystem service targets alongside biodiversity targets, identified servicesheds as a useful spatial unit for assessing ecosystem service avoidance, impact, and offset options, and discuss methods for consistent calculation of biodiversity and ecosystem service mitigation ratios. We emphasize the need to move away from area- and habitat-based assessment methods for both biodiversity and ecosystem services towards functional assessments at landscape or seascape scales. Such comprehensive assessments more accurately reflect cumulative impacts and variation in environmental quality, social needs and value preferences. The integrated framework builds on the experience of biodiversity mitigation while addressing the unique opportunities and challenges presented by ecosystem service mitigation. These advances contribute to growing potential for economic development planning and execution that will minimize impacts on nature and maximize human wellbeing. - Highlights: • This is the first framework for biodiversity and ecosystem service mitigation. • Functional, landscape scale assessments are ideal for avoidance and offsets. • Servicesheds define the appropriate spatial extent for ecosystem service mitigation. • Mitigation ratios should be calculated consistently and based on standard factors. • Our framework meets the needs of integrated mitigation assessment requirements

  18. Mitigation for one & all: An integrated framework for mitigation of development impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallis, Heather, E-mail: htallis@tnc.org [The Nature Conservancy, 415 Alta Vista Dr., Santa Cruz, CA 95060 (United States); Kennedy, Christina M., E-mail: ckennedy@tnc.org [The Nature Conservancy, 117 East Mountain Ave., Ft. Collins, CO 80524 (United States); Ruckelshaus, Mary [The Natural Capital Project, 371 Serra Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Goldstein, Joshua; Kiesecker, Joseph M. [The Nature Conservancy, 117 East Mountain Ave., Ft. Collins, CO 80524 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Emerging development policies and lending standards call for consideration of ecosystem services when mitigating impacts from development, yet little guidance exists to inform this process. Here we propose a comprehensive framework for advancing both biodiversity and ecosystem service mitigation. We have clarified a means for choosing representative ecosystem service targets alongside biodiversity targets, identified servicesheds as a useful spatial unit for assessing ecosystem service avoidance, impact, and offset options, and discuss methods for consistent calculation of biodiversity and ecosystem service mitigation ratios. We emphasize the need to move away from area- and habitat-based assessment methods for both biodiversity and ecosystem services towards functional assessments at landscape or seascape scales. Such comprehensive assessments more accurately reflect cumulative impacts and variation in environmental quality, social needs and value preferences. The integrated framework builds on the experience of biodiversity mitigation while addressing the unique opportunities and challenges presented by ecosystem service mitigation. These advances contribute to growing potential for economic development planning and execution that will minimize impacts on nature and maximize human wellbeing. - Highlights: • This is the first framework for biodiversity and ecosystem service mitigation. • Functional, landscape scale assessments are ideal for avoidance and offsets. • Servicesheds define the appropriate spatial extent for ecosystem service mitigation. • Mitigation ratios should be calculated consistently and based on standard factors. • Our framework meets the needs of integrated mitigation assessment requirements.

  19. Carbon storage versus fossil fuel substitution: a climate change mitigation option for two different land use categories based on short and long rotation forestry in India

    OpenAIRE

    Kaul, M; Mohren, G.M.J.; Dadhwal, V.K.

    2010-01-01

    Short rotation bioenergy crops for energy production are considered an effective means to mitigate the greenhouse effect, mainly due to their ability to substitute fossil fuels. Alternatively, carbon can be sequestered and stored in the living biomass. This paper compares the two land use categories (forest land and non-forest land) for two management practices (short rotation vs. long rotation) to study mitigation potential of afforestation and fossil fuel substitution as compared to carbon ...

  20. Integrated assessment of global water scarcity over the 21st century - Part 2: Climate change mitigation policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazi, M. I.; Edmonds, J.; Clarke, L.; Kyle, P.; Davies, E.; Chaturvedi, V.; Eom, J.; Wise, M.; Patel, P.; Calvin, K.

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the effects of emission mitigation policies on water scarcity both globally and regionally using the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a leading community integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, climate, and water. Three climate policy scenarios with increasing mitigation stringency of 7.7, 5.5, and 4.2 W m-2 in year 2095 (equivalent to the SRES A2, B2, and B1 emission scenarios, respectively), under two carbon tax regimes (a universal carbon tax (UCT) which includes land use change emissions, and a fossil fuel and industrial emissions carbon tax (FFICT) which excludes land use change emissions) are analyzed. The results are compared to a baseline scenario (i.e. no climate change mitigation policy) with radiative forcing reaching 8.8 W m-2 (equivalent to the SRES A1Fi emission scenario) by 2095. When compared to the baseline scenario and maintaining the same baseline socioeconomic assumptions, water scarcity declines under a UCT mitigation policy but increases with a FFICT mitigation scenario by the year 2095 particularly with more stringent climate mitigation targets. The decreasing trend with UCT policy stringency is due to substitution from more water-intensive to less water-intensive choices in food and energy production, and in land use. Under the FFICT scenario, water scarcity is projected to increase driven by higher water demands for bio-energy crops. This study implies an increasingly prominent role for water availability in future human decisions, and highlights the importance of including water in integrated assessment of global change. Future research will be directed at incorporating water shortage feedbacks in GCAM to better understand how such stresses will propagate across the various human and natural systems in GCAM.

  1. Integrated assessment of global water scarcity over the 21st century – Part 2: Climate change mitigation policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Hejazi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effects of emission mitigation policies on water scarcity both globally and regionally using the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM, a leading community integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, climate, and water. Three climate policy scenarios with increasing mitigation stringency of 7.7, 5.5, and 4.2 W m−2 in year 2095 (equivalent to the SRES A2, B2, and B1 emission scenarios, respectively, under two carbon tax regimes (a universal carbon tax (UCT which includes land use change emissions, and a fossil fuel and industrial emissions carbon tax (FFICT which excludes land use change emissions are analyzed. The results are compared to a baseline scenario (i.e. no climate change mitigation policy with radiative forcing reaching 8.8 W m−2 (equivalent to the SRES A1Fi emission scenario by 2095. When compared to the baseline scenario and maintaining the same baseline socioeconomic assumptions, water scarcity declines under a UCT mitigation policy but increases with a FFICT mitigation scenario by the year 2095 particularly with more stringent climate mitigation targets. The decreasing trend with UCT policy stringency is due to substitution from more water-intensive to less water-intensive choices in food and energy production, and in land use. Under the FFICT scenario, water scarcity is projected to increase driven by higher water demands for bio-energy crops. This study implies an increasingly prominent role for water availability in future human decisions, and highlights the importance of including water in integrated assessment of global change. Future research will be directed at incorporating water shortage feedbacks in GCAM to better understand how such stresses will propagate across the various human and natural systems in GCAM.

  2. A System Dynamics Approach for the Integrative Assessment of Contaminated Land Management Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKnight, Ursula S.; Finkel, Michael

    2009-01-01

    of contamination extent, boundary conditions/limitations, stakeholders, etc.) has led to the proposal of tiered frameworks for site investigation, risk assessment and management, e.g. in the United Kingdom and in the USA. Recent policies request an increased emphasis on modelling (e.g. EU Water Framework Directive...... of Remediation Options) designed to facilitate the establishment of appropriate, cost-effective management schemes for achieving site-specific remediation objectives within reasonable timeframes. Preliminary assessment shall quickly provide reasonable estimates of current and future risks, as well......Contamination of land and groundwater by organic chemicals, particularly non-aqueous phase liquids, is a widespread problem that severely impacts human health, the environment and the economy at many urban sites all over the world. Complexity of the situation at these sites (in terms...

  3. Biomass Direct Liquefaction Options. TechnoEconomic and Life Cycle Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tews, Iva J.; Zhu, Yunhua; Drennan, Corinne; Elliott, Douglas C.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Onarheim, Kristin; Solantausta, Yrjo; Beckman, David

    2014-07-31

    The purpose of this work was to assess the competitiveness of two biomass to transportation fuel processing routes, which were under development in Finland, the U.S. and elsewhere. Concepts included fast pyrolysis (FP), and hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), both followed by hydrodeoxygenation, and final product refining. This work was carried out as a collaboration between VTT (Finland), and PNNL (USA). The public funding agents for the work were Tekes in Finland and the Bioenergy Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy. The effort was proposed as an update of the earlier comparative technoeconomic assessment performed by the IEA Bioenergy Direct Biomass Liquefaction Task in the 1980s. New developments in HTL and the upgrading of the HTL biocrude product triggered the interest in reinvestigating this comparison of these biomass liquefaction processes. In addition, developments in FP bio-oil upgrading had provided additional definition of this process option, which could provide an interesting comparison.

  4. Assessment of LWR spent fuel disposal options. Volume 2. System definition and assessments. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 2, in addition to introducing and defining the requirements for the study, contains the detailed evaluation of the study cases in each of six assessment areas, and describes and evaluates a number of study variations

  5. Burlington Bottoms Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment/Management Plan and Finding of No Significant Impact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund wildlife management and enhancement activities for the Burlington bottoms wetlands mitigation site. Acquired by BPA in 1991, wildlife habitat at Burlington bottoms would contribute toward the goal of mitigation for wildlife losses and inundation of wildlife habitat due to the construction of Federal dams in the lower Columbia and Willamette River Basins. Target wildlife species identified for mitigation purposes are yellow warbler, great blue heron, black-capped chickadee, red-tailed hawk, valley quail, spotted sandpiper, wood duck, and beaver. The Draft Management Plan/Environmental Assessment (EA) describes alternatives for managing the Burlington Bottoms area, and evaluates the potential environmental impacts of the alternatives. Included in the Draft Management Plan/EA is an implementation schedule, and a monitoring and evaluation program, both of which are subject to further review pending determination of final ownership of the Burlington Bottoms property.

  6. Burlington Bottoms Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final environmental assessment/management plan and finding of no significant impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund wildlife management and enhancement activities for the Burlington bottoms wetlands mitigation site. Acquired by BPA in 1991, wildlife habitat at Burlington bottoms would contribute toward the goal of mitigation for wildlife losses and inundation of wildlife habitat due to the construction of Federal dams in the lower Columbia and Willamette River Basins. Target wildlife species identified for mitigation purposes are yellow warbler, great blue heron, black-capped chickadee, red-tailed hawk, valley quail, spotted sandpiper, wood duck, and beaver. The Draft Management Plan/Environmental Assessment (EA) describes alternatives for managing the Burlington Bottoms area, and evaluates the potential environmental impacts of the alternatives. Included in the Draft Management Plan/EA is an implementation schedule, and a monitoring and evaluation program, both of which are subject to further review pending determination of final ownership of the Burlington Bottoms property

  7. Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards and success stories in disaster prevention and mitigation in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo

    2016-04-01

    The Philippines, being a locus of typhoons, tsunamis, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions, is a hotbed of disasters. Natural hazards inflict loss of lives and costly damage to property in the country. In 2011, after tropical storm Washi devastated cities in southern Philippines, the Department of Science and Technology put in place a responsive program to warn and give communities hours-in-advance lead-time to prepare for imminent hazards and use advanced science and technology to enhance geohazard maps for more effective disaster prevention and mitigation. Since its launch, there have been many success stories on the use of Project NOAH, which after Typhoon Haiyan was integrated into the Pre-Disaster Risk Assessment (PDRA) system of the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC), the government agency tasked to prepare for, and respond to, natural calamities. Learning from past disasters, NDRRMC now issues warnings, through scientific advise from DOST-Project NOAH and PAGASA (Philippine Weather Bureau) that are hazards-specific, area-focused and time-bound. Severe weather events in 2015 generated dangerous hazard phenomena such as widespread floods and massive debris flows, which if not for timely, accessible and understandable warnings, could have turned into disasters. We call these events as "disasters that did not happen". The innovative warning system of the Philippine government has so far proven effective in addressing the impacts of hydrometeorological hazards and can be employed elsewhere in the world.

  8. [Preliminary assessment of the potential of biochar technology in mitigating the greenhouse effect in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi-Xiang; Zheng, Hao; Li, Feng-Min; Wang, Zhen-Yu

    2013-06-01

    The production of biochar by pyrolysis and its application to soil can sequester the CO2 which was absorbed by plants from atmosphere into soil, in addition it can also bring multiple benefits for agriculture production. On the basis of the available potential survey of the biomass residues from agriculture and forestry section, life cycle assessment was employed to quantify the potential of biochar technology in mitigation of greenhouse gases in our country. The results showed: In China, the amount of available biomass resource was 6.04 x 10(8) t every year and its net greenhouse effect potential was 5.32 x 10(8) t CO(2e) (CO(2e): CO2 equivalent), which was equivalent to 0.88 t CO(2e) for every ton biomass. The greatest of contributor to the total potential was plant carbon sequestration in soil as the form of biochar which accounts for 73.94%, followed by production of renewable energy and its percentage was 23.85%. In summary, production of biochar from agriculture and forestry biomass residues had a significant potential for our country to struggle with the pressure of greenhouse gas emission.

  9. Assessment of Air Pollution and GHG Mitigation Strategies in Malaysia using the GAINS Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planning for future energy development, taking into account the national obligations to mitigate climate change and air quality pressures is a major challenge faced by Malaysia. This research facilitates the impact assessment of simultaneous control of air pollution and GHG abatement through a set of emission scenarios while considering current and future Malaysian policies. The IIASAs GAINS (Greenhouse Gas-Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies) model is used for the estimation of emissions and costs, and the outputs of the MESSAGE and MAED energy models provide the underlying energy projections by 2050. Results show that current air-quality policies are efficient in keeping emissions growth at moderate rate, however, significant reduction potential exists if best available control technologies are introduced. Malaysian climate policies - modeled here for power sector - aiming at the -40 % decrease in carbon-intensity, result in important reductions of air pollutants, while the overall co-benefits can be substantial if other sectors are tackled by climate strategies. Initial results indicate the reduction of air pollutant control cost due to climate measures is comparable to the invoked cost-increase in power sector by 2030. Thereby, these co-benefits help to moderate total expenditures for meeting national climate policy targets. (author)

  10. Assessing and Mitigating the Effects of Windblown Soil on Rare and Common Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Sean M.; Faucette, Dave T.; Toyofuku, Mai M.; Torres, Carlos A.; Bagley, Calvin F.

    2007-12-01

    Acting under the auspices of the US Endangered Species Act, we quantified wind erosion and its effects on rare and common plant species on a semi-arid military installation in Hawaii. Our goal was to develop management strategies, based on local data, to aid the conservation of rare and common indigenous plants and their habitats. We collected windblown soil coming off of roads and other disturbed soils to assess likely impacts to plants occurring at certain heights and distances from disturbed surfaces. We then subjected plants in a glasshouse to windblown dust treatments, designed from our field data to simulate erosion events, and evaluated the effect of these treatments on photosynthesis and survival. We also designed several field experiments to examine the in-situ effects of windblown soil and soil substrate on germination, growth rate, and survival of indigenous and nonindigenous plants. We conclude from these experiments that most direct effects of windblown soil to plants can be effectively mitigated by locating roads and training areas at least 40 m from sensitive plant habitats and through vegetation management to maintain at least 11% aerial cover on disturbed surfaces. Effects of soil type on germination, growth, and survival was species-specific, emphasizing the importance of species trials prior to, or during, rehabilitation efforts.

  11. Theoretical Assessment of Algal Biomass Potential for Carbon Mitigation and Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sudhakar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of ever increasing global demand for energy, there has been substantial interest in developing renewable biologically produced fuel. Microalgae are one such emerging resource considered as an alternative for biodiesel production. However its realistic potential is often either over estimated or underestimated. In view of this, a rigorous assessment is carried out to evaluate the realistic potential of micro algal biodiesel based on photosynthesis, thermodynamics and physical assumptions. This paper identifies six best regions in each continent for algal biomass cultivation considering both sunlight and local climatic conditions. The mean hourly meteorological data, sunlight, ambient temperature and rainfall information for the identified potential site is combined to estimate annual biomass production, lipid production and carbon mitigation potential. Maximum possible algal biomass yield and oil productivity have been estimated for six global sites at three different scenarios of photosynthetic efficiency 11.42, 6 and 3%. The upper optimistic biomass, oil yield and carbon fixation potential was calculated to be 533 T/ha/yr, 1, 25, 333 L/ha/yr. and 95 Tons CO2/ha/yr. This study provides a baseline data for theoretical maximum, minimum and best estimates of open pond microalgae production systems.

  12. Risk Assessment and Optimisation of Blast Mitigation Strategies for Design and Strengthening of Built Infrastructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    STEWART Mark G

    2006-01-01

    A probabilistic risk assessment procedure is developed which can predict risks of explosive blast damage to built infrastructure,and when combined with life-cycle cost analysis,the procedure can be used to optimise blastmitigation strategies.The paper focuses on window glazing since this is a load-capacity system which,when subjected to blast loading,has caused significant damage and injury to building occupants.Structural reliability techniques are used to derive blast reliability curves for annealed and toughened glazing subjected to explosive blast for a variety of threat scenarios.The probabilistic analyses include the uncertainties associated with blast modelling,glazing response and glazing failure criteria.Damage risks are calculated for an individual window and for windows in the facade of a multi-storey commercial building.The paper shows an illustrative exampie of how this information,when combined with risk-based decision-making criteria,can be used to optimise blast mitigation strategies.

  13. Measurement-based auralization methodology for the assessment of noise mitigation measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Pieter; Wei, Weigang; Van Renterghem, Timothy; Botteldooren, Dick

    2016-09-01

    The effect of noise mitigation measures is generally expressed by noise levels only, neglecting the listener's perception. In this study, an auralization methodology is proposed that enables an auditive preview of noise abatement measures for road traffic noise, based on the direction dependent attenuation of a priori recordings made with a dedicated 32-channel spherical microphone array. This measurement-based auralization has the advantage that all non-road traffic sounds that create the listening context are present. The potential of this auralization methodology is evaluated through the assessment of the effect of an L-shaped mound. The angular insertion loss of the mound is estimated by using the ISO 9613-2 propagation model, the Pierce barrier diffraction model and the Harmonoise point-to-point model. The realism of the auralization technique is evaluated by listening tests, indicating that listeners had great difficulty in differentiating between a posteriori recordings and auralized samples, which shows the validity of the followed approaches.

  14. Earth sciences, GIS and geomatics for natural hazards assessment and risks mitigation: a civil protection perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Luigi; Conte, Riccardo; Lanfranco, Massimo; Perrone, Gianluigi; Giardino, Marco; Ratto, Sara

    2010-05-01

    Geo-information and remote sensing are proper tools to enhance functional strategies for increasing awareness on natural hazards and risks and for supporting research and operational activities devoted to disaster reduction. An improved Earth Sciences knowledge coupled with Geomatics advanced technologies has been developed by the joint research group and applied by the ITHACA (Information Technology for Humanitarian Assistance, Cooperation and Action) centre, within its partnership with the UN World Food Programme (WFP) with the goal of reducing human, social, economic and environmental losses due to natural hazards and related disasters. By cooperating with local and regional authorities (Municipalities, Centro Funzionale of the Aosta Valley, Civil Protection Agency of Regione Piemonte), data on natural hazards and risks have been collected, compared to national and global data, then interpreted for helping communities and civil protection agencies of sensitive mountain regions to make strategic choices and decisions to better mitigation and adaption measures. To enhance the application of GIS and Remote-sensing technologies for geothematic mapping of geological and geomorphological risks of mountain territories of Europe and Developing Countries, research activities led to the collection and evaluation of data from scientific literature and historical technical archives, for the definition of predisposing/triggering factors and evolutionary processes of natural instability phenomena (landslides, floods, storms, …) and for the design and implementation of early-warning and early-impact systems. Geodatabases, Remote Sensing and Mobile-GIS applications were developed to perform analysis of : 1) large climate-related disaster (Hurricane Mitch, Central America), by the application of remote sensing techniques, either for early warning or mitigation measures at the national and international scale; 2) distribution of slope instabilities at the regional scale (Aosta

  15. Assessment of Weld Overlays for Mitigating Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking at Nickel Alloy Butt Welds in Piping Systems Approved for Leak-Before-Break

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Edward J.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2012-08-01

    This TLR provides an assessment of weld overlays as a mitigation strategy for PWSCC, and includes an assessment of the WOL-related inspection requirements of Code Case N-770-1, as conditioned in §50.55a.

  16. Climate Change Impact Assessment and Adaptation Options in Vulnerable Agro-Landscapes in East-Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manful, D.; Tscherning, K.; Kersebaum, K.; Dietz, J.; Dietrich, O.; Gomani, C.; Böhm, H.; Büchner, M.; Lischeid, G.,; Ojoyi, M.,

    2009-04-01

    Climate change poses a risk to the livelihoods of large populations in the developing world, especially in Africa. In East Africa, climate change is expected to affect the spatial distribution and quantity of precipitation. The proposed project will assess aspects of climate impacts and adaptation options in Tanzania. The project will attempt to quantify (1) projected impacts including: variability in temperature, rainfall, flooding and drought (2) the affect changes in 1. will have on specific sectors namely agriculture (food security), water resources and ecosystem services. The cumulative effects of diminished surface and ground water flow on agricultural production coupled with increasing demand for food due to increase in human pressure will also be evaluated. Expected outputs of the project include (1) downscaled climate change scenarios for different IPCC emission scenarios (2) model based estimations of climate change impacts on hydrological cycle and assessment of land use options (3) scenarios of sustainable livelihoods and resilient agro-landscapes under climate change (4) assessment of adaptive practices and criteria for best adaptation practices. The presentation will focus on novel approaches that focus on the use of agro-ecosystem models to predict local and regional impacts of climate variability on food with specific needs of the end-user factored into model set-up process. In other words, model configurations adapted to the information needs of a specific end-user or audience are evaluated. The perception of risk within different end-users (small scale farmer versus a regional or state level policy maker) are explicitly taken into consideration with the overarching aim of maximizing the impact of the results obtained from computer-based simulations.

  17. Life cycle assessment of wastewater treatment options for small and decentralized communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, A P; Urbano, L; Brito, A G; Janknecht, P; Salas, J J; Nogueira, R

    2007-01-01

    Sustainability has strong implications on the practice of engineering. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an appropriate methodology for assessing the sustainability of a wastewater treatment plant design. The present study used a LCA approach for comparing alternative wastewater treatment processes for small and decentralised rural communities. The assessment was focused on two energy-saving systems (constructed wetland and slow rate infiltration) and a conventional one (activated sludge process). The low environmental impact of the energy-saving wastewater treatment plants was demonstrated, the most relevant being the global warming indicator. Options for reduction of life cycle impacts were assessed including materials used in construction and operational lifetime of the systems. A 10% extension of operation lifetime of constructed wetland and slow rate infiltration systems led to a 1% decrease in CO2 emissions, in both systems. The decrease in the abiotic depletion was 5 and 7%, respectively. Also, replacing steel with HDPE in the activated sludge tank resulted in a 1% reduction in CO2 emission and 1% in the abiotic depletion indicator. In the case of the Imhoff tank a 1% reduction in CO2 emissions and 5% in the abiotic depletion indicator were observed when concrete was replaced by HDPE. PMID:17802833

  18. Life cycle assessment of three different management options for spent alkaline batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xará, Susana; Almeida, Manuel Fonseca; Costa, Carlos

    2015-09-01

    The potential environmental impact of Landfilling, Incineration and Recycling of spent household alkaline batteries collected in continental Portugal was compared using LCA methodology and the Recipe Impact Assessment method. Major contributors and improvement opportunities for each system were identified and scenarios for 2012 and 2016 legislation targets were evaluated. For 13 out of the 18 impact categories, the Recycling system is the worst alternative, Incineration is the worst option for 4 and Landfill is the worst option only for one impact category. However if additionally in each system the recovery of materials and energy is taken into account there is a noticeable advantage of the Recycling system for all the impact categories. The environmental profiles for 2012 and 2016 scenarios (25% and 45% recycling rates, respectively) show the dominance of the Recycling system for most of the impact categories. Based on the results of this study, it is questioned whether there are environmental benefits of recycling abroad the household alkaline batteries collected in continental Portugal and, since the low environmental performance of the Recycling system is particularly due to the international transport of the batteries to the recycling plant, is foreseen that a recycling facility located in Portugal, could bring a positive contribution to the environmental impact of the legislation compliance. PMID:26119009

  19. The CO2DB inventory and its application in a comparative assessment of electricity end use options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The greenhouse gas mitigation technology inventory developed at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis over the last five years, CO2DB, its software capabilities and the present coverage of technologies are discussed. For some clusters of the more than 1400 technologies represented in the database, the frequencies of investment estimates are analyzed. The special capability of CO2DB to evaluate full energy conversion chains, from primary extraction to final utilization of energy, is applied in a comparison of various options to reduce the CO2 emissions related to a specific application of electricity. This evaluation proves useful in the numerical comparison of the cost of reducing CO2 emissions by various technological options. (author). 11 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  20. Assessment of massive gas injection as a disruption mitigation tool in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massive gas injection was used on Tore Supra to study disruption mitigation. The cooling time between the injection and the thermal quench drops to 2 ms for larger gas flow rates (∼5e24 atoms/s) limiting the radiated energy to ∼10% of the plasma thermal energy content. A significant reduction of the heat load on the limiter is nevertheless observed in the mitigated cases. The broadening factor of the power decay length in the scrape-off layer during the thermal quench estimated around 10 (+/-5) does not change significantly between mitigated and unmitigated. Reached densities with He injections are sufficient to suppress primary runaway electrons (dominant on Tore Supra) but still far too low to avoid avalanche process (dominant in ITER). The extension of the current quench time, which is observed in mitigated disruptions (typically by 50%), could be an attractive feature to reduce the requirements on the density.

  1. Assessment of massive gas injection as a disruption mitigation tool in Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucalossi, J., E-mail: jerome.bucalossi@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Reux, C.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Becoulet, M.; Corre, Y.; Devynck, P. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Gardarein, J.L. [IUSTI UMR CNRS 65 95. Universite de Provence, Marseille (France); Gil, C.; Gunn, J.; Huysmans, G.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Segui, J.L.; Tsitrone, E. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2011-08-01

    Massive gas injection was used on Tore Supra to study disruption mitigation. The cooling time between the injection and the thermal quench drops to 2 ms for larger gas flow rates ({approx}5e24 atoms/s) limiting the radiated energy to {approx}10% of the plasma thermal energy content. A significant reduction of the heat load on the limiter is nevertheless observed in the mitigated cases. The broadening factor of the power decay length in the scrape-off layer during the thermal quench estimated around 10 (+/-5) does not change significantly between mitigated and unmitigated. Reached densities with He injections are sufficient to suppress primary runaway electrons (dominant on Tore Supra) but still far too low to avoid avalanche process (dominant in ITER). The extension of the current quench time, which is observed in mitigated disruptions (typically by 50%), could be an attractive feature to reduce the requirements on the density.

  2. Assessment of potential greenhouse gas mitigation of available household solid waste treatment technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang Minh Giang; guyen Duc Luong; Luong Thi Mai Huong

    2013-01-01

    Current household solid waste treatment practices in most cities in Vietnam caused a great amount of direct greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Available solid waste treatment technologies should be seriously taken  into consideration as a wedge of GHG mitigation in waste sector base on presently Vietnamese economic conditions. This study aim to evaluate the potential amount of GHG mitigation from current domestic solid waste treatment technologies in Vietnam including landfills and compost...

  3. Assessment and mitigation of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) impacts at short-pulse laser facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) will be impacted by electromagnetic pulse (EMP) during normal long-pulse operation, but the largest impacts are expected during short-pulse operation utilizing the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC). Without mitigation these impacts could range from data corruption to hardware damage. We describe our EMP measurement systems on Titan and NIF and present some preliminary results and thoughts on mitigation.

  4. Industrial fouling: problem characterization, economic assessment, and review of prevention, mitigation, and accommodation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett-Price, B.A.; Smith, S.A.; Watts, R.L.

    1984-02-01

    A comprehensive overview of heat exchanger fouling in the manufacturing industries is provided. Specifically, this overview addresses: the characteristics of industrial fouling problems; the mitigation and accommodation techniques currently used by industry; and the types and magnitude of costs associated with industrial fouling. A detailed review of the fouling problems, costs and mitigation techniques is provided for the food, textile, pulp and paper, chemical, petroleum, cement, glass and primary metals industries.

  5. Carbon storage versus fossil fuel substitution: a climate change mitigation option for two different land use categories based on short and long rotation forestry in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaul, M.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Dadhwal, V.K.

    2010-01-01

    Short rotation bioenergy crops for energy production are considered an effective means to mitigate the greenhouse effect, mainly due to their ability to substitute fossil fuels. Alternatively, carbon can be sequestered and stored in the living biomass. This paper compares the two land use categories

  6. Integrated assessment of global water scarcity over the 21st century under multiple climate change mitigation policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Wise, Marshall A.; Patel, Pralit L.; Eom, Jiyong; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2014-08-01

    Water scarcity conditions over the 21st century both globally and regionally are assessed in the context of climate change and climate mitigation policies, by estimating both water availability and water demand within the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a leading community integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, climate, and water. To quantify changes in future water availability, a new gridded water-balance global hydrologic model – namely, the Global Water Availability Model (GWAM) – is developed and evaluated. Global water demands for six major demand sectors (irrigation, livestock, domestic, electricity generation, primary energy production, and manufacturing) are modeled in GCAM at the regional scale (14 geopolitical regions, 151 sub-regions) and then spatially downscaled to 0.5 o x 0.5o resolution to match the scale of GWAM. Using a baseline scenario (i.e., no climate change mitigation policy) with radiative forcing reaching 8.8 W/m2 (equivalent to the SRES A1Fi emission scenario) and three climate policy scenarios with increasing mitigation stringency of 7.7, 5.5, and 4.2 W/m2 (equivalent to the SRES A2, B2, and B1 emission scenarios, respectively), we investigate the effects of emission mitigation policies on water scarcity. Two carbon tax regimes (a universal carbon tax (UCT) which includes land use change emissions, and a fossil fuel and industrial emissions carbon tax (FFICT) which excludes land use change emissions) are analyzed. The baseline scenario results in more than half of the world population living under extreme water scarcity by the end of the 21st century. Additionally, in years 2050 and 2095, 36% (28%) and 44% (39%) of the global population, respectively, is projected to live in grid cells (in basins) that will experience greater water demands than the amount of available water in a year (i.e., the water scarcity index (WSI) > 1.0). When comparing the climate policy scenarios to the baseline scenario while maintaining

  7. A Comparative Assessment of Electricity Generation Option from an Ecological and Sustainability Viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The provision of energy and electricity is of central importance for economic growth and social development. While numerous societal and economic benefits arise from the use of energy, the supply of energy and electricity can also have negative impacts on the environment and the climatic systems. Besides the dramatic increase of the oil and gas prices, Europe's energy system is facing a number of challenges. The issues of climate change, supply security, and the competitiveness of electricity prices being the most important once. With respect to the electricity sector, much of the existing generating capacity faces closure over the next two decades. 200 000 MW or more of generation capacity will have to be replaced in Europe (EU 15) until 2020 due to ageing and political decisions (e.g. phasing out of nuclear power). Another 100 000 MW will be requires to take care of the expected increase in electricity demand. On the other hand, this can be seen as a historic opportunity to embark on the path to a sustainable electricity supply system, on the other hand there is the danger of wrong investment of hundreds of billions of Euros. This stresses the need for and importance of a comprehensive assessment of the different options for electricity generation to realize the vision of a sustainable energy future as well as to guide investments in new generation capacities. This paper is meant to contribute to an informed discussion of the issues mentioned above. It will first clarify what sustainability means with respect to energy and how the sustainability concept can be made operational in the context of electricity supply.Thereafter, some selected results of a life cycle-based comparative assessment of various electricity supply options with regard to their environmental impacts and the relative sustsinability are presented. (author)

  8. Stakeholders Analysis: a Crucial Step for a Successful Volcanic Hazard Assessment, Disaster Preparedness and Mitigation Management Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso, Brancato; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Catania, Catania, Italia; Giuseppe, Puglisi; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Catania, Catania, Italia; Agata, Sangianantoni; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione OV, Napoli, Italia; Letizia, Spampinato; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Catania, Catania, Italia

    2014-01-01

    WP6 of MED-SUV aims at showing how the improvement of the monitoring system at the Italian Supersite volcanoes may contribute to better volcanic hazard assessment and to bridge the gap between science, mitigation and preparedness of volcanic disasters. For the purposes, throughout the project scientists and decision makers are working together trying to optimise procedures for improvement their mutual information exchange. To do this effectively and efficiently a management strate...

  9. Metrics to assess the mitigation of global warming by carbon capture and storage in the ocean and in geological reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Haugan, Peter Mosby; Joos, Fortunat

    2004-01-01

    Different metrics to assess mitigation of global warming by carbon capture and storage are discussed. The climatic impact of capturing 30% of the anthropogenic carbon emission and its storage in the ocean or in geological reservoir are evaluated for different stabilization scenarios using a reduced-form carbon cycle-climate model. The accumulated Global Warming Avoided (GWA) remains, after a ramp-up during the first ~50 years, in the range of 15 to 30% over the next millennium for de...

  10. An Assessment of Geological Carbon Sequestration Options in the Illinois Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Finley

    2005-09-30

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) has investigated the options for geological carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in the 155,400-km{sup 2} (60,000-mi{sup 2}) Illinois Basin. Within the Basin, underlying most of Illinois, western Indiana, and western Kentucky, are relatively deeper and/or thinner coal resources, numerous mature oil fields, and deep salt-water-bearing reservoirs that are potentially capable of storing CO{sub 2}. The objective of this Assessment was to determine the technical and economic feasibility of using these geological sinks for long-term storage to avoid atmospheric release of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel combustion and thereby avoid the potential for adverse climate change. The MGSC is a consortium of the geological surveys of Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky joined by six private corporations, five professional business associations, one interstate compact, two university researchers, two Illinois state agencies, and two consultants. The purpose of the Consortium is to assess carbon capture, transportation, and storage processes and their costs and viability in the three-state Illinois Basin region. The Illinois State Geological Survey serves as Lead Technical Contractor for the Consortium. The Illinois Basin region has annual emissions from stationary anthropogenic sources exceeding 276 million metric tonnes (304 million tons) of CO{sub 2} (>70 million tonnes (77 million tons) carbon equivalent), primarily from coal-fired electric generation facilities, some of which burn almost 4.5 million tonnes (5 million tons) of coal per year. Assessing the options for capture, transportation, and storage of the CO{sub 2} emissions within the region has been a 12-task, 2-year process that has assessed 3,600 million tonnes (3,968 million tons) of storage capacity in coal seams, 140 to 440 million tonnes (154 to 485 million tons) of capacity in mature oil reservoirs, 7,800 million tonnes (8,598 million tons) of capacity in saline

  11. Evaluation of Iranian Leopold Matrix application in the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA of solid waste management options in Birjand city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Valizadeh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Significant increase in population and as a result, the production of excessive waste has recently made attention to municipal solid waste management a necessary issue. The objective of this study was to use matrix-based EIA process in order to determine best waste management option in Birjand City and to suggest appropriate solutions to managers and planners of this city. Materials and Methods: Assessing the environmental impacts of waste management options was done using Iranian Leopold Matrix. Through this method, the environmental impacts of waste management options were determined in the Birjand City. The options were Open dumping, Recycling, Composting, and Sanitary damping. Results: The results indicated that Open dumping with a final score of -3.06 had the highest environmental impact and was introduced as the fourth preference. In addition, composting with final score of -2.34 has the lowest environmental impact compared with other options. Conclusion: About 76.95% of the composition of municipal solid waste of Birjand City is household waste; therefore, putrescible organic materials are the predominant waste. Thus, according to the results of the Iranian Leopold matrix method, composting option was introduced as the first priority and the most logical option for waste management in the Birjand City.

  12. Mitigation of global greenhouse gas emissions from waste: conclusions and strategies from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogner, J.P.; Pipatti, R.; Hashimoto, S.;

    2008-01-01

    protection, and sustainable development co-benefits, existing waste management practices can provide effective mitigation of GHG emissions from this sector. Current mitigation technologies include landfill gas recovery, improved landfill practices, and engineered wastewater management. In addition...... through the conservation of raw materials, improved energy and resource efficiency, and fossil fuel avoidance. Flexible strategies and financial incentives can expand waste management options to achieve GHG mitigation goals; local technology decisions are influenced by a variety of factors such as waste...... quantity and characteristics, cost and financing issues, infrastructure requirements including available land area, collection and transport considerations, and regulatory constraints. Existing studies on mitigation potentials and costs for the waste sector tend to focus on landfill CH4 as the baseline...

  13. Poroelastic modeling to assess the effect of water injection for land subsidence mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichi, M.; Tokunaga, T.

    2015-11-01

    The possible effect of water injection to mitigate land subsidence was studied through numerical simulations based on the theory of poroelasticity. The Kujukuri Plain, Japan, was chosen as a study area. The effect of past injection was evaluated by comparing a model with injection and the one without injection. The calculated results suggested that the past injection played a significant role to reduce land subsidence. For achieving more effective mitigation practices in the future, we proposed to install injection wells in shallower formations. The effect of proposed injection method to mitigate land subsidence from 2014 to 2030 was also investigated. The calculated results show that the proposed method can work similarly by lesser water injection than the past method. The results also indicate that the upper limit of injection rate should be carefully determined to control the pore pressure build-up in the formation to be small enough to avoid formation failure.

  14. Wetland mitigation banking for the oil and gas industry: Assessment, conclusions, and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkey, P.L.; Sundell, R.C.; Bailey, K.A.; Hayes, D.C.

    1994-01-01

    Wetland mitigation banks are already in existence in the United States, and the number is increasing. To date, most of these banks have been created and operated for mitigation of impacts arising from highway or commercial development and have not been associated with the oil and gas industry. Argonne National Laboratory evaluated the positive and negative aspects of wetland mitigation banking for the oil and gas industry by examining banks already created for other uses by federal, state, and private entities. Specific issues addressed in this study include (1) the economic, ecological, and technical effectiveness of existing banks; (2) the changing nature of local, state, and federal jurisdiction; and (3) the unique regulatory and jurisdictional problems affecting bank developments associated with the oil and gas industry.

  15. Status of the world's remaining closed forests: An assessment using satellite data and policy options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A.; Shi, H.; Foresman, T.; Fosnight, E.A.

    2001-01-01

    Historically, it appears that some of the WRCF have survived because i) they lack sufficient quantity of commercially valuable species; ii) they are located in remote or inaccessible areas; or iii) they have been protected as national parks and sanctuaries. Forests will be protected when people who are deciding the fate of forests conclude than the conservation of forests is more beneficial, e.g. generates higher incomes or has cultural or social values, than their clearance. If this is not the case, forests will continue to be cleared and converted. In the future, the WRCF may be protected only by focused attention. The future policy options may include strategies for strong protection measures, the raising of public awareness about the value of forests, and concerted actions for reducing pressure on forest lands by providing alternatives to forest exploitation to meet the growing demands of forest products. Many areas with low population densities offer an opportunity for conservation if appropriate steps are taken now by the national governments and international community. This opportunity must be founded upon the increased public and government awareness that forests have vast importance to the welfare of humans and ecosystems' services such as biodiversity, watershed protection, and carbon balance. Also paramount to this opportunity is the increased scientific understanding of forest dynamics and technical capability to install global observation and assessment systems. High-resolution satellite data such as Landsat 7 and other technologically advanced satellite programs will provide unprecedented monitoring options for governing authorities. Technological innovation can contribute to the way forests are protected. The use of satellite imagery for regular monitoring and Internet for information dissemination provide effective tools for raising worldwide awareness about the significance of forests and intrinsic value of nature.

  16. A multi-criteria approach for assessing options to remediate arsenic in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Bryan; Garelick, Hemda

    2008-01-01

    The identification of best practice technologies to remediate arsenic-enriched drinking water involves the resolution of several technical, environmental, economic, and social factors. Multi-criteria analysis (MCA) provides a procedure to sort through diverse influencing factors as a means of facilitating the stakeholder decision-making process. The primary key MCA criteria used to define arsenic treatment options are expressed as source-exposure vector, health risk, cost, social acceptance, and technical competency. MCA not only can handle a complex mix of quantitative and qualitative information but also fosters means to resolve conflicting stakeholder opinion (or strategies). The MCA procedure involves construction of a performance matrix from utility scores for each key performance indicator (KPIs) that may influence outcomes. Data in the performance matrix are converted into numerical values through application of a specific utility scale scoring and weighting technique for each criterion. Inspection of the performance matrix scores facilitates decision making because they summarize arsenic treatment options numerically for all important criteria and KPIs. The weighting procedure enables stakeholder preferences (or strategies) to be incorporated into the selection process. Given the "fuzzy logic" nature of the KPI information, uncertainty may influence data outcome; this can be addressed by using an outranking procedure such as ELECTRE III or a simpler "swing" pairwise preference method. Sensitivity analysis can also be performed by reiterating the analysis using different utility scores and/or weights to assess influence on performance matrix outcomes. This approach enables the MCA methodology to be used as a negotiating tool in the decision-making process and allows areas of stakeholder agreement and disagreement to be highlighted. PMID:18982999

  17. Vojany Station reconstruction, repowering and expansion assessment: Options, issues and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, W.F. [Southern Electric International, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States); Griswold, G.H.; Peyton, J.C. [Southern Company Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Recent European community and state specific environmental guideline, legislative, and regulatory activities have led power producers to assess their currently installed generation technologies with regard to clean air compliance strategies. For the application to older generation facilities, the prudence of linking facility rehabilitation with the addition of environmental control systems to repowering options is warranted. Similarly, ongoing privatization efforts emphasize the necessity for sound economic decisions of site specific technological applications that consider maintaining or enhancing thermal efficiencies. Southern Electric International (SEI) has conducted such a feasibility study assessment evaluating the reconstruction, repowering and possible expansion of the Slovensky Energeticky Podnik (SEP) 1320 MWe Vojany Station in the Republic of Slovakia. Alternatives included such technologies as atmospheric fluid bed combustion, furnace and duct sorbent injection, low NOx burners, gas re-burn, selective catalytic reduction, selective non-catalytic reduction, state of the art precipitators and baghouses, wet and dry flue gas desulfurization systems and repowering technologies. In addition, new, turn of the century environmentally plausible and efficient electric power technologies were addressed.

  18. GHG emission mitigation measures and technologies in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tichy, M. [Energy Efficiency Center, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents a short overview of main results in two fields: projection of GHG emission from energy sector in the Czech Republic and assessment of technologies and options for GHG mitigation. The last part presents an overview of measures that were prepared for potential inclusion to the Czech Climate Change Action Plan.

  19. Experimental assessment of the insertion loss of an underwater noise mitigation screen for marine pile driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, H.W.; Jong, C.A.F. de; Jung, B.

    2012-01-01

    Because of the concern about potential effects on marine pile driving, the industry is developing silent marine pile driving concepts. One of the new concepts, which has been engineered by IHC Hydrohammer in the Netherlands, is the application of a steel Noise Mitigation Screen (NMS) around the pile

  20. Mitigation technologies and measures in energy sector of Kazakstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilifosova, O.; Danchuk, D.; Temertekov, T. [and others

    1996-12-31

    An important commitment in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change is to conduct mitigation analysis and to communicate climate change measures and policies. In major part reducing CO{sub 2} as well as the other greenhouse gas emissions in Kazakstan, can be a side-product of measures addressed to increasing energy efficiency. Since such measures are very important for the national economy, mitigation strategies in the energy sector of Kazakstan are directly connected with the general national strategy of the energy sector development. This paper outlines the main measures and technologies in energy sector of Kazakstan which can lead to GHG emissions reduction and presents the results of current mitigation assessment. The mitigation analysis is addressed to energy production sector. A baseline and six mitigation scenarios were developed to evaluate the most attractive mitigation options, focusing on specific technologies which have been already included in sustainable energy programs. According to the baseline projection, Kazakstan`s CO{sub 2} emissions will not exceed their 1990 level until 2005. The potential for CO{sub 2} emission reduction is estimated to be about 11 % of the base line emission level by the end of considered period (in 2020). The main mitigation options in the energy production sector in terms of mitigation potential and technical and economical feasibility include rehabilitation of thermal power plants aimed to increasing efficiency, use of nuclear energy and further expansion in the use of hydro energy based on small hydroelectric power plants.

  1. Approaches to comparative risk assessments of national and international radioactive waste disposal options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pangea Resources International AG, Switzerland, has put forward the concept of an international geological repository in an Australian desert area, for final disposal of certain of the world's high-level radioactive wastes and surplus fissile materials. Already publicly contentious in Australia, the concept raises unusual issues in safety and environmental assessment. It is timely, therefore, to consider why and how an initial case for such a repository might be made, in comparison with national options for high-level waste disposal that it might displace. There are several stages ahead of development of a formal safety case for an international repository. The first, and almost certainly the most challenging, is winning of public and political acceptance in the host country that such a repository is the 'best' solution to a global problem. We consider the basic need to identify and encompass the concerns of widely disparate stakeholders - industry, governments, national and international regulators, environmental interest groups and the public at large - so that public and political debates can be informed effectively. Many key issues will require comparison both of risks arising from very different operations, and of dissimilar prospective safety performances of complete disposal systems over periods spanning thousands of generations. Nevertheless, we conclude that the validity of such a comparative assessment could be assured by consistent application of a judicious blend of assessment techniques across the alternatives. We also conclude that its usefulness as a vehicle for public discussion would be enhanced by careful attention to public concerns, and by transparently independent review by scientific, technical, sociological and ethical specialists. Copyright (2001) Material Research Society

  2. Defense Waste Processing Facility: Report of task force on options to mitigate the effect of nitrite on DWPF operations. Savannah River Site 200-S Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, D. [ed.; Marek, J.C.

    1992-03-01

    The possibility of accumulating ammonium nitrate (an explosive) as well as organic compounds in the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell Vent System was recently discovered. A task force was therefore organized to examine ways to avoid this potential hazard. Of thirty-two processing/engineering options screened, the task force recommended five options, deemed to have the highest technical certainty, for detailed development and evaluation: Radiolysis of nitrite in the tetraphenylborate precipitate slurry feed in a new corrosion-resistant facility. Construction of a Late Washing Facility for precipitate washing before transfer to the DWPF; ``Just-in-Time`` precipitation; Startup Workaround by radiolysis of nitrite in the existing corrosion-resistant Pump Pit tanks; Ammonia venting and organics separation in the DWPF; and, Estimated costs and schedules are included in this report.

  3. Sustainable Development Impacts of Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions: An integrated approach to assessment of co-benefits based on experience with the Clean Development Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Karen Holm

    Sustainable development priorities provide the context for Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) by developing countries. While methods exist to assess the sustainable development (SD) co-benefits of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects, no approach has yet been developed...

  4. Assessment of the impact of various mitigation options on nitrous oxide emissions caused by the agricultural sector in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kros, J.; Vries, de W.; Reinds, G.J.; Lesschen, J.P.; Velthof, G.L.

    2010-01-01

    A European Union (EU-27) wide N2O emission estimate for the agricultural sector is presented, using the INTEGRATOR model, combined with detailed GIS-based environmental data and farming data. INTEGRATOR links various modules, calculating NH3, NOx, N2O, CO2, and CH4 emissions from housing and manure

  5. Assessment of Dissolved Oxygen Mitigation at Hydropower Dams Using an Integrated Hydrodynamic/Water Quality/Fish Growth Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL; Coutant, Charles C [ORNL

    2006-07-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) in rivers is a common environmental problem associated with hydropower projects. Approximately 40% of all FERC-licensed projects have requirements to monitor and/or mitigate downstream DO conditions. Most forms of mitigation for increasing DO in dam tailwaters are fairly expensive. One area of research of the Department of Energy's Hydropower Program is the development of advanced turbines that improve downstream water quality and have other environmental benefits. There is great interest in being able to predict the benefits of these modifications prior to committing to the cost of new equipment. In the case of turbine replacement or modification, there is a need for methods that allow us to accurately extrapolate the benefits derived from one or two turbines with better design to the replacement or modification of all turbines at a site. The main objective of our study was to demonstrate a modeling approach that integrates the effects of flow and water quality dynamics with fish bioenergetics to predict DO mitigation effectiveness over long river segments downstream of hydropower dams. We were particularly interested in demonstrating the incremental value of including a fish growth model as a measure of biological response. The models applied are a suite of tools (RMS4 modeling system) originally developed by the Tennessee Valley Authority for simulating hydrodynamics (ADYN model), water quality (RQUAL model), and fish growth (FISH model) as influenced by DO, temperature, and available food base. We parameterized a model for a 26-mile reach of the Caney Fork River (Tennessee) below Center Hill Dam to assess how improvements in DO at the dam discharge would affect water quality and fish growth throughout the river. We simulated different types of mitigation (i.e., at the turbine and in the reservoir forebay) and different levels of improvement. The model application successfully demonstrates how a modeling approach like this one can be

  6. An Assessment of Geological Carbon Storage Options in the Illinois Basin: Validation Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, Robert

    2012-12-01

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) assessed the options for geological carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage in the 155,400 km{sup 2} (60,000 mi{sup 2}) Illinois Basin, which underlies most of Illinois, western Indiana, and western Kentucky. The region has annual CO{sub 2} emissions of about 265 million metric tonnes (292 million tons), primarily from 122 coal-fired electric generation facilities, some of which burn almost 4.5 million tonnes (5 million tons) of coal per year (U.S. Department of Energy, 2010). Validation Phase (Phase II) field tests gathered pilot data to update the Characterization Phase (Phase I) assessment of options for capture, transportation, and storage of CO{sub 2} emissions in three geological sink types: coal seams, oil fields, and saline reservoirs. Four small-scale field tests were conducted to determine the properties of rock units that control injectivity of CO{sub 2}, assess the total storage resources, examine the security of the overlying rock units that act as seals for the reservoirs, and develop ways to control and measure the safety of injection and storage processes. The MGSC designed field test operational plans for pilot sites based on the site screening process, MVA program needs, the selection of equipment related to CO{sub 2} injection, and design of a data acquisition system. Reservoir modeling, computational simulations, and statistical methods assessed and interpreted data gathered from the field tests. Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA) programs were established to detect leakage of injected CO{sub 2} and ensure public safety. Public outreach and education remained an important part of the project; meetings and presentations informed public and private regional stakeholders of the results and findings. A miscible (liquid) CO{sub 2} flood pilot project was conducted in the Clore Formation sandstone (Mississippian System, Chesterian Series) at Mumford Hills Field in Posey County, southwestern

  7. Assessment of the dynamics of Asian and European option on the hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, A. V.; Stepanov, E. A.; Khmel, D. S.

    2016-02-01

    In this article the problem of performance optimization for estimation of European and Asian options pricing is discussed. The main goal is to substantially improve the performance in solving the problems on the hybrid system. The authors optimized the algorithms of the Monte Carlo method for solving stochastic differential equations and path integral derived from Black-Scholes model for pricing options.

  8. Assessing and mitigating risks of engineering programs with lean management techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritz, A.; Oehmen, Josef; Rebentisch, E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of lean management techniques as a risk mitigation approach for large-scale engineering programs. The key research questions are how lean best practices with the highest risk mitigation potential are identified, how the most relevant lean best practices...... for a specific program are identified and how the effort for implementation of these lean best practices is estimated. Large-scale engineering programs have as results usually complex technical products or systems such as airplanes, satellites (GPS) or software programs, immense infrastructure efforts like...... the construction of a new airport, highway or bridge, or combine elements of both technology and infrastructure. The benefits they deliver are therefore immense and sometimes even groundbreaking, defining new levels of capabilities. But their sheer size and the built-in complexity also manifest themselves...

  9. The quantification of environmental indicators for sustainability assessment of future electricity supply options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the project NEEDS (New Energy Externalities Development for Sustainability) a range of criteria and indicators were defined according to the widely recognised 'three pillar' interpretation of sustainable development in order to assess future electricity generating technologies including their associated fuel cycles. The basic characteristics of the 26 technologies were defined as being appropriate in 2050 according to 'realistic/optimistic' development scenarios. The potential environmental impacts of each technology were assessed by initially determining the various criteria necessary to describe the range of significant impact areas. These criteria were then expressed and measured by one or more quantifiable indicators which were calculated using Life Cycle Inventories established earlier in the project. This report contributed to Research Stream RS2b of the project by quantifying and comparing the results of these indicators for each of the four countries used in the assessment: France, Germany, Switzerland and Italy. The environmental assessment showed that the nuclear technologies cause relatively very low impacts according to most of the indicators. The Generation IV, European Fast Reactor, has significant advantages over the European Pressurised Reactor but the availabilities of the two reactors will be quite different. Whereas the first examples of the EPR are already under construction, the design finalisation of the EFR is not yet complete meaning that the first plant is not expected to be constructed before 2040. An overarching and clear distinction between the fossil fueled technologies was less possible and the application of carbon capture and storage, whilst showing large reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, was shown to be counteracted in a number of other indicators. The integration of solid fuel gasification prior to combustion also showed both benefits and disadvantages. For most indicators, the natural gas combined cycle options

  10. Model-Based Mitigation of Availability Risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zambon, Emmanuele; Bolzoni, Damiano; Etalle, Sandro; Salvato, Marco

    2007-01-01

    The assessment and mitigation of risks related to the availability of the IT infrastructure is becoming increasingly important in modern organizations. Unfortunately, present standards for Risk Assessment and Mitigation show limitations when evaluating and mitigating availability risks. This is due

  11. A Regional Multi-Risk Assessment Approach to Support the Definition Public Mitigation Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    C. Di Mauro; Bouchon, S; Frattini, P; S. Lari; Buldrini, M; Oliveri, S.; Seminati, P.

    2012-01-01

    In order to define mitigation strategies, the regional public administrations in charge of prevention policies have to manage large territories characterized by multiple types of risks, i.e. natural and technological risks. They need to identify scientifically sound solutions, based on a compromise between the conflicting objectives of the relevant stakeholders. Natural and technological risks are characterized by different phenomenology, frequency of occurrence, magnitude of impact. Th...

  12. Catastrophic debris flows transformed from landslides in volcanic terrains : mobility, hazard assessment and mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kevin M.; Macias, Jose Luis; Naranjo, Jose Antonio; Rodriguez, Sergio; McGeehin, John P.

    2001-01-01

    Communities in lowlands near volcanoes are vulnerable to significant volcanic flow hazards in addition to those associated directly with eruptions. The largest such risk is from debris flows beginning as volcanic landslides, with the potential to travel over 100 kilometers. Stratovolcanic edifices commonly are hydrothermal aquifers composed of unstable, altered rock forming steep slopes at high altitudes, and the terrain surrounding them is commonly mantled by readily mobilized, weathered airfall and ashflow deposits. We propose that volcano hazard assessments integrate the potential for unanticipated debris flows with, at active volcanoes, the greater but more predictable potential of magmatically triggered flows. This proposal reinforces the already powerful arguments for minimizing populations in potential flow pathways below both active and selected inactive volcanoes. It also addresses the potential for volcano flank collapse to occur with instability early in a magmatic episode, as well as the 'false-alarm problem'-the difficulty in evacuating the potential paths of these large mobile flows. Debris flows that transform from volcanic landslides, characterized by cohesive (muddy) deposits, create risk comparable to that of their syneruptive counterparts of snow and ice-melt origin, which yield noncohesive (granular) deposits, because: (1) Volcano collapses and the failures of airfall- and ashflow-mantled slopes commonly yield highly mobile debris flows as well as debris avalanches with limited runout potential. Runout potential of debris flows may increase several fold as their volumes enlarge beyond volcanoes through bulking (entrainment) of sediment. Through this mechanism, the runouts of even relatively small collapses at Cascade Range volcanoes, in the range of 0.1 to 0.2 cubic kilometers, can extend to populated lowlands. (2) Collapse is caused by a variety of triggers: tectonic and volcanic earthquakes, gravitational failure, hydrovolcanism, and

  13. U.S. onroad transportation CO2 emissions analysis comparing highly resolved CO2 emissions and a national average approach : mitigation options and uncertainty reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, D. L.; Gurney, K. R.

    2011-12-01

    The transportation sector is the second largest CO2 emitting economic sector in the United States, accounting for 32.3% of the total U.S. emissions in 2002. Within the transportation sector, the largest component (80%) is made up of onroad emissions. In order to accurately quantify future emissions and evaluate emissions regulation strategies, analysis must account for spatially-explicit fleet distribution, driving patterns, and mitigation strategies. Studies to date, however, have either focused on one of these three components, have been only completed at the national scale, or have not explicitly represented CO2 emissions instead relying on the use of vehicle miles traveled (VMT) as an emissions proxy. We compare a high resolution onroad emissions data product (Vulcan) to a national averaging of the Vulcan result. This comparison is performed in four groupings: light duty (LD) and heavy duty (HD) vehicle classes, and rural and urban road classes. Two different bias metrics are studied: 1) the state-specific, group-specific bias and 2) the same bias when weighted by the state share of the national group-specific emissions. In the first metric, we find a spread of positive and negative biases for the LD and HD vehicle groupings and these biases are driven by states having a greater/lesser proportion of LD/HD vehicles within their total state fleet than found from a national average. The standard deviation of these biases is 2.01% and 0.75% for the LD and HD groupings, respectively. These biases correlate with the road type present in a state, so that biases found in the urban and LD groups are both positive or both negative, with a similar relationship found between biases of the rural and HD groups. Additionally, the road group bias is driven by the distribution of VMT on individual road classes within the road groupings. When normalized by national totals, the state-level group-specific biases reflect states with large amounts of onroad travel that deviate

  14. Emerging mitigation needs and sustainable options for solving the arsenic problems of rural and isolated urban areas in Latin America - a critical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Jochen; Litter, Marta; Ciminelli, Virginia S T; Morgada, María Eugenia; Cornejo, Lorena; Hoyos, Sofia Garrido; Hoinkis, Jan; Alarcón-Herrera, Ma Teresa; Armienta, María Aurora; Bhattacharya, Prosun

    2010-11-01

    In this work, current information about the contamination of ground- and surface-water resources by arsenic from geogenic sources in Latin America is presented together with possible emerging mitigation solutions. The problem is of the same order of magnitude as other world regions, such as SE Asia, but it is often not described in English. Despite the studies undertaken by numerous local researchers, and the identification of proven treatment methods for the specific water conditions encountered, no technologies have been commercialized due to a current lack of funding and technical assistance. Emerging, low-cost technologies to mitigate the problem of arsenic in drinking water resources that are suitable for rural and urban areas lacking centralized water supplies have been evaluated. The technologies generally use simple and low-cost equipment that can easily be handled and maintained by the local population. Experiences comprise (i) coagulation/filtration with iron and aluminum salts, scaled-down for small community- and household-scale-applications, (ii) adsorption techniques using low-cost arsenic sorbents, such as geological materials (clays, laterites, soils, limestones), natural organic-based sorbents (natural biomass), and synthetic materials. TiO(2)-heterogeneous photocatalysis and zerovalent iron, especially using nanoscale particles, appear to be promising emergent technologies. Another promising innovative method for rural communities is the use of constructed wetlands using native perennial plants for arsenic rhizofiltration. Small-scale simple reverse osmosis equipment (which can be powered by wind or solar energy) that is suitable for small communities can also be utilized. The individual benefits of the different methods have been evaluated in terms of (i) size of the treatment device, (ii) arsenic concentration and distribution of species, chemical composition and grade of mineralization in the raw water, (iii) guidelines for the remaining As

  15. Integrated and holistic suitability assessment of recycling options for masonry rubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, T.; Rübner, K.; Meng, B.

    2012-04-01

    Our industrial society depends on continuous mining and consumption of raw materials and energy. Besides, the building sector causes one of the largest material streams in Germany. On the one hand, the building sector is connected with a high need in material and energetic resources as well as financial expenditures. On the other hand, nearly 50 % of the volume of waste arises from the building industry. During the last years, the limitation of natural resources, increasing negative environmental consequences as well as rising prices and shortages of dump space have led to a change in thinking in the building and waste industry to a closed substance cycle waste management. In consideration of the production figures of the main kinds of masonry units (clay bricks, sand-lime bricks, autoclaved aerated concrete brick, concrete blocks), a not unimportant quantity of masonry rubble (including gypsum plaster boards, renders, mortars and mineral insulating materials) of more than 20 million tons per year is generated in the medium term. With regard to a sustainable closed substance cycle waste management, these rest masses have to be recycled if possible. Processed aggregates made from masonry rubble can be recycled in the production of new masonry units under certain conditions. Even carefully deconstructed masonry units can once more re-used as masonry units, particularly in the area of the preservation of monuments and historical buildings. In addition, masonry rubble in different processing qualities is applied in earth and road construction, horticulture and scenery construction as well as concrete production. The choice of the most suitable recycling option causes technical, economical and ecological questions. At present, a methodology for a comprehensive suitability assessment with a passable scope of work does not exist. Basic structured and structuring information on the recycling of masonry rubble is absent up to now. This as well as the economic and technical

  16. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Implementation of the Wetland Mitigation Bank Program at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-04-28

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1205) for the proposed implementation of a wetland mitigation bank program at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and Floodplain Statement of Findings.

  17. Economic assessment of preeclampsia : Screening, diagnosis, treatment options, and long term outcomes - A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zakiyah, Neily; Van Asselt, Antoinette D.; Baker, Philip N.; Postma, Maarten J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Provide a comprehensive overview of the existing evidence on the health economics of screening, diagnosis, and treatment options in preeclampsia. METHODS: A systematic literature search was undertaken using three electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane) to identify all English la

  18. Real options theory: financial-economic assessment of projects in the ceramics industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léony Luis Lopes Negrão

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate economically the implementation of Clean Development Mechanism in the substitution of non-renewable biomass to renewable biomass in the production process of a red ceramics enterprise. The evaluation intended to show the value of management flexibility, according to adaptations made in the methodology proposed by Copeland & Antikarov (2001, adding to the traditional discounted cash flow the evaluation the Real Options. This procedure follows a routine of essential steps for the analysis of variables that comprises the model and enabled the ordination of the results based both on the Real Options and the present values, including management flexibility evaluation.  It could be concluded that Real Options Theory, and the Option to Delay or Postponement contributed with information that might assist and improve projects investment decisions, since several real-world inherent uncertainties are considered.

  19. After the coal rush: assessing policy options for coal-fired electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockwood, M.

    2008-06-15

    In Chapter 1, the importance of emissions from coal-fired power generation is established and details of energy company proposals for new coal investments are given. Chapter 2 investigates the key drivers for new coal from the perspective of the energy companies; Chapter 3 looks at the role of carbon pricing through the EU ETS; Chapter 4 considers how new targets for the expansion of renewable energy may affect investment decision. There is uncertainty about how many of the energy company proposals will be realised and how much new coal-fired power capacity will be built. Investigation of the emissions implications of new coal plants is explored in Chapter 5, which looks at the implications for emissions reductions targets for 2020 and 2050 in the Climate Change Bill currently before Parliament. A range of organizations anticipate that emissions from coal-fired power generation can be reduced through CCS technologies. The prospects for CCS are reviewed in Chapter 6. Much hinges on the strength of the climate and energy package currently being debated by the European Parliament and Council. Chapter 7 assess the debate on options for further action within the UK. However, to get a complete picture of the pricy problem with coal, we also need to look at the issue at the European level, and in particular how potential new coal build and the European Union emissions trading scheme interact. Chapter 8 provides an analysis of this dynamic, along with policy recommendations. Proposals to contain high emissions from coal-fired power generation have to address concerns about security of supply, the costs of electricity generation, and planning. The problem of establishing creditable policy is tackled in Chapter 8. A final section concludes and summarises the recommendations of the report. 109 refs., 82 figs. 6 tabs., 3 annexes.

  20. Assessment of industrial energy options based on coal and nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industry consumes about 40 percent of the total primary energy used in the United States. Natural gas and oil, the major industrial fuels, are becoming scarce and expensive; therefore, there is a critical national need to develop alternative sources of industrial energy based on the more plentiful domestic fuels--coal and nuclear. This report gives the results of a comparative assessment of nuclear- and coal-based industrial energy systems which includes technical, environmental, economic, and resource aspects of industrial energy supply. The nuclear options examined were large commercial nuclear power plants (light-water reactors or high-temperature gas-cooled reactors) and a small [approximately 300-MW(t)] special-purpose pressurized-water reactor for industrial applications. Coal-based systems selected for study were those that appear capable of meeting environmental standards, especially with respect to sulfur dioxide; these are (1) conventional firing using either low- or high-sulfur coal with stack-gas scrubbing equipment, (2) fluidized-bed combustion using high-sulfur coal, (3) low- and intermediate-Btu gas, (4) high-Btu pipeline-quality gas, (5) solvent-refined coal, (6) liquid boiler fuels, and (7) methanol from coal. Results of the study indicated that both nuclear and coal fuel can alleviate the industrial energy deficit resulting from the decline in availability of natural gas and oil. However, because of its broader range of application and relative ease of implementation, coal is expected to be the more important substitute industrial fuel over the next 15 years. In the longer term, nuclear fuels could assume a major role for supplying industrial steam. (U.S.)

  1. A comprehensive assessment of options for the legal form of the Paris Climate Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For many years, the issue of the legal form of the new climate agreement has hovered over the international negotiations. Countries have insisted on first discussing substance. Indeed, it is here that the main divergences remain. However, one year out from the Paris climate conference, it is time to open the discussion on the legal form of the final agreement. The issue of legal form is often reduced to the negotiation of a 'binding' or 'non-binding' agreement. The bindingness of an international environmental agreement however depends on multiple parameters. We propose four parameters to be considered: the form of the core agreement; the 'anchoring' of commitments; mechanisms for transparency, accountability and facilitation; and mechanisms for compliance. Parties should assess pros and cons of these options, and the agreement be optimised across all four. Negotiations appear to be heading towards a hybrid agreement. Some provisions would be contained in a core agreement, and some in implementing documents such as decisions or schedules. This structure can help to balance legal certainty with flexibility. The core agreement should contain a binding provision to implement and regularly update a 'nationally determined contribution' (NDC). If these NDCs were to be housed outside the agreement, this could give more flexibility on their content, submission and updating. The core agreement should contain strong provisions on transparency, accountability and facilitation, including independent institutional arrangements (a Transparency Committee). At this stage in global cooperation and given inherent weaknesses in international environmental law, a punitive compliance mechanism seems unfeasible. However, the agreement should contain a compliance mechanism regarding procedural obligations, such as submission and updating of NDCs. (authors)

  2. Northern Cheyenne Reservation Coal Bed Natural Resource Assessment and Analysis of Produced Water Disposal Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaochang Wo; David A. Lopez; Jason Whiteman Sr.; Bruce A. Reynolds

    2004-07-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) development in the Powder River Basin (PRB) is currently one of the most active gas plays in the United States. Monthly production in 2002 reached about 26 BCF in the Wyoming portion of the basin. Coalbed methane reserves for the Wyoming portion of the basin are approximately 25 trillion cubic feet (TCF). Although coal beds in the Powder River Basin extend well into Montana, including the area of the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation, the only CBM development in Montana is the CX Field, operated by the Fidelity Exploration, near the Wyoming border. The Northern Cheyenne Reservation is located on the northwest flank of the PRB in Montana with a total land of 445,000 acres. The Reservation consists of five districts, Lame Deer, Busby, Ashland, Birney, and Muddy Cluster and has a population of 4,470 according to the 2000 Census. The CBM resource represents a significant potential asset to the Northern Cheyenne Indian Tribe. Methane gas in coal beds is trapped by hydrodynamic pressure. Because the production of CBM involves the dewatering of coalbed to allow the release of methane gas from the coal matrix, the relatively large volume of the co-produced water and its potential environmental impacts are the primary concerns for the Tribe. Presented in this report is a study conducted by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology (MBMG) in partnership with the Northern Cheyenne Tribe to assess the Tribe’s CBM resources and evaluate applicable water handling options. The project was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the Native American Initiative of the National Petroleum Technology Office, under contract DEAC07- 99ID13727. Matching funds were granted by the MBMG in supporting the work of geologic study and mapping conducted at MBMG.

  3. REAL OPTIONS ANALYSIS – ASSESSMENT METHOD OF INVESTMENT PROJECTS IN GREEN ENERGY

    OpenAIRE

    MAFTEI DANIEL

    2014-01-01

    This article highlights the importance of real options as a evaluation method of investment in green energy. Article consider several theoretical and practical approaches, the analysis based on real options by many authors who have theorized and used this method. Each approach provides a operationalisation through a steps series of specific evaluation. This paper highlights the different views: academics, financiers, managers and facilitates the access to an accurate evaluation de...

  4. REAL OPTIONS ANALYSIS – ASSESSMENT METHOD OF INVESTMENT PROJECTS IN GREEN ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAFTEI DANIEL

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights the importance of real options as a evaluation method of investment in green energy. Article consider several theoretical and practical approaches, the analysis based on real options by many authors who have theorized and used this method. Each approach provides a operationalisation through a steps series of specific evaluation. This paper highlights the different views: academics, financiers, managers and facilitates the access to an accurate evaluation decisions of projects.

  5. Assessing the costs of hazard mitigation through landscape interventions in the urban structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostenaru-Dan, Maria; Aldea Mendes, Diana; Panagopoulos, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we look at an issue rarely approached, the economic efficiency of natural hazard risk mitigation. The urban scale at which a natural hazard can impact leads to the importance of urban planning strategy in risk management. However, usually natural, engineering, and social sciences deal with it, and the role of architecture and urban planning is neglected. Climate change can lead to risks related to increased floods, desertification, sea level rise among others. Reducing the sealed surfaces in cities through green spaces in the crowded centres can mitigate them, and can be foreseen in restructuration plans in presence or absence of disasters. For this purpose we reviewed the role of green spaces and community centres such as churches in games, which can build the core for restructuration efforts, as also field and archive studies show. We look at the way ICT can contribute to organize the information from the building survey to economic computations in direct modeling or through games. The roles of game theory, agent based modeling and networks and urban public policies in designing decision systems for risk management are discussed. Games rules are at the same time supported by our field and archive studies, as well as research by design. Also we take into consideration at a rare element, which is the role of landscape planning, through the inclusion of green elements in reconstruction after the natural and man-made disasters, or in restructuration efforts to mitigate climate change. Apart of existing old city tissue also landscape can be endangered by speculation and therefore it is vital to highlight its high economic value, also in this particular case. As ICOMOS highlights for the 2014 congress, heritage and landscape are two sides of the same coin. Landscape can become or be connected to a community centre, the first being necessary for building a settlement, the second raising its value, or can build connections between landmarks in urban routes

  6. The relative impact of climate change mitigation policies and socioeconomic drivers on water scarcity - An integrated assessment modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazi, M. I.; Edmonds, J. A.; Clarke, L. E.; Kyle, P.; Davies, E. G.; Chaturvedi, V.; Patel, P.; Eom, J.; Wise, M.; Kim, S.; Calvin, K. V.; Moss, R. H.

    2012-12-01

    We investigate the relative effects of climate emission mitigation policies and socioeconomic drivers on water scarcity conditions over the 21st century both globally and regionally, by estimating both water availability and demand within a technologically-detailed global integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, and climate change - the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). We first develop a global gridded monthly hydrologic model that reproduces historical streamflow observations and simulates the future availability of freshwater under both a changing climate and an evolving landscape, and incorporate this model into GCAM. We then develop and incorporate technologically oriented representations of water demands for the agricultural (irrigation and livestock), energy (electricity generation, primary energy production and processing), industrial (manufacturing and mining), and municipal sectors. The energy, industrial, and municipal sectors are represented in fourteen geopolitical regions, with the agricultural sector further disaggregated into as many as eighteen agro-ecological zones (AEZs) within each region. To perform the water scarcity analysis at the grid scale, the global water demands for the six demand sectors are spatially downscaled to 0.5 o x 0.5o resolution to match the scale of GWAM. The water scarcity index (WSI) compares total water demand to the total amount of renewable water available, and defines extreme water scarcity in any region as demand greater than 40% of total water availability. Using a reference scenario (i.e., no climate change mitigation policy) with radiative forcing reaching 8.8 W/m2 by 2095 and a global population of 14 billion, global annual water demand grows from about 9% of total annual renewable freshwater in 2005 to about 32% by 2095. This results in almost half of the world population living under extreme water scarcity by the end of the 21st century. Regionally, the demands for water exceed the total

  7. Assessment of human thermal comfort and mitigation measures in different urban climatotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, N.; Kuttler, W.

    2012-04-01

    This study analyses thermal comfort in the model city of Oberhausen as an example for the densely populated metropolitan region Ruhr, Germany. As thermal loads increase due to climate change negative impacts especially for city dwellers will arise. Therefore mitigation strategies should be developed and considered in urban planning today to prevent future thermal stress. The method consists of the combination of in-situ measurements and numerical model simulations. So in a first step the actual thermal situation is determined and then possible mitigation strategies are derived. A measuring network was installed in eight climatotopes for a one year period recording air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction. Based on these parameters the human thermal comfort in terms of physiological equivalent temperature (PET) was calculated by RayMan Pro software. Thus the human comfort of different climatotopes was determined. Heat stress in different land uses varies, so excess thermal loads in urban areas could be detected. Based on the measuring results mitigation strategies were developed, such as increasing areas with high evaporation capacity (green areas and water bodies). These strategies were implemented as different plan scenarios in the microscale urban climate model ENVI-met. The best measure should be identified by comparing the range and effect of these scenarios. Simulations were run in three of the eight climatotopes (city center, suburban and open land site) to analyse the effectiveness of the mitigation strategies in several land use structures. These cover the range of values of all eight climatotopes and therefore provide representative results. In the model area of 21 ha total, the modified section in the different plan scenarios was 1 ha. Thus the effect of small-scale changes could be analysed. Such areas can arise due to population decline and structural changes and hold conversion potential. Emphasis was also laid on analysing the

  8. Physical Vulnerability Assessment Based on Fluid and Classical Mechanics to Support Cost-Benefit Analysis of Flood Risk Mitigation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Volcan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of flood events that occurred in autumn 2011 in the Italian regions of Liguria and Tuscany revived the engagement of the public decision-maker to enhance the synergy of flood control and land use planning. In this context, the design of efficient flood risk mitigation strategies and their subsequent implementation critically relies on a careful vulnerability analysis of the fixed and mobile elements exposed to flood hazard. In this paper we develop computation schemes enabling dynamic vulnerability and risk analyses for a broad typological variety of elements at risk. To show their applicability, a series of prime examples are discussed in detail, e.g. a bridge deck impacted by the flood and a car, first displaced and subsequently exposed to collision with fixed objects. We hold the view that it is essential that the derivation of the computational schemes to assess the vulnerability of endangered objects should be based on classical and fluid mechanics. In such a way, we aim to complement from a methodological perspective the existing, mainly empirical, vulnerability and risk assessment approaches and to support the design of effective flood risk mitigation strategies by defusing the main criticalities within the systems prone to flood risk.

  9. Forestry for mitigating the greenhouse effect : an ecological and economic assessment of the potential of land use to mitigate CO2 emissions in the Highlands of Chiapas, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de B.H.J.

    2000-01-01

    The present study intends to answer some of the important questions that arise when translating projects that have an ecological potential to mitigate carbon excesses, into actual implementation of these projects in a farmer-dominated landscape. Farm and community forestry projects for greenhouse ga

  10. Mitigation of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane emissions from manure management chains: a meta-analysis and integrated assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yong; Velthof, Gerard L; Oenema, Oene

    2015-03-01

    Livestock manure contributes considerably to global emissions of ammonia (NH3 ) and greenhouse gases (GHG), especially methane (CH4 ) and nitrous oxide (N2 O). Various measures have been developed to mitigate these emissions, but most of these focus on one specific gas and/or emission source. Here, we present a meta-analysis and integrated assessment of the effects of mitigation measures on NH3 , CH4 and (direct and indirect) N2 O emissions from the whole manure management chain. We analysed the effects of mitigation technologies on NH3 , CH4 and N2 O emissions from individual sources statistically using results of 126 published studies. Whole-chain effects on NH3 and GHG emissions were assessed through scenario analysis. Significant NH3 reduction efficiencies were observed for (i) housing via lowering the dietary crude protein (CP) content (24-65%, compared to the reference situation), for (ii) external slurry storages via acidification (83%) and covers of straw (78%) or artificial films (98%), for (iii) solid manure storages via compaction and covering (61%, compared to composting), and for (iv) manure application through band spreading (55%, compared to surface application), incorporation (70%) and injection (80%). Acidification decreased CH4 emissions from stored slurry by 87%. Significant increases in N2 O emissions were found for straw-covered slurry storages (by two orders of magnitude) and manure injection (by 26-199%). These side-effects of straw covers and slurry injection on N2 O emission were relatively small when considering the total GHG emissions from the manure chain. Lowering the CP content of feed and acidifying slurry are strategies that consistently reduce NH3 and GHG emissions in the whole chain. Other strategies may reduce emissions of a specific gas or emissions source, by which there is a risk of unwanted trade-offs in the manure management chain. Proper farm-scale combinations of mitigation measures are important to minimize impacts of

  11. Assessment and Mitigation of the Proton-Proton Collision Debris Impact on the FCC Triplet

    CERN Document Server

    Besana, Maria Ilaria; Fartoukh, Stephane; Martin, Roman; Tomás, Rogelio

    2016-01-01

    The Future Circular hadron Collider (FCC-hh), which is designed to operate at a centre-of-mass energy of 100 TeV and to deliver ambitious targets in terms of both instantaneous and integrated luminosity, poses extreme challenges in terms of machine protection during operation and with respect to long-term damages. Energy deposition studies are a crucial ingredient for its design. One of the relevant radiation sources are collision debris particles, which de- posit their energy in the interaction region elements and in particular in the superconducting magnet coils of the final focus triplet quadrupoles, to be protected from the risk of quenching and deterioration. In this contribution, the collision debris will be characterised and expectations obtained with FLUKA will be presented, including magnet lifetime considerations. New techniques including crossing angle gymnastics for peak dose deposition mitigation (as recently introduced in the framework of the LHC operation), will be discussed.

  12. Assessment of bio-fuel options for solid oxide fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiefeng

    Rising concerns of inadequate petroleum supply, volatile crude oil price, and adverse environmental impacts from using fossil fuels have spurred the United States to promote bio-fuel domestic production and develop advanced energy systems such as fuel cells. The present dissertation analyzed the bio-fuel applications in a solid oxide fuel cell-based auxiliary power unit from environmental, economic, and technological perspectives. Life cycle assessment integrated with thermodynamics was applied to evaluate the environmental impacts (e.g., greenhouse gas emission, fossil energy consumption) of producing bio-fuels from waste biomass. Landfill gas from municipal solid wastes and biodiesel from waste cooking oil are both suggested as the promising bio-fuel options. A nonlinear optimization model was developed with a multi-objective optimization technique to analyze the economic aspect of biodiesel-ethanol-diesel ternary blends used in transportation sectors and capture the dynamic variables affecting bio-fuel productions and applications (e.g., market disturbances, bio-fuel tax credit, policy changes, fuel specification, and technological innovation). A single-tube catalytic reformer with rhodium/ceria-zirconia catalyst was used for autothermal reformation of various heavy hydrocarbon fuels (e.g., diesel, biodiesel, biodiesel-diesel, and biodiesel-ethanol-diesel) to produce a hydrogen-rich stream reformates suitable for use in solid oxide fuel cell systems. A customized mixing chamber was designed and integrated with the reformer to overcome the technical challenges of heavy hydrocarbon reformation. A thermodynamic analysis, based on total Gibbs free energy minimization, was implemented to optimize the operating environment for the reformations of various fuels. This was complimented by experimental investigations of fuel autothermal reformation. 25% biodiesel blended with 10% ethanol and 65% diesel was determined to be viable fuel for use on a truck travelling with

  13. Economic assessment of climate adaptation options for urban drainage design in Odense, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Halsnæs, Kirsten; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    Climate change is likely to influence the water cycle by changing the precipitation patterns. An increase in potential flood damage in the urban context is anticipated due to the concentrated population and socio-economic values in cities. Feasible adaptation requires a higher performance on flood...... detailed insights of the physical and economic feasibilities of each option. Estimations of marginal benefits of adaptation options are carried out through a step-by-step cost benefit analysis. The results are aimed to provide important information to decision making on how best to adapt for urban pluvial...... flooding due to climate impacts in cities....

  14. Application of Structured Decision Making to an Assessment of Climate Change Vulnerabilities and Adaptation Options for Sustainable Forest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L. Innes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A logical starting point for climate change adaptation in the forest sector is to proactively identify management practices and policies that have a higher likelihood of achieving management objectives across a wide range of potential climate futures. This should be followed by implementation of these options and monitoring their success in achieving management objectives within an adaptive management context. Here, we implement an approach to identify locally appropriate adaptation options by tapping into the experiential knowledge base of local forest practitioners while at the same time, building capacity within this community to implement the results. We engaged 30 forest practitioners who are involved with the implementation of a regional forest management plan in identifying climate change vulnerabilities and evaluating alternative adaptation options. A structured decision-making approach was used to frame the assessment. Practitioners identified 24 adaptation options that they considered important to implement in order to achieve the regional goals and objectives of sustainable forest management in light of climate change.

  15. Final Report - Assessment of Testing Options for the NTR at the INL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, Steven D; McLing, Travis L; McCurry, Michael; Plummer, Mitchell A

    2013-02-01

    non-nuclear , sub-scale test using gas injection to validate the computational models; 4) Produce a preliminary cost estimate to build a nuclear furnace equivalent facility to test NTR fuel on a green field location on the INL site. The results show that the INL geology is substantially better suited to the SAFE testing method than the NTS site. The existence of impermeable interbeds just above the sub-surface aquifer ensure that no material from the test, radioactive or not, can enter the water table. Similar beds located just below the surface will prevent any gaseous products from reaching the surface for dispersion. The extremely high permeability of the strata between the interbeds allows rapid dispersion of the rocket exhaust. In addition, the high permeability suggests that a lower back-pressure may develop in the hole against the rocket thrust, which increases safety of operations. Finally, the cost of performing a sub-scale, non-nuclear verification experiment was determined to be $3M. The third method was assessed through discussions with INL staff resident at the site. In essence, any new Category I facility on any DOE site will cost in excess of $250M. Based on the results of this study, a cost estimate for testing a nuclear rocket at the INL site appears to be warranted. Given the fact that a new nuclear fuel may be possible that does not release any fission products, the SAFE testing option appears to be the most affordable.

  16. Uncertainty assessment of climate change adaptation options in urban flash floods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Adaptation is necessary to cope with the increasing flood risk in cities due to climate change in many regions of the world. Decision marking of adaptation strategies often requires a comprehensive risk-based economic analysis to indicate the net benefits of proposed options. Priority...

  17. Climate change risks and adaptation options across Australian seafood supply chains – A preliminary assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fleming

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is already impacting the biology of the oceans and some dependent industries are in turn responding to these impacts. The development of response options for users of marine resources, such as fishers, is important in guiding adaptation efforts. However, harvesting fish is only the first step in a supply chain that delivers seafood to consumers. Impacts higher up the chain have seldom been considered in fisheries-climate research yet an understanding of these impacts and how climate risks and adaptation information are interpreted and used by stakeholders across the chain is vital for developing viable and sustainable adaptation options. We examined stakeholder perceptions of points where climate change impacts and adaptations currently occur, or may occur in the future, across the supply chains of several Australian fisheries (southern rock lobster, tropical rock lobster, prawn and aquaculture sectors (oyster, aquaculture prawn. We found that climate change impacts are well understood at the harvest stage and there is evidence of potential impacts and disruption to supply chains. Yet, there currently is no strong driver for change higher up the chain. Holistic adaptation planning along the supply chain, underpinned by targeted information and policy for the catch, processing and distribution, and marketing phases is needed. This effort is needed now, as some adaptation options have long lead times, and a delay in adaptation planning may limit future options. Given potential lead times and associated uncertainty, a risk-based approach is recommended with regard to adaptation planning for Australia’s seafood sector.

  18. A Methodology for Comparative Assessment of Energy Options: The Case of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the development of a methodology to measure the sustainability of alternatives for electricity generation. It is based on the evaluation of indicators in three dimensions of sustainability. No single technology exhibited superior performance on the basis of all indicators and it was necessary the application of a method to make the aggregation of all the indicators, taking into account the relative importance in the decision. In this study, a fuzzy logic inference system was developed to build a decision function that depends on all the indicators. The purpose is to rank the energy options in terms of economic, environmental and social sustainability. All the decision elements are combined and integrated in an inference logic system that takes into account weights of different indicators. The methodology was applied to evaluate the sustainability of nuclear, wind, natural gas, coal, hydro and oil technologies under Mexican conditions. When only the economic dimension is considered nuclear is the best option, if the environmental dimension is also considered the nuclear option is the best alternative too. When the social dimension is also taken into account the nuclear option is the worst. These results are obtained using the same weight to each dimension to accomplish with the equilibrium principle of the sustainability. (authors)

  19. Modeling of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) using WRF - Assessment of adaptation and mitigation strategies for the city of Stuttgart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallmann, Joachim; Suppan, Peter; Emeis, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    Cities are warmer than their surroundings (called urban heat island, UHI). UHI influence urban atmospheric circulation, air quality, and ecological conditions. UHI leads to upward motion and compensating near-surface inflow from the surroundings which import rural trace substances. Chemical and aerosol formation processes are modified due to increased temperature, reduced humidity and modified urban-rural trace substance mixtures. UHIs produce enhanced heat stress for humans, animals and plants, less water availability and modified air quality. Growing cities and Climate Change will aggravate the UHI and its effects and urgently require adaptation and mitigation strategies. Prior to this, UHI properties must be assessed by surface observations, ground- and satellite-based vertical remote sensing and numerical modelling. The Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) is an instrument to simulate and assess this phenomenon based on boundary conditions from observations and global climate models. Three urbanization schemes are available with WRF, which are tested during this study for different weather conditions in central Europe and will be enhanced if necessary. High resolution land use maps are used for this modeling effort. In situ measurements and Landsat thermal images are employed for validation of the results. The study will focus on the city of Stuttgart located in the south western part of Germany that is situated in a caldera-like orographic feature. This municipality has a long tradition in urban climate research and thus is well equipped with climatologic measurement stations. By using Geographical Information Systems (GIS), it is possible to simulate several scenarios for different surface properties. By increasing the albedo of roof and wall layers in the urban canopy model or by replacing urban land use by natural vegetation, simple urban planning strategies can be tested and the effect on urban heat island formation and air quality can be

  20. Assessment of best management practice effects on metolachlor mitigation in an agricultural watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley Lake watershed in the Mississippi Delta is a 915 ha intensively cultivated watershed (49-78% in row crop production) that was monitored for the herbicide metolachlor from 1998-2009. As part of the USDA Conservation Effects Assessment Program (CEAP), the watershed was assessed for the effecti...

  1. Assessment of environmental impact on air quality by cement industry and mitigating measures: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, G; Madugu, A I

    2010-01-01

    In this study, environmental impact on air quality was evaluated for a typical Cement Industry in Nigeria. The air pollutants in the atmosphere around the cement plant and neighbouring settlements were determined using appropriate sampling techniques. Atmospheric dust and CO2 were prevalent pollutants during the sampling period; their concentrations were recorded to be in the range of 249-3,745 mg/m3 and 2,440-2,600 mg/m3, respectively. Besides atmospheric dust and CO2, the air pollutants such as NOx, SOx and CO were in trace concentrations, below the safe limits approved by FEPA that are 0.0062-0.093 mg/m3 NOx, 0.026 mg/m3 SOx and 114.3 mg/m3 CO, respectively. Some cost-effective mitigating measures were recommended that include the utilisation of readily available and low-cost pozzolans material to produce blended cement, not only could energy efficiency be improved, but carbon dioxide emission could also be minimised during clinker production; and the installation of an advance high-pressure grinding rolls (clinker-roller-press process) to maximise energy efficiency to above what is obtainable from the traditional ball mills and to minimise CO2 emission from the power plant. PMID:19067202

  2. Assessing the bio-mitigation effect of integrated multi-trophic aquaculture on marine environment by a numerical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junbo; Kitazawa, Daisuke

    2016-09-15

    With increasing concern over the aquatic environment in marine culture, the integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) has received extensive attention in recent years. A three-dimensional numerical ocean model is developed to explore the negative impacts of aquaculture wastes and assess the bio-mitigation effect of IMTA systems on marine environments. Numerical results showed that the concentration of surface phytoplankton could be controlled by planting seaweed (a maximum reduction of 30%), and the percentage change in the improvement of bottom dissolved oxygen concentration increased to 35% at maximum due to the ingestion of organic wastes by sea cucumbers. Numerical simulations indicate that seaweeds need to be harvested in a timely manner for maximal absorption of nutrients, and the initial stocking density of sea cucumbers >3.9 individuals m(-2) is preferred to further eliminate the organic wastes sinking down to the sea bottom.

  3. Life cycle assessment integrated with thermodynamic analysis of bio-fuel options for solid oxide fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiefeng; Babbitt, Callie W; Trabold, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    A methodology that integrates life cycle assessment (LCA) with thermodynamic analysis is developed and applied to evaluate the environmental impacts of producing biofuels from waste biomass, including biodiesel from waste cooking oil, ethanol from corn stover, and compressed natural gas from municipal solid wastes. Solid oxide fuel cell-based auxiliary power units using bio-fuel as the hydrogen precursor enable generation of auxiliary electricity for idling heavy-duty trucks. Thermodynamic analysis is applied to evaluate the fuel conversion efficiency and determine the amount of fuel feedstock needed to generate a unit of electrical power. These inputs feed into an LCA that compares energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of different fuel pathways. Results show that compressed natural gas from municipal solid wastes is an optimal bio-fuel option for SOFC-APU applications in New York State. However, this methodology can be regionalized within the U.S. or internationally to account for different fuel feedstock options.

  4. Life cycle assessment integrated with thermodynamic analysis of bio-fuel options for solid oxide fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiefeng; Babbitt, Callie W; Trabold, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    A methodology that integrates life cycle assessment (LCA) with thermodynamic analysis is developed and applied to evaluate the environmental impacts of producing biofuels from waste biomass, including biodiesel from waste cooking oil, ethanol from corn stover, and compressed natural gas from municipal solid wastes. Solid oxide fuel cell-based auxiliary power units using bio-fuel as the hydrogen precursor enable generation of auxiliary electricity for idling heavy-duty trucks. Thermodynamic analysis is applied to evaluate the fuel conversion efficiency and determine the amount of fuel feedstock needed to generate a unit of electrical power. These inputs feed into an LCA that compares energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of different fuel pathways. Results show that compressed natural gas from municipal solid wastes is an optimal bio-fuel option for SOFC-APU applications in New York State. However, this methodology can be regionalized within the U.S. or internationally to account for different fuel feedstock options. PMID:23201905

  5. Assessment of Startup Fuel Options for the GNEP Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jon Carmack (062056); Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu (103171); David Alberstein

    2008-02-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Program (GNEP) includes a program element for the development and construction of an advanced sodium cooled fast reactor to demonstrate the burning (transmutation) of significant quantities of minor actinides obtained from a separations process and fabricated into a transuranic bearing fuel assembly. To demonstrate and qualify transuranic (TRU) fuel in a fast reactor, an Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) prototype is needed. The ABR would necessarily be started up using conventional metal alloy or oxide (U or U, Pu) fuel. Startup fuel is needed for the ABR for the first 2 to 4 core loads of fuel in the ABR. Following start up, a series of advanced TRU bearing fuel assemblies will be irradiated in qualification lead test assemblies in the ABR. There are multiple options for this startup fuel. This report provides a description of the possible startup fuel options as well as possible fabrication alternatives available to the program in the current domestic and international facilities and infrastructure.

  6. Eco-efficiency assessment of options for metal recovery from incineration residues: a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meylan, Grégoire; Spoerri, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Residues from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration in Switzerland have been a hot topic in recent years, both in the research and practice communities. Regarded by many as an economically and environmentally sound solution to this issue, technological retrofitting of existing grate incinerators has the dual purpose of enhancing the metal recovery of bottom and fly ashes and improving the inertization of residues to be landfilled. How does context influence the economic and environmental performance of this particular technological option? Under which conditions would this technological option be implemented nationwide in the future? What are stakeholders' views on sustainable transitions of MSW incineration? We propose a three-stage methodological procedure to address these questions.

  7. Anthropocentric-based robotic and autonomous systems : assessment for new organisational options

    OpenAIRE

    Moniz, António Brandão

    2010-01-01

    Research activities at European level on the concept of new working environments offers considerable attention to the challenges of the increased competencies of people working together with automated technologies. Since the decade of 1980 the development of approaches for the humanization of work organization, and for the development of participative organizational options induced to new proposals related to the development of complex and integrated automated systems. From such parallel conc...

  8. Chronic ankle instability. Which tests to assess the lesions? Which therapeutic options?

    OpenAIRE

    TOURNE, Yves; Besse, Jean-Luc; MABIT, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This paper purpose is to suggest an in-depth approach to diagnose the causes and lesions associated with and consecutive to chronic ankle instability due to ankle collateral ligament laxity. The different therapeutic and medicosurgical options adapted to this diagnostic approach are identified. The diagnostic aim is to precisely locate the ligamentous injuries of the tibiofibular, subtalar, talar and calcanean system, to identify the predisposing factors such as the hindfoot morphology, and a...

  9. Life cycle assessment of different municipal solid waste management options: a case study of Asturias (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Nava, Yolanda; Río, J. del; Rodríguez Iglesias, Jesús Avelino; Castrillón Peláez, Leonor; Marañón Maison, María Elena

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses six strategies for managing the MSW generated in Asturias (Spain) in terms of their environmental impacts applying the Life Cycle Analysis methodology. To this end, the effect of these strategies on Human Health, Ecosystem Quality, Global Warming and Resource Depletion is studied. The analysed management options include direct landfill with recovery of biogas (S-0), direct incineration with energy recovery (S-1), biomethanization of the source-separated organic fraction wi...

  10. Making the Handoff from Earthquake Hazard Assessments to Effective Mitigation Measures (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, D.

    2010-12-01

    This year has witnessed a barrage of large earthquakes worldwide with the resulting damages ranging from inconsequential to truly catastrophic. We cannot predict when earthquakes will strike, but we can build communities that are resilient to strong shaking as well as to secondary hazards such as landslides and liquefaction. The contrasting impacts of the magnitude-7 earthquake that struck Haiti in January and the magnitude-8.8 event that struck Chile in April underscore the difference that mitigation and preparedness can make. In both cases, millions of people were exposed to severe shaking, but deaths in Chile were measured in the hundreds rather than the hundreds of thousands that perished in Haiti. Numerous factors contributed to these disparate outcomes, but the most significant is the presence of strong building codes in Chile and their total absence in Haiti. The financial cost of the Chilean earthquake still represents an unacceptably high percentage of that nation’s gross domestic product, a reminder that life safety is the paramount, but not the only, goal of disaster risk reduction measures. For building codes to be effective, both in terms of lives saved and economic cost, they need to reflect the hazard as accurately as possible. As one of four federal agencies that make up the congressionally mandated National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) develops national seismic hazard maps that form the basis for seismic provisions in model building codes through the Federal Emergency Management Agency and private-sector practitioners. This cooperation is central to NEHRP, which both fosters earthquake research and establishes pathways to translate research results into implementation measures. That translation depends on the ability of hazard-focused scientists to interact and develop mutual trust with risk-focused engineers and planners. Strengthening that interaction is an opportunity for the next generation

  11. Options Assessment Report: Treatment of Nitrate Salt Waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Bruce Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stevens, Patrice Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-17

    This report documents the methodology used to select a method of treatment for the remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The method selected should treat the containerized waste in a manner that renders the waste safe and suitable for transport and final disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository, under specifications listed in the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (DOE/CBFO, 2013). LANL recognizes that the results must be thoroughly vetted with the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) and that a modification to the LANL Hazardous Waste Facility Permit is a necessary step before implementation of this or any treatment option. Likewise, facility readiness and safety basis approvals must be received from the Department of Energy (DOE). This report presents LANL’s preferred option, and the documentation of the process for reaching the recommended treatment option for RNS and UNS waste, and is presented for consideration by NMED and DOE.

  12. Options assessment report: Treatment of nitrate salt waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Bruce Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stevens, Patrice Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-16

    This report documents the methodology used to select a method of treatment for the remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The method selected should treat the containerized waste in a manner that renders the waste safe and suitable for transport and final disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository, under specifications listed in the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (DOE/CBFO, 2013). LANL recognized that the results must be thoroughly vetted with the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) and the a modification to the LANL Hazardous Waste Facility Permit is a necessary step before implementation of this or any treatment option. Likewise, facility readiness and safety basis approvals must be received from the Department of Energy (DOE). This report presents LANL's preferred option, and the documentation of the process for reaching the recommended treatment option for RNS and UNS waste, and is presented for consideration by NMED and DOE.

  13. Options Assessment Report: Treatment of Nitrate Salt Waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the methodology used to select a method of treatment for the remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The method selected should treat the containerized waste in a manner that renders the waste safe and suitable for transport and final disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository, under specifications listed in the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (DOE/CBFO, 2013). LANL recognizes that the results must be thoroughly vetted with the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) and that a modification to the LANL Hazardous Waste Facility Permit is a necessary step before implementation of this or any treatment option. Likewise, facility readiness and safety basis approvals must be received from the Department of Energy (DOE). This report presents LANL's preferred option, and the documentation of the process for reaching the recommended treatment option for RNS and UNS waste, and is presented for consideration by NMED and DOE.

  14. Atmospheric particulate mercury in the megacity Beijing: Efficiency of mitigation measures and assessment of health effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, N. J.; Schäfer, J.; Chen, Y.; Blanc, G.; Chen, Y.; Chai, F.; Cen, K.; Norra, S.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric particulate mercury (HgP) was studied before, during, and after the Olympic Summer Games in Beijing, China, in August 2008 in order to investigate the efficiency of the emission control measures implemented by the Chinese Government. These source control measures comprised traffic reductions, increase in public transportation, planting of vegetation, establishment of parks, building freeze at construction sites, cleaner production techniques for industries and industry closures in Beijing and also in the surrounding areas. Strictest measures including the "odd-even ban" to halve the vehicle volume were enforced from the 20th of July to the 20th of September 2008. The Olympic period provided the unique opportunity to investigate the efficiency of these comprehensive actions implemented in order to reduce air pollution on a large scale. Therefore, the sampling period covered summer (August, September) and winter (December and January) samples over several years from December 2005 to September 2013. Average HgP concentrations in total suspended particulates (TSP) sampled in August 2008 were 81 ± 39 pg/m3 while TSP mass concentrations were 93 ± 49 μg/m3. This equals a reduction by about 63% for TSP mass and 65% for HgP, respectively, compared to the previous two years demonstrating the short-term success of the measures. However, after the Olympic Games, HgP concentrations increased again to pre-Olympic levels in August 2009 while values in August 2010 decreased again by 30%. Moreover, winter samples, which were 2- to 11-fold higher than corresponding August values, showed decreasing concentrations over the years indicating a long-term improvement of HgP pollution in Beijing. However, regarding adverse health effects, comparisons with soil guideline values and studies from other cities highlighted that HgP concentrations in TSP remained high in Beijing despite respective control measures. Consequently, future mitigation measures need to be tailored more

  15. Techniques to Assess and Mitigate the Environmental Risk Posed by use of Airguns: Recent Advances from Academic Research Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P. J.; Tyack, P. L.; Johnson, M. P.; Madsen, P. T.; King, R.

    2006-05-01

    There is considerable uncertainty about the ways in which marine mammals might react to noise, the biological significance of reactions, and the effectiveness of planning and real-time mitigation techniques. A planning tool commonly used to assess environmental risk of acoustic activities uses simulations to predict acoustic exposures received by animals, and translates exposure to response using a dose-response function to yield an estimate of the undesired impact on a population. Recent advances show promise to convert this planning tool into a real-time mitigation tool, using Bayesian statistical methods. In this approach, being developed for use by the British Navy, the environmental risk simulation is updated continuously during field operations. The distribution of exposure, set initially based on animal density, is updated in real-time using animal sensing data or environmental data known to correlate with the absence or presence of marine mammals. This conditional probability of animal presence should therefore be more accurate than prior probabilities used during planning, which enables a more accurate and quantitative assessment of both the impact of activities and reduction of impact via mitigation decisions. Two key areas of uncertainty in addition to animal presence/absence are 1.) how biologically-relevant behaviours are affected by exposure to noise, and 2.) whether animals avoid loud noise sources, which is the basis of ramp-up as a mitigation tool. With support from MMS and industry partners, we assessed foraging behaviour and avoidance movements of 8 tagged sperm whales in the Gulf of Mexico during experimental exposure to airguns. The whale that was approached most closely prolonged a surface resting bout hours longer than typical, but resumed foraging immediately after the airguns ceased, suggesting avoidance of deep diving necessary for foraging near active airguns. Behavioral indices of foraging rate (echolocation buzzes produced during prey

  16. Key issues and options in accounting for carbon sequestration and temporary storage in life cycle assessment and carbon footprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandao, Miguel; Levasseur, Annie; Kirschbaum, Miko U. F.;

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Biological sequestration can increase the carbon stocks of non-atmospheric reservoirs (e.g. land and landbased products). Since this contained carbon is sequestered from, and retained outside, the atmosphere for a period of time, the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere is temporarily...... reduced and some radiative forcing is avoided. Carbon removal from the atmosphere and storage in the biosphere or anthroposphere, therefore, has the potential to mitigate climate change, even if the carbon storage and associated benefits might be temporary. Life cycle assessment (LCA) and carbon...... footprinting (CF) are increasingly popular tools for the environmental assessment of products, that take into account their entire life cycle. There have been significant efforts to develop robust methods to account for the benefits, if any, of sequestration and temporary storage and release of biogenic carbon...

  17. Human Amplified Natural Change: An approach for vulnerability assessment and mitigation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcock, P.; Belmont, P.; Gran, K. B.

    2011-12-01

    Addressing the environmental impacts of agricultural development is made difficult by the scale and complexity of the natural system, the pervasive human alteration of that system, the contingent and nonlinear nature of system response, and the web of natural-human interactions driving social, economic, and regulatory decisions over periods of decades to centuries. One of the most difficult challenges is determining those locations within the landscape that are most sensitive to change. One approach is the concept of human-amplified natural change (HANC), a hypothesis that states that areas of the landscape that are most susceptible to human, climatic, and other external changes are those that are undergoing the highest rates of natural change. High variability in system response implies that there are locations and moments that are especially vulnerable to changes in climate and human actions. These 'critical areas' are not only essential to understand for mitigation purposes, but also serve as targeted locations in which to monitor change in an accelerated environment. Under the HANC hypothesis, it is these locations that should be the focus for both research and management. We explore the HANC hypothesis using the case of sediment delivery to the Upper Mississippi River. Work on Lake Pepin, a natural lake on the Mississippi River, has shown that sediment supply has increased ten-fold over the past 150 years. This period corresponds with widespread implementation of drainage and row cropping in the Minnesota River Basin, the primary contributor of sediment to the Upper Mississippi. Although this development is clearly important, the watershed was geologically primed to produce large amounts of sediment as it incises through soft glacial sediments in response to a base level fall associated with the carving of the Minnesota River valley over 13,000 years before present. The nearly complete transformation of the land surface, vegetation, and hydrology over the past

  18. An integrated assessment of electric power resource options in the US Virgin Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, L.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Chronowski, R.A. [Alternative Energy Development, Inc., Silver Springs, MD (United States); Shapiro, A.M. [Vermont Energy Investment Corp., Burlington, VT (United States)

    1994-02-01

    As with other island-based, insular power systems, the avoided cost of power for the Water and Power Authority (WAPA) of the US Virgin Islands (USVI) is high relative to that of US mainland electric utilities. First, the need to produce potable water requires that WAPA`s electric generating system operate at efficiency levels lower than would result in the absence of the need to jointly produce water and power. Second, the inability to purchase power from neighboring utilities necessitates higher reserve margins. These two operating conditions suggest that integrated resource planning (IRP) should be especially attractive to WAPA. IRP is a planning paradigm that gives electric utilities more options to choose from when making resource selections and, therefore, generally results in lower costs. Utilities look to the demand side as a source of resources--i.e., demand side management (DSM)--in this planning process. They then select the least-cost mix of resource options. In this study, we take the first steps toward implementing an IRP process in the USVI. Using its existing resource base and the supply and DSM options that it has in the future, we simulated WAPA`s resource selection process over a 20-year planning horizon using SafePlan, an IRP planning model. The results suggest that WAPA can significantly reduce its cost of providing electricity by implementing DSM programs. The cost of generating electricity and the amount of kWh needed can be reduced nearly nine percent by implementing cost-effective DSM programs. Cost and kWh savings are greater under less favorable assumptions about (1) the input costs for generating electricity and (2) other conditions that WAPA will confront in the future. The results also indicate that DSM programs targeted at the residential sector can save, 500 gallons of water annually for participants in the program.

  19. Assessment of pico hydro as an option for off-grid electrification in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maher, P.; Smith, N.P.A.; Williams, A.A. [Nottingham Trent Univ., Micro Hydro Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    This paper discusses off-grid electrification options for low-income households in rural Kenya, where less than 2% are grid connected. The paper outlines the electrical load priorities of rural households and describes how these are supplied at present through centrally charged automotive batteries and solar home systems. The recent introduction of pico hydro schemes (<5 kW) to Kenya is discussed, including details of the implementation of the two community schemes and the costs involved. A comparison is made between pico hydro and solar home systems and conclusions are presented on the way forward for off-grid electrification in Kenya. (Author)

  20. Low-income energy policy in a restructuring electricity industry: an assessment of federal options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.W.

    1997-07-01

    This report identifies both the low-income energy services historically provided in the electricity industry and those services that may be affected by industry restructuring. It identifies policies that are being proposed or could be developed to address low- income electricity services in a restructured industry. It discusses potential federal policy options and identifies key policy and implementation issues that arise when considering these potential federal initiatives. To understand recent policy development at the state level, we reviewed restructuring proposals from eight states and the accompanying testimony and comments filed in restructuring proceedings in these states.

  1. Bike Helmets and Black Riders: Experiential Approaches to Helping Students Understand Natural Hazard Assessment and Mitigation Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, S. A.; Kley, J.; Hindle, D.; Friedrich, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Defending society against natural hazards is a high-stakes game of chance against nature, involving tough decisions. How should a developing nation allocate its budget between building schools for towns without ones or making existing schools earthquake-resistant? Does it make more sense to build levees to protect against floods, or to prevent development in the areas at risk? Would more lives be saved by making hospitals earthquake-resistant, or using the funds for patient care? These topics are challenging because they are far from normal experience, in that they involve rare events and large sums. To help students in natural hazard classes conceptualize them, we pose tough and thought-provoking questions about complex issues involved and explore them together via lectures, videos, field trips, and in-class and homework questions. We discuss analogous examples from the students' experiences, drawing on a new book "Playing Against Nature, Integrating Science and Economics to Mitigate Natural Hazards in an Uncertain World". Asking whether they wear bicycle helmets and why or why not shows the cultural perception of risk. Individual students' responses vary, and the overall results vary dramatically between the US, UK, and Germany. Challenges in hazard assessment in an uncertain world are illustrated by asking German students whether they buy a ticket on public transportation - accepting a known cost - or "ride black" - not paying but risking a heavy fine if caught. We explore the challenge of balancing mitigation costs and benefits via the question "If you were a student in Los Angeles, how much more would you pay in rent each month to live in an earthquake-safe building?" Students learn that interdisciplinary thinking is needed, and that due to both uncertainties and sociocultural factors, no unique or right strategies exist for a particular community, much the less all communities. However, we can seek robust policies that give sensible results given

  2. L-Band Digital Aeronautical Communications System Engineering - Initial Safety and Security Risk Assessment and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelkin, Natalie; Henriksen, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This document is being provided as part of ITT's NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: "New ATM Requirements--Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development." ITT has completed a safety hazard analysis providing a preliminary safety assessment for the proposed L-band (960 to 1164 MHz) terrestrial en route communications system. The assessment was performed following the guidelines outlined in the Federal Aviation Administration Safety Risk Management Guidance for System Acquisitions document. The safety analysis did not identify any hazards with an unacceptable risk, though a number of hazards with a medium risk were documented. This effort represents a preliminary safety hazard analysis and notes the triggers for risk reassessment. A detailed safety hazards analysis is recommended as a follow-on activity to assess particular components of the L-band communication system after the technology is chosen and system rollout timing is determined. The security risk analysis resulted in identifying main security threats to the proposed system as well as noting additional threats recommended for a future security analysis conducted at a later stage in the system development process. The document discusses various security controls, including those suggested in the COCR Version 2.0.

  3. Improving The Affordable Care Act: An Assessment Of Policy Options For Providing Subsidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, Evan A; Eibner, Christine; Enthoven, Alain C

    2015-12-01

    A key challenge of health reform efforts is to make health insurance affordable for individuals and families who lack coverage without harming those with coverage or increasing federal spending. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) addresses this challenge in part by providing tax subsidies to qualified individuals for purchasing individual insurance and retaining tax exemptions for employer and employee contributions to the cost of premiums of employer-sponsored insurance. These tax exemptions cost approximately $250 billion annually in lost tax revenue and have been criticized for favoring higher earners and conferring preferential treatment of employer-sponsored over individual insurance. We analyzed three options for leveling the financial playing field between the two insurance markets by reallocating the value of tax benefits of employer coverage. We found that one option that uses the subsidy formula employed in the insurance Marketplaces under the ACA for both the individual and employer-sponsored insurance markets, and additionally requires the subsidy to be at least $1,250 without an upper income limit on subsidy eligibility imposed, could expand insurance coverage and reduce individual market premiums relative to the ACA with no additional federal spending. PMID:26643630

  4. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/8: Cooperative Border Security for Jordan: Assessment and Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qojas, M.

    1999-03-01

    This document is an analysis of options for unilateral and cooperative action to improve the security of Jordan's borders. Sections describe the current political, economic, and social interactions along Jordan's borders. Next, the document discusses border security strategy for cooperation among neighboring countries and the adoption of confidence-building measures. A practical cooperative monitoring system would consist of hardware for early warning, command and control, communications, and transportation. Technical solutions can expand opportunities for the detection and identification of intruders. Sensors (such as seismic, break-wire, pressure-sensing, etc.) can warn border security forces of intrusion and contribute to the identification of the intrusion and help formulate the response. This document describes conceptual options for cooperation, offering three scenarios that relate to three hypothetical levels (low, medium, and high) of cooperation. Potential cooperative efforts under a low cooperation scenario could include information exchanges on military equipment and schedules to prevent misunderstandings and the establishment of protocols for handling emergency situations or unusual circumstances. Measures under a medium cooperation scenario could include establishing joint monitoring groups for better communications, with hot lines and scheduled meetings. The high cooperation scenario describes coordinated responses, joint border patrols, and sharing border intrusion information. Finally, the document lists recommendations for organizational, technical, and operational initiatives that could be applicable to the current situation.

  5. Assessment of Stone Columns as a Mitigation Technique of Liquefaction-Induced Effects during Italian Earthquakes (May 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Forcellini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil liquefaction has been observed worldwide during recent major earthquakes with induced effects responsible for much of the damage, disruption of function, and considerable replacement expenses for structures. The phenomenon has not been documented in recent time with such damage in Italian context before the recent Emilia-Romagna Earthquake (May 2012. The main lateral spreading and vertical deformations affected the stability of many buildings and impacted social life inducing valuable lessons on liquefaction risk assessment and remediation. This paper aims first of all to reproduce soil response to liquefaction-induced lateral effects and thus to evaluate stone column mitigation technique effectiveness by gradually increasing the extension of remediation, in order to achieve a satisfactory lower level of permanent deformations. The study is based on the use of a FE computational interface able to analyse the earthquake-induced three-dimensional pore pressure generation adopting one of the most credited nonlinear theories in order to assess realistically the displacements connected to lateral spreading.

  6. Assessment of stone columns as a mitigation technique of liquefaction-induced effects during Italian earthquakes (May 2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcellini, Davide; Tarantino, Angelo Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Soil liquefaction has been observed worldwide during recent major earthquakes with induced effects responsible for much of the damage, disruption of function, and considerable replacement expenses for structures. The phenomenon has not been documented in recent time with such damage in Italian context before the recent Emilia-Romagna Earthquake (May 2012). The main lateral spreading and vertical deformations affected the stability of many buildings and impacted social life inducing valuable lessons on liquefaction risk assessment and remediation. This paper aims first of all to reproduce soil response to liquefaction-induced lateral effects and thus to evaluate stone column mitigation technique effectiveness by gradually increasing the extension of remediation, in order to achieve a satisfactory lower level of permanent deformations. The study is based on the use of a FE computational interface able to analyse the earthquake-induced three-dimensional pore pressure generation adopting one of the most credited nonlinear theories in order to assess realistically the displacements connected to lateral spreading. PMID:24592148

  7. Forest bioenergy or forest carbon? Assessing trade-offs in greenhouse gas mitigation with wood-based fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechnie, Jon; Colombo, Steve; Chen, Jiaxin; Mabee, Warren; MacLean, Heather L

    2011-01-15

    The potential of forest-based bioenergy to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions when displacing fossil-based energy must be balanced with forest carbon implications related to biomass harvest. We integrate life cycle assessment (LCA) and forest carbon analysis to assess total GHG emissions of forest bioenergy over time. Application of the method to case studies of wood pellet and ethanol production from forest biomass reveals a substantial reduction in forest carbon due to bioenergy production. For all cases, harvest-related forest carbon reductions and associated GHG emissions initially exceed avoided fossil fuel-related emissions, temporarily increasing overall emissions. In the long term, electricity generation from pellets reduces overall emissions relative to coal, although forest carbon losses delay net GHG mitigation by 16-38 years, depending on biomass source (harvest residues/standing trees). Ethanol produced from standing trees increases overall emissions throughout 100 years of continuous production: ethanol from residues achieves reductions after a 74 year delay. Forest carbon more significantly affects bioenergy emissions when biomass is sourced from standing trees compared to residues and when less GHG-intensive fuels are displaced. In all cases, forest carbon dynamics are significant. Although study results are not generalizable to all forests, we suggest the integrated LCA/forest carbon approach be undertaken for bioenergy studies. PMID:21142063

  8. Assessment and mitigation of radiation, EMP, debris and shrapnel impacts at megajoule-class laser facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The generation of neutron/gamma radiation, electromagnetic pulses (EMP), debris and shrapnel at mega-Joule class laser facilities (NIF and LMJ) impacts experiments conducted at these facilities. The complex 3D numerical codes used to assess these impacts range from an established code that required minor modifications (MCNP - calculates neutron and gamma radiation levels in complex geometries), through a code that required significant modifications to treat new phenomena (EMSolve - calculates EMP from electrons escaping from laser targets), to a new code, ALE-AMR, that is being developed through a joint collaboration between LLNL, CEA, and UC (UCSD, UCLA, and LBL) for debris and shrapnel modelling.

  9. Integrated Assessment of Global Water Scarcity over the 21st Century under Multiple Climate Change Mitigation Policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Wise, Marshall A.; Patel, Pralit L.; Eom, Jiyong; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2014-01-01

    Water scarcity conditions over the 21st century both globally and regionally are assessed in the context of climate change, by estimating both water availability and water demand within the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a leading community integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, climate, and water. To quantify changes in future water availability, a new gridded water-balance global hydrologic model – namely, the Global Water Availability Model (GWAM) – is developed and evaluated. Global water demands for six major demand sectors (irrigation, livestock, domestic, electricity generation, primary energy production, and manufacturing) are modeled in GCAM at the regional scale (14 geopolitical regions, 151 sub-regions) and then spatially downscaled to 0.5 o x 0.5o resolution to match the scale of GWAM. Using a baseline scenario (i.e., no climate change mitigation policy) with radiative forcing reaching 8.8 W/m2 (equivalent to the SRES A1Fi emission scenario) and a global population of 14 billion by 2095, global annual water demand grows from about 9% of total annual renewable freshwater in 2005 to about 32% by 2095. This results in almost half of the world population living under extreme water scarcity by the end of the 21st century. Regionally, the demand for water exceeds the amount of water availability in two GCAM regions, the Middle East and India. Additionally, in years 2050 and 2095, 20% and 27% of the global population, respectively, is projected to live in areas (grid cells) that will experience greater water demands than the amount of available water in a year (i.e., the water scarcity index (WSI) > 1.0). This study implies an increasingly prominent role for water in future human decisions, and highlights the importance of including water in integrated assessment of global change.

  10. Energy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter focuses on energy options as a means of managing exposure to energy prices. An intuitive approach to energy options is presented, and traditional definitions of call and put options are given. The relationship between options and swaps, option value and option exercises, commodity options, and option pricing are described. An end-user's guide to energy option strategy is outlined, and straight options, collars, participating swaps and collars, bull and bear spreads, and swaption are examined. Panels explaining the defining of basis risk, and discussing option pricing and the Greeks, delta hedging, managing oil options using the Black-Scholes model, caps, floors and collars, and guidelines on hedging versus speculation with options are included in the paper

  11. Energy options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampton, Michael [HDS Shipping (United States)

    1999-07-01

    This chapter focuses on energy options as a means of managing exposure to energy prices. An intuitive approach to energy options is presented, and traditional definitions of call and put options are given. The relationship between options and swaps, option value and option exercises, commodity options, and option pricing are described. An end-user's guide to energy option strategy is outlined, and straight options, collars, participating swaps and collars, bull and bear spreads, and swaption are examined. Panels explaining the defining of basis risk, and discussing option pricing and the Greeks, delta hedging, managing oil options using the Black-Scholes model, caps, floors and collars, and guidelines on hedging versus speculation with options are included in the paper.

  12. What factors influence mitigative capacity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article builds on Yohe's seminal piece on mitigative capacity, which elaborates 'determinants' of mitigative capacity, also reflected in the IPCC's third assessment report. We propose a revised definition, where mitigative capacity is a country's ability to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions or enhance natural sinks. By 'ability' we mean skills, competencies, fitness, and proficiencies that a country has attained which can contribute to GHG emissions mitigation. A conceptual framework is proposed, linking mitigative capacity to a country's sustainable development path, and grouping the factors influencing mitigative capacity into three main sets: economic factors, institutional ones, and technology. Both quantitative and qualitative analysis of factors is presented, showing how these factors vary across countries. We suggest that it is the interplay between the three economic factors-income, abatement cost and opportunity cost-that shape mitigative capacity. We find that income is an important economic factor influencing mitigative capacity, while abatement cost is important in turning mitigative capacity into actual mitigation. Technology is a critical mitigative capacity, including the ability to absorb existing climate-friendly technologies or to develop innovative ones. Institutional factors that promote mitigative capacity include the effectiveness of government regulation, clear market rules, a skilled work force and public awareness. We briefly investigate such as high abatement cost or lack of political willingness that prevent mitigative capacity from being translated into mitigation

  13. Uncertainty assessment of climate change adaptation options in urban flash floods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    adaptation options. The case study is a small urban catchment where no significant city development is anticipated. Therefore the main focus is on estimation of impact of uncertainties related to present and future hydrological conditions, impacts on assets, and costing of the damages. The uncertainties....... However, the analysis is complicated by irreducible uncertainties about present and future hydrologic conditions as well as the present and future vulnerability of the area in question. Further, modelling of the actual hazards given the hydrologic conditions also entails substantial uncertainty. The work...... presented is based on a flood risk framework that is in accordance with the EU flood directive, but adapted and extended to incorporate anticipated future changes due to city development and hydrologic extremes. The framework is used to study the importance of inherent uncertainties in order to find robust...

  14. Assessing economic impacts of China's water pollution mitigation measures through a dynamic computable general equilibrium analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Changbo; Bressers, Hans T. A.; (Bob Su, Z.; Jia, Yangwen; Wang, Hao

    2011-10-01

    In this letter, we apply an extended environmental dynamic computable general equilibrium model to assess the economic consequences of implementing a total emission control policy. On the basis of emission levels in 2007, we simulate different emission reduction scenarios, ranging from 20 to 50% emission reduction, up to the year 2020. The results indicate that a modest total emission reduction target in 2020 can be achieved at low macroeconomic cost. As the stringency of policy targets increases, the macroeconomic cost will increase at a rate faster than linear. Implementation of a tradable emission permit system can counterbalance the economic costs affecting the gross domestic product and welfare. We also find that a stringent environmental policy can lead to an important shift in production, consumption and trade patterns from dirty sectors to relatively clean sectors.

  15. Development Impact Assessment Highlights Co-benefits of GHG Mitigation Actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    This EC-LEDS document describes the Development Impact Assessment (DIA) process that explores interactions between development goals and the low emission development strategies. DIA aims to support informed decision-making by considering how policies and programs intended to meet one goal may impact other development priorities. Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies (EC-LEDS) is a flagship U.S. government-led effort that assists countries in developing and implementing LEDS. The program enhances partner country efforts by providing targeting technical assistance and building a shared global knowledge base on LEDS. is a flagship U.S. government-led effort that assists countries in developing and implementing LEDS. The program enhances partner country efforts by providing targeting technical assistance and building a shared global knowledge base on LEDS.

  16. Application of Probabilistic Risk Assessment in Establishing Perchlorate and Goitrogen Risk Mitigation Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford-Brown, Douglas

    2015-09-01

    This paper applies probabilistic risk assessment in quantifying risks from cumulative and aggregate risk pathways for selected goitrogens in water and food. Results show that the percentages of individuals with a Hazard Index (HI) value above 1 ranges between 30% and 50% both with and without serum half-life correction when a traditional regulatory assessment approach based on establishment of a No Observed Effects Level (NOEL) is used. When an exposure-response curve is instead used and a threshold of 50% inhibition is assumed, 1.1% or less of the population exceeds an HI value of 1 with no serum half-life correction, rising to as high as 11% when serum half-life correction is applied. If 0% to 5% threshold for iodide uptake inhibition is assumed for production of adverse effects, the percentage of the population with an HI above 1 is 46.2% or less with no serum half-life correction, and 47.2% or less when serum half-life correction is applied. The probabilistic analysis shows that while there are exposed groups for whom perchlorate exposures are the primary cause of individuals having HI values above 1, these constitute significantly less than 1% of the population. Instead, the potential risk from exposure to goitrogens is dominated by nitrates without serum half-life correction and thiocyanates with serum half-life correction, suggesting public health protection is better accomplished by a focus on these and other goitrogens expect in highly limited cases where waterborne perchlorate is at unusually high concentrations. PMID:26322488

  17. Methane Tracking and Mitigation Options - EPA CMOP

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains the sub-model for EPA's MARKAL model, which tracks methane emissions from the energy system, and limited other sources (landfills and manure...

  18. Quantifying, Assessing, and Mitigating Methane Emissions from Super-emitters in the Oil and Gas Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, David Richard

    Methane emissions from the oil and gas (O&G) supply chain reduce potential climate benefits of natural gas as a replacement for other fossil fuels that emit more carbon dioxide per energy produced. O&G facilities have skewed emission rate distributions with a small fraction of sites contributing the majority of emissions. Knowledge of the identity and cause of these high emission facilities, referred to as super-emitters or fat-tail sources, is critical for reducing supply chain emissions. This dissertation addresses the quantification of super-emitter emissions, assessment of their prevalence and relationship to site characteristics, and mitigation with continuous leak detection systems. Chapter 1 summarizes the state of the knowledge of O&G methane emissions. Chapter 2 constructs a spatially-resolved emission inventory to estimate total and O&G methane emissions in the Barnett Shale as part of a coordinated research campaign using multiple top-down and bottom-up methods to quantify emissions. The emission inventory accounts for super-emitters with two-phase Monte Carlo simulations that combine site measurements collected with two approaches: unbiased sampling and targeted sampling of super-emitters. More comprehensive activity data and the inclusion of super-emitters, which account for 19% of O&G emissions, produces a emission inventory that is not statistically different than top-down regional emission estimates. Chapter 3 describes a helicopter-based survey of over 8,000 well pads in seven basins with infrared optical gas imaging to assess high emission sources. Four percent of sites are observed to have high emissions with over 90% of observed sources from tanks. The occurrence of high emissions is weakly correlated to site parameters and the best statistical model explains only 14% of variance, which demonstrates that the occurrence of super-emitters is primarily stochastic. Chapter 4 presents a Gaussian dispersion model for optimizing the placement of

  19. Assessing the impact of framing on the comparative favourability of nuclear power as an electricity generating option in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2007 the UK government's public consultation on the future of nuclear power courted much criticism. Three studies were conducted to assess whether key arguments used by government within this consultation might have influenced public opinion about the technology. Participants first read a passage of text that made salient certain positive (climate change mitigation, increased energy security) or negative (nuclear waste) aspects of the nuclear debate. Participants then completed a task that required them to create an electricity mix for the UK by varying the contributions made by each of five energy sources (coal, gas, nuclear, renewables and electric import). Study 1 seemed to indicate that pitching the debate in terms of climate change mitigation was effective in increasing endorsement of nuclear power. The results of studies 2 and 3, however, contested this conclusion, suggesting that these arguments were having little direct impact upon participants' preferences for nuclear power. The results of these studies hold implications for UK energy policy and attitude assessment and can contribute to the understanding of how the arguments used by government in the 2007 consultation might have influenced public opinion. - Highlights: ► Three studies investigate the acceptability of nuclear power in response to ‘framing’ used by government in 2007 UK consultation. ► Acceptability of nuclear power was compared against four energy sources in an ‘electricity calculator’ task. ► Study 1 showed an apparent increase in the endorsement of nuclear following climate change ‘framing’. ► Studies 2 and 3 contradict this finding, suggesting that ‘framing’ had a limited direct effect on preferences for nuclear power.

  20. South Fork Snake River/Palisades Wildlife Mitigation Project: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    BPA proposes to fund the implementation of the South Fork Snake River Programmatic Management Plan to compensate for losses of wildlife and wildlife habitat due to hydroelectric development at Palisades Dam. The Idaho Department of Fish and Game drafted the plan, which was completed in May 1993. This plan recommends land and conservation easement acquisition and wildlife habitat enhancement measures. These measures would be implemented on selected lands along the South Fork of the Snake River between Palisades Dam and the confluence with the Henry`s Fork, and on portions of the Henry`s Fork located in Bonneville, Madison, and Jefferson Counties, Idaho. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment evaluating the proposed project. The EA also incorporates by reference the analyses in the South Fork Snake River Activity/Operations Plan and EA prepared jointly in 1991 by the Bureau of Land Management and the Forest Service. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  1. ASSESSING AND MITIGATING THE IMPACTS OF DYNAMIC MESSAGE SIGNS ON HIGHWAY TRAFFIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Song

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As a critical component in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS of modern traffic management, dynamic message signs (DMS are widely used in many countries as an effective means to provide motorists with up-to-date information regarding accidents, congestion, road conditions and travel time, etc. However, it was observed in traffic data that motorists tended to slow down when approaching active DMSs and speed up after passing these signs. The speed variations could pose safety hazards to other motorists on highways. To gain insights into this issue and understand associated causes and risks, a human factors study was conducted to help ease the speed variation when approaching DMSs. The effect of DMS messages on traffic approaching and passing the signs were assessed by analyzing highway traffic data near DMSs. A questionnaire survey was conducted to identify associated causes and risks. Participants were further surveyed about their preferences on DMS characteristics such as message category, message type, number of frames, message details, and the use of graphics. Individual drivers' responses to various DMS designs were evaluated through a simulation test. This study has provided updated knowledge regarding the effects of DMSs on highway traffic and has identified measures to improve the design and display of DMS messages to help ease the speed variation of approaching traffic.

  2. Peru country specific database implementation for comparative assessment of electricity options and strategies (DECADES Project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the result of the cases study carried out using the DECADES computer tools on assessment of the electricity supply plan for expansion in Peru in the framework of the IAEA Research Contract No. 9274

  3. Life-cycle assessment of a reed canary grass plantation in an abandoned peat extraction area to mitigate GHG emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Ülo

    2013-04-01

    Abandoned peat extraction areas are continuous emitters of greenhouse gases (GHG); hence, abandonment of peat extraction areas should immediately be followed by conversion to an appropriate after-use. Our primary aim was to clarify the atmospheric impact of reed canary grass (RCG, Phalaris arundinacea L.) cultivation on an abandoned peat extraction area and to compare it to other after-treatment alternatives. In addition to measurement of GHGs using the closed chamber and gas-chromatograph method, measuring C and N balance in study plots and aboveground and belowground biomass of RCG for the period April 2009-September 2011, we performed a life-cycle assessment for five different after-use options for a drained organic soil withdrawn from peat extraction: (I) bare peat soil (no management), (II) non-fertilised Phalaris cultivation, (III) fertilized Phalaris cultivation, (IV) afforestation, and (V) rewetting. Our results showed that on average the non-fertilised and fertilised Phalaris alternatives had a cooling effect on the atmosphere, whereas afforestation, rewetting, and no management alternatives contributed to global warming. The main components influencing the global warming potential of different after-use alternatives were site GHG emissions, carbon assimilation by plants, and emissions from combustion, while management-related emissions played a relatively minor role. The results of this study indicate that, from the perspective of atmospheric impact during following 10 years, the most suitable after-use option for an abandoned peat extraction area is cultivation of RCG. For the long term effect, dynamics of Phalaris production and carbon sequestration in soil must be taken into the consideration.

  4. Solar Schools Assessment and Implementation Project: Financing Options for Solar Installations on K-12 Schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, J.; Kandt, A.

    2011-10-01

    This report focuses on financial options developed specifically for renewable energy and energy efficiency projects in three California public school districts. Solar energy systems installed on public schools have a number of benefits that include utility bill savings, reductions in greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) and other toxic air contaminants, job creation, demonstrating environmental leadership, and creating learning opportunities for students. In the 2011 economic environment, the ability to generate general-fund savings as a result of reducing utility bills has become a primary motivator for school districts trying to cut costs. To achieve meaningful savings, the size of the photovoltaic (PV) systems installed (both individually on any one school and collectively across a district) becomes much more important; larger systems are required to have a material impact on savings. Larger PV systems require a significant financial commitment and financing therefore becomes a critical element in the transaction. In simple terms, school districts can use two primary types of ownership models to obtain solar installations and cost savings across a school district. The PV installations can be financed and owned directly by the districts themselves. Alternatively, there are financing structures whereby another entity, such as a solar developer or its investors, actually own and operate the PV systems on behalf of the school district. This is commonly referred to as the 'third-party ownership model.' Both methods have advantages and disadvantages that should be weighed carefully.

  5. Stabilising greenhouse gas concentrations at low levels. An assessment of options and costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Vuuren, D.P.; Den Elzen, M.G.J.; Lucas, P.L.; Eickhout, B.; Strengers, B.J.; Van Ruijven, B.; Berk, M.M.; De Vries, H.J.M.; Wonink, S.J.; Van den Houdt, R.; Oostenrijk, R. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency MNP, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Hoogwijk, M. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands); Meinshausen, M. [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research PIK, Postdam (Germany)

    2006-10-15

    Preventing 'dangerous anthropogenic interference of the climate system' may require stabilisation of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at relatively low levels such as 550 ppm CO2-eq. and below. Relatively few studies exist that have analysed the possibilities and implications of meeting such stringent climate targets. This report presents a series of related papers that address this issue - either by focusing on individual options or by presenting overall strategies at the global and regional level. The results show that it is technically possible to reach ambitious climate targets - with abatement costs for default assumptions in the order of 1-2% of global GDP. To achieve these lower concentration levels, global emissions need to peak within 15-20 years. The stabilisation scenarios use a large portfolio of measures, including energy efficiency but also carbon capture and storage, large scale application of bio-energy, reduction of non-CO2 gasses, increased use of renewable and/or nuclear power and carbon plantations.

  6. Comprehensive assessments of measures mitigating heat island phenomena in urban areas; Heat shinku wo riyoshita daikibo reibo system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuno, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Yoshikado, H.; Kondo, H.; Kaneho, N.; Saegusa, N.; Inaba, A. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan); Inoue, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes the assessment method of measures mitigating heat island phenomena in urban areas. The heat island phenomena were classified into meso-scale with 100 km-scale, block-scale with several km-scale, and building-scale with 100 m-scale. Urban thermal environment simulation model was developed in response to each scale. For the development, regional data using aircraft and artificial satellite observations, surface observation and thermal environment observation at Shinjuku new central city of Tokyo, and artificial waste heat actual survey data in the southern Kanto district were utilized. Results of the urban thermal environment simulation were introduced as an application of this model. Temperature distributions of the heat island in the Kanto district were simulated with considering urban conditions near Tokyo and without considering it. Daily changes of wall surfaces of high buildings and road surface were calculated. Increase in the air temperature in the back stream of building roofs with increased temperature was determined. 4 figs.

  7. Air born soil pollution assessment and mitigation in the south of ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titarenko, Olga; Kharytonov, Mykola; Moschner, Christin; Khlopova, Valentina M.

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric emissions made by mining and metallurgy industry account for 54 % of total air pollutions of the Dnipropetrovsk Region. As it has been shown previously, the range of pollutants depends on the number and types of the industrial enterprises located within the each urban area. In Dnipropetrovsk and surrounding cities the dominant emissions come from the waste of metallurgical and chemical industries, which is heavily developed in this area. The multipollution exposure assessment was made for the several cities in Dnipropetrovsk industrial region in the south of Ukraine. In this connection the monitoring of atmospheric air pollution in the environment of the Dnepropetrovsk megalopolis area was carried out in several industrial cities: Dnipropetrovsk, Dneprodzerzhynsk, Kryvyy Ryg and Pavlograd with use of the network of stationary monitoring stations at the Dnepropetrovsk Regional Center of Hydrometeorology. The initial evaluation of technogenic atmospheric pollution with toxic substances was performed with due to the limit values of so-called maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) for harmful emissions in the atmosphere as set out in the Ukrainian Air Quality Standards. The main sources of air pollution in industrial cities are stationary. Meantime increasing road transport is a growing source of pollution. The maximum excess of MPC content of NO2 in the atmosphere of the cities has reached twice. Over the last 5 years in the atmosphere of industrial cities in the region there was an increased level of nitrogen dioxide (excess of MPC in 1, 5-2, 5 times). Number of inorganic aerosols (nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and other) has an effect of summation. In the presence of diffuse sources are superimposed individual emissions and formed the total torch actually located over the whole of the industrial agglomeration. Spatial structure of such a torch is very complicated, instant concentrations of impurities at various points in the city are substantially

  8. Participatory assessment of soil erosion severity and performance of mitigation measured using stakeholders' workshops in Koga catchment, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakew, Walle; Baartman, Jantiene; Ritsema, Coen

    2016-04-01

    There has been little effort to systematically document the experiences and perceptions of farmers on soil erosion and soil and water conservation (SWC) even though a wealth of SWC knowledge and information exists, and there is a great demand to access it. Sustainable Land Management (SLM) has largely evolved through local traditional practices than being adopted on basis of scientific evidence. This research aimed to document the experiences of farmers on soil erosion and conservation, and to increase awareness and participation of the local community in SWC. Participatory stakeholders' workshops were undertaken at local level focused on experiences and perceptions of farmers. The workshops included group discussion and field monitoring of sheet erosion indicators, profiles of rills and gullies and impacts of SWC strategies. Systematic descriptions of the status of soil erosion, soil fertility and yield were used to assess the performances of SWC strategies. Results show that farmers were aware of the harmful effects of ongoing soil erosion and impacts of mitigation strategies on their farms. Sheet erosion was found to be the most damaging form of erosion while rill damage was critical on cereal cultivated farms on steep slopes. Farmers perceived that the desired impacts of SWC practices were attained in general: runoff and soil loss rates decreased, while soil fertility and production increased. The performance of SWC measures were found to be highly affected by the design quality and management strategies on the farm. Comparatively graded stone-faced soil bunds revealed maximum desired impacts and were liked by farmers whereas all level bunds caused water logging and traditional ditches begun incising and affected production of cereals. Bund maintenance practices were low and also distracted the stability of bunds. This calls for further improvement of design of SWC technologies and their maintenance. Further research should integrate the local knowledge for

  9. Sustainability Impact Assessment of two forest-based bioenergy production systems related to mitigation and adaption to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartzia-Bengoetxea, Nahia; Arias-González, Ander; Tuomasjukka, Diana

    2016-04-01

    New forest management strategies are necessary to resist and adapt to Climate Change (CC) and to maintain ecosystem functions such as forest productivity, water storage and biomass production. The increased use of forest-based biomass for energy generation as well as the application of combustion or pyrolysis co-products such as ash or biochar back into forest soils is being suggested as a CC mitigation and adaptation strategy while trying to fulfil the targets of both: (i) Europe 2020 growth strategy in relation to CC and energy sustainability and (ii) EU Action Plan for the Circular Economy. The energy stored in harvested biomass can be released through combustion and used for energy generation to enable national energy security (reduced oil dependence) and the substitution of fossil fuel by renewable biomass can decrease the emission of greenhouse gases.In the end, the wood-ash produced in the process can return to the forest soil to replace the nutrients exported by harvesting. Another way to use biomass in this green circular framework is to pyrolyse it. Pyrolysis of the biomass produce a carbon-rich product (biochar) that can increase carbon sequestration in the soils and liquid and gas co-products of biomass pyrolysis can be used for energy generation or other fuel use thereby offsetting fossil fuel consumption and so avoiding greenhouse gas emissions. Both biomass based energy systems differ in the amount of energy produced, in the co-product (biochar or wood ash) returned to the field, and in societal impacts they have. The Tool for Sustainability Impact Assessment (ToSIA) was used for modelling both energy production systems. ToSIA integrates several different methods, and allows a quantification and objective comparison of economic, environmental and social impacts in a sustainability impact assessment for different decision alternatives/scenarios. We will interpret the results in order to support the bioenergy planning in temperate forests under the

  10. Deliberating emission reduction options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowd, A.M.; Rodriguez, M.; Jeanneret, T. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation CSIRO, 37 Graham Rd, Highett VIC 3190 (Australia); De Best-Waldhober, M.; Straver, K.; Mastop, J.; Paukovic, M. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    For more than 20 years there has been a concerted international effort toward addressing climate change. International conventions, such as the United Nations Foreign Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC; ratified in 1994), have been established by committed nations seeking to address global climate change through the reduction of greenhouse gases emitted into the Earth's atmosphere (Global CCS Institute, 2011). Long recognised as the most crucial of the greenhouse gases to impact global warming, the majority of carbon dioxide's anthropogenic global emissions are directly related to fuel combustion of which both Australia and the Netherlands' energy production is significantly reliant. Both these nations will need to consider many opinions and make hard decisions if alternative energy options are to be implemented at the scale that is required to meet international emission targets. The decisions that are required not only need to consider the many options available but also their consequences. Along with politicians, policy developers and industry, the general public also need to be active participants in deciding which energy options, and their subsequent consequences, are acceptable for implementation at the national level. Access to balanced and factual information is essential in establishing informed opinions on the many policy options available. Past research has used several methods to measure public perceptions and opinions yet for complex issues, such as emission reduction, some of these methods have shown to be problematic. For example, semi structured interviews can provide data that is flexible and context rich yet is does also come with the limitations such as it seldom provides a practical assessment that can be utilised from researcher to researcher, across disciplines and public participation techniques. Surveys on the other hand usually address these limitations but surveys that do not encourage comparison of information or ask

  11. Reactor-based management of used nuclear fuel: assessment of major options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finck, Phillip J; Wigeland, Roald A; Hill, Robert N

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the current status of the ongoing Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program in the U.S. Department of Energy that is investigating the potential for using the processing and recycling of used nuclear fuel to improve radioactive waste management, including used fuel. A key element of the strategies is to use nuclear reactors for further irradiation of recovered chemical elements to transmute certain long-lived highly-radioactive isotopes into less hazardous isotopes. Both thermal and fast neutron spectrum reactors are being studied as part of integrated nuclear energy systems where separations, transmutation, and disposal are considered. Radiotoxicity is being used as one of the metrics for estimating the hazard of used fuel and the processing of wastes resulting from separations and recycle-fuel fabrication. Decay heat from the used fuel and/or wastes destined for disposal is used as a metric for use of a geologic repository. Results to date indicate that the most promising options appear to be those using fast reactors in a repeated recycle mode to limit buildup of higher actinides, since the transuranic elements are a key contributor to the radiotoxicity and decay heat. Using such an approach, there could be much lower environmental impact from the high-level waste as compared to direct disposal of the used fuel, but there would likely be greater generation of low-level wastes that will also require disposal. An additional potential waste management benefit is having the ability to tailor waste forms and contents to one or more targeted disposal environments (i.e., to be able to put waste in environments best-suited for the waste contents and forms). PMID:21399411

  12. Life cycle assessment of mobility options using wood based fuels--comparison of selected environmental effects and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Jana; Kaltschmitt, Martin

    2013-12-01

    An environmental assessment and a cost analysis were conducted for mobility options using electricity, hydrogen, ethanol, Fischer-Tropsch diesel and methane derived from wood. Therefore, the overall life cycle with regard to greenhouse gas emissions, acidifying emissions and fossil energy demand as well as costs is analysed. The investigation is carried out for mobility options in 2010 and gives an outlook to the year 2030. Results show that methane utilization in the car is beneficial with regard to environmental impacts (e.g. 58.5 g CO2-eq./km) and costs (23.1 €-ct./km) in 2010, especially in comparison to hydrogen usage (132.4 g CO2-eq./km and 63.9 €-ct./km). The electric vehicle construction has high environmental impacts and costs compared to conventional vehicles today, but with technical improvements and further market penetration, battery electric vehicles can reach the level of concepts with combustion engines in future applications (e.g. cost decrease from 38.7 to 23.4 €-ct./km). PMID:24012134

  13. Options theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techniques used in conventional project appraisal are mathematically very simple in comparison to those used in reservoir modelling, and in the geosciences. Clearly it would be possible to value assets in mathematically more sophisticated ways if it were meaningful and worthwhile so to do. The DCf approach in common use has recognized limitations; the inability to select a meaningful discount rate being particularly significant. Financial Theory has advanced enormously over the last few years, along with computational techniques, and methods are beginning to appear which may change the way we do project evaluations in practice. The starting point for all of this was a paper by Black and Scholes, which asserts that almost all corporate liabilities can be viewed as options of varying degrees of complexity. Although the financial presentation may be unfamiliar to engineers and geoscientists, some of the concepts used will not be. This paper outlines, in plain English, the basis of option pricing theory for assessing the market value of a project. it also attempts to assess the future role of this type of approach in practical Petroleum Exploration and Engineering economics. Reference is made to relevant published Natural Resource literature

  14. Integrating experimental and numerical methods for a scenario-based quantitative assessment of subsurface energy storage options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabuth, Alina; Dahmke, Andreas; Hagrey, Said Attia al; Berta, Márton; Dörr, Cordula; Koproch, Nicolas; Köber, Ralf; Köhn, Daniel; Nolde, Michael; Tilmann Pfeiffer, Wolf; Popp, Steffi; Schwanebeck, Malte; Bauer, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Within the framework of the transition to renewable energy sources ("Energiewende"), the German government defined the target of producing 60 % of the final energy consumption from renewable energy sources by the year 2050. However, renewable energies are subject to natural fluctuations. Energy storage can help to buffer the resulting time shifts between production and demand. Subsurface geological structures provide large potential capacities for energy stored in the form of heat or gas on daily to seasonal time scales. In order to explore this potential sustainably, the possible induced effects of energy storage operations have to be quantified for both specified normal operation and events of failure. The ANGUS+ project therefore integrates experimental laboratory studies with numerical approaches to assess subsurface energy storage scenarios and monitoring methods. Subsurface storage options for gas, i.e. hydrogen, synthetic methane and compressed air in salt caverns or porous structures, as well as subsurface heat storage are investigated with respect to site prerequisites, storage dimensions, induced effects, monitoring methods and integration into spatial planning schemes. The conceptual interdisciplinary approach of the ANGUS+ project towards the integration of subsurface energy storage into a sustainable subsurface planning scheme is presented here, and this approach is then demonstrated using the examples of two selected energy storage options: Firstly, the option of seasonal heat storage in a shallow aquifer is presented. Coupled thermal and hydraulic processes induced by periodic heat injection and extraction were simulated in the open-source numerical modelling package OpenGeoSys. Situations of specified normal operation as well as cases of failure in operational storage with leaking heat transfer fluid are considered. Bench-scale experiments provided parameterisations of temperature dependent changes in shallow groundwater hydrogeochemistry. As a

  15. Indonesian options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunardi; Anderluh, J.H.M.; van der; Subanar; Sri Haryatmi

    2006-01-01

    Jakarta Stock Exchange Indonesia has started to trade Indonesian options at September 9th, 2004. An Indonesian option can be considered as an American style barrier option with immediate (forced) exercise if the price hits or crosses the barrier before maturity. The payoff of the option is based on

  16. A regional assessment of the cost and effectiveness of mitigation measures for reducing nutrient losses to water and greenhouse gas emissions to air from pastoral farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibart, Ronaldo; Vogeler, Iris; Dennis, Samuel; Kaye-Blake, William; Monaghan, Ross; Burggraaf, Vicki; Beautrais, Josef; Mackay, Alec

    2015-06-01

    Using a novel approach that links geospatial land resource information with individual farm-scale simulation, we conducted a regional assessment of nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) losses to water and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to air from the predominant mix of pastoral industries in Southland, New Zealand. An evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of several nutrient loss mitigation strategies applied at the farm-scale, set primarily for reducing N and P losses and grouped by capital cost and potential ease of adoption, followed an initial baseline assessment. Grouped nutrient loss mitigation strategies were applied on an additive basis on the assumption of full adoption, and were broadly identified as 'improved nutrient management' (M1), 'improved animal productivity' (M2), and 'restricted grazing' (M3). Estimated annual nitrate-N leaching losses occurring under representative baseline sheep and beef (cattle) farms, and representative baseline dairy farms for the region were 10 ± 2 and 32 ± 6 kg N/ha (mean ± standard deviation), respectively. Both sheep and beef and dairy farms were responsive to N leaching loss mitigation strategies in M1, at a low cost per kg N-loss mitigated. Only dairy farms were responsive to N leaching loss abatement from adopting M2, at no additional cost per kg N-loss mitigated. Dairy farms were also responsive to N leaching loss abatement from adopting M3, but this reduction came at a greater cost per kg N-loss mitigated. Only dairy farms were responsive to P-loss mitigation strategies, in particular by adopting M1. Only dairy farms were responsive to GHG abatement; greater abatement was achieved by the most intensified dairy farm system simulated. Overall, M1 provided for high levels of regional scale N- and P-loss abatement at a low cost per farm without affecting overall farm production, M2 provided additional N-loss abatement but only marginal P-loss abatement, whereas M3 provided the greatest N-loss abatement, but

  17. Northeast regional assessment study for solar electric options in the period 1980-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-04-01

    Opportunities for demonstration and large scale deployment of solar electric facilities are identified and assessed. Technical, economic, and institutional factors that can contribute to an accelerated use of solar energy for electric power generation are defined. The following topics are covered: a description of the Northeast Region and its solar resources, central station applications, a dispersed user analysis, user viewpoints and institutional factors, and market potential for dispersed solar electric systems. (MHR)

  18. Assessment of coal technology options and implications for the State of Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, J.L.; Elcock, D.; Elliott, T.J. [and others

    1993-12-01

    The mandate of this research report was to provide the state of Hawaii with an assessment of the potential opportunities and drawbacks of relying on coal-fired generating technologies to diversify its fuel mix and satisfy future electric power requirements. This assessment was to include a review of existing and emerging coal-based power technologies-including their associated costs, environmental impacts, land use, and infrastructure requirements-to determine the range of impacts likely to occur if such systems were deployed in Hawaii. Coupled with this review, the report was also to (1) address siting and safety issues as they relate to technology choice and coal transport, (2) consider how environmental costs associated with coal usage are included in the integrated resource planning (ERP) process, and (3) develop an analytical tool from which the Department of Business, Economic Development & Tourism of the State of Hawaii could conduct first-order comparisons of power plant selection and siting. The prepared report addresses each element identified above. However, available resources and data limitations limited the extent to which particular characteristics of coal use could be assessed. For example, the technology profiles are current but not as complete regarding future developments and cost/emissions data as possible, and the assessment of coal technology deployment issues in Hawaii was conducted on an aggregate (not site-specific) basis. Nonetheless, the information and findings contained in this report do provide an accurate depiction of the opportunities for and issues associated with coal utilization in the state of Hawaii.

  19. Salinisation impacts in life cycle assessment : a review of challenges and options towards their consistent integration

    OpenAIRE

    Payen, S.; Basset-Mens, C.; Nunez, M; Follain, S.; GRUNBERGER, OLIVIER; Marlet, S.; Perret, S; Roux, P.

    2016-01-01

    Salinisation is a threat not only to arable land but also to freshwater resources. Nevertheless, salinisation impacts have been rarely and only partially included in life cycle assessment (LCA) so far. The objectives of this review paper were to give a comprehensive overview of salinisation mechanisms due to human interventions, analyse the completeness, relevance and scientific robustness of existing published methods addressing salinisation in LCA and provide recommendations towards a compr...

  20. Assessing Age Pension Options: Public Opinion in Australia 1994 - 2001 with Comparisons to Finland and Poland

    OpenAIRE

    M. D. R. Evans; Jonathan Kelley

    2004-01-01

    This working paper assesses Australians' views on alternative old age pension systems. We find that a no-pension system is very unpopular (28 points out of 100, on average), and a universal pension system fairly popular (62 points, on average), with other systems in between. The current catchment of the current system was not asked about directly in the existing data, but forecasts of its likely rating, based on interpolation between the ratings of the other systems suggest that it would draw...

  1. Assessment of the energy requirements and selected options facing major consumers within the Egyptian industrial and agricultural sectors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-05-31

    The objectives of the energy assessment study of Egypt are to develop an understanding of the current status of the principal energy users in Egypt's industrial and agricultural sectors; to estimate the energy demand and efficiency for each selected subsector within these major sectors; to identify opportunities for fuel type changes, technology switches, or production pattern changes which might increase the efficiency with which Egypt's energy is used both now and in the future: and based on options identified, to forecast energy efficiencies for selected Egyptian subsectors for the years 1985 and 2000. Study results are presented for the iron and steel, aluminium, fertilizer, chemical, petrochemical, cement, and textile industries and automotive manufacturers. Study results for drainage, irrigation, and mechanization procedures in the agricultural sector and food processing sector are also presented. (MCW)

  2. Using the Lashof Accounting Methodology to Assess Carbon Mitigation Projects Using LCA: Ethanol Biofuel as a Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courchesne, Alexandre; Becaert, Valerie; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.;

    2010-01-01

    and comparison of different carbon mitigation projects (e.g. biofuel use, sequestering plant, afforestation project, etc.). The Lashof accounting methodology is chosen amid other methods of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission characterization for its relative simplicity and capability of characterizing all types...... of carbon mitigation projects. It calculates the cumulative radiative forcing caused by GHG emission within a predetermined time frame. Basically, the developed framework uses the Mg-year as a functional unit and isolates impacts related to the climate mitigation function with system expansion. The proposed...... study reveals that the system expansion scenario and the efficiency at reducing carbon emissions of the carbon mitigation project are critical factors having significant impact on results. Also, framework proves to be useful at treating land-use change emission as they are considered through...

  3. Environmental Assessment : Implementation of federal mitigation requirements for changes in sewage treatment discharges within the Truckee-Carson watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposes to implement mitigation plans for two sewage effluent disposal systems in the Truckee-Carson watersheds. Implementation...

  4. Regional climate change mitigation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to explore some of the key methodological issues that arise from an analysis of regional climate change mitigation options. The rationale for any analysis of regional mitigation activities, emphasising both the theoretical attractiveness and the existing political encouragement and the methodology that has been developed are reviewed. The differences arising from the fact that mitigation analyses have been taken from the level of the national - where the majority of the work has been completed to date - to the level of the international - that is, the 'regional' - will be especially highlighted. (EG)

  5. Regional climate change mitigation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowlands, Ian H. [UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment, and Univ. of Waterloo (Canada)

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore some of the key methodological issues that arise from an analysis of regional climate change mitigation options. The rationale for any analysis of regional mitigation activities, emphasising both the theoretical attractiveness and the existing political encouragement and the methodology that has been developed are reviewed. The differences arising from the fact that mitigation analyses have been taken from the level of the national - where the majority of the work has been completed to date - to the level of the international - that is, the `regional` - will be especially highlighted. (EG)

  6. Greening of taxes. Effects and assessment of options for the Tax Plan 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the Tax Plan 2009 research was conducted with regard to the environmental effectiveness of 15 fiscal measures. These are measures related to traffic and transport, domestic energy use, trade and industry and the built environment. Next to the environmental effectiveness, these greening measures have also been assessed for their effect on the competitiveness of Dutch companies, political support, consequences for purchasing power and burden sharing, cohesion in the environmental policy area involved, fiscal fitting-in, implementation cost and maintainability. The results of the study will be used in the preparation of the so-called 'second part of the greening' of the current cabinet. [mk

  7. Environmental impact assessment of structural flood mitigation measures by a rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) technique: a case study in Metro Manila, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbuena, Romeo; Kawamura, Akira; Medina, Reynaldo; Amaguchi, Hideo; Nakagawa, Naoko; Bui, Duong Du

    2013-07-01

    In recent decades, the practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA) in the planning processes of infrastructure projects has created significant awareness on the benefits of environmentally sound and sustainable urban development around the world. In the highly urbanized megacities in the Philippines, like Metro Manila, high priority is given by the national government to structural flood mitigation measures (SFMM) due to the persistently high frequency of flood-related disasters, which are exacerbated by the on-going effects of climate change. EIA thus, should be carefully and effectively executed to maximize the potential benefits of the SFMM. The common practice of EIA in the Philippines is generally qualitative and lacks clear methodology in evaluating multi-criteria systems. Thus, this study proposes the use of the rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) technique to provide a method that would systematically and quantitatively evaluate the socio-economic and environmental impacts of planned SFMM in Metro Manila. The RIAM technique was slightly modified to fit the requirements of this study. The scale of impact was determined for each perceived impact, and based on the results, the planned SFMM for Metro Manila will likely bring significant benefits; however, significant negative impacts may also likely occur. The proposed modifications were found to be highly compatible with RIAM, and the results of the RIAM analysis provided a clear view of the impacts associated with the implementation of SFMM projects. This may prove to be valuable in the practice of EIA in the Philippines.

  8. Biofuel or excavation? - Life cycle assessment (LCA) of soil remediation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suer, Pascal; Andersson-Skoeld, Yvonne [Swedish Geotechnical Institute, 58193 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2011-02-15

    The environmental consequences of soil remediation through biofuel or through dig-and-dump were compared using life cycle assessment (LCA). Willow (Salix viminalis) was actually grown in-situ on a discontinued oil depot, as a phytoremediation treatment. These data were used for the biofuel remediation, while excavation-and-refill data were estimated from experience. The biofuel remediation had great environmental advantages compared to the ex situ excavation remediation. With the ReCiPe impact assessment method, which included biodiversity, the net environmental effect was even positive, in spite of the fact that the wood harvest was not utilised for biofuel production, but left on the contaminated site. Impact from the Salix viminalis cultivation was mainly through land use for the short rotation coppice, and through journeys of control personnel. The latter may be reduced when familiarity with biofuel as a soil treatment method increases. The excavation-and-refill remediation was dominated by the landfill and the transport of contaminated soil and backfill. (author)

  9. Economic efficiency assessment of greenhouse gases mitigation for agriculture; Analyse af omkostningseffektiviteten ved drivhusgasreducerende tiltag i relation til landbruget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubgaard, A.; Moeller Laugesen, F.; Staehl, E.E.; Bang, J.R.; Schou, E.; Jacobsen, Brian H.; Oerum, J.E.; Dejgaerd Jensen, J.

    2013-08-15

    The report contains the contributions by the Institute of Food and Resource Economics (IFRO) to a Danish Government appraisal of greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction measures. The policy goal is a 40 per cent reduction in total Danish GHG emissions by 2020 compared to 1990. The GHGs analysed in the present study include emissions of CO{sub 2}, nitrous oxide and methane plus soil carbon sequestration. The purpose of the study is to identify GHG mitigation measures related to agriculture which can deliver cost-effective contributions to the targeted reduction in GHG emissions in Denmark. A total of 21 GHG mitigation measures are included in the assessment. The stipulated implementation period is 2013 to 2020. The cost calculations have a time horizon equal to 30 years, i.e. from 2013 to 2042. The GHG reduction potential, expressed in CO{sub 2} equivalents (CO{sub 2}-eq), is calculated as the sum of the effect on the emission of CO{sub 2} (with and without changes in soil carbon), methane and nitrous oxide. The 21 mitigation measures are listed below (figures in brackets show the assumed implementation potential): 1. Biogas from livestock manure/slurry (10 % of total slurry production) 2. Biogas from slurry and maize (10 % of total slurry production) 3. Biogas from organic clover 4. Additional fat in diet for dairy cows (80% of conventional dairy cow stock and 20 % of organic dairy cow stock) 5. Additional concentrated feed in diet for other cattle (25 % of cattle stock under 2 years of age) 6. Prolonged lactation period for dairy cows (10 % of dairy cow stock) 7. Acidification of slurry (10 % of total slurry production) 8. Covers on slurry containers (40 % of total slurry production) 9. Cooling of pig slurry (10 % of pig slurry) 10. Nitrification inhibitors in nitrate fertilisers (100 % of chemical fertilisers with nitrogen) 11. Increased nitrogen utilization requirement for degassed slurry in nitrogen quota system (50 % of total slurry production) 12. Increased nitrogen

  10. Comparative application of different risk assessment models and implications on resulting remediation options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodaglio, Andrea; Callegari, Arianna; Torretta, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The issue of contaminated soils and their productive recovery is a quite controversial environmental and economic problem with important consequences for its social, public health and sustainability aspects. The sheer number and characteristics of the polluted sites are so large and varied, and the definition of priorities related to their remediation interventions so site-dependent, that proper characterization and final environmental quality goals reflect a strategic importance. One of the possible approaches to site specific approach and site priority ranking can be that of carrying out, respectively, absolute and comparative analysis procedures. An important aspect to be solved is represented by the necessity to consider not only the potential risk to public health, but also the best possible financial return from the investments for remediation, especially when carried out with public money. In this paper, different contaminated sites' risk assessment approaches are considered, compared and their applicability to support sustainable policies discussed using a case study.

  11. OPTIONS FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF ITEMS OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AT NATIONAL, EUROPEAN AND INTERNATIONAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIA SAMARA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of evaluation is to determine the financial position and the outcome of the entity’s activity. With the intensification of the phenomena of globalization of economies and financial markets and the emergence of phenomena such as inflation, it began to be more often used the assessment based on the current value and, in particular, on the fair value. The users of the financial statements must always be taken into when selecting a basis of evaluation. Internationally, we can observe the tendency that, by the use of a certain bases of evaluation, to respond favourably to the needs of a various range of users; a balance must be assured between the relevance of the information (their usefulness in decision-making and their reliability (their objectivity.

  12. Mind the gap in SEA: An institutional perspective on why assessment of synergies amongst climate change mitigation, adaptation and other policy areas are missing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vammen Larsen, Sanne, E-mail: sannevl@plan.aau.dk [Aalborg University, Lautrupvang 1A, 2750 Ballerup (Denmark); Kornov, Lone, E-mail: lonek@plan.aau.dk [Aalborg University, Fibigerstraede 13, 9220 Aalborg O (Denmark); Wejs, Anja, E-mail: wejs@plan.aau.dk [Aalborg University, Fibigerstraede 13, 9220 Aalborg O (Denmark)

    2012-02-15

    This article takes its point of departure in two approaches to integrating climate change into Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA): Mitigation and adaptation, and in the fact that these, as well as the synergies between them and other policy areas, are needed as part of an integrated assessment and policy response. First, the article makes a review of how positive and negative synergies between a) climate change mitigation and adaptation and b) climate change and other environmental concerns are integrated into Danish SEA practice. Then, the article discusses the implications of not addressing synergies. Finally, the article explores institutional explanations as to why synergies are not addressed in SEA practice. A document analysis of 149 Danish SEA reports shows that only one report comprises the assessment of synergies between mitigation and adaptation, whilst 9,4% of the reports assess the synergies between climate change and other environmental concerns. The consequences of separation are both the risk of trade-offs and missed opportunities for enhancing positive synergies. In order to propose explanations for the lacking integration, the institutional background is analysed and discussed, mainly based on Scott's theory of institutions. The institutional analysis highlights a regulatory element, since the assessment of climate change synergies is underpinned by legislation, but not by guidance. This means that great focus is on normative elements such as the local interpretation of legislation and of climate change mitigation and adaptation. The analysis also focuses on how the fragmentation of the organisation in which climate change and SEA are embedded has bearings on both normative and cultural-cognitive elements. This makes the assessment of synergies challenging. The evidence gathered and presented in the article points to a need for developing the SEA process and methodology in Denmark with the aim to include climate change in the assessments

  13. Mind the gap in SEA: An institutional perspective on why assessment of synergies amongst climate change mitigation, adaptation and other policy areas are missing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article takes its point of departure in two approaches to integrating climate change into Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA): Mitigation and adaptation, and in the fact that these, as well as the synergies between them and other policy areas, are needed as part of an integrated assessment and policy response. First, the article makes a review of how positive and negative synergies between a) climate change mitigation and adaptation and b) climate change and other environmental concerns are integrated into Danish SEA practice. Then, the article discusses the implications of not addressing synergies. Finally, the article explores institutional explanations as to why synergies are not addressed in SEA practice. A document analysis of 149 Danish SEA reports shows that only one report comprises the assessment of synergies between mitigation and adaptation, whilst 9,4% of the reports assess the synergies between climate change and other environmental concerns. The consequences of separation are both the risk of trade-offs and missed opportunities for enhancing positive synergies. In order to propose explanations for the lacking integration, the institutional background is analysed and discussed, mainly based on Scott's theory of institutions. The institutional analysis highlights a regulatory element, since the assessment of climate change synergies is underpinned by legislation, but not by guidance. This means that great focus is on normative elements such as the local interpretation of legislation and of climate change mitigation and adaptation. The analysis also focuses on how the fragmentation of the organisation in which climate change and SEA are embedded has bearings on both normative and cultural–cognitive elements. This makes the assessment of synergies challenging. The evidence gathered and presented in the article points to a need for developing the SEA process and methodology in Denmark with the aim to include climate change in the assessments in

  14. Climate Change Mitigation Activities in the Philippine Forestry Sector. Application of the COMAP Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasco, Rodel D.; Pulhin, Florencia B. [Environmental Forestry Programme (ENFOR), College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines at Los Banos College, 4031 Laguna (Philippines)

    2001-07-01

    The forest sector in the Philippines has the potential to be a major sink for carbon (C). The present study was conducted to evaluate potential forestry mitigation options in the Philippines using the Comprehensive Mitigation Assessment Process (COMAP) model. The baseline scenario (BAU) assumes that current trends continue up to the year 2030 ('business-as-usual'). Two mitigation scenarios were evaluated: high scenario (HS) and low scenario (LS). The former is patterned largely from the government's forest master plan while the latter assumes a 50% lower success rate of the master plan. The results of the analyses show that by 2030, the total C stock of the Philippine forest sector in the baseline scenario decreases to 814 x 10{sup 6} Mg C, down by 37% compared to the 1990 level. The C stocks of the HS and LS mitigation scenarios were 22% and 18% higher than the BAU, respectively. Of the mitigation options assessed, long rotation plantations and forest protection activities produce the greatest C gain (199 and 104 x 10{sup 6} Mg, respectively under HS). The not present value (NPV) of benefits is highest in the bioenergy option with $24.48 per Mg C (excluding opportunity costs) at a real discount rate of 12%. However, the investment and life cycle costs are also highest using bioenergy. The study also estimated potential investments needed under the mitigation scenarios. The investment requirement for the LS amounts to $263 x 10{sup 6} while for the HS it is $748 x 10{sup 6}. Finally, policy issues and decisions that may be useful for the Philippines to evaluate LULUCF mitigation options under the UNFCCC Kyoto Protocol, are identified and discussed. 30 refs.

  15. A safety assessment for proposed pump mixing operations to mitigate episodic gas releases in tank 241-SY-101: Hanford Site,Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentsch, J.W.

    1996-07-01

    This safety assessment addresses each of the elements required for the proposed action to remove a slurry distributor and to install, operate, and remove a mixing pump in Tank 241-SY-101,which is located within the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington.The proposed action is required as part of an ongoing evaluation of various mitigation concepts developed to eliminate episodic gas releases that result in hydrogen concentrations in the tank dome space that exceed the lower flammability limit.

  16. Assessing the uncertainties of climate policies and mitigation measures. Viewpoints on biofuel production, grid electricity consumption and differentiation of emission reduction commitments

    OpenAIRE

    Soimakallio, Sampo

    2012-01-01

    Ambitious climate change mitigation requires the implementation of effective and equitable climate policy and GHG emission reduction measures. The objective of this study was to explore the significance of the uncertainties related to GHG emission reduction measures and policies by providing viewpoints on biofuels production, grid electricity consumption and differentiation of emission reduction commitments between countries and country groups. Life cycle assessment (LCA) and macro-level scen...

  17. Safety assessment for proposed pump mixing operations to mitigate episodic gas releases in tank 241-101-SY: Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentsch, J.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-16

    This safety assessment addresses each of the elements required for the proposed action to remove a slurry distributor and to install, operate, and remove a mixing pump in Tank 241-SY-101, which is located within the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The proposed action is required as part of an ongoing evaluation of various mitigation concepts developed to eliminate episodic gas releases that result in hydrogen concentrations in the tank dome space that exceed the lower flammability limit.

  18. Assessment of energy generation potentials of MSW in Delhi under different technological options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Energy generation potentials of the municipal solid waste (MSW) have been assessed. • Assessment of WTE potential is based on theoretical ideals and waste characteristics. • Impact of segregation of MSW on energy generation potential has been evaluated. • Plasma arc gasification technology shows the highest energy generation potential. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) is an important source of methane emission which is a greenhouse gas (GHG) and has high potential for its use as energy source. A study has been carried out to find out the energy generation potential of MSW being dumped in Delhi’s three landfills viz. Ghazipur (GL), Bhalswa (BL) and Okhla (OL). Five technologies for waste to energy generation, namely biomethanation, incineration, gasification/pyrolysis, refused derived fuel (RDF) and plasma arc gasification have been evaluated for computation of possible energy (WTE) generation potential of MSW under ideal conditions using the MSW specific characteristic parameters. Bulk waste with and without pre-segregation of reusable high carbonaceous materials have been considered to develop range of energy generation potentials under two scenarios of with and without segregation of MSW. USEPA-LandGem model version 3.02 has been used to get LFG generation potential of Delhi’s landfills. The potential of biomethanation process for producing energy has been found to be in the range of 3–10, 3–8 and 2–8 MW/day from the MSW deposited in GL, BL and OL respectively. The energy generation potentials of the MSW deposited in GL, BL and OL have been found to be in the range of 8–24, 7–22 and 7–19 MW/day for incineration process; 17–32, 16–29 and 11–25 MW/day from gasification/pyrolysis process; 9–19, 8–18 and 6–15 MW/day for RDF process; and 17–35, 16–32 and 11–28 MW/day for plasma arc gasification process respectively. The lower values in these ranges depict the energy generation potential for segregated

  19. Assessing District-Heating Sustainability. Case Studies of CO{sub 2} Mitigation Strategies and Environmental Cost Accounting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahlen, Elsa

    2012-11-01

    District heating (DH) may play an important role in achieving the EU goal of a secure, competitive and sustainable energy supply. Integrated energy solutions based on technologies, such as biomass gasification for transport fuel, electricity and heat production and heat-driven absorption cooling, create new optimisation possibilities through the linkage between heat, power, cooling and transport fuel markets which may reduce the global warming contribution of the energy sector. With increasing focus on climate change impacts of greenhouse gas emissions, the environmental effects of other air pollutants should not be neglected. To achieve both a competitive and a sustainable energy supply, it is necessary to integrate environmental considerations into economic policies. Through accounting for external costs of air pollution in energy system modelling and analysis, sustainability aspects may be integrated into DH assessments. The aim of this thesis is to develop, apply and evaluate methodologies for assessing conventional and new technology solutions in a DH system; the assessments are made from a DH perspective with respect to two factors - cost-effectiveness and environmental impacts - which are either assessed separately or integrated through external cost accounting. Various CO{sub 2} mitigation strategies are evaluated with regard to the robustness of the DH system in meeting future developments of energy market prices and policies. The studies are performed using a systems approach by using the simulating DH supply model MARTES as applied to the DH system Sweden. This thesis concludes that the integration of biomass gasification technology and absorption cooling technology in DH systems has the potential for cost-effective CO{sub 2} emission reduction, in line with other EU goals to increase the share of renewable sources in energy use and to increase energy efficiency. Accounting for external costs of not only climate change but also other environmental

  20. Assessment of cleaner process options : a case study from petroleum refining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weston, N. [Surrey Univ., Guildford (United Kingdom). Centre for Environmental Strategy; Chevron Ltd., Pembroke Point (United Kingdom); Clift, R.; Basson, L. [Surrey Univ., Guildford (United Kingdom). Centre for Environmental Strategy; Pouton, A.; White, N. [Chevron Ltd., Pembroke Point (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-15

    A case study was used to illustrate the challenge of evaluating clean technologies and making modifications to an alkylation unit at a refinery in the United Kingdom. The alkylation unit used hydrogen flouride as an alkylation catalyst and generated fluoridic wastes that required further treatment. The alkylation process is used to produce a high value petroleum blend used for transport fuels. Acidic catalysts are used to eliminate the need for high temperatures and pressures. The study identified possible alterations to enable partial recycling. Different system boundaries were identified. The study considered technological, social, environmental and economic changes associated with the implementation of the process. A life cycle inventory of various processes considered for the refinery was presented. Possible technological changes that could avoid, reduce, or enable partial recycling waste were presented. Losses to relief systems, defluorinators, potassium hydroxide (KOH) treaters, and neutralization systems were also considered. Results of the study showed that the decision-making process involved trade-offs between costs and benefits with considerable uncertainties. It was concluded that the financial scale of projects cannot be used as a guide to systematic sustainability assessment. 50 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  1. Life cycle assessment of solid waste management options for Eskisehir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banar, Mufide; Cokaygil, Zerrin; Ozkan, Aysun

    2009-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was used to determine the optimum municipal solid waste (MSW) management strategy for Eskisehir city. Eskisehir is one of the developing cities of Turkey where a total of approximately 750tons/day of waste is generated. An effective MSW management system is needed in this city since the generated MSW is dumped in an unregulated dumping site that has no liner, no biogas capture, etc. Therefore, five different scenarios were developed as alternatives to the current waste management system. Collection and transportation of waste, a material recovery facility (MRF), recycling, composting, incineration and landfilling processes were considered in these scenarios. SimaPro7 libraries were used to obtain background data for the life cycle inventory. One ton of municipal solid waste of Eskisehir was selected as the functional unit. The alternative scenarios were compared through the CML 2000 method and these comparisons were carried out from the abiotic depletion, global warming, human toxicity, acidification, eutrophication and photochemical ozone depletion points of view. According to the comparisons and sensitivity analysis, composting scenario, S3, is the more environmentally preferable alternative. In this study waste management alternatives were investigated only on an environmental point of view. For that reason, it might be supported with other decision-making tools that consider the economic and social effects of solid waste management. PMID:18280731

  2. Assessing environmental impacts of storage technologies and competing options for balancing demand and supply in 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droste-Franke, Bert [Europaeische Akademie Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler GmbH, Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The major aim of using renewable energies for electricity production is to realise a sustainable and environmental friendly energy system which can be operated viably in the long term. One major indicator to reach this aim is the overall emission of CO2 resulting from the use of a certain technology. However, further environmental aspects have to be taken into account for an adequate evaluation of technologies. With respect to preserving the environmental basis for future generations several environmental pressures have to be considered which can either lead to small and substitutable, marginal environmental damages or to environmental impacts which contribute to burdens which could become critical, i.e., jeopardising important environmental functions. Thus, it should be accounted for the societal acceptability of their (potential) environmental impacts. The analysis presented here deals with the assessment of environmental effects of both types, marginal and potentially critical, for current and advanced technologies which can be used for balancing fluctuations in the electricity production from renewable sources in an economic environment of 2050. The basic results used were derived in a study carried out by the Europaeische Akademie GmbH (Droste-Franke et al. 2012).

  3. Wildlife Impact Assessment and Summary of Previous Mitigation Related to Hydroelectric Projects in Montana, Volume One, Libby Dam Project, Operator, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yde, Chris A.

    1984-10-01

    This assessment addresses the impacts to the wildlife populations and wildlife habitats due to the Libby Dam project on the Kootenai River and previous mitigation of these losses. The current assessment documents the best available information concerning the impacts to the wildlife populations inhabiting the project area prior to construction of the dam and creation of the reservoir. Many of the impacts reported in this assessment differ from those contained in the earlier document compiled by the Fish and Wildlife Service; however, this document is a thorough compilation of the available data (habitat and wildlife) and, though conservative, attempts to realistically assess the impacts related to the Libby Dam project. Where appropriate the impacts resulting from highway construction and railroad relocation were included in the assessment. This was consistent with the previous assessments.

  4. Evaluation of the environmental impact of Brownfield remediation options: comparison of two life cycle assessment-based evaluation tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappuyns, Valérie; Kessen, Bram

    2012-01-01

    The choice between different options for the remediation of a contaminated site traditionally relies on economical, technical and regulatory criteria without consideration of the environmental impact of the soil remediation process itself. In the present study, the environmental impact assessment of two potential soil remediation techniques (excavation and off-site cleaning and in situ steam extraction) was performed using two life cycle assessment (LCA)-based evaluation tools, namely the REC (risk reduction, environmental merit and cost) method and the ReCiPe method. The comparison and evaluation of the different tools used to estimate the environmental impact of Brownfield remediation was based on a case study which consisted of the remediation of a former oil and fat processing plant. For the environmental impact assessment, both the REC and ReCiPe methods result in a single score for the environmental impact of the soil remediation process and allow the same conclusion to be drawn: excavation and off-site cleaning has a more pronounced environmental impact than in situ soil remediation by means of steam extraction. The ReCiPe method takes into account more impact categories, but is also more complex to work with and needs more input data. Within the routine evaluation of soil remediation alternatives, a detailed LCA evaluation will often be too time consuming and costly and the estimation of the environmental impact with the REC method will in most cases be sufficient. The case study worked out in this paper wants to provide a basis for a more sounded selection of soil remediation technologies based on a more detailed assessment of the secondary impact of soil remediation.

  5. Review and Assessment of Commercial Vendors/Options for Feeding and Pumping Biomass Slurries for Hydrothermal Liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglin, Eric J.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2012-11-01

    The National Advanced Biofuels Consortium is working to develop improved methods for producing high-value hydrocarbon fuels. The development of one such method, the hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) process, is being led by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The HTL process uses a wet biomass slurry at elevated temperatures (i.e., 300 to 360°C [570 to 680°F]) and pressures above the vapor pressure of water (i.e., 15 to 20 MPa [2200 to 3000 psi] at these temperatures) to facilitate a condensed-phase reaction medium. The process has been successfully tested at bench-scale and development and testing at a larger scale is required to prove the viability of the process at production levels. Near-term development plans include a pilot-scale system on the order of 0.5 to 40 gpm, followed by a larger production-scale system on the order of 2000 dry metric tons per day (DMTPD). A significant challenge to the scale-up of the HTL process is feeding a highly viscous fibrous biomass wood/corn stover feedstock into a pump system that provides the required 3000 psi of pressure for downstream processing. In October 2011, PNNL began investigating commercial feed and pumping options that would meet these HTL process requirements. Initial efforts focused on generating a HTL feed and pump specification and then providing the specification to prospective vendors to determine the suitability of their pumps for the pilot-scale and production-scale plants. Six vendors were identified that could provide viable equipment to meet HTL feed and/or pump needs. Those six vendors provided options consisting three types of positive displacement pumps (i.e., diaphragm, piston, and lobe pumps). Vendors provided capabilities and equipment related to HTL application. This information was collected, assessed, and summarized and is provided as appendices to this report.

  6. Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Control Technology Options within the Energy, Water and Food Nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ansari, Tareq; Korre, Anna; Nie, Zhenggang; Shah, Nilay

    2015-04-01

    The utilisation of Energy, Water and Food (EWF) resources can be described as a nexus of complex linkages embodied in industrial and natural processes. Food production is one such example of a system that mobilises EWF resources to deliver a product which is highly influenced by the efficiency of the industrial processes contributing to it and the conditions of the surrounding natural environment. Aggregating the utilisation of EWF resources into interconnected sub-systems is necessary for the accurate representation of the system's dynamics in terms of its material flow and resource consumption. The methodology used in this study is an extension of previous work developed regarding nexus analysis (Al-Ansari et al. 2014a, Al-Ansari et al. 2014b). Life cycle assessment (LCA) is used to prepare detailed models of the sub-system components, determine the linkages between the different nexus constituents and evaluate impacts on the natural environment. The nexus system is comprised of water sub-systems represented by a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination process. Energy sub-systems for power generation include models for a combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) and solar Photovoltaics (PV) energy generation, as well as an amine based CO2 capture process enabling the utilisation of CO2 for the artificial fertilization of crops. The agricultural sub-systems include the production and application of fertilizers and the raising of livestock. A biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) for power generation using waste manure from the livestock sub-system is also included. The objective of this study is to consider a conventional food system in Qatar and enhance its environmental performance by using a nexus approach to examine different scenarios and operating modes. For the Qatar case study, three scenarios and four modes of operation were developed as part of the analysis. The baseline scenario uses fossil fuel to power the entire EWF nexus system using CCGT, the

  7. Assessment of variability in acquired thermotolerance: potential option to study genotypic response and the relevance of stress genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa; Kumar, Ganesh; Srikanthbabu, Venkatachalayya; Udayakumar, Makarla

    2007-02-01

    High-temperature stress affects all growth stages of crops and ultimately yields. This is further aggravated by other environmental stresses like intermittent drought and high light. Management options are few and hence developing intrinsically tolerant plants is essential to combat the situation. As thermotolerance is a multigenic trait, emphasis needs to be on relevant approaches to assess genetic variability in basal and acquired tolerance. This is in fact the major aspect in crop improvement programmes. The relevance of temperature induction (acclimation) response (TIR), a high throughput approach to identify thermotolerant individuals and its utility as potential screening method is described here. This is based on the concept that stress-responsive genes are expressed only during initial stages of stress (acclimation stress) and bring about requisite changes in cell metabolism for adaptation. The fact that acclimation response is ubiquitous has been demonstrated in different crop plants in our studies and by others. Significance of acclimation in acquired tolerance and thus in assessing genetic variability in thermotolerance is discussed. The limitations of present approaches to validate the relevance of specific stress genes either in transgenics or in mutants or knock downs have been analyzed and the need to characterize transformants under conditions that trigger acquired tolerance is also highlighted. This review also focuses on the potential of exploiting acclimation response approach to improve the thermotolerance of crop plants by suitable breeding strategies. PMID:17207553

  8. Assessment and management of respiratory function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: current and emerging options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LoMauro A

    2015-09-01

    assessment and management of respiratory function in DMD patients. Keywords: DMD, spirometry, respiratory muscles, cough device, NIV, steroids, idebenone, respiratory function, lung volume recruitment, scoliosis, spinal fusion, mdx, GRMD

  9. Assessment and management of respiratory function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: current and emerging options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoMauro, Antonella; D'Angelo, Maria Grazia; Aliverti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked myopathy resulting in progressive weakness and wasting of all the striated muscles including the respiratory muscles. The consequences are loss of ambulation before teen ages, cardiac involvement and breathing difficulties, the main cause of death. A cure for DMD is not currently available. In the last decades the survival of patients with DMD has improved because the natural history of the disease can be changed thanks to a more comprehensive therapeutic approach. This comprises interventions targeted to the manifestations and complications of the disease, particularly in the respiratory care. These include: 1) pharmacological intervention, namely corticosteroids and idebenone that significantly reduce the decline of spirometric parameters; 2) rehabilitative intervention, namely lung volume recruitment techniques that help prevent atelectasis and slows the rate of decline of pulmonary function; 3) scoliosis treatment, namely steroid therapy that is used to reduce muscle inflammation/degeneration and prolong ambulation in order to delay the onset of scoliosis, being an additional contribution to the restrictive lung pattern; 4) cough assisted devices that improve airway clearance thus reducing the risk of pulmonary infections; and 5) non-invasive mechanical ventilation that is essential to treat nocturnal hypoventilation, sleep disordered breathing, and ultimately respiratory failure. Without any intervention death occurs within the first 2 decades, however, thanks to this multidisciplinary therapeutic approach life expectancy of a newborn with DMD nowadays can be significantly prolonged up to his fourth decade. This review is aimed at providing state-of-the-art methods and techniques for the assessment and management of respiratory function in DMD patients. PMID:26451113

  10. Assessment of fire behavior and management options in subalpine vegetation on Mauna Kea, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaxton, Jarrod M.; Jacobi, James D.

    2009-01-01

    Fire is a major threat to habitat for the endangered Palila (Loxioides bailleui) within subalpine vegetation on Mauna Kea volcano, Hawai‘i. The presence of large amounts of fine fuel from grasses, dry climate, and human ignition sources produces a significant risk of wildfire in this area year-round. The purpose of this report is to provide information on fuels and potential fire behavior that will contribute to fire management of Palila habitat. Recommended actions will contribute to the conservation of these native forests and facilitate restoration in degraded areas. To assess the effects of grass invasion on fuel conditions and potential fire danger, we quantified vegetation and fuels across an elevation gradient from grasslands into sub-alpine forests on the west slope of Mauna Kea. Our results indicated that grass cover was reduced under tree canopy in plots below ~2,500 m elevation, but at higher elevations grass cover was higher under trees than in the open. However, tree canopy cover below 2,500 m elevation was not high enough overall (~25% on average) to result in significant reductions in fine fuels at the landscape level. Sampling directly under and away from tree crowns at multiple elevations suggested that below ~2,500 m, the presence of tree canopy cover can reduce grass fuels significantly. Furthermore, moisture content of live surface fuels was increased under tree canopy compared with open areas. These results suggest that restoration of forest cover may have the potential to alter grass fuels in ways that decrease the threat of fire in some subalpine forests. Fire behavior estimates based on fuel data from grasslands, mixed forest and māmane forest indicated the need for fuelbreaks of at least 20-30 m to limit fire spread in most areas. In many cases, breaks as wide as 40 m are required to limit fire spread risk under extreme weather conditions.

  11. Renewable energy and policy options in an integrated ASEAN electricity market: Quantitative assessments and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy market integration (EMI) in the ASEAN region is a promising solution to relieve the current immobilization of its renewable energy resources and would serve the fast increasing demand for electricity in the region. EMI could be further extended with coordinated policies in carbon pricing, renewable energy portfolio standards (RPS), and feed-in-tariffs (FIT) in the ASEAN countries. Using a linear dynamic programming model, this study quantitatively assesses the impacts of EMI and the above-mentioned policies on the development of renewable energy in the power generation sector of the region, and the carbon emissions reduction achievable with these policies. According to our results, EMI is expected to significantly promote the adoption of renewable energy. Along with EMI, FIT appears to be more cost-effective than RPS and is recommended for the ASEAN region, albeit political barriers for policy coordination among the countries might be a practical concern. In addition, an RPS of 30% electricity from renewable sources by 2030, which is considered politically a “low-hanging fruit”, would achieve moderate improvements in carbon emissions reductions and renewable energy development, while incurring negligible increases in the total cost of electricity. -- Highlights: •Energy market integration (EMI), carbon pricing, RPS, and FIT are examined for ASEAN. •EMI is a promising and feasible solution to promote renewable energy for ASEAN. •Along with EMI, FIT appears to be more cost-effective than RPS for ASEAN. •RPS of 30% by 2030 appears to be reasonable and feasible for ASEAN. •Coordinating FIT and RPS policies under EMI among ASEAN is advised

  12. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT PHASE 1 SLUDGE STORAGE OPTIONS ASSESSMENT OF T PLANT VERSUS ALTERNATE STORAGE FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RUTHERFORD WW; GEUTHER WJ; STRANKMAN MR; CONRAD EA; RHOADARMER DD; BLACK DM; POTTMEYER JA

    2009-04-29

    The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has recommended to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) a two phase approach for removal and storage (Phase 1) and treatment and packaging for offsite shipment (Phase 2) of the sludge currently stored within the 105-K West Basin. This two phased strategy enables early removal of sludge from the 105-K West Basin by 2015, allowing remediation of historical unplanned releases of waste and closure of the 100-K Area. In Phase 1, the sludge currently stored in the Engineered Containers and Settler Tanks within the 105-K West Basin will be transferred into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs). The STSCs will be transported to an interim storage facility. In Phase 2, sludge will be processed (treated) to meet shipping and disposal requirements and the sludge will be packaged for final disposal at a geologic repository. The purpose of this study is to evaluate two alternatives for interim Phase 1 storage of K Basin sludge. The cost, schedule, and risks for sludge storage at a newly-constructed Alternate Storage Facility (ASF) are compared to those at T Plant, which has been used previously for sludge storage. Based on the results of the assessment, T Plant is recommended for Phase 1 interim storage of sludge. Key elements that support this recommendation are the following: (1) T Plant has a proven process for storing sludge; (2) T Plant storage can be implemented at a lower incremental cost than the ASF; and (3) T Plant storage has a more favorable schedule profile, which provides more float, than the ASF. Underpinning the recommendation of T Plant for sludge storage is the assumption that T Plant has a durable, extended mission independent of the K Basin sludge interim storage mission. If this assumption cannot be validated and the operating costs of T Plant are borne by the Sludge Treatment Project, the conclusions and recommendations of this study would change. The following decision-making strategy, which is

  13. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT PHASE 1 SLUDGE STORAGE OPTIONS. ASSESSMENT OF T PLANT VERSUS ALTERNATE STORAGE FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has recommended to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) a two phase approach for removal and storage (Phase 1) and treatment and packaging for offsite shipment (Phase 2) of the sludge currently stored within the 105-K West Basin. This two phased strategy enables early removal of sludge from the 105-K West Basin by 2015, allowing remediation of historical unplanned releases of waste and closure of the 100-K Area. In Phase 1, the sludge currently stored in the Engineered Containers and Settler Tanks within the 105-K West Basin will be transferred into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs). The STSCs will be transported to an interim storage facility. In Phase 2, sludge will be processed (treated) to meet shipping and disposal requirements and the sludge will be packaged for final disposal at a geologic repository. The purpose of this study is to evaluate two alternatives for interim Phase 1 storage of K Basin sludge. The cost, schedule, and risks for sludge storage at a newly-constructed Alternate Storage Facility (ASF) are compared to those at T Plant, which has been used previously for sludge storage. Based on the results of the assessment, T Plant is recommended for Phase 1 interim storage of sludge. Key elements that support this recommendation are the following: (1) T Plant has a proven process for storing sludge; (2) T Plant storage can be implemented at a lower incremental cost than the ASF; and (3) T Plant storage has a more favorable schedule profile, which provides more float, than the ASF. Underpinning the recommendation of T Plant for sludge storage is the assumption that T Plant has a durable, extended mission independent of the K Basin sludge interim storage mission. If this assumption cannot be validated and the operating costs of T Plant are borne by the Sludge Treatment Project, the conclusions and recommendations of this study would change. The following decision-making strategy, which is

  14. Pricing Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenopir, Carol

    1998-01-01

    Presents results of a recent survey of over 100 public and academic libraries about pricing options from online companies. Most options fall into three categories: pay-as-you-go, fixed-rate, and user-based. Results are discussed separately for public and academic libraries and for consortial discounts. Trends in pricing options preferred by…

  15. Guidance on a harmonised framework for pest risk assessment and the identification and evaluation of pest risk management options by EFSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.;

    2010-01-01

    effects on all affected plant species as well as on the environment. The assessment of economic impacts falls outside the remit of EFSA. For the characterization of the overall risk, the use of risk matrices is proposed to combine qualitative scores. Upon request by the risk manager, risk management......The Scientific Panel on Plant Health was requested by EFSA to develop a guidance document on a harmonised framework for risk assessment of organisms harmful to plants and plant products and the identification and evaluation of risk management options. The document provides guiding principles...... and transparency of risk assessments carried out by EFSA. The document discusses the main issues of the pest risk assessment process: terminology, data requirements and data-related uncertainties. Furthermore, the document provides a framework for pest risk assessment and evaluation of pest risk management options...

  16. Assessment and characterisation of yeast-based products intended to mitigate ochratoxin exposure using in vitro and in vivo models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfohl-Leszkowicz, A; Hadjeba-Medjdoub, K; Ballet, N; Schrickx, J; Fink-Gremmels, J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the capacity of several yeast-based products, derived from baker's and brewer's yeasts, to sequester the mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) and to decrease its rate of absorption and DNA adduct formation in vivo. The experimental protocol included in vitro binding studies using isotherm models, in vivo chicken experiments, in which the serum and tissue concentrations of OTA were analysed in the absence and presence of the test compounds, and the profile of OTA-derived metabolites and their associated DNA adducts were determined. Additionally in vitro cell culture studies (HK2 cells) were applied to assess further the effects for yeast cell product enriched with glutathione (GSH) or selenium. Results of the in vitro binding assay in a buffer system indicated the ability of the yeast-based products, as sequester of OTA, albeit at a different level. In the in vitro experiments in chickens, decreased serum and tissue concentrations of treated animals confirmed that yeast-based products are able to prevent the absorption of OTA. A comparison of the binding affinity in a standard in vitro binding assay with the results obtained in an in vivo chicken experiment, however, showed a poor correlation and resulted in a different ranking of the products. More importantly, we could show that yeast-based products actively modulate the biotransformation of OTA in vivo as well as in vitro in a cell culture model. This effect seems to be attributable to residual enzymatic activities in the yeast-based products. An enrichment of yeast cell wall products with GSH or selenium further modulated the profile of the generated OTA metabolites and the associated pattern of OTA-induced DNA adducts by increasing the conversion of OTA into less toxic metabolites such as OTA, OTB and 4-OH-OTA. A reduced absorption and DNA adduct formation was particularly observed with GSH-enriched yeast, whereas selenium-enriched yeasts could counteract the OTA-induced decrease

  17. EU ETS Allocation. Evaluation of present system and options beyond 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sijm, J.P.M. (ed.) [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Berk, M.M.; Den Elzen, M.G.J.; Van den Wijngaart, R.A. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency NMP, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2007-03-15

    This study assesses various options for EU (European Union) burden sharing and EU ETS (Emissions Trading System) allocation beyond 2012, based on a sample of policy evaluation criteria and a review of the literature on (1) international and EU burden sharing of future GHG mitigation commitments, and (2) allocation of GHG emission allowances among countries, sectors and emitting installations. It shows that these options score differently with regard to a variety of individual evaluation criteria (such as environmental effectiveness, economic efficiency, social equity or political acceptability), while the overall performance of these options depends on both the selection, interpretation, weighing and adding of these criteria.

  18. EU ETS Allocation. Evaluation of present system and options beyond 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study assesses various options for EU (European Union) burden sharing and EU ETS (Emissions Trading System) allocation beyond 2012, based on a sample of policy evaluation criteria and a review of the literature on (1) international and EU burden sharing of future GHG mitigation commitments, and (2) allocation of GHG emission allowances among countries, sectors and emitting installations. It shows that these options score differently with regard to a variety of individual evaluation criteria (such as environmental effectiveness, economic efficiency, social equity or political acceptability), while the overall performance of these options depends on both the selection, interpretation, weighing and adding of these criteria

  19. Mitigation of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane emissions from manure management chains: a meta-analysis and integrated assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yong, Y.; Velthof, G.L.; Oenema, O.

    2015-01-01

    Livestock manure contributes considerably to global emissions of ammonia (NH3) and greenhouse gases (GHG), especially methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Various measures have been developed to mitigate these emissions, but most of these focus on one specific gas and/or emission source. Here, we

  20. Mitigation of adverse effects on competitiveness and leakage of unilateral EU climate policy: An assessment of policy instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antimiani, A.; Costantini, V.; Kuik, O.J.; Paglialunga, E.

    2016-01-01

    The European Union (EU) has developed a strategy to mitigate climate change by cutting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fostering low carbon technologies. However, the risk of implementing unilateral policies is that distortive effects are generated at the global scale affecting world energy price

  1. Prediction and mitigation of air preheater fouling due to ammonium bisulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afonso, R.; Tavoulareas, S.; Stallings, J. [Energy and Environmental Strategies, MA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    This paper provides a brief review of the fundamentals of ammonium bisulfate (ABS) formation, deposition and fouling in the air preheater. It presents a software-based predictive model for assessing the potential for air preheater fouling as a result of proposed SNCR or SCR retrofits and considering site-specific conditions and introduces a software-based cost-benefit model for assessing the economic trade-offs of various ABS fouling mitigation options. 7 refs., 13 figs.

  2. Assessing the options for local government to use legal approaches to combat obesity in the UK: putting theory into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C; Cowburn, G; Foster, C

    2011-08-01

    The law is recognized as a powerful tool to address some of the structural determinants of chronic disease, including 'obesogenic' environments which are a major factor in the increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide. However, it is often local - as opposed to national - government that has responsibility for an environment, including the built environment, and their role in reducing obesity using law remains relatively unexplored. With the English government shifting emphasis for improvement of public health from central to local government, this paper reviews the potential for regulatory action by local government to reduce obesity. We took a novel approach to assess the evidence and to identify legal options for implementation by local government: conducting reviews of literature, media reports and case law. Our results provide a clear rational for regulatory intervention that encourages a real choice of behaviour. They highlight strategic legal areas for reduction of obesity through restriction of traffic and promotion of active travel, promotion of access to healthy food and construction of a sustainable and active environment. Importantly, we identify current legal mechanisms for adoption by UK local government including the use of planning, licensing and transport legislation to develop local obesity prevention policy. PMID:21426480

  3. Assessment of solar options for small power systems applications. Volume II. Identification and characterization of concepts for analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laity, W.W.; Aase, D.T.; Apley, W.J.; Bird, S.P.; Drost, M.K.; Williams, T.A.

    1980-06-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to provide DOE with an independent, objective assessment of the principal solar thermal conversion concepts that have the potential for achieving commercial success as small electric power sytems in the 1- to 10-MWe range. Seven generic types of collectors, together with associated subsystems for electric power generation, were considered in this study. The collectors can be classified into three categories: (1) two-axis tracking (with compound curvature reflecting surfaces); (2) one-axis tracking (with single-curvature reflecting surfaces); and (3) nontracking (with low-concentration reflecting surfaces). These collectors can be combined with energy transport, energy storage, and power conversion subsystems in a wide variety of ways to formulate conceptual systems for electric power generation. In this study, attention was restricted to configurations that are potentially suitable for development as small power systems (1 to 10 MWe) in the long term (1990 to 2000), with initial commercialization by the mid-1980s. Cogeneration and total energy systems were beyond the scope of this study. All seven types of collectors were analyzed in conceptual system configurations with Rankine-cycle engines. Because they can operate at particularly high concentration ratios, two of the collectors (the Point Focus Central Receiver and the Point Focus Distributed Receiver) were also analyzed with Brayton-cycle engines. In addition, the latter of the two was analyzed with Stirling-cycle engines. With these engine options, 10 conceptual systems were formulated for analysis. Results are presented in detail. (WHK)

  4. Assessing the options for local government to use legal approaches to combat obesity in the UK: putting theory into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C; Cowburn, G; Foster, C

    2011-08-01

    The law is recognized as a powerful tool to address some of the structural determinants of chronic disease, including 'obesogenic' environments which are a major factor in the increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide. However, it is often local - as opposed to national - government that has responsibility for an environment, including the built environment, and their role in reducing obesity using law remains relatively unexplored. With the English government shifting emphasis for improvement of public health from central to local government, this paper reviews the potential for regulatory action by local government to reduce obesity. We took a novel approach to assess the evidence and to identify legal options for implementation by local government: conducting reviews of literature, media reports and case law. Our results provide a clear rational for regulatory intervention that encourages a real choice of behaviour. They highlight strategic legal areas for reduction of obesity through restriction of traffic and promotion of active travel, promotion of access to healthy food and construction of a sustainable and active environment. Importantly, we identify current legal mechanisms for adoption by UK local government including the use of planning, licensing and transport legislation to develop local obesity prevention policy.

  5. Assessing Ammonia Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the second of three articles to help water system operators understand ammonia and how to monitor and control its effects at the plant and in the distribution system. The first article (Opflow, April 2012) provided an overview of ammonia's chemistry, origins, and water sy...

  6. Torrential Flood Hazards Assessment, Management, And Mitigation, In Wadi Aday, Muscat Area, Sultanate Of Oman, A GIS and RS Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flash flood hazard of Wadi Aday threaten human activities in an important urban area of Muscat City, the capital of Sultanate of Oman. To evaluate and mitigate these floods; Remote Sensing (IKONOS Images), Topographic and Cadastral maps, data of rainfall, floods and other data sources have been used under a GIS environment and manipulated. The study determined the areas under the flood risk, and clarified the risk class and degree for each of human activities object in the lower part of Wadi Aday. In order to mitigate the flood hazards, and to utilize the floods water in such extreme hot desert; the study suggested: establishing two dams and artificial channel added to some methods that reduce the erosion on canyon reach road

  7. Renewable Energy Production from Municipal Solid Waste to Mitigate Climate Change: A Spatially Explicit Assessment for Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, S. T.; Leduc, S; F. Kraxner

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of municipal solid waste (MSW) as a renewable resource could overcome waste disposal issues, generate power for fossil fuel displacement, and mitigate CO2 emissions from landfill. However, the availability of waste feedstock varies with the effectiveness of waste management while the profitability and the environmental impact are mostly dependent on the conversion technology, plant location, and plant capacity. This study aims to evaluate the complexity of waste-to-energy (WTE...

  8. Real option valuation of power transmission investments by stochastic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Network expansions in power markets usually lead to investment decisions subject to substantial irreversibility and uncertainty. Hence, investors need valuing the flexibility to change decisions as uncertainty unfolds progressively. Real option analysis is an advanced valuation technique that enables planners to take advantage of market opportunities while preventing or mitigating losses if future conditions evolve unfavorably. In the past, many approaches for valuing real options have been developed. However, applying these methods to value transmission projects is often inappropriate as revenue cash flows are path-dependent and affected by a myriad of uncertain variables. In this work, a valuation technique based on stochastic simulation and recursive dynamic programming, called Least-Square Monte Carlo, is applied to properly value the deferral option in a transmission investment. The effect of option's maturity, the initial outlay and the capital cost upon the value of the postponement option is investigated. Finally, sensitivity analysis determines optimal decision regions to execute, postpone or reject the investment projects. - Highlights: • A modern investment appraisal method is applied to value power transmission projects. • The value of the option to postpone decision to invest in transmission projects is assessed. • Simulation methods are best suited for valuing real options in transmission investments

  9. Assessing the Relationship Between Hazard Mitigation Plan Quality and Rural Status in a Cohort of 57 Counties from 3 States in the Southeastern U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Salvesen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rural counties face unique challenges with regard to disaster vulnerability and resilience. We compared the quality of hazard mitigation plans (HMPs completed in accordance with provisions of the Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000 from 21 urban and 36 rural counties in three southeastern states. HMPs were content analyzed to calculate a score for six principles of plan quality. Generalized linear models were used to assess how the mean number of items within each of the six principles was related to urban status, adjusting for total county population and state-level differences. Adjusted mean ratios were higher in urban areas for goals, fact base, policies and participation. Rural areas performed better than urban counterparts in both implementation and monitoring and inter-organizational coordination. Our results suggest that there are important differences in hazard mitigation plan quality between urban and rural counties. Future research should explore characteristics of urban and rural counties that explain the observed differences, and whether such differences can help explain the inequalities in response and recovery to disasters between urban and rural counties.

  10. Mitigation potential and cost in tropical forestry - relative role for agroforestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makundi, Willy R.; Sathaye, Jayant A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes studies of carbon mitigation potential (MP) and costs of forestry options in seven developing countries with a focus on the role of agroforestry. A common methodological approach known as comprehensive mitigation assessment process (COMAP) was used in each study to estimate the potential and costs between 2000 and 2030. The approach requires the projection of baseline and mitigation land-use scenarios derived from the demand for forest products and forestland for other uses such as agriculture and pasture. By using data on estimated carbon sequestration, emission avoidance, costs and benefits, the model enables one to estimate cost effectiveness indicators based on monetary benefit per t C, as well as estimates of total mitigation costs and potential when the activities are implemented at equilibrium level. The results show that about half the MP of 6.9 Gt C (an average of 223 Mt C per year) between 2000 and 2030 in the seven countries could be achieved at a negative cost, and the other half at costs not exceeding $100 per t C. Negative cost indicates that non-carbon revenue is sufficient to offset direct costs of about half of the options. The agroforestry options analyzed bear a significant proportion of the potential at medium to low cost per t C when compared to other options. The role of agroforestry in these countries varied between 6% and 21% of the MP, though the options are much more cost effective than most due to the low wage or opportunity cost of rural labor. Agroforestry options are attractive due to the large number of people and potential area currently engaged in agriculture, but they pose unique challenges for carbon and cost accounting due to the dispersed nature of agricultural activities in the tropics, as well as specific difficulties arising from requirements for monitoring, verification, leakage assessment and the establishment of credible baselines.

  11. Report of the Joint IPCC WG 2 and 3 expert meeting on the integration of adaptation, mitigation and sustainable development into the 4. IPCC assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives for this meeting at Reunion Island were: - To feed new views from outside the climate change literature into the assessment of Working Group II (WG II) and WG III concerning the strongly interrelated area of adaptation, mitigation and sustainable development. - to dove-tail zero-order draft texts of WG II and WG III (by the authors) with a view to ensuring that the treatment of Adaptation and Mitigation (AM) and Sustainable Development (SD) issues in both assessments is: 'Consistent, Complementary, Concise and Complete' ('4 Cs'). Furthermore, it was decided that the deliverable should be: - Recommendations for the writing team of WG II fourth Assessment Report (AR4) for incorporation of AM and SD issues in their First Order Draft (following their 2. Lead Author meeting in Cairns, 14-17 March 2005); - Recommendations for the writing team of WG III for incorporation in their Zero-order Draft (ZOD, to be completed 11 March 2005) The programme of the meeting was developed by the TSUs of WG II and III under the responsibility of the co-chairs of WG II and III. Day 1 the programme was devoted to a series of key note speakers, covering both potential user views as well as relevant new perspectives on the handling of AM and SD issues. These areas have not been fully addressed in the IPCC assessment work to date. The invited experts elaborated on 'new science areas' or 'new literatures' that inform parts of the AR4. The morning programme of Day 1 also contained an opening session featuring several ministers of Environment of neighbouring Small Island States, a representative of the European Parliament, and government officials from both the French Republic and Reunion Island. Day 2 and 3 were used for working sessions between authors on the integration of adaptation, mitigation and sustainable development into the contributions of Working Groups II and III of the AR4. The full programme is attached to the document. The meeting brought together more than forty

  12. Report of the Joint IPCC WG 2 and 3 expert meeting on the integration of adaptation, mitigation and sustainable development into the 4. IPCC assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The objectives for this meeting at Reunion Island were: - To feed new views from outside the climate change literature into the assessment of Working Group II (WG II) and WG III concerning the strongly interrelated area of adaptation, mitigation and sustainable development. - to dove-tail zero-order draft texts of WG II and WG III (by the authors) with a view to ensuring that the treatment of Adaptation and Mitigation (AM) and Sustainable Development (SD) issues in both assessments is: 'Consistent, Complementary, Concise and Complete' ('4 Cs'). Furthermore, it was decided that the deliverable should be: - Recommendations for the writing team of WG II fourth Assessment Report (AR4) for incorporation of AM and SD issues in their First Order Draft (following their 2. Lead Author meeting in Cairns, 14-17 March 2005); - Recommendations for the writing team of WG III for incorporation in their Zero-order Draft (ZOD, to be completed 11 March 2005) The programme of the meeting was developed by the TSUs of WG II and III under the responsibility of the co-chairs of WG II and III. Day 1 the programme was devoted to a series of key note speakers, covering both potential user views as well as relevant new perspectives on the handling of AM and SD issues. These areas have not been fully addressed in the IPCC assessment work to date. The invited experts elaborated on 'new science areas' or 'new literatures' that inform parts of the AR4. The morning programme of Day 1 also contained an opening session featuring several ministers of Environment of neighbouring Small Island States, a representative of the European Parliament, and government officials from both the French Republic and Reunion Island. Day 2 and 3 were used for working sessions between authors on the integration of adaptation, mitigation and sustainable development into the contributions of Working Groups II and III of the AR4. The full programme is attached to the document. The

  13. An assessment of planting flexibility options to reduce the excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer in the United States of America

    OpenAIRE

    W-Y Huang; N D Uri

    1992-01-01

    The analysis in this paper is directed at estimating the marginal value of a base acre, the nitrogen rate of fertilizer use, the corn yield, and the excess nitrogen fertilizer application rate under alternative policy options designed to encourage planting flexibility in response to changing relative agricultural commodity prices. Encouragement of planting flexibility via an option of detaching deficiency payments from the base acreage is an effective way to reduce the excessive application r...

  14. Application of Real Options Theory to the Assessment of Public Incentives for Onshore Wind Energy Development in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    José Balibrea-Iniesta; Antonio Sánchez-Soliño; Antonio Lara-Galera

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the important development of electricity production from renewable energy in Spain. The regulatory framework has played a key role in this process, particularly the 661/2007 Royal Decree of May 25. The legislation grants certain rights to promoters. These rights can be characterized as options, allowing us to utilize a signifi cant number of theoretical and empirical studies in the fi eld of fi nancial option pricing in our analysis. Insofar as these derivative assets hav...

  15. 我国碳减排的定量评估%A Quantitavie Assessment on Optimal Carbon Mitigation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宾

    2014-01-01

    As the biggest carbon -emitter and the second largest economy, China is experiencing higher and higher pressures for the mitigation of carbon emissions.In the process of the whole world reacting together to climate change, what’s our mitigation level? Basing on Nordhaus’s RICE-2010 model, this paper constructs a RICE-E model with a new characteristic of endogenizing the supply of fossil fuels in the economic module.Numerical computations indicate that from 2005 , China shall achieve full mitigation by 2095, and the corresponding carbon tax increases from 68.7 yuan per ton carbon to near 2000 yuan.Such an effort level is not the most radical among the world’s major powers.The mitigation pressure of China is lower than that of Russia and USA, at the same level with that of EU and Latin America, but higher than that of Japan and India.Moreover, the EKC point where carbon emissions turn from increasing to decreasing is in 2055.%作为全球第一大碳排放国和第二大经济体,我国正承受着越来越大的碳减排压力。在世界各国都参与应对气候变化的进程中,我国的最优碳减排幅度是怎样的呢?本文在Nordhaus的RICE-2010模型基础上,通过将化石能源的消耗内生于经济系统模块,改良出RICE-E模型。数值计算表明,从2005至2095年,我国需实现完全碳减排,相应的碳税水平从每吨碳排放68.7元(2010年价)提高到接近2000元。这个力度在世界各大国中并不是最激进的,位处俄罗斯和美国之后,与欧盟、拉美为同一档次,但强于日本和印度。在此碳减排进程下,我国碳排放量由升转降的时间拐点出现在2055年左右。

  16. Assessment of a novel overflow-type electrochemical membrane bioreactor (EMBR) for wastewater treatment, energy recovery and membrane fouling mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guowang; Zhou, Yuhong; Zhou, Guoqiang; Lu, Lian; Wan, Xiankai; Shi, Huixiang

    2015-11-01

    A novel overflow-type electrochemical membrane bioreactor (EMBR) without ion exchange membrane, was developed for wastewater treatment and utilized electricity recovered by microbial fuel cell (MFC) for membrane fouling mitigation in membrane bioreactor (MBR). The maximum power density of 629mW/m(3) or 7.18mW/m(2) was obtained. The removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand, ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen under appropriate ranges of hydraulic retention times (16.9-8.5h) were 92.6±5.4%, 96.5±2.8% and 73.9±9.7%, respectively. Sequencing showed electrochemically active bacteria Lactococcus, Bacillus and Saprospiraceae_uncultured were abundant in the biofilm. Compared with a conventional MBR, five significant effects of the MFC integration on the sludge properties, including particle zeta potential decrease, particle size distribution macroaggregation, soluble microbial products and extracellular polymeric substances reduction and SMPP/SMPC ratio increase, were achieved in this system, leading to membrane fouling mitigation. This system shows great promise for practical wastewater treatment application.

  17. Nutrient pollution mitigation measures across Europe are resilient under future climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Andrew; Skeffington, Richard; Couture, Raoul; Erlandsson, Martin; Groot, Simon; Halliday, Sarah; Harezlak, Valesca; Hejzlar, Joseph; Jackson-Blake, Leah; Lepistö, Ahti; Papastergiadou, Eva; Psaltopoulos, Demetrios; Riera, Joan; Rankinen, Katri; Skuras, Dimitris; Trolle, Dennis; Whitehead, Paul; Dunn, Sarah; Bucak, Tuba

    2016-04-01

    The key results from the application of catchment-scale biophysical models to assess the likely effectiveness of nutrient pollution mitigation measures set in the context of projected land management and climate change are presented. The assessment is based on the synthesis of modelled outputs of daily river flow, river and lake nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations, and lake chlorophyll-a, for baseline (1981-2010) and scenario (2031-2060) periods for nine study sites across Europe. Together the nine sites represent a sample of key climate and land management types. The robustness and uncertainty in the daily, seasonal and long-term modelled outputs was assessed prior to the scenario runs. Credible scenarios of land-management changes were provided by social scientists and economists familiar with each study site, whilst likely mitigation measures were derived from local stakeholder consultations and cost-effectiveness assessments. Modelled mitigation options were able to reduce nutrient concentrations, and there was no evidence here that they were less effective under future climate. With less certainty, mitigation options could affect the ecological status of waters at these sites in a positive manner, leading to improvement in Water Framework Directive status at some sites. However, modelled outcomes for sites in southern Europe highlighted that increased evaporation and decreased precipitation will cause much lower flows leading to adverse impacts of river and lake ecology. Uncertainties in the climate models, as represented by three GCM-RCM combinations, did not affect this overall picture much.

  18. Sectoral crediting mechanisms for greenhouse gas mitigation. Institutional and operational issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, R. [International Energy Agency IEA, Paris (France); Ellis, J. [Environment Directorate, International Energy Agency IEA, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD, Paris (France)

    2006-05-15

    Guiding policy choices requires a systematic comparison of options. In the case of a hypothetical policy instrument, e.g. sectoral crediting, such systematic comparison is difficult as different options may not be strictly comparable. For instance, not all options may be easily applied to a given sector (e.g. an intensity-based crediting may hardly be implemented to a government policy seeking to substitute public transport for personal vehicles); the policy-based SCM may be the only practical option in this case and comparison is therefore moot. Also, not all countries may have the institutional capacity to implement all three options at the same scale. Last, the ability of each option to deliver real reductions hinges on the 'additionality' of the sector's efforts and on the stringency of the baseline. Unfortunately, there is no universally recognised method to define additionality and to determine a baseline. This paper nonetheless offers some insights on how each potential SCM option may fare with respect to the following criteria: Environmental effectiveness: can this option trigger real reductions where implemented?; Addressing competitiveness concerns; Administrative cost and feasibility: how demanding is the mechanism in terms of monitoring, review and, possibly enforcement policy?; Economic efficiency: to what extent does the mechanism lead to the adoption of the least-cost mitigation options in the sector? An initial assessment of each option along these criteria is provided in the conclusion section. This paper explores potential SCMs along several lines. Section 2 draws lessons from existing mechanisms; section 3 considers several dimensions to be considered for baselines; section 4 discusses how SCM could be implemented to provide effective incentives to mitigation; section 5 explores international governance issues. Concluding remarks are presented in section 6.

  19. Earthquake risk mitigation projects in central asia and india

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausler, E.; Petal, M.; Tobin, T.; Tucker, B.; Gupta, M.; Sharma, A.; Shaw, R.

    2003-04-01

    In the fall of 2002, GeoHazards International (GHI), a California-based nonprofit organization, launched two 3-year projects, each funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development, to improve the earthquake risk management of 23 cities in Central Asia and India. The objectives of these projects are to: * Assess the earthquake risk of each city, * Identify the most effective risk mitigation options for each city, * Raise awareness of that risk and those mitigation options, and * Initiate mitigation activities in some of these cities. A critical characteristic of these projects is that leaders of each local community will be deeply involved in realizing all four objectives. GHI will work with, in addition to local authorities, national government, academic and non-governmental organizations. In India, GHI’s partners are the Disaster Management Planning Hyogo Office, United Nations Centre for Regional Development (UNCRD) of Kobe, Japan, and the Sustainable Environment and Ecological Development Society (SEEDS), of Delhi, India. In India, we will work in 20 cities that were chosen, in a February 1, 2002 workshop (sponsored by Munich Reinsurance Company) in Delhi; the cities were selected by Indian earthquake professionals on the basis of the cities’ population, hazard, and economic, cultural and political significance. In Central Asia, we will focus on Tashkent, Uzbekistan; Dushanbe, Tadzhikistan; and Almaty, Kazakstan. GHI and its partners are looking for other organizations that would like to collaborate on these projects.

  20. Evaluating alternatives for mitigating Cryptosporidium risk and generating environmental service benefits in water supply catchments

    OpenAIRE

    Kandulu, John; Bryan, Brett

    2009-01-01

    Evaluations of pathogen management options have focussed on assessing relative removal effectiveness as a basis for prioritising alternative management investment decisions. Using a case study of the Myponga catchment, South Australia, this paper presents results of a cost-effectiveness risk analysis of 13 catchment- and treatment-based water quality management alternatives for mitigating Cryptosporidium risk. A range of costs and benefits including set-up and operating costs, farm business c...

  1. The role of biomass and CCS in China in a climate mitigation perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Lüthje, Mikael; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard; Gregg, Jay Sterling; Føyn, Tullik Helene Ystanes; Balyk, Olexandr

    2011-01-01

    As the world’s largest emitter of greenhouse gasses (GHGs), China plays a central role in the suite of options for climate change mitigation. To analyze the importance of biomass and carbon capture and storage (CCS) availability in China, varying levels of these parameters are created and then global climate scenarios are simulated using TIAM (TIMES Integrated Assessment Model). TIAM is a 16-region global energy system optimization model that includes a climate module that calculates the glob...

  2. GHG Mitigation Policies and Employment: A CGE Analysis with Wage Rigidity and Application to Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Yazid Dissou; Qian Sun

    2013-01-01

    We use a general equilibrium framework to assess the impact of carbon mitigation policies in the presence of labour market rigidities. We analyze the impact of reducing CO 2 emissions in a cap-and-trade system and the implications of different revenue-recycling options. Our results suggest that the policy has a negative impact on employment and welfare when permit revenues are recycled as lump-sum transfers to households. Using the carbon proceeds to reduce payroll tax achieves better outcome...

  3. Economic assessment of R and D with real options in the field of fast reactors taking into account uncertainty on their competitiveness: the case of France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a context of potential worldwide nuclear development, this paper aims at assessing the economic value of pursuing research in Generation IV fast reactors today, given that it would allow industrial deployment around 2040 in case of high uranium prices. Two key variables shall be considered as inputs for the assessment: the price of uranium and the over-cost of Generation IV reactors compared to the previous generation. Our model based on real options theory demonstrates that this value is positive and outweighs the risks associated with the competitiveness of Generation IV. (authors)

  4. Assessment of Emerging Regional Air Quality (AQ) and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Impacts and Potential Mitigation Strategies in U.S. Energy Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnon, Michael Mac

    The current domestic reliance on high-emitting fossil fuels for energy needs is the key driver of U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) and pollutant emissions driving both climate change and regional air quality (AQ) concerns. Moving forward, emission sources in U.S. energy sectors will be subjected to changes driven by numerous phenomena, including technology evolution, environmental impacts, sustainability goals, and socioeconomic factors. This evolution will directly affect emissions source-related impacts on regional AQ that effective emissions control strategies must account for, including relative source contributions. Though previous studies have evaluated the emissions and AQ impacts of different sectors, technologies and fuels, most previous studies have assessed emissions impacts only without using advanced atmospheric models to accurately account for both spatial and temporal emissions perturbations and atmospheric chemistry and transport. In addition, few previous studies have considered the integration of multiple technologies and fuels in different U.S. regions.. Finally, most studies do not project emissions several decades into the future to assess what sources should be targeted with priority over time. These aspects are critical for understanding how both emissions sources and potential mitigation strategies impact the formation and fate of primary and secondary pollutants, including ground-level ozone and particulate matter concentrations. Therefore, this work utilizes a set of modeling tools to project and then to spatially and temporally resolve emissions as input into a 3-D Eulerian AQ model to assess how sources of emissions contribute to future atmospheric pollutant burdens. Further, analyses of the potential impacts of alternative energy strategies contained in potential mitigation strategies are conducted for priority targets to develop an understanding of how to maximize AQ benefits and avoid unforeseen deleterious tradeoffs between GHG reduction

  5. Evaluating the need for integrated land use and land cover analysis for robust assessment of climate adaptation and mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vittorio, Alan; Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying

    2016-04-01

    Several climate adaptation and mitigation strategies incorporate land use and land cover change to address global carbon balance and also food, fuel, fiber, and water resource sustainability. However, Land Use and Land Cover Change (LULCC) are not consistent across the CMIP5 model simulations because only the land use input was harmonized. Differences in LULCC impede understanding of global change because such differences can dramatically alter land-atmosphere mass and energy exchange in response to differences in associated use and distribution of land resources. For example, the Community Earth System Model (CESM) overestimates 2005 atmospheric CO2 concentration by 18 ppmv, and we explore the contribution of historical LULCC to this bias in relation to the effects of CO2 fertilization and nitrogen deposition on terrestrial carbon. Using identical land use input, a chronologically referenced LULCC that accounts for pasture, as opposed to the default year-2000 referenced LULCC, increases this bias to 27 ppmv because more forest needs to be cleared for land use. Assuming maximum forest retention for all land conversion reduces the new bias to ~21 ppmv, while minimum forest retention increases the new bias to ~32 ppmv. Corresponding ecosystem carbon changes from the default in 2005 are approximately -28 PgC, -10 PgC, and -43 PgC, respectively. This 33 PgC uncertainty range due to maximizing versus minimizing forest area is 66% of the estimated 50 PgC gain in ecosystem carbon due to CO2 fertilization from 1850-2005, and 150% of the estimated 22 PgC gain due to nitrogen deposition. This range is also similar to the 28 PgC difference generated by changing the LULCC reference year and accounting for pasture. These results indicate that LULCC uncertainty is not only a major driver of bias in simulated atmospheric CO2, but that it could contribute even more to this bias than uncertainty in CO2 fertilization or nitrogen deposition. This highlights the need for more accurate

  6. Methodological Issues In Forestry Mitigation Projects: A CaseStudy Of Kolar District

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravindranath, N.H.; Murthy, I.K.; Sudha, P.; Ramprasad, V.; Nagendra, M.D.V.; Sahana, C.A.; Srivathsa, K.G.; Khan, H.

    2007-06-01

    There is a need to assess climate change mitigationopportunities in forest sector in India in the context of methodologicalissues such as additionality, permanence, leakage, measurement andbaseline development in formulating forestry mitigation projects. A casestudy of forestry mitigation project in semi-arid community grazing landsand farmlands in Kolar district of Karnataka, was undertaken with regardto baseline and project scenariodevelopment, estimation of carbon stockchange in the project, leakage estimation and assessment ofcost-effectiveness of mitigation projects. Further, the transaction coststo develop project, and environmental and socio-economic impact ofmitigation project was assessed.The study shows the feasibility ofestablishing baselines and project C-stock changes. Since the area haslow or insignificant biomass, leakage is not an issue. The overallmitigation potential in Kolar for a total area of 14,000 ha under variousmitigation options is 278,380 tC at a rate of 20 tC/ha for the period2005-2035, which is approximately 0.67 tC/ha/yr inclusive of harvestregimes under short rotation and long rotation mitigation options. Thetransaction cost for baseline establishment is less than a rupee/tC andfor project scenario development is about Rs. 1.5-3.75/tC. The projectenhances biodiversity and the socio-economic impact is alsosignificant.

  7. Sectoral assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, J.M.; Fenhann, J.; Gorham, R.; Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J.

    1999-09-01

    This publication contains five papers that were written as a part of the GEF project, The Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations. The main goal of the project was to assess the greenhouse gas reductions and incremental costs of mitigation option sin Ecuador, Argentina, Senegal, Mauritius, Vietnam, Indonesia, Estonia and Hungary. In addition, regional studies were conducted for the Andean Pact nations and Southern Africa to assess various aspects of regional co-operation in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The GEF study also involved the development of a methodological framework for climate change assessment, with a special emphasis on developing countries. These guidelines have been published in a separate document, Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations: Methodological Guidelines. The papers in this publication focus on various methodological and policy aspects of greenhouse gas mitigation at the sectoral level, and are outgrowth of work performed on other parts of the GEF project. (au)

  8. The Use of OMPS Near Real Time Products in Volcanic Cloud Risk Mitigation and Smoke/Dust Air Quality Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seftor, C. J.; Krotkov, N. A.; McPeters, R. D.; Li, J. Y.; Durbin, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    Near real time (NRT) SO2 and aerosol index (AI) imagery from Aura's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) has proven invaluable in mitigating the risk posed to air traffic by SO2 and ash clouds from volcanic eruptions. The OMI products, generated as part of NASA's Land, Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) NRT system and available through LANCE and both NOAA's NESDIS and ESA's Support to Aviation Control Service (SACS) portals, are used to monitor the current location of volcanic clouds and to provide input into Volcanic Ash (VA) advisory forecasts. NRT products have recently been developed using data from the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite onboard the Suomi NPP platform; they are currently being made available through the SACS portal and will shortly be incorporated into the LANCE NRT system. We will show examples of the use of OMPS NRT SO2 and AI imagery to monitor recent volcanic eruption events. We will also demonstrate the usefulness of OMPS AI imagery to detect and track dust storms and smoke from fires, and how this information can be used to forecast their impact on air quality in areas far removed from their source. Finally, we will show SO2 and AI imagery generated from our OMPS Direct Broadcast data to highlight the capability of our real time system.

  9. A hybrid energy-economy model for global integrated assessment of climate change, carbon mitigation and energy transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • This paper introduces the design of a hybrid energy-economy model, GTEM-C. • The model offers a unified tool to analyse the energy-carbon-environment nexus. • Results are presented on global energy transformation due to carbon mitigation. • Electrification with renewable energies can contain the spiking of carbon prices. - Abstract: This paper introduces the design of the CSIRO variant of the Global Trade and Environment model (GTEM-C). GTEM-C is a hybrid model that combines the top-down macroeconomic representation of a computable general equilibrium model with the bottom-up engineering details of energy production. The model features detailed accounting for global energy flows that are embedded in traded energy goods, and it offers a unified framework to analyse the energy-carbon-environment nexus. As an illustrative example, we present simulation results on global energy transformation under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s representative carbon pathways 4.5 and 8.5. By testing the model’s sensitivity to the relevant parameter, we find that the pace of electrification will significantly contain the spiking of carbon prices because electricity can be produced from carbon-free or less carbon-intensive technologies. The decoupling of energy use and carbon footprint, due to the uptake of clean electricity technologies, such as nuclear, wind, solar, and carbon capture and storage, allows the world to maintain high level of energy consumption, which is essential to economic growth

  10. Comprehensive assessments of measures mitigating heat island phenomena in urban areas; Heat shinku wo riyoshita daikibo reibo system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishitani, H.; Yamada, K.; Yamaji, K.; Matsuhashi, T.; Iizuka, E.; Suzuki, T.; Genchi, H.; Komiyama, H. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes actual condition and measures against heat island (HI) phenomena in large urban areas with buildings. Tokyo was selected as a model. To extract typical pattern of daily change of air temperature, statistic analysis was conducted using the existing air temperature data at 100 points in and near the city of Tokyo. As a result, five patterns were obtained, i.e., central city, sea/land water affecting zone, thickly settled suburbs, garden city, and countryside. Each one point was selected in each pattern, to measure the underground temperature. It was found that the effect of HI can be easily evaluated from the underground temperature. It was suggested that the HI effect in the central city is estimated to be around 3.6 {degree}C. The measures mitigating HI were divided into the thermal balance improvement in the whole district and the temperature improvement of living space by homogenization or inhomogenization. Energy conservation was investigated for improving the thermal balance which can be practically conducted. According to the measures, it was found that the air temperature in the central city can be decreased by about 0.5 {degree}C at maximum. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Social, economic and environmental assessment of energy and water desalination options for the Brazilian polygon of drought using the IRIS reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discuss a project conceived to perform a social, economic and environmental assessment of the use of IRIS Reactor for electricity generation and water desalination in the most dry region of Brazil, the Polygon of Drought. The project is financed by the Fund of Energy of the Brazilian Council on Research and Development (CNPq) of the Brazilian Ministry of Science and Technology (MCT), and it will be performed by the Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPe) and the Energetic and Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN) of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). The project will provide comparisons between nuclear and gas options. The final objective of the project is to offer effective evaluations considering the total costs (direct and externalisation) of the different energy options and also the social and environmental aspects associated with them.(author)

  12. Knowledge about aerosol injection does not reduce individual mitigation efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merk, Christine; Pönitzsch, Gert; Rehdanz, Katrin

    2016-05-01

    Stratospheric aerosol injection (SAI) is a climate engineering method that is reputed to be very effective in cooling the planet but is also thought to involve major risks and side effects. As a new option in the bid to counter climate change, it has attracted an increasing amount of research and the debate on its potential gained momentum after it was referred to in the 5th IPCC assessment report (IPCC 2013). One major objection to SAI and the research done on it is that it could undermine commitment to the mitigation of greenhouse gases. Policymakers, interest groups or individuals might wrongly perceive SAI as an easy fix for climate change and accordingly reduce their mitigation efforts. This is the first study to provide an empirical evaluation of this claim for individuals. In a large-scale framed field experiment with more than 650 participants, we provide evidence that people do not back-pedal on mitigation when they are told that the climate change problem could be partly addressed via SAI. Instead, we observe that people who have been informed about SAI mitigate more than people who have not. Our data suggest that the increase is driven by a perception of SAI as potential threat.

  13. Assessment and mitigation of errors associated with a large-scale field investigation of methane emissions from the Marcellus Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulton, D.; Golston, L.; Li, Q.; Bou-Zeid, E.; Pan, D.; Lane, H.; Lu, J.; Fitts, J. P.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Recent work suggests the distribution of methane emissions from fracking operations is a skewed distributed with a small percentage of emitters contributing a large proportion of the total emissions. In order to provide a statistically robust distributions of emitters and determine the presence of super-emitters, errors in current techniques need to be constrained and mitigated. The Marcellus shale, the most productive natural gas shale field in the United States, has received less intense focus for well-level emissions and is here investigated to provide the distribution of methane emissions. In July of 2015 approximately 250 unique well pads were sampled using the Princeton Atmospheric Chemistry Mobile Acquisition Node (PAC-MAN). This mobile lab includes a Garmin GPS unit, Vaisala weather station (WTX520), LICOR 7700 CH4 open path sensor and LICOR 7500 CO2/H2O open path sensor. Sampling sites were preselected based on wind direction, sampling distance and elevation grade. All sites were sampled during low boundary layer conditions (600-1000 and 1800-2200 local time). The majority of sites were sampled 1-3 times while selected test sites were sampled multiple times or resampled several times during the day. For selected sites a sampling tower was constructed consisting of a Metek uSonic-3 Class A sonic anemometer, and an additional LICOR 7700 and 7500. Data were recorded for at least one hour at these sites. A robust study and inter-comparison of different methodologies will be presented. The Gaussian plume model will be used to calculate fluxes for all sites and compare results from test sites with multiple passes. Tower data is used to provide constraints on the Gaussian plume model. Additionally, Large Eddy Simulation (LES) modeling will be used to calculate emissions from the tower sites. Alternative techniques will also be discussed. Results from these techniques will be compared to identify best practices and provide robust error estimates.

  14. Model-Based Mitigation of Availability Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Zambon, Emmanuele; Bolzoni, Damiano; Etalle, Sandro; Salvato, Marco

    2007-01-01

    The assessment and mitigation of risks related to the availability of the IT infrastructure is becoming increasingly important in modern organizations. Unfortunately, present standards for Risk Assessment and Mitigation show limitations when evaluating and mitigating availability risks. This is due to the fact that they do not fully consider the dependencies between the constituents of an IT infrastructure that are paramount in large enterprises. These dependencies make the technical problem ...

  15. IPCC Climate Change 2013: Mitigation of Climate Change - Key Findings and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokona, Youba

    2014-05-01

    The Working Group III contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Mitigation of Climate Change, examines the results of scientific research about mitigation, with special attention on how knowledge has evolved since the Fourth Assessment Report published in 2007. Throughout, the focus is on the implications of its findings for policy, without being prescriptive about the particular policies that governments and other important participants in the policy process should adopt. The report begins with a framing of important concepts and methods that help to contextualize the findings presented throughout the assessment. The valuation of risks and uncertainties, ethical concepts and the context of sustainable development and equity are among the guiding principles for the assessment of mitigation strategies. The report highlights past trends in stocks and flows of greenhouse gases and the factors that drive emissions at global, regional, and sectoral scales including economic growth, technology or population changes. It provides analyses of the technological, economic and institutional requirements of long-term mitigation scenarios and details on mitigation measures and policies that are applied in different economic sectors and human settlements. It then discusses interactions of mitigation policies and different policy instrument types at national, regional and global governance levels and between economic sectors, The Working Group III report comprises 16 chapters and in assembling this assessment authors were guided by the principles of the IPCC mandate: to be explicit about mitigation options, to be explicit about their costs and about their risks and opportunities vis-à-vis other development priorities, and to be explicit about the underlying criteria, concepts, and methods for evaluating alternative policies.

  16. Designing flexible engineering systems utilizing embedded architecture options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jeff G.

    This dissertation develops and applies an integrated framework for embedding flexibility in an engineered system architecture. Systems are constantly faced with unpredictability in the operational environment, threats from competing systems, obsolescence of technology, and general uncertainty in future system demands. Current systems engineering and risk management practices have focused almost exclusively on mitigating or preventing the negative consequences of uncertainty. This research recognizes that high uncertainty also presents an opportunity to design systems that can flexibly respond to changing requirements and capture additional value throughout the design life. There does not exist however a formalized approach to designing appropriately flexible systems. This research develops a three stage integrated flexibility framework based on the concept of architecture options embedded in the system design. Stage One defines an eight step systems engineering process to identify candidate architecture options. This process encapsulates the operational uncertainty though scenario development, traces new functional requirements to the affected design variables, and clusters the variables most sensitive to change. The resulting clusters can generate insight into the most promising regions in the architecture to embed flexibility in the form of architecture options. Stage Two develops a quantitative option valuation technique, grounded in real options theory, which is able to value embedded architecture options that exhibit variable expiration behavior. Stage Three proposes a portfolio optimization algorithm, for both discrete and continuous options, to select the optimal subset of architecture options, subject to budget and risk constraints. Finally, the feasibility, extensibility and limitations of the framework are assessed by its application to a reconnaissance satellite system development problem. Detailed technical data, performance models, and cost estimates

  17. Evaluating the role of coastal habitats and sea-level rise in hurricane risk mitigation: An ecological economic assessment method and application to a business decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sheila M W; Guannel, Gregory; Griffin, Robert; Faries, Joe; Boucher, Timothy; Thompson, Michael; Brenner, Jorge; Bernhardt, Joey; Verutes, Gregory; Wood, Spencer A; Silver, Jessica A; Toft, Jodie; Rogers, Anthony; Maas, Alexander; Guerry, Anne; Molnar, Jennifer; DiMuro, Johnathan L

    2016-04-01

    Businesses may be missing opportunities to account for ecosystem services in their decisions, because they do not have methods to quantify and value ecosystem services. We developed a method to quantify and value coastal protection and other ecosystem services in the context of a cost-benefit analysis of hurricane risk mitigation options for a business. We first analyze linked biophysical and economic models to examine the potential protection provided by marshes. We then applied this method to The Dow Chemical Company's Freeport, Texas facility to evaluate natural (marshes), built (levee), and hybrid (marshes and a levee designed for marshes) defenses against a 100-y hurricane. Model analysis shows that future sea-level rise decreases marsh area, increases flood heights, and increases the required levee height (12%) and cost (8%). In this context, marshes do not provide sufficient protection to the facility, located 12 km inland, to warrant a change in levee design for a 100-y hurricane. Marshes do provide some protection near shore and under smaller storm conditions, which may help maintain the coastline and levee performance in the face of sea-level rise. In sum, the net present value to the business of built defenses ($217 million [2010 US$]) is greater than natural defenses ($15 million [2010 US$]) and similar to the hybrid defense scenario ($229 million [2010 US$]). Examination of a sample of public benefits from the marshes shows they provide at least $117 million (2010 US$) in coastal protection, recreational value, and C sequestration to the public, while supporting 12 fisheries and more than 300 wildlife species. This study provides information on where natural defenses may be effective and a replicable approach that businesses can use to incorporate private, as well as public, ecosystem service values into hurricane risk management at other sites. PMID:26123999

  18. Environmental assessment of gas management options at the Old Ammässuo landfill (Finland) by means of LCA-modeling (EASEWASTE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Simone; Niskanen, Antti; Christensen, Thomas H

    2009-05-01

    The current landfill gas (LFG) management (based on flaring and utilization for heat generation of the collected gas) and three potential future gas management options (LFG flaring, heat generation and combined heat and power generation) for the Old Ammässuo landfill (Espoo, Finland) were evaluated by life-cycle assessment modeling. The evaluation accounts for all resource utilization and emissions to the environment related to the gas generation and management for a life-cycle time horizon of 100 yr. The assessment criteria comprise standard impact categories (global warming, photo-chemical ozone formation, stratospheric ozone depletion, acidification and nutrient enrichment) and toxicity-related impact categories (human toxicity via soil, via water and via air, eco-toxicity in soil and in water chronic). The results of the life-cycle impact assessment show that disperse emissions of LFG from the landfill surface determine the highest potential impacts in terms of global warming, stratospheric ozone depletion, and human toxicity via soil. Conversely, the impact potentials estimated for other categories are numerically-negative when the collected LFG is utilized for energy generation, demonstrating that net environmental savings can be obtained. Such savings are proportional to the amount of gas utilized for energy generation and the gas energy recovery efficiency achieved, which thus have to be regarded as key parameters. As a result, the overall best performance is found for the heat generation option - as it has the highest LFG utilization/energy recovery rates - whereas the worst performance is estimated for the LFG flaring option, as no LFG is here utilized for energy generation. Therefore, to reduce the environmental burdens caused by the current gas management strategy, more LFG should be used for energy generation. This inherently requires a superior LFG capture rate that, in addition, would reduce fugitive emissions of LFG from the landfill surface

  19. Emission of toxic components as a factor of the best practice options for waste management: Application of LCA (Life Cycle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović-Čarapina Hristina D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Health and safety have been the major concerns in waste management. Waste must be managed in a way that minimizes risk to human health. Environmental concerns over the management and disposal of waste can be divided into two major areas: conservation of resources and pollution of the environment. Integrated Waste Management (IWM systems combine waste streams, waste collection, treatment and disposal methods, with the objective of achieving environmental benefits, economic optimization and societal acceptability. Integrated waste management using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA attempts to offer the most benign options for waste management. LCA is a compilation and evaluation of the inputs, the outputs and the potential environmental impacts of a product system throughout its life cycle. It can be successfully applied to municipal solid waste management systems to identify the overall environmental burdens and to assess the potential environmental impacts. This paper deals with the LCA of the two waste management options for final disposal of municipal waste, landfilling (landfill without landfill gas collection or leachate collection and sanitary landfilling (landfill with landfill gas collection and recovery and leachate collection and treatments analyzed for town Sombor, Serbia. The research is conducted with the use of the Software Package IWM-2. The indicators which are used in the assessment are air and water emissions of toxic compounds. The results indicated that waste disposal practice has a significant effect on the emission of the toxic components and environmental burdens. Sanitary landfilling of municipal solid waste significantly reduces toxic emission and negative influence on the environment.

  20. Design, implementation and interpretation of in vitro batch culture experiments to assess enteric methane mitigation in ruminants-a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yáñez-Ruiz, D.R.; Bannink, A.; Dijkstra, Jan; Kebreab, E.; Morgavi, D.P.; O'Kiely, P.; Reynolds, C.K.; Schwarm, A.; Shingfield, K.J.; Yu, Z.; Hristov, A.N.

    2016-01-01

    In vitro fermentation techniques (IVFT) have been widely used to evaluate the nutritive value of feeds for ruminants and in the last decade to assess the effect of different nutritional strategies on methane (CH4) production. However, many technical factors may influence the results obtained. The

  1. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Engineering-Initial High-Level Safety Risk Assessment and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelkin, Natalie; Henriksen, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This document is being provided as part of ITT's NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract: "New ATM Requirements--Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development." ITT has completed a safety hazard analysis providing a preliminary safety assessment for the proposed C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface communication system. The assessment was performed following the guidelines outlined in the Federal Aviation Administration Safety Risk Management Guidance for System Acquisitions document. The safety analysis did not identify any hazards with an unacceptable risk, though a number of hazards with a medium risk were documented. This effort represents an initial high-level safety hazard analysis and notes the triggers for risk reassessment. A detailed safety hazards analysis is recommended as a follow-on activity to assess particular components of the C-band communication system after the profile is finalized and system rollout timing is determined. A security risk assessment has been performed by NASA as a parallel activity. While safety analysis is concerned with a prevention of accidental errors and failures, the security threat analysis focuses on deliberate attacks. Both processes identify the events that affect operation of the system; and from a safety perspective the security threats may present safety risks.

  2. Pest risk assessment of Monilinia fructicola for the EU territory and identification and evaluation of risk management options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.;

    2011-01-01

    The EFSA Panel on Plant Health has delivered a pest risk assessment on the risk posed by Monilinia fructicola to the EU territory and has identified risk management options and evaluated their effectiveness in reducing the risk to plant health posed by this organism. The Panel has also analysed...... purposes and fruit of host genera and that, with the exception of dried fruit, the probability of entry is very likely. The probability of establishment is also very likely due to the suitable environmental conditions and to the widespread presence of host species, susceptible for most of the year, on most...

  3. Exercising options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    In a recent speech to graduates of the College of Computer, Mathematical, and Physical Sciences at the University of Maryland, Anne Petersen, deputy director of the National Science Foundation, encouraged a new generation of scientists to embrace opportunity and choice, and to use their scientific training as an employment credential, not a limit. In her May 23 commencement address, Petersen exhorted students to view their freshly minted diplomas as tickets to a broad and diverse job market, not just one-way trips to the laboratory.“Looking for the options and alternatives open to us—and creating options for ourselves where they are not apparent—can give us a sense of direction and volition that enriches our lives immensely…

  4. Remote Sensing of the Urban Heat Island Effect: Assessment of Risks to Human Health and Development of Mitigation Strategies for Sustainable Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Laymon, Charles A.; Crosson, William; Howell, Burgess F.; Gillani, Noor V.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The growth of cities, both in population and in areal extent, appears as an inexorable process. Urbanization continues at a rapid rate, and it is estimated that by the year 2025, 80% of the world's population will live in cities. One of the more egregious side effects of urbanization is the deterioration in air quality as a result of increased vehicular traffic, industrialization and related activities. In the United States alone, under the more stringent air quality guidelines established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1997, nearly 300 counties in 34 states will not meet the new air quality standards for ground level ozone. The mitigation of one the physical/environmental characteristics of urbanization known as the urban heat island (UHI) effect, is now being looked at more closely as a possible way to bring down ground level ozone levels in cities and assist states in improving air quality. The UHI results from the replacement of "natural" land covers (e.g., trees, grass) with urban land surface types, such as pavement and buildings. Heat stored in these surfaces is released into the air and results in a "dome" of elevated air temperatures that presides over cities. The effect of this dome of elevated air temperatures is known as the UHI, which is most prevalent about 2-3 hours after sunset on days with intense solar radiation and calm winds. Given the local and regional impacts of the UHI, there are significant potential affects on human health, particularly as related to heat stress and ozone on body temperature regulation and on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. In this study we are using airborne and satellite remote sensing data to analyze how differences in the urban landscape influence or drive the development of the UHI over four U.S. cities. Additionally, we are assessing what the potential impact is on risks to human health, and developing mitigation strategies to make urban areas more environmentally sustainable.

  5. High Spatial Resolution Thermal Remote Sensing of the Urban Heat Island Effect: Assessment of Risks to Human Health and Development of Mitigation Strategies for Sustainable Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Laymon, Charles A.; Crosson, William; Howell, Burgess F.; Gillani, Noor V.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The growth of cities, both in population and in areal extent, appears as an inexorable process. Urbanization continues at a rapid rate, and it is estimated that by the year 2025, 80% of the world's population will live in cities. One of the more egregious side effects of urbanization is the deterioration in air quality as a result of increased vehicular traffic, industrialization and related activities. In the United States alone, under the more stringent air quality guidelines established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1997, nearly 300 counties in 34 states will not meet the new air quality standards for ground level ozone. The mitigation of one the physical/environmental characteristics of urbanization known as the urban heat island (UHI) effect, is now being looked at more closely as a possible way to bring down ground level ozone levels in cities and assist states in improving air quality. The UHI results from the replacement of "natural" land covers (e.g., trees, grass) with urban land surface types, such as pavement and buildings. Heat stored in these surfaces is released into the air and results in a "dome" of elevated air temperatures that presides over cities. The effect of this dome of elevated air temperatures is known as the UHI, which is most prevalent about 2-3 hours after sunset on days with intense solar radiation and calm winds. Given the local and regional impacts of the UHI, there are significant potential affects on human health, particularly as related to heat stress and ozone on body temperature regulation and on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. In this study we are using airborne and satellite remote sensing data to analyze how differences in the urban landscape influence or drive the development of the UHI over four U.S. cities. Additionally, we are assessing what the potential impact is on risks to human health, and developing mitigation strategies to make urban areas more environmentally sustainable.

  6. Option Pricing and Bayesian Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Jönsson, Ola

    2007-01-01

    This thesis consists of three chapters devoted to both empirical and theoretical aspects of option pricing. The first chapter investigates the market for European options on the Swedish OMX index using daily data for the period 1993-2000. The assumption of constant volatility of the returns underlying the Black and Scholes option pricing formula is assessed by extracting the volatilities implied by the observed call prices and put prices. These are then related to moneyness and time to...

  7. A web-based tool for ranking landslide mitigation measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasse, S.; Vaciago, G.; Choi, Y. J.; Kalsnes, B.

    2012-04-01

    brief description, guidance on design, schematic details, practical examples and references for each mitigation measure. Each of the measures was given a score on its ability and applicability for different types of landslides and boundary conditions, and a decision support matrix was established. The web-based toolbox organizes the information in the compendium and provides an algorithm to rank the measures on the basis of the decision support matrix, and on the basis of the risk level estimated at the site. The toolbox includes a description of the case under study and offers a simplified option for estimating the hazard and risk levels of the slide at hand. The user selects the mitigation measures to be included in the assessment. The toolbox then ranks, with built-in assessment factors and weights and/or with user-defined ranking values and criteria, the mitigation measures included in the analysis. The toolbox includes data management, e.g. saving data half-way in an analysis, returning to an earlier case, looking up prepared examples or looking up information on mitigation measures. The toolbox also generates a report and has user-forum and help features. The presentation will give an overview of the mitigation measures considered and examples of the use of the toolbox, and will take the attendees through the application of the toolbox.

  8. Using an Integrated Participatory Modeling Approach to Assess Water Management Options and Support Community Conversations on Maui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rushil S. Mistry

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to provide an integrated analysis of water distribution on Maui and the cross-sectoral impacts of policies and regulations aimed at rejuvenating and sustaining the deep-rooted culture on the island. Since the water diversion system was implemented in 1876 on the island of Maui, there has been contention among local interest groups over the right way to manage and allocate this precious resource. There is also concern over the availability of the precious resource in the long term, as the demand for water is expected to exceed the potential supply of water on Maui by 2020. This paper analyzes various long run scenarios of policy options presently being discussed on Maui. By collaborating with local experts, business leaders, and community members, to develop a tool that facilitates policy formulation and evaluation, informed decisions can then be made by the local community to ensure sustainable development.

  9. Environmental impact assessment using a utility-based recursive evidential reasoning approach for structural flood mitigation measures in Metro Manila, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbuena, Romeo; Kawamura, Akira; Medina, Reynaldo; Nakagawa, Naoko; Amaguchi, Hideo

    2013-12-15

    In recent years, the practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA) has created significant awareness on the role of environmentally sound projects in sustainable development. In view of the recent studies on the effects of climate change, the Philippine government has given high priority to the construction of flood control structures to alleviate the destructive effects of unmitigated floods, especially in highly urbanized areas like Metro Manila. EIA thus, should be carefully and effectively carried out to maximize or optimize the potential benefits that can be derived from structural flood mitigation measures (SFMMs). A utility-based environmental assessment approach may significantly aid flood managers and decision-makers in planning for effective and environmentally sound SFMM projects. This study proposes a utility-based assessment approach using the rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) technique, coupled with the evidential reasoning approach, to rationally and systematically evaluate the ecological and socio-economic impacts of 4 planned SFMM projects (i.e. 2 river channel improvements and 2 new open channels) in Metro Manila. Results show that the overall environmental effects of each of the planned SFMM projects are positive, which indicate that the utility of the positive impacts would generally outweigh the negative impacts. The results also imply that the planned river channel improvements will yield higher environmental benefits over the planned open channels. This study was able to present a clear and rational approach in the examination of overall environmental effects of SFMMs, which provides valuable insights that can be used by decision-makers and policy makers to improve the EIA practice and evaluation of projects in the Philippines.

  10. The Potential of Brazil's Forest Sector for Mitigating Global Warming under the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnside, Philip M. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia INPA, Av. Andre Araujo, 1756, C.P. 478, 69011-970 Manaus-Amazonas (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    Activities in Brazil's forest sector have substantial potential for mitigating global warming as well as additional environmental and other benefits. Silvicultural plantations of different types, reduced impact logging, and deforestation avoidance all have potential mitigation roles. The magnitude of the annual emission from recent rates of deforestation in Amazonia presents an opportunity for carbon (C) benefits through reducing current rates of deforestation. Measures related to Amazonian deforestation have greater potential carbon benefits than do options such as plantation silviculture, but much depends on how benefits are calculated. Procedures are needed for assessing the environmental and social impacts of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects. 55 refs.

  11. The Development and Application of a Value-Driven Aircraft Maintenance Operations Performance Assessment Model combined with Real Options Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, H.G.; Beelaerts van Blokland, W.W.A.; Curran, R.

    2011-01-01

    This research paper presents the results from the development of an Aircraft Maintenance Operations Performance Assessment Model (AMOPAM). The AMOPAM is able to assess the differences in performance in between two different states or scenarios of aircraft maintenance operations and is able to captur

  12. Assessing the Impact of Sustainability Improvement Options on the Agri-food Supply Chain Governance Structures: Development of an Evaluation Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimo Rota

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The competitiveness of a supply chain is driven by the ability of supply chain governance structures to adapt to the chains’ continuously changing technical and organizational characteristics. The present study addresses the adoption of sustainability improvement options in the area of organization and management in the agri-food sector; within this framework the study proposes a tool for assessing the impact of sustainability oriented processes on the supply chain governance structures, in turn influencing the competitiveness of the supply chain. Two different approaches, proposed by (Gereffi et al., 2005 and (Hobbs and Young, 2000 have been linked to provide a theoretical framework for the tool development. The proposed new conceptual framework links the dimensions defining five different governance structures complexity of transaction, ability to codify and capabilities in the supply-base (Gereffi et al., to the product characteristics, regulatory and technology aspects defined by Hobbs and Young as drivers influencing the vertical coordination of supply chains. The method suggested for measuring the relations between improvement options and the chain governance structure is the adoption of experts’ evaluations. This method improves the tool capacity to provide a context-related supply chain governance structure assessment and management.

  13. Post-2012 climate regime. How industrial and developing nations can help to reduce emissions - assessing emission trends, reduction potentials, incentive systems and negotiation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duscha, Vicki; Graichen, Jakob; Healy, Sean; Schleich, Joachim; Schumacher, Katja [Oeko-Institut e.V., Berlin (Germany); Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    This report analyses the emissions reduction targets submitted under the Copenhagen Accord by developed and developing countries in matters of four key questions: - Do the pledges add up to the emission reductions required necessary by science? - What are the costs associated with meeting the given targets? - Are the proposed emission reduction efforts of Annex I parties comparable? - What would comparable efforts look like taking country-specific socio-economic indicators into account? Secondary to these questions this report explores the economic and environmental implications of the submitted pledges and NAMAs. Furthermore, we analyze and assess the comparability of efforts of Annex I mitigation pledges compared to a range of socio-economic indicators that may provide a basis for a ''fair'' effort sharing agreement to achieve a given target. (orig.)

  14. A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) comparison of three management options for waste papers: bioethanol production, recycling and incineration with energy recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Templer, Richard; Murphy, Richard J

    2012-09-01

    This study uses Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to assess the environmental profiles and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for bioethanol production from waste papers and to compare them with the alternative waste management options of recycling or incineration with energy recovery. Bioethanol production scenarios both with and without pre-treatments were conducted. It was found that an oxidative lime pre-treatment reduced GHG emissions and overall environmental burdens for a newspaper-to-bioethanol process whereas a dilute acid pre-treatment raised GHG emissions and overall environmental impacts for an office paper-to-bioethanol process. In the comparison of bioethanol production systems with alternative management of waste papers by different technologies, it was found that the environmental profiles of each system vary significantly and this variation affects the outcomes of the specific comparisons made. Overall, a number of configurations of bioethanol production from waste papers offer environmentally favourable or neutral profiles when compared with recycling or incineration.

  15. Alaskan wave and river hydrokinetic energy resource assessment, river energy converter testing and surface debris mitigation performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J.; Kasper, J.; Schmid, J.; Duvoy, P.; Ravens, T. M.; Hansen, N.; Montlaur, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Alaska Hydrokinetic Energy Research Center (AHERC) is conducting a wave energy assessment study at Yakutat, Alaska, and conducting ongoing river technology studies at the Tanana River Tests Site (TRTS) at Nenana, Alaska. In Aug. 2013 an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) was deployed in 40 m of water off Cannon Beach in Yakutat, AK as part of the Yakutat area wave energy resource assessment. Over the course of the 1.5 year deployment, the ADCP will record area wave and current data in order to verify the area wave energy resource. Preliminary data analysis shows a vigorous wave field with maximum wave heights up to 16 m in Nov. 2013. In addition to the in-situ directional wave data recorded by the ADCP, a SWAN wave climatology spanning the past 20 years is being developed along with a simulation of the wave field for the near shore (5 mhydrokinetic turbine from river debris flows and to determine the effect of RDDP generated river current turbulence on turbine efficiency. Previous tests have shown that the RDDP effectively sheds debris, however, large debris objects can cause RDDP rotation about its mooring point requiring that a stable attachment between the RDDP and protected floating structure be in place to ensure that debris is diverted away from the protected structure. Performance tests of an Oceana hydrokinetic power turbine will be conducted in late August or early September, 2014 at the TRTS in realistic Alaskan river conditions of current turbulence, high sediment flow and debris. Measurements of river sediment concentration, current velocity and river stage will be made, and current turbulence will be derived. CFD simulations of the RDDP interaction with the river flow will be completed to compare current velocity and turbulence results, depending on the opening angle of the device. Study activities and results will be presented.

  16. Central Station Design Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of EDISON Work Package 4.1 is the evaluation of possible Central (charging) Stations design options for making possible the public charging of Electric Vehicles (EVs). A number of scenarios for EVs are assessed, with special emphasis on the options of Fast Charging and Battery Swapping....... The work identifies the architecture, sizing and siting of prospective Central Stations in Denmark, which can be located at shopping centers, large car parking lots or gas stations. Central Stations are planned to be integrated in the Danish distribution grid. The Danish island of Bornholm, where a high.......g. due to vandalism, the charge supply circuit is disconnected. More electrical vehicles on the market are capable today of quick charging up to 50 kW power level. The feasibility of Central Stations with fast charging/swapping option, their capacity, design, costs and grid impact, as well as battery...

  17. Greenhouse gas mitigation in animal production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Boer, IJM; Cederberg, C; Eady, S;

    2011-01-01

    The animal food chain contributes significantly to emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). We explored studies that addressed options to mitigate GHG emissions in the animal production chain and concluded that most studies focused on production systems in developed countries and on a single GHG...

  18. An integrated framework to assess adaptation options to climate change impacts in an irrigated basin in Central North Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicuna, S.; Melo, O.; Meza, F. J.; Alvarez, P.; Maureira, F.; Sanchez, A.; Tapia, A.; Cortes, M.; Dale, L. L.

    2013-12-01

    Future climate conditions could potentially affect water supply and demand on water basins throughout the world but especially on snowmelt-driven agriculture oriented basins that can be found throughout central Chile. Increasing temperature and reducing precipitation will affect both the magnitude and timing of water supply this part of the world. Different adaptation strategies could be implemented to reduce the impacts of such scenarios. Some could be incorporated as planned policies decided at the basin or Water Use Organization levels. Examples include changing large scale irrigation infrastructure (reservoirs and main channels) either physically or its operation. Complementing these strategies it is reasonable to think that at a disaggregated level, farmers would also react (adapt) to these new conditions using a mix of options to either modify their patterns of consumption (irrigation efficiency, crop mix, crop area reduction), increase their ability to access new sources of water (groundwater, water markets) or finally compensate their expected losses (insurance). We present a modeling framework developed to represent these issues using as a case study the Limarí basin located in Central Chile. This basin is a renowned example of how the development of reservoirs and irrigation infrastructure can reduce climate vulnerabilities allowing the economic development of a basin. Farmers in this basin tackle climate variability by adopting different strategies that depend first on the reservoir water volume allocation rule, on the type and size of investment they have at their farms and finally their potential access to water markets and other water supplies options. The framework developed can be used to study these strategies under current and future climate scenarios. The cornerstone of the framework is an hydrology and water resources model developed on the WEAP platform. This model is able to reproduce the large scale hydrologic features of the basin such as

  19. Life Cycle Assessment of Internal Recycling Options of Steel Slag in Chinese Iron and Steel Industry%Life Cycle Assessment of Internal Recycling Options of Steel Slag in Chinese Iron and Steel Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bo; YANG Jian-xin; OUYANG Zhi-yun

    2011-01-01

    The internal recycling process of BOF slag which is one of the huge solid wastes from iron and steel indus try was emphasized. Based on the four scenarios of different internal recycling strategies for BOF slag, life cycle assessment (LCA) as a valuable t

  20. Adverse childhood experiences: assessing the impact on health and school engagement and the mitigating role of resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethell, Christina D; Newacheck, Paul; Hawes, Eva; Halfon, Neal

    2014-12-01

    The ongoing longitudinal Adverse Childhood Experiences Study of adults has found significant associations between chronic conditions; quality of life and life expectancy in adulthood; and the trauma and stress associated with adverse childhood experiences, including physical or emotional abuse or neglect, deprivation, or exposure to violence. Less is known about the population-based epidemiology of adverse childhood experiences among US children. Using the 2011-12 National Survey of Children's Health, we assessed the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences and associations between them and factors affecting children's development and lifelong health. After we adjusted for confounding factors, we found lower rates of school engagement and higher rates of chronic disease among children with adverse childhood experiences. Our findings suggest that building resilience-defined in the survey as "staying calm and in control when faced with a challenge," for children ages 6-17-can ameliorate the negative impact of adverse childhood experiences. We found higher rates of school engagement among children with adverse childhood experiences who demonstrated resilience, as well as higher rates of resilience among children with such experiences who received care in a family-centered medical home. We recommend a coordinated effort to fill knowledge gaps and translate existing knowledge about adverse childhood experiences and resilience into national, state, and local policies, with a focus on addressing childhood trauma in health systems as they evolve during ongoing reform.

  1. Performance assessment of deep geological repositories for isolation of transuranic radioactive waste the Pacoma project - crystalline rock option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the CEC PAGIS project (for vitrified waste), the PACOMA project has been launched at the end of 1987 for cemented waste. The CEA-IPSN is in charge of the granite option. A representative inventory of this type of waste has been built up and an adaptation of the near field module, CONDIMENT, of the safety evaluation code MELODIE, has been made in order to take into account the particularities of cemented waste with respect to the vitrified waste. The best-estimate calculations have been performed on one reference site (the French Auriat Site) which is an outcropping granite and two variants, one representing a coastal granite formation (Barfleur) and the other, a granite with a sedimentary cover (notional British site). Moreover, the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis have been performed in the PACOMA project with a 2D modelling of the geosphere instead of the 1D modelling (Stream tube) previously used in the PAGIS project. After a general presentation of these points, we intended to present the main results, namely the dose rates obtained through deterministic calculations, and the most important geosphere parameters. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  2. Climate targets for all countries: the options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper assesses five options for targets that could be taken by all countries to meet the ultimate objective of the Climate Change Convention: fixed, binding targets, dynamic targets; non-binding targets; sectoral targets, policies and measures. Each is evaluated according to criteria of environmental effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, contribution to economic growth and sustainable development, and equity. While fixed, binding targets continue to be viable for industrialized countries, they do not seem suitable for many developing countries in the near future. Dynamic targets could alleviate developing countries' concerns about constraining their development as well as broader concerns about possible introduction of 'hot air' in a world trading regime; they could also be considered for some or all industrialized countries. Non-binding targets could be politically appealing to developing counties, alleviate fears about development and/or hot air, but might only allow conditional participation in emissions trading by developing countries. Sectoral targets could offer a pragmatic first step - although their cost-effectiveness might be questioned. Finally, targets based on commitments to implement specific policies and measures might drive mitigation action and be part of negotiated packages including financial and technological cooperation. All these options may coexist in the future. (authors)

  3. Development of bioenergy conversion alternatives for climate change mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derkyi, Nana S.A.; Sekyere, Daniel [CSIR-FORIG, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology KNUST Box 63 (Ghana); Okyere, Philip Y. [Electrical Engineering Department, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology KNUST (Ghana); Darkwa, Nicholas A. [FRNR, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology KNUST (Ghana); Nketiah, Samuel K. [TROPENBOS International (Ghana)

    2011-07-01

    Traditional charcoal production, firewood sourcing and over-dependence on the national grid for electricity are associated with high greenhouse gas emissions relative to other common energy options. However, there have been few attempts to analyze the potential of cogeneration and briquetting as favourable energy options for climate change mitigation. The possibility of utilizing abundant wood residues to produce energy for domestic and industrial application through co-generation and sawdust briquetting was assessed. Annual residues generated in the three mills studied ranged from 19,230 m3 to 32,610 m3. Annual output of semi-carbonized and carbonized sawdust briquette from the briquette factory studied was 1400 tonnes. Heating values of the wood species ranged from 8.2 to 20.3 MJ/kg. Power requirements for the mills, necessary for sizing co-generation units were derived from their monthly electricity bills. Power ratings for co-generation units were specified between 400 kWe to 2000 kWe with heat to power ratios of 19 to 21. The energy generated could be used to produce electrical power and reduce dependency on the national grid. Conversion of sawdust in the briquette factory potentially contributes a saving of 5,600 tonnes of trees/year that would have been cut from the forest. Thus, adoption of co-generation and sawdust briquetting nationwide could be of immense benefit to the country in terms of climate change mitigation.

  4. Landslide-dammed lake at Tangjiashan, Sichuan province, China (triggered by the Wenchuan Earthquake, May 12, 2008): Risk assessment, mitigation strategy, and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, P.; Dang, C.; Zhuang, J.; You, Y.; Chen, X.; Scott, K.M.

    2012-01-01

    Landslides and rock avalanches triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake produced 257 landslide dams, mainly situated along the eastern boundary of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau where rivers descend approximately 3,000 m into the Sichuan Basin. The largest of these dams blocked the Tongkou River (a tributary of the Fujiang River) at Tangjiashan. The blockage, consisting of 2. 04 ?? 10 7 m 3 of landslide debris, impounded a lake with a projected maximum volume of 3. 15 ?? 10 8 m 3, potentially inundating 8. 92 km 2 of terrain. Its creation during the rainy season and the possibility of an uncontrolled release posed a serious, impending threat to at least 1. 3 million people downstream that could add substantially to the total of 69,200 individuals directly killed by the earthquake. Risk assessment of the blockage indicated that it was unlikely to collapse suddenly, and that eventual overtopping could be mitigated by notching the structure in order to create an engineered breach and achieve safe drainage of the lake. In addition to the installation of monitoring and warning instrumentation, for emergency planning we estimated several outburst scenarios equivalent to 20, 25, 33, and 50% of the dam failing suddenly, creating, respectively, 3. 35, 3. 84, 4. 22, and 4. 65 km 2 of flooded area, and overbank water depths of 4. 6, 5. 1, 5. 7, and 6. 2 m, respectively, in Mianyang, the second largest city in Sichuan Province, 48 km downstream from the blockage. Based on these scenarios, recommendations and plans for excavating a sluiceway, draining the lake, and downstream evacuation were proposed and later were implemented successfully, with the blockage breached by overtopping on June 10, less than a month after dam emplacement. The peak discharge of the release only slightly exceeded the flood of record at Mianyang City. No lives were lost, and significant property damage was avoided. Post-breaching evaluation reveals how future similar mitigation can be improved. Although

  5. Rockslide susceptibility and hazard assessment for mitigation works design along vertical rocky cliffs: workflow proposal based on a real case-study conducted in Sacco (Campania), Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignalosa, Antonio; Di Crescenzo, Giuseppe; Marino, Ermanno; Terracciano, Rosario; Santo, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    The work here presented concerns a case study in which a complete multidisciplinary workflow has been applied for an extensive assessment of the rockslide susceptibility and hazard in a common scenario such as a vertical and fractured rocky cliffs. The studied area is located in a high-relief zone in Southern Italy (Sacco, Salerno, Campania), characterized by wide vertical rocky cliffs formed by tectonized thick successions of shallow-water limestones. The study concerned the following phases: a) topographic surveying integrating of 3d laser scanning, photogrammetry and GNSS; b) gelogical surveying, characterization of single instabilities and geomecanichal surveying, conducted by geologists rock climbers; c) processing of 3d data and reconstruction of high resolution geometrical models; d) structural and geomechanical analyses; e) data filing in a GIS-based spatial database; f) geo-statistical and spatial analyses and mapping of the whole set of data; g) 3D rockfall analysis; The main goals of the study have been a) to set-up an investigation method to achieve a complete and thorough characterization of the slope stability conditions and b) to provide a detailed base for an accurate definition of the reinforcement and mitigation systems. For this purposes the most up-to-date methods of field surveying, remote sensing, 3d modelling and geospatial data analysis have been integrated in a systematic workflow, accounting of the economic sustainability of the whole project. A novel integrated approach have been applied both fusing deterministic and statistical surveying methods. This approach enabled to deal with the wide extension of the studied area (near to 200.000 m2), without compromising an high accuracy of the results. The deterministic phase, based on a field characterization of single instabilities and their further analyses on 3d models, has been applied for delineating the peculiarity of each single feature. The statistical approach, based on geostructural

  6. Key landscape ecology metrics for assessing climate change adaptation options: rate of change and patchiness of impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Hoffman, Laura; Breshears, David D.; Allen, Craig D.; Miller, Marc L.

    2013-01-01

    sum, understanding how the rate of change and degree of patchiness of change will constrain adaptive options is a critical consideration in preparing for climate change.

  7. Life cycle assessment and resource management options for bio-ethanol production from cane molasses in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Kummamuru Venkata, Bharadwaj

    2013-01-01

    The intent of this thesis is to analyse the sustainability of producing bio-ethanol from cane molasses in Indonesia and its potential to replace gasoline in the transportation sector. A field trip was conducted in East Java, Indonesia, and data was gathered for analysis. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed to analyse the net emissions and energy consumption in the process chain. The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the life cycle are 17.45 gCO2e per MJ of ethanol produced. In compariso...

  8. Mitigation : Closed Basin Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The upcoming meeting on waterfowl mitigation for the Closed Basin Project will have several people talk about possible changes to the waterfowl mitigation program....

  9. A new method for assessing plant lodging and the impact of management options on lodging in canola crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Ma, Bao-Luo

    2016-01-01

    Lodging, defined as the permanent displacement of aboveground parts, is a common problem to cause yield loss, deterioration in seed quality and difficult to harvest in canola (Brassica napus L.) crop production. This study aimed to develop a method for assessing crop lodging, to examine how agronomic practices affected the relationships between root lodging and electrical capacitance traits. Canola plants were more susceptible to root lodging than stem lodging. The electrical measurements were more closely related with anchorage strength (Sp) than stem bending strength (Ss). Among the three electrical measurements, the root capacitance (C) displayed the most consistent and significant relationships with Sp in all three field experiments (R(2) = 0.88-0.56; P ≤ 0.01). This study indicates that the risk of lodging can be reduced by using appropriate management practices and variety selection. Enhancing root Sp was advocated as a priority over enhancing stem Ss in cultivar improvement. Electrical measurements, especially of root C, can be considered as a non-invasive technique that could partially replace the intrusive methods used for the in situ assessment of lodging resistance among various agronomic practices or can be applied in breeding programs for selecting genotypes with high yield potentials and strong Sp values. PMID:27552909

  10. Comparative assessment of energy options and strategies in Mexico until 2025. Final report of a coordinated research project 2000-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mexico is undergoing significant changes in the energy sector, in particular in the electric power sector, such as the restructuring of power markets; increasing emphasis on socioeconomic and environmental impacts of the electric power system; and consideration of an higher role for energy technologies compatible with sustainable development. The Mexican Government has identified the need for ensuring a sustainable pattern of production, distribution and use of energy and electricity. In this context, a comparative assessment analysis is a prerequisite for planning of the future energy and electricity facilities of the country in order to make timely decisions. It requires the identification of the expected levels of energy and electricity demand and the options that are available to meet these demands, taking special note of the national energy resources and potential imported sources. Further analysis would be needed for the optimization of the supply options to meet the demand in the most efficient and economic manner with due consideration of the environmental impacts and resource requirements. In accordance with its mandate, the IAEA has developed a systematic approach along with a set of computer-based models for elaborating national energy strategies covering the analysis of all of the above aspects. Under its Technical Cooperation Programme, the IAEA provides assistance to its Member States to enhance national capabilities for elaborating sustainable energy development strategies and assessing the role of nuclear power and other energy options, by transferring the analytical tools along with training and providing expertise. The present report describes the results of the Comparative Assessment of Energy Options and Strategies until 2025 study for Mexico conducted by the Secretaria de Energia, in cooperation with several national institutions, in particular the University of Mexico. The comprehensive national analysis focuses on energy and electricity

  11. A comprehensive approach for assessing the economic contribution of forage and livestock improvement options to smallholder farming enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neil MacLeod; Scott Waldron; WEN Shi-lin

    2015-01-01

    The importance of livestock production activities to improving the livelihoods of smal holder farming households and the efifciency of their underlying farming systems is increasingly recognized. A rapid increase in livestock numbers, especial y beef cattle, and special purpose forages is being promoted for smal holder farms which have traditional y undertaken sub-sistence cropping activities or simple livestock rearing activities using low quality feedstuffs. Because limited plantings of specialized forages combined with a poor knowledge of animal nutrition are a chal enge to establishing sustainable livestock enterprises, much public policy and research is now being focused on the use of new forages and improved feeding practices. A number of economic studies have suggested that specialized forage growing and livestock feeding activities can make a positive contribution to smal holder welfare. The studies have typical y compared the total level of farm or household income with and without livestock activities. Little attention is given to how much the new forage or livestock activities actual y contribute to or draw resources from other farm activities to assess their real economic contribution to the enterprise, and the availability of simple tools to assist in making such assessments are limited. This paper describes a simple model ing approach that was developed for an Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR)-supported project to explore the real as opposed to apparent economic impact of integrating improved forages and livestock within smal holder farming systems in the Red Soils region of south-central China. Application of the model is demonstrated using a simple case study of a smal holder enterprise that plans to introduce a new beef cattle rearing activity to its existing farm activity mix. The case study highlights the importance of explicitly valuing transfers of resources between different farm activities to gauge the real

  12. Assessing the Value of an Optional Radiation Oncology Clinical Rotation During the Core Clerkships in Medical School

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Few medical students are given proper clinical training in oncology, much less radiation oncology. We attempted to assess the value of adding a radiation oncology clinical rotation to the medical school curriculum. Methods and Materials: In July 2010, Jefferson Medical College began to offer a 3-week radiation oncology rotation as an elective course for third-year medical students during the core surgical clerkship. During 2010 to 2012, 52 medical students chose to enroll in this rotation. The rotation included outpatient clinics, inpatient consults, didactic sessions, and case-based presentations by the students. Tests of students’ knowledge of radiation oncology were administered anonymously before and after the rotation to evaluate the educational effectiveness of the rotation. Students and radiation oncology faculty were given surveys to assess feedback about the rotation. Results: The students’ prerotation test scores had an average of 64% (95% confidence interval [CI], 61–66%). The postrotation test scores improved to an average of 82% (95% CI, 80–83%; 18% absolute improvement). In examination question analysis, scores improved in clinical oncology from 63% to 79%, in radiobiology from 70% to 77%, and in medical physics from 62% to 88%. Improvements in all sections but radiobiology were statistically significant. Students rated the usefulness of the rotation as 8.1 (scale 1–9; 95% CI, 7.3–9.0), their understanding of radiation oncology as a result of the rotation as 8.8 (95% CI, 8.5–9.1), and their recommendation of the rotation to a classmate as 8.2 (95% CI, 7.6–9.0). Conclusions: Integrating a radiation oncology clinical rotation into the medical school curriculum improves student knowledge of radiation oncology, including aspects of clinical oncology, radiobiology, and medical physics. The rotation is appreciated by both students and faculty.

  13. Assessing the Value of an Optional Radiation Oncology Clinical Rotation During the Core Clerkships in Medical School

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaorsky, Nicholas G.; Malatesta, Theresa M.; Den, Robert B.; Wuthrick, Evan; Ahn, Peter H.; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Shi, Wenyin; Dicker, Adam P.; Anne, P. Rani; Bar-Ad, Voichita [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College, Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Showalter, Timothy N., E-mail: timothy.showalter@jeffersonhospital.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College, Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Few medical students are given proper clinical training in oncology, much less radiation oncology. We attempted to assess the value of adding a radiation oncology clinical rotation to the medical school curriculum. Methods and Materials: In July 2010, Jefferson Medical College began to offer a 3-week radiation oncology rotation as an elective course for third-year medical students during the core surgical clerkship. During 2010 to 2012, 52 medical students chose to enroll in this rotation. The rotation included outpatient clinics, inpatient consults, didactic sessions, and case-based presentations by the students. Tests of students' knowledge of radiation oncology were administered anonymously before and after the rotation to evaluate the educational effectiveness of the rotation. Students and radiation oncology faculty were given surveys to assess feedback about the rotation. Results: The students' prerotation test scores had an average of 64% (95% confidence interval [CI], 61-66%). The postrotation test scores improved to an average of 82% (95% CI, 80-83%; 18% absolute improvement). In examination question analysis, scores improved in clinical oncology from 63% to 79%, in radiobiology from 70% to 77%, and in medical physics from 62% to 88%. Improvements in all sections but radiobiology were statistically significant. Students rated the usefulness of the rotation as 8.1 (scale 1-9; 95% CI, 7.3-9.0), their understanding of radiation oncology as a result of the rotation as 8.8 (95% CI, 8.5-9.1), and their recommendation of the rotation to a classmate as 8.2 (95% CI, 7.6-9.0). Conclusions: Integrating a radiation oncology clinical rotation into the medical school curriculum improves student knowledge of radiation oncology, including aspects of clinical oncology, radiobiology, and medical physics. The rotation is appreciated by both students and faculty.

  14. Assessing the uncertainties of climate policies and mitigation measures. Viewpoints on biofuel production, grid electricity consumption and differentiation of emission reduction commitments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soimakallio, S.

    2012-08-15

    Ambitious climate change mitigation requires the implementation of effective and equitable climate policy and GHG emission reduction measures. The objective of this study was to explore the significance of the uncertainties related to GHG emission reduction measures and policies by providing viewpoints on biofuels production, grid electricity consumption and differentiation of emission reduction commitments between countries and country groups. Life cycle assessment (LCA) and macro-level scenario analysis through top-down and bottom-up modelling and cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) were used as methods. The uncertainties were propagated in a statistical way through parameter variation, scenario analysis and stochastic modelling. This study showed that, in determining GHG emissions at product or process level, there are significant uncertainties due to parameters such as nitrous oxide emissions from soil, soil carbon changes and emissions from electricity production; and due to methodological choices related to the spatial and temporal system boundary setting and selection of allocation methods. Furthermore, the uncertainties due to modelling may be of central importance. For example, when accounting for biomass-based carbon emissions to and sequestration from the atmosphere, consideration of the temporal dimension is critical. The outcomes in differentiation of GHG emission reduction commitments between countries and country groups are critically influenced by the quality of data and criteria applied. In both LCA and effort sharing, the major issues are equitable attribution of emissions and emission allowances on the one hand and capturing consequences of measures and policies on the other. As LCA and system level top-down and bottom-up modelling results are increasingly used to justify various decisions by different stakeholders such as policy-makers and consumers, harmonization of practices, transparency and the handling of uncertainties related to

  15. Assessing the uncertainties of climate policies and mitigation measures. Viewpoints on biofuel production, grid electricity consumption and differentiation of emission reduction commitments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soimakallio, S.

    2012-11-01

    Ambitious climate change mitigation requires the implementation of effective and equitable climate policy and GHG emission reduction measures. The objective of this study was to explore the significance of the uncertainties related to GHG emission reduction measures and policies by providing viewpoints on biofuels production, grid electricity consumption and differentiation of emission reduction commitments between countries and country groups. Life cycle assessment (LCA) and macro-level scenario analysis through top-down and bottom-up modelling and cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) were used as methods. The uncertainties were propagated in a statistical way through parameter variation, scenario analysis and stochastic modelling. This study showed that, in determining GHG emissions at product or process level, there are significant uncertainties due to parameters such as nitrous oxide emissions from soil, soil carbon changes and emissions from electricity production; and due to methodological choices related to the spatial and temporal system boundary setting and selection of allocation methods. Furthermore, the uncertainties due to modelling may be of central importance. For example, when accounting for biomass-based carbon emissions to and sequestration from the atmosphere, consideration of the temporal dimension is critical. The outcomes in differentiation of GHG emission reduction commitments between countries and country groups are critically influenced by the quality of data and criteria applied. In both LCA and effort sharing, the major issues are equitable attribution of emissions and emission allowances on the one hand and capturing consequences of measures and policies on the other. As LCA and system level top-down and bottom-up modelling results are increasingly used to justify various decisions by different stakeholders such as policy-makers and consumers, harmonization of practices, transparency and the handling of uncertainties related to

  16. Economical analysis of an alternative strategy for CO2 mitigation based on nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many countries are pursuing greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policies resulting in the increase of use of renewable sources in the electricity sector to mitigate CO2 emissions. Nuclear energy is a non-emitting CO2 source that could be used as part of that policy. However, its main drawback is the high investment required for its deployment. On the other hand, wind power is the clean source preferred option to mitigate CO2 emissions. However, due to its intermittence backup power is needed, in most of the cases it must be provided with combined cycle thermal plants using natural gas. This study performs an economical comparison of a hypothetical implementation of a nuclear strategy to meet the same CO2 emissions reduction goal that has been obtained by the actual Spaniard strategy (2005–2010) based on wind power. The investment required in both strategies is assessed under different investment scenarios and electricity production conditions for nuclear power. Also, the cost of electricity generation is compared for both strategies. - Highlights: ► Wind power electricity cost including its backup in Spain is assessed. ► Nuclear power is proposed as an alternative to produce the same CO2 reduction. ► Nuclear power requires less installed capacity deployment. ► Investment to produce the same CO2 reduction is smaller using nuclear power. ► Electricity generating cost is less expensive using the nuclear option

  17. Home composting as an alternative treatment option for organic household waste in Denmark: An environmental assessment using life cycle assessment-modelling

    OpenAIRE

    ANDERSEN, J. K.; Boldrin, Alessio; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    An environmental assessment of the management of organic household waste (OHW) was performed from a life cycle perspective by means of the waste-life cycle assessment (LCA) model EASEWASTE. The focus was on home composting of OHW in Denmark and six different home composting units (with different input and different mixing frequencies) were modelled. In addition, incineration and landfilling was modelled as alternatives to home composting. The most important processes contributing to the envir...

  18. Mitigating GHG emissions from ruminant livestock systems

    OpenAIRE

    Klumpp, Katja; Doreau, Michel; Faverdin, Philippe; Jeuffroy, Marie-Helene; Bamière, Laure; Pardon, Lenaïc; Soussana, Jean-François; Pellerin, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Improving the net GHG budget of ruminant livestock systems without a reduction in productivity and economic sustainability, requires effective mitigation options in terms of abatement potential and costs. Grasslands and grassland management have a large potential to mitigate livestock GHG emissions at a low (or even negative) cost. A synthesis of eddy flux covariance data (i.e. 189 site years) shows on a mean net carbon storage equal to 0.76 ±0.1 MgC m-2yr-1, indicating a significant carbon s...

  19. Assessment of waste management options in the oil and gas industry in Ghana using nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghana's oil find is growing steadily as more discoveries are being made. Oil and gas exploration and production coupled with their related activities produce wastes. These wastes could be put into three primary categories such as produced water, drilling cuttings and associated wastes (any other waste related with the exploration, development and production of crude oil or natural gas). These wastes may contain varying amount of contaminants such as heavy metals, suspended solid particles and radioactive materials such as Ra-226 or Rn-228, product of U-238 decay that occur in some geologic formations and sediments. The main objective of this study is to assess the waste management practices in the oil and gas industry in Ghana by qualification and quantification of waste generated during exploration and production, examining the system put in place by oil and gas companies to manage these wastes and also determine some basic contaminants in some of these wastes brought to shore for management. Waste samples were taken from Tema Oil Refinery (TOR) and Zeal Environmental Technology Limited at Takoradi. The samples were analyzed by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS) analytical methods to determine heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Hg, As, Ag, Ba, Se) in the oily waste water, oil based mud, block and ash samples. The results showed that the levels of heavy metals were below the EPA permissible limit for discharge into the natural drainage except the level of Pb in the mud samples taken from Zeal before treatment. The levels ranged from 3.99mg/l to 7.44mgl. Even though these levels were above 0.1mg/l discharge standard limit, there was no cause for alarm because the levels dropped below the EPA limit after treatment. Furthermore, the quantity of general garbage deposited in the landfill at Takoradi be Zeal Environmental Technology Limited from 2011 to 2012 increased from 497m3 to 1,314.29m3 respectively. (author)

  20. The assessment of natural flood management measures as a climate change adaptation option through land use scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacob, Oana; Rowan, John; Brown, Iain; Ellis, Chris

    2014-05-01

    Climate change is one of the most pressing issues facing civil society. Greater variability and more frequent extremes of temperature and precipitation will result in increased flood risk and corresponding social, economic and environmental impacts. Complementing more traditional structurally-based engineering interventions an important additional adaptation strategy is through natural flood management (NFM) measures utilising natural soil, wetland and groundwater storage at the catchment scale to attenuate runoff generation and downstream flooding. Such schemes have multiple co-benefits including improved water quality, biodiversity and amenity and so contribute to greater resilience to uncertain climate futures. As a case-study of a more integrated approach to land use planning we here consider the policy target of the Scottish Government to expand woodland in Scotland by 100,000 ha by 2025 from the current 3 000 ha/year. In this paper we examine runoff response under different woodland expansion scenarios using climate projections obtained from the UK Climate Projections (UKCP09). Woodland creation has recognised potential as a NFM measure, but locating this new planting is constrained by physical and cultural constraints. Land use choices in the future will also strongly reflect emergent socio-economic contexts, here assessed through scenario analysis. The distributed hydrological model WaSiM-ETH was utilised for the analysis using the case-study of the Tarland catchment, a tributary of the River Dee. Terrain data were obtained on a 50 m grid and the model calibrated using meteorological and river gauge data from 2005 to 2007 following a manual and an automatic calibration process. This novel approach highlights that land use change should be carefully managed for planned benefits and to avoid unintended consequences, such as changing the timing of tributary flood responses. Whilst woodland expansion may only provide modest gains in flood reductions the co

  1. Energy options?; Energie opties?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Sark, W. (ed.)

    2006-05-15

    March 2006 the so-called Options Document was published by the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) and the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP). The document is an overview of technical options to reduce energy consumption and emission of greenhouse gases up to 2020. Next to a brief summary of the document a few reactions and comments on the contents of the document are given. [Dutch] Maart 2006 publiceerde het Energieonderzoek Centrum Nederland (ECN) en het Milieu- en Natuurplanbureau (MNP) het zogenaamde Optiedocument energie en emissies 2010-2020. Daarin wordt een overzicht gegeven van de technische mogelijkheden voor vermindering van het energieverbruik en de uitstoot van broeikasgassen en luchtverontreinigende stoffen tot 2020. Naast een korte samenvatting van het document worden enkele reacties gegeven op de inhoud.

  2. Encouraging private sector investment in climatefriendly technologies in developing countries. An assessment of policy options for the Dutch government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims to explore new or reformed policies to be adopted by the Dutch government to encourage private sector investments in climate-friendly technologies in developing countries. A literature review of barriers to climate-friendly investments and of directions for solutions has been complemented with a number of in-depth interviews with stakeholders representing the major actors involved in investment projects (project sponsors, financing institutions, institutional investors and government). The barrier analysis has resulted in the following list of key obstacles to climate-friendly investments: (1) Lack of a sound, transparent and stable enabling environment for investing in developing countries; (2) Shortage of experienced and creditworthy sponsors; (3) High specific project risks; (4) Overestimation investment risks related to (sustainable) investments in developing countries in general (risk perspective); (5) Additional costs of climate-friendly technologies; (6) Shortage of risk capital; (7) Insufficient guarantee mechanisms; (8) Lack of know-how on public-private partnership structures and on financial design; and (9) Lack of insight how corporate social responsibility can be operationalised. Four main gaps have been identified on the basis of an assessment of current Dutch policies and instruments: (1) Shortage of instruments to directly promote investments; (2) Underdeveloped guarantee instruments; (3) Too restrictive cap on project size in financial schemes; (4) Lack of support in operationalising the concept of corporate social responsibility. Four areas for new or intensified policies have been identified based on the barrier and gap analysis: (1) Direct promotion of (potentially large scale) investments, including: (a) Supporting (the establishment of) sponsor companies developing sustainable energy projects in developing countries; (b) Making risk capital available; (c) Creating investment credit facilities; (d) Making development capital in

  3. Net climate change mitigation of the Clean Development Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) has allowed industrialized countries to buy credits from developing countries for the purpose of meeting targets under the Kyoto Protocol. In principle, the CDM simply shifts the location of emission reductions, with no net mitigation impact. Departing from this zero-sum calculus, the Cancun Agreements reached at the sixteenth session of the Conference of the Parties (COP) in 2010 called for “one or more market-based mechanisms” capable of “ensuring a net decrease and/or avoidance of global greenhouse gas emissions”, an intention reiterated at COP 17 and COP 18. This article explores the extent to which the CDM may or may not already lead to such a “net decrease.” It finds that the CDM's net mitigation impact likely hinges on the additionality of large-scale power projects, which are expected to generate the majority of CDM credits going forward. If these projects are truly additional and continue to operate well beyond the credit issuance period, they will decrease global greenhouse gas emissions. However, if they are mostly non-additional, as research suggests, they could increase global greenhouse gas emissions. The article closes with a discussion of possible means to increase mitigation benefit. - Highlights: • The CDM's method for assessing additionality remains controversial and contested. • We develop two scenarios of the net emissions impact of the CDM. • The integrity of the CDM hinges on the emissions impact of power supply projects. • Additionality is hard to demonstrate with confidence for most power-supply projects. • A number of options are available to increase the mitigation benefit of the CDM

  4. MRICES:一个新的减排方案评价模型及其应用%MRICES: A new model for emission mitigation strategy assessment and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng; WU Jing; ZHU Qianting; WANG Lijuan; GONG Yi; LI Huaqun

    2012-01-01

    @@%Many global emission reduction strategies have been proposed,but few have been assessed quantitatively from the view of equality,efficiency and effectiveness.Integrated assessment models (IAM) is one of the effective ways to make climate policy modeling.So in this paper we developed the MRICES (Multi-regional integrated model of climate and economy with GDP spillovers) model,which is an IAM but extends to include GDP spillover mechanism,to make assessment on several strategies for global emission reduction,including the egalitarianism strategy,the UNDP strategy and the Copenhagen Accord.Using 1990 as a baseline for historical emission levels,the egalitarian strategy argues that developed countries should implement urgent emission reductions,whereas developing countries are allowed relatively higher future emission quotas.The UNDP strategy addresses the issue of substantial changes in global temperature but acknowledges that developing countries are not able to afford more costs for mitigation measures,which is inequitable from the perspective of a country's right to develop.We also simulated the Copenhagen Accord to determine the consequences by the year 2100 if each country continues their current emission mitigation actions,and results indicated that the increase in global temperature will be 2.8℃ by 2100; consequently,much stronger emission reduction efforts must be implemented after 2020.Based on analysis on mitigation strategies,it is recognized that the common but differentiated responsibility principle must be insisted when making global mitigation strategy.To comply with this principle,the emission reduction baseline of developed and developing countries should be discriminated,so 1990 and 2005 can be taken as the base year for developed and developing countries respectively.

  5. Greenhouse gas mitigation options in Brazil for land-use change, livestock and agriculture Opções de mitigação de gases do efeito estufa na mudança do uso da terra, pecuária e agricultura no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Clemente Cerri

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available National inventories of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG emissions (implementation of the National Communications are organized according to five main sectors, namely: Energy, Industrial Processes, Agriculture, Land-Use Change and Forestry (LUCF and Waste. The objective of this study was to review and calculate the potential of greenhouse gas mitigation strategies in Brazil for the Agricultural and LUCF. The first step consisted in an analysis of Brazilian official and unofficial documents related to climate change and mitigation policies. Secondly, business as usual (BAU and mitigation scenarios were elaborated for the 2010-2020 timeframe, and calculations of the corresponding associated GHG emissions and removals were performed. Additionally, two complementary approaches were used to point out and quantify the main mitigation options: a following the IPCC 1996 guidelines and b based on EX-ACT. Brazilian authorities announced that the country will target a reduction in its GHG between 36.1 and 38.9% from projected 2020 levels. This is a positive stand that should also be adopted by other developing countries. To reach this government goal, agriculture and livestock sectors must contribute with an emission reduction of 133 to 166 Mt CO2-eq. This seems to be reachable when confronted to our mitigation option values, which are in between the range of 178.3 to 445 Mt CO2-eq. Government investments on agriculture are necessary to minimize the efforts from the sectors to reach their targets.Inventários nacionais acerca de emissões de gases do efeito estufa (GEE (refinamentos das Comunicações Nacionais são organizadas de acordo com cinco principais setores, a saber: Energia, Processos Industriais, Agropecuária, Mudanças do Uso da Terra e Florestas e Tratamento de Resíduos. O objetivo dessa revisão foi calcular o potencial das estratégias de mitigação de GEE no Brasil para agropecuária e mudança de uso da terra e florestas. A primeira

  6. Integrated energy planning: Strategies to mitigate climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Johnny N; Sheffield, John W [University of Missouri-Rolla (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The framework convention on climate change, signed by more than 150 governments worldwide in June 1992, calls on parties to the convention undertaken inventories of national sources and sinks of greenhouse gases and to develop plans for responding to climate change. The energy sector is comprised of the major energy demand sectors (industry, residential and commercial, transport and agriculture), and the energy supply sector, which consists of resource extraction, conversion, and delivery of energy products. Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions occur at various points in the sector, from resource extraction to end use application, and accordingly, options for mitigation exist at various points. In most countries, will be a major focus of GHG mitigation analysis. The primary focus of this paper is on the identification of strategies that can mitigate climate changes on the basis of integrated energy planing analysis. The overall approach follows a methodology developed by the U.S. Country Studies Program under the framework of the Convention's commitments. It involves the development of scenarios based on energy uses and evaluation of specific technologies that can satisfy demands for energy services. One can compare technologies based on their relative cost to achieve a unit of GHG reduction and other features of interest. This approach gives equal weight to both energy supply and energy demand options. A variety of screening criteria including indicators of cost-effectiveness as well as non-economic analysis concerns, can be used to identify and assess promising options, which can then be combined to create one or more scenarios. Mitigation scenarios are evaluated against the backdrop of a baseline scenario, which simulates assumed to take place in the absence of mitigation efforts. Mitigation scenarios can be designed to meet specific emission reduction targets or to simulate the effect of specific policy inventions. The paper ends with an application using a

  7. NRC hydrogen behavior and mitigation research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To address hydrogen-related issues, the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (Divisions of Accident Evaluation and Engineering Technology) has initiated a comprehensive research program whose objective is to quantify the threat posed by hydrogen released during severe reactor accidents, and to generate information, procedures and concepts which will prevent or mitigate that threat. The products of this research program will include: 1) assessment of the threat for several classes of reactors and containment designs; 2) assessment of the adequacy of existing safety systems and mitigation strategies; 3) identification and concept demonstration of improved mitigation and detection systems; 4) publication of manuals and reports on: evaluation of the state-of-the-art; phenomena important to threat assessment; operator strategies and training; and reactor safety issues; 5) development and applications of computer codes for addressing the generation, transport, combustion and mitigation of hydrogen during hypothetical reactor accidents

  8. Assessing the mitigation potential of agricultural systems by optimization of the agricultural management: A modeling study on 8 agricultural observation sites across Europe with the process based model LandscapeDNDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina Herrera, Saul; Haas, Edwin; Klatt, Steffen; Kraus, David; Kiese, Ralf; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    The use of mineral nitrogen (N) fertilizers increase crop yields but cause the biggest anthropogenic source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and strongly contribute to surface water eutrophication (e.g. nitrate leaching). The necessity to identify affordable strategies that improve crop production while improving ecosystem services are in continuous debate between policy decision makers and farmers. In this line, a lack commitment from farmers to enforce laws might result in the reduction of benefits. For this reason, farmers should aim to increase crop production and to reduce environmental harm by the adoption of precision climate smart agriculture tools applied to management practices for instance. In this study we present optimized strategies for 8 sites (agricultural and grassland ecosystems) with long term field observation across Europe to show the mitigation potential to reduce reactive nitrogen losses under the constrain of keeping yields at observed levels. LandscapeDNDC simulations of crop yields and associated nitrogen losses (N2O emissions and NO3 leaching) were evaluated against long term field measurements. The sites presented different management regimes including the main commodity crops (maize, wheat, barley, rape seeds, etc) and fertilization amendments (synthetic and organic fertilizers) in Europe. The simulations reproduced the observed yields, captured N2O emissions and NO3 leaching losses with high statistical presicion (r2), acurrency (ME) and agreement (RMSPEn). The mitigation potentials to reduce N losses while keeping yields at observed levels for all 8 sites were assesed by Monte Carlo optimizations of the individual underlying multi year agricultural management options (timings of planting and harvest, fertilization & manure applications and rates, residues management). In this study we present for all 8 agricultural observations sites their individual mitigation potentials to reduce N losses for multi year rotations. The conclusions

  9. Assessing the economic impact of North China’s water scarcity mitigation strategy : a multi - region, water - extended computable general equilibrium analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, C.; Su, Z.; Bressers, J.T.A.; Jia, Y.; Wang, H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a multi-region computable general equilibrium model for analyzing the effectiveness of measures and policies for mitigating North China’s water scarcity with respect to three different groups of scenarios. The findings suggest that a reduction in groundwater use would negatively

  10. Developmental assessment of RELAP5/MOD3.1 with separate-effect and integral test experiments: model changes and options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Analytis, G.T. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-04-01

    A summary of modifications and options introduced in RELAP5/MOD3.1 (R5M3.1) is presented and it is shown that the predicting capabilities of the modified version of the code are greatly improved, while the general philosophy we followed in arriving at these modifications is also outlined. These changes which are the same ones we implemented in the past in the version 7j of the code, include 2 different heat transfer packages (one of them activated during reflooding), modification of the low mass-flux Groeneveld CHF look-up table and of the dispersed flow interfacial area (and shear) as well as of the criterion for transition into and out from this regime, almost complete elimination of the under-relaxation schemes of the interfacial closure coefficients etc. The modified R5M3.1 code is assessed against a number of separate-effect and integral test experiments and in contrast to the frozen version, is shown to result in physically sound predictions which are much closer to the measurements, while almost all the predicted variables are free of unphysical spurious oscillations. The modifications introduced solve a number of problems associated with the frozen version of the code and result in a version which can be confidently used both for SB-LOCA and LB-LOCA analyses. (author) 7 figs., 20 refs.

  11. Case study on comparative assessment of nuclear and coal-fueled electricity generation options and strategy for nuclear power development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China, as other countries in the world, is seeking for a way of sustainable development. In energy/electricity field, nuclear power is one of electric energy options considering the Chinese capability of nuclear industry. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of nuclear power in Chinese energy/electricity system in future by comprehensive assessment. The main conclusions obtained from this study are: (1) China will need a total generation capacity of 750 - 879 GW in 2020, which means new power units of 460 - 590 GW generation capacity will be built from 2001 to 2020. (2) the total amount of SO2 emission from power production will rise to 16 - 18 Mt in 2020, about 2.8 - 3.2 times of 1995, even if the measures to control SO2 emission are taken for all new coal units. (3) CO2 emission from electricity generation will reach 21 - 24 Gt in 2020. (4) the environmental impacts and health risks of coal-fired energy chain are greater than that of nuclear chain. The normalized health risk caused by coal chain is 20.12 deaths/GW·a but 4.63 deaths/GW·a by nuclear chain in China. (5) As estimated by experts, there will be a shortage of 200 GW in 2050 in China even if considering the maximum production of coal, the utilization of hydropower and renewable resource. Nuclear power is the only way to fill the gap between demand and supply

  12. A Wildlife Habitat Protection, Mitigation and Enhancement Plan for Eight Federal Hydroelectric Facilities in the Willamette River Basin: Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, S.K.

    1987-05-01

    The development and operation of eight federal hydroelectric projects in the Willamette River Basin impacted 30,776 acres of prime wildlife habitat. This study proposes mitigative measures for the losses to wildlife and wildlife habitat resulting from these projects, under the direction of the Columbia River Basin (CRB) Fish and Wildlife Program. The CRB Fish and Wildlife Program was adopted in 1982 by the Northwest Power Planning Council, pursuant to the Northwest Power Planning Act of 1980. The proposed mitigation plan is based on the findings of loss assessments completed in 1985, that used a modified Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) to assess the extent of impact to wildlife and wildlife habitat, with 24 evaluation species. The vegetative structure of the impacted habitat was broken down into three components: big game winter range, riparian habitat and old-growth forest. The mitigation plan proposes implementation of the following, over a period of 20 years: (1) purchase of cut-over timber lands to mitigate, in the long-term, for big game winter range, and portions of the riparian habitat and old-growth forest (approx. 20,000 acres); (2) purchase approximately 4,400 acres of riparian habitat along the Willamette River Greenway; and (3) three options to mitigate for the outstanding old-growth forest losses. Monitoring would be required in the early stages of the 100-year plan. The timber lands would be actively managed for elk and timber revenue could provide O and M costs over the long-term.

  13. Assessment of Cooperation Mechanism options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lise-Lotte Pade; Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Lise Skovsgaard

    2012-01-01

    This document reports activities and results of Task 3.2 of the Intelligent Energy Europe supported project RES4Less. Furthermore, fruitful inputs have been obtained in the stakeholder workshops carried out within the RES4Less project. Additionally, the topic has been presented and debated at two...

  14. Home composting as an alternative treatment option for organic household waste in Denmark: An environmental assessment using life cycle assessment-modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An environmental assessment of the management of organic household waste (OHW) was performed from a life cycle perspective by means of the waste-life cycle assessment (LCA) model EASEWASTE. The focus was on home composting of OHW in Denmark and six different home composting units (with different input and different mixing frequencies) were modelled. In addition, incineration and landfilling was modelled as alternatives to home composting. The most important processes contributing to the environmental impact of home composting were identified as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (load) and the avoided emissions in relation to the substitution of fertiliser and peat when compost was used in hobby gardening (saving). The replacement of fertiliser and peat was also identified as one of the most sensible parameters, which could potentially have a significant environmental benefit. Many of the impact categories (especially human toxicity via water (HTw) and soil (HTs)) were affected by the heavy metal contents of the incoming OHW. The concentrations of heavy metals in the compost were below the threshold values for compost used on land and were thus not considered to constitute a problem. The GHG emissions were, on the other hand, dependent on the management of the composting units. The frequently mixed composting units had the highest GHG emissions. The environmental profiles of the home composting scenarios were in the order of −2 to 16 milli person equivalents (mPE) Mg−1 wet waste (ww) for the non-toxic categories and −0.9 to 28 mPE Mg−1 ww for the toxic categories. Home composting performed better than or as good as incineration and landfilling in several of the potential impact categories. One exception was the global warming (GW) category, in which incineration performed better due to the substitution of heat and electricity based on fossil fuels.

  15. Assessing policy options for increasing the use of renewable energy for sustainable development: Modelling energy scenarios for Sichuan, China. A UN-ENERGY demonstration study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UN-Energy was created in 2004 as the United Nations' principal interagency mechanism in the field of energy. Its creation responds to a request in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation, adopted by the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development, for a new collaborative mechanism between UN agencies, programmes and institutions. UN-Energy has published several reports. The first was prepared for the September 2005 World Summit, 'The Energy Challenge for Achieving the Millennium Development Goals', showing the key role energy access plays for countries to achieve the MDGs. A second report was presented at the May 2006 session of the UN Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD-14), 'Energy in the United Nations: An Overview of UN-Energy Activities'. For the May 2007 CSD-15 UN-Energy brought forward 'Sustainable Bio-Energy: A Framework for Decision-Makers' to help inform dialogue in one critical area of future energy policy choice. Another critical energy policy issue is how renewable energy can be promoted as countries plan for sustainable development. UN-Energy therefore decided to look at how the tools for energy modelling could be evolved. In May 2006, for CSD-14, UN-Energy presented 'Assessing Policy Options for Increasing the Use of Renewable Energy for Sustainable Development: Modelling Energy Scenarios for Ghana'. The Ghana study was carried out by five UN organizations and the Energy Commission of Ghana. It was led by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and included the Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) in the UN Secretariat, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) and the UN Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO). UN-Energy now presents a similar study for Sichuan, China. Together these two reports are the first UN-Energy reports to present analytic results from interagency cooperation that, without UN-Energy, would not have happened. This report analyzes alternative provincial

  16. Strategies to mitigate nitrous oxide emissions from herbivore production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schils, R L M; Eriksen, Jørgen; Ledgard, S F;

    2013-01-01

    animal productivity. The main soil-based mitigation measures include efficient use of fertilizer and manure, including the use of nitrification inhibitors. In pasture-based systems with animal housing facilities, reducing grazing time is an effective option to reduce N2O losses. Crop-based options...... are necessary to avoid an increase in N2O emissions while meeting the growing global food demand. The production and emissions of N2O are closely linked to the efficiency of nitrogen (N) transfer between the major components of a livestock system, that is, animal, manure, soil and crop. Therefore, mitigation...... comprise breeding efforts for increased N-use efficiency and the use of pastures with N2-fixing clover. It is important to recognize that all N2O mitigation options affect the N and carbon cycles of livestock systems. Therefore, care should be taken that reductions in N2O emissions are not offset...

  17. Options with Extreme Strikes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingjiong Zhu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this short paper, we study the asymptotics for the price of call options for very large strikes and put options for very small strikes. The stock price is assumed to follow the Black–Scholes models. We analyze European, Asian, American, Parisian and perpetual options and conclude that the tail asymptotics for these option types fall into four scenarios.

  18. Spent fuel reprocessing options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this publication is to provide an update on the latest developments in nuclear reprocessing technologies in the light of new developments on the global nuclear scene. The background information on spent fuel reprocessing is provided in Section One. Substantial global growth of nuclear electricity generation is expected to occur during this century, in response to environmental issues and to assure the sustainability of the electrical energy supply in both industrial and less-developed countries. This growth carries with it an increasing responsibility to ensure that nuclear fuel cycle technologies are used only for peaceful purposes. In Section Two, an overview of the options for spent fuel reprocessing and their level of development are provided. A number of options exist for the treatment of spent fuel. Some, including those that avoid separation of a pure plutonium stream, are at an advanced level of technological maturity. These could be deployed in the next generation of industrial-scale reprocessing plants, while others (such as dry methods) are at a pilot scale, laboratory scale or conceptual stage of development. In Section Three, research and development in support of advanced reprocessing options is described. Next-generation spent fuel reprocessing plants are likely to be based on aqueous extraction processes that can be designed to a country specific set of spent fuel partitioning criteria for recycling of fissile materials to advanced light water reactors or fast spectrum reactors. The physical design of these plants must incorporate effective means for materials accountancy, safeguards and physical protection. Section four deals with issues and challenges related to spent fuel reprocessing. The spent fuel reprocessing options assessment of economics, proliferation resistance, and environmental impact are discussed. The importance of public acceptance for a reprocessing strategy is discussed. A review of modelling tools to support the

  19. National and Sectoral GHG Mitigation Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This paper compares model estimates of national and sectoral GHG mitigation potential across six key OECD GHG-emitting economies: Australia, Canada, the EU, Japan, Mexico and the US. It examines the implications of model structure, baseline and policy assumptions, and assesses GHG mitigation potential estimates across a variety of models, including models that are used to inform climate policy-makers in each of these economies.

  20. The Bonneville Power Administration new energy-efficient homes programs: Final environmental impact statement: Volume 1, Assessing indoor air quality options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BPA has underway marketing and incentive programs to encourage the construction of new energy-efficient homes that comply with Model Conservation Standards (MCS) developed by the Northwest Power Planning Council. These homes are designed to have lower infiltration rates than current building practices provide, which is likely to contribute to increased levels of indoor air pollutants, and may adversely affect the health of occupants. BPA's current and past new homes programs maintained ventilation rates comparable to those found in current practice homes by requiring balanced mechanical ventilation. BPA now proposes to give builders and consumers more flexibility by increasing the options for protecting indoor air quality in its new homes programs. This proposal is the impetus for this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), which was prepared for BPA by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. BPS is preparing this EIS to assess whether other techniques maintain indoor air quality comparable to that found in homes built using current practices. Although many pollutants are potentially of great concern, our analysis concentrates on radon and formaldehyde. It is based on measured concentrations of these pollutants and measured ventilation rates in current practice. Ventilation was measured using fan pressurization tests, which measure only air leakage, and perfluorocarbon tracer gas (PFT) tests, which account for ventilation from mechanical devices and occupant behavior in addition to air leakage. These tests yielded two different estimates. We used these data to estimate pollutant concentrations and lifetime cancer rates under three alternative actions. Under all of the alternatives, radon had a much greater effect than formaldehyde. 102 refs