WorldWideScience

Sample records for assessment methods iii

  1. Iii. Sleep assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Avi

    2015-03-01

    Sleep is a complex phenomenon that could be understood and assessed at many levels. Sleep could be described at the behavioral level (relative lack of movements and awareness and responsiveness) and at the brain level (based on EEG activity). Sleep could be characterized by its duration, by its distribution during the 24-hr day period, and by its quality (e.g., consolidated versus fragmented). Different methods have been developed to assess various aspects of sleep. This chapter covers the most established and common methods used to assess sleep in infants and children. These methods include polysomnography, videosomnography, actigraphy, direct observations, sleep diaries, and questionnaires. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are highlighted.

  2. A sensitive, rapid and inexpensive method to assess aluminium(III) ions in technetium eluates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buroni, Federica E; Lodola, Lorenzo; Persico, Marco G; Aprile, Carlo

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the study was to validate a semiquantitative analytical method to identify the aluminium(III) [Al(III)] concentration in 99Mo/99mTc generator eluates to check the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) requirement (aluminium solutions scale (0-100 μg/ml). A cyan/magenta/yellow/key (CMYK) model analysis was adapted to quantify the intensity of colour on the paper, and the presence of aluminium in the eluates was detected by a spectrophotometer. Small changes in standard solution pH (4.1-5.2) and chrome azurol S concentration did not affect the analysis. The cyan channel image analysis was proportional to the Al3+ solution concentration (y=25 019x+1489, R2=0.9554 within 2.5-8 μg/ml). The detection limit for aluminium by the visual test method is about 1 μg/ml, and fading is absent. The cyan channel image analysis method is independent of the observer and is applicable for the evaluation of the chemical purity of 99Mo/99mTc generator eluates. Our colorimetric 'spot test' is advantageous for the visual evaluation of Al pertechnetate concentrations as required by Ph. Eur. showing a sensitivity and a limit of detection superior to that of commercially available spot systems.

  3. Multigrid methods III

    CERN Document Server

    Trottenberg, U; Third European Conference on Multigrid Methods

    1991-01-01

    These proceedings contain a selection of papers presented at the Third European Conference on Multigrid Methods which was held in Bonn on October 1-4, 1990. Following conferences in 1981 and 1985, a platform for the presentation of new Multigrid results was provided for a third time. Multigrid methods no longer have problems being accepted by numerical analysts and users of numerical methods; on the contrary, they have been further developed in such a successful way that they have penetrated a variety of new fields of application. The high number of 154 participants from 18 countries and 76 presented papers show the need to continue the series of the European Multigrid Conferences. The papers of this volume give a survey on the current Multigrid situation; in particular, they correspond to those fields where new developments can be observed. For example, se­ veral papers study the appropriate treatment of time dependent problems. Improvements can also be noticed in the Multigrid approach for semiconductor eq...

  4. Transverse heat transfer coefficient in the dual channel ITER TF CICCs. Part III: Direct method of assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowska, Monika; Malinowski, Leszek

    2016-01-01

    The data resulting from the thermal-hydraulic test of the ITER TF CICC are used to determine the flow partition and the overall effective heat transfer coefficient (hBC) between bundle and central channel in a direct way, i.e. by analysis of the heat transfer between both flow channels, based on the mass and energy balance equations and the readings of thermometers located inside the cable. In cases without a local heat source in the considered cable segment the obtained hBC values were consistent with those obtained in earlier studies by analysis of experimental data using indirect methods. It was also observed that the transverse heat transfer was strongly enhanced in a cable segment heated from outside. This phenomenon results from the mass transfer from the bundle region to the central channel. The experimental hBC data obtained for the case without a heat source in the considered segment were also compared with those calculated using various heat transfer correlations.

  5. Assessment of Technologies for the Space Shuttle External Tank Thermal Protection System and Recommendations for Technology Improvement - Part III: Material Property Characterization, Analysis, and Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Thomas S.; Johnson, Theodore F.; Whitley, Karen S.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this report is to contribute to the independent assessment of the Space Shuttle External Tank Foam Material. This report specifically addresses material modeling, characterization testing, data reduction methods, and data pedigree. A brief description of the External Tank foam materials, locations, and standard failure modes is provided to develop suitable background information. A review of mechanics based analysis methods from the open literature is used to provide an assessment of the state-of-the-art in material modeling of closed cell foams. Further, this report assesses the existing material property database and investigates sources of material property variability. The report presents identified deficiencies in testing methods and procedures, recommendations for additional testing as required, identification of near-term improvements that should be pursued, and long-term capabilities or enhancements that should be developed.

  6. ESEA III Evaluation and Dissemination: An Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balyeat, Ralph R.; Norman, C. Douglas

    This study surveyed evaluation and dissemination/diffusion practices of ESEA III projects funded in the 1969 fiscal year, which projects are nearing the end of their operations as federally supported programs. The study attempted to discover if (1) the projects were evaluated in accordance with generally accepted procedures, (2) the project…

  7. Low verbal assessment with the Bayley-III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Linda; Ruiter, Selma A J; Van der Meulen, Bieuwe F; Ruijssenaars, Wied A J J M; Timmerman, Marieke E

    2014-10-24

    Recently, the authors have developed the Bayley-III-NL Low Verbal for developmental assessment of children with language impairment. The Low Verbal version consists of an accommodated cognition scale, and non-accommodated communication and motor scales. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the validity and added value of the Bayley-III-NL Low Verbal for children with a language impairment, in relation to the standard Bayley-III-NL for children without impairment. We administered the Bayley-III Low Verbal to 69 children with language impairment, and the standard Bayley-III-NL to 1132 children without impairments. We used an evaluation form for test administrators and interviews with developmental psychologists to evaluate the suitability of the Low Verbal version for the target group. We analyzed the test results using nonparametric item response theory (IRT) to investigate whether test results can be reasonably compared across the two groups. The results of the IRT analyses support the validity of the Bayley-III-NL Low Verbal: the test items do not suffer from differential item functioning (DIF) across the two groups, and thus measure the ability levels of interest in the same way. The results of the evaluation form and interviews confirm that the Bayley-III-NL Low Verbal has added value for testing children with a language impairment, especially for children up to 36 months old. It is also suitable for children with general developmental delay. We conclude that the Bayley-III-NL Low Verbal can validly assess the cognitive, language, and motor development of young children with a language impairment and is the preferred instrument for this target group.

  8. Methods for forming group III-arsenide-nitride semiconductor materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Jo S. (Inventor); Welch, David F. (Inventor); Scifres, Donald R. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Methods are disclosed for forming Group III-arsenide-nitride semiconductor materials. Group III elements are combined with group V elements, including at least nitrogen and arsenic, in concentrations chosen to lattice match commercially available crystalline substrates. Epitaxial growth of these III-V crystals results in direct bandgap materials, which can be used in applications such as light emitting diodes and lasers. Varying the concentrations of the elements in the III-V crystals varies the bandgaps, such that materials emitting light spanning the visible spectra, as well as mid-IR and near-UV emitters, can be created. Conversely, such material can be used to create devices that acquire light and convert the light to electricity, for applications such as full color photodetectors and solar energy collectors. The growth of the III-V crystals can be accomplished by growing thin layers of elements or compounds in sequences that result in the overall lattice match and bandgap desired.

  9. Method of fabricating vertically aligned group III-V nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, George T; Li, Qiming

    2014-11-25

    A top-down method of fabricating vertically aligned Group III-V micro- and nanowires uses a two-step etch process that adds a selective anisotropic wet etch after an initial plasma etch to remove the dry etch damage while enabling micro/nanowires with straight and smooth faceted sidewalls and controllable diameters independent of pitch. The method enables the fabrication of nanowire lasers, LEDs, and solar cells.

  10. MORTALITY RISK ASSESSMENT IN PICU USING PRISM-III-24 SCORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harilal Naik

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Assessment of risk of mortality using PRISM III-24 score in children admitted to PICU of Basaweshwara Teaching and General Hospital, attached to Mahadevappa Rampure Medical College, Gulbarga. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. Setting: PICU of BTGH, Gulbarga. METHODS: 404 patients who had been admitted consecutively to the PICU during a period of 12 months (July 2011 to June 2012 were studied. PRISM III-24 score was calculated. Hospital outcome was recorded as survived/expired. Calibration and discrimination of the model was calculated by Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test and Area under the ROC Curve. The association between r (empirical function and PRISM III-24 score was assessed by Binary Logistic Regression method. RESULTS: Out of 404 patients, 363 (89.85% survived and 41 (10.15% expired. Males formed the majority (227/404. CNS cases (n=118, 29.2% constituted the majority. Mean age, length of hospitalization, and mean PRISM III-24 score were 59.22±51.12 months, 99.84±91.61 hours, and 4.92±7.74 (range 0-36. The test was well designed for the study (goodness-of-fit value P-value 0.186. ROC analysis indicated a strong predictive power for the PRISM III-24 (AUC 0.936. The observed (O mortality rate was 10.15% and the expected (E mortality rate was 10.12% with an O/E ratio of 1.003. CONCLUSION: PRISM III-24 score is a good predictor of mortality in PICU patients under Indian circumstances. The PRISM III-24 scoring system was highly calibrated in our institute.

  11. Methods for improved growth of group III nitride buffer layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Yurity; Chen, Lu; Kojiri, Hidehiro

    2014-07-15

    Methods are disclosed for growing high crystal quality group III-nitride epitaxial layers with advanced multiple buffer layer techniques. In an embodiment, a method includes forming group III-nitride buffer layers that contain aluminum on suitable substrate in a processing chamber of a hydride vapor phase epitaxy processing system. A hydrogen halide or halogen gas is flowing into the growth zone during deposition of buffer layers to suppress homogeneous particle formation. Some combinations of low temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) and high temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) may be used to improve crystal quality and morphology of subsequently grown group III-nitride epitaxial layers. The buffer may be deposited on the substrate, or on the surface of another buffer. The additional buffer layers may be added as interlayers in group III-nitride layers (e.g., GaN, AlGaN, AlN).

  12. Remanufacturability and Assessment Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Sheng; CUI Pei-zhi; YAO Ju-kun

    2004-01-01

    Remanufacturing represents the combination of "three Rs" (reduce, reuse, recycle) into a single activity, which restores a wide variety of worn-out, discarded durable products to like-new condition, prolonging theit useful life,protecting the environment. The application of surface engineering has promoted the development of remanufacturing.Remanufacturing is an environmentally and economically sound way to achieve many of the goals of sustainable development. Through developing study of product design for remanufacturing, it can promote the surface technologies application in the remanufacturing, and markedly enhance the efficiency of remanufacturing. This paper gives some relative concepts about product design for remanufacturing, such as remanufacturability, and brings forward the remanufacturability research contents and assessment method of used product.

  13. Remanufacturability and Assessment Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUSheng; CUIPei-zhi; YAOJu-kun

    2004-01-01

    Remanufacturing represents the combination of "three Rs" (reduce, reuse, recycle) into a single activity, which restores a wide variety of worn-out, discarded durable products to like-new condition, prolonging their useful life, protecting the environment. The application of surface engineering has promoted the development of remanufacturing. Remanufacturing is an environmentally and economically sound way to achieve many of the goals of sustainable development. Through developing study of product design for remanufacturing, it can promote the surface technologies application in the remanufacturing, and markedly enhance the efficiency of remanufacturing. This paper gives some relative concepts about product design for remanufacturing, such as remanufacturability, and brings forward the remanufacturability research contents and assessment method of used product.

  14. Assessment of temporomandibular disorder and occlusion in treated class III malocclusion patients

    OpenAIRE

    Karyna Valle-Corotti; Arnaldo Pinzan; Caio Vinícius Martins do Valle; Ana Carla Raphaelli Nahás; Mauro Vinícius Corotti

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this study were to compare the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in individuals submitted to either orthodontic or ortho-surgical Class III malocclusion treatment and to assess the influence of occlusal aspects on TMD severity. Material and methods: The sample consisted of 50 individuals divided into two groups, according to the type of treatment (orthodontic or orthodontic with orthognathic surgery). The presence of signs and symptoms of TMD was evaluated...

  15. Sensitivity and specificity of WAIS-III/WMS-III demographically corrected factor scores in neuropsychological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M J; Heaton, R K

    2001-11-01

    This study explored the neurodiagnostic utility of 6 factor scores identified by recent exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the WAIS-III and WMS-III: Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Organization, Processing Speed, Working Memory, Auditory Memory and Visual Memory. Factor scores were corrected for age. education, sex and ethnicity to minimize their influences on diagnostic accuracy. Cut-offs at 1, 1.5 and 2 standard deviations (SDs) below the standardization sample mean were applied to data from the overlapping test normative samples (N = 1073) and 6 clinical samples described in the WAIS-III/WMS-III Technical Manual (N = 126). The analyses suggest that a I SD cut-off yields the most balanced levels of sensitivity and specificity; more strict (1.5 or 2 SD) cut-offs generally result in trading modest gains in specificity for larger losses in sensitivity. Finally, using combinations of WAIS-III/WMS-III factors together as test batteries, we explored the sensitivity and specificity implications of varying diagnostic decision rules (e.g.,1 vs. 2 impaired factors = "impairment"). For most of the disorders considered here, even a small (e.g., 3 factor) WAIS-III/WMS-III battery provides quite good overall diagnostic accuracy.

  16. Thermal Modeling Method Improvements for SAGE III on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, Kaitlin; Amundsen, Ruth; Davis, Warren; McLeod, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) instrument is the fifth in a series of instruments developed for monitoring aerosols and gaseous constituents in the stratosphere and troposphere. SAGE III will be delivered to the International Space Station (ISS) via the SpaceX Dragon vehicle. A detailed thermal model of the SAGE III payload, which consists of multiple subsystems, has been developed in Thermal Desktop (TD). Many innovative analysis methods have been used in developing this model; these will be described in the paper. This paper builds on a paper presented at TFAWS 2013, which described some of the initial developments of efficient methods for SAGE III. The current paper describes additional improvements that have been made since that time. To expedite the correlation of the model to thermal vacuum (TVAC) testing, the chambers and GSE for both TVAC chambers at Langley used to test the payload were incorporated within the thermal model. This allowed the runs of TVAC predictions and correlations to be run within the flight model, thus eliminating the need for separate models for TVAC. In one TVAC test, radiant lamps were used which necessitated shooting rays from the lamps, and running in both solar and IR wavebands. A new Dragon model was incorporated which entailed a change in orientation; that change was made using an assembly, so that any potential additional new Dragon orbits could be added in the future without modification of the model. The Earth orbit parameters such as albedo and Earth infrared flux were incorporated as time-varying values that change over the course of the orbit; despite being required in one of the ISS documents, this had not been done before by any previous payload. All parameters such as initial temperature, heater voltage, and location of the payload are defined based on the case definition. For one component, testing was performed in both air and vacuum; incorporating the air convection in a submodel that was

  17. Methods for improved growth of group III nitride semiconductor compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melnik, Yuriy; Chen, Lu; Kojiri, Hidehiro

    2015-03-17

    Methods are disclosed for growing group III-nitride semiconductor compounds with advanced buffer layer technique. In an embodiment, a method includes providing a suitable substrate in a processing chamber of a hydride vapor phase epitaxy processing system. The method includes forming an AlN buffer layer by flowing an ammonia gas into a growth zone of the processing chamber, flowing an aluminum halide containing precursor to the growth zone and at the same time flowing additional hydrogen halide or halogen gas into the growth zone of the processing chamber. The additional hydrogen halide or halogen gas that is flowed into the growth zone during buffer layer deposition suppresses homogeneous AlN particle formation. The hydrogen halide or halogen gas may continue flowing for a time period while the flow of the aluminum halide containing precursor is turned off.

  18. Imaging assessment of isolated lesions affecting cranial nerve III; Avaliacao por imagem das lesoes isoladas do III par craniano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marcelo de Mattos [Colegio Brasileiro de Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem (CBR), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: cidbh@cidbh.com.br; Martins, Jose Carlos Tadeu [Sociedade Brasileira de Neuroradiologia, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2005-05-15

    The aim of this study is to review the anatomy and main pathologic conditions affecting cranial nerve III using imaging studies, particularly magnetic resonance imaging. Imaging methods are essential in the evaluation of patients with suspected lesions of the oculomotor nerve once signs and symptoms are unspecific and a large number of diseases can affect cranial nerve III. A brief review of the literature is also presented. (author)

  19. CART III: improved camouflage assessment using moving target indication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Thomas; Honke, Thomas; Müller, Markus

    2009-05-01

    In order to facilitate systematic, computer aided improvements of camouflage and concealment assessment methods, the software system CART (Camouflage Assessment in Real-Time) was built up for the camouflage assessment of objects in image sequences (see contributions to SPIE 2007 and SPIE 2008 [1], [2]). It works with visual-optical, infrared and SAR image sequences. The system comprises a semi-automatic annotation functionality for marking target objects (ground truth generation) including a propagation of those markings over the image sequence for static as well as moving scene objects, where the recording camera may be static or moving. The marked image regions are evaluated by applying user-defined feature extractors, which can easily be defined and integrated into the system via a generic software interface. This article presents further systematic enhancements made in the recent year and addresses particularly the task of the detection of moving vehicles by latest image exploitation methods for objective camouflage assessment in these cases. As a main topic, the loop was closed between the two natural opposites of reconnaissance and camouflage, which was realized by incorporating ATD (Automatic Target Detection) algorithms into the computer aided camouflage assessment. Since object (and sensor) movement is an important feature for many applications, different image-based MTI (Moving Target Indication) algorithms were included in the CART system, which rely on changes in the image plane from an image to the successive one (after camera movements are automatically compensated). Additionally, the MTI outputs over time are combined in a certain way which we call "snail track" algorithm. The results show that their output provides a valuable measurement for the conspicuity of moving objects and therefore is an ideal component in the camouflage assessment. It is shown that image-based MTI improvements lead to improvements in the camouflage assessment process.

  20. Information System Quality Assessment Methods

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This thesis explores challenging topic of information system quality assessment and mainly process assessment. In this work the term Information System Quality is defined as well as different approaches in a quality definition for different domains of information systems are outlined. Main methods of process assessment are overviewed and their relationships are described. Process assessment methods are divided into two categories: ISO standards and best practices. The main objective of this w...

  1. The multiaxial assessment and the DSM-III: a conceptual analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronschtein, Eitan

    2015-12-01

    With the release of the DSM-III, multiaxial assessment, which was a new concept, was introduced to daily clinical practice. This article will review the history and the development of the concept of multiaxial assessment and will focus on the its relationship to the DSM-III. In conclusion I will discuss different critiques of the concept.

  2. Assessment of sleep in children with mucopolysaccharidosis type III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Victoria Mahon

    Full Text Available Sleep disturbances are prevalent in mucopolysaccharidosis Type III (MPS III, yet there is a lack of objective, ecologically valid evidence detailing sleep quantity, quality or circadian system. Eight children with MPS III and eight age-matched typically developing children wore an actigraph for 7-10 days/nights. Saliva samples were collected at three time-points on two separate days, to permit analysis of endogenous melatonin levels. Parents completed a sleep questionnaire and a daily sleep diary. Actigraphic data revealed that children with MPS III had significantly longer sleep onset latencies and greater daytime sleep compared to controls, but night-time sleep duration did not differ between groups. In the MPS III group, sleep efficiency declined, and sleep onset latency increased, with age. Questionnaire responses showed that MPS III patients had significantly more sleep difficulties in all domains compared to controls. Melatonin concentrations showed an alteration in the circadian system in MPS III, which suggests that treatment for sleep problems should attempt to synchronise the sleep-wake cycle to a more regular pattern. Actigraphy was tolerated by children and this monitoring device can be recommended as a measure of treatment success in research and clinical practice.

  3. A benefit-risk assessment of class III antiarrhythmic agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brendorp, Bente; Pedersen, Oledyg; Torp-Pedersen, Christian;

    2002-01-01

    again increases the frequency of both supraventricular as well as ventricular arrhythmias. Class III antiarrhythmic drugs act by blocking repolarising currents and thereby prolong the effective refractory period of the myocardium. This is believed to facilitate termination of re-entry tachyarrhythmias....... This class of drugs is developed for treatment of both supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias. Amiodarone, sotalol, dofetilide, and ibutilide are examples of class III drugs that are currently available. Amiodarone and sotalol have other antiarrhythmic properties in addition to pure class III action......, which differentiates them from the others. However, all have potential serious adverse events. Proarrhythmia, especially torsade de pointes, is a common problem making the benefit-risk ratio of these drugs a key question. Class III drugs have been evaluated in different settings: primary and secondary...

  4. Adsorption characteristics of methane on Maxsorb III by gravimetric method

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw

    2014-11-01

    Adsorption characteristics of CH4 on the carbonaceous porous material is evaluated for possible application in adsorbed natural gas (ANG) system. Adsorption uptakes at assorted temperatures (25-80 °C) and pressures ranging from ambient to relatively high pressure i.e., 8.0 MPa are experimentally investigated. Surface characteristics such as pore surface area, micropore volume and pore size distribution of the adsorbent (Maxsorb III) are first evaluated using Classical Volumetric Method i.e., the manometric method with N2 gas adsorption at 77 K. The sorption measurements for methane, CH4 gas are carried out by thermogravimetric (TGA) method using magnetic suspension balance coupled with the automatic dosing system. The buoyancy measurements were first conducted using Helium gas as adsorbate. Buoyancy correction is applied to all sets of measured data and the specific uptake capacities (g/g of adsorbent) at various temperatures and pressures were calculated. The isotherm data were then fitted using Langmuir and Tòth isotherm models. It is observed that the data can be satisfactorily fitted using Tòth model with excellent fitting accuracy around 2.2% within the experimental range. The outcome of the present study especially the adsorption data at high pressures is applicable to accurate design and modeling of Adsorbed Natural Gas (ANG) systems. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A benefit-risk assessment of class III antiarrhythmic agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elming, Hanne; Brendorp, Bente; Pehrson, Steen;

    2004-01-01

    relief. Since many patients experience a decrease in physical performance as well as a diminished quality of life during arrhythmia there is still a need for antiarrhythmic drug therapy. The development of new antiarrhythmic agents has changed the focus from class I to class III agents since it became...... evident that with class I drug therapy the prevalence of mortality is considerably higher. This review focuses on the benefits and risks of known and newer class III antiarrhythmic agents. The benefits discussed include the ability to maintain sinus rhythm in persistent atrial fibrillation patients......, and reducing the need for implantable cardioverter defibrillator shock/antitachycardia therapy, since no class III antiarrhythmic agents have proven survival benefit. The risks discussed mainly focus on pro-arrhythmia as torsade de pointes ventricular tachycardia....

  6. Assessment of technical documentation of Class III medical devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roszek B; de Bruijn ACP; Pot JWGA; van Drongelen AW; BMT; vgc

    2010-01-01

    Europese regelgeving vereist dat fabrikanten van medische hulpmiddelen een dossier opstellen waaruit blijkt dat het hulpmiddel veilig en functioneel is. De kwaliteit van dossiers van de hoogste risicoklasse medische hulpmiddelen, klasse III, laat evenwel te wensen over. Dit blijkt uit onderzoek va

  7. Tier III Assessments, Data-Based Decision Making, and Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Kristin; Mandal, Arpita

    2011-01-01

    Within the Response-to-Intervention framework, students who fail to profit from high-quality general education instruction, accommodations, and supplemental instruction progress to a more intensive intervention program, sometimes referred to as "Tier III." This article describes a problem-solving approach to designing such intensive, data-based,…

  8. WISC-III e WAIS-III na avaliação da inteligência de cegos WISC-III/WAIS-III en ciegos WISC-III and WAIS-III in intellectual assessment of blind people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth do Nascimento

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Diante da escassez de pesquisas nacionais e de testes psicológicos destinados a avaliar pessoas cegas, desenvolveu-se um estudo psicométrico com as escalas verbais dos testes WISC-III e WAIS-III. Após as adaptações de alguns estímulos e das instruções, os testes foram aplicados em crianças (N = 120 e adultos (N = 52 residentes em Belo Horizonte. Os resultados indicaram que as escalas verbais modificadas apresentam uma boa consistência interna (alfa> 0,80. Além disso, a investigação da validade fatorial identifica a presença clara de apenas um componente. Este componente explica 81% e 64% para o WISC-III e WAIS-III, respectivamente. Conclui-se que as adaptações a que se procedeu não afetaram a estrutura fatorial das escalas. Deste modo, os profissionais poderão utilizar as escalas modificadas para avaliar a inteligência de pessoas cegas.Frente a la escasez de investigaciones nacionales asi como la ausencia de tests psicológicos que evaluen personas ciegas, se ha desarrollado un estudio psicometrico com la escalas verbales del WISC-III y WAIS-III. Posteriormente a las adaptaciones de algunos estímulos y de las instrucciones, las escalas fueron aplicadas a una muestra de niños (n=120 y de adultos (n=52 residentes en la ciudad de Belo Horizonte-Brasil. Los resultados indican que las escalas verbales modificadas presentan una alta fiabilidad (alpha >0,80 asi como la presencia clara de un unico componente responsable por 81% y 64% de la variancia del WIC-III e WAIS-III respectivamente. Se ha concluido que las modificaciones efectuadas no han comprometido la estructura factorial de las escalas verbales. Por tanto, los profesionales psicólogos pueden utilizar las escalas modificadas para la evaluación de la inteligencia de personas portadoras de ceguera.Owing to the almost lack of a national research on psychological testing for the evaluation of blind people, a psychometric study has been developed with the WISC-III and WAIS-III

  9. Qualitative methods for assessing risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahn, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hannaman, G.W. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States); Kryska, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) non-nuclear facilities generally require only a qualitative accident analysis to assess facility risks in accordance with DOE Order 5481.1B, Safety Analysis and Review System. Achieving a meaningful qualitative assessment of risk necessarily requires the use of suitable non-numerical assessment criteria. Typically, the methods and criteria for assigning facility-specific accident scenarios to the qualitative severity and likelihood classification system in the DOE order requires significant judgment in many applications. Systematic methods for more consistently assigning the total accident scenario frequency and associated consequences are required to substantiate and enhance future risk ranking between various activities at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). SNL`s Risk Management and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Department has developed an improved methodology for performing qualitative risk assessments in accordance wi the DOE order requirements. Products of this effort are an improved set of qualitative description that permit (1) definition of the severity for both technical and programmatic consequences that may result from a variety of accident scenarios, and (2) qualitative representation of the likelihood of occurrence. These sets of descriptions are intended to facilitate proper application of DOE criteria for assessing facility risks.

  10. Assessment of temporomandibular disorder and occlusion in treated class III malocclusion patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyna Valle-Corotti

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to compare the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD in individuals submitted to either orthodontic or ortho-surgical Class III malocclusion treatment and to assess the influence of occlusal aspects on TMD severity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 50 individuals divided into two groups, according to the type of treatment (orthodontic or orthodontic with orthognathic surgery. The presence of signs and symptoms of TMD was evaluated by an anamnestic questionnaire and a clinical examination, including TMJ and muscle palpation, active mandibular range of motion, joint noises and occlusal examination. RESULTS: Based on the anamnestic questionnaire, 48% had no TMD, 42% had mild TMD and 10% had moderate TMD. The presence and severity of TMD did not show any relationship with the type of orthodontic treatment (p>0.05. The chi-square test showed a positive association (p<0.05 between TMD and non-working side occlusal interferences. CONCLUSION: Based on the methodology used and the results obtained, it may be concluded that Class III orthodontic treatment was not associated with the presence of TMD signs and symptoms and the non-working side contacts can be occlusal factors of risk. There was no significant difference in TMD prevalence between the studied groups (orthodontically treated patients and patients treated with orthodontics followed by orthognathic surgery.

  11. Method for Improving Mg Doping During Group-III Nitride MOCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, J. Randall; Wang, George T.

    2008-11-11

    A method for improving Mg doping of Group III-N materials grown by MOCVD preventing condensation in the gas phase or on reactor surfaces of adducts of magnesocene and ammonia by suitably heating reactor surfaces between the location of mixing of the magnesocene and ammonia reactants and the Group III-nitride surface whereon growth is to occur.

  12. A Rapid Synthetic Method for the Preparation of Two Tris-Cobalt(III) Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Donald C.; Rillema, D. Paul

    1989-01-01

    Reports a method of preparation for tris(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) and tris(2,2'-bipyridine)cobalt(III) that will shorten the preparation time by approximately 3 hours. Notes the time for synthesis and isolation of compound one was 1 hour (yield 38 percent) while compound two took 50 minutes (yield 71%). (MVL)

  13. New method for the direct determination of dissolved Fe(III) concentration in acid mine waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, T.B.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Cunningham, K.M.; Ball, J.W.; McCleskey, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    A new method for direct determination of dissolved Fe(III) in acid mine water has been developed. In most present methods, Fe(III) is determined by computing the difference between total dissolved Fe and dissolved Fe(II). For acid mine waters, frequently Fe(II) >> Fe(III); thus, accuracy and precision are considerably improved by determining Fe(III) concentration directly. The new method utilizes two selective ligands to stabilize Fe(III) and Fe(II), thereby preventing changes in Fe reduction-oxidation distribution. Complexed Fe(II) is cleanly removed using a silica-based, reversed-phase adsorbent, yielding excellent isolation of the Fe(III) complex. Iron(III) concentration is measured colorimetrically or by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The method requires inexpensive commercial reagents and simple procedures that can be used in the field. Calcium(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), AI(III), Zn(II), and Cd(II) cause insignificant colorimetric interferences for most acid mine waters. Waters containing >20 mg of Cu/L could cause a colorimetric interference and should be measured by GFAAS. Cobalt(II) and Cr(III) interfere if their molar ratios to Fe(III) exceed 24 and 5, respectively. Iron(II) interferes when its concentration exceeds the capacity of the complexing ligand (14 mg/L). Because of the GFAAS elemental specificity, only Fe(II) is a potential interferent in the GFAAS technique. The method detection limit is 2 ??g/L (40 nM) using GFAAS and 20 ??g/L (0.4 ??M) by colorimetry.A new method for direct determination of dissolved Fe(III) in acid mine water has been developed. In most present methods, Fe(III) is determined by computing the difference between total dissolved Fe and dissolved Fe(II). For acid mine waters, frequently Fe(II)???Fe(III); thus, accuracy and precision are considerably improved by determining Fe(III) concentration directly. The new method utilizes two selective ligands to stabilize Fe(III) and Fe(II), thereby preventing changes

  14. Advanced methods of fatigue assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Radaj, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    The book in hand presents advanced methods of brittle fracture and fatigue assessment. The Neuber concept of fictitious notch rounding is enhanced with regard to theory and application. The stress intensity factor concept for cracks is extended to pointed and rounded corner notches as well as to locally elastic-plastic material behaviour. The averaged strain energy density within a circular sector volume around the notch tip is shown to be suitable for strength-assessments. Finally, the various implications of cyclic plasticity on fatigue crack growth are explained with emphasis being laid on the DJ-integral approach.   This book continues the expositions of the authors’ well known reference work in German language ‘Ermüdungsfestigkeit – Grundlagen für Ingenieure’ (Fatigue strength – fundamentals for engineers).

  15. LNG Safety Assessment Evaluation Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muna, Alice Baca [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); LaFleur, Angela Christine [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories evaluated published safety assessment methods across a variety of industries including Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), hydrogen, land and marine transportation, as well as the US Department of Defense (DOD). All the methods were evaluated for their potential applicability for use in the LNG railroad application. After reviewing the documents included in this report, as well as others not included because of repetition, the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Safety Plan Checklist is most suitable to be adapted to the LNG railroad application. This report was developed to survey industries related to rail transportation for methodologies and tools that can be used by the FRA to review and evaluate safety assessments submitted by the railroad industry as a part of their implementation plans for liquefied or compressed natural gas storage ( on-board or tender) and engine fueling delivery systems. The main sections of this report provide an overview of various methods found during this survey. In most cases, the reference document is quoted directly. The final section provides discussion and a recommendation for the most appropriate methodology that will allow efficient and consistent evaluations to be made. The DOE Hydrogen Safety Plan Checklist was then revised to adapt it as a methodology for the Federal Railroad Administration’s use in evaluating safety plans submitted by the railroad industry.

  16. Improved power performance assessment methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, S.; Antoniou, I.; Dahlberg, J.A. [and others

    1999-03-01

    The uncertainty of presently-used methods for retrospective assessment of the productive capacity of wind farms is unacceptably large. The possibilities of improving the accuracy have been investigated and are reported. A method is presented that includes an extended power curve and site calibration. In addition, blockage effects with respect to reference wind speed measurements are analysed. It is found that significant accuracy improvements are possible by the introduction of more input variables such as turbulence and wind shear, in addition to mean wind speed and air density. Also, the testing of several or all machines in the wind farm - instead of only one or two - may provide a better estimate of the average performance. (au)

  17. Methods for forming group III-V arsenide-nitride semiconductor materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Jo S. (Inventor); Welch, David F. (Inventor); Scifres, Donald R. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Methods are disclosed for forming Group III--arsenide-nitride semiconductor materials. Group III elements are combined with group V elements, including at least nitrogen and arsenic, in concentrations chosen to lattice match commercially available crystalline substrates. Epitaxial growth of these III-V crystals results in direct bandgap materials, which can be used in applications such as light emitting diodes and lasers. Varying the concentrations of the elements in the III-V crystals varies the bandgaps, such that materials emitting light spanning the visible spectra, as well as mid-IR and near-UV emitters, can be created. Conversely, such material can be used to create devices that acquire light and convert the light to electricity, for applications such as full color photodetectors and solar energy collectors. The growth of the III-V crystals can be accomplished by growing thin layers of elements or compounds in sequences that result in the overall lattice match and bandgap desired.

  18. Sensitive method of determination of gold (III using diacetyl monoxime isonicotinoyl hydrazone (DMIH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadikota Chandrasekhar Reddy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Gold (III forms a yellow coloured water soluble complex with diacetyl monoxime isonicotinoyl hydrazone (DMIH reagent in acidic buffer pH 4.5 with ?max at 361 nm. The molar absorptivity and Sandell’s sensitivity are 1.50X10 4 L .mol -1.cm-1 and 0.00333 µg/cm2, respectively .The Beer’s law validity range is 0.985–11.82 µg/mL. The optimum concentration range is 1.97-9.85 µg/mL. Gold (III forms (M:L 1:1 complex with DMIH and stability constant of the complex is 3.263X106. The derivative spectrophotometric determination of Au (III was carried out by measuring peak height method. The developed derivative spectrophotometric method was employed for the determination of gold (III in synthetic alloy samples. The effect of various diverse ions was also studied.

  19. Holographic Dual to Conical Defects III: Improved Image Method

    CERN Document Server

    Aref'eva, I Ya; Tikhanovskaya, M D

    2016-01-01

    The geodesics prescription in holographic approach in Lorentzian signature is valid only for geodesics which connect spacelike-separated points at the boundary, since there is no timelike geodesics which reach the boundary. There is also no straightforward analytic Euclidean continuation for a general background, such as e. g. moving particle in AdS. We propose an improved geodesic image method for two-point Lorentzian correlators which is valid for arbitrary time intervals in case of the bulk spacetime deformed by point particles. We illustrate that our prescription is consistent with the case when the analytic continuation exists and with the quasigeodesics prescription used in previous work. We also discuss some other applications of the improved image method, such as holographic entanglement entropy and multiple particles in AdS3.

  20. Multiadaptive Galerkin Methods for ODEs III: A Priori Error Estimates

    CERN Document Server

    Logg, Anders

    2012-01-01

    The multiadaptive continuous/discontinuous Galerkin methods mcG(q) and mdG(q) for the numerical solution of initial value problems for ordinary differential equations are based on piecewise polynomial approximation of degree q on partitions in time with time steps which may vary for different components of the computed solution. In this paper, we prove general order a priori error estimates for the mcG(q) and mdG(q) methods. To prove the error estimates, we represent the error in terms of a discrete dual solution and the residual of an interpolant of the exact solution. The estimates then follow from interpolation estimates, together with stability estimates for the discrete dual solution.

  1. A REVIEW OF BUILDING SUSTAINABILITY ASSESSMENT METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Markelj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Building sustainability assessment methods have been globally in use for more than two decades. Their use initially spread slowly through the larger developed countries, but in recent years we are seeing a rapid development of new, regionally adapted methods. The use of building assessment methods is limited because they developed on the basis of national legislation and local characteristics. In this article, the most important international building sustainability assessment methods BREEAM, LEED, DGNB and SBTool are investigated. With the help of content analysis we closely examine the aim, course and cost of the assessment, the number of certified projects, different assessment schemes, aspects of evaluation and the final certificate presentation. The result is a mutual comparison of individual assessment methods. In the discussion we present some predictions for the further development of building sustainability assessment methods. In the final part we review the situation and the possibilities for the implementation of these methods in Slovenia.

  2. Selected methods for dissolved iron (II, III) and dissolved sulfide (-II) determinations in geothermal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivit, D.V.; Jenne, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    Dissolved sulfide (-II) and dissolved iron (II, III) were determined in geothermal well water samples collected at Cerro Prieto, Mexico. Most samples consisted of liquid and gas (two phases) at the instant of collection; and a subset of samples, referred to as ' flashed ' samples, consisted of pressurized steam samples which were allowed to condense. Sulfide was determined by sulfide specific ion electrode; Fe(II) and Fe(III) plus Fe(II) were determined spectrophotometrically. The precision and accuracy of the methods were evaluated for these high-silica waters with replicate analyses, spike recoveries, and an alternate method. Direct current (d.c.) argon plasma emission spectrometry was the alternate method used for Fe(III)-plus-Fe(II) analyses. Mean dissolved iron concentrations ranged from 20.2 to 834 micrograms/L (ug/L) as Fe(II) and 26.8 to 904 ug/L as Fe(III) plus Fe(II). Mean sulfide concentrations ranged from about 0.01 to 5.3 mg/L (S-II) Generally, higher S(-II) values and larger Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratios were found in the two-phase samples. These findings suggest that the ' flashed ' samples are at a less reduced state than the two-phase samples. (Author 's abstract)

  3. Applicability of WaveWatch-III wave model to fatigue assessment of offshore floating structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Tao; Kaminski, Miroslaw Lech

    2016-09-01

    In design and operation of floating offshore structures, one has to avoid fatigue failures caused by action of ocean waves. The aim of this paper is to investigate the applicability of WaveWatch-III wave model to fatigue assessment of offshore floating structures. The applicability was investigated for Bluewaters' FPSO (Floating Production, Storage and Offloading) which had been turret moored at Sable field for half a decade. The waves were predicted as sea-state time series consisting of one wind sea and one swell. The predicted waves were compared with wave data obtained from ERA-interim and buoy measurements. Furthermore, the fatigue calculations were also carried out for main deck and side shell locations. It has been concluded that predicted fatigue damages of main deck using WaveWatch-III are in a very good agreement regardless of differences in predicted wind waves and swells caused by differences in wave system partitioning. When compared to buoy measurements, the model underestimates fatigue damages of side shell by approximately 30 %. The reason for that has been found in wider directional spreading of actual waves. The WaveWatch-III wave model has been found suitable for the fatigue assessment. However, more attention should be paid on relative wave directionality, wave system partitioning and uncertainty analysis in further development.

  4. MMPI assessment of the DSM-III-R histrionic personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotte, C; De Doncker, D; Maes, M; Cluydts, R; Cosyns, P

    1993-06-01

    This study investigated the MMPI characteristics of a group of 25 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed., rev. [DSM-III-R]; American Psychiatric Association, 1987) histrionic personality disorder patients, contrasted with a mixed group of 57 other personality disorder patients. All patients were diagnosed by means of a semistructured interview (SCID-II; Spitzer, Williams, & Gibbon, 1987). Effects for diagnostic category were found for MMPI Scales 9 (Ma), 0 (Si) and for the HST scale, developed by Morey, Waugh, and Blashfield (1985) for the diagnosis of the histrionic personality disorder. Further analysis of the results revealed that these MMPI scales, and especially the HST scale, mainly assess a social introversion-extraversion dimension, on which histrionic inpatients can be differentiated from nonhistrionic inpatients. This study does not offer direct empirical support for the use of the HST scale as a measurement of the DSM-III-R histrionic personality disorder concept.

  5. Interaction of human serum albumin with Fe(III)–deferasirox studied by multispectroscopic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehghan, Gholamreza, E-mail: dehghan2001d@yahoo.com [Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural Science, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shaghaghi, Masoomeh [Department of Chemistry, Payame Noor University, PO Box 19395-3697 Tehran, I.R. of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sattari, Safura [Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jouyban, Abolghasem [Drug Applied Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-05-01

    The interaction between the iron complex of deferasirox (Fe(III)–DFX) and human serum albumin (HSA) was studied by fluorescence, UV–vis absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Binding constants, number of binding sites and binding distance (r) were calculated. Fluorescence data at different temperatures revealed that the fluorescence intensity of HSA is decreased in the presence of Fe(III)–DFX complex, and the fluorescence quenching was the result of the formation of the Fe(III)–DFX–HSA complex, therefore the quenching mechanism was static. The binding constant (K{sub a}) for the interaction was 10{sup 4}, and the number of binding site was obtained ∼1. The thermodynamic parameters including enthalpy (∆H), entropy (∆S) and Gibb's free energy (∆G) changes were calculated according to the van't Hoff equation. These data suggested that hydrophobic interaction was the dominant intermolecular force in stabilizing the complex and the association process was spontaneous. The interaction of HSA with Fe(III)–DFX was also confirmed by UV–vis absorption spectra. The quantitative analysis data of CD spectra showed significant alterations of HSA secondary structure in the presence of Fe(III)–DFX complex in aqueous solution with reduction of α-helices content and increase of β-turn structure. - Highlights: • The interaction between Fe(III)–DFX and (HSA) was studied by multispectroscopic methods. • Fluorescence intensity of HSA is decreased in the presence of Fe(III)–DFX complex through a static quenching procedure. • Thermodynamic data suggested that hydrophobic interaction was the dominant intermolecular force and the association process was spontaneous. • The CD spectra showed significant alterations of HSA secondary structure with reduction of α-helices content and increase of β-turn structure.

  6. DECOVALEX III PROJECT. Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical Coupled Processes in Safety Assessments. Report of Task 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden)

    2005-02-15

    A part (Task 4) of the International DECOVALEX III project on coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (T-H-M) processes focuses on T-H-M modelling applications in safety and performance assessment of deep geological nuclear waste repositories. A previous phase, DECOVALEX II, saw a need to improve such modelling. In order to address this need Task 4 of DECOVALEX III has: Analysed two major T-H-M experiments (Task 1 and Task 2) and three different Bench Mark Tests (Task 3) set-up to explore the significance of T-H-M in some potentially important safety assessment applications. Compiled and evaluated the use of T-H-M modelling in safety assessments at the time of the year 2000. Organised a forum a forum of interchange between PA-analysts and THM modelers at each DECOVALEX III workshop. Based on this information the current report discusses the findings and strives for reaching recommendations as regards good practices in addressing coupled T-H-M issues in safety assessments. The full development of T-H-M modelling is still at an early stage and it is not evident whether current codes provide the information that is required. However, although the geosphere is a system of fully coupled processes, this does not directly imply that all existing coupled mechanisms must be represented numerically. Modelling is conducted for specific purposes and the required confidence level should be considered. It is necessary to match the confidence level with the modelling objective. Coupled THM modelling has to incorporate uncertainties. These uncertainties mainly concern uncertainties in the conceptual model and uncertainty in data. Assessing data uncertainty is important when judging the need to model coupled processes. Often data uncertainty is more significant than the coupled effects. The emphasis on the need for THM modelling differs among disciplines. For geological radioactive waste disposal in crystalline and other similar hard rock formations DECOVALEX III shows it is essential to

  7. Assessment methods for solid waste management: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allesch, Astrid; Brunner, Paul H

    2014-06-01

    Assessment methods are common tools to support decisions regarding waste management. The objective of this review article is to provide guidance for the selection of appropriate evaluation methods. For this purpose, frequently used assessment methods are reviewed, categorised, and summarised. In total, 151 studies have been considered in view of their goals, methodologies, systems investigated, and results regarding economic, environmental, and social issues. A goal shared by all studies is the support of stakeholders. Most studies are based on life cycle assessments, multi-criteria-decision-making, cost-benefit analysis, risk assessments, and benchmarking. Approximately 40% of the reviewed articles are life cycle assessment-based; and more than 50% apply scenario analysis to identify the best waste management options. Most studies focus on municipal solid waste and consider specific environmental loadings. Economic aspects are considered by approximately 50% of the studies, and only a small number evaluate social aspects. The choice of system elements and boundaries varies significantly among the studies; thus, assessment results are sometimes contradictory. Based on the results of this review, we recommend the following considerations when assessing waste management systems: (i) a mass balance approach based on a rigid input-output analysis of the entire system, (ii) a goal-oriented evaluation of the results of the mass balance, which takes into account the intended waste management objectives; and (iii) a transparent and reproducible presentation of the methodology, data, and results.

  8. Assessment of the Adoption Rate of Technologies among Fadama III Farmers in Adamawa State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar, AdamuMadu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in Adamawa State, Nigeria. The major thrust of this study is to assess the adoption rate of technology in Fadama III. In its four years of operation, Fadama III project has realized significant impact on household access to new and proven technologies. Adoption rate of technologies among beneficiaries has increased from 43.75% before the inception of the project to 96.255% after the project intervention. This indicates 50% increase against only 20% increase among the non-beneficiaries. Adoption rate of off-farm technologies (agricultural marketing and financial management was also large. The adoption rate for the all the technologies was significant at p = 0.05, except for fish feed formulation, Cold storage, marketing and fish smoking. Yields among respondents have increased significantly due to adoption of proven technologies. The increase was higher among crop farmers (59.38% followed by livestock farmers (48.75%. The increase in yields across all the enterprises has exceeded the set target of 20% increase except for fish production (11.25% and Agro-forestry (6.88%. The increase was more among the beneficiaries compared to non-beneficiaries. It can be concluded that project did not only influence the beneficiaries to adopt technologies for the purpose of improving their socio-economic status but it has also influenced the non-beneficiaries living in Fadama III communities to adopt technologies. Fadama III needs to harmonize existing approaches and need to use complementary systems rather than conflicting ones.

  9. Orthodontic decompensation in skeletal Class III malocclusion: redefining the amount of movement assessed by Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Zuega Cappellozza

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT is essential for tridimensional planning of orthognathic surgery, as it allows visualization and evaluation of bone structures and mineralized tissues. Tomographic slices allow evaluation of tooth inclination and individualization of movement performed during preoperative decompensation. The aim of this paper was to assess maxillary and mandibular incisors inclination pre and post orthodontic decompensation in skeletal Class III malocclusion.Methods:The study was conducted on six individuals with skeletal Class III malocclusion, surgically treated, who had Cone-Beam Computed Tomographic scans obtained before and after orthodontic decompensation. On multiplanar reconstruction view, tomographic slices (axial, coronal and sagittal were obtained on the long axis of each incisor. The sagittal slice was used for measurement taking, whereas the references used to assess tooth inclination were the long axis of maxillary teeth in relation to the palatal plane and the long axis of mandibular teeth in relation to the mandibular plane.Results:There was significant variation in the inclination of incisors before and after orthodontic decompensation. This change was of greater magnitude in the mandibular arch, evidencing that natural compensation is more effective in this arch, thereby requiring more intensive decompensation.Conclusion:When routinely performed, the protocols of decompensation treatment in surgical individuals often result in intensive movements, which should be reevaluated, since the extent of movement predisposes to reduction in bone attachment levels and root length.

  10. Development on Vulnerability Assessment Methods of PPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAO; Qiang; ZHANG; Wen-liang; BU; Li-xin; YIN; Hong-he; LI; Xin-jun; FANG; Xin

    2013-01-01

    Through investigating information from domestic and abroad,joint the domestic assessment experience,we present a set of physical protection system(PPS)vulnerability assessment methods for on-operating nuclear power plants and for on-designing nuclear facilities.The methods will help to strengthen and upgrade the security measures of the nuclear facilities,improve the effectiveness and

  11. Enhancing Institutional Assessment Efforts through Qualitative Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Note Chism, Nancy; Banta, Trudy W.

    2007-01-01

    Qualitative methods can do much to describe context and illuminate the why behind patterns encountered in institutional assessment. Alone, or in combination with quantitative methods, they should be the approach of choice for many of the most important assessment questions. (Contains 1 table.)

  12. Self-assessment: an alternative method of assessing speaking skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterini Chalkia

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on self-assessment as an alternative method of assessing the speaking skills of a group of sixth graders of a Greek State Primary School. The paper consists of two parts. In the first part, traditional and alternative assessment approaches are compared and a literature review on self-assessment is presented. In the second part the methodology and the findings of the study are presented. The study was carried out by means of a questionnaire and observation notes. This was done in order to draw conclusions on the benefits of self-assessment, the difficulties students faced while carrying out self-assessment as well as to reveal the extent to which students improved their speaking skills after being involved in self-assessment. The findings revealed that the students were positive towards self-assessment. Although self-assessment was of limited duration, it turned out to be a worthwhile activity as it fostered motivation and sensitized the students to take a more active role in the learning process. It also enabled them to notice their strengths and weaknesses and improve their speaking skills. The study also revealed the practical difficulties the students faced in carrying out their self-assessment. Finally, the study concludes with recommendations for further research into this specific assessment method.

  13. A Modified Hybrid III 6-Year-Old Dummy Head Model for Lateral Impact Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Rafukka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid III six-year-old (6YO child dummy head model was developed and validated for frontal impact assessment according to the specifications contained in Code of Federal Regulations, Title 49, Part 572.122, Subpart N by Livermore Software Technology Corporation (LSTC. This work is aimed at improving biofidelity of the head for frontal impact and also extending its application to lateral impact assessment by modifying the head skin viscoelastic properties and validating the head response using the scaled nine-year-old (9YO child cadaver head response recently published in the literature. The modified head model was validated for two drop heights for frontal, right, and left parietal impact locations. Peak resultant acceleration of the modified head model appeared to have good correlation with scaled 9YO child cadaver head response for frontal impact on dropping from 302 mm height and fair correlation with 12.3% difference for 151 mm drop height. Right parietal peak resultant acceleration values correlate well with scaled 9YO head experimental data for 153 mm drop height, while fair correlation with 16.4% difference was noticed for 302 mm drop height. Left parietal, however, shows low biofidelity for the two drop heights as the difference in head acceleration response was within 30%. The modified head model could therefore be used to estimate injuries in vehicle crash for head parietal impact locations which cannot be measured by the current hybrid III dummy head model.

  14. Summary for Policymakers IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, WorkingGroup III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, Terry; Bashmakov, Igor; Bernstein, Lenny; Bogner,Jean; Bosch, Peter; Dave, Rutu; Davidson, Ogunlade; Fisher, Brian; Grubb,Michael; Gupta, Sujata; Halsnaes, Kirsten; Heij, Bertjan; Kahn Ribeiro,Suzana; Kobayashi, Shigeki; Levine, Mark; Martino, Daniel; MaseraCerutti, Omar; Metz, Bert; Meyer, Leo; Nabuurs, Gert-Jan; Najam, Adil; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Rogner, Hans Holger; Roy, Joyashree; Sathaye,Jayant; Schock, Robert; Shukla, Priyaradshi; Sims, Ralph; Smith, Pete; Swart, Rob; Tirpak, Dennis; Urge-Vorsatz, Diana; Zhou, Dadi

    2007-04-30

    A. Introduction 1. The Working Group III contribution to theIPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) focuses on new literature on thescientific, technological, environmental, economic and social aspects ofmitigation of climate change, published since the IPCC Third AssessmentReport (TAR) and the Special Reports on COB2B Capture and Storage (SRCCS)and on Safeguarding the Ozone Layer and the Global Climate System (SROC).The following summary is organised into six sections after thisintroduction: - Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends, - Mitigation in theshort and medium term, across different economic sectors (until 2030), -Mitigation in the long-term (beyond 2030), - Policies, measures andinstruments to mitigate climate change, - Sustainable development andclimate change mitigation, - Gaps in knowledge. References to thecorresponding chapter sections are indicated at each paragraph in squarebrackets. An explanation of terms, acronyms and chemical symbols used inthis SPM can be found in the glossary to the main report.

  15. ASSESSMENT METHODS OF INTERNAL AUDIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena RUSE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Internal audit services are more and more needed within economic entities, because on one hand they are directly subordinated to the general manager, on the other hand there is an increase in credit to its recommendations, estimating that internal audit is more than just a simple compliance check based on an established referral system. Our research focuses on evaluating the impact of theory and practice in the application of internal audit process. The added value brought by internal audit function to the economic entity it is pretty difficult to establish and requires effective ways and criteria of measured. In this regard, we will try to present ways to analyze internal audit’s activity by reference to some performance indicators or other specific methods. We used as research techniques: literature review, applied research and constructive research.

  16. Implications of the Differential Toxicological Effects of III-V Ionic and Particulate Materials for Hazard Assessment of Semiconductor Slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen; Lin, Sijie; Chang, Chong Hyun; Ji, Zhaoxia; Sun, Bingbing; Wang, Xiang; Li, Ruibin; Pon, Nanetta; Xia, Tian; Nel, André E

    2015-12-22

    Because of tunable band gaps, high carrier mobility, and low-energy consumption rates, III-V materials are attractive for use in semiconductor wafers. However, these wafers require chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) for polishing, which leads to the generation of large quantities of hazardous waste including particulate and ionic III-V debris. Although the toxic effects of micron-sized III-V materials have been studied in vivo, no comprehensive assessment has been undertaken to elucidate the hazardous effects of submicron particulates and released III-V ionic components. Since III-V materials may contribute disproportionately to the hazard of CMP slurries, we obtained GaP, InP, GaAs, and InAs as micron- (0.2-3 μm) and nanoscale (materials that could appear in slurries. This finding is of importance for considering how to deal with the hazard potential of CMP slurries.

  17. Scanning tunneling microscopy III theory of STM and related scanning probe methods

    CERN Document Server

    Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim

    1996-01-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy III provides a unique introduction to the theoretical foundations of scanning tunneling microscopy and related scanning probe methods. The different theoretical concepts developed in the past are outlined, and the implications of the theoretical results for the interpretation of experimental data are discussed in detail. Therefore, this book serves as a most useful guide for experimentalists as well as for theoreticians working in the filed of local probe methods. In this second edition the text has been updated and new methods are discussed.

  18. The effects of two methods of Class III malocclusion treatment on temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Hanefi; Alioğlu, Ceylan; Karayazgan, Banu; Tuncer, Necat; Kılıçoğlu, Hülya

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate, within a controlled clinical study, the effects of a Delaire-type facemask or a modified Jasper Jumper (JJ) used in the treatment of children with Class III malocclusions due to maxillary retrognathia on temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). Forty-six patients with Class III malocclusions referred for orthodontic treatment were divided into two groups, a test and a control. The test group comprised 33 randomly chosen patients (15 females, 18 males) aged 8-11 years. The control group included 13 patients (eight females, five males) with similar features. TMD assessment was performed before and after treatment using a two-axis questionnaire, the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMDs). Qualitative data were evaluated using chi-square and McNemar tests. No statistically significant differences related to the presence of TMD were observed pre- or post-treatment (P > 0.05). The most commonly encountered diagnosis was arthralgia in the JJ group both before and after treatment. Evaluation of joint and muscle regions showed decreased symptoms, apart from the diagnosed discomforts, in the JJ group (P < 0.05). Reduced symptoms were observed in the Delaire group; however, this reduction was not statistically significant. An increase, not considered to be statistically significant, was observed in the control group. The Delaire-type facemask and modified JJ used in the early phase of Class III malocclusion treatment did not result in TMD.

  19. Risk assessment theory, methods, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rausand, Marvin

    2011-01-01

    With its balanced coverage of theory and applications along with standards and regulations, Risk Assessment: Theory, Methods, and Applications serves as a comprehensive introduction to the topic. The book serves as a practical guide to current risk analysis and risk assessment, emphasizing the possibility of sudden, major accidents across various areas of practice from machinery and manufacturing processes to nuclear power plants and transportation systems. The author applies a uniform framework to the discussion of each method, setting forth clear objectives and descriptions, while also shedding light on applications, essential resources, and advantages and disadvantages. Following an introduction that provides an overview of risk assessment, the book is organized into two sections that outline key theory, methods, and applications. * Introduction to Risk Assessment defines key concepts and details the steps of a thorough risk assessment along with the necessary quantitative risk measures. Chapters outline...

  20. Formal Method of Description Supporting Portfolio Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Yasuhiko; Ueno, Maomi; Kikukawa, Isao; Yokoyama, Setsuo; Miyadera, Youzou

    2006-01-01

    Teachers need to assess learner portfolios in the field of education. However, they need support in the process of designing and practicing what kind of portfolios are to be assessed. To solve the problem, a formal method of describing the relations between the lesson forms and portfolios that need to be collected and the relations between…

  1. The STIG: A new SDI assessment method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nushi, B.; Van Loenen, B.; Crompvoets, J.

    2015-01-01

    To stimulate the Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI) development effectively and efficiently, it is key to assess the progress and benefits of the SDI. Currently, several SDI assessment methods exist. However, these are still in an infant stage and none of these appear to meet the requirements of pra

  2. Personality, Assessment Methods and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Nuygards, Sarah; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between personality and two different academic performance (AP) assessment methods, namely exams and coursework. It aimed to examine whether the relationship between traits and AP was consistent across self-reported versus documented exam results, two different assessment techniques and across different…

  3. Examination of various WMS-III logical memory scores in the assessment of response bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortnik, Kirsty E; Boone, Kyle B; Marion, Sarah D; Amano, Stacy; Ziegler, Elizabeth; Cottingham, Maria E; Victor, Tara L; Zeller, Michelle A

    2010-02-01

    The assessment of response validity during neuropsychological evaluation is an integral part of the testing process. Research has increasingly focused on the use of "embedded" effort measures (derived from standard neuropsychological tasks) because they do not require additional administration time and are less likely to be identified as effort indicators by test takers because of their primary focus as measures of cognitive function. The current study examined the clinical utility of various WMS-III Logical Memory scores in detecting response bias, as well as the Rarely Missed Index, an embedded effort indicator derived from the WMS-III Logical Memory Delayed Recognition subtest. The Rarely Missed Index cut-off only identified 24.1% of 63 non-credible participants (at >/=90% specificity in 125 credible patients), and cut-offs for other Logical Memory variables were in fact found to be more sensitive to non-credible performance. A new indicator, consisting of the weighted combination of the two most sensitive Logical Memory subtest scores (Logical Memory II raw score and Logical Memory Delayed Recognition raw score), was associated with 53% to 60% sensitivity, and thus may be an effective adjunct when utilized in conjunction with other validated effort indicators and collateral information in identifying non-credible performance.

  4. A New Method for Lift-off of III-Nitride Semiconductors for Heterogeneous Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zang KeYan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The release and transfer of GaN epilayers to other substrates is of interest for a variety of applications, including heterogeneous integration of silicon logic devices, III–V power devices and optical devices. We have developed a simple wet chemical etching method to release high-quality epitaxial III-nitride films from their substrates. This method builds on a nanoepitaxial lateral overgrowth (NELO process that provides III-Nitride films with low dislocation densities. NELO is accomplished using a nanoporous mask layer patterned on GaN substrates. Chemical removal of the SiO2 layer after growth of III-Nitride overlayers causes fracture at the interface between the GaN film and the original GaN substrate, resulting in free-standing GaN films with nanostructured surfaces on one side. These layers can be transferred to other substrates, and the nano-structured surface can be used in photonic devices, or planarized for power devices.

  5. Development of Alkaline Oxidative Dissolution Methods for Chromium (III) Compounds Present in Hanford Site Tank Sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NN Krot; VP Shilov; AM Fedoseev; NA Budantseva; MV Nikonov; AB Yusov; AYu Garnov; IA Charushnikova; VP Perminov; LN Astafurova; TS Lapitskaya; VI Makarenkov

    1999-07-02

    The high-level radioactive waste sludge in the underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site contains various chromium(III)solid phases. Dissolution and removal of chromium from tank waste sludges is desirable prior to high-level waste vitrification because increased volume is required to incorporate the residual chromium. Unfortunately, dissolution of chromium from the sludge to form Cr(OH){sub 4}{sup {minus}} through treatment with heated NaOH solution (also used to dissolve aluminum phases and metathesize phosphates to sodium salts) generally has been unsuccessful in tests with both simulated and genuine Hanford waste sludges. Oxidative dissolution of the Cr(III) compounds to form soluble chromate has been proposed as an alternative chromium solid phase dissolution method and results of limited prior testing have been reported.

  6. Gap junctions enhancer combined with Vaughan Williams class III antiarrhythmic drugs, a promising antiarrhythmic method?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lian-dong; Zhang, Cun-tai; Ruan, Lei; Ni, Ming-ke; Quan, Xiao-qing

    2011-01-01

    Arrhythmias is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Current antiarrhythmic drugs are limited by unsatisfactory efficacy and adverse effects such as proarrhythmias. Reentry mechanism plays an important role in persistence of arrhythmias. Reentry can only continue when reentry path-length is longer than cardiac wavelength which is equal to the product of conduction velocity (CV) and effective refractory period (ERP). Gap junctions uncoupling is associated with proarrhythmic CV slowing and transmural dispersion of repolarization (TDR) increasing in many cardiac diseases. Vaughan Williams class III antiarrhythmic drugs prolong ERP with an augmented TDR which is the main mechanism of the proarrhythmic effects. Gap junctions enhancer can augment CV and diminish TDR. As a result, gap junctions enhancer combined with class III drugs may be a promising antiarrhythmic method.

  7. An Independent Scientific Assessment of Well Stimulation in California Volume III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Jane C.S. [California Council on Science and Technology, Sacramento, CA (United States); Feinstein, Laura C. [California Council on Science and Technology, Sacramento, CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [California Council on Science and Technology, Sacramento, CA (United States); Foxall, William [California Council on Science and Technology, Sacramento, CA (United States); Houseworth, James [California Council on Science and Technology, Sacramento, CA (United States); Jordan, Preston [California Council on Science and Technology, Sacramento, CA (United States); Lindsey, Nathaniel [California Council on Science and Technology, Sacramento, CA (United States); Maddalena, Randy [California Council on Science and Technology, Sacramento, CA (United States); McKone, Thomas [California Council on Science and Technology, Sacramento, CA (United States); Stringfellow, William [California Council on Science and Technology, Sacramento, CA (United States); Ulrich, Craig [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Heberger, Matthew [Pacific Inst., Oakland, CA (United States); Shonkoff, Seth [PSE Healthy Energy, Berkeley, CA (United States); Brandt, Adam [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Ferrar, Kyle [The FracTracker Alliance, Oakland, CA (United States); Gautier, Donald [DonGautier LLC., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Phillips, Scott [California State Univ. Stanislaus, Turlock, CA (United States); Greenfield, Ben [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Jerrett, Michael L.B. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This study is issued in three volumes. Volume I, issued in January 2015, describes how well stimulation technologies work, how and where operators deploy these technologies for oil and gas production in California, and where they might enable production in the future. Volume II, issued in July 2015, discusses how well stimulation could affect water, atmosphere, seismic activity, wildlife and vegetation, and human health. Volume II reviews available data, and identifies knowledge gaps and alternative practices that could avoid or mitigate these possible impacts. Volume III, this volume, presents case studies that assess environmental issues and qualitative risks for specific geographic regions. The Summary Report summarizes key findings, conclusions and recommendations of all three volumes.

  8. Statistical methods for assessment of blend homogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Camilla

    2002-01-01

    In this thesis the use of various statistical methods to address some of the problems related to assessment of the homogeneity of powder blends in tablet production is discussed. It is not straight forward to assess the homogeneity of a powder blend. The reason is partly that in bulk materials...... as powder blends there is no natural unit or amount to define a sample from the blend, and partly that current technology does not provide a method of universally collecting small representative samples from large static powder beds. In the thesis a number of methods to assess (in)homogeneity are presented....... Some methods have a focus on exploratory analysis where the aim is to investigate the spatial distribution of drug content in the batch. Other methods presented focus on describing the overall (total) (in)homogeneity of the blend. The overall (in)homogeneity of the blend is relevant as it is closely...

  9. Long maximal incremental tests accurately assess aerobic fitness in class II and III obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzi, Stefano; Codecasa, Franco; Cornacchia, Mauro; Maestrini, Sabrina; Capodaglio, Paolo; Brunani, Amelia; Fanari, Paolo; Salvadori, Alberto; Malatesta, Davide

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare two different maximal incremental tests with different time durations [a maximal incremental ramp test with a short time duration (8-12 min) (STest) and a maximal incremental test with a longer time duration (20-25 min) (LTest)] to investigate whether an LTest accurately assesses aerobic fitness in class II and III obese men. Twenty obese men (BMI≥35 kg.m-2) without secondary pathologies (mean±SE; 36.7±1.9 yr; 41.8±0.7 kg*m-2) completed an STest (warm-up: 40 W; increment: 20 W*min-1) and an LTest [warm-up: 20% of the peak power output (PPO) reached during the STest; increment: 10% PPO every 5 min until 70% PPO was reached or until the respiratory exchange ratio reached 1.0, followed by 15 W.min-1 until exhaustion] on a cycle-ergometer to assess the peak oxygen uptake [Formula: see text] and peak heart rate (HRpeak) of each test. There were no significant differences in [Formula: see text] (STest: 3.1±0.1 L*min-1; LTest: 3.0±0.1 L*min-1) and HRpeak (STest: 174±4 bpm; LTest: 173±4 bpm) between the two tests. Bland-Altman plot analyses showed good agreement and Pearson product-moment and intra-class correlation coefficients showed a strong correlation between [Formula: see text] (r=0.81 for both; p≤0.001) and HRpeak (r=0.95 for both; p≤0.001) during both tests. [Formula: see text] and HRpeak assessments were not compromised by test duration in class II and III obese men. Therefore, we suggest that the LTest is a feasible test that accurately assesses aerobic fitness and may allow for the exercise intensity prescription and individualization that will lead to improved therapeutic approaches in treating obesity and severe obesity.

  10. Long maximal incremental tests accurately assess aerobic fitness in class II and III obese men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Lanzi

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare two different maximal incremental tests with different time durations [a maximal incremental ramp test with a short time duration (8-12 min (STest and a maximal incremental test with a longer time duration (20-25 min (LTest] to investigate whether an LTest accurately assesses aerobic fitness in class II and III obese men. Twenty obese men (BMI≥35 kg.m-2 without secondary pathologies (mean±SE; 36.7±1.9 yr; 41.8±0.7 kg*m-2 completed an STest (warm-up: 40 W; increment: 20 W*min-1 and an LTest [warm-up: 20% of the peak power output (PPO reached during the STest; increment: 10% PPO every 5 min until 70% PPO was reached or until the respiratory exchange ratio reached 1.0, followed by 15 W.min-1 until exhaustion] on a cycle-ergometer to assess the peak oxygen uptake [Formula: see text] and peak heart rate (HRpeak of each test. There were no significant differences in [Formula: see text] (STest: 3.1±0.1 L*min-1; LTest: 3.0±0.1 L*min-1 and HRpeak (STest: 174±4 bpm; LTest: 173±4 bpm between the two tests. Bland-Altman plot analyses showed good agreement and Pearson product-moment and intra-class correlation coefficients showed a strong correlation between [Formula: see text] (r=0.81 for both; p≤0.001 and HRpeak (r=0.95 for both; p≤0.001 during both tests. [Formula: see text] and HRpeak assessments were not compromised by test duration in class II and III obese men. Therefore, we suggest that the LTest is a feasible test that accurately assesses aerobic fitness and may allow for the exercise intensity prescription and individualization that will lead to improved therapeutic approaches in treating obesity and severe obesity.

  11. Assessment and Evaluation Methods for Access Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Dallas

    2014-01-01

    This article serves as a primer for assessment and evaluation design by describing the range of methods commonly employed in library settings. Quantitative methods, such as counting and benchmarking measures, are useful for investigating the internal operations of an access services department in order to identify workflow inefficiencies or…

  12. Reliability level III method in design of square pillar resting on weak floor stratum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pytel, W.M. (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL (USA). Dept. of Mining Engineering)

    1990-06-01

    Current methods of design of pillars resting on weak floor strata involve only a deterministic, conventional safety factor calculation, based on material parameters treated as the mean values taken from observations. In a case where high parameters variability occurs, these methods may lead to fatal design errors resulting in excessive settlement and roof falls. Therefore, to include the influence of parameters quality, the new approach based on reliability level III method was developed. Consideration was given to the identification of the system parameters importance, and to density function for the safety factor treated as a random variable. Design procedure involving floor probability of failure was illustrated by numerical examples. 17 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  13. A New Method to Assess Eye Dominance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Inclan, Fernando; Blanco, Manuel J.; Soto, David; Leiros, Luz

    2008-01-01

    People usually show a stable preference for one of their eyes when monocular viewing is required ("sighting dominance") or under dichoptic stimulation conditions ("sensory eye-dominance"). Current procedures to assess this "eye dominance" are prone to error. Here we present a new method that provides a continuous measure of eye dominance and…

  14. Methods to assess iron and iodine status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    Four methods are recommended for assessment of iodine nutrition: urinary iodine concentration, the goitre rate, and blood concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone and thyroglobulin. These indicators are complementary, in that urinary iodine is a sensitive indicator of recent iodine intake (days

  15. Methods of Assessment for Affected Family Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orford, Jim; Templeton, Lorna; Velleman, Richard; Copello, Alex

    2010-01-01

    The article begins by making the point that a good assessment of the needs and circumstances of family members is important if previous neglect of affected family members is to be reversed. The methods we have used in research studies are then described. They include a lengthy semi-structured interview covering seven topic areas and standard…

  16. Preparation, spectroscopic and thermal characterization of new La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) complexes of enalapril maleate drug. In vitro antimicrobial assessment studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refat, Moamen S.; Al-Azab, Fathi M.; Al-Maydama, Hussein M. A.; Amin, Ragab R.; Jamil, Yasmin M. S.

    2014-02-01

    The 1:1 M ratio metal complexes of enalapril maleate hypertensive drug with La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) were synthesized. The suggested structures of the resulted complexes based on the results of elemental analyses, molar conductivity, (infrared, UV-visible and fluorescence) spectra, effective magnetic moment, thermal analysis (TG), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were discussed. The infrared spectral data were suggested that enalapril reacts with metal ions as an ionic bidentate ligand through its carboxylate oxygen and the amide carbonyl oxygen, but in case of the Sm(III) complex, it reacted as a monodentate through its amide carbonyl oxygen. Maleate moiety acts with all these metals as bidentate ligand through its carboxylate or carbonyl oxygen. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters such as: Ea, ΔH*, ΔS* and ΔG* were estimated from the DTG curves. The antibacterial evaluation of the enalapril maleate and their complexes were also performed against some gram positive and negative bacteria as well as fungi.

  17. Determination of sulpiride in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids using a Cr (III) enhanced chemiluminescence method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Naeem; Jan, Muhammad Rasul; Shah, Jasmin; Lee, Sang Hak; Kim, Young Ho

    2013-01-01

    A highly sensitive and simple method for identifying sulpiride in pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluids is presented. The method is based on increased chemiluminescence (CL) intensity of a luminol-H2O2 system in response to the addition of Cr (III) under alkaline conditions. The CL intensity of the luminol-H2O2-Cr (III) system was greatly enhanced by the addition of sulpiride and the CL intensity was proportional to the concentration of sulpiride in a sample solution. Various parameters affecting the CL intensity were systematically investigated and optimized for determination of the sulpiride in a sample. Under the optimum conditions, the CL intensity was proportional to the concentration of sulpiride in the range of 0.068-4.0 µg/mL, with a good correlation coefficient of 0.997. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were found to be 8.50 × 10(-6) µg/mL and 2.83 × 10(-5) µg/mL, respectively. The method presented here produced good reproducibility with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 2.70% (n = 7). The effects of common excipients and metal ions were studied for their interference effect. The method was validated statistically through recovery studies and successfully applied for the determination of sulpiride in pure form, pharmaceutical preparations and spiked human plasma samples. The percentage recoveries were found to range from 99.10 to 100.05% for pure form, 98.12 to 100.18% for pharmaceutical preparations and 97.9 to 101.4% for spiked human plasma.

  18. A Quantitative and Standardized Method for the Evaluation of Choroidal Neovascularization Using MICRON III Fluorescein Angiograms in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P Wigg

    Full Text Available In-vivo imaging of choroidal neovascularization (CNV has been increasingly recognized as a valuable tool in the investigation of age-related macular degeneration (AMD in both clinical and basic research applications. Arguably the most widely utilised model replicating AMD is laser generated CNV by rupture of Bruch's membrane in rodents. Heretofore CNV evaluation via in-vivo imaging techniques has been hamstrung by a lack of appropriate rodent fundus camera and a non-standardised analysis method. The aim of this study was to establish a simple, quantifiable method of fluorescein fundus angiogram (FFA image analysis for CNV lesions.Laser was applied to 32 Brown Norway Rats; FFA images were taken using a rodent specific fundus camera (Micron III, Phoenix Laboratories over 3 weeks and compared to conventional ex-vivo CNV assessment. FFA images acquired with fluorescein administered by intraperitoneal injection and intravenous injection were compared and shown to greatly influence lesion properties. Utilising commonly used software packages, FFA images were assessed for CNV and chorioretinal burns lesion area by manually outlining the maximum border of each lesion and normalising against the optic nerve head. Net fluorescence above background and derived value of area corrected lesion intensity were calculated.CNV lesions of rats treated with anti-VEGF antibody were significantly smaller in normalised lesion area (p < 0.001 and fluorescent intensity (p < 0.001 than the PBS treated control two weeks post laser. The calculated area corrected lesion intensity was significantly smaller (p < 0.001 in anti-VEGF treated animals at 2 and 3 weeks post laser. The results obtained using FFA correlated with, and were confirmed by conventional lesion area measurements from isolectin stained choroidal flatmounts, where lesions of anti-VEGF treated rats were significantly smaller at 2 weeks (p = 0.049 and 3 weeks (p < 0.001 post laser.The presented method of in

  19. Methods of geodiversity assessment and theirs application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwoliński, Zbigniew; Najwer, Alicja; Giardino, Marco

    2016-04-01

    The concept of geodiversity has rapidly gained the approval of scientists around the world (Wiedenbein 1993, Sharples 1993, Kiernan 1995, 1996, Dixon 1996, Eberhard 1997, Kostrzewski 1998, 2011, Gray 2004, 2008, 2013, Zwoliński 2004, Serrano, Ruiz- Flano 2007, Gordon et al. 2012). However, the problem recognition is still at an early stage, and in effect not explicitly understood and defined (Najwer, Zwoliński 2014). Nevertheless, despite widespread use of the concept, little progress has been made in its assessment and mapping. Less than the last decade can be observing investigation of methods for geodiversity assessment and its visualisation. Though, many have acknowledged the importance of geodiversity evaluation (Kozłowski 2004, Gray 2004, Reynard, Panizza 2005, Zouros 2007, Pereira et al. 2007, Hjort et al. 2015). Hitherto, only a few authors have undertaken that kind of methodological issues. Geodiversity maps are being created for a variety of purposes and therefore their methods are quite manifold. In the literature exists some examples of the geodiversity maps applications for the geotourism purpose, basing mainly on the geological diversity, in order to point the scale of the area's tourist attractiveness (Zwoliński 2010, Serrano and Gonzalez Trueba 2011, Zwoliński and Stachowiak 2012). In some studies, geodiversity maps were created and applied to investigate the spatial or genetic relationships with the richness of particular natural environmental components (Burnett et al. 1998, Silva 2004, Jačková, Romportl 2008, Hjort et al. 2012, 2015, Mazurek et al. 2015, Najwer et al. 2014). There are also a few examples of geodiversity assessment in order to geoconservation and efficient management and planning of the natural protected areas (Serrano and Gonzalez Trueba 2011, Pellitero et al. 2011, 2014, Jaskulska et al. 2013, Melelli 2014, Martinez-Grana et al. 2015). The most popular method of assessing the diversity of abiotic components of the natural

  20. Standard test method for plutonium assay by plutonium (III) diode array spectrophotometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the determination of total plutonium as plutonium(III) in nitrate and chloride solutions. The technique is applicable to solutions of plutonium dioxide powders and pellets (Test Methods C 697), nuclear grade mixed oxides (Test Methods C 698), plutonium metal (Test Methods C 758), and plutonium nitrate solutions (Test Methods C 759). Solid samples are dissolved using the appropriate dissolution techniques described in Practice C 1168. The use of this technique for other plutonium-bearing materials has been reported (1-5), but final determination of applicability must be made by the user. The applicable concentration range for plutonium sample solutions is 10–200 g Pu/L. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropria...

  1. Landfill mining: Developing a comprehensive assessment method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Robert; Wolfsberger, Tanja; Pomberger, Roland; Sarc, Renato

    2016-11-01

    In Austria, the first basic technological and economic examinations of mass-waste landfills with the purpose to recover secondary raw materials have been carried out by the 'LAMIS - Landfill Mining Österreich' pilot project. A main focus of its research, and the subject of this article, is the first conceptual design of a comprehensive assessment method for landfill mining plans, including not only monetary factors (like costs and proceeds) but also non-monetary ones, such as the concerns of adjoining owners or the environmental impact. Detailed reviews of references, the identification of influences and system boundaries to be included in planning landfill mining, several expert workshops and talks with landfill operators have been performed followed by a division of the whole assessment method into preliminary and main assessment. Preliminary assessment is carried out with a questionnaire to rate juridical feasibility, the risk and the expenditure of a landfill mining project. The results of this questionnaire are compiled in a portfolio chart that is used to recommend, or not, further assessment. If a detailed main assessment is recommended, defined economic criteria are rated by net present value calculations, while ecological and socio-economic criteria are examined in a utility analysis and then transferred into a utility-net present value chart. If this chart does not support making a definite statement on the feasibility of the project, the results must be further examined in a cost-effectiveness analysis. Here, the benefit of the particular landfill mining project per capital unit (utility-net present value ratio) is determined to make a final distinct statement on the general benefit of a landfill mining project.

  2. Kinetic method for the determination of traces of thyroxine by its catalytic effect on the Mn(III) metaphosphate-As(III) reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Ferenc T; Milovanović, Gordana A; Todorović, Marija

    2008-02-15

    A new, highly sensitive and simple kinetic method for the determination of thyroxine was proposed. The method was based on the catalytic effect of thyroxine on the oxidation of As(III) by Mn(III) metaphosphate. The kinetics of the reaction was studied in the presence of orthophosphoric acid. The reaction rate was followed spectrophotometrically at 516 nm. It was established that orthophosphoric acid increased the reaction rate and that the extent of the non-catalytic reaction was extremely small. A kinetic equation was postulated and the apparent rate constant was calculated. The dependence of the reaction rate on temperature was investigated and the energy of activation and other kinetic parameters were determined. Thyroxine was determined under the optimal experimental conditions in the range 7.0 x 10(-9) to 3.0 x 10(-8) mol L(-1) with a relative standard deviation up to 6.7% and a detection limit of 2.7 x 10(-9) molL(-1). In the presence of 0.08 mol L(-1) chloride, the detection limit decreased to 6.6 x 10(-10) mol L(-1). The proposed method was applied for the determination of thyroxine in tablets. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by comparison with the HPLC method.

  3. Method of assessing heterogeneity in images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Richard E.; Carson, James P.

    2016-08-23

    A method of assessing heterogeneity in images is disclosed. 3D images of an object are acquired. The acquired images may be filtered and masked. Iterative decomposition is performed on the masked images to obtain image subdivisions that are relatively homogeneous. Comparative analysis, such as variogram analysis or correlogram analysis, is performed of the decomposed images to determine spatial relationships between regions of the images that are relatively homogeneous.

  4. Methods for fabricating thin film III-V compound solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Noren; Hillier, Glen; Vu, Duy Phach; Tatavarti, Rao; Youtsey, Christopher; McCallum, David; Martin, Genevieve

    2011-08-09

    The present invention utilizes epitaxial lift-off in which a sacrificial layer is included in the epitaxial growth between the substrate and a thin film III-V compound solar cell. To provide support for the thin film III-V compound solar cell in absence of the substrate, a backing layer is applied to a surface of the thin film III-V compound solar cell before it is separated from the substrate. To separate the thin film III-V compound solar cell from the substrate, the sacrificial layer is removed as part of the epitaxial lift-off. Once the substrate is separated from the thin film III-V compound solar cell, the substrate may then be reused in the formation of another thin film III-V compound solar cell.

  5. Method and apparatus for use of III-nitride wide bandgap semiconductors in optical communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, Rongqing (Lenexa, KS); Jiang,Hong-Xing (Manhattan, KS); Lin, Jing-Yu (Manhattan, KS)

    2008-03-18

    The present disclosure relates to the use of III-nitride wide bandgap semiconductor materials for optical communications. In one embodiment, an optical device includes an optical waveguide device fabricated using a III-nitride semiconductor material. The III-nitride semiconductor material provides for an electrically controllable refractive index. The optical waveguide device provides for high speed optical communications in an infrared wavelength region. In one embodiment, an optical amplifier is provided using optical coatings at the facet ends of a waveguide formed of erbium-doped III-nitride semiconductor materials.

  6. Development and Implementation of Efficiency-Improving Analysis Methods for the SAGE III on ISS Thermal Model Originating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, Kaitlin; Amundsen, Ruth; Davis, Warren; Scola, Salvatore; Tobin, Steven; McLeod, Shawn; Mannu, Sergio; Guglielmo, Corrado; Moeller, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) instrument is the fifth in a series of instruments developed for monitoring aerosols and gaseous constituents in the stratosphere and troposphere. SAGE III will be delivered to the International Space Station (ISS) via the SpaceX Dragon vehicle in 2015. A detailed thermal model of the SAGE III payload has been developed in Thermal Desktop (TD). Several novel methods have been implemented to facilitate efficient payload-level thermal analysis, including the use of a design of experiments (DOE) methodology to determine the worst-case orbits for SAGE III while on ISS, use of TD assemblies to move payloads from the Dragon trunk to the Enhanced Operational Transfer Platform (EOTP) to its final home on the Expedite the Processing of Experiments to Space Station (ExPRESS) Logistics Carrier (ELC)-4, incorporation of older models in varying unit sets, ability to change units easily (including hardcoded logic blocks), case-based logic to facilitate activating heaters and active elements for varying scenarios within a single model, incorporation of several coordinate frames to easily map to structural models with differing geometries and locations, and streamlined results processing using an Excel-based text file plotter developed in-house at LaRC. This document presents an overview of the SAGE III thermal model and describes the development and implementation of these efficiency-improving analysis methods.

  7. A classification scheme for risk assessment methods.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamp, Jason Edwin; Campbell, Philip LaRoche

    2004-08-01

    This report presents a classification scheme for risk assessment methods. This scheme, like all classification schemes, provides meaning by imposing a structure that identifies relationships. Our scheme is based on two orthogonal aspects--level of detail, and approach. The resulting structure is shown in Table 1 and is explained in the body of the report. Each cell in the Table represent a different arrangement of strengths and weaknesses. Those arrangements shift gradually as one moves through the table, each cell optimal for a particular situation. The intention of this report is to enable informed use of the methods so that a method chosen is optimal for a situation given. This report imposes structure on the set of risk assessment methods in order to reveal their relationships and thus optimize their usage.We present a two-dimensional structure in the form of a matrix, using three abstraction levels for the rows and three approaches for the columns. For each of the nine cells in the matrix we identify the method type by name and example. The matrix helps the user understand: (1) what to expect from a given method, (2) how it relates to other methods, and (3) how best to use it. Each cell in the matrix represent a different arrangement of strengths and weaknesses. Those arrangements shift gradually as one moves through the table, each cell optimal for a particular situation. The intention of this report is to enable informed use of the methods so that a method chosen is optimal for a situation given. The matrix, with type names in the cells, is introduced in Table 2 on page 13 below. Unless otherwise stated we use the word 'method' in this report to refer to a 'risk assessment method', though often times we use the full phrase. The use of the terms 'risk assessment' and 'risk management' are close enough that we do not attempt to distinguish them in this report. The remainder of this report is organized as follows. In

  8. Assessment of pulmonary dynamics in normal newborns: a pneumotachographic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estol, P; Píriz, H; Pintos, L; Nieto, F; Simini, F

    1988-01-01

    A pneumotachographic method for assessment of pulmonary dynamics in critically ill newborns in an intensive care setting was developed in our laboratory. Before the results obtained with this method could be applied, the normal range of values were determined in 48 normal term and preterm newborns. Their body weight ranged between 1200 and 4100 g, and postnatal ages between 24 hours and 21 days. In three infants, two determinations were performed after an interval of 7 days. The studies were performed with a pneumotachograph applied to the upper airway by means of an inflatable face mask or latex nasal prongs. The air flow signal was electronically integrated to time to produce a volume signal. Airway pressure was determined proximal to the pneumotachograph. Esophageal pressure was determined with a water filled catheter placed in the lower third of the esophague. Tidal volume (VT), minute ventilation (V), Dynamic compliance (Cdyn), total pulmonary resistance (R), total pulmonary work (Wt), Elastic work (We), and flow resistive work (Wv), were determined. A significant linear correlation was found between Cdyn and body weight (r = 0.50, p less than 0.01) whereas no significative correlation was found between body weight and VT, V or R. Values for VT, V and Cdyn were corrected for body weight and means (X), standard deviation (SD) so as 10th and 90th percentiles are shown in table III. X, SD and percentiles for R were shown in table III. Wt, We and Wv were corrected for V, and X, SD and percentiles shown in table III. Values of VT/Kg, Cdyn/Kg and R are similar to those found by other authors with pneumotachography and plethysmography. The V/Kg values obtained by us were higher than those reported by other authors, which together with the lack of correlation of VT and V with body weight, question the reliability of V values in our study. This could be explained by: 1) excessive increase in dead space in cases in which a face mask was used; 2) nocioceptive stimulus

  9. ASSESSMENT METHODS OF CORMORANT (Phalacrocorax carbo DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Terzić

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Various cormorant diet assessment methods are used to assess their daily meal in order to evaluate, using these and other data, the damage to commercial fish farms as well as the damage on open waters caused by cormorants. All of the parameters used for evaluating the damage to fish stock (number of birds, density and fish structure, daily meal, fish price, degree of protection and preservation etc. are specific for an individual fishpond or other body of water and can only be used for that locality and not elsewhere. The results on the lowest and highest values of fish mass that cormorants eat daily vary extensively. By examining the available literature, the following values for individual adults have been determined: pellets — 347 g, pellets of captive cormorants — 371 g, stomach content — 359.5 g, regurgitations — 260 to 539 g, energy requirements — 751 g, stomach temperature — 336±98 g.

  10. Serious problems with the Mexican norms for the WAIS-III when assessing mental retardation in capital cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, Hoi K; Greenspan, Stephen

    2009-07-01

    A Spanish-language translation of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III), normed in Mexico, is sometimes used when evaluating Spanish-speaking defendants in capital cases in order to diagnose possible mental retardation (MR). Although the manual for the Mexican test suggests use of the U.S. norms when diagnosing MR, the Mexican norms-which produce full-scale scores on average 12 points higher-are sometimes used for reasons that are similar to those used by proponents for "race-norming" in special education. Such an argument assumes, however, that the Mexican WAIS-III norms are valid. In this paper, we examined the validity of the Mexican WAIS-III norms and found six very serious problems with those norms: (1) extremely poor reliability, (2) lack of a meaningful reference population, (3) lack of score normalization, (4) exclusion of certain groups from the standardization sample, (5) use of incorrect statistics and calculations, and (6) incorrect application of the true score confidence interval method. An additional problem is the apparent absence of any social policy consensus within Mexico as to the definition and boundary parameters of MR. Taken together, these concerns lead one to the inescapable conclusion that the Mexican WAIS-III norms are not interpretable and should not be used for any high-stakes purpose, especially one as serious as whether a defendant should qualify for exemption against imposition of the death penalty.

  11. Assessment of anthropometric methods in headset design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stavrakos, Stavros-Konstantinos; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2012-01-01

    Current approaches to assess consumer products for usability and comfort often involve expensive user trials. For external ear products such as headsets and bluetooth communication devices comfort is an issue leading to many concepts being rejected at the late stages of the product development...... industry. The intention of this approach is to investigate and evaluate the methods leading to a recommendation of their usage during the different phases of the product development process. The current study explores the complicated relationships between comfort, technology and humans through...

  12. Technical and economic assessment of fluidized bed augmented compressed air energy storage system. Volume III. Preconceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giramonti, A.J.; Lessard, R.D.; Merrick, D.; Hobson, M.J.

    1981-09-01

    A technical and economic assessment of fluidized bed combustion augmented compressed air energy storage systems is presented. The results of this assessment effort are presented in three volumes. Volume III - Preconceptual Design contains the system analysis which led to the identification of a preferred component configuration for a fluidized bed combustion augmented compressed air energy storage system, the results of the effort which transformed the preferred configuration into preconceptual power plant design, and an introductory evaluation of the performance of the power plant system during part-load operation and while load following.

  13. Cardiovascular complications in acromegaly: methods of assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, G; Pivonello, R; Galderisi, M; D'Errico, A; Spinelli, L; Lupoli, G; Lombardi, G; Colao, A

    2001-09-01

    Cardiac involvement is common in acromegaly. Evidence for cardiac hypertrophy, dilation and diastolic filling abnormalities has been widely reported in literature. Generally, ventricular hypertrophy is revealed by echocardiography but early data referred increased cardiac size by standard X-ray. Besides, echocardiography investigates cardiac function and value disease. There are new technologic advances in ultrasonic imaging. Pulsed Tissue Doppler is a new non-invasive ultrasound tool which extends Doppler applications beyond the analysis of intra-cardiac flow velocities until the quantitative assessment of the regional myocardial left ventricular wall motion, measuring directly velocities and time intervals of myocardium. The radionuclide techniques permit to study better the cardiac performance. In fact, diastolic as well as systolic function can be assessed at rest and at peak exercise by equilibrium radionuclide angiography. This method has a main advantage of providing direct evaluation of ventricular function, being operator independent. Coronary artery disease has been poorly studied mainly because of the necessity to perform invasive procedures. Only a few cases have been reported with heart failure study by coronarography and having alterations of perfusion which ameliorated after somatostatin analog treatment. More recently, a few data have been presented using perfusional scintigraphy in acromegaly, even if coronary artery disease does not seem very frequent in acromegaly. Doppler analysis of carotid arteries can be also performed to investigate atherosclerosis: however, patients with active acromegaly have endothelial dysfunction more than clear-cut atherosclerotic plaques. In conclusion, careful assessments of cardiac function, morphology and activity need in patients with acromegaly.

  14. A Review & Assessment of Current Operating Conditions Allowable Stresses in ASME Section III Subsection NH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. W. Swindeman

    2009-12-14

    The current operating condition allowable stresses provided in ASME Section III, Subsection NH were reviewed for consistency with the criteria used to establish the stress allowables and with the allowable stresses provided in ASME Section II, Part D. It was found that the S{sub o} values in ASME III-NH were consistent with the S values in ASME IID for the five materials of interest. However, it was found that 0.80 S{sub r} was less than S{sub o} for some temperatures for four of the materials. Only values for alloy 800H appeared to be consistent with the criteria on which S{sub o} values are established. With the intent of undertaking a more detailed evaluation of issues related to the allowable stresses in ASME III-NH, the availabilities of databases for the five materials were reviewed and augmented databases were assembled.

  15. Rapid assessment methods of resilience for natural and agricultural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrico, Juan C; Janssens, Marc J J

    2010-12-01

    The resilience, ecological function and quality of both agricultural and natural systems were evaluated in the mountainous region of the Atlantic Rain Forest of Rio de Janeiro through Rapid Assessment Methods. For this goal new indicators were proposed, such as eco-volume, eco-height, bio-volume, volume efficiency, and resilience index. The following agricultural and natural systems have been compared according: (i) vegetables (leaf, fruit and mixed); (ii) citrus; (iii) ecological system; (iv) cattle, (v) silvo-pastoral system, (vi) forest fragment and (vii) forest in regeneration stage (1, 2 and 3 years old). An alternative measure (index) of resilience was proposed by considering the actual bio-volume as a function of the potential eco-volume. The objectives and hypotheses were fulfilled; it is shown that there does exist a high positive correlation between resilience index, biomass, energy efficiency and biodiversity. Cattle and vegetable systems have lowest resilience, whilst ecological and silvo-pastoral systems have greatest resilience. This new approach offers a rapid, though valuable assessment tool for ecological studies, agricultural development and landscape planning, particularly in tropical countries.

  16. Assessment of composite motif discovery methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansen Jostein

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computational discovery of regulatory elements is an important area of bioinformatics research and more than a hundred motif discovery methods have been published. Traditionally, most of these methods have addressed the problem of single motif discovery – discovering binding motifs for individual transcription factors. In higher organisms, however, transcription factors usually act in combination with nearby bound factors to induce specific regulatory behaviours. Hence, recent focus has shifted from single motifs to the discovery of sets of motifs bound by multiple cooperating transcription factors, so called composite motifs or cis-regulatory modules. Given the large number and diversity of methods available, independent assessment of methods becomes important. Although there have been several benchmark studies of single motif discovery, no similar studies have previously been conducted concerning composite motif discovery. Results We have developed a benchmarking framework for composite motif discovery and used it to evaluate the performance of eight published module discovery tools. Benchmark datasets were constructed based on real genomic sequences containing experimentally verified regulatory modules, and the module discovery programs were asked to predict both the locations of these modules and to specify the single motifs involved. To aid the programs in their search, we provided position weight matrices corresponding to the binding motifs of the transcription factors involved. In addition, selections of decoy matrices were mixed with the genuine matrices on one dataset to test the response of programs to varying levels of noise. Conclusion Although some of the methods tested tended to score somewhat better than others overall, there were still large variations between individual datasets and no single method performed consistently better than the rest in all situations. The variation in performance on individual

  17. Enhanced FAA-hybrid III numerical dummy model in Madymo for aircraft occupant safety assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boucher, H.; Waagmeester, C.D.

    2003-01-01

    To improve survivability and to minimize the risk of injury to occupants in helicopter crash events, a complete Cabin Safety System concept including safety features and an enhanced FAA-Hybrid III dummy were developed within the HeliSafe project. A numerical tool was also created and validated to al

  18. Feasibility of Using Microsoft Kinect to Assess Upper Limb Movement in Type III Spinal Muscular Atrophy Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebourg-Polster, Juliane; Wolf, Detlef; Czech, Christian; Bonati, Ulrike; Fischer, Dirk; Khwaja, Omar; Strahm, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Although functional rating scales are being used increasingly as primary outcome measures in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), sensitive and objective assessment of early-stage disease progression and drug efficacy remains challenging. We have developed a game based on the Microsoft Kinect sensor, specifically designed to measure active upper limb movement. An explorative study was conducted to determine the feasibility of this new tool in 18 ambulant SMA type III patients and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Upper limb movement was analysed elaborately through derived features such as elbow flexion and extension angles, arm lifting angle, velocity and acceleration. No significant differences were found in the active range of motion between ambulant SMA type III patients and controls. Hand velocity was found to be different but further validation is necessary. This study presents an important step in the process of designing and handling digital biomarkers as complementary outcome measures for clinical trials. PMID:28122039

  19. Feasibility of Using Microsoft Kinect to Assess Upper Limb Movement in Type III Spinal Muscular Atrophy Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing; Siebourg-Polster, Juliane; Wolf, Detlef; Czech, Christian; Bonati, Ulrike; Fischer, Dirk; Khwaja, Omar; Strahm, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Although functional rating scales are being used increasingly as primary outcome measures in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), sensitive and objective assessment of early-stage disease progression and drug efficacy remains challenging. We have developed a game based on the Microsoft Kinect sensor, specifically designed to measure active upper limb movement. An explorative study was conducted to determine the feasibility of this new tool in 18 ambulant SMA type III patients and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Upper limb movement was analysed elaborately through derived features such as elbow flexion and extension angles, arm lifting angle, velocity and acceleration. No significant differences were found in the active range of motion between ambulant SMA type III patients and controls. Hand velocity was found to be different but further validation is necessary. This study presents an important step in the process of designing and handling digital biomarkers as complementary outcome measures for clinical trials.

  20. Parkinsonism in multiple system atrophy: natural history, severity (UPDRS-III), and disability assessment compared with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tison, François; Yekhlef, Farid; Chrysostome, Virginie; Balestre, Eric; Quinn, Niall P; Poewe, Werner; Wenning, Gregor K

    2002-07-01

    We analyzed parkinsonian features in multiple system atrophy (MSA) compared with age- and disease duration-matched Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, and assessed the applicability of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) -III motor scale as a means of rating their severity. Cross-sectional analysis of parkinsonism was done using UPDRS-III, International Cerebellar Atatia Rating Scale, and disability scales (Hoehn and Yahr [H&A], Schwab and England, Katz and Lawton) in 50 unselected MSA patients and in 50 matched PD patients. At symptom onset, falls occurred 10 times more frequently in MSA, whereas limb tremor was 10 times more common in PD. At first visit (10.2 months), hemiparkinsonism and pill-rolling rest tremor were less common in MSA. Hypomimia, atypical rest, postural or action tremor, as well as postural instability were more frequent in MSA. At study examination (62.4 months), parkinsonian signs in MSA patients were more frequently symmetrical and associated with axial rigidity, antecollis and postural instability. A levodopa response of >50% was seen in UPDRS-III scores (48.14 +/- 19.5 vs. 31.74 +/- 12.9) were significantly (P = 0.0001) higher in MSA. The internal consistency of the UPDRS-III was fair in MSA patients (Cronbach's alpha >0.90), and correlated well with marked dependency on the Schwab and England and Katz and Lawton scales. Factor structure analysis of UPDRS-III in MSA showed five clinically distinct subscores accounting for 74% of the variance, differing from PD by the dependency of the face-speech and limb bradykinesia items and independence of the postural-action tremor from the rest tremor items. There was a significant correlation (R(2) = 0.70, P = 0.001) between ICARS ataxia and UPDRS-III scores in MSA patients. Results confirm a distinct profile of parkinsonism in MSA and greater severity and disability compared with PD. It also indicates that the UPDRS-III provides a useful severity measure of parkinsonism in MSA

  1. An interpolation method for stream habitat assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Kenneth R.; Welsh, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    Interpolation of stream habitat can be very useful for habitat assessment. Using a small number of habitat samples to predict the habitat of larger areas can reduce time and labor costs as long as it provides accurate estimates of habitat. The spatial correlation of stream habitat variables such as substrate and depth improves the accuracy of interpolated data. Several geographical information system interpolation methods (natural neighbor, inverse distance weighted, ordinary kriging, spline, and universal kriging) were used to predict substrate and depth within a 210.7-m2 section of a second-order stream based on 2.5% and 5.0% sampling of the total area. Depth and substrate were recorded for the entire study site and compared with the interpolated values to determine the accuracy of the predictions. In all instances, the 5% interpolations were more accurate for both depth and substrate than the 2.5% interpolations, which achieved accuracies up to 95% and 92%, respectively. Interpolations of depth based on 2.5% sampling attained accuracies of 49–92%, whereas those based on 5% percent sampling attained accuracies of 57–95%. Natural neighbor interpolation was more accurate than that using the inverse distance weighted, ordinary kriging, spline, and universal kriging approaches. Our findings demonstrate the effective use of minimal amounts of small-scale data for the interpolation of habitat over large areas of a stream channel. Use of this method will provide time and cost savings in the assessment of large sections of rivers as well as functional maps to aid the habitat-based management of aquatic species.

  2. Antithrombin III for critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allingstrup, Mikkel; Wetterslev, Jørn; Ravn, Frederikke B

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Antithrombin III (AT III) is an anticoagulant with anti-inflammatory properties. We assessed the benefits and harms of AT III in critically ill patients. METHODS: We searched from inception to 27 August 2015 in CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CAB, BIOSIS and CINAHL. We included randomized cont...

  3. Quantitative methods for assessing drug synergism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallarida, Ronald J

    2011-11-01

    Two or more drugs that individually produce overtly similar effects will sometimes display greatly enhanced effects when given in combination. When the combined effect is greater than that predicted by their individual potencies, the combination is said to be synergistic. A synergistic interaction allows the use of lower doses of the combination constituents, a situation that may reduce adverse reactions. Drug combinations are quite common in the treatment of cancers, infections, pain, and many other diseases and situations. The determination of synergism is a quantitative pursuit that involves a rigorous demonstration that the combination effect is greater than that which is expected from the individual drug's potencies. The basis of that demonstration is the concept of dose equivalence, which is discussed here and applied to an experimental design and data analysis known as isobolographic analysis. That method, and a related method of analysis that also uses dose equivalence, are presented in this brief review, which provides the mathematical basis for assessing synergy and an optimization strategy for determining the dose combination.

  4. Estudo longitudinal das habilidades intelectuais de idosos avaliados com a WAIS-III Longitudinal study of intellectual abilities of elderly people assessed by WAIS-III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Zeferino Menezes

    2011-01-01

    domains assessed by WAIS-III. Approaching from a longitudinal design, 47 participants were divided in two groups: young-old (until 74 years old and oldest-old (over 75 years old. Results showed that young-old people presented gains in the abilities assessed. However, they were statistically significant just in two indexes. When it comes to verbal comprehension and language capacities, the gains were expected. On the other hand, Memory, Perceptual Organization, Processing Speed, Performance and Total IQ did not show the same outcome as most of the studies report. Results for the oldest-old ones were congruent with literature: vulnerable abilities (perceptual organization, memory and processing speed demonstrated a decrease eight years after the first evaluation. To sum up, the results show that the elderly had not presented a decrease in the intellectual abilities assessed until the age of 74. However, from that age on some losses were observed. The only ability that displayed a remarkably higher decrease was processing speed. Data from longitudinal design are not sufficient to describe a trend in the general decrease of the elderly abilities. Some other variables, besides the ones examined in the current research, might be related to this standard. Further investigations are needed to examine them and to determine how much age explains the intellectual development of elderly people.

  5. Evaluation of methods to assess physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenders, Nicole Y. J. M.

    Epidemiological evidence has accumulated that demonstrates that the amount of physical activity-related energy expenditure during a week reduces the incidence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and all-cause mortality. To further understand the amount of daily physical activity and related energy expenditure that are necessary to maintain or improve the functional health status and quality of life, instruments that estimate total (TDEE) and physical activity-related energy expenditure (PAEE) under free-living conditions should be determined to be valid and reliable. Without evaluation of the various methods that estimate TDEE and PAEE with the doubly labeled water (DLW) method in females there will be eventual significant limitations on assessing the efficacy of physical activity interventions on health status in this population. A triaxial accelerometer (Tritrac-R3D, (TT)), an uniaxial (Computer Science and Applications Inc., (CSA)) activity monitor, a Yamax-Digiwalker-500sp°ler , (YX-stepcounter), by measuring heart rate responses (HR method) and a 7-d Physical Activity Recall questionnaire (7-d PAR) were compared with the "criterion method" of DLW during a 7-d period in female adults. The DLW-TDEE was underestimated on average 9, 11 and 15% using 7-d PAR, HR method and TT. The underestimation of DLW-PAEE by 7-d PAR was 21% compared to 47% and 67% for TT and YX-stepcounter. Approximately 56% of the variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} is explained by the registration of body movement with accelerometry. A larger proportion of the variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} was explained by jointly incorporating information from the vertical and horizontal movement measured with the CSA and Tritrac-R3D (rsp2 = 0.87). Although only a small amount of variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} is explained by the number of steps taken per day, because of its low cost and ease of use, the Yamax-stepcounter is useful in studies promoting daily walking. Thus, studies involving the

  6. Preparation and studies of Co(II) and Co(III)-substituted barium ferrite prepared by sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teh, Geok Bee [Department of Bioscience and Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, 53300 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)]. E-mail: tehgb@mail.utar.edu.my; Nagalingam, Saravanan [Department of Bioscience and Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, 53300 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Jefferson, David A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-15

    The sol-gel preparative method was employed to synthesise Co(II) and Co(III)-substituted barium ferrite. This method was attempted to achieve higher homogeneity of the final product. Samples of substituted ferrites were characterised by various experimental techniques including high resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, magnetometry and thermal gravimetric analysis. The microstructural changes induced by such substitution are also discussed.

  7. Three-dimensional assessment of mandibular and glenoid fossa changes after bone-anchored Class III intermaxillary traction

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clerck, Hugo; Nguyen, Tung; de Paula, Leonardo Koerich; Cevidanes, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Conventional treatment for young Class III patients involves extraoral devices designed to either protract the maxilla or restrain mandibular growth. The use of skeletal anchorage offers a promising alternative to obtain orthopedic results with fewer dental compensations. Our aim was to evaluate 3-dimensional changes in the mandibles and the glenoid fossae of Class III patients treated with bone-anchored maxillary protraction. Methods Twenty-five consecutive skeletal Class III patients between the ages of 9 and 13 years (mean age, 11.10 ± 1.1 year) were treated with Class III intermaxillary elastics and bilateral miniplates (2 in the infrazygomatic crests of the maxilla and 2 in the anterior mandible). The patients had cone-beam computed tomography images taken before initial loading and at the end of active treatment. Three-dimensional models were generated from these images, registered on the anterior cranial base, and analyzed by using color maps. Results Posterior displacement of the mandible at the end of treatment was observed in all subjects (posterior ramus: mean, 2.74 ± 1.36 mm; condyles: mean, 2.07 ± 1.16 mm; chin: mean, −0.13 ± 2.89 mm). Remodeling of the glenoid fossa at the anterior eminence (mean, 1.38 ± 1.03 mm) and bone resorption at the posterior wall (mean, −1.34 ± 0.6 mm) were observed in most patients. Conclusions This new treatment approach offers a promising alternative to restrain mandibular growth for Class III patients with a component of mandibular prognathism or to compensate for maxillary deficiency in patients with hypoplasia of the midface. Future studies with long-term follow-up and comparisons with facemask and chincup therapies are needed to better understand the treatment effects. PMID:22748987

  8. Assessment of the optic nerve head parameters using Heidelberg retinal tomography III in preterm children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Alshaarawi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Variations in optic nerve head morphology and abnormal retinal vascular pattern have been described in preterm children using digital image analysis of fundus photograph, optical coherence tomograph and serial funduscopy. We aimed to compare the optic nerve head parameters in preterm and term Malay children using Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph III. DESIGN: A cross sectional study. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirty-two preterm Malay children who were born at up to 32 weeks postconception, and 32 term Malay children aged 8-16 years old were recruited into this cross sectional study, which was conducted in the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia from January to December 2011. Their optic nerves were scanned and analyzed using a Heidelberg Retinal Tomography (HRT III (Heidelberg Engineering, Germany. Preterm children showed an increased rim volume (SD (0.56 (0.26 vs 0.44 (0.18 mm(3, respectively, smaller cup shape (SD (0.18 (0.07 vs 0.25 (0.06 mm, respectively, increased height variation contour (SD (0.44 (0.14 vs 0.35 (0.08 mm, respectively, and increased cup depth (SD (0.24 (0.11 vs 0.17 (0.05 mm(3, respectively when compared to their normal peers (p0.05 in our study. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Preterm children exhibit different characteristics of optic nerve head parameters with HRT III analysis. Increased cup depth in preterm children suggests a need for close observation and monitoring. It may raise suspicion of pediatric glaucoma when proper documentation of intraocular pressure and clinical funduscopy are unsuccessful in uncooperative children.

  9. Orthopedic treatment of Class III malocclusion with rapid maxillary expansion combined with a face mask: a cephalometric assessment of craniofacial growth patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Torres Tagawa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this prospective study was to assess potential changes in the cephalometric craniofacial growth pattern of 17 children presenting Angle Class III malocclusion treated with a Haas-type expander combined with a face mask. METHODS: Lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken at beginning (T1 and immediately after removal of the appliances (T2, average of 11 months of treatment. Linear and angular measurements were used to evaluate the cranial base, dentoskeletal changes and facial growth pattern. RESULTS: The length of the anterior cranial base experienced a reduction while the posterior cranial base assumed a more vertical position at T1. Some maxillary movement occurred, there was no rotation of the palatal plane, there was a slight clockwise rotation of the mandible, although not significant. The ANB angle increased, thereby improving the relationship between the jaws; dentoalveolar compensation was more evident in the lower incisors. Five out of 12 cases (29.41% showed the following changes: In one case the pattern became more horizontal and in four cases more vertical. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded after a short-term assessment that treatment with rapid maxillary expansion (RME associated with a face mask was effective in the correction of Class III malocclusion despite the changes in facial growth pattern observed in a few cases.

  10. Investigation of Suitability of Cascading Outage Assessment Methods for Real-Time Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Pauli Fríðheim; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    of the method to real-time assessment. The investigation revealed that two of the methods are of special interest for further study on real-time assessment of cascading outages. These are the betweenness centrality model, based on network topology, and the manchester model, based on AC power flow.......This paper investigates the suitability of assessment methods for cascading outages for real-time assessment. A total of ten assessment methods for cascading outages are investigated, and for all of the investigated methods a complexity assessment is performed to assess the suitability...

  11. Assessment Methods and Tools for Architectural Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Christine A.

    2012-01-01

    This research explores the process of assessment within the arena of architectural education by questioning traditional assessment practices and probing into the conditions that necessitate change. As architectural educators we have opened our studios to digital technologies for the purposes of design and representation, but how do we measure and…

  12. Capillary electrophoresis method for speciation of iron (II) and iron (III) in pharmaceuticals by dual precapillary complexation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotti, Roberto; Fiori, Jessica; Liverani, Lino; Spelta, Franco

    2015-07-20

    Pharmaceutical iron sucrose is an iron (III) replacement for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease. The drug product (injection) is a colloidal solution of ferric hydroxide in complex with sucrose, containing 20 mg/mL elemental iron; according to United States pharmacopoeia (USP), the limit of iron (II) is 0.4% w/v. A selective CE method for the simultaneous determination of iron (III) and its potential impurity iron (II), was developed by applying a dual precapillary complexation. In particular, 1,10-phenanthroline and 1,2-diaminocyclohexanetetraacetic acid were used for complexation of iron (II) and iron (III), respectively. Sample preparation was optimized to achieve mineralization of pharmaceuticals using HCl 6 M, by avoiding perturbation of the oxidation status of both iron species. Simple CZE conditions, involving a 60 mM (pH 9.3) tetraborate buffer at the constant voltage of 25 KV and 25°C, allowed fast separation of iron (II) and iron (III) complexes that were detected at 265 nm. Sensitivity for iron (II) determination was found to be 4.80 μM (LOQ) corresponding to 0.15% w/w with respect to the total iron test level. The method was validated by following International Conference on Harmonization guidelines for specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, and robustness and it was applied to real pharmaceutical samples. The obtained results suggested that the method can be a useful alternative to the official USP and British pharmacopoeia polarographic method.

  13. Radiographic cephalometry assessment of the linear and angular parameters on cranial base in children with skeletal class III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Zdenka M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. In malocclusion of skeletal class III, mandible is located in front of maxilla in sagital plain, which is manifested by a lower value of the sagital inter-jaw angle than in skeletal class I, where the jaw sagital relation is normal. Apart from the deformities on mandible and/or maxilla, in skeletal class III deformities are also frequent on the cranial base. The aim of this research was to find the differences in the parameter values on the cranial base among the children with skeletal class III and the children with skeletal class I in the period of mixed dentition. Methods. After clinical examination and orthopan-tomography, profile radiography of the head was analyzed in 60 examinees, aged from 6−12 years. The examinees were divided into two groups: group 1 - the children with skeletal class III; group 2 - the children with skeletal class I. Both linear and angular parameters on the cranial base were measured, as well as the angles of maxillary and mandible prognatism and the angle of sagital inter-jaw relation. The level of difference in the parameter values between the groups was estimated and the degree of correlation of the main angle of the cranial base with the angles of sagital position of the jaws in each of the two groups was established. Results. A significant difference between the groups was found only in the average values of the angles of maxillary prognatism and sagital interjaw relation. In the group 1, the main angle of the cranial base was in a significant correlation with the angles of sagital positions of the jaws, while in the group 2, such significance was not found. Conclusion. There were no significant differences in the parameter values on the cranial base between the groups. There was a significant correlation of the main angle of the cranial base with the angles of sagital position of the jaws in the group 1 only. .

  14. Using Corporate-Based Methods To Assess Technical Communication Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Brenton; Bekins, Linn; Karis, Bill

    2002-01-01

    Investigates methods of program assessment used by corporate learning sites and profiles value added methods as a way to both construct and evaluate academic programs in technical communication. Examines and critiques assessment methods from corporate training environments including methods employed by corporate universities and value added…

  15. Investigation of the State of Radionuclides in Ultramicroconcentrations by the Method of a Horizontal Zone Electrophoresis in a Free Electrolyte. Ions of In(III) in Aqueous Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Bontchev, G D; Priemyshev, A N; Bozhikov, G A; Filossofov, D V; Ivanov, P I; Maslov, O D; Milanov, M V; Dmitriev, S N

    2000-01-01

    Using the electromigration method in a free electrolyte the behaviour of In(III) in some water solutions has been investigated. Data on electrophoretic mobility of In(III) as well as its complexes with DTPA and EDTA in a wide range of pH and temperature have been collected. On the basis of experimental results the diffusion coefficient of In(III) and concentration stability constant of a complex [InDTPA]^2- have been estimated.

  16. Fuzzy Assessment Method and Its Application to Selecting Project Managers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Open competition is a new form of the assessment of candidates and selection of project managers. This has many merits compared to the traditional administrative method of appointment. This article introduces a method of fuzzy assessment of project manager candidates. Fuzzy assessment unifies objective qualitative and quantitative appraisal and can be used for improving decision-making in the selection process.

  17. Beam-propagation method - Analysis and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roey, J.; van der Donk, J.; Lagasse, P. E.

    1981-07-01

    A method for the calculation of the propagation of a light beam through an inhomogeneous medium is presented. A theoretical analysis of this beam-propagation method is given, and a set of conditions necessary for the accurate application of the method is derived. The method is illustrated by the study of a number of integrated-optic structures, such as thin-film waveguides and gratings.

  18. Assessment of seismic margin calculation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, R.P.; Murray, R.C.; Ravindra, M.K.; Reed, J.W.; Stevenson, J.D.

    1989-03-01

    Seismic margin review of nuclear power plants requires that the High Confidence of Low Probability of Failure (HCLPF) capacity be calculated for certain components. The candidate methods for calculating the HCLPF capacity as recommended by the Expert Panel on Quantification of Seismic Margins are the Conservative Deterministic Failure Margin (CDFM) method and the Fragility Analysis (FA) method. The present study evaluated these two methods using some representative components in order to provide further guidance in conducting seismic margin reviews. It is concluded that either of the two methods could be used for calculating HCLPF capacities. 21 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Methods and Strategies: The Reflective Assessment Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Cathleen; Long, Kathy; Camins, Arthur

    2009-01-01

    Teachers often rely on student questions, their observations of students at work, and their own intuition to monitor how well students are learning. However, the authors found that teachers learn more about their students when they use the four-step Reflective Assessment Technique that draws on guided teacher reflections to inform classroom…

  20. Effect of Peers Assessment and Short Report in Year III Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Norliza Abd; Kofli, Noorhisham Tan

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory course in Biochemical and Chemical Engineering Programmes at the Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, has introduced the peer group evaluation, presentation, reports submitted by groups/individual as assessment tools for 3rd year laboratory course. The experiments for the course…

  1. Assessment of the Forensic Sciences Profession: A Legal Study Concerning the Forensic Sciences Personnel. Volume III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Oliver, Jr.

    The place and function of forensic sciences personnel in American criminal law and court procedure, and the criteria used by criminal trial judges and lawyers to assess the value of forensic sciences personnel were investigated. Federal, state, Virgin Island, and Puerto Rican laws were examined, and a search of the medical and legal literature…

  2. Google vs. the Library (Part III): Assessing the Quality of Sources Found by Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgas, Helen

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses and compares the quality of sources found by undergraduate students when doing research using both Google and a library (federated) search tool. Thirty undergraduates were asked to find four sources (one book, two articles, and one additional source of their choosing) related to a selected research topic. Students used both…

  3. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report VII, Volume III. Cultural resource assessment socioeconomic background data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macfarlane, Heather; Janzen, Donald E.

    1980-11-26

    This report has been prepared in conjunction with an environmental baseline study for a commercial coal conversion facility being conducted by Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. (ASFI) and Airco Energy Company (AECO). This report represents a cultural resource assessment for the proposed plant site and two potential solid waste disposal areas. This assessment presents data collected by Dames and Moore during a recent archaeological reconnaissance of the unsurveyed southeastern portion of the proposed plant site and two potential solid waste disposal areas. Also, results of two previous surveys on the northern and southwestern portion of the plant site for American Smelting and Refining Company (ASARCO) and Kentucky Utilities are included. The Dames and Moore survey of the southeastern portion of the plant site identified one archaeological site, three standing structures and one historic cemetery. In addition 47 archaeological sites and six standing structures are known from two previous surveys of the remainder of the plant site (Cowan 1975 and Turnbow et al 1980). Eleven of the previously recorded archaeological sites were recommended for further assessment to evaluate their potential for inclusion within the Holt Bottoms Archaeological District currently listed on the National Register of Historic Places. None of the archaeological sites or standing structures located within the plant site during the Dames and Moore survey were recommended for further assessment. A total of eight archaeological sites were located during the Dames and Moore survey of the two potential solid waste disposal areas. Of this total only two sites were recommended for further assessment. Also, one previously unknown historic cemetry was located in the southernmost potential waste disposal area.

  4. Improved method for assessing iron stores in the bone marrow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phiri, K.S.; Calis, J.C.J.; Kachala, D.; Borgstein, E.; Waluza, J.; Bates, I.; Brabin, B.; Boele van Hensbroek, M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bone marrow iron microscopy has been the "gold standard" method of assessing iron deficiency. However, the commonly used method of grading marrow iron remains highly subjective. AIM: To improve the bone marrow grading method by developing a detailed protocol that assesses iron in fragmen

  5. Assessment of plaque assay methods for alphaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Diana; Long, Kanya C; Aguilar, Patricia; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Halsey, Eric S

    2013-01-01

    Viruses from the Alphavirus genus are responsible for numerous arboviral diseases impacting human health throughout the world. Confirmation of acute alphavirus infection is based on viral isolation, identification of viral RNA, or a fourfold or greater increase in antibody titers between acute and convalescent samples. In convalescence, the specificity of antibodies to an alphavirus may be confirmed by plaque reduction neutralization test. To identify the best method for alphavirus and neutralizing antibody recognition, the standard solid method using a cell monolayer overlay with 0.4% agarose and the semisolid method using a cell suspension overlay with 0.6% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) overlay were evaluated. Mayaro virus, Una virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), and Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) were selected to be tested by both methods. The results indicate that the solid method showed consistently greater sensitivity than the semisolid method. Also, a "semisolid-variant method" using a 0.6% CMC overlay on a cell monolayer was assayed for virus titration. This method provided the same sensitivity as the solid method for VEEV and also had greater sensitivity for WEEV titration. Modifications in plaque assay conditions affect significantly results and therefore evaluation of the performance of each new assay is needed.

  6. METHODS OF ASSESSING THE COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Nikolaevich ZUBAREV

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The author describes various techniques of evaluating communicative competence. In the context of the study, taking into consideration the specificity of communicative competence and sphere of professional activities of gradu-ates from humanitarian higher educational institutions, the author makes the conclusions related to the methods of demonstrating the competence. The author also presents methods of evaluating the competence of graduates from humanitarian higher educational institutions in the form of detailed description of each method. Finally, the author makes conclusions on choosing the best method.

  7. Primary Teachers’ Views Concerning the Assessment Methods Used by Them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kader Birinci Konur

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this study is to determine primary teachers’ views about assessment methods which are used by them. Semi-constructed interview which consists of five open-ended questions has been used as data gathering instrument. While the scope of research is the teachers who are teaching in primary schools in Rize, the samples are twenty-five primary schools teachers who were selected from the five schools. In conclusion, teachers are using both traditional assessment methods and alternative assessment methods. But, they don’t think that all of the assessment methods which in new curriculum are useful in their school because of lack of time and source. Teachers have used these methods which are changed according to environment conditions. Based on this conclusions, importance should be given to alternative assessment approaches in classes which are given to students in university and information should be presented about how use this assessment methods.

  8. Cyber Assessment Methods for SCADA Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-06-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 brought to light threats and vulnerabilities that face the United States. In response, the U.S. Government is directing the effort to secure the nation's critical infrastructure by creating programs to implement the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace (1). One part of this effort involves assessing Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. These systems are essential to the control of critical elements of our national infrastructure, such as electric power, oil, and gas production and distribution. Since their incapacitation or destruction would have a debilitating impact on the defense or economic security of the United States, one of the main objectives of this program is to identify vulnerabilities and encourage the public and private sectors to work together to design secure control systems that resolve these weaknesses. This paper describes vulnerability assessment methodologies used in ongoing research and assessment activities designed to identify and resolve vulnerabilities so as to improve the security of the nation's critical infrastructure.

  9. Cyber Assessment Methods For SCADA Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May Robin Permann; Kenneth Rohde

    2005-06-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 brought to light threats and vulnerabilities that face the United States. In response, the U.S. Government is directing the effort to secure the nation's critical infrastructure by creating programs to implement the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace (1). One part of this effort involves assessing Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. These systems are essential to the control of critical elements of our national infrastructure, such as electric power, oil, and gas production and distribution. Since their incapacitation or destruction would have a debilitating impact on the defense or economic security of the United States, one of the main objectives of this program is to identify vulnerabilities and encourage the public and private sectors to work together to design secure control systems that resolve these weaknesses. This paper describes vulnerability assessment methodologies used in ongoing research and assessment activities designed to identify and resolve vulnerabilities so as to improve the security of the nation's critical infrastructure.

  10. Assessment of Long-Term Research Needs for Shale-Oil Recovery (FERWG-III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, S.S.

    1981-03-01

    The Fossil Energy Research Working Group (FERWG), at the request of E. Frieman (Director, Office of Energy Research) and G. Fumich, Jr. (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Fuels), has reviewed and evaluated the U.S. programs on shale-oil recovery. These studies were performed in order to provide an independent assessment of critical research areas that affect the long-term prospects for shale-oil availability. This report summarizes the findings and research recommendations of FERWG.

  11. Development of standardized laboratory methods and quality processes for a phase III study of the RTS, S/AS01 candidate malaria vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Terrell

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A pivotal phase III study of the RTS,S/AS01 malaria candidate vaccine is ongoing in several research centres across Africa. The development and establishment of quality systems was a requirement for trial conduct to meet international regulatory standards, as well as providing an important capacity strengthening opportunity for study centres. Methods Standardized laboratory methods and quality assurance processes were implemented at each of the study centres, facilitated by funding partners. Results A robust protocol for determination of parasite density based on actual blood cell counts was set up in accordance with World Health Organization recommendations. Automated equipment including haematology and biochemistry analyzers were put in place with standard methods for bedside testing of glycaemia, base excess and lactacidaemia. Facilities for X-rays and basic microbiology testing were also provided or upgraded alongside health care infrastructure in some centres. External quality assurance assessment of all major laboratory methods was established and method qualification by each laboratory demonstrated. The resulting capacity strengthening has ensured laboratory evaluations are conducted locally to the high standards required in clinical trials. Conclusion Major efforts by study centres, together with support from collaborating parties, have allowed standardized methods and robust quality assurance processes to be put in place for the phase III evaluation of the RTS, S/AS01 malaria candidate vaccine. Extensive training programmes, coupled with continuous commitment from research centre staff, have been the key elements behind the successful implementation of quality processes. It is expected these activities will culminate in healthcare benefits for the subjects and communities participating in these trials. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00866619

  12. Testing an Automated Accuracy Assessment Method on Bibliographic Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlies Olensky

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates automated data accuracy assessment as described in data quality literature for its suitability to assess bibliographic data. The data samples comprise the publications of two Nobel Prize winners in the field of Chemistry for a 10-year-publication period retrieved from the two bibliometric data sources, Web of Science and Scopus. The bibliographic records are assessed against the original publication (gold standard and an automatic assessment method is compared to a manual one. The results show that the manual assessment method reflects truer accuracy scores. The automated assessment method would need to be extended by additional rules that reflect specific characteristics of bibliographic data. Both data sources had higher accuracy scores per field than accumulated per record. This study contributes to the research on finding a standardized assessment method of bibliographic data accuracy as well as defining the impact of data accuracy on the citation matching process.

  13. Assessment of User Home Location Geoinference Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Joshua J.; Bell, Eric B.; Corley, Courtney D.; Dowling, Chase P.; Cowell, Andrew J.

    2015-05-29

    This study presents an assessment of multiple approaches to determine the home and/or other important locations to a Twitter user. In this study, we present a unique approach to the problem of geotagged data sparsity in social media when performing geoinferencing tasks. Given the sparsity of explicitly geotagged Twitter data, the ability to perform accurate and reliable user geolocation from a limited number of geotagged posts has proven to be quite useful. In our survey, we have achieved accuracy rates of over 86% in matching Twitter user profile locations with their inferred home locations derived from geotagged posts.

  14. Performance Assessment of Hearing Protection and Communication Enhancement Devices: Peltor Comtac III and IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    standard detailed the methods for estimating the effective A- weighted SPL when hearing protectors were worn. The octave band method was the “ gold ...joystick and five buttons which could be programmed for various purposes depending on the task. For this study, the subjects were required to press a...single button while pointing the wand at their desired response location. 26 Distribution A: Approved for public release; disbtribution unlimited

  15. CAPABILITY ASSESSMENT OF MEASURING EQUIPMENT USING STATISTIC METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel POLÁK

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Capability assessment of the measurement device is one of the methods of process quality control. Only in case the measurement device is capable, the capability of the measurement and consequently production process can be assessed. This paper deals with assessment of the capability of the measuring device using indices Cg and Cgk.

  16. Biomedical Technology Assessment The 3Q Method

    CERN Document Server

    Weinfurt, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    Evaluating biomedical technology poses a significant challenge in light of the complexity and rate of introduction in today's healthcare delivery system. Successful evaluation requires an integration of clinical medicine, science, finance, and market analysis. Little guidance, however, exists for those who must conduct comprehensive technology evaluations. The 3Q Method meets these present day needs. The 3Q Method is organized around 3 key questions dealing with 1) clinical and scientific basis, 2) financial fit and 3) strategic and expertise fit. Both healthcare providers (e.g., hospitals) an

  17. Methods of Vessel Casualty Process Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Soliwoda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Maritime casualty is an event of considerable economic and social impact. For this reason, implemented the reporting systems of accidents at sea, and the Administration was obligated to establish a Commission of Maritime Accidents. On the basis of casualty analysis and reports are developed proposals preventing similar casualties in the future. However, there is no uniform evaluation system which check references of existing regulations and recommendations to the occurred casualties. This paper presents a method to evaluate the used methods of casualty prediction with respect to the real incident and catastrophe.

  18. Surface water quality assessment by environmetric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyacioglu, Hülya; Boyacioglu, Hayal

    2007-08-01

    This environmetric study deals with the interpretation of river water monitoring data from the basin of the Buyuk Menderes River and its tributaries in Turkey. Eleven variables were measured to estimate water quality at 17 sampling sites. Factor analysis was applied to explain the correlations between the observations in terms of underlying factors. Results revealed that, water quality was strongly affected from agricultural uses. Cluster analysis was used to classify stations with similar properties and results distinguished three groups of stations. Water quality at downstream of the river was quite different from the other part. It is recommended to involve the environmetric data treatment as a substantial procedure in assessment of water quality data.

  19. Microbiological methods for assessing soil quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloem, J.; Hopkins, D.W.; Benedetti, A.

    2006-01-01

    This book provides a selection of microbiological methods that are already applied in regional or national soil quality monitoring programs. It is split into two parts: part one gives an overview of approaches to monitoring, evaluating and managing soil quality. Part two provides a selection of meth

  20. Methods of assessing reading used by Iranian EFL teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaye Ketabi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigating the effects of different methods of assessing reading on students’ reading comprehension has been one of the major topics among Iranian EFL researchers (Atai & Nikuinezhad, 2006; Delgoshaei, Kharrazi, & Talkhabi, 2011; Shams & Tavakoli, 2014. However, the amount of popularity of these methods among teachers has not gained this much attention. The present study examined the popularity of different methods of assessing reading among teachers of adult and young adult learners and also investigated the difference in the frequency of the methods used by these two groups of teachers. Categories of different methods were chosen based on Brown's (2004 taxonomy and the study conducted by Cheng, Rogers, and Hu (2004. Background Information Questionnaire and assessment questionnaire were used to collect the data. The results revealed that Iranian teachers did not use a variety of reading assessment methods in their classes. The most common method to assess reading among Iranian teachers was reported to be reading aloud, and other methods of assessing reading ‒ e.g. preparing summaries and oral questioning ‒ were far less common than reading aloud. Alternative methods of assessment ‒ e.g. journals and portfolios ‒ were the least common methods as were reported by Iranian EFL teachers.

  1. Predictive validity of the Hand Arm Risk assessment Method (HARM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douwes, M.; Boocock, M.; Coenen, P.; Heuvel, S. van den; Bosch, T.

    2014-01-01

    The Hand Arm Risk assessment Method (HARM) is a simplified risk assessment method for determining musculoskeletal symptoms to the arm, neck and/or shoulder posed by hand-arm tasks of the upper body. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predictive validity of HARM using data collected from a

  2. Assessment of dental plaque by optoelectronic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrutiu, Meda-Lavinia; Sinescu, Cosmin; Bortun, Cristina Maria; Levai, Mihaela-Codrina; Topala, Florin Ionel; Crǎciunescu, Emanuela Lidia; Cojocariu, Andreea Codruta; Duma, Virgil Florin; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2016-03-01

    The formation of dental biofilm follows specific mechanisms of initial colonization on the surface, microcolony formation, development of organized three dimensional community structures, and detachment from the surface. The structure of the plaque biofilm might restrict the penetration of antimicrobial agents, while bacteria on a surface grow slowly and display a novel phenotype; the consequence of the latter is a reduced sensitivity to inhibitors. The aim of this study was to evaluate with different optoelectronic methods the morphological characteristics of the dental biofilm. The study was performed on samples from 25 patients aged between 18 and 35 years. The methods used in this study were Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) working at 870 nm for in vivo evaluations and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for validations. For each patient a sample of dental biofilm was obtained directly from the vestibular surface of the teeth's. SD-OCT produced C- and B-scans that were used to generate three dimensional (3D) reconstructions of the sample. The results were compared with SEM evaluations. The biofilm network was dramatically destroyed after the professional dental cleaning. OCT noninvasive methods can act as a valuable tool for the 3D characterization of dental biofilms.

  3. Assessment methods in surgical training in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenios Evgeniou

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A career in surgery in the United Kingdom demands a commitment to a long journey of assessment. The assessment methods used must ensure that the appropriate candidates are selected into a programme of study or a job and must guarantee public safety by regulating the progression of surgical trainees and the certification of trained surgeons. This review attempts to analyse the psychometric properties of various assessment methods used in the selection of candidates to medical school, job selection, progression in training, and certification. Validity is an indicator of how well an assessment measures what it is designed to measure. Reliability informs us whether a test is consistent in its outcome by measuring the reproducibility and discriminating ability of the test. In the long journey of assessment in surgical training, the same assessment formats are frequently being used for selection into a programme of study, job selection, progression, and certification. Although similar assessment methods are being used for different purposes in surgical training, the psychometric properties of these assessment methods have not been examined separately for each purpose. Because of the significance of these assessments for trainees and patients, their reliability and validity should be examined thoroughly in every context where the assessment method is being used.

  4. Assessment of terbium (III) as a luminescent probe for the detection of tuberculosis biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamogo, W; Mugherli, L; Banyasz, A; Novelli-Rousseau, A; Mallard, F; Tran-Thi, T-H

    2015-10-08

    A detection method for nicotinic acid, a specific metabolite marker of Mycobacterium tuberculosis present in cultures and patients' breath, is studied in complex solutions containing other metabolites and in biological media such as urine, saliva and breath condensate. The method is based on the analysis of the luminescence increase of Tb(3+) complexes in the presence of nicotinic acid due to the energy transfer from the excited ligand to the lanthanide ion. It is shown that other potential markers found in M. tuberculosis culture supernatant, such as methyl phenylacetate, p-methyl anisate, methyl nicotinate and 2-methoxy biphenyl, can interfere with nicotinic acid via a competitive absorption of the excitation photons. A new strategy to circumvent these interferences is proposed with an upstream trapping of volatile markers preceding the detection of nicotinic acid in the liquid phase via the luminescence of Tb(3+) complexes. The cost of the method is evaluated and compared with the Xpert MTB/RIF test endorsed by the World Health Organization.

  5. Assessment of terbium (III) as a luminescent probe for the detection of tuberculosis biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamogo, W. [CNRS, IRAMIS, UMR 3685 NIMBE/LEDNA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Mugherli, L. [CEA, IRAMIS, UMR 3685 NIMBE/LEDNA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Banyasz, A. [CNRS, IRAMIS, LIDyL/Laboratoire Francis Perrin, URA 2453, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Novelli-Rousseau, A.; Mallard, F. [BioMérieux SA, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Tran-Thi, T.-H., E-mail: thu-hoa.tran-thi@cea.fr [CNRS, IRAMIS, UMR 3685 NIMBE/LEDNA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2015-10-08

    A detection method for nicotinic acid, a specific metabolite marker of Mycobacterium tuberculosis present in cultures and patients' breath, is studied in complex solutions containing other metabolites and in biological media such as urine, saliva and breath condensate. The method is based on the analysis of the luminescence increase of Tb{sup 3+} complexes in the presence of nicotinic acid due to the energy transfer from the excited ligand to the lanthanide ion. It is shown that other potential markers found in M. tuberculosis culture supernatant, such as methyl phenylacetate, p-methyl anisate, methyl nicotinate and 2-methoxy biphenyl, can interfere with nicotinic acid via a competitive absorption of the excitation photons. A new strategy to circumvent these interferences is proposed with an upstream trapping of volatile markers preceding the detection of nicotinic acid in the liquid phase via the luminescence of Tb{sup 3+} complexes. The cost of the method is evaluated and compared with the Xpert MTB/RIF test endorsed by the World Health Organization. - Highlights: • Nicotinic acid, a specific marker of M. tuberculosis, can be detected via luminescence. • The detection limit with a commercial phosphorimeter is 0.4 µmol·L{sup -1}. • Other metabolites of M. tuberculosis can interfere via absorbed excitation light. • The interference can be removed via trapping of the most volatile metabolites. • A breath analysis procedure's cost is compared with the Xpert TBM/RIF test.

  6. APPLICATION OF THE ELECTRE III METHOD FOR A SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysun ÖZKAN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, effective disposing of solid waste environmentally and economically has become mandatory due to the increase in environmental problems resulted by the solid waste. Furthermore, choosing a solid waste management system appears to be an important decision making problem. Hence, economical, social, cultural and technical factors in choosing thesolid waste management systems should be considered together. A solid waste management system may have different alternatives to be evaluated by considering several criteria. Hence, this type of problem is considered as Multi Criteria Decision Making problem. Therefore, in this study, there were five alternative system scenarios (MRF, recycling, composting, incinerating and landfilling processes ranked by using ELECTRE III for Eskisehir city/Turkey. Eskisehir is one of the developing cities of Turkey where approximately 750 tons/day waste is generated in total. It is required to apply an effective MSW management system since the generated MSW is dumped in an unregulated dumping site that has no liner, no biogas capture, etc. Final ranking for scenarios was in the following order: S3>S2>S1>S4=S5. According to the comparisons and the sensitivity analysis, scenario S3 (15% recycling+77% composting + 8% landfilling for MSW management system in Eskisehir should be preferred.

  7. A new assessment method for image fusion quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liu; Jiang, Wanying; Li, Jing; Yuchi, Ming; Ding, Mingyue; Zhang, Xuming

    2013-03-01

    Image fusion quality assessment plays a critically important role in the field of medical imaging. To evaluate image fusion quality effectively, a lot of assessment methods have been proposed. Examples include mutual information (MI), root mean square error (RMSE), and universal image quality index (UIQI). These image fusion assessment methods could not reflect the human visual inspection effectively. To address this problem, we have proposed a novel image fusion assessment method which combines the nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) with the regional mutual information in this paper. In this proposed method, the source medical images are firstly decomposed into different levels by the NSCT. Then the maximum NSCT coefficients of the decomposed directional images at each level are obtained to compute the regional mutual information (RMI). Finally, multi-channel RMI is computed by the weighted sum of the obtained RMI values at the various levels of NSCT. The advantage of the proposed method lies in the fact that the NSCT can represent image information using multidirections and multi-scales and therefore it conforms to the multi-channel characteristic of human visual system, leading to its outstanding image assessment performance. The experimental results using CT and MRI images demonstrate that the proposed assessment method outperforms such assessment methods as MI and UIQI based measure in evaluating image fusion quality and it can provide consistent results with human visual assessment.

  8. Disordered Speech Assessment Using Automatic Methods Based on Quantitative Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Sapienza

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Speech quality assessment methods are necessary for evaluating and documenting treatment outcomes of patients suffering from degraded speech due to Parkinson's disease, stroke, or other disease processes. Subjective methods of speech quality assessment are more accurate and more robust than objective methods but are time-consuming and costly. We propose a novel objective measure of speech quality assessment that builds on traditional speech processing techniques such as dynamic time warping (DTW and the Itakura-Saito (IS distortion measure. Initial results show that our objective measure correlates well with the more expensive subjective methods.

  9. Time Domain Stability Margin Assessment Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Keith

    2017-01-01

    The baseline stability margins for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle were generated via the classical approach of linearizing the system equations of motion and determining the gain and phase margins from the resulting frequency domain model. To improve the fidelity of the classical methods, the linear frequency domain approach can be extended by replacing static, memoryless nonlinearities with describing functions. This technique, however, does not address the time varying nature of the dynamics of a launch vehicle in flight. An alternative technique for the evaluation of the stability of the nonlinear launch vehicle dynamics along its trajectory is to incrementally adjust the gain and/or time delay in the time domain simulation until the system exhibits unstable behavior. This technique has the added benefit of providing a direct comparison between the time domain and frequency domain tools in support of simulation validation.

  10. Assessment of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis: Variability of different methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troelsen, Anders; Elmengaard, Brian; Soeballe, Kjeld (Orthopedic Research Unit, Univ. Hospital of Aarhus, Aarhus (Denmark)), e-mail: a_troelsen@hotmail.com; Roemer, Lone (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital of Aarhus, Aarhus (Denmark)); Kring, Soeren (Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Aabenraa Hospital, Aabenraa (Denmark))

    2010-03-15

    Background: Reliable assessment of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis is crucial in young adults who may benefit from joint-preserving surgery. Purpose: To investigate the variability of different methods for diagnostic assessment of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis. Material and Methods: By each of four observers, two assessments were done by vision and two by angle construction. For both methods, the intra- and interobserver variability of center-edge and acetabular index angle assessment were analyzed. The observers' ability to diagnose hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis were assessed. All measures were compared to those made on computed tomography scan. Results: Intra- and interobserver variability of angle assessment was less when angles were drawn compared with assessment by vision, and the observers' ability to diagnose hip dysplasia improved when angles were drawn. Assessment of osteoarthritis in general showed poor agreement with findings on computed tomography scan. Conclusion: We recommend that angles always should be drawn for assessment of hip dysplasia on pelvic radiographs. Given the inherent variability of diagnostic assessment of hip dysplasia, a computed tomography scan could be considered in patients with relevant hip symptoms and a center-edge angle between 20 deg and 30 deg. Osteoarthritis should be assessed by measuring the joint space width or by classifying the Toennis grade as either 0-1 or 2-3

  11. Revisiting Individual Creativity Assessment: Triangulation in Subjective and Objective Assessment Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Namgyoo K.; Chun, Monica Youngshin; Lee, Jinju

    2016-01-01

    Compared to the significant development of creativity studies, individual creativity research has not reached a meaningful consensus regarding the most valid and reliable method for assessing individual creativity. This study revisited 2 of the most popular methods for assessing individual creativity: subjective and objective methods. This study…

  12. Test-retest reliability of UPDRS-III, dyskinesia scales, and timed motor tests in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease: an argument against multiple baseline assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metman, Leo Verhagen; Myre, Brian; Verwey, Niek; Hassin-Baer, Sharon; Arzbaecher, Jean; Sierens, Diane; Bakay, Roy

    2004-09-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the intra-rater reliability of the motor section of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS-III) in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). The secondary objective was to assess the intra-rater reliability of standard timed motor tests and dyskinesia scales to determine the necessity of multiple baseline core evaluations before surgery for PD. We carried out two standardized preoperative core evaluations of patients with advanced PD scheduled to undergo deep brain stimulation. Patients were examined in the defined off and on conditions by the same rater. UPDRS-III, timed tests, and dyskinesia scores from the two evaluations were compared using Wilcoxon Signed Ranks tests and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Differences in UPDRS-III scores for the two visits were clinically and statistically nonsignificant, and the ICC was 0.9. Similarly, there were no significant differences in timed motor tests or dyskinesia scores, with a median ICC of 0.8. The results indicate that previous findings of high test-retest reliability of UPDRS-III in early untreated PD patients can now be extended to those with advanced disease complicated by motor fluctuations. In addition, test-retest reliability of dyskinesia scales and timed motor tests was high. Taken together, these findings challenge the need for multiple baseline assessments as currently stipulated in core assessment protocols for surgical intervention in PD.

  13. Alternative method for assessing coking coal plasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzuy Nguyen; Susan Woodhouse; Merrick Mahoney [University of Adelaide (Australia). BHP Billiton Newcastle Technology Centre

    2008-07-15

    Traditional plasticity measurements for coal have a number of limitations associated with the reproducibility of the tests and their use in predicting coking behaviour. This report reviews alternative rheological methods for characterising the plastic behaviour of coking coals. It reviews the application of more fundamental rheological measurements to the coal system as well as reviewing applications of rheology to other physical systems. These systems may act as potential models for the application of fundamental rheological measurements to cokemaking. The systems considered were polymer melts, coal ash melts, lava, bread making and ice cream. These systems were chosen because they exhibit some physically equivalent processes to the processes occurring during cokemaking, eg, the generation of bubbles within a softened system that then resolidifies. A number of recommendations were made; the steady and oscillatory shear squeeze flow techniques be further investigated to determine if the measured rheology characteristics are related to transformations within the coke oven and the characteristics of resultant coke; modification of Gieseler plastometers for more fundamental rheology measurements not be attempted.

  14. Interlaboratory Validation of the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) Method 1313 and Method 1316

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document summarizes the results of an interlaboratory study conducted to generate precision estimates for two parallel batch leaching methods which are part of the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF). These methods are: (1) Method 1313: Liquid-Solid Partition...

  15. A new embedding quality assessment method for manifold learning

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Manifold learning is a hot research topic in the field of computer science. A crucial issue with current manifold learning methods is that they lack a natural quantitative measure to assess the quality of learned embeddings, which greatly limits their applications to real-world problems. In this paper, a new embedding quality assessment method for manifold learning, named as Normalization Independent Embedding Quality Assessment (NIEQA), is proposed. Compared with current assessment methods which are limited to isometric embeddings, the NIEQA method has a much larger application range due to two features. First, it is based on a new measure which can effectively evaluate how well local neighborhood geometry is preserved under normalization, hence it can be applied to both isometric and normalized embeddings. Second, it can provide both local and global evaluations to output an overall assessment. Therefore, NIEQA can serve as a natural tool in model selection and evaluation tasks for manifold learning. Experi...

  16. Influence of expertise on rockfall hazard assessment using empirical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delonca, Adeline; Verdel, Thierry; Gunzburger, Yann

    2016-07-01

    To date, many rockfall hazard assessment methods still consider qualitative observations within their analysis. Based on this statement, knowledge and expertise are supposed to be major parameters of rockfall assessment. To test this hypothesis, an experiment was carried out in order to evaluate the influence of knowledge and expertise on rockfall hazard assessment. Three populations were selected, having different levels of expertise: (1) students in geosciences, (2) researchers in geosciences and (3) confirmed experts. These three populations evaluated the rockfall hazard level on the same site, considering two different methods: the Laboratoire des Ponts et Chaussées (LPC) method and a method partly based on the "slope mass rating" (SMR) method. To complement the analysis, the completion of an "a priori" assessment of the rockfall hazard was requested of each population, without using any method. The LPC method is the most widely used method in France for official hazard mapping. It combines two main indicators: the predisposition to instability and the expected magnitude. Reversely, the SMR method was used as an ad hoc quantitative method to investigate the effect of quantification within a method. These procedures were applied on a test site divided into three different sectors. A statistical treatment of the results (descriptive statistical analysis, chi-square independent test and ANOVA) shows that there is a significant influence of the method used on the rockfall hazard assessment, whatever the sector. However, there is a non-significant influence of the level of expertise of the population the sectors 2 and 3. On sector 1, there is a significant influence of the level of expertise, explained by the importance of the temporal probability assessment in the rockfall hazard assessment process. The SMR-based method seems highly sensitive to the "site activity" indicator and exhibits an important dispersion in its results. However, the results are more similar

  17. Development of source term evaluation method for Korean Next Generation Reactor(III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Geon Jae; Park, Jin Baek; Lee, Yeong Il; Song, Min Cheonl; Lee, Ho Jin [Korea Advanced Institue of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-15

    This project had investigated irradiation characteristics of MOX fuel method to predict nuclide concentration at primary and secondary coolant using a core containing 100% of all MOX fuel and development of source term evaluation tool. In this study, several prediction methods of source term are evaluated. Detailed contents of this project are : an evaluation of model for nuclear concentration at Reactor Coolant System, evaluation of primary and secondary coolant concentration of reference Nuclear Power Plant using purely MOX fuel, suggestion of source term prediction method of NPP with a core using MOX fuel.

  18. Configuration-averaged open shell ab initio method for crystal field levels and magnetic properties of lanthanide(III) complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Heuvel, Willem Van den; Soncini, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    We present an ab initio methodology dedicated to the determination of the electronic structure and magnetic properties of ground and low-lying excited states, i.e., the crystal field levels, in lanthanide(III) complexes. Currently, the most popular and successful ab initio approach is the CASSCF/RASSI-SO method, consisting of the optimization of multiple complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) spin eigenfunctions, followed by full diagonalization of the spin--orbit coupling (SOC) Hamiltonian in the basis of the CASSCF spin states featuring spin-dependent orbitals. Based on two simple observations valid for Ln(III) complexes, namely: (i) CASSCF 4f atomic orbitals are expected to change very little when optimized for different multiconfigurational states belonging to the 4f-electronic configuration, (ii) due to strong SOC the total spin is not a good quantum number, we propose here an efficient ab initio strategy which completely avoids any multiconfigurational calculation, by optimizing a unique s...

  19. Functor calculus and the discriminant method (Smooth maps to the plane and Pontryagin classes, Part III)

    CERN Document Server

    Reis, Rui M G

    2011-01-01

    The discriminant method is a tool for describing the cohomology, or the homotopy type, of certain spaces of smooth maps with uncomplicated singularities from a smooth compact manifold L to R^k. We recast some of it in the language of functor calculus. This reformulation allows us to use the discriminant method in a setting where we wish to impose conditions on the multilocal behavior of smooth maps f from L to R^k.

  20. Critical evaluation of soil contamination assessment methods for trace metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desaules, André

    2012-06-01

    Correctly distinguishing between natural and anthropogenic trace metal contents in soils is crucial for assessing soil contamination. A series of assessment methods is critically outlined. All methods rely on assumptions of reference values for natural content. According to the adopted reference values, which are based on various statistical and geochemical procedures, there is a considerable range and discrepancy in the assessed soil contamination results as shown by the five methods applied to three weakly contaminated sites. This is a serious indication of their high methodological specificity and bias. No method with off-site reference values could identify any soil contamination in the investigated trace metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni), while the specific and sensitive on-site reference methods did so for some sites. Soil profile balances are considered to produce the most plausible site-specific results, provided the numerous assumptions are realistic and the required data reliable. This highlights the dilemma between model and data uncertainty. Data uncertainty, however, is a neglected issue in soil contamination assessment so far. And the model uncertainty depends much on the site-specific realistic assumptions of pristine natural trace metal contents. Hence, the appropriate assessment of soil contamination is a subtle optimization exercise of model versus data uncertainty and specification versus generalization. There is no general and accurate reference method and soil contamination assessment is still rather fuzzy, with negative implications for the reliability of subsequent risk assessments.

  1. The professional portfolio: an evidence-based assessment method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Michelle; Schroeter, Kathryn; Carter, Shannon; Mower, Julie

    2009-12-01

    Competency assessment is critical for a myriad of disciplines, including medicine, law, education, and nursing. Many nurse managers and educators are responsible for nursing competency assessment, and assessment results are often used for annual reviews, promotions, and satisfying accrediting agencies' requirements. Credentialing bodies continually seek methods to measure and document the continuing competence of licensees or certificants. Many methods and frameworks for continued competency assessment exist. The portfolio process is one method to validate personal and professional accomplishments in an interactive, multidimensional manner. This article illustrates how portfolios can be used to assess competence. One specialty nursing certification board's process of creating an evidence-based portfolio for recertification or reactivation of a credential is used as an example. The theoretical background, development process, implementation, and future implications may serve as a template for other organizations in developing their own portfolio models.

  2. Assessment of severe malaria in a multicenter, phase III, RTS, S/AS01 malaria candidate vaccine trial: case definition, standardization of data collection and patient care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vekemans Johan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An effective malaria vaccine, deployed in conjunction with other malaria interventions, is likely to substantially reduce the malaria burden. Efficacy against severe malaria will be a key driver for decisions on implementation. An initial study of an RTS, S vaccine candidate showed promising efficacy against severe malaria in children in Mozambique. Further evidence of its protective efficacy will be gained in a pivotal, multi-centre, phase III study. This paper describes the case definitions of severe malaria used in this study and the programme for standardized assessment of severe malaria according to the case definition. Methods Case definitions of severe malaria were developed from a literature review and a consensus meeting of expert consultants and the RTS, S Clinical Trial Partnership Committee, in collaboration with the World Health Organization and the Malaria Clinical Trials Alliance. The same groups, with input from an Independent Data Monitoring Committee, developed and implemented a programme for standardized data collection. The case definitions developed reflect the typical presentations of severe malaria in African hospitals. Markers of disease severity were chosen on the basis of their association with poor outcome, occurrence in a significant proportion of cases and on an ability to standardize their measurement across research centres. For the primary case definition, one or more clinical and/or laboratory markers of disease severity have to be present, four major co-morbidities (pneumonia, meningitis, bacteraemia or gastroenteritis with severe dehydration are excluded, and a Plasmodium falciparum parasite density threshold is introduced, in order to maximize the specificity of the case definition. Secondary case definitions allow inclusion of co-morbidities and/or allow for the presence of parasitaemia at any density. The programmatic implementation of standardized case assessment included a clinical

  3. A RISK ASSESSMENT METHOD OF THE WIRELESS NETWORK SECURITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Dongmei; Wang Changguang; Ma Jianfeng

    2007-01-01

    The core of network security is the risk assessment.In this letter,a risk assessment method is introduced to estimate the wireless network security.The method,which combines Analytic Hierarchy Process(AHP)method and fuzzy logical method,is applied to the risk assessment.Fuzzy logical method is applied to judge the important degree of each factor in the aspects of the probability,the influence and the uncontrollability,not to directly judge the important degree itself.The risk assessment is carved up 3 layers applying AHP method,the sort weight of the third layer is calculated by fuzzy logical method.Finally,the important degree is calculated by AHP method.By comparing the important degree of each factor,the risk which can be controlled by taking measures is known.The study of the case shows that the method can be easily used to the risk assessment of the wireless network security and its results conform to the actual situation.

  4. Models and Methods for Assessing Refugee Mental Health Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deinard, Amos S.; And Others

    This background paper on refugee needs assessment discusses the assumptions, goals, objectives, strategies, models, and methods that the state refugee programs can consider in designing their strategies for assessing the mental health needs of refugees. It begins with a set of background assumptions about the ethnic profile of recent refugee…

  5. Comparison of Cognitive Assessment Methods With Heterosocially Anxious College Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myszka, Michael T.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated comparability of self-statements generated by different cognitive assessment methods; effect of an assessment delay on cognitive phenomena; and interrelationships among different cognitive variables. Subjects were heterosocially anxious women (N=64) who engaged in a conversation with a male confederate. Self-statements generated by…

  6. Direct methods of soil-structure interaction analysis for earthquake loadings (III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, J. B.; Lee, S. R.; Kim, J. M.; Park, K. R.; Choi, J. S.; Oh, S. B. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-15

    In this study, direct methods for seismic analysis of soil-structure interaction system have been studied. A computer program 'KIESSI-QK' has been developed based on the finite element technique coupled with infinite element formulation. A substructuring method isolating the displacement solution of near field soil region was adopted. The computer program developed was verified using a free-field site response problem. The post-correlation analysis for the forced vibration tests after backfill of the Hualien LSST project has been carried out. The seismic analyses for the Hualien and Lotung LSST structures have been also performed utilizing the developed computer program 'KIESSI-QK'.

  7. Orohanditest: A new method for orofacial damage assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Morais Caldas

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Orohanditest provides a reliable, precise, and complete orofacial damage description and quantification. Therefore, this method can be useful as an auxiliary tool in the orofacial damage assessment process.

  8. Method of loading organic materials with group III plus lanthanide and actinide elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Zane W.; Huei-Ho, Chuen; Brown, Gilbert M.; Hurlbut, Charles

    2003-04-08

    Disclosed is a composition of matter comprising a tributyl phosphate complex of a group 3, lanthanide, actinide, or group 13 salt in an organic carrier and a method of making the complex. These materials are suitable for use in solid or liquid organic scintillators, as in x-ray absorption standards, x-ray fluorescence standards, and neutron detector calibration standards.

  9. The Opacity of Spiral Galaxy Disks III : Automating the "Synthetic Field Method"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, B. W.; González, R. A.; Allen, R. J.; Kruit, P. C. van der

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: The dust extinction in spiral disks can be estimated from the counts of background field galaxies, provided the deleterious effects of confusion introduced by structure in the image of the foreground spiral disk can be calibrated. Gonzalez et al. (1998) developed a method for this calibrat

  10. Stokes coupling method for the exterior flowPart III: regularity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the Stokes coupling method for solving the two-dimensional exterior unsteady Navier-Stokes equations, the existence of the strong solution of the Stokes coupling equations is proven. And the regularity of the solution for the reduced Stokes coupling equations is discussed.

  11. The opacity of spiral galaxy disks. III. Automating the synthetic field method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, BW; Gonzalez, RA; Allen, RJ; van der Kruit, PC

    2005-01-01

    Dust extinction in spiral disks can be estimated from the counts of background field galaxies, provided the deleterious effects of confusion introduced by structure in the image of the foreground spiral disk can be calibrated. Gonzalez et al. developed a method for this calibration, the Synthetic Fi

  12. A new spectrophotometric method for determination of EDTA in water using its complex with Mn(III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Carlos Eduardo O.; Oliveira, André F.; Neves, Antônio A.; Queiroz, Maria Eliana L. R.

    2016-11-01

    EDTA is an important ligand used in many industrial products as well as in agriculture, where it is employed to assist in phytoextraction procedures and the absorption of nutrients by plants. Due to its intensive use and recalcitrance, it is now considered an emerging pollutant in water, so there is great interest in techniques suitable for its monitoring. This work proposes a method based on formation of the Mn(III)-EDTA complex after oxidation of the Mn(II)-EDTA complex by PbO2 immobilized on cyanoacrylate spheres. A design of experiments (DOE) based on the Doehlert matrix was used to determine the optimum conditions of the method, and the influence of the variables was evaluated using a multiple linear regression (MLR) model. The optimized method presented a linear response in the range from 0.77 to 100.0 μmol L- 1, with analytical sensitivity of 7.7 × 103 L mol- 1, a coefficient of determination of 0.999, and a limit of detection of 0.23 μmol L- 1. The method was applied using samples fortified at different concentration levels, and the recoveries achieved were between 97.0 and 104.9%.

  13. Scanning tunneling microscopy III theory of STM and related scanning probe methods

    CERN Document Server

    Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim

    1993-01-01

    While the first two volumes on Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) and its related scanning probe (SXM) methods have mainly concentrated on intro­ ducing the experimental techniques, as well as their various applications in different research fields, this third volume is exclusively devoted to the theory of STM and related SXM methods. As the experimental techniques including the reproducibility of the experimental results have advanced, more and more theorists have become attracted to focus on issues related to STM and SXM. The increasing effort in the development of theoretical concepts for STM/SXM has led to considerable improvements in understanding the contrast mechanism as well as the experimental conditions necessary to obtain reliable data. Therefore, this third volume on STM/SXM is not written by theorists for theorists, but rather for every scientist who is not satisfied by just obtaining real­ space images of surface structures by STM/SXM. After a brief introduction (Chap. 1), N. D. Lang first co...

  14. Setting health research priorities using the CHNRI method: III. Involving stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiyo Yoshida

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Setting health research priorities is a complex and value–driven process. The introduction of the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI method has made the process of setting research priorities more transparent and inclusive, but much of the process remains in the hands of funders and researchers, as described in the previous two papers in this series. However, the value systems of numerous other important stakeholders, particularly those on the receiving end of health research products, are very rarely addressed in any process of priority setting. Inclusion of a larger and more diverse group of stakeholders in the process would result in a better reflection of the system of values of the broader community, resulting in recommendations that are more legitimate and acceptable.

  15. A class of discontinuous Petrov–Galerkin methods. Part III: Adaptivity

    KAUST Repository

    Demkowicz, Leszek

    2012-04-01

    We continue our theoretical and numerical study on the Discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin method with optimal test functions in context of 1D and 2D convection-dominated diffusion problems and hp-adaptivity. With a proper choice of the norm for the test space, we prove robustness (uniform stability with respect to the diffusion parameter) and mesh-independence of the energy norm of the FE error for the 1D problem. With hp-adaptivity and a proper scaling of the norms for the test functions, we establish new limits for solving convection-dominated diffusion problems numerically: ε=10 -11 for 1D and ε=10 -7 for 2D problems. The adaptive process is fully automatic and starts with a mesh consisting of few elements only. © 2011 IMACS. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Divergent series, summability and resurgence III resurgent methods and the first Painlevé equation

    CERN Document Server

    Delabaere, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this volume is two-fold. First, to show how the resurgent methods introduced in volume 1 can be applied efficiently in a non-linear setting; to this end further properties of the resurgence theory must be developed. Second, to analyze the fundamental example of the First Painlevé equation. The resurgent analysis of singularities is pushed all the way up to the so-called “bridge equation”, which concentrates all information about the non-linear Stokes phenomenon at infinity of the First Painlevé equation. The third in a series of three, entitled Divergent Series, Summability and Resurgence, this volume is aimed at graduate students, mathematicians and theoretical physicists who are interested in divergent power series and related problems, such as the Stokes phenomenon. The prerequisites are a working knowledge of complex analysis at the first-year graduate level and of the theory of resurgence, as presented in volume 1. .

  17. Assessment of the changes in quality of life of patients with class II and III deformities during and after orthodontic-surgical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baherimoghaddam, T; Tabrizi, R; Naseri, N; Pouzesh, A; Oshagh, M; Torkan, S

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to assess and compare the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of patients with class II and III deformities during and after orthodontic-surgical treatment. Thirty class III and 28 class II patients were evaluated at baseline (T0), just prior to surgery (T1), at 6 months after surgery (T2), and at 12 months after debonding (T3). OHRQoL was assessed using the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). Friedman two-way analysis of variance and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test were performed to compare the relative changes in OHRQoL during treatment. Significant changes in the overall OHIP-14 scores were observed during and after orthodontic-surgical treatment in both groups. During the pre-surgical stage, psychological discomfort and psychological disability decreased in class III patients, and class II patients experienced a significant deterioration in psychological discomfort during the same period. Six months after surgery, patients in both groups showed improvements in psychological discomfort, social disability, and handicap. Physical disability and functional limitation showed further improvement at 12 months after debonding in class II patients. This study reaffirms that orthodontic-surgical treatment has a significant effect on the OHRQoL of class III and class II patients.

  18. Exploring valid and reliable assessment methods for care management education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennissen, Lokke; Stammen, Lorette; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Jolien; Wieringa, Sietse; Busari, Jamiu

    2016-07-04

    Purpose It is assumed that the use of valid and reliable assessment methods can facilitate the development of medical residents' management and leadership competencies. To justify this assertion, the perceptions of an expert panel of health care leaders were explored on assessment methods used for evaluating care management (CM) development in Dutch residency programs. This paper aims to investigate how assessors and trainees value these methods and examine for any inherent benefits or shortcomings when they are applied in practice. Design/methodology/approach A Delphi survey was conducted among members of the platform for medical leadership in The Netherlands. This panel of experts was made up of clinical educators, practitioners and residents interested in CM education. Findings Of the respondents, 40 (55.6 per cent) and 31 (43 per cent) participated in the first and second rounds of the Delphi survey, respectively. The respondents agreed that assessment methods currently being used to measure residents' CM competencies were weak, though feasible for use in many residency programs. Multi-source feedback (MSF, 92.1 per cent), portfolio/e-portfolio (86.8 per cent) and knowledge testing (76.3 per cent) were identified as the most commonly known assessment methods with familiarity rates exceeding 75 per cent. Practical implications The findings suggested that an "assessment framework" comprising MSF, portfolios, individual process improvement projects or self-reflections and observations in clinical practice should be used to measure CM competencies in residents. Originality/value This study reaffirms the need for objective methods to assess CM skills in post-graduate medical education, as there was not a single assessment method that stood out as the best instrument.

  19. Methods for Assessing Honeycomb Sandwich Panel Wrinkling Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Bart F.; Dial, William B.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.

    2012-01-01

    Efficient closed-form methods for predicting the facesheet wrinkling failure mode in sandwich panels are assessed. Comparisons were made with finite element model predictions for facesheet wrinkling, and a validated closed-form method was implemented in the HyperSizer structure sizing software.

  20. Orohanditest: A new method for orofacial damage assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Inês Morais; Magalhães, Teresa; Matos, Eduarda; Afonso, Américo

    2013-01-01

    Background: Currently, orofacial sequelae are recognized as very influential on the quality-of-life for a victim of orofacial damage. Therefore, correct forensic assessment for indenisation purposes is mandatory. However, orofacial damage is frequently reduced to organic components, which results in a forensic assessment process, which are inadequate. This study aims to improve the orofacial damage assessment through the development of an auxiliary tool, the orohanditest. Materials and Methods: A preliminary inventory was constructed, using relevant bibliographic elements and retrospective study of forensic examinations reports concerning orofacial trauma. This inventory was then utilized in the assessment of 265 orofacial trauma victims for validation. Validity was studied by analyzing the internal construct validity (exploring factorial validity and assessing internal consistency) and the external construct validity (assessing convergent validity and discriminant validity). The level of significance was defined as P < 0.05. Results: The final inventory (orohanditest) was comprised of the three components of body (8 items), functions (10 items) and situations (24 items), which were found to be statistically reliable and valid for assessment. The final score (orofacial damage coefficient) reflects the orofacial damage severity. Conclusion: Orohanditest provides a reliable, precise, and complete orofacial damage description and quantification. Therefore, this method can be useful as an auxiliary tool in the orofacial damage assessment process. PMID:24379863

  1. Systematic evaluation of observational methods assessing biomechanical exposures at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takala, Esa-Pekka; Pehkonen, Irmeli; Forsman, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This systematic review aimed to identify published observational methods assessing biomechanical exposures in occupational settings and evaluate them with reference to the needs of different users. METHODS: We searched scientific databases and the internet for material from 1965...... to September 2008. Methods were included if they were primarily based on the systematic observation of work, the observation target was the human body, and the method was clearly described in the literature. A systematic evaluation procedure was developed to assess concurrent and predictive validity...... the use of technical instruments. Generally, the observations showed moderate to good agreement with the corresponding assessments made from video recordings; agreement was the best for large-scale body postures and work actions. Postures of wrist and hand as well as trunk rotation seemed to be more...

  2. CART IV: improving automatic camouflage assessment with assistance methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Thomas; Müller, Markus

    2010-04-01

    In order to facilitate systematic, computer aided improvements of camouflage and concealment assessment methods, the software system CART (Camouflage Assessment in Real-Time) was built up for the camouflage assessment of objects in multispectral image sequences (see contributions to SPIE 2007, SPIE 2008 and SPIE 2009 [1], [2], [3]). It comprises a semi-automatic marking of target objects (ground truth generation) including their propagation over the image sequence and the evaluation via user-defined feature extractors. The conspicuity of camouflaged objects due to their movement can be assessed with a purpose-built processing method named MTI snail track algorithm. This paper presents the enhancements over the recent year and addresses procedures to assist the camouflage assessment of moving objects for image data material with strong noise or image artefacts. This extends the evaluation methods significantly to a broader application range. For example, some noisy infrared image data material can be evaluated for the first time by applying the presented methods which fathom the correlations between camouflage assessment, MTI (moving target indication) and dedicated noise filtering.

  3. Valuation methods within the framework of life cycle assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnveden, G.

    1996-05-01

    Life Cycle Assessment Valuation methods are discussed. Different approaches for valuation are discussed as well as presently available valuation methods in relation to: * the values involved in the valuation, * the LCA framework, and * different applications of LCA. Among the conclusions are: * ethical and ideological valuations are involved not only when applying valuation weighting factors, but also when choosing valuation method and also when choosing whether to perform a valuation weighting or not, * it can be questioned whether straight distance-to-target methods are valuation methods, * it is still an open question whether presently available valuation methods produce meaningful and reliable information, * further development of quantitative valuation methods could concentrate both on different types of monetarisation methods and panel methods, * in many applications of LCA, the expected result is an identification of critical areas rather than a one-dimensional score, reducing the need for valuation methods. 88 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  4. Reporting methods of blinding in randomized trials assessing nonpharmacological treatments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Boutron

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Blinding is a cornerstone of treatment evaluation. Blinding is more difficult to obtain in trials assessing nonpharmacological treatment and frequently relies on "creative" (nonstandard methods. The purpose of this study was to systematically describe the strategies used to obtain blinding in a sample of randomized controlled trials of nonpharmacological treatment. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We systematically searched in Medline and the Cochrane Methodology Register for randomized controlled trials (RCTs assessing nonpharmacological treatment with blinding, published during 2004 in high-impact-factor journals. Data were extracted using a standardized extraction form. We identified 145 articles, with the method of blinding described in 123 of the reports. Methods of blinding of participants and/or health care providers and/or other caregivers concerned mainly use of sham procedures such as simulation of surgical procedures, similar attention-control interventions, or a placebo with a different mode of administration for rehabilitation or psychotherapy. Trials assessing devices reported various placebo interventions such as use of sham prosthesis, identical apparatus (e.g., identical but inactivated machine or use of activated machine with a barrier to block the treatment, or simulation of using a device. Blinding participants to the study hypothesis was also an important method of blinding. The methods reported for blinding outcome assessors relied mainly on centralized assessment of paraclinical examinations, clinical examinations (i.e., use of video, audiotape, photography, or adjudications of clinical events. CONCLUSIONS: This study classifies blinding methods and provides a detailed description of methods that could overcome some barriers of blinding in clinical trials assessing nonpharmacological treatment, and provides information for readers assessing the quality of results of such trials.

  5. New mobile methods for dietary assessment: review of image-assisted and image-based dietary assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boushey, C J; Spoden, M; Zhu, F M; Delp, E J; Kerr, D A

    2016-12-12

    For nutrition practitioners and researchers, assessing dietary intake of children and adults with a high level of accuracy continues to be a challenge. Developments in mobile technologies have created a role for images in the assessment of dietary intake. The objective of this review was to examine peer-reviewed published papers covering development, evaluation and/or validation of image-assisted or image-based dietary assessment methods from December 2013 to January 2016. Images taken with handheld devices or wearable cameras have been used to assist traditional dietary assessment methods for portion size estimations made by dietitians (image-assisted methods). Image-assisted approaches can supplement either dietary records or 24-h dietary recalls. In recent years, image-based approaches integrating application technology for mobile devices have been developed (image-based methods). Image-based approaches aim at capturing all eating occasions by images as the primary record of dietary intake, and therefore follow the methodology of food records. The present paper reviews several image-assisted and image-based methods, their benefits and challenges; followed by details on an image-based mobile food record. Mobile technology offers a wide range of feasible options for dietary assessment, which are easier to incorporate into daily routines. The presented studies illustrate that image-assisted methods can improve the accuracy of conventional dietary assessment methods by adding eating occasion detail via pictures captured by an individual (dynamic images). All of the studies reduced underreporting with the help of images compared with results with traditional assessment methods. Studies with larger sample sizes are needed to better delineate attributes with regards to age of user, degree of error and cost.

  6. Inventory of LCIA selection methods for assessing toxic releases. Methods and typology report part B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Birkved, Morten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky;

    This report describes an inventory of Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) selection methods for assessing toxic releases. It consists of an inventory of current selection methods and other Chemical Ranking and Scoring (CRS) methods assessed to be relevant for the development of (a) new selection...... characterisation. Selection methods are used within LCIA to select those chemical emissions (mapped in the inventory part of the LCA in question) that are expected to contribute significantly to the characterisation and exclude the insignificant ones. In this way only significant emissions (i.e. the selected ones...

  7. Spectrophotometric method for the determination of sorbic acid in various food samples with iron(III) and 2-thiobarbituric acid as reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, O W; Luk, S F; Lam, R K

    1989-02-01

    A simple, rapid and accurate spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of sorbic acid in various food samples based on the oxidation of sorbic acid by iron(III) at 100 degrees C to malonaldehyde, which then reacts with 2-thiobarbituric acid to form a reddish brown product. The optimum experimental conditions for colour development have been assessed. Absorbance measurements were made at 529 nm in the presence of 0.4% m/V citric acid. The calibration graph was linear for 0-6 micrograms ml-1 of sorbic acid with a slope of 0.131 A micrograms-1 ml. The recoveries of sorbic acid at concentrations of 164-557 micrograms ml-1 ranged from 96 to 103%. The relative standard deviations of ten replicate determinations of sorbic acid in a synthetic cream soda sample spiked with 573 micrograms ml-1 of sorbic acid and in an onion juice sample containing 82 micrograms ml-1 of sorbic acid were 1.6 and 1.9%, respectively. Interferences from several common food additives can be minimised by extracting sorbic acid with diethyl ether and then back-extracting the acid with sodium hydrogen carbonate. The method has been applied successfully to the determination of sorbic acid in a wide range of food samples including beverages, cake, cake mate, garlic bread sprinkle, onion juice, oyster flavoured sauce and grenadine syrup.

  8. Assessment of the potential allergenicity of ice structuring protein type III HPLC 12 using the FAO/WHO 2001 decision tree for novel foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindslev-Jensen, C; Sten, E; Earl, L K; Crevel, R W R; Bindslev-Jensen, U; Hansen, T K; Stahl Skov, P; Poulsen, L K

    2003-01-01

    The introduction of novel proteins into foods carries a risk of eliciting allergic reactions in individuals sensitive to the introduced protein. Therefore, decision trees for evaluation of the risk have been developed, the latest being proposed by WHO/FAO early in 2001. Proteins developed using modern biotechnology and derived from fish are being considered for use in food and other applications, and since allergy to fish is well established, a potential risk from such proteins to susceptible human beings exists. The overall aim of the study was to investigate the potential allergenicity of an Ice Structuring Protein (ISP) originating from an arctic fish (the ocean pout, Macrozoarces americanus) using the newly developed decision tree proposed by FAO/WHO. The methods used were those proposed by FAO/WHO including amino acid sequence analysis for sequence similarity to known allergens, methods for assessing degradability under standardised conditions, assays for detection of specific IgE against the protein (Maxisorb RAST) and histamine release from human basophils. In the present paper we describe the serum screening phase of the study and discuss the overall application of the decision tree to the assessment of the potential allergenicity of ISP Type III. In an accompanying paper [Food Chem. Toxicol. 40 (2002) 965], we detail the specific methodology used for the sequence analysis and assessment of resistance to pepsin-catalysed proteolysis of this protein. The ISP showed no sequence similarity to known allergens nor was it stable to proteolytic degradation using standardised methods. Using sera from 20 patients with a well-documented clinical history of fish allergy, positive in skin prick tests to ocean pout, eel pout and eel were used, positive IgE-binding in vitro to extracts of the same fish was confirmed. The sera also elicited histamine release in vitro in the presence of the same extracts. The ISP was negative in all cases in the same experiments. Using the

  9. STUDIES ON THE CHEMICAL NATURE OF THE SUBSTANCE INDUCING TRANSFORMATION OF PNEUMOCOCCAL TYPES : III. AN IMPROVED METHOD FOR THE ISOLATION OF THE TRANSFORMING SUBSTANCE AND ITS APPLICATION TO PNEUMOCOCCUS TYPES II, III, AND VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, M; Avery, O T

    1946-01-31

    1. An improved method is outlined for the isolation and purification of the pneumococcal transforming substance. This method makes use of the fact that citrate inhibits the destructive action of the enzyme, desoxyribonuclease, which is released together with the active material during lysis of the living bacterial cells. A fivefold greater yield of purified transforming agent is obtained by the present method than by the procedure previousiy described. 2. The specific transforming substance has been isolated from pneumococci of types II and VI, in addition to Type III. In each instance the biologically active material has been found to consist of desoxyribonucleic acid.

  10. Safety assessment and detection methods of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rong; Zheng, Zhe; Jiao, Guanglian

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs), are gaining importance in agriculture as well as the production of food and feed. Along with the development of GMOs, health and food safety concerns have been raised. These concerns for these new GMOs make it necessary to set up strict system on food safety assessment of GMOs. The food safety assessment of GMOs, current development status of safety and precise transgenic technologies and GMOs detection have been discussed in this review. The recent patents about GMOs and their detection methods are also reviewed. This review can provide elementary introduction on how to assess and detect GMOs.

  11. A comprehensive environmental impact assessment method for shale gas development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renjin Sun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The great success of US commercial shale gas exploitation stimulates the shale gas development in China, subsequently, the corresponding supporting policies were issued in the 12th Five-Year Plan. But from the experience in the US shale gas development, we know that the resulted environmental threats are always an unavoidable issue, but no uniform and standard evaluation system has yet been set up in China. The comprehensive environment refers to the combination of natural ecological environment and external macro-environment. In view of this, we conducted a series of studies on how to set up a comprehensive environmental impact assessment system as well as the related evaluation methodology and models. First, we made an in-depth investigation into shale gas development procedures and any possible environmental impacts, and then compared, screened and modified environmental impact assessment methods for shale gas development. Also, we established an evaluating system and assessment models according to different status of the above two types of environment: the correlation matrix method was employed to assess the impacts on natural ecological environment and the optimization distance method was modified to evaluate the impacts on external macro-environment. Finally, we substitute the two subindexes into the comprehensive environmental impact assessment model and achieved the final numerical result of environmental impact assessment. This model can be used to evaluate if a shale gas project has any impact on environment, compare the impacts before and after a shale gas development project, or the impacts of different projects.

  12. Assessment of 'dry skin': current bioengineering methods and test designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, T W; Wigger-Alberti, W; Elsner, P

    2001-01-01

    Dry skin is a frequent problem in dermatology and a sign of dysfunction of the epidermis, especially of the stratum corneum as the morphological equivalent of the skin barrier. It may occur as an individual disposition or as the leading symptom of atopic dermatitis or ichthyosis. Besides the visual examination of the skin, various bioengineering methods have been developed to assess the different pathological and adaptive changes in the skin. In addition to the assessment of skin humidity, barrier function and desquamation, the quantification of skin surface topography and the mechanical properties of skin are suitable methods to characterize a dry skin condition. For clinical assessment of moisturizing products and emollients the parameters of investigation have to be defined and integrated in an adapted study design depending on the composition and content of the active agent in the test product. Newly developed cosmetic products have to be investigated for safety and efficacy. Modern bioengineering methods are suitable to fulfill these challenges.

  13. An Integrated Method of Supply Chains Vulnerability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaguo Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain vulnerability identification and evaluation are extremely important to mitigate the supply chain risk. We present an integrated method to assess the supply chain vulnerability. The potential failure mode of the supply chain vulnerability is analyzed through the SCOR model. Combining the fuzzy theory and the gray theory, the correlation degree of each vulnerability indicator can be calculated and the target improvements can be carried out. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, we use Kendall’s tau coefficient to measure the effect of different methods. The result shows that the presented method has the highest consistency in the assessment compared with the other two methods.

  14. Assessment methods of injection moulded nano-patterned surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menotti, S.; Bisacco, G.; Hansen, H. N.

    2014-01-01

    algorithm for feature recognition. To compare the methods, the mould insert and a number of replicated nano-patterned surfaces, injection moulded with an induction heating aid, were measured on nominally identical locations by means of an atomic force microscope mounted on a manual CMM.......Assessment of nano-patterned surfaces requires measurements with nano-metric resolution. In order to enable the optimization of the moulding process it is necessary to develop a robust method for quantitative characterization of the replication quality of random nano-patterned surfaces....... In this work two different methods for quantitative characterization of random nano-patterned surfaces were compared and assessed. One method is based on the estimation of the roughness amplitude parameters Sa and Sz (ISO 25178). The second method is based on pore and particle analysis using the watershed...

  15. The round robin site assessment method: A new approach to wind energy site assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackner, Matthew A.; Rogers, Anthony L.; Manwell, James F. [Renewable Energy Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 160 Governors Dr., Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2008-09-15

    Portability is one of the many potential advantages of utilizing ground-based measurement devices such as SODARs and LIDARs instead of meteorological towers for wind resource assessment. This paper investigates the use of a monitoring strategy that leverages the portability of ground-based devices, dubbed the ''round robin site assessment method.'' The premise is to measure the wind resource at multiple sites in a single year using a single portable device, but to discontinuously distribute the measurement time at each site over the whole year, so that the total measurement period comprises smaller segments of measured data. This measured data set is then utilized in the measure-correlate-predict (MCP) process to predict the long-term wind resource at the site. This method aims to increase the number of sites assessed in a single year, without the sacrifice in accuracy and precision that usually accompanies shorter measurement periods. The performance of the round robin site assessment method was compared to the standard method, in which the measured data are continuous. The results demonstrate that the round robin site assessment method is an effective monitoring strategy that improves the accuracy and reduces the uncertainty of MCP predictions for measurement periods less than 1 year. In fact, the round robin site assessment method compares favorably to the accuracy and uncertainty of a full year of resource assessment. While there are some tradeoffs to be made by using the round robin site assessment method, it is potentially a very useful strategy for wind resource assessment. (author)

  16. [Assessing forest ecosystem health I. Model, method, and index system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gao; Dai, Limin; Ji, Lanzhu; Deng, Hongbing; Hao, Zhanqing; Wang, Qingli

    2004-10-01

    Ecosystem health assessment is one of the main researches and urgent tasks of ecosystem science in 21st century. An operational definition on ecosystem health and an all-sided, simple, easy operational and standard index system, which are the foundation of assessment on ecosystem health, are necessary in obtaining a simple and applicable assessment theory and method of ecosystem health. Taking the Korean pine and broadleaved mixed forest ecosystem as an example, an originally creative idea on ecosystem health was put forward in this paper based on the idea of mode ecosystem set and the idea of forest ecosystem health, together with its assessment. This creative idea can help understand what ecosystem health is. Finally, a formula was deduced based on a new effective health assessment method--health distance (HD), which is the first time to be brought forward in China. At the same time, aiming at it's characteristics by status understanding and material health questions, a health index system of Korean pine and broadleaved mixed forest ecosystem was put forward in this paper, which is a compound ecosystem based on the compound properties of nature, economy and society. It is concrete enough to measure sub-index, so it is the foundation to assess ecosystem health of Korean pine and broadleaved mixed forest in next researches.

  17. Biological methods used to assess surface water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczerbiñska Natalia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with the guidelines of the Water Framework Directive 2000/60 (WFD, both ecological and chemical statuses determine the assessment of surface waters. The profile of ecological status is based on the analysis of various biological components, and physicochemical and hydromorphological indicators complement this assessment. The aim of this article is to present the biological methods used in the assessment of water status with a special focus on bioassay, as well as to provide a review of methods of monitoring water status. Biological test methods include both biomonitoring and bioanalytics. Water biomonitoring is used to assess and forecast the status of water. These studies aim to collect data on water pollution and forecast its impact. Biomonitoring uses organisms which are characterized by particular vulnerability to contaminants. Bioindicator organisms are algae, fungi, bacteria, larval invertebrates, cyanobacteria, macroinvertebrates, and fish. Bioanalytics is based on the receptors of contaminants that can be biologically active substances. In bioanalytics, biosensors such as viruses, bacteria, antibodies, enzymes, and biotests are used to assess degrees of pollution.

  18. Implementation of Relevant Methods in Assessing Traffic-Technological Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Barić

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of investment traffic-technological projectsmeans a set of activities whose basic aim is to determine the justificationand feasibility of the projects. The decision-makingprocess, including the decision-making on investments is an extremelycomplex process, and the decision-maker has to have avision of the future and make decisions accordingly in a modemand flexible manner. Therefore, the decisions need to be theresult of a planning and research process based on relevant scientificmethods. The work includes the selected, analysed andpresented methods of cost-benefit analysis, methods of multi-criteria decision-making and SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses,Opportunities, and Threats analysis methods. Regarding thebasic characteristics, the mentioned methods have been compared,the order of their implementation has been determined,and then they have been implemented in assessing the traffic-technological projects of reconstmction with the aim of selectingthe optimal variant solution.

  19. An assessment of BWR (boiling water reactor) Mark III containment challenges, failure modes, and potential improvements in performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, J.A.; Pafford, D.J.; Kelly, D.L.; Jones, K.R.; Dallman, F.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1991-01-01

    This report describes risk-significant challenges posed to Mark III containment systems by severe accidents as identified for Grand Gulf. Design similarities and differences between the Mark III plants that are important to containment performance are summarized. The accident sequences responsible for the challenges and the postulated containment failure modes associated with each challenge are identified and described. Improvements are discussed that have the potential either to prevent or delay containment failure, or to mitigate the offsite consequences of a fission product release. For each of these potential improvements, a qualitative analysis is provided. A limited quantitative risk analysis is provided for selected potential improvements. 21 refs., 5 figs., 46 tabs.

  20. A method for establishing class III medical device equivalence: sodium hyaluronate (GenVisc 850 for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doros G

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gheorghe Doros,1 Philip T Lavin,2 Michael Daley,3 Larry E Miller4 1School of Public Health, Boston University, Boston, 2Lavin Consulting LLC, Framingham, MA, 3OrthogenRx Inc., Doylestown, PA, 4Miller Scientific Consulting, Inc., Asheville, NC, USA Abstract: Although the concept of equivalence for drugs (generics and biologics (biosimilars has been readily adopted, the concept of equivalence or indistinguishable characteristics for class III medical devices has yet to be specifically addressed regarding a defined regulatory approval process in the US. In September 2015, GenVisc 850® (sodium hyaluronate, a hyaluronic acid approved for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA based upon indistinguishable characteristics in comparison to an approved branded hyaluronic acid (Supartz®/Supartz FX™. The purpose of this paper is to review the methodology and report the main outcomes used to demonstrate clinical comparability of GenVisc 850 with Supartz/Supartz FX. The FDA approval was collectively attained using prospectively defined methods for preclinical, physical, and chemical testing, as well as noninferiority in clinical performance comparisons. Evidence from five randomized controlled studies of Supartz/Supartz FX vs saline control injections (used for Supartz approval, two randomized controlled trials of GenVisc 850 vs saline control injections, and one randomized controlled study of GenVisc 850 vs Supartz/Supartz FX provided evidence of safety for GenVisc 850. Efficacy was further assessed based on assessment of the same Supartz studies and three prospectively identified GenVisc 850 studies. A Bayesian network meta-analysis was used to demonstrate that the clinical efficacy of GenVisc 850 was noninferior to Supartz/Supartz FX and superior to saline control. Overall, safety of GenVisc 850 was similar to that of Supartz/Supartz FX and saline control injections, while efficacy of GenVisc 850

  1. Analysis and Comparison of Objective Methods for Image Quality Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Babkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is research and modification of the reference objective methods for image quality assessment. The ultimate goal is to obtain a modification of formal assessments that more closely corresponds to the subjective expert estimates (MOS.In considering the formal reference objective methods for image quality assessment we used the results of other authors, which offer results and comparative analyzes of the most effective algorithms. Based on these investigations we have chosen two of the most successful algorithm for which was made a further analysis in the MATLAB 7.8 R 2009 a (PQS and MSSSIM. The publication focuses on the features of the algorithms, which have great importance in practical implementation, but are insufficiently covered in the publications by other authors.In the implemented modification of the algorithm PQS boundary detector Kirsch was replaced by the boundary detector Canny. Further experiments were carried out according to the method of the ITU-R VT.500-13 (01/2012 using monochrome images treated with different types of filters (should be emphasized that an objective assessment of image quality PQS is applicable only to monochrome images. Images were obtained with a thermal imaging surveillance system. The experimental results proved the effectiveness of this modification.In the specialized literature in the field of formal to evaluation methods pictures, this type of modification was not mentioned.The method described in the publication can be applied to various practical implementations of digital image processing.Advisability and effectiveness of using the modified method of PQS to assess the structural differences between the images are shown in the article and this will be used in solving the problems of identification and automatic control.

  2. A New Method to Quickly Assess the Inhibitor Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG Chunlei; XU Yongmo; WENG Duan

    2008-01-01

    A new method to quickly assess the efficiency of corrosion inhibitor was developed by electrically accelerating chloride ions diffusing onto the surface of the embedded steel bar in concrete and inducing corrosion.Potentiodynamic polarization scanning and linear polarization method were used to evaluate the corrosion states which were compared with the direct observation of the bar surface by breaking the sample.The test duration was about two days and the results clearly show the differences in efficiency of the inhibitors tested.

  3. The AHP method used in assessment of foundry enterprise position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szymszal

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Complex assessment of activity of a selected foundry enterprise based on a modern AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process method has beenpresented. Having defined the areas of analysis, which include: marketing (products, distribution channels, sales organisation and client concentration, personnel (skills, managerial abilities, organisation climate, effectiveness of incentives, personnel fluctuations, production (availability of raw materials, technical level of production, effective use of production capacities, organisation and management (foundry structure, organisation culture, management performance, the analysis was made using the weighted sum of evaluations. The second step consisted in a comparative assessment of Foundry position using Saaty’s scale modified by Weber and the AHP method with examinationof a hierarchy structure involving the main (parent problem and its direct evolution into sub-problems. The assessment of Foundryposition made by AHP enables introducing changes and/or innovations which are expected to improve the overall productioneffectiveness.

  4. Rapid assessment methods in eye care: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Marmamula

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable information is required for the planning and management of eye care services. While classical research methods provide reliable estimates, they are prohibitively expensive and resource intensive. Rapid assessment (RA methods are indispensable tools in situations where data are needed quickly and where time- or cost-related factors prohibit the use of classical epidemiological surveys. These methods have been developed and field tested, and can be applied across almost the entire gamut of health care. The 1990s witnessed the emergence of RA methods in eye care for cataract, onchocerciasis, and trachoma and, more recently, the main causes of avoidable blindness and visual impairment. The important features of RA methods include the use of local resources, simplified sampling methodology, and a simple examination protocol/data collection method that can be performed by locally available personnel. The analysis is quick and easy to interpret. The entire process is inexpensive, so the survey may be repeated once every 5-10 years to assess the changing trends in disease burden. RA survey methods are typically linked with an intervention. This article provides an overview of the RA methods commonly used in eye care, and emphasizes the selection of appropriate methods based on the local need and context.

  5. Significance and challenges of stereoselectivity assessing methods in drug metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuowei Shen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Stereoselectivity in drug metabolism can not only influence the pharmacological activities, tolerability, safety, and bioavailability of drugs directly, but also cause different kinds of drug–drug interactions. Thus, assessing stereoselectivity in drug metabolism is of great significance for pharmaceutical research and development (R&D and rational use in clinic. Although there are various methods available for assessing stereoselectivity in drug metabolism, many of them have shortcomings. The indirect method of chromatographic methods can only be applicable to specific samples with functional groups to be derivatized or form complex with a chiral selector, while the direct method achieved by chiral stationary phases (CSPs is expensive. As a detector of chromatographic methods, mass spectrometry (MS is highly sensitive and specific, whereas the matrix interference is still a challenge to overcome. In addition, the use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and immunoassay in chiral analysis are worth noting. This review presents several typical examples of drug stereoselective metabolism and provides a literature-based evaluation on current chiral analytical techniques to show the significance and challenges of stereoselectivity assessing methods in drug metabolism.

  6. Student evaluation of teaching and assessment methods in pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badyal Dinesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The students are in the best position to comment on the effectiveness of any teaching system and they may be regarded as the best judges to assess the teaching and evaluation methods. Objective: This study was designed to obtain student feedback on teaching and assessment methods in the subject of pharmacology and use it for improvement. Materials and Methods: Based on student feedback from batch 2006, innovative strategies were implemented. To know the effect of these strategies feedback was obtained from subsequent batch 2007 using a written validated questionnaire covering various aspects of teaching and assessment methods. Results: Students were satisfied with all teaching methods except lecture, seminars and pharmacy exercises. Majority of the students showed preference for tutorials, short answer questions and revision classes. All students felt that there should be more time for clinical pharmacology and bedside teaching. The performance score of the students (batch 2007 indicated improvement in their scores (12% when earlier feedback suggestions were implemented. The pass percentage of the subsequent batch in university examinations improved from 90 to 100%. Conclusion: The implementation of suggestions obtained from students resulted in improvement in their performance. Hence, it is very essential to synchronize teaching and evaluation methods with special requirements of medical students.

  7. Student Teachers' Views about Assessment and Evaluation Methods in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to find out assessment and evaluation approaches in a Mathematics Teacher Training Department based on the views and experiences of student teachers. The study used a descriptive survey method, with the research sample consisting of 150 third- and fourth-year Primary Mathematics student teachers. Data were collected using a…

  8. Using Empirical Article Analysis to Assess Research Methods Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachiochi, Peter; Everton, Wendi; Evans, Melanie; Fugere, Madeleine; Escoto, Carlos; Letterman, Margaret; Leszczynski, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Developing students who can apply their knowledge of empirical research is a key outcome of the undergraduate psychology major. This learning outcome was assessed in two research methods courses by having students read and analyze a condensed empirical journal article. At the start and end of the semester, students in multiple sections of an…

  9. Assessing Students' Writing Skills: A Comparison of Direct & Indirect Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffler, Stephen L.

    This research examined the results from direct and indirect writing assessments to determine the most effective method of discrimination. The New Jersey State Department of Education developed a test for ninth-grade students which was designed to measure the ability to apply writing mechanics to written text and to communicate effectively in…

  10. Integrating methods for ecosystem service assessment and valuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hattam, Caroline; Bohnke-Henrichs, Anne; Börger, Tobias; Burdon, Daryl; Hadjimichael, Maria; Delaney, Alyne; Atkins, Jonathan P.; Garrard, Samantha; Austen, Melanie C.

    2015-01-01

    A mixed-method approach was used to assess and value the ecosystem services derived from the Dogger Bank, an extensive shallow sandbank in the southern North Sea. Three parallel studies were undertaken that 1) identified and quantified, where possible, how indicators for ecosystem service provisi

  11. Assessment method for buildings' Rehabilitation needs: Development and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vilhena, A.; Costa Branco De Oliveira Pedro, J.A.; Vasconcelos de Paiva, J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an assessment method of a building rehabilitation needs. It was considered that a building needs rehabilitation if it would not comply with the functional requirements defined in Portuguese legislation or determined by good practices of design and constructio

  12. Myths and Misconceptions about Using Qualitative Methods in Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Shaun R.; Kuh, George D.

    2007-01-01

    The value of qualitative assessment approaches has been underestimated primarily because they are often juxtaposed against long-standing quantitative traditions and the widely accepted premise that the best research produces generalizable and statistically significant findings. Institutional researchers avoid qualitative methods for at least three…

  13. The Annemarie Roeper Method of Qualitative Assessment: My Journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneventi, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The Annemarie Roeper Method of Qualitative Assessment (QA) establishes an extremely rich set of procedures for revealing students' strengths as well as opportunities for the development of bright young people. This article explores the ways in which the QA process serves as a sterling example of a holistic, authentic system for recognizing…

  14. The Implementation of a New Method of Student Assessment in a Pathogenic Bacteriology Laboratory Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Frances Hite

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A new case study method of assessment was developed to challenge advanced undergraduate biology majors interested in medical careers and allied health professions. This method is an alternative to traditional "unknown" identifications used in many microbiology laboratories. Students used various biochemical tests and selective media throughout the course to identify organisms cultured from their own bodies. In preparing a final assessment for the course, an assignment was developed to challenge the students to apply what they had learned in a medically relevant setting. Also of importance was the elimination of further biochemical testing by these students and prevention of contact with strict pathogens in this lab, due to budget and safety constraints, respectively. Each student was provided with a clinical specimen data record sheet and additional information about their "diseased patient". Students used analytical skills and critical thinking, as well as knowledge gained throughout the semester, to logically deduce the causative agent of disease in the mock patients. Students were required to: (i describe the steps in this logical deduction, (ii provide a brief overview of the characteristics and virulence factors of the organism(s, (iii investigate all disease(s caused by the organism, (iv describe symptomology of the patient in detail, and (v investigate disease treatment and prevention methods. The final assignment involved library and Internet research and culminated in a written report, which further developed writing and communication skills. Detailed descriptions of and materials for this assignment are provided along with an overall evaluation of this method after implementation.

  15. Class - III malocclusion: Genetics or environment? A twins study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jena A

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Etiology of class-III malocclusion is generally believed to be genetic. A wide range of environmental factors have been suggested as contributing factors for the development of class-III malocclusion. Twin study is one of the most effective methods available for investigating genetically determined variables of malocclusion. Discordancy for class-III malocclusion is a frequent finding in dizygotic twins. However, class-III malocclusion discordancy in monozygotic twins is a rare finding. The purpose of this study of monozygotic twins is to assess the genetic and environmental components of variation within the cranio-dento-facial complex.

  16. Validity of the RIAS for assessing children with traumatic brain injury: sensitivity to TBI and comparability to the WISC-III and WISC-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Daniel N; Stolberg, Paul C; Thaler, Nicholas S; Sutton, Griffin; Mayfield, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Intelligence tests are commonly administered to children following moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). The Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS) is a recently developed measure of intellectual ability that has a number of appealing features for assessing individuals with brain damage, but as yet has little validity information when applied to children with TBI or other forms of brain injury. It is therefore unclear whether RIAS scores are sensitive to brain injury and how they compare to older more well-established tests such as the Wechsler scales. The current article reports two studies that examine these matters in youth with TBI. The first study examined sensitivity of the RIAS to TBI in 110 children. Results indicated the TBI sample performed significantly worse compared with the standardization sample on all RIAS index scores. The second study included 102 children who were administered either the RIAS, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III), or WISC-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV; 34 children in each group). Comparisons among the RIAS, WISC-III, and WISC-IV groups indicated no significant differences among the measures on verbal, nonverbal, and Composite Index/Full-Scale IQs. Results provide support for the sensitivity of the RIAS to TBI in children and also suggest that IQs produced by the RIAS, WISC-III, and WISC-IV do not significantly vary from one test to the other, which is particularly true of the verbal and Composite Index/Full-Scale IQs.

  17. Assessment of English- and Spanish-Speaking Students with the WISC-III and Leiter-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathers-Schiffman, Teresa A.; Thompson, Marilyn S.

    2007-01-01

    The Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Leiter-R) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III) scores of 47 English- and 47 Spanish-speaking students were analyzed, and the effects of English language ability on these scores were examined. Leiter-R validity was supported for both language groups. WISC-III…

  18. Assessing Internet energy intensity: A review of methods and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coroama, Vlad C., E-mail: vcoroama@gmail.com [Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Hilty, Lorenz M. [Department of Informatics, University of Zurich, Binzmühlestrasse 14, 8050 Zurich (Switzerland); Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Lerchenfeldstr. 5, 9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Centre for Sustainable Communications, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Lindstedtsvägen 5, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-02-15

    Assessing the average energy intensity of Internet transmissions is a complex task that has been a controversial subject of discussion. Estimates published over the last decade diverge by up to four orders of magnitude — from 0.0064 kilowatt-hours per gigabyte (kWh/GB) to 136 kWh/GB. This article presents a review of the methodological approaches used so far in such assessments: i) top–down analyses based on estimates of the overall Internet energy consumption and the overall Internet traffic, whereby average energy intensity is calculated by dividing energy by traffic for a given period of time, ii) model-based approaches that model all components needed to sustain an amount of Internet traffic, and iii) bottom–up approaches based on case studies and generalization of the results. Our analysis of the existing studies shows that the large spread of results is mainly caused by two factors: a) the year of reference of the analysis, which has significant influence due to efficiency gains in electronic equipment, and b) whether end devices such as personal computers or servers are included within the system boundary or not. For an overall assessment of the energy needed to perform a specific task involving the Internet, it is necessary to account for the types of end devices needed for the task, while the energy needed for data transmission can be added based on a generic estimate of Internet energy intensity for a given year. Separating the Internet as a data transmission system from the end devices leads to more accurate models and to results that are more informative for decision makers, because end devices and the networking equipment of the Internet usually belong to different spheres of control. -- Highlights: • Assessments of the energy intensity of the Internet differ by a factor of 20,000. • We review top–down, model-based, and bottom–up estimates from literature. • Main divergence factors are the year studied and the inclusion of end devices

  19. Comparing the effects of Fe(III) and Cu(II) on the binding affinity of erlotinib to bovine serum albumin using spectroscopic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yan [The State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Chen, Mingmao [Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Song, Ling, E-mail: songling@fjirsm.ac.cn [The State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China)

    2013-02-15

    The interactions between erlotinib (ET) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) in the absence and presence of Cu(II) and Fe(III) in aqueous solution were investigated by using fluorescence, circular dichroism and three-dimensional (3D) fluorescence spectroscopic methods under simulative physiological conditions. Erlotinib effectively quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA with slight redshifts in the absence and presence of Cu(II) and Fe(III). Cu(II) decreased the binding affinity and reduced the binding sites of erlotinib to BSA, while Fe(III) increased the binding affinity and binding sites of erlotinib to BSA. The negative values of {Delta}H and {Delta}S illustrate that the binding is mainly driven by the hydrogen bond and van der Waals force. The conformation of BSA was changed through ET binding in the presence of Cu(II) and Fe(III), which was revealed by circular dichroism, synchronous fluorescence and 3D fluorescence spectroscopic methods. The results indicate that the binding capability of erlotinib to BSA is affected by the types of metal ions. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interaction of erlotinib (ET) with BSA in the presence of Cu(II) and Fe(III) was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using various spectroscopic methods such as UV, CD, fluorescence and three-dimensional (3D) fluorescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of metal ions on the binding activity of ET to BSA have not been reported. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ternary system Cu(II)/Fe(III)-ET-BSA induced the conformational change of BSA.

  20. Een ionchromatografische methode voor de bepaling van chroom(III) en chroom(IV) in drink-, grond-, regen-, en oppervlaktewater in het lage picomolbereik

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neele J; Cleven RFMJ; LAC

    1999-01-01

    De prestaties en de uitvoering van de valentie specifieke analyse van chroom in watermonsters wordt in dit rapport beschreven. Een geautomatiseerde ionchromatografische methode voor de gelijktijdige bepaling van lage gehalten chroom(III) en chroom(IV) in diverse typen water is ontwikkeld en geop

  1. Standard guide for three methods of assessing buried steel tanks

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1998-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers procedures to be implemented prior to the application of cathodic protection for evaluating the suitability of a tank for upgrading by cathodic protection alone. 1.2 Three procedures are described and identified as Methods A, B, and C. 1.2.1 Method A—Noninvasive with primary emphasis on statistical and electrochemical analysis of external site environment corrosion data. 1.2.2 Method B—Invasive ultrasonic thickness testing with external corrosion evaluation. 1.2.3 Method C—Invasive permanently recorded visual inspection and evaluation including external corrosion assessment. 1.3 This guide presents the methodology and the procedures utilizing site and tank specific data for determining a tank's condition and the suitability for such tanks to be upgraded with cathodic protection. 1.4 The tank's condition shall be assessed using Method A, B, or C. Prior to assessing the tank, a preliminary site survey shall be performed pursuant to Section 8 and the tank shall be tightness test...

  2. A Structured Framework for Assessing the "Goodness" of Agile Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Soundararajan, Shvetha

    2010-01-01

    Agile Methods are designed for customization; they offer an organization or a team the flexibility to adopt a set of principles and practices based on their culture and values. While that flexibility is consistent with the agile philosophy, it can lead to the adoption of principles and practices that can be sub-optimal relative to the desired objectives. We question then, how can one determine if adopted practices are "in sync" with the identified principles, and to what extent those principles support organizational objectives? In this research, we focus on assessing the "goodness" of an agile method adopted by an organization based on (1) its adequacy, (2) the capability of the organization to provide the supporting environment to competently implement the method, and (3) its effectiveness. To guide our assessment, we propose the Objectives, Principles and Practices (OPP) framework. The design of the OPP framework revolves around the identification of the agile objectives, principles that support the achiev...

  3. Total System Performance Assessment-License Application Methods and Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. McNeish

    2002-09-13

    ''Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA) Methods and Approach'' provides the top-level method and approach for conducting the TSPA-LA model development and analyses. The method and approach is responsive to the criteria set forth in Total System Performance Assessment Integration (TSPAI) Key Technical Issue (KTI) agreements, the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan'' (CNWRA 2002 [158449]), and 10 CFR Part 63. This introductory section provides an overview of the TSPA-LA, the projected TSPA-LA documentation structure, and the goals of the document. It also provides a brief discussion of the regulatory framework, the approach to risk management of the development and analysis of the model, and the overall organization of the document. The section closes with some important conventions that are utilized in this document.

  4. Statistical methods for assessing agreement between continuous measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokolowski, Ineta; Hansen, Rikke Pilegaard; Vedsted, Peter

    ), concordance coefficient, Bland-Altman limits of agreement and percentage of agreement to assess the agreement between patient reported delay and doctor reported delay in diagnosis of cancer in general practice. Key messages: The correct statistical approach is not obvious. Many studies give the product......-moment correlation coefficient (r) between the results of the two measurements methods as an indicator of agreement, which is wrong. There have been proposed several alternative methods, which we will describe together with preconditions for use of the methods....

  5. Validating the JobFit system functional assessment method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenny Legge; Robin Burgess-Limerick

    2007-05-15

    Workplace injuries are costing the Australian coal mining industry and its communities $410 Million a year. This ACARP study aims to meet those demands by developing a safe, reliable and valid pre-employment functional assessment tool. All JobFit System Pre-Employment Functional Assessments (PEFAs) consist of a musculoskeletal screen, balance test, aerobic fitness test and job-specific postural tolerances and material handling tasks. The results of each component are compared to the applicant's job demands and an overall PEFA score between 1 and 4 is given with 1 being the better score. The reliability study and validity study were conducted concurrently. The reliability study examined test-retest, intra-tester and inter-tester reliability of the JobFit System Functional Assessment Method. Overall, good to excellent reliability was found, which was sufficient to be used for comparison with injury data for determining the validity of the assessment. The overall assessment score and material handling tasks had the greatest reliability. The validity study compared the assessment results of 336 records from a Queensland underground and open cut coal mine with their injury records. A predictive relationship was found between PEFA score and the risk of a back/trunk/shoulder injury from manual handling. An association was also found between PEFA score of 1 and increased length of employment. Lower aerobic fitness test results had an inverse relationship with injury rates. The study found that underground workers, regardless of PEFA score, were more likely to have an injury when compared to other departments. No relationship was found between age and risk of injury. These results confirm the validity of the JobFit System Functional Assessment method.

  6. Methodical support of assessment of enterprise corporate culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Ovcharenko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The article summarizes the existing theoretical approaches to the assessment of corporate culture of enterprise and defined the benefits and shortcomings of existing assessment methods.The results of the analysis. In particular, the present methods of such complex phenomena as organization's culture are conventionally divided into three groups: holistic scholar is deeply immersed in the culture of the organization and acts as communication observer; metaphorical the researcher uses language samples of documents, reports that there are stories and conversations that help to identify the fingerprints of culture, quantitative the researcher evaluates many points of view for evaluating the attributes of organization's culture.The authors concluded that it is important to develop methodology based on empirical evidence obtained as a result of a combination of both quantitative and holistic techniques for a comprehensive assessment of corporate culture. It will maximize the assessment of corporate culture. Thorough analysis of existing scientific research and theoretical developments of the mentioned problems the authors revealed the absence of adequate methodological approaches to quantify the level of corporate culture in the company.When calculating the integral indicator of corporate culture LCC Level of corporate culture, the authors performed a mathematical formalization assessment of corporate culture, the algorithm of calculation which includes seven stages.Hierarchical three-level structure of corporate culture was developed for assessing the corporate culture of the company. The limits of each criterion were determined. For identifying the relationship of each qualitative assessment of the value of the i-th parameter with the appropriate level of corporate culture (low, medium, high, high authors used the method of analysis T.Saaty. Formula for calculating the integral index, defined by the range and quality level of

  7. Risk assessment method of major unsafe hydroelectric project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU ZhongRu; SU HuaiZhi; GUO HaiQing

    2008-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of major unsafe hydroelectric projects and the data from field detection, in situ monitoring, and regular safety inspection, the funda- menial principles of operation risk assessment are proposed in this paper. Mean- while, a three layer hierarchical system is constructed, and an improved analytical hierarchical process combining genetic algorithm and analytical hierarchical process is established, with corresponding program. The operation risk of some unsafe dam was assessed with the principles, method and program presented in this paper and the major factors which would affect the operation of the dam were pointed out.

  8. Risk assessment method of major unsafe hydroelectric project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of major unsafe hydroelectric projects and the data from field detection, in situ monitoring, and regular safety inspection, the funda-mental principles of operation risk assessment are proposed in this paper. Mean-while, a three layer hierarchical system is constructed, and an improved analytical hierarchical process combining genetic algorithm and analytical hierarchical process is established, with corresponding program. The operation risk of some unsafe dam was assessed with the principles, method and program presented in this paper and the major factors which would affect the operation of the dam were pointed out.

  9. Assessing the potential hydrological impact of the Gibe III Dam on Lake Turkana water level using multi-source satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Velpuri

    2012-10-01

    dam commencement. Areas along the Lake Turkana shoreline that are vulnerable to fluctuations in lake levels due to the Gibe III dam were also identified. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of using existing multi-source satellite data in a basic modeling framework to assess the potential hydrological impact of an upstream dam on a terminal downstream lake. The results obtained from this study could also be used to evaluate alternative dam-filling scenarios and assess the potential impact of the dam on Lake Turkana under different operational strategies.

  10. Application of geosites assessment method in geopark context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Simon; Perret, Amandine; Renau, Pierre; Cartier-Moulin, Olivier; Regolini-Bissig, Géraldine

    2014-05-01

    The regional natural park of the Monts d'Ardèche (Ardèche and Haute-Loire departments, France) is candidate to the European Geopark Network (EGN) in 2014. The area has a wide geodiversity - with rocks from Cambrian to Pleistocene (basalt flows) - and interesting features like phonolitic protrusions, maars and granite boulders fields. Around 115 sites were selected and documented through a geosites inventory carried out in the territory. This pre-selection was supervised by the Ardèche Geological Society and is therefore expert advice based. In the context of EGN candidature, these potential geosites were assessed with a simplified method. It follows the spirit of the method from the University of Lausanne (Reynard et al., 2007) and its recent developments: assessment of the scientific (central) value and of a set of additional values (ecological and cultural). As this assessment aimed to offer a management tool to the future geopark's authorities, a special focus was given to management aspects. In particular, the opportunities to use the site for education (from schools to universities) and for tourism as well as the existence of protection and of interpretive facilities were documented and assessed. Several interesting conclusions may be drawn from this case study: (1) expert assessment is effective when it is based on a pre-existing inventory which is well structured and documented; (2) even simplified, an assessment method is a very useful framework to expert assessment as it focuses the discussions on most important points and helps to balance the assessment; (3) whereas the inventory can be extensively detailed and partly academic, the assessment in the geopark context is objective-driven in order to answer management needs. The place of the geosites assessment among the three key players of a geopark construction process (i.e. territory's managers, local geoscientists and EGN) is also discussed. This place can be defined as the point of consensus of needs

  11. The role of validated analytical methods in JECFA drug assessments and evaluation for recommending MRLs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boison, Joe O

    2016-05-01

    The Joint Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) is one of three Codex committees tasked with applying risk analysis and relying on independent scientific advice provided by expert bodies organized by FAO/WHO when developing standards. While not officially part of the Codex Alimentarius Commission structure, JECFA provides independent scientific advice to the Commission and its specialist committees such as the Codex Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs in Foods (CCRVDF) in setting maximum residue limits (MRLs) for veterinary drugs. Codex methods of analysis (Types I, II, III, and IV) are defined in the Codex Procedural Manual as are criteria to be used for selecting methods of analysis. However, if a method is to be used under a single laboratory condition to support regulatory work, it must be validated according to an internationally recognized protocol and the use of the method must be embedded in a quality assurance system in compliance with ISO/IEC 17025:2005. This paper examines the attributes of the methods used to generate residue depletion data for drug registration and/or licensing and for supporting regulatory enforcement initiatives that experts consider to be useful and appropriate in their assessment of methods of analysis. Copyright © 2016 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Drug Testing and Analysis © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Credit Assessment of Contractors: A Rough Set Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Gaojun; ZHU Yan

    2006-01-01

    A rough set method is presented in this paper to assess the credit of contractors. Unlike traditional methods, the rough set method deduces credit-classifying rules from actual data to predict new cases. The method uses a contractors' database with a genetic algorithm and an exhaustive reduction implemented using ROSETTA software that integrates rough set method. The classification accuracy of the rough set model is not as good as that of a decision tree, logistic regression, and neural network models, but the rough set model more accurately predicts contractors with bad credit. The results show that the rough set model is especially useful for detecting corporations with bad credit in the currently disordered Chinese construction market.

  13. Assessment and comparison of methods for solar ultraviolet radiation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leszczynski, K.

    1995-06-01

    In the study, the different methods to measure the solar ultraviolet radiation are compared. The methods included are spectroradiometric, erythemally weighted broadband and multi-channel measurements. The comparison of the different methods is based on a literature review and assessments of optical characteristics of the spectroradiometer Optronic 742 of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) and of the erythemally weighted Robertson-Berger type broadband radiometers Solar Light models 500 and 501 of the Finnish Meteorological Institute and STUK. An introduction to the sources of error in solar UV measurements, to methods for radiometric characterization of UV radiometers together with methods for error reduction are presented. Reviews on experiences from world-wide UV monitoring efforts and instrumentation as well as on the results from international UV radiometer intercomparisons are also presented. (62 refs.).

  14. Fuzzy Comprehensive Assessment Method to Determine Tectonic Stress Patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hai; QI Lan; HAO Caizhe; GUO Lei

    2007-01-01

    The tectonic stress patterns were determined by a fuzzy comprehensive assessment method. Data of in-situ survey and fault information were utilized in the method. First, by making pressure and tension in the directions of along-river, cross-river, shear clockwise, and shear counter-clockwise, 26 types of tectonic stress patterns were presented. And the stress vector of each pat-tern was obtained with FE software by taking unit displacement as boundary load. Then, by takingthe 26 types of tectonic stress patterns as index set and 3 main stresses as factor set and choosing various operators, comparison of directions of computational stress vector and survey stress vector was made and the most possible tectonic stress pattern was obtained. Taking the 26 types of tectonic stress patterns as index set and strike angle as factor set, comparison of relationships between formation of fault and tectonic stress was made, and the tectonic stress patterns were assessed with known fault information. By summarizing the above assessment results, the most impossible tectonic stress pattern was obtained. Finally an engineering case was quoted to validate that the method is more feasible and reliable than traditional empirical method.

  15. How to assess the quality of your analytical method?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topic, Elizabeta; Nikolac, Nora; Panteghini, Mauro; Theodorsson, Elvar; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Miler, Marijana; Simundic, Ana-Maria; Infusino, Ilenia; Nordin, Gunnar; Westgard, Sten

    2015-10-01

    Laboratory medicine is amongst the fastest growing fields in medicine, crucial in diagnosis, support of prevention and in the monitoring of disease for individual patients and for the evaluation of treatment for populations of patients. Therefore, high quality and safety in laboratory testing has a prominent role in high-quality healthcare. Applied knowledge and competencies of professionals in laboratory medicine increases the clinical value of laboratory results by decreasing laboratory errors, increasing appropriate utilization of tests, and increasing cost effectiveness. This collective paper provides insights into how to validate the laboratory assays and assess the quality of methods. It is a synopsis of the lectures at the 15th European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) Continuing Postgraduate Course in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine entitled "How to assess the quality of your method?" (Zagreb, Croatia, 24-25 October 2015). The leading topics to be discussed include who, what and when to do in validation/verification of methods, verification of imprecision and bias, verification of reference intervals, verification of qualitative test procedures, verification of blood collection systems, comparability of results among methods and analytical systems, limit of detection, limit of quantification and limit of decision, how to assess the measurement uncertainty, the optimal use of Internal Quality Control and External Quality Assessment data, Six Sigma metrics, performance specifications, as well as biological variation. This article, which continues the annual tradition of collective papers from the EFLM continuing postgraduate courses in clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine, aims to provide further contributions by discussing the quality of laboratory methods and measurements and, at the same time, to offer continuing professional development to the attendees.

  16. Dogmas in the assessment of usability evaluation methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornbæk, Kasper

    2010-01-01

    Usability evaluation methods (UEMs) are widely recognised as an essential part of systems development. Assessments of the performance of UEMs, however, have been criticised for low validity and limited reliability. The present study extends this critique by describing seven dogmas in recent work...... on UEMs. The dogmas include using inadequate procedures and measures for assessment, focusing on win-lose outcomes, holding simplistic models of how usability evaluators work, concentrating on evaluation rather than on design and working from the assumption that usability problems are real. We discuss...... research approaches that may help move beyond the dogmas. In particular, we emphasise detailed studies of evaluation processes, assessments of the impact of UEMs on design carried out in real-world systems development and analyses of how UEMs may be combined...

  17. Cardiotocography (CTG as the screening method of fetal condition assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zulčić-Nakić

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A basic function of fetal monitoring is an analysis of fetal cardiac action. Cardiotocography (CTG cannot provide all necessary information for assessment of the fetal condition as it is not sufficiently reliable and gives a large number of false positive results that increase the number of cesarean sections. An objective of this work was to establish CTG reliability as a method for assessment of intrapartal fetal condition. Based on CTG parameters (baseline fetal heart rate, fetal heart rate variability, oscillations and decelerations 100 pathological CTG records, collected at Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of the Tuzla University Clinic Hospital from 01.12.2004 to 05.08.2005 were identified. Using binomial distribution they were classified as non-pathological (indicating absence of asphyxia and pathological (indicating possible presence of asphyxia. After the delivery the condition of newborns was assessed according to the Apgar score. Based on comparison between certain pathological parametres of CTG records and newborns’ conditions at birth the results indicated high positive predictive values whereas sensitivity and accuracy were low. Apgar score 1. from 7 upwards was given to 96 (96% newborns whereas Apgar score 2 from 7 upwards was given to all the newborns with previous pathological CTG records. Results have confirmed that CTG can be used only as a screening method for assessment of intrapartal fetal condition.

  18. Assessing Security of Supply: Three Methods Used in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivonen, Hannu

    Public Private Partnership (PPP) has an important role in securing supply in Finland. Three methods are used in assessing the level of security of supply. First, in national expert groups, a linear mathematical model has been used. The model is based on interdependency estimates. It ranks societal functions or its more detailed components, such as items in the food supply chain, according to the effect and risk pertinent to the interdependencies. Second, the security of supply is assessed in industrial branch committees (clusters and pools) in the form of indicators. The level of security of supply is assessed against five generic factors (dimension 1) and tens of business branch specific functions (dimension 2). Third, in two thousand individual critical companies, the maturity of operational continuity management is assessed using Capability Maturity Model (CMM) in an extranet application. The pool committees and authorities obtain an anonymous summary. The assessments are used in allocating efforts for securing supply. The efforts may be new instructions, training, exercising, and in some cases, investment and regulation.

  19. Methods for Developing Emissions Scenarios for Integrated Assessment Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prinn, Ronald [MIT; Webster, Mort [MIT

    2007-08-20

    The overall objective of this research was to contribute data and methods to support the future development of new emissions scenarios for integrated assessment of climate change. Specifically, this research had two main objectives: 1. Use historical data on economic growth and energy efficiency changes, and develop probability density functions (PDFs) for the appropriate parameters for two or three commonly used integrated assessment models. 2. Using the parameter distributions developed through the first task and previous work, we will develop methods of designing multi-gas emission scenarios that usefully span the joint uncertainty space in a small number of scenarios. Results on the autonomous energy efficiency improvement (AEEI) parameter are summarized, an uncertainty analysis of elasticities of substitution is described, and the probabilistic emissions scenario approach is presented.

  20. Systematic evaluation of observational methods assessing biomechanical exposures at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takala, Esa-Pekka; Irmeli, Pehkonen; Forsman, Mikael

    2009-01-01

      Systematic evaluation of observational methods assessing biomechanical exposures at work   Esa-Pekka Takala 1, Irmeli Pehkonen 1, Mikael Forsman 2, Gert-Åke Hansson 3, Svend Erik Mathiassen 4, W. Patrick Neumann 5, Gisela Sjøgaard 6, Kaj Bo Veiersted 7, Rolf Westgaard 8, Jørgen Winkel 9   1...... University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, 9 University of Gothenburg and National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen   The aim of this project was to identify and systematically evaluate observational methods to assess workload on the musculoskeletal system. Searches......): musculoskeletal, back, neck, extremities. The results were first screened by title and abstract. About 580 potential references were identified, including original scientific reports, reviews and internet sources. Full texts of these references were collated in electronic (or scanned) format for further...

  1. Assessing proprioception:A critical review of methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Han; Gordon Waddington; Roger Adams; Judith Anson; Yu Liu

    2016-01-01

    To control movement, the brain has to integrate proprioceptive information from a variety of mechanoreceptors. The role of proprioception in daily activities, exercise,and sports has been extensively investigated, using different techniques, yet the proprioceptive mechanisms underlying human movement control are still unclear. In the current work we have reviewed understanding of proprioception and the three testing methods: threshold to detection of passive motion, joint position reproduction, and active movement extent discrimination, all of which have been used for assessing proprioception. The origin of the methods, the different testing apparatus, and the procedures and protocols used in each approach are compared and discussed. Recommendations are made for choosing an appropriate technique when assessing proprioceptive mechanisms in different contexts.

  2. Theory of and Method for Nontraditional Mining Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@NONTRADITIONAL MINING ASSESSMENT THEORY Nontraditional Mineral Resources Nontraditional mineral resources refers to the potential mineral resources that are ignored, undiscovered and unutilized under present technical, economic and environmental conditions. This research scope can be listed as follows: (1)Nontraditional mineral resources refer to new types, new depths, new scopes, new techniques and new utilization. (2)Nontraditional theories and methods include new theories,new technologies and new methods in the aspects of ore-forming, prospecting, mining, metallurgy and mining assessment such as nontraditional ore-forming predication. (3) Nontraditional mining refers to the types of clean and unpolluted mining, intensive mining, high value-added mining, high technology mining, post-mining economy and comprehensive service mining.

  3. The Utility of the Bifactor Method for Unidimensionality Assessment When Other Methods Disagree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Luo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an empirical illustration of the utility of the bifactor method for unidimensionality assessment when other methods disagree. Specifically, we used two popular methods for unidimensionality assessment: (a evaluating the model fit of a one-factor model using Mplus, and (b DIMTEST to show that different unidimensionality methods may lead to different results, and argued that in such cases the bifactor method can be particularly useful. Those procedures were applied to English Placement Test (EPT, a high-stakes English proficiency test in Saudi Arabia, to determine whether EPT is unidimensional so that a unidimensional item response theory (IRT model can be used for calibration and scoring. We concluded that despite the inconsistency between the one-factor model approach and DIMTEST, the bifactor method indicates that, for practical purposes, unidimensionality assumption holds for EPT.

  4. A Novel Situation Assessment Method for Network Survivability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian; WANG Huiqiang; ZHAO Guosheng

    2006-01-01

    Survivability has emerged as a new phase for the development of network security technique, and quantifying survivability for network system helps to evaluate it exactly for the system in different environments. In this paper, we adopt a stochastic method called sequential Monte Carlo and try to reflect dynamic evolvement process of network survivability situation from several time sequences. The experiment results show that this method has the features of quantitative description, real-time calculation and dynamic tracking, and it is a good situation assessment solution for network survivability.

  5. Comparison of two nutritional assessment methods in gastroenterology patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Branka; F; Filipovi; Milan; Gaji; Nikola; Milini; Branislav; Milovanovi; Branislav; R; Filipovi; Mirjana; Cvetkovi; Nela; ibali

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate and compare efficacy and differences in the nutritional status evaluation of gastroenterology patients by application of two methods:subjective global assessment(SGA) and nutritional risk index(NRI).METHODS:The investigation was performed on 299 hospitalized patients,aged 18-84 years(average life span 55.57 ± 12.84),with different gastrointe-stinal pathology,admitted to the Department of Gastroenterohepatology,Clinical and Hospital Center "Bezanijska Kosa" during a period of 180 d.All the...

  6. Employment of kernel methods on wind turbine power performance assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrimpas, Georgios Alexandros; Sweeney, Christian Walsted; Marhadi, Kun S.

    2015-01-01

    A power performance assessment technique is developed for the detection of power production discrepancies in wind turbines. The method employs a widely used nonparametric pattern recognition technique, the kernel methods. The evaluation is based on the trending of an extracted feature from...... the kernel matrix, called similarity index, which is introduced by the authors for the first time. The operation of the turbine and consequently the computation of the similarity indexes is classified into five power bins offering better resolution and thus more consistent root cause analysis. The accurate...

  7. Economic Benefits: Metrics and Methods for Landscape Performance Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an expanding research frontier in the landscape architecture discipline, landscape performance research, which embraces the scientific dimension of landscape architecture through evidence-based designs that are anchored in quantitative performance assessment. Specifically, this paper summarizes metrics and methods for determining landscape-derived economic benefits that have been utilized in the Landscape Performance Series (LPS initiated by the Landscape Architecture Foundation. This paper identifies 24 metrics and 32 associated methods for the assessment of economic benefits found in 82 published case studies. Common issues arising through research in quantifying economic benefits for the LPS are discussed and the various approaches taken by researchers are clarified. The paper also provides an analysis of three case studies from the LPS that are representative of common research methods used to quantify economic benefits. The paper suggests that high(er levels of sustainability in the built environment require the integration of economic benefits into landscape performance assessment portfolios in order to forecast project success and reduce uncertainties. Therefore, evidence-based design approaches increase the scientific rigor of landscape architecture education and research, and elevate the status of the profession.

  8. Numerical methods for assessment of the ship's pollutant emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenaru, A.; Acomi, N.

    2016-08-01

    The maritime transportation sector constitutes a source of atmospheric pollution. To avoid or minimize ships pollutant emissions the first step is to assess them. Two methods of estimation of the ships’ emissions are proposed in this paper. These methods prove their utility for shipboard and shore based management personnel from the practical perspective. The methods were demonstrated for a product tanker vessel where a permanent monitoring system for the pollutant emissions has previously been fitted. The values of the polluting agents from the exhaust gas were determined for the ship from the shipyard delivery and were used as starting point. Based on these values, the paper aimed at numerical assessing of ship's emissions in order to determine the ways for avoiding environmental pollution: the analytical method of determining the concentrations of the exhaust gas components, by using computation program MathCAD, and the graphical method of determining the concentrations of the exhaust gas components, using variation diagrams of the parameters, where the results of the on board measurements were introduced, following the application of pertinent correction factors. The results should be regarded as a supporting tool during the decision making process linked to the reduction of ship's pollutant emissions.

  9. [Methods of radiological bone age assessment (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendel, H

    1976-09-01

    An assessment of the bone age can be made in different manners. Numerical methods calculating the number of existing ossification centers are to inaccurate. The use of "age-of-appearance" tables gives a more accurate evaluation. In both methods, however, x-ray films of several body parts must be made. Therefore, they are complicated and lead to a higher patient radiation exposure. Methods using hand and wrist as a representative area of the whole skeleton are of greater value for routine bone-age assessments. There is a wide-spread use of the Greulich-Pyle atlas. The atlas-method is fully sufficient in the great majority of cases when certain rules are considered. A more detailed information can be achieved by using the so-called "bone-by-bone" evaluation. A score system was introduced by Tanner and Whitehouse which should be used to a greater extent than is done up to now. Metrical methods give no real information about the bone age but additional informations which can be helpful in following examinations with short intervals.

  10. A fast RCS accuracy assessment method for passive radar calibrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yongsheng; Li, Chuanrong; Tang, Lingli; Ma, Lingling; Liu, QI

    2016-10-01

    In microwave radar radiometric calibration, the corner reflector acts as the standard reference target but its structure is usually deformed during the transportation and installation, or deformed by wind and gravity while permanently installed outdoor, which will decrease the RCS accuracy and therefore the radiometric calibration accuracy. A fast RCS accuracy measurement method based on 3-D measuring instrument and RCS simulation was proposed in this paper for tracking the characteristic variation of the corner reflector. In the first step, RCS simulation algorithm was selected and its simulation accuracy was assessed. In the second step, the 3-D measuring instrument was selected and its measuring accuracy was evaluated. Once the accuracy of the selected RCS simulation algorithm and 3-D measuring instrument was satisfied for the RCS accuracy assessment, the 3-D structure of the corner reflector would be obtained by the 3-D measuring instrument, and then the RCSs of the obtained 3-D structure and corresponding ideal structure would be calculated respectively based on the selected RCS simulation algorithm. The final RCS accuracy was the absolute difference of the two RCS calculation results. The advantage of the proposed method was that it could be applied outdoor easily, avoiding the correlation among the plate edge length error, plate orthogonality error, plate curvature error. The accuracy of this method is higher than the method using distortion equation. In the end of the paper, a measurement example was presented in order to show the performance of the proposed method.

  11. Improved GIS-based Methods for Traffic Noise Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto Anker; Bloch, Karsten Sand

    1996-01-01

    -model from the 2D digital map by utilising the information in the BBR-register. Thus, the method can also estimate the noise on each floor and it takes care of the differences in barriers from tall buildings versus low buildings. The practical testing of the methods in Middelfart showed that the traditional....... The number of buildings within the buffers are enumerated. This technique provides an inaccurate assessment of the noise diffusion since it does not correct for buildings barrier and reflection to noise. The paper presents the results from a research project where the traditional noise buffer technique...... was compared with a new method which includes these corrections. Both methods follow the Common Nordic Noise Calculation Model, although the traditional buffer technique ignores parts of the model. The basis for the work was a digital map of roads and building polygons, combined with a traffic- and road...

  12. Experimental determination of water activity for binary aqueous cerium(III) ionic solutions: application to an assessment of the predictive capability of the binding mean spherical approximation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruas, Alexandre; Simonin, Jean-Pierre; Turq, Pierre; Moisy, Philippe

    2005-12-08

    This work is aimed at a description of the thermodynamic properties of actinide salt solutions at high concentration. The predictive capability of the binding mean spherical approximation (BIMSA) theory to describe the thermodynamic properties of electrolytes is assessed in the case of aqueous solutions of lanthanide(III) nitrate and chloride salts. Osmotic coefficients of cerium(III) nitrate and chloride were calculated from other lanthanide(III) salts properties. In parallel, concentrated binary solutions of cerium nitrate were prepared in order to measure experimentally its water activity and density as a function of concentration, at 25 degrees C. Water activities of several binary solutions of cerium chloride were also measured to check existing data on this salt. Then, the properties of cerium chloride and cerium nitrate solutions were compared within the BIMSA model. Osmotic coefficient values for promethium nitrate and promethium chloride given by this theory are proposed. Finally, water activity measurements were made to examine the fact that the ternary system Ce(NO3)3/HNO3/H2O and the quaternary system Ce(NO3)3/HNO3/N2H5NO3/H2O may be regarded as "simple solutions" (in the sense of Zdanovskii and Mikulin).

  13. UV and visible activation of Cr(III)-doped TiO2 catalyst prepared by a microwave-assisted sol-gel method during MCPA degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiola-Alvarez, S Y; Guzmán-Mar, J L; Turnes-Palomino, G; Maya-Alejandro, F; Hernández-Ramírez, A; Hinojosa-Reyes, L

    2016-11-10

    Photocatalytic degradation of 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) in aqueous solution using Cr(III)-doped TiO2 under UV and visible light was investigated. The semiconductor material was synthesized by a microwave-assisted sol-gel method with Cr(III) doping contents of 0.02, 0.04, and 0.06 wt%. The catalyst was characterized using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nitrogen physisorption, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The photocatalytic activity for the photodegradation of MCPA was followed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis. The intermediates formed during degradation were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Chloride ion evolution was measured by ion chromatography. Characterization results showed that Cr(III)-doped TiO2 materials possessed a small crystalline size, high surface area, and mesoporous structure. UV-Vis DRS showed enhanced absorption in the visible region as a function of the Cr(III) concentration. The Cr(III)-doped TiO2 catalyst with 0.04 wt% of Cr(III) was more active than bare TiO2 for the degradation of MCPA under both UV and visible light. The intermediates identified during MCPA degradation were 4-chloro-2-methylphenol (CMP), 2-(4-hydroxy-2-methylphenoxy) acetic acid (HMPA), and 2-hydroxybuta-1,3-diene-1,4-diyl-bis (oxy)dimethanol (HBDM); the formation of these intermediates depended on the radiation source.

  14. Methods for sustainable assessment of housing: A comparative analysis of five international methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Quesada Molina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the most internationally important methods of residential building assessment (BREEAM, LEED, VERDE, CASBEE and Qualitel in order to establish bases for future development. This article is divided into three parts: the first, reviews the emergence and objectives of the methods; the second, presents the methodology used in the study; and the third, analyzes and compares these methods. To conclude, the dimensions and categories the methods address are established, as well as the methodological structure, rating system, and limits of the methods.

  15. Norm comparisons of the Spanish-language and English-language WAIS-III: Implications for clinical assessment and test adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funes, Cynthia M; Rodriguez, Juventino Hernandez; Lopez, Steven Regeser

    2016-12-01

    This study provides a systematic comparison of the norms of 3 Spanish-language Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales (WAIS-III) batteries from Mexico, Spain, and Puerto Rico, and the U.S. English-language WAIS-III battery. Specifically, we examined the performance of the 4 normative samples on 2 identical subtests (Digit Span and Digit Symbol-Coding) and 1 nearly identical subtest (Block Design). We found that across most age groups the means associated with the Spanish-language versions of the 3 subtests were lower than the means of the U.S. English-language version. In addition, we found that for most age ranges the Mexican subsamples scored lower than the Spanish subsamples. Lower educational levels of Mexicans and Spaniards compared to U.S. residents are consistent with the general pattern of findings. These results suggest that because of the different norms, applying any of the 3 Spanish-language versions of the WAIS-III generally risks underestimating deficits, and that applying the English-language WAIS-III norms risks overestimating deficits of Spanish-speaking adults. There were a few exceptions to these general patterns. For example, the Mexican subsample ages 70 years and above performed significantly better on the Digit Symbol and Block Design than did the U.S. and Spanish subsamples. Implications for the clinical assessment of U.S. Spanish-speaking Latinos and test adaptation are discussed with an eye toward improving the clinical care for this community. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Geomorphometry-based method of landform assessment for geodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najwer, Alicja; Zwoliński, Zbigniew

    2015-04-01

    Climate variability primarily induces the variations in the intensity and frequency of surface processes and consequently, principal changes in the landscape. As a result, abiotic heterogeneity may be threatened and the key elements of the natural diversity even decay. The concept of geodiversity was created recently and has rapidly gained the approval of scientists around the world. However, the problem recognition is still at an early stage. Moreover, little progress has been made concerning its assessment and geovisualisation. Geographical Information System (GIS) tools currently provide wide possibilities for the Earth's surface studies. Very often, the main limitation in that analysis is acquisition of geodata in appropriate resolution. The main objective of this study was to develop a proceeding algorithm for the landform geodiversity assessment using geomorphometric parameters. Furthermore, final maps were compared to those resulting from thematic layers method. The study area consists of two peculiar valleys, characterized by diverse landscape units and complex geological setting: Sucha Woda in Polish part of Tatra Mts. and Wrzosowka in Sudetes Mts. Both valleys are located in the National Park areas. The basis for the assessment is a proper selection of geomorphometric parameters with reference to the definition of geodiversity. Seven factor maps were prepared for each valley: General Curvature, Topographic Openness, Potential Incoming Solar Radiation, Topographic Position Index, Topographic Wetness Index, Convergence Index and Relative Heights. After the data integration and performing the necessary geoinformation analysis, the next step with a certain degree of subjectivity is score classification of the input maps using an expert system and geostatistical analysis. The crucial point to generate the final maps of geodiversity by multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) with GIS-based Weighted Sum technique is to assign appropriate weights for each factor map by

  17. BODY COMPOSITION ASSESSMENT WITH SEGMENTAL MULTIFREQUENCY BIOIMPEDANCE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka A. Salmi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Body composition assessment is an important factor in weight management, exercise science and clinical health care. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA is widely used method for estimating body composition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate segmental multi-frequency bioimpedance method (SMFBIA in body composition assessment with underwater weighing (UWW and whole body dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA in healthy obese middle-aged male subjects. The measurements were carried out at the UKK Institute for Health Promotion Research in Tampere, Finland according to standard procedures of BIA, UWW and DXA. Fifty-eight (n=58 male subjects, aged 36-53 years, body mass index (BMI 24.9-40.7, were studied. Of them forty (n=40 underwent also DXA measurement. Fat mass (FM, fat-percentage (F% and fat free mass (FFM were the primary outcome variables. The mean whole body FM (±SD from UWW was 31.5 kg (±7.3. By DXA it was 29.9 kg (±8.1 and by SMFBIA it was 25.5 kg (±7.6, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficients (r were 0.91 between UWW and SMFBIA, 0.94 between DXA and SMFBIA and 0.91 between UWW and DXA, respectively. The mean segmental FFM (±SD from DXA was 7.7 kg (±1.0 for arms, 41.7 kg (±4.6 for trunk and 21.9 kg (±2.2 for legs. By SMFBIA, it was 8.5 kg (±0.9, 31.7 kg (±2.5 and 20.3 kg (±1.6, respectively. Pearson correlation coefficients were 0.75 for arms, 0.72 for legs and 0.77 for trunk. This study demonstrates that SMFBIA is usefull method to evaluate fat mass (FM, fat free mass (FFM and fat percentage (F% from whole body. Moreover, SMFBIA is suitable method for assessing segmental distribution of fat free mass (FFM compared to whole body DXA. The results of this study indicate that the SMFBIA method may be particularly advantageous in large epidemiological studies as being a simple, rapid and inexpensive method for field use of whole body and segmental body composition assessment

  18. A GIS-based method for flood risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeropoulos, Kleomenis; Stathopoulos, Nikos; Psarogiannis, Athanasios; Penteris, Dimitris; Tsiakos, Chrisovalantis; Karagiannopoulou, Aikaterini; Krikigianni, Eleni; Karymbalis, Efthimios; Chalkias, Christos

    2016-04-01

    Floods are physical global hazards with negative environmental and socio-economic impacts on local and regional scale. The technological evolution during the last decades, especially in the field of geoinformatics, has offered new advantages in hydrological modelling. This study seeks to use this technology in order to quantify flood risk assessment. The study area which was used is an ungauged catchment and by using mostly GIS hydrological and geomorphological analysis together with a GIS-based distributed Unit Hydrograph model, a series of outcomes have risen. More specifically, this paper examined the behaviour of the Kladeos basin (Peloponnese, Greece) using real rainfall data, as well hypothetical storms. The hydrological analysis held using a Digital Elevation Model of 5x5m pixel size, while the quantitative drainage basin characteristics were calculated and were studied in terms of stream order and its contribution to the flood. Unit Hydrographs are, as it known, useful when there is lack of data and in this work, based on time-area method, a sequences of flood risk assessments have been made using the GIS technology. Essentially, the proposed methodology estimates parameters such as discharge, flow velocity equations etc. in order to quantify flood risk assessment. Keywords Flood Risk Assessment Quantification; GIS; hydrological analysis; geomorphological analysis.

  19. Recent Research Advances in the Risk Assessment Method of an Underground Pressure Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the risk assessment method of an underground pressure pipeline, introduces the risk assessment method of expert grading, fuzzy integrative assessment, probabilistic risk assessment and extenics assessment in an underground pressure pipeline. Moreover, it puts forward the developing orientation of risk assessment.

  20. Comparison of four methods to assess hydraulic conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, C.H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Gunter, J.A. [Gunter (John A.), Round Rock, TX (United States); Boutwell, G.P. [STE, Inc., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Trautwein, S.J. [Trautwein Soil Testing Equipment Co., Houston, TX (United States); Berzanskis, P.H. [Hoechst-Celanese, Inc., Pampa, TX (United States)

    1997-10-01

    A hydraulic conductivity assessment that was conducted on four test pads constructed to the same specifications with soil from the same source by four different contractors is described. The test pads had distinctly different field hydraulic conductivities, even though they were constructed with similar soil, to similar compaction conditions, and with similar machinery. Adequate hydration time was key in achieving low field hydraulic conductivity. More extensive processing was another factor responsible for low field hydraulic conductivity. Four different test methods were used to assess the hydraulic conductivity of each test pad: (1) sealed double-ring infiltrometers (SDRIs); (2) two-stage borehole permeameters; (3) laboratory hydraulic conductivity tests on large block specimens; and (4) laboratory hydraulic conductivity tests on small specimens collected in thin-wall sampling tubes. The tests were conducted independently by each of the writers. After the tests were completed, the results were submitted and compared. Analysis of the test results show that the three large-scale test methods generally yield similar hydraulic conductivities. For two of the test pads, however, the hydraulic conductivities of the specimens collected in sampling tubes were significantly lower than the field hydraulic conductivities. Both of these test pads had high field hydraulic conductivity. Thus, there is little value in using small specimens to assess field hydraulic conductivity.

  1. Assessment of a novel method for teaching veterinary parasitology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Mary Mauldin; Yvorchuk-St Jean, Kathleen E; Wallace, Charles E; Krecek, Rosina C

    2014-01-01

    A student-centered innovative method of teaching veterinary parasitology was launched and evaluated at the Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine (RUSVM) in St. Kitts, where Parasitology is a required course for second-semester veterinary students. A novel method, named Iron Parasitology, compared lecturer-centered teaching with student-centered teaching and assessed the retention of parasitology knowledge of students in their second semester and again when they reached their seventh semester. Members of five consecutive classes chose to participate in Iron Parasitology with the opportunity to earn an additional 10 points toward their final grade by demonstrating their knowledge, communication skills, clarity of message, and creativity in the Iron Parasitology exercise. The participants and nonparticipants were assessed using seven parameters. The initial short-term study parameters used to evaluate lecturer- versus student-centered teaching were age, gender, final Parasitology course grade without Iron Parasitology, RUSVM overall grade point average (GPA), RUSVM second-semester GPA, overall GPA before RUSVM, and prerequisite GPA before RUSVM. The long-term reassessment study assessed retention of parasitology knowledge in members of the seventh-semester class who had Iron Parasitology as a tool in their second semester. These students were invited to complete a parasitology final examination during their seventh semester. There were no statistically significant differences for the parameters measured in the initial study. In addition, Iron Parasitology did not have an effect on the retention scores in the reassessment study.

  2. Methods for assessing risks of dermal exposures in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougal, James N; Boeniger, Mark F

    2002-07-01

    The skin as a route of entry for toxic chemicals has caused increasing concern over the last decade. The assessment of systemic hazards from dermal exposures has evolved over time, often limited by the amount of experimental data available. The result is that there are many methods being used to assess safety of chemicals in the workplace. The process of assessing hazards of skin contact includes estimating the amount of substance that may end up on the skin and estimating the amount that might reach internal organs. Most times, toxicology studies by the dermal route are not available and extrapolations from other exposure routes are necessary. The hazards of particular chemicals can be expressed as "skin notations", actual exposure levels, or safe exposure times. Characterizing the risk of a specific procedure in the workplace involves determining the ratio of exposure standards to an expected exposure. The purpose of this review is to address each of the steps in the process and describe the assumptions that are part of the process. Methods are compared by describing their strengths and weaknesses. Recommendations for research in this area are also included.

  3. Matrix effect in F₂-isoprostanes quantification by HPLC-MS/MS: a validated method for analysis of iPF₂α-III and iPF₂α-VI in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosino, Teresa; Serafini, Mauro

    2014-08-15

    Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) has become the method of choice for analysis in biological matrices, because of its high specificity and sensitivity. However, it should be taken into account that the presence of matrix components coeluting with analytes might interfere with the ionization process and affect the accuracy and precision of the assay. For this reason, the presence of a "matrix effect" should always be evaluated during method development, above all in complex matrix such as urine. In the present work, a HPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the quantification of urinary iPF2α-III and iPF2α-VI. A careful assessment of matrix effect and an accurate validation were carried out, in order to verify the reliability of quantitative data obtained. Ion suppression, due to the matrix components, was reduced through optimization of both chromatographic method and sample extraction procedure. Urine samples were purified by solid phase extraction (SPE) and the extracts injected into the HPLC-MS/MS system, equipped with a TurboIonSpray ionization source operated in negative ion mode (ESI(-)). Stable isotope-labeled analogues (iPF2α-III-d4 and iPF2α-VI-d4) were used as internal standards, and quantification was performed in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode by monitoring the following mass transitions: m/z 353.4→193.2 for iPF2α-III, m/z 357.2→197.0 for iPF2α-III-d4, m/z 353.4→115.1 for iPF2α-VI, and m/z 357.4→115.1 for iPF2α-VI-d4. The validated assay, applied to the analysis of urinary samples coming from healthy and overweight subjects, resulted suitable for an accurate quantification of iPF2α-III and iPF2α-VI in human urine.

  4. Assessment of rock burst hazards by means of seismic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proskuryakov, V.M.

    1984-10-01

    Use of seismic methods for assessment of stress distribution in coal seams and in rock strata adjacent to coal seams is discussed. Analysis of information on stress distribution permits rock burst hazards to be forecast. Schemes of seismic logging used in coal mining are compared. Recommendations developed by the VNIMI Institute for optimization of seismic logging are analyzed: selecting a seismic method considering tectonics, stratification and rock properties, arrangement of seismic sources and seismic detectors, selecting the optimum parameters of seismic waves (wave frequency recommended for rocks ranges from 400 to 1000 Hz; recommended wave frequency for coal ranges from 200 to 600 Hz), measuring instruments (e.g. the ShchTsS-2 system), and calculation methods used for evaluations of seismic logging. A standardized procedure for seismic logging is recommended.

  5. Methods for assessing biochemical oxygen demand (BOD): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouanneau, S; Recoules, L; Durand, M J; Boukabache, A; Picot, V; Primault, Y; Lakel, A; Sengelin, M; Barillon, B; Thouand, G

    2014-02-01

    The Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) is one of the most widely used criteria for water quality assessment. It provides information about the ready biodegradable fraction of the organic load in water. However, this analytical method is time-consuming (generally 5 days, BOD5), and the results may vary according to the laboratory (20%), primarily due to fluctuations in the microbial diversity of the inoculum used. Work performed during the two last decades has resulted in several technologies that are less time-consuming and more reliable. This review is devoted to the analysis of the technical features of the principal methods described in the literature in order to compare their performances (measuring window, reliability, robustness) and to identify the pros and the cons of each method.

  6. Gas and coal outbursts in Polish minescauses and assessing methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WIERZBICKI Miroslaw

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents some information about gas and coal outbursts threat in Polish coal mines.It shows the methodology for threat identification and monitoring for gas and coal outbursts in the Polish coal mines.One of the main methods of assessing threats in the mining industry in Poland and China is desorbometric method.The paper presents some results of estimation of uncertainties of the desorption rate Ap,determined in situ,by use of liquid manometric desorbometer gauge.It was observed that,if there are coal subgrains in desorbometer contaminator,the results of desorption rate may be even up to 60% higher than results obtained for the normative sample.Possibly method of the uncertainty reduction are presented in the paper as well.

  7. Oral health investigations of indigenous participants in remote settings: a methods paper describing the dental component of wave III of an Australian Aboriginal birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayers Susan M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A prospective Aboriginal Birth Cohort (ABC study has been underway in Australia's Northern Territory since 1987. Inclusion of oral epidemiological information in a follow-up study required flexible and novel approaches with unconventional techniques. Documenting these procedures may be of value to researchers interested in including oral health components in remotely-located studies. The objectives are to compare and describe dental data collection methods in wave III of the ABC study with a more conventional oral health investigation. Methods The Australian National Survey of Adult Oral Health (NSAOH was considered the 'conventional' study. Differences between this investigation and the dental component of the ABC study were assessed in terms of ethics, location, recruitment, consent, privacy, equipment, examination, clinical data collection and replication. In the ABC study, recording of clinical data by different voice recording techniques were described and assessed for ease-of-use portability, reliability, time-efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Results Conventional investigation recruitment was by post and telephone. Participants self presented. Examinations took place in dental clinics, using customised dental chairs with standard dental lights attached. For all examinations, a dental assistant recorded dental data directly onto a laptop computer. By contrast, follow-up of ABC study participants involved a multi-phase protocol with reliance on locally-employed Indigenous advocates bringing participants to the examination point. Dental examinations occurred in settings ranging from health centre clinic rooms to improvised spaces outdoors. The dental chair was a lightweight, portable reclining camp chair and the dental light a fire-fighter's head torch with rechargeable batteries. The digital voice recorder was considered the most suitable instrument for clinical dental data collection in the ABC study in comparison with

  8. Methods for assessing autophagy and autophagic cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasdemir, Ezgi; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Maiuri, M Chiara; Criollo, Alfredo; Vitale, Ilio; Hangen, Emilie; Modjtahedi, Nazanine; Kroemer, Guido

    2008-01-01

    Autophagic (or type 2) cell death is characterized by the massive accumulation of autophagic vacuoles (autophagosomes) in the cytoplasm of cells that lack signs of apoptosis (type 1 cell death). Here we detail and critically assess a series of methods to promote and inhibit autophagy via pharmacological and genetic manipulations. We also review the techniques currently available to detect autophagy, including transmission electron microscopy, half-life assessments of long-lived proteins, detection of LC3 maturation/aggregation, fluorescence microscopy, and colocalization of mitochondrion- or endoplasmic reticulum-specific markers with lysosomal proteins. Massive autophagic vacuolization may cause cellular stress and represent a frustrated attempt of adaptation. In this case, cell death occurs with (or in spite of) autophagy. When cell death occurs through autophagy, on the contrary, the inhibition of the autophagic process should prevent cellular demise. Accordingly, we describe a strategy for discriminating cell death with autophagy from cell death through autophagy.

  9. Cognitive assessment in mathematics with the least squares distance method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lin; Çetin, Emre; Green, Kathy E

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the validation of comprehensive cognitive attributes of an eighth-grade mathematics test using the least squares distance method and compared performance on attributes by gender and region. A sample of 5,000 students was randomly selected from the data of the 2005 Turkish national mathematics assessment of eighth-grade students. Twenty-five math items were assessed for presence or absence of 20 cognitive attributes (content, cognitive processes, and skill). Four attributes were found to be misspecified or nonpredictive. However, results demonstrated the validity of cognitive attributes in terms of the revised set of 17 attributes. The girls had similar performance on the attributes as the boys. The students from the two eastern regions significantly underperformed on the most attributes.

  10. Photooxidation of different organic dyes (RB, MO, TB, and BG) using Fe(III)-doped TiO 2 nanophotocatalyst prepared by novel chemical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorai, Tanmay K.; Biswas, Soumya K.; Pramanik, Panchanan

    2008-09-01

    The nano-structured Fe(III)-doped TiO 2 photocatalysts with anatase phase have been developed for the oxidation of non-biodegradable different organic dyes like methyl orange (MO), rhodamine B (RB), thymol blue (TB) and bromocresol green (BG) using UV-Hg-lamp. The different compositions of Fe xTi 1- xO 2 ( x = 0.005, 0.01, 0.05, and 0.1) nanocatalysts synthesized by chemical method (CM), have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra, specific surface area (BET), transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) analysis, XPS, ESR and zeta potential. From XRD analysis, the results indicate that all the compositions of Fe(III) doped in TiO 2 catalysts gives only anatase phase not rutile phase. For complete degradation of all the solutions of the dyes (MO, RB, TB, and BG), the composition with x = 0.005 is more photoactive compared all other compositions of Fe xTi 1- xO 2, and degussa P25. The decolorization rate of different dyes decreases as Fe(III) concentration in TiO 2 increases. The energy band gap of Fe(III)-doped TiO 2 is found to be 2.38 eV. The oxidation state of iron has been found to be 3+ from XPS and ESR show that Fe 3+ is in low spin state.

  11. Method of the Material Stress Assessment Using the Infrared Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V V Seredin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The solution of a number of geological and engineering problems require knowledge of the stress state of the structural member material. Non-destructive testing methods are used to evaluate the stress state of materials. They are based on such criteria as sound pressure, temperature, ultrasound wave’s characteristics etc., as well as methods evaluating the stress state of the material after destruction. Development of methods of this group is caused by insufficient reliability of theoretical modelling not providing in some case stability of engineering facilities in practice. To avoid the emergencies, it is important to obtain the information on the actual load (stress at which the structure destruction occurred. These methods are especially important as a tool for experts identifying the cause of the accidents at engineering facilities. Additionally, this information will provide a correction of calculation models improving the safe exploitation of facilities. The aim of this study was to develop a method of materials stress state assessment using an infrared thermography data. Experimental studies showed that there exists a relationship between the temperature on the surface of material displacement and the normal stress affecting the area of failure. The temperature on the surface of material increases with an increase in normal stress in a fracture area. On a basis of the revealed relationship, a method of determination of the material stress state using the infrared thermography data was worked out.

  12. Total System Performance Assessment - License Application Methods and Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. McNeish

    2003-12-08

    ''Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA) Methods and Approach'' provides the top-level method and approach for conducting the TSPA-LA model development and analyses. The method and approach is responsive to the criteria set forth in Total System Performance Assessment Integration (TSPAI) Key Technical Issues (KTIs) identified in agreements with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan'' (YMRP), ''Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [163274]), and the NRC final rule 10 CFR Part 63 (NRC 2002 [156605]). This introductory section provides an overview of the TSPA-LA, the projected TSPA-LA documentation structure, and the goals of the document. It also provides a brief discussion of the regulatory framework, the approach to risk management of the development and analysis of the model, and the overall organization of the document. The section closes with some important conventions that are used in this document.

  13. New actigraphic assessment method for periodic leg movements (PLM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazenwadel, J; Pollmächer, T; Trenkwalder, C; Oertel, W H; Kohnen, R; Künzel, M; Krüger, H P

    1995-10-01

    A new actigraphic method by which periodic leg movements (PLM) can be measured is presented. Data acquistion and analysis were brought into line to distinguish short-lasting repetive leg movements from random motor restlessness. The definition of PLM follows the generally accepted criteria for PLM scoring. Thirty restless legs patients, all also suffering from PLM, were investigated three times by polysomnography, including tibialis anterior surface electromyography and actigraphy. A high correlation (reliability) was found for the number of PLM per hour spent in bed between the two methods. Furthermore, the actigraph records PLM specifically. An index of random motor restlessness is not sufficient for a reliable PLM according. In addition, periodic movements in sleep (PMS) and PLM show comparable variability in general. The actigraphic assessment of PLM, however, gives a better measure because PMS recordings may result in a substantial underestimation of PLM when sleep efficiency is reduced. This method is an ambulatory assessment tool that can also be used for screening purposes.

  14. Alaska Regional Energy Resources Planning Project, Phase 2: coal, hydroelectric, and energy alternatives. Volume III. Alaska's alternative energies and regional assessment inventory update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The Alaska Regional Energy Resources Planning Project is presented in three volumes. This volume, Vol. III, considers alternative energies and the regional assessment inventory update. The introductory chapter, Chapter 12, examines the historical background, current technological status, environmental impact, applicability to Alaska, and siting considerations for a number of alternative systems. All of the systems considered use or could use renewable energy resources. The chapters that follow are entitled: Very Small Hydropower (about 12 kW or less for rural and remote villages); Low-Temperature Geothermal Space Heating; Wind; Fuel Cells; Siting Criteria and Preliminary Screening of Communities for Alternate Energy Use; Wood Residues; Waste Heat; and Regional Assessment Invntory Update. (MCW)

  15. The commission errors search and assessment (CESA) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reer, B.; Dang, V. N

    2007-05-15

    Errors of Commission (EOCs) refer to the performance of inappropriate actions that aggravate a situation. In Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) terms, they are human failure events that result from the performance of an action. This report presents the Commission Errors Search and Assessment (CESA) method and describes the method in the form of user guidance. The purpose of the method is to identify risk-significant situations with a potential for EOCs in a predictive analysis. The main idea underlying the CESA method is to catalog the key actions that are required in the procedural response to plant events and to identify specific scenarios in which these candidate actions could erroneously appear to be required. The catalog of required actions provides a basis for a systematic search of context-action combinations. To focus the search towards risk-significant scenarios, the actions that are examined in the CESA search are prioritized according to the importance of the systems and functions that are affected by these actions. The existing PSA provides this importance information; the Risk Achievement Worth or Risk Increase Factor values indicate the systems/functions for which an EOC contribution would be more significant. In addition, the contexts, i.e. PSA scenarios, for which the EOC opportunities are reviewed are also prioritized according to their importance (top sequences or cut sets). The search through these context-action combinations results in a set of EOC situations to be examined in detail. CESA has been applied in a plant-specific pilot study, which showed the method to be feasible and effective in identifying plausible EOC opportunities. This experience, as well as the experience with other EOC analyses, showed that the quantification of EOCs remains an issue. The quantification difficulties and the outlook for their resolution conclude the report. (author)

  16. Epidemiological designs for vaccine safety assessment: methods and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Nick

    2012-09-01

    Three commonly used designs for vaccine safety assessment post licensure are cohort, case-control and self-controlled case series. These methods are often used with routine health databases and immunisation registries. This paper considers the issues that may arise when designing an epidemiological study, such as understanding the vaccine safety question, case definition and finding, limitations of data sources, uncontrolled confounding, and pitfalls that apply to the individual designs. The example of MMR and autism, where all three designs have been used, is presented to help consider these issues.

  17. Selection of Chelated Fe (III)/Fe (II) Catalytic Oxidation Agents for Desulfurization Based on Iron Complexation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Ying; Liu Youzhi; Qi Guisheng; Guo Huidong; Zhu Zhengfeng

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of factors inlfuencing the experiments on reactions involving 8 different chelating agents and sol-uble Fe (III)/Fe (II) salts was carried out to yield chelated iron complexes. A combination of optimized inlfuencing factors has resulted in a Fe chelating capacity of the iron-based desulfurization solution to be equal to 6.83-13.56 g/L at a redox potential of 0.185-0.3. The desulfurization performance of Fe (III)/Fe (II) chelating agents was investigated on a simulated sulfur-containing industrial gas composed of H2S and N2 in a cross-lfow rotating packed bed. Test results have revealed that the proposed iron-based desulfurization solution showed a sulfur removal efifciency of over 99%along with a Fe chelating capacity exceeding 1.35 g/L. This desulfurization technology which has practical application prospect is currently in the phase of commercial scale-up study.

  18. A solution quality assessment method for swarm intelligence optimization algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaojun; Wang, Gai-Ge; Zou, Kuansheng; Zhang, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, swarm intelligence optimization has become an important optimization tool and wildly used in many fields of application. In contrast to many successful applications, the theoretical foundation is rather weak. Therefore, there are still many problems to be solved. One problem is how to quantify the performance of algorithm in finite time, that is, how to evaluate the solution quality got by algorithm for practical problems. It greatly limits the application in practical problems. A solution quality assessment method for intelligent optimization is proposed in this paper. It is an experimental analysis method based on the analysis of search space and characteristic of algorithm itself. Instead of "value performance," the "ordinal performance" is used as evaluation criteria in this method. The feasible solutions were clustered according to distance to divide solution samples into several parts. Then, solution space and "good enough" set can be decomposed based on the clustering results. Last, using relative knowledge of statistics, the evaluation result can be got. To validate the proposed method, some intelligent algorithms such as ant colony optimization (ACO), particle swarm optimization (PSO), and artificial fish swarm algorithm (AFS) were taken to solve traveling salesman problem. Computational results indicate the feasibility of proposed method.

  19. Speciation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) by the modified ferrozine method, FIA-spectrophotometry, and flame AAS after cloud-point extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giokas, Dimosthenis L.; Paleologos, Evangelos K.; Karayannis, Miltiades I. [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina (Greece)

    2002-07-01

    A method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of traces of Fe(III) and Fe(II) in water by on-line coupling of spectrophotometry with flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The method involves cloud-point extraction (CPE) of both species with ammonium pyrrolidinecarbodithioate (APDC) under standard conditions, which facilitates the in situ complexation and extraction of both species. Differentiation of the oxidation states of iron is achieved by using mathematical equations to overcome the interference of Fe(III) in the spectrophotometric determination of Fe(II) when they are both present in the same solution. In this manner the time-consuming and labor-intensive steps of preoxidation of Fe(II) or reduction of Fe(III) are eliminated. By preconcentrating a 10-mL sample solution detection limits as low as 7 {mu}g L{sup -1}, were obtained after a single-step extraction procedure. The relative standard deviation (n=4, 30 {mu}g L{sup -1}) was 2.6 % and 1.8 % for spectrophotometry and FAAS, respectively. Recoveries in the range of 96-105 % were obtained by analysis of spiked real samples. The method was further verified by analyzing a certified reference material (IMEP-9); for this the recovery was 98.5 %. (orig.)

  20. A novel method for study of the aggregation of protein induced by metal ion aluminum(III) using resonance Rayleigh scattering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xiufen; Zhang, Caihua; Cheng, Jiongjia; Bi, Shuping

    2008-01-01

    We present a novel method for the study of the aggregation of protein induced by metal ion aluminum(III) using resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) technique. In neutral Tris-HCl medium, the effect of this aggregation of protein results in the enhancement of RRS intensity and the relationship between the enhancement of the RRS signal and the Al concentration is nonlinear. On this basis, we established a new method for the determination of the critical induced-aggregation concentrations ( CCIAC) of metal ion Al(III) inducing the protein aggregation. Our results show that many factors, such as, pH value, anions, salts, temperature and solvents have obvious effects. We also studied the extent of aggregation and structural changes using ultra-violet spectrometry, protein intrinsic fluorescence and circular dichroism to further understand the exact mechanisms of the aggregation characteristics of proteins induced by metal ion Al(III) at the molecular level, to help us to develop effective methods to investigate the toxicity of metal ion Al, and to provide theoretical and quantitative evidences for the development of appropriate treatments for neurodementia such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and dementia related to dialysis.

  1. Compatibility assessment of methods used for soil hydrophobicity determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papierowska, Ewa; Szatyłowicz, Jan; Kalisz, Barbara; Łachacz, Andrzej; Matysiak, Wojciech; Debaene, Guillaume

    2016-04-01

    Soil hydrophobicity is a global problem. Effect of hydrophobicity on the soil environment is very important, because it can cause irreversible changes in ecosystems, leading to their complete degradation. The choice of method used to determine soil hydrophobicity is not simple because there is no obvious criteria for their selection. The results obtained by various methods may not be coherent and may indicate different degrees of hydrophobicity within the same soil sample. The objective of the study was to assess the compatibility between methods used to determine the hydrophobicity of selected organic and mineral-organic soils. Two groups of soil materials were examined: hydrogenic (87 soil samples) and autogenic soils (19 soil samples) collected from 41 soil profiles located in north-eastern Poland. Air-dry soil samples were used. Hydrophobicity was determined using two different methods i.e. on the basis of wetting contact angle measurements between water and solid phase of soils and with water drop penetration time tests. The value of the wetting contact angle was measured using the sessile drop method with optical goniometer CAM 100 (KSV Instruments). The wetting contact angles were determined at room temperature (20° C) within 10 min after sample preparation using standard procedure. In addition, water drop penetration time was measured. In order to compare the methods used for the assessment of soil hydrophobicity, the agreement between observers model was applied. In this model five categories of soil hydrophobicity were proposed according to the class used in the soil hydrofobicity classification based on water drop penetration time test. Based on this classification the values of the weighted kappa coefficients were calculated using SAS 9.4 (SAS Institute, 2013, Cary NC) for evaluating relationships between between the different investigated methods. The results of agreement were presented in forms of agreement charts. Research results indicated good

  2. Cumulative Risk Assessment Toolbox: Methods and Approaches for the Practitioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret M. MacDonell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The historical approach to assessing health risks of environmental chemicals has been to evaluate them one at a time. In fact, we are exposed every day to a wide variety of chemicals and are increasingly aware of potential health implications. Although considerable progress has been made in the science underlying risk assessments for real-world exposures, implementation has lagged because many practitioners are unaware of methods and tools available to support these analyses. To address this issue, the US Environmental Protection Agency developed a toolbox of cumulative risk resources for contaminated sites, as part of a resource document that was published in 2007. This paper highlights information for nearly 80 resources from the toolbox and provides selected updates, with practical notes for cumulative risk applications. Resources are organized according to the main elements of the assessment process: (1 planning, scoping, and problem formulation; (2 environmental fate and transport; (3 exposure analysis extending to human factors; (4 toxicity analysis; and (5 risk and uncertainty characterization, including presentation of results. In addition to providing online access, plans for the toolbox include addressing nonchemical stressors and applications beyond contaminated sites and further strengthening resource accessibility to support evolving analyses for cumulative risk and sustainable communities.

  3. Using different methods to assess the discomfort during car driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravnik, David; Otáhal, Stanislav; Dodic Fikfak, Metoda

    2008-03-01

    This study investigated the discomfort caused by car driving. Discomfort estimates were achieved by self-administered questionnaire, measured by different testing methods, and through the goniometry of principal angles. Data from a total of 200 non-professional drivers who fulfilled the questionnaire was analysed. 118 subjects were analysed by goniometry and 30 drivers were assessed using the OWAS (Ovaco orking Posture Analysis), RULA (Rapid Upper Limb Assessment), and CORLETT tests. The aim of this paper was to assess the appearance of the discomfort and to find some correlations between drivers' postures. Results suggest that different levels of discomfort are perceived in different body regions when driving cars. Differences appear mostly between the genders concerning the discomfort. With the questionnaire and the different estimation techniques, it is possible to identify 'at risk' drivers and ensure urgent attention when necessary. It can be concluded that the questionnare and the CORLETT test are good in predicting location of discomfort. TheB org CRI10scale is good indicator of the level of the discomfort, while OWAS and RULA can appraise the body posture to predict discomfort appearance. According to the goniometry data, the drivers posture could be one of the contributing factors in appearing of discomfort.

  4. Importance and assessment of the Microlevallois production in levels II and III of Abrigo de la Quebrada (Chelva, Valencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentín VILLAVERDE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Levallois products –blanks and cores– from levels II and III of Abrigo de la Quebrada are analyzed. Among the ensemble of blanks, those of small size reach significant percentages. We focus on their characteristics, including the extent to which they were modified by retouch, and on their use wear, at both the micro and macro levels of observation. Where size is concerned, explanations such as tool biography –gradual reduction by successive retouch until discard–, differential export of the larger blanks, or raw-material scarcity are considered and rejected. The alternatives remaining are the task-specific deliberate production of such small blanks and the relationship between raw-material reduction and site function.

  5. A system boundary identification method for life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Tao; Zhang, Hongchao; Liu, Zhichao;

    2014-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a useful tool for quantifying the overall environmental impacts of a product, process, or service. The scientific scope and boundary definition are important to ensure the accuracy of LCA results. Defining the boundary in LCA is difficult and there are no commonly...... accepted scientific methods yet. The objective of this research is to present a comprehensive discussion of system boundaries in LCA and to develop an appropriate boundary delimitation method.A product system is partitioned into the primary system and interrelated subsystems. The hierarchical relationship......, technical, geographical and temporal dimensions are presented to limit the boundaries of LCA. An algorithm is developed to identify an appropriate boundary by searching the process tree and evaluating the environmental impact contribution of each process while it is added into the studied system...

  6. Assessing the potential hydrological impact of the Gibe III Dam on Lake Turkana water level using multi-source satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Velpuri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Lake Turkana, the largest desert lake in the world, is fed by ungauged or poorly gauged river systems. To meet the demand of electricity in the East African region, Ethiopia is currently building the Gibe III hydroelectric dam on the Omo River, which supplies more than 80% of the inflows to Lake Turkana. On completion, the Gibe III dam will be the tallest dam in Africa with a height of 241 m. However, the nature of interactions and potential impacts of regulated inflows to Lake Turkana are not well understood due to its remote location and unavailability of reliable in-situ datasets. In this study, we used 12 years (1998–2009 of existing multi-source satellite and model-assimilated global weather data. We use calibrated multi-source satellite data-driven water balance model for Lake Turkana that takes into account model routed runoff, lake/reservoir evapotranspiration, direct rain on lakes/reservoirs and releases from the dam to compute lake water levels. The model evaluates the impact of Gibe III dam using three different approaches such as (a historical approach, a knowledge-based approach, and a nonparametric bootstrap resampling approach to generate rainfall-runoff scenarios. All the approaches provided comparable and consistent results. Model results indicated that the hydrological impact of the dam on Lake Turkana would vary with the magnitude and distribution of rainfall post-dam commencement. On average, the reservoir would take up to 8–10 months, after commencement, to reach a minimum operation level of 201 m depth of water. During the dam filling period, the lake level would drop up to 2 m (95% confidence compared to the lake level modelled without the dam. The lake level variability caused by regulated inflows after the dam commissioning were found to be within the natural variability of the lake of 4.8 m. Moreover, modelling results indicated that the hydrological impact of the Gibe III dam would depend on the initial lake level

  7. Assessing the Potential Hydrological Impact of the Gibe III Dam on Lake Turkana Water Level Using Multi-Source Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Senai, G.B.

    2012-01-01

    Lake Turkana, the largest desert lake in the world, is fed by ungauged or poorly gauged river systems. To meet the demand of electricity in the East African region, Ethiopia is currently building the Gibe III hydroelectric dam on the Omo River, which supplies more than 80% of the inflows to Lake Turkana. On completion, the Gibe III dam will be the tallest dam in Africa with a height of 241 m. However, the nature of interactions and potential impacts of regulated inflows to Lake Turkana are not well understood due to its remote location and unavailability of reliable in-situ datasets. In this study, we used 12 years (1998–2009) of existing multi-source satellite and model-assimilated global weather data. We use calibrated multi-source satellite data-driven water balance model for Lake Turkana that takes into account model routed runoff, lake/reservoir evapotranspiration, direct rain on lakes/reservoirs and releases from the dam to compute lake water levels. The model evaluates the impact of Gibe III dam using three different approaches such as (a historical approach, a knowledge-based approach, and a nonparametric bootstrap resampling approach) to generate rainfall-runoff scenarios. All the approaches provided comparable and consistent results. Model results indicated that the hydrological impact of the dam on Lake Turkana would vary with the magnitude and distribution of rainfall post-dam commencement. On average, the reservoir would take up to 8–10 months, after commencement, to reach a minimum operation level of 201 m depth of water. During the dam filling period, the lake level would drop up to 2 m (95% confidence) compared to the lake level modelled without the dam. The lake level variability caused by regulated inflows after the dam commissioning were found to be within the natural variability of the lake of 4.8 m. Moreover, modelling results indicated that the hydrological impact of the Gibe III dam would depend on the initial lake level at the time of

  8. Thermography as a quantitative imaging method for assessing postoperative inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J; Matzen, LH; Vaeth, M; Schou, S; Wenzel, A

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess differences in skin temperature between the operated and control side of the face after mandibular third molar surgery using thermography. Methods 127 patients had 1 mandibular third molar removed. Before the surgery, standardized thermograms were taken of both sides of the patient's face using a Flir ThermaCam™ E320 (Precisions Teknik AB, Halmstad, Sweden). The imaging procedure was repeated 2 days and 7 days after surgery. A region of interest including the third molar region was marked on each image. The mean temperature within each region of interest was calculated. The difference between sides and over time were assessed using paired t-tests. Results No significant difference was found between the operated side and the control side either before or 7 days after surgery (p > 0.3). The temperature of the operated side (mean: 32.39 °C, range: 28.9–35.3 °C) was higher than that of the control side (mean: 32.06 °C, range: 28.5–35.0 °C) 2 days after surgery [0.33 °C, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.22–0.44 °C, p 0.1). After 2 days, the operated side was not significantly different from the temperature pre-operatively (p = 0.12), whereas the control side had a lower temperature (0.57 °C, 95% CI: 0.29–0.86 °C, p < 0.001). Conclusions Thermography seems useful for quantitative assessment of inflammation between the intervention side and the control side after surgical removal of mandibular third molars. However, thermography cannot be used to assess absolute temperature changes due to normal variations in skin temperature over time. PMID:22752326

  9. Interactive Rapid Dose Assessment Model (IRDAM): reactor-accident assessment methods. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeton, R.W.; Moeller, M.P.; Laughlin, G.J.; Desrosiers, A.E.

    1983-05-01

    As part of the continuing emphasis on emergency preparedness, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored the development of a rapid dose assessment system by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This system, the Interactive Rapid Dose Assessment Model (IRDAM) is a micro-computer based program for rapidly assessing the radiological impact of accidents at nuclear power plants. This document describes the technical bases for IRDAM including methods, models and assumptions used in calculations. IRDAM calculates whole body (5-cm depth) and infant thyroid doses at six fixed downwind distances between 500 and 20,000 meters. Radionuclides considered primarily consist of noble gases and radioiodines. In order to provide a rapid assessment capability consistent with the capacity of the Osborne-1 computer, certain simplifying approximations and assumptions are made. These are described, along with default values (assumptions used in the absence of specific input) in the text of this document. Two companion volumes to this one provide additional information on IRDAM. The user's Guide (NUREG/CR-3012, Volume 1) describes the setup and operation of equipment necessary to run IRDAM. Scenarios for Comparing Dose Assessment Models (NUREG/CR-3012, Volume 3) provides the results of calculations made by IRDAM and other models for specific accident scenarios.

  10. The Patient Centered Assessment Method (PCAM: integrating the social dimensions of health into primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah Pratt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social dimensions of health are known to contribute to what is often termed “patient complexity”, which is particularly common among patients with multimorbidity. Health-care professionals require tools to help them identify and manage these aspects of patient needs. Objectives: To examine: (i the Patient Centered Assessment Method (PCAM, a tool for assessing patient complexity in ways that are sensitive to the biopsychosocial dimensions of health, in primary care settings in Scotland; (ii the impact of the PCAM on referral patterns and its perceived value; and (iii the PCAM’s perceived applicability for use in a complex patient population. Design: Two studies are described: (i a mixed-methods prospective cohort study of the implementation of the PCAM in primary care clinics; and (ii a qualitative exploratory study that evaluated the value of the PCAM in a complex patient population. Results: Use of the PCAM did not impact patient satisfaction or perception of practitioners’ empathy, but it did increase both the number of onward referrals per referred patient (9–12% and the proportion of referrals to non-medical services addressing psychological, social, and lifestyle needs. Nurses valued the PCAM, particularly its ability to help them address psychological and social domains of patients’ lives, and found it to be highly relevant for use in populations with known high complexity. Conclusions: The PCAM represents a feasible approach for assessing patient needs with consideration to the social dimensions of health, and allows practitioners to refer patients to a broader range of services to address patient complexity.

  11. A hierarchical network modeling method for railway tunnels safety assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Xu, Weixiang; Guo, Xin; Liu, Xumin

    2017-02-01

    Using network theory to model risk-related knowledge on accidents is regarded as potential very helpful in risk management. A large amount of defects detection data for railway tunnels is collected in autumn every year in China. It is extremely important to discover the regularities knowledge in database. In this paper, based on network theories and by using data mining techniques, a new method is proposed for mining risk-related regularities to support risk management in railway tunnel projects. A hierarchical network (HN) model which takes into account the tunnel structures, tunnel defects, potential failures and accidents is established. An improved Apriori algorithm is designed to rapidly and effectively mine correlations between tunnel structures and tunnel defects. Then an algorithm is presented in order to mine the risk-related regularities table (RRT) from the frequent patterns. At last, a safety assessment method is proposed by consideration of actual defects and possible risks of defects gained from the RRT. This method cannot only generate the quantitative risk results but also reveal the key defects and critical risks of defects. This paper is further development on accident causation network modeling methods which can provide guidance for specific maintenance measure.

  12. Scientific and regulatory policy committee (SRPC) paper: Assessment of Circulating Hormones in Nonclinical Toxicity Studies. III Female Reproductive Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormonally mediated effects on the female reproductive system may manifest in pathologic changes of endocrine-responsive organs and altered reproductive function. Identification of these effects requires proper assessment, which may include investigative studies of female reprod...

  13. A quantitative assessment method for Ascaris eggs on hands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelie Jeandron

    Full Text Available The importance of hands in the transmission of soil transmitted helminths, especially Ascaris and Trichuris infections, is under-researched. This is partly because of the absence of a reliable method to quantify the number of eggs on hands. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a method to assess the number of Ascaris eggs on hands and determine the egg recovery rate of the method. Under laboratory conditions, hands were seeded with a known number of Ascaris eggs, air dried and washed in a plastic bag retaining the washing water, in order to determine recovery rates of eggs for four different detergents (cationic [benzethonium chloride 0.1% and cetylpyridinium chloride CPC 0.1%], anionic [7X 1% - quadrafos, glycol ether, and dioctyl sulfoccinate sodium salt] and non-ionic [Tween80 0.1% -polyethylene glycol sorbitan monooleate] and two egg detection methods (McMaster technique and FLOTAC. A modified concentration McMaster technique showed the highest egg recovery rate from bags. Two of the four diluted detergents (benzethonium chloride 0.1% and 7X 1% also showed a higher egg recovery rate and were then compared with de-ionized water for recovery of helminth eggs from hands. The highest recovery rate (95.6% was achieved with a hand rinse performed with 7X 1%. Washing hands with de-ionized water resulted in an egg recovery rate of 82.7%. This washing method performed with a low concentration of detergent offers potential for quantitative investigation of contamination of hands with Ascaris eggs and of their role in human infection. Follow-up studies are needed that validate the hand washing method under field conditions, e.g. including people of different age, lower levels of contamination and various levels of hand cleanliness.

  14. Expanding the Aperture of Psychological Assessment: Introduction to the Special Section on Innovative Clinical Assessment Technologies and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trull, Timothy J.

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary psychological assessment is dominated by tried-and-true methods like clinical interviewing, self-report questionnaires, intellectual assessment, and behavioral observation. These approaches have served as the mainstays of psychological assessment for decades. To be sure, these methods have survived over the years because clinicians…

  15. Reading Assessment Methods for Middle-School Students: An Investigation of Reading Comprehension Rate and Maze Accurate Response Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Andrea D.; Henning, Jaime B.; Hawkins, Renee O.; Sheeley, Wesley; Shoemaker, Larissa; Reynolds, Jennifer R.; Moch, Christina

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the validity of four different aloud reading comprehension assessment measures: Maze, comprehension questions, Maze accurate response rate (MARR), and reading comprehension rate (RCR). The criterion measures used in this study were the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement (WJ-III ACH) Broad Reading…

  16. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Assessment of Lower Facial Asymmetry in Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate and Non-Cleft Patients with Class III Skeletal Relationship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifan Lin

    Full Text Available To evaluate, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT, both the condylar-fossa relationships and the mandibular and condylar asymmetries between unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP patients and non-cleft patients with class III skeletal relationship, and to investigate the factors of asymmetry contributing to chin deviation.The UCLP and non-cleft groups consisted of 30 and 40 subjects, respectively, in mixed dentition with class III skeletal relationships. Condylar-fossa relationships and the dimensional and positional asymmetries of the condyles and mandibles were examined using CBCT. Intra-group differences were compared between two sides in both groups using a paired t-test. Furthermore, correlations between each measurement and chin deviation were assessed.It was observed that 90% of UCLP and 67.5% of non-cleft subjects had both condyles centered, and no significant asymmetry was found. The axial angle and the condylar center distances to the midsagittal plane were significantly greater on the cleft side than on the non-cleft side (P=0.001 and P=0.028, respectively and were positively correlated with chin deviation in the UCLP group. Except for a larger gonial angle on the cleft side, the two groups presented with consistent asymmetries showing shorter mandibular bodies and total mandibular lengths on the cleft (deviated side. The average chin deviation was 1.63 mm to the cleft side, and the average absolute chin deviation was significantly greater in the UCLP group than in the non-cleft group (P=0.037.Compared with non-cleft subjects with similar class III skeletal relationships, the subjects with UCLP showed more severe lower facial asymmetry. The subjects with UCLP presented with more asymmetrical positions and rotations of the condyles on axial slices, which were positively correlated with chin deviation.

  17. Assessment of Proper Bonding Methods and Mechanical Characterization FPGA CQFPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Milton C.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation discusses fractured leads on field-programmable gate array (FPGA) during flight vibration. Actions taken to determine root cause and resolution of the failure include finite element analysis (FEA) and vibration testing and scanning electron microscopy (with X-ray microanalysis) and energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM/EDS) failure assessment. Bonding methods for surface mount parts is assessed, including critical analysis and assessment of random fatigue damage. Regarding ceramic quad flat pack (CQFP) lead fracture, after disassembling the attitude control electronics (ACE) configuration, photographs showed six leads cracked on FPGA RTSX72SU-1 CQ208B package located on the RWIC card. An identical package (FPGA RTSX32SU-1 CQ208B) mounted on the RWIC did not results in cracked pins due to vibration. FPGA lead failure theories include workmanship issues in the lead-forming, material defect in the leads of the FPGA packages, and the insecure mounting of the board in the card guides, among other theories. Studies were conducted using simple calculations to determine the response and fatigue life of the package. Shorter packages exhibited more response when loaded by out-of-plane displacement of PCB while taller packages exhibit more response when loaded by in-plane acceleration of PCB. Additionally, under-fill did not contribute to reducing stress in leads due to out-of-plane PCB loading or from component twisting, as much as corner bonding. The combination of corner bond and under-fill is best to address mechanical and thermal S/C environment. Test results of bonded parts showed reduced (dampened) amplitude and slightly shifted peaks at the un-bonded natural frequency and an additional response at the bonded frequency. Stress due to PCBB out-of-plane loading was decreased on in the corners when only a corner bond was used. Future work may address CQFP fatigue assessment, including the investigation of discrepancy in predicted fatigue damage, as well as

  18. A simple method for assessing intestinal inflammation in Crohn's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibble, J; Teahon, K; Thjodleifsson, B; Roseth, A; Sigthorsson, G; Bridger, S; Foster, R; Sherwood, R; Fagerhol, M; Bjarnason, I

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS—Assessing the presence and degree of intestinal inflammation objectively, simply, and reliably is a significant problem in gastroenterology. We assessed faecal excretion of calprotectin, a stable neutrophil specific marker, as an index of intestinal inflammation and its potential use as a screening test to discriminate between patients with Crohn's disease and those with irritable bowel syndrome.
METHODS—The validity of faecal calprotectin as a marker of intestinal inflammation was assessed in 22 patients with Crohn's disease (35 studies) by comparing faecal excretions and concentrations using four day faecal excretion of 111indium white cells. A cross sectional study assessed the sensitivity of faecal calprotectin concentration for the detection of established Crohn's disease (n=116). A prospective study assessed the value of faecal calprotectin in discriminating between patients with Crohn's disease and irritable bowel syndrome in 220 patients referred to a gastroenterology clinic.
RESULTS—Four day faecal excretion of 111indium (median 8.7%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 7-17%; normal <1.0%) correlated significantly (p<0.0001) with daily (median ranged from 39 to 47 mg; normal <3 mg; r=0.76-0.82) and four day faecal calprotectin excretion (median 101 mg; 95% CI 45-168 mg; normal <11 mg; r=0.80) and single stool calprotectin concentrations (median 118 mg/l; 95% CI 36-175 mg/l; normal <10 mg/l; r=0.70) in patients with Crohn's disease. The cross sectional study showed a sensitivity of 96% for calprotectin in discriminating between normal subjects (2 mg/l; 95% CI 2-3 mg/l) and those with Crohn's disease (91 mg/l; 95% CI 59-105 mg/l). With a cut off point of 30 mg/l faecal calprotectin has 100% sensitivity and 97% specificity in discriminating between active Crohn's disease and irritable bowel syndrome.
CONCLUSION—The calprotectin method may be a useful adjuvant for discriminating between patients with Crohn's disease and

  19. Community assessment workshops: a group method for gathering client experiences of health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Toby; Jolley, Gwyn; Baum, Fran; Lawless, Angela; Javanparast, Sara; Labonté, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Community assessment workshops were developed to gather client experiences of primary health care services in Australia. Primary health care services are particularly concerned with working with disadvantaged populations, for whom traditional client survey methods such as written surveys may not be inclusive and accessible. Service staff at six Australian primary health care services, including two Aboriginal-specific services, invited participants to attend workshops in 2011-2012. Participants were offered transport, childcare and an interpreter, and provided with reimbursement for their time. Ten workshops were run with a total of 65 participants who accessed a variety of services and programmes. A mix of age and gender was achieved. The workshops yielded detailed qualitative data and quantitative rankings for nine service qualities: holistic, effective, efficient, culturally respectful, used by those most in need, responsive to the local community, increasing individual control, supports and empowers the community, and mix of treatment, prevention and promotion. Discussions were audio recorded and transcribed for qualitative analysis. The workshop approach succeeded in being (i) inclusive, reaching users from disadvantaged sections of the community; (ii) comprehensive, providing ratings and discussion that took account of the whole service; (iii) richly descriptive, with researchers able to generate detailed feedback; and (iv) more empowering than traditional client survey methods, by allowing more control to participants and greater benefits than surveys of individuals. The community assessment workshops are a method that could be widely applied to health service evaluation research where the goal is to reach disadvantaged communities and provide ratings and detailed analysis of the experience of users. The participants and the research benefited from the group approach, and the workshops provided valuable, actionable information to the health services

  20. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of Italy using kernel estimation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccolo, Elisa; Corigliano, Mirko; Lai, Carlo G.

    2013-07-01

    A representation of seismic hazard is proposed for Italy based on the zone-free approach developed by Woo (BSSA 86(2):353-362, 1996a), which is based on a kernel estimation method governed by concepts of fractal geometry and self-organized seismicity, not requiring the definition of seismogenic zoning. The purpose is to assess the influence of seismogenic zoning on the results obtained for the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) of Italy using the standard Cornell's method. The hazard has been estimated for outcropping rock site conditions in terms of maps and uniform hazard spectra for a selected site, with 10 % probability of exceedance in 50 years. Both spectral acceleration and spectral displacement have been considered as ground motion parameters. Differences in the results of PSHA between the two methods are compared and discussed. The analysis shows that, in areas such as Italy, characterized by a reliable earthquake catalog and in which faults are generally not easily identifiable, a zone-free approach can be considered a valuable tool to address epistemic uncertainty within a logic tree framework.

  1. BISAP: A NOVEL METHOD FOR ASSESSING SEVERITY OF ACUTE PANCREATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalingeshwara

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are many multifactorial scoring systems, radiological scores, and biochemical markers are available for early prediction of severity, and mortality in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP. The bedside index for severity in acute pancreatitis (BISAP has been considered as an accurate method for risk stratification in patients with acute pancreatitis. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of the BISAP as a predictor for severe pancreatitis. METHODS AND MATERIAL: We analyzed 100 patients diagnosed with acute pancreatitis at our hospital between October 2012 and April 2013. We used BISAP score in all such patients within 24 hours of admission. Patient were assessed for organ failure and followed throughout the period of hospitalization for complications. Statistical analysis was made using the student t test and chi-square test and statistical significance was analyzed. RESULTS: Out of 100 patients, 20% had severe pancreatitis. Acute Pancreatitis was seen male (87%, in 4th decade (70%, alcohol was the most common etiology (60%, biliary pancreatitis (25%, remaining idiopathic (15%. Patients with BISAP >= 3 was associated with transient or persistent organ failure and pancreatic necrosis. CONCLUSION: BISAP scoring is a simple clinical method to identify patients at risk of increased mortality within 24 hours of presentation in patients with acute pancreatitis.

  2. A reliability assessment method using system dynamics and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyung, Min Kang; Moosung, Jae [Hanyang Univ., Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sangman, Kwak [Systemix, Inc, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    An advanced method for assessing dynamic safety of nuclear power plants is introduced and applied. A commercial software, VENtana SIMulation environment, VENSIM, is used to develop a dynamics model for an example system. In this study the 18-month refuel cycle is simulated for the dynamic analysis. The failure rate when the plant is a zero power like maintenance, test, and refueling processes, which are not properly modeled in conventional method using event/fault trees, is higher than that of the full power. This also means the human failure rate during both standby and shutdown operation is higher than that of normal operations. Various time steps are applied for the different failure cases. The simulation results show that the common cause failure is much affected by the time step process. The results also include the dynamic simulation for the standby-running and shutdown-running cases. The graphical presentation has been easily modeled by a unique graphic designed method incorporated in the VENSIM. The diagrams well understood by operators or system analysts are constructed and evaluated quantitatively using system dynamics. (authors)

  3. Object relations and real life relationships: a cross method assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelzalts, Jonathan E; Fisher, Shimrit; Naot, Rachel

    2014-04-01

    This study examines the relationship between the psychoanalytic concept of object relations and real life behavior of being in an intimate relationship among heterosexual women. In a multi-method approach we used two different measures; the self-report Bell Object Relations and Reality Testing Inventory (BORRTI; Bell, Billington & Becker, 1986) and the performance based Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Social Cognition & Object Relations Scale- Global Rating Method SCORS-G (Westen, 1995) to measure the object relations of 60 women. The Alienation subscale of the BORRTI and understanding of social causality subscale of the SCORS-G explained 34.8% of variance of the intimate relationship variable. Thus, women involved in a romantic relationship reported lower rates of alienation on the BORRTI and produced TAT narratives that were more adaptive with regard to understanding of social causality as measured by the SCORS-G than those not currently in a relationship. Results are discussed with reference to the relationship between object relations and real life measures of healthy individuals and in light of the need for a multi-method approach of assessment.

  4. Discourses and Practices in Teaching Methods and Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Gopinath

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Translating the purposes of education into practice is particularly challenging for those who are new or have recently entered academia. By reflecting on my first years of teaching in higher education, I discuss two key aspects of my teaching practice: shifts in choice of teaching methods and a critique of different forms of assessment. Through the discussion, I argue that a teacher needs to be reflective on both these aspects and that such reflection needs to be carried out so that the student develops into a “self-directing,” “self-monitoring,” and “self-correcting” individual. At the end of the discussion, the relevance of a “project-based learning” approach starts to become significant in taking my pedagogical practice forward.

  5. A Method for Assessing Quality of Service in Broadband Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bujlow, Tomasz; Riaz, M. Tahir; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring of Quality of Service (QoS) in high-speed Internet infrastructure is a challenging task. However, precise assessments must take into account the fact that the requirements for the given quality level are service-dependent. Backbone QoS monitoring and analysis requires processing of large...... taken from the description of system sockets. This paper proposes a new method for measuring the Quality of Service (QoS) level in broadband networks, based on our Volunteer-Based System for collecting the training data, Machine Learning Algorithms for generating the classification rules and application...... and provide C5.0 high-quality training data, divided into groups corresponding to different types of applications. It was found that currently existing means of collecting data (classification by ports, Deep Packet Inspection, statistical classification, public data sources) are not sufficient and they do...

  6. Performance Assessment Method for a Forged Fingerprint Detection Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong Nyuo; Jun, In-Kyung; Kim, Hyun; Shin, Woochang

    The threat of invasion of privacy and of the illegal appropriation of information both increase with the expansion of the biometrics service environment to open systems. However, while certificates or smart cards can easily be cancelled and reissued if found to be missing, there is no way to recover the unique biometric information of an individual following a security breach. With the recognition that this threat factor may disrupt the large-scale civil service operations approaching implementation, such as electronic ID cards and e-Government systems, many agencies and vendors around the world continue to develop forged fingerprint detection technology, but no objective performance assessment method has, to date, been reported. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a methodology designed to evaluate the objective performance of the forged fingerprint detection technology that is currently attracting a great deal of attention.

  7. A QUALITY ASSESSMENT METHOD FOR 3D ROAD POLYGON OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the economy, the fast and accurate extraction of the city road is significant for GIS data collection and update, remote sensing images interpretation, mapping and spatial database updating etc. 3D GIS has attracted more and more attentions from academics, industries and governments with the increase of requirements for interoperability and integration of different sources of data. The quality of 3D geographic objects is very important for spatial analysis and decision-making. This paper presents a method for the quality assessment of the 3D road polygon objects which is created by integrating 2D Road Polygon data with LiDAR point cloud and other height information such as Spot Height data in Hong Kong Island. The quality of the created 3D road polygon data set is evaluated by the vertical accuracy, geometric and attribute accuracy, connectivity error, undulation error and completeness error and the final results are presented.

  8. Risk Assessment Techniques and Survey Method for COTS Components

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Rashmi

    2012-01-01

    The Rational Unified Process a software engineering process is gaining popularity nowadays. RUP delivers best software practices for component software Development life cycle It supports component based software development. Risk is involved in every component development phase .neglecting those risks sometimes hampers the software growth and leads to negative outcome. In Order to provide appropriate security and protection levels, identifying various risks is very vital. Therefore Risk identification plays a very crucial role in the component based software development This report addresses incorporation of component based software development cycle into RUP phases, assess several category of risk encountered in the component based software. It also entails a survey method to identify the risk factor and evaluating the overall severity of the component software development in terms of the risk. Formula for determining risk prevention cost and finding the risk probability is also been included. The overall go...

  9. Reduced-reference image quality assessment using moment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Diwei; Shen, Yuantong; Shen, Yongluo; Li, Hongwei

    2016-10-01

    Reduced-reference image quality assessment (RR IQA) aims to evaluate the perceptual quality of a distorted image through partial information of the corresponding reference image. In this paper, a novel RR IQA metric is proposed by using the moment method. We claim that the first and second moments of wavelet coefficients of natural images can have approximate and regular change that are disturbed by different types of distortions, and that this disturbance can be relevant to human perceptions of quality. We measure the difference of these statistical parameters between reference and distorted image to predict the visual quality degradation. The introduced IQA metric is suitable for implementation and has relatively low computational complexity. The experimental results on Laboratory for Image and Video Engineering (LIVE) and Tampere Image Database (TID) image databases indicate that the proposed metric has a good predictive performance.

  10. Experimental Methods for UAV Aerodynamic and Propulsion Performance Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan ANTON

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental method for assessing the performances and the propulsion power of a UAV in several points based on telemetry. The points in which we make the estimations are chosen based on several criteria and the fallowing parameters are measured: airspeed, time-to-climb, altitude and the horizontal distance. With the estimated propulsion power and knowing the shaft motor power, the propeller efficiency is determined at several speed values. The shaft motor power was measured in the lab using the propeller as a break. Many flights, using the same UAV configuration, were performed before extracting flight data, in order to reduce the instrumental or statistic errors. This paper highlights both the methodology of processing the data and the validation of theoretical results.

  11. Comparative Assessment of Advanced Gay Hydrate Production Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. D. White; B. P. McGrail; S. K. Wurstner

    2009-06-30

    Displacing natural gas and petroleum with carbon dioxide is a proven technology for producing conventional geologic hydrocarbon reservoirs, and producing additional yields from abandoned or partially produced petroleum reservoirs. Extending this concept to natural gas hydrate production offers the potential to enhance gas hydrate recovery with concomitant permanent geologic sequestration. Numerical simulation was used to assess a suite of carbon dioxide injection techniques for producing gas hydrates from a variety of geologic deposit types. Secondary hydrate formation was found to inhibit contact of the injected CO{sub 2} regardless of injectate phase state, thus diminishing the exchange rate due to pore clogging and hydrate zone bypass of the injected fluids. Additional work is needed to develop methods of artificially introducing high-permeability pathways in gas hydrate zones if injection of CO{sub 2} in either gas, liquid, or micro-emulsion form is to be more effective in enhancing gas hydrate production rates.

  12. Assessment Methods in Statistical Education An International Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Bidgood, Penelope; Jolliffe, Flavia

    2010-01-01

    This book is a collaboration from leading figures in statistical education and is designed primarily for academic audiences involved in teaching statistics and mathematics. The book is divided in four sections: (1) Assessment using real-world problems, (2) Assessment statistical thinking, (3) Individual assessment (4) Successful assessment strategies.

  13. Selection of Chelated Fe (III)/Fe (II) Catalytic Oxidation Agents for Desulfurization Based on Iron Complexation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Ying; Liu Youzhi; Qi Guisheng; Guo Huidong; Zhu Zhengfeng

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of factors inlfuencing the experiments on reactions involving 8 different chelating agents and sol-uble Fe (III)/Fe (II) salts was carried out to yield chelated iron complexes. A combination of optimized inlfuencing factors has resulted in a Fe chelating capacity of the iron-based desulfurization solution to be equal to 6.83—13.56 g/L at a redox potential of 0.185—0.3. The desulfurization performance of Fe (III)/Fe (II) chelating agents was investigated on a simulated sulfur-containing industrial gas composed of H2S and N2 in a cross-lfow rotating packed bed. Test results have revealed that the proposed iron-based desulfurization solution showed a sulfur removal efifciency of over 99%along with a Fe chelating capacity exceeding 1.35 g/L. This desulfurization technology which has practical application prospect is currently in the phase of commercial scale-up study.

  14. Fishy Fishes: The Typicality of Object Stimuli Used to Assess Children's Language in the Reynell Development Language Scales--III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrnyk, Corinne; Meints, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies show clear evidence that children display typicality effects during early word learning. However, little is known of the typicality of stimuli used by standardized language tests to assess children's language development. Aims: To examine the typicality of stimuli used by the Reynell Developmental Language Scales--III…

  15. Overview of integrative tools and methods in assessing ecological integrity in estuarine and coastal systems worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Angel; Bricker, Suzanne B; Dauer, Daniel M; Demetriades, Nicolette T; Ferreira, João G; Forbes, Anthony T; Hutchings, Pat; Jia, Xiaoping; Kenchington, Richard; Carlos Marques, João; Zhu, Changbo

    2008-09-01

    In recent years, several sets of legislation worldwide (Oceans Act in USA, Australia or Canada; Water Framework Directive or Marine Strategy in Europe, National Water Act in South Africa, etc.) have been developed in order to address ecological quality or integrity, within estuarine and coastal systems. Most such legislation seeks to define quality in an integrative way, by using several biological elements, together with physico-chemical and pollution elements. Such an approach allows assessment of ecological status at the ecosystem level ('ecosystem approach' or 'holistic approach' methodologies), rather than at species level (e.g. mussel biomonitoring or Mussel Watch) or just at chemical level (i.e. quality objectives) alone. Increasing attention has been paid to the development of tools for different physico-chemical or biological (phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthos, algae, phanerogams, fishes) elements of the ecosystems. However, few methodologies integrate all the elements into a single evaluation of a water body. The need for such integrative tools to assess ecosystem quality is very important, both from a scientific and stakeholder point of view. Politicians and managers need information from simple and pragmatic, but scientifically sound methodologies, in order to show to society the evolution of a zone (estuary, coastal area, etc.), taking into account human pressures or recovery processes. These approaches include: (i) multidisciplinarity, inherent in the teams involved in their implementation; (ii) integration of biotic and abiotic factors; (iii) accurate and validated methods in determining ecological integrity; and (iv) adequate indicators to follow the evolution of the monitored ecosystems. While some countries increasingly use the establishment of marine parks to conserve marine biodiversity and ecological integrity, there is awareness (e.g. in Australia) that conservation and management of marine ecosystems cannot be restricted to Marine Protected

  16. Richard III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Palle Schantz

    2017-01-01

    Kort analyse af Shakespeares Richard III med fokus på, hvordan denne skurk fremstilles, så tilskuere (og læsere) langt henad vejen kan føle sympati med ham. Med paralleller til Netflix-serien "House of Cards"......Kort analyse af Shakespeares Richard III med fokus på, hvordan denne skurk fremstilles, så tilskuere (og læsere) langt henad vejen kan føle sympati med ham. Med paralleller til Netflix-serien "House of Cards"...

  17. Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas Do Not Express EGFRvIII

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melchers, Lieuwe J; Clausen, Martijn J A M; Mastik, Mirjam F; Slagter-Menkema, Lorian; Langendijk, Johannes A; van der Laan, Bernard F A M; van der Wal, Jacqueline E; van der Vegt, Bert; Roodenburg, Jan L N; Schuuring, Ed

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the prevalence of EGFRvIII, a specific variant of EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), in 3 well-defined cohorts of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Methods and Materials: Immunohistochemistry for the specific detection of EGFRvIII using the L8A4 antibody was opt

  18. Current Status of Methods to Assess Cancer Drug Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodor H. Lippert, Hans-Jörg Ruoff, Manfred Volm

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistance is the main cause of the failure of chemotherapy of malignant tumors, resistance being either preexisting (intrinsic resistance or induced by the drugs (acquired resistance. At present, resistance is usually diagnosed during treatment after a long period of drug administration.In the present paper, methods for a rapid assessment of drug resistance are described. Three main classes of test procedures can be found in the literature, i.e. fresh tumor cell culture tests, cancer biomarker tests and positron emission tomography (PET tests. The methods are based on the evaluation of molecular processes, i.e. metabolic activities of cancer cells. Drug resistance can be diagnosed before treatment in-vitro with fresh tumor cell culture tests, and after a short time of treatment in-vivo with PET tests. Cancer biomarker tests, for which great potential has been predicted, are largely still in the development stage. Individual resistance surveillance with tests delivering rapid results signifies progress in cancer therapy management, by providing the possibility to avoid drug therapies that are ineffective and only harmful.

  19. Organisational impact: Definition and assessment methods for medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Christophe; Carbonneil, Cédric; Audry, Antoine

    2016-02-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) is a rapidly developing area and the value of taking non-clinical fields into consideration is growing. Although the health-economic aspect is commonly recognised, evaluating organisational impact has not been studied nearly as much. The goal of this work was to provide a definition of organisational impact in the sector of medical devices by defining its contours and exploring the evaluation methods specific to this field. Following an analysis of the literature concerning the impact of technologies on organisations as well as the medical literature, and also after reviewing the regulatory texts in this respect, the group of experts identified 12 types of organisational impact. A number of medical devices were carefully screened using the criteria grid, which proved to be operational and to differentiate properly. From the analysis of the practice and of the methods described, the group was then able to derive a few guidelines to successfully evaluate organisational impact. This work shows that taking organisational impact into consideration may be critical alongside of the other criteria currently in favour (clinically and economically). What remains is to confer a role in the decision-making process on this factor and one that meets the economic efficiency principle.

  20. The time line method for assessing galloping exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, A.S.

    1982-08-01

    The design of double circuit transmission structures is often determined by the need to allow sufficient electrical clearance between phases under galloping span conditions. In the past such designs have been arrived at according to certain ''galloping ellipse'' criteria in which the ellipse geometry is based on mid-span sag. The new method, disclosed herein, starts with the statistical history of the weather in the particular region, as to wind, wind direction, temperature, and ice leading to an exposure rate (Hrs./Yr.) for the normal component of wind speed. These data are combined with estimates of galloping motion including amplitude dependence on wind speed, gusting, and frequency mis-match between galloping and horizontal (swinging) movement at mid-span. A comparison is included between untreated and treated spans, the latter having galloping control devices with only 50% amplitude reduction capability. A range of span lengths between 750 ft. (227M) and 1,500 ft. (454M) is considered. The new method, for the first time, provides a means to assess the benefits of alternative designs in quantitative terms.

  1. Assessment of NDE Methods to Detect Lack of Fusion in HDPE Butt Fusion Joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Susan L.; Doctor, Steven R.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Watts, Michael W.; Moran, Traci L.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2011-07-31

    Studies at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, were conducted to evaluate nondestructive examinations (NDE) coupled with mechanical testing of butt fusion joints in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe for assessing lack of fusion. The work provided information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the effectiveness of volumetric inspection techniques of HDPE butt fusion joints in Section III, Division 1, Class 3, buried piping systems in nuclear power plants. This paper describes results from assessments using ultrasonic and microwave nondestructive techniques and mechanical testing with the high-speed tensile impact test and the side-bend test for determining joint integrity. A series of butt joints were fabricated in 3408, 12-inch (30.5-cm) IPS DR-11 HDPE material by varying the fusion parameters to create good joints and joints containing a range of lack-of-fusion conditions. Six of these butt joints were volumetrically examined with time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD), phased-array (PA) ultrasound, and the Evisive microwave system. The outer diameter (OD) weld beads were removed for microwave evaluation and the pipes ultrasonically re-evaluated. In two of the six pipes, both the outer and inner diameter (ID) weld beads were removed and the pipe joints re-evaluated. Some of the pipes were sectioned and the joints destructively evaluated with the high-speed tensile test and the side-bend test. The fusion parameters, nondestructive and destructive evaluation results have been correlated to validate the effectiveness of what each NDE technology detects and what each does not detect. There was no single NDE method that detected all of the lack-of-fusion flaws but a combination of NDE methods did detect most of the flaws.

  2. Critical Assessment of Correction Methods for Fisheye Lens Distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Tian, C.; Huang, Y.

    2016-06-01

    A fisheye lens is widely used to create a wide panoramic or hemispherical image. It is an ultra wide-angle lens that produces strong visual distortion. The distortion modeling and estimation of the fisheye lens are the crucial step for fisheye lens calibration and image rectification in computer vision and close-range photography. There are two kinds of distortion: radial and tangential distortion. Radial distortion is large for fisheye imaging and critical for the subsequent image processing. Although many researchers have developed calibration algorithms of radial distortion of fisheye lens, quantitative evaluation of the correction performance has remained a challenge. This is the first paper that intuitively and objectively evaluates the performance of five different calibration algorithms. Upto- date research on fisheye lens calibration is comprehensively reviewed to identify the research need. To differentiate their performance in terms of precision and ease-using, five methods are then tested using a diverse set of actual images of the checkerboard that are taken at Wuhan University, China under varying lighting conditions, shadows, and shooting angles. The method of rational function model, which was generally used for wide-angle lens correction, outperforms the other methods. However, the one parameter division model is easy for practical use without compromising too much the precision. The reason is that it depends on the linear structure in the image and requires no preceding calibration. It is a tradeoff between correction precision and ease-using. By critically assessing the strengths and limitations of the existing algorithms, the paper provides valuable insight and guideline for future practice and algorithm development that are important for fisheye lens calibration. It is promising for the optimal design of lens correction models that are suitable for the millions of portable imaging devices.

  3. Dental age assessment among Tunisian children using the Demirjian method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abir Aissaoui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Since Demirjian system of estimating dental maturity was first described, many researchers from different countries have tested its accuracy among diverse populations. Some of these studies have pointed out a need to determine population-specific standards. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the suitability of the Demirjian's method for dental age assessment in Tunisian children. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study previously approved by the Research Ethics Local Committee of the University Hospital Fattouma Bourguiba of Monastir (Tunisia. Panoramic radiographs of 280 healthy Tunisian children of age 2.8–16.5 years were examined with Demirjian method and scored by three trained observers. Statistical Analysis Used: Dental age was compared to chronological age by using the analysis of variance (ANOVA test. Cohen's Kappa test was performed to calculate the intra- and inter-examiner agreements. Results: Underestimation was seen in children aged between 9 and 16 years and the range of accuracy varied from −0.02 to 3 years. The advancement in dental age as determined by Demirjian system when compared to chronological age ranged from 0.3 to 1.32 year for young males and from 0.26 to 1.37 year for young females (age ranged from 3 to 8 years. Conclusions: The standards provided by Demirjian for French-Canadian children may not be suitable for Tunisian children. Each population of children may need their own specific standard for an accurate estimation of chronological age.

  4. Evaluation of Current Assessment Methods in Engineering Entrepreneurship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purzer, Senay; Fila, Nicholas; Nataraja, Kavin

    2016-01-01

    Quality assessment is an essential component of education that allows educators to support student learning and improve educational programs. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the current state of assessment in engineering entrepreneurship education. We identified 52 assessment instruments covered in 29 journal articles and conference…

  5. Semiconducting III-V compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Hilsum, C; Henisch, Heinz R

    1961-01-01

    Semiconducting III-V Compounds deals with the properties of III-V compounds as a family of semiconducting crystals and relates these compounds to the monatomic semiconductors silicon and germanium. Emphasis is placed on physical processes that are peculiar to III-V compounds, particularly those that combine boron, aluminum, gallium, and indium with phosphorus, arsenic, and antimony (for example, indium antimonide, indium arsenide, gallium antimonide, and gallium arsenide).Comprised of eight chapters, this book begins with an assessment of the crystal structure and binding of III-V compounds, f

  6. Contributions to the dimensional assessment of personality disorders using Millon's model and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI9-III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strack, Stephen; Millon, Theodore

    2007-08-01

    For over 35 years, Mllion's (1996) model of personality and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (Millon, 1977, 1987, 2006) have been useful resources for clinicians to understand and assess personality disorders (PDs) and clinical syndromes in psychiatric patients. In this article, we highlight significant features of the model and test that have proved valuable to personologists in their quest for a more satisfactory taxonomy of PDs based on continuously distributed traits. We also describe Millon's (1996)prototypal domain approach to personality that combines dimensional and categorical elements for the description of PDs and their normal counterparts.

  7. Capture-recapture method for assessing publication bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Poorolajal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Publication bias is an important factor that may result in selection bias and lead to overestimation of the intervention effect. Capture recapture method is considered as a potentially useful procedure for investigating and estimating publication bias.

    Methods: We conducted a systematic review to estimate the duration of protection provided by hepatitis B vaccine by measuring the anamnestic immune response to booster doses of vaccine and retrieved studies from three separate sources, including a electronic databases, b reference lists of the studies, and c conference databases as well as contact with experts and manufacturers. Capture recapture and some conventional methods such as funnel plot, Begg test, Egger test, and trim and fill method were employed for assessing publication bias.

    Results: Based on capture recapture method, completeness of the overall search results was 87.2% [95% CI: 84.6% to 89.0%] and log-linear model suggested 5 [95% CI: 4.2 to 6.2] missing studies. The funnel plot was asymmetric but Begg and Egger tests results were

  8. Fluorescence sensing of phosdrin pesticide by the luminescent Eu(III)- and Tb(III)-bis(coumarin-3-carboxylic acid) probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Belal H. M.; Khairy, Gasser M.; Kamel, Rasha M.

    2016-04-01

    Luminescence quenching of the Eu(III)- and Tb(III)-bis (coumarin-3-carboxylic acid) (Ln(III)-(CCA)2) probes has been studied in the presence of organophosphorus or organochlorine pesticides; Phosdrin (P1), Malathion (P2), Profenofos (P3), Formothion (P4), Heptachlor (P5), and Endosulfan (P6). The luminescence intensity of lanthanide complex probes Ln(III)-(CCA)2 decreases as the concentration of the Phosdrin pesticide increases, while the other investigated pesticides have no significant influence on the lanthanide fluorescent intensities. It is observed that the quenching of Eu(III) and Tb(III)-coumarin-3-carboxylic acid by Phosdrin proceeds via static quenching processes according to Stern-Volmer plot. The binding constants (K) and the thermodynamic parameters of the interaction of Ln(III)-(CCA)2 with Phosdrin have been determined. A direct method for the determination of the Phosdrin in ethanol has been developed based on the luminescence changes of the Ln(III)-(CCA)2-phosdrin ternary complexes. The detection limits of P1 were 6.28 and 1.07 μM in case of Eu(III) and Tb(III)-complex, respectively. The influence of various interfering species on the detection of P1 has been investigated to assess the analytical applicability of the method. The new method was applied to determine the Phosdrin pesticide in different types of water samples.

  9. Seismic Hazard Assessment for a Characteristic Earthquake Scenario: Probabilistic-Deterministic Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    mouloud, Hamidatou

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the seismic activity and the statistical treatment of seismicity catalog the Constantine region between 1357 and 2014 with 7007 seismic event. Our research is a contribution to improving the seismic risk management by evaluating the seismic hazard in the North-East Algeria. In the present study, Earthquake hazard maps for the Constantine region are calculated. Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) is classically performed through the Cornell approach by using a uniform earthquake distribution over the source area and a given magnitude range. This study aims at extending the PSHA approach to the case of a characteristic earthquake scenario associated with an active fault. The approach integrates PSHA with a high-frequency deterministic technique for the prediction of peak and spectral ground motion parameters in a characteristic earthquake. The method is based on the site-dependent evaluation of the probability of exceedance for the chosen strong-motion parameter. We proposed five sismotectonique zones. Four steps are necessary: (i) identification of potential sources of future earthquakes, (ii) assessment of their geological, geophysical and geometric, (iii) identification of the attenuation pattern of seismic motion, (iv) calculation of the hazard at a site and finally (v) hazard mapping for a region. In this study, the procedure of the earthquake hazard evaluation recently developed by Kijko and Sellevoll (1992) is used to estimate seismic hazard parameters in the northern part of Algeria.

  10. Integrated hydrochemical method of water quality assessment for irrigation in arid areas: application to the Jilh aquifer, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bassam, Abdulaziz M.; Al-Rumikhani, Yousef A.

    2003-05-01

    Water samples from 72 wells tapping the Jilh aquifer were collected and analyzed for 10 different water quality parameters. Using these data, a regional irrigation water quality was assessed using three techniques: (i) United States Department of Agriculture method (USDA), (ii) Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) guidelines for water quality assessment, and (iii) Water-Types approach. The USDA method revealed that the aquifer water salinity, as represented by electrical conductivity, ECw, ranges from high salinity (C3: ECw > 0.75-2.25 dS/m) to a very high salinity (C4: ECw > 2.25 dS/m). The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) varied from low (S1) to very high (S4) sodicity. Therefore, the water of the Jilh aquifer is dominantly of the C4-S2 class representing 56% of the total wells followed by C4-S1, C4-S3, C3-S1 and C4-S4 classes at 19%, 14%, 8%, and 3% of the wells respectively. The FAO system indicated moderate to severe restriction on the use for irrigation and slight to moderate ion toxicities for Na+, Cl-, B+, NO3- and HCO3-. It is clear that, both USDA and FAO systems condemn the Jilh groundwater as hazardous for irrigation due to its high salt content, unless certain measures for salinity control are undertaken. The dominant salt constituents in the water are Mg-Cl2, Na-Cl and Ca-Cl2 as per the Water-Types method. However, due to the complexity in classifying the aquifer groundwater for irrigation, a simplified approach acknowledging three class groups (I-suitable water, II-conditionally suitable water and III-unsuitable water) adopted from the three methods, is suggested in this paper. The simplified approach combines C-S classes of the USDA method among these three groups according to the lowest ratings. The salinity of the FAO method has been split arbitrarily into slight and moderate subclasses with values of 0.7-2.25 and >2.25 dS/m, respectively; to match with the C3-class of the USDA system. The Water-Types were classified assuming that Ca-Cl2 is the

  11. Determination of waterscape beauties through visual quality assessment method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Zohre; Yilmaz, Hasan

    2009-07-01

    Besides being an indispensable life element, water is also in the first rows among the most important landscape elements that have the visual reserve value in both natural and cultural environments. In this study, the aim was to present suggestions about the use of waterscapes in landscape design and planning attempts by determining the water types bearing high visual reserve values among different types of waterscapes bearing high visual reserve values. The visual quality assessment method was used in this study. One hundred and twenty eight university students ranked the six waterscapes in a visual quality survey. The results showed that urban waterscape scenery [visual quality point (VQP) = 6.0391], was the most preferred category, whereas, river scenery (VQP = 3.5547) was the least preferred. The second preferred waterscape was waterfall (in rural landscape) scenery (VQP = 5.8594) and the third was standing water scenery (SWS; VQP = 5.3672). The relationships between landscape parameters and visual quality of landscape indicated that vividness and fascinaty parameters had a significant relation with preference. Some suggestions were made regarding the use of wa terscapes visual value in planning and designing of the landscape.

  12. Assessment of breast cancer tumour size using six different methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier-Meitinger, Martina; Uder, Michael; Schulz-Wendtland, Ruediger; Adamietz, Boris [Erlangen University Hospital, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Haeberle, Lothar; Fasching, Peter A.; Bani, Mayada R.; Heusinger, Katharina; Beckmann, Matthias W. [Erlangen University Hospital, University Breast Center, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Erlangen (Germany); Wachter, David [Erlangen University Hospital, Institute of Pathology, Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    Tumour size estimates using mammography (MG), conventional ultrasound (US), compound imaging (CI) and real-time elastography (RTE) were compared with histopathological specimen sizes. The largest diameters of 97 malignant breast lesions were measured. Two US and CI measurements were made: US1/CI1 (hypoechoic nucleus only) and US2/CI2 (hypoechoic nucleus plus hyperechoic halo). Measurements were compared with histopathological tumour sizes using linear regression and Bland-Altman plots. Size prediction was best with ultrasound (US/CI/RTE: R{sup 2} 0.31-0.36); mammography was poorer (R{sup 2} = 0.19). The most accurate method was US2, while US1 and CI1 were poorest. Bland-Altman plots showed better size estimation with US2, CI2 and RTE, with low variation, while mammography showed greatest variability. Smaller tumours were better assessed than larger ones. CI2 and US2 performed best for ductal tumours and RTE for lobular cancers. Tumour size prediction accuracy did not correlate significantly with breast density, but on MG tumours were more difficult to detect in high-density tissue. The size of ductal tumours is best predicted with US2 and CI2, while for lobular cancers RTE is best. Hyperechoic tumour surroundings should be included in US and CI measurements and RTE used as an additional technique in the clinical staging process. (orig.)

  13. Validation of the Brazilian version of the Spinal Cord Independence Measure III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Riberto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : The Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM III specifically assesses individuals with spinal cord injuries. Objective : To translate and validate the Brazilian version of SCIM III. Method : SCIM III was translated, back-translated and adapted to the Portuguese language. Two interviewers assessed 83 subjects with spinal cord injuries in each one of seven collaborating rehabilitation centers. Functional Independence Measure (FIM™ and ASIA motor and sensory indices were also used. After six months, subjects were re-evaluated with the same instruments. Results : Examiners clearly understood the Brazilian version of SCIM III. Inter-rater intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was 0.918, and test-retest ICC was 0.991. After six months, the variation of gains in the FIM™ positively correlated with gains in SCIM III. Conclusion : The Brazilian version of the SCIM III is easy to understand, has good psychometric properties, and is valid.

  14. Rapid and sensitive lateral flow immunoassay method for determining alpha fetoprotein in serum using europium (III) chelate microparticles-based lateral flow test strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Rong-Liang; Xu, Xu-Ping; Liu, Tian-Cai; Zhou, Jian-Wei; Wang, Xian-Guo; Ren, Zhi-Qi [Institute of Antibody Engineering, School of Biotechnology, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, Guangdong (China); Hao, Fen [DaAn Gene Co. Ltd. of Sun Yat-sen University, 19 Xiangshan Road, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Wu, Ying-Song, E-mail: wg@smu.edu.cn [Institute of Antibody Engineering, School of Biotechnology, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, Guangdong (China)

    2015-09-03

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), a primary marker for many diseases including various cancers, is important in clinical tumor diagnosis and antenatal screening. Most immunoassays provide high sensitivity and accuracy for determining AFP, but they are expensive, often complex, time-consuming procedures. A simple and rapid point-of-care system that integrates Eu (III) chelate microparticles with lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) has been developed to determine AFP in serum with an assay time of 15 min. The approach is based on a sandwich immunoassay performed on lateral flow test strips. A fluorescence strip reader was used to measure the fluorescence peak heights of the test line (H{sub T}) and the control line (H{sub C}); the H{sub T}/H{sub C} ratio was used for quantitation. The Eu (III) chelate microparticles-based LFIA assay exhibited a wide linear range (1.0–1000 IU mL{sup −1}) for AFP with a low limit of detection (0.1 IU mL{sup −1}) based on 5ul of serum. Satisfactory specificity and accuracy were demonstrated and the intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation (CV) for AFP were both <10%. Furthermore, in the analysis of human serum samples, excellent correlation (n = 284, r = 0.9860, p < 0.0001) was obtained between the proposed method and a commercially available CLIA kit. Results indicated that the Eu (III) chelate microparticles-based LFIA system provided a rapid, sensitive and reliable method for determining AFP in serum, indicating that it would be suitable for development in point-of-care testing. - Highlights: • Europium (III) chelate microparticles was used as a label for LIFA. • Quantitative detection by using H{sub T}/H{sub C} ratio was achieved. • LIFA for simple and rapid AFP detection in human serum. • The sensitivity and linearity was more excellent compared with QD-based ICTS. • This method could be developed for rapid point-of-care screening.

  15. 75 FR 53298 - A Method to Assess Climate-Relevant Decisions: Application in the Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... AGENCY A Method to Assess Climate-Relevant Decisions: Application in the Chesapeake Bay AGENCY... 60-day public comment period for the draft document titled, ``A Method to Assess Climate-Relevant... and must be received by EPA by November 1, 2010. ADDRESSES: The draft ``A Method To Assess...

  16. HDMR methods to assess reliability in slope stability analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozubal, Janusz; Pula, Wojciech; Vessia, Giovanna

    2014-05-01

    -soil masses) resulting in sliding mechanisms have been investigated in this study. The reliability indices values drawn from the HDRM method have been compared with conventional approaches as neural networks: the efficiency of HDRM is shown in the case studied. References Chowdhury R., Rao B.N. and Prasad A.M. 2009. High-dimensional model representation for structural reliability analysis. Commun. Numer. Meth. Engng, 25: 301-337. Chowdhury R. and Rao B. 2010. Probabilistic Stability Assessment of Slopes Using High Dimensional Model Representation. Computers and Geotechnics, 37: 876-884.

  17. Risk assessment of power systems models, methods, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wenyuan

    2014-01-01

    Risk Assessment of Power Systems addresses the regulations and functions of risk assessment with regard to its relevance in system planning, maintenance, and asset management. Brimming with practical examples, this edition introduces the latest risk information on renewable resources, the smart grid, voltage stability assessment, and fuzzy risk evaluation. It is a comprehensive reference of a highly pertinent topic for engineers, managers, and upper-level students who seek examples of risk theory applications in the workplace.

  18. Sequential extraction method for determination of Fe(II/III) and U(IV/VI) in suspensions of iron-bearing phyllosilicates and uranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Fubo; Burgos, William D

    2012-11-06

    Iron-bearing phyllosilicates strongly influence the redox state and mobility of uranium because of their limited hydraulic conductivity, high specific surface area, and redox reactivity. Standard extraction procedures cannot be accurately applied for the determination of clay-Fe(II/III) and U(IV/VI) in clay mineral-U suspensions such that advanced spectroscopic techniques are required. Instead, we developed and validated a sequential extraction method for determination of clay-Fe(II/III) and U(IV/VI) in clay-U suspensions. In our so-called "H(3)PO(4)-HF-H(2)SO(4) sequential extraction" method, H(3)PO(4)-H(2)SO(4) is used first to solubilize and remove U, and the remaining clay pellet is subject to HF-H(2)SO(4) digestion. Physical separation of U and clay eliminates valence cycling between U(IV/VI) and clay-Fe(II/III) that otherwise occurred in the extraction solutions and caused analytical discrepancies. We further developed an "automated anoxic KPA" method to measure soluble U(VI) and total U (calculate U(IV) by difference) and modified the conventional HF-H(2)SO(4) digestion method to eliminate a series of time-consuming weighing steps. We measured the kinetics of uraninite oxidation by nontronite using this sequential extraction method and anoxic KPA method and measured a stoichiometric ratio of 2.19 ± 0.05 mol clay-Fe(II) produced per mol U(VI) produced (theoretical value of 2.0). We found that we were able to recover 98.0-98.5% of the clay Fe and 98.1-98.5% of the U through the sequential extractions. Compared to the theoretical stoichiometric ratio of 2.0, the parallel extractions of 0.5 M HCl for clay-Fe(II) and 1 M NaHCO(3) for U(VI) leached two-times more Fe(II) than U(VI). The parallel extractions of HF-H(2)SO(4) for clay Fe(II) and 1 M NaHCO(3) for U(VI) leached six-times more Fe(II) than U(VI).

  19. Comparative assessment of life cycle assessment methods used for personal computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Marissa A; Higgs, Tim G; Cullen, Michael J; Stewart, Scott; Brady, Todd A

    2010-10-01

    This article begins with a summary of findings from commonly cited life cycle assessments (LCA) of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) products. While differing conclusions regarding environmental impact are expected across product segments (mobile phones, personal computers, servers, etc.) significant variation and conflicting conclusions are observed even within product segments such as the desktop Personal Computer (PC). This lack of consistent conclusions and accurate data limits the effectiveness of LCA to influence policy and product design decisions. From 1997 to 2010, the majority of published studies focused on the PC concluded that the use phase contributes most to the life cycle energy demand of PC products with a handful of studies suggesting that manufacturing phase of the PC has the largest impact. The purpose of this article is to critically review these studies in order to analyze sources of uncertainty, including factors that extend beyond data quality to the models and assumptions used. These findings suggest existing methods to combine process-based LCA data with product price data and remaining value adjustments are not reliable in conducting life cycle assessments for PC products. Recommendations are provided to assist future LCA work.

  20. Development of concepts for human labour accounting in Emergy Assessment and other Environmental Sustainability Assessment methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Andreas; Morandi, Fabiana; Østergård, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    of labour intensive processes and a systematic underestimation of environmental impacts has implications for decision-making. A brief review of the evaluation of human labour in ESAs reveals that only Emergy Assessment (EmA) accounts for labour as standard. Focussing on EmA, we find, however......, that there is no agreement on the calculation method for labour. We formalise the calculation of human labour unit emergy values (UEVs) as being the ratio between the emergy resource basis of the labour system and a proxy for labour, with or without allocation to account for different qualities of labour. The formalised...... be transferred to other ESA methodologies. Concerning EmA, we recommend that product UEVs should systematically be calculated with and without labour, and that working hours rather than salary should be used when accounting for labour inputs. We recognise that there is a risk of double counting of environmental...

  1. The Design and Implementation of an Assessment Method Combining Formative and Summative Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolin, Jens; Jensen, Sofie Birch; Bruun, Jesper;

    2016-01-01

    The two key purposes of assessment, formative and summative, are often in a contradictory position. The summative assessment of learning will normally prevent the formative assessment for learning to be realised (Butler, 1988), meaning that the learning potential of the assessment will often...

  2. Identification of assessment methods of benefits and costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Roth, Eva

    This note relates to tasks 4.1of the KnowSeas project and is a guidance-note to give directions towards the assessment of benefit and costs related to fisheries and advice on the further objectives related to this assessment....

  3. Effects of Rater Characteristics and Scoring Methods on Speaking Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsugu, Sawako

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the sources of variance in speaking assessment is important in Japan where society's high demand for English speaking skills is growing. Three challenges threaten fair assessment of speaking. First, in Japanese university speaking courses, teachers are typically the only raters, but teachers' knowledge of their students may unfairly…

  4. Assessing groundwater quality for irrigation using indicator kriging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbari, Masoomeh; Amiri, Meysam; Motlagh, Masoud Bahraini

    2016-11-01

    One of the key parameters influencing sprinkler irrigation performance is water quality. In this study, the spatial variability of groundwater quality parameters (EC, SAR, Na+, Cl-, HCO3 - and pH) was investigated by geostatistical methods and the most suitable areas for implementation of sprinkler irrigation systems in terms of water quality are determined. The study was performed in Fasa county of Fars province using 91 water samples. Results indicated that all parameters are moderately to strongly spatially correlated over the study area. The spatial distribution of pH and HCO3 - was mapped using ordinary kriging. The probability of concentrations of EC, SAR, Na+ and Cl- exceeding a threshold limit in groundwater was obtained using indicator kriging (IK). The experimental indicator semivariograms were often fitted well by a spherical model for SAR, EC, Na+ and Cl-. For HCO3 - and pH, an exponential model was fitted to the experimental semivariograms. Probability maps showed that the risk of EC, SAR, Na+ and Cl- exceeding the given critical threshold is higher in lower half of the study area. The most proper agricultural lands for sprinkler irrigation implementation were identified by evaluating all probability maps. The suitable areas for sprinkler irrigation design were determined to be 25,240 hectares, which is about 34 percent of total agricultural lands and are located in northern and eastern parts. Overall the results of this study showed that IK is an appropriate approach for risk assessment of groundwater pollution, which is useful for a proper groundwater resources management.

  5. New methods for assessing the fascinating nature of nature experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joye, Yannick; Pals, Roos; Steg, Linda; Evans, Ben Lewis

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, numerous environmental psychology studies have demonstrated that contact with nature as opposed to urban settings can improve an individual's mood, can lead to increased levels of vitality, and can offer an opportunity to recover from stress. According to Attention Restoration Theory (ART) the restorative potential of natural environments is situated in the fact that nature can replenish depleted attentional resources. This replenishment takes place, in part, because nature is deemed to be a source of fascination, with fascination being described as having an "attentional", an "affective" and an "effort" dimension. However, the claim that fascination with nature involves these three dimensions is to a large extent based on intuition or derived from introspection-based measurement methods, such as self-reports. In three studies, we aimed to more objectively assess whether these three dimensions indeed applied to experiences related to natural environments, before any (attentional) depletion has taken place. The instruments that were used were: (a) the affect misattribution procedure (Study 1), (b) the dot probe paradigm (Study 2) and (c) a cognitively effortful task (Study 3). These instrument were respectively aimed at verifying the affective, attentional and effort dimension of fascination. Overall, the results provide objective evidence for the claims made within the ART framework, that natural as opposed to urban settings are affectively positive (cfr., affective dimension) and that people have an attentional bias to natural (rather than urban) environments (cfr., attentional dimension). The results regarding the effort dimension are less straightforward, and suggest that this dimension only becomes important in sufficiently difficult cognitive tasks.

  6. New methods for assessing the fascinating nature of nature experiences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Joye

    Full Text Available In recent years, numerous environmental psychology studies have demonstrated that contact with nature as opposed to urban settings can improve an individual's mood, can lead to increased levels of vitality, and can offer an opportunity to recover from stress. According to Attention Restoration Theory (ART the restorative potential of natural environments is situated in the fact that nature can replenish depleted attentional resources. This replenishment takes place, in part, because nature is deemed to be a source of fascination, with fascination being described as having an "attentional", an "affective" and an "effort" dimension. However, the claim that fascination with nature involves these three dimensions is to a large extent based on intuition or derived from introspection-based measurement methods, such as self-reports. In three studies, we aimed to more objectively assess whether these three dimensions indeed applied to experiences related to natural environments, before any (attentional depletion has taken place. The instruments that were used were: (a the affect misattribution procedure (Study 1, (b the dot probe paradigm (Study 2 and (c a cognitively effortful task (Study 3. These instrument were respectively aimed at verifying the affective, attentional and effort dimension of fascination. Overall, the results provide objective evidence for the claims made within the ART framework, that natural as opposed to urban settings are affectively positive (cfr., affective dimension and that people have an attentional bias to natural (rather than urban environments (cfr., attentional dimension. The results regarding the effort dimension are less straightforward, and suggest that this dimension only becomes important in sufficiently difficult cognitive tasks.

  7. Application of CFD methods for advanced site assessment and micrositing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strack, M; Riedel, V.; Dutilleux, P. [DEWI German Wind Energy Inst., Wilhelmshaven (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The DEWI Institute in Germany is in the process of testing a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) method for the site assessment of wind farms. This presentation provided details of flow model testing conducted at the institute and at 2 wind farms in Austria and Spain. Wind profile verification processes are tested at the institute through the use of 130 metre mast, which was selected to verify flow models as it has several years of data which has been extensively evaluated and checked. The verification procedures tested on the mast were then evaluated at a wind farm in Austria with a complex site comprised of steep slopes, large height differences and important terrain structures. Mast measurements at the farm ranged between 50 and 65 m, and sonic detection and ranging (SODAR) measurements were available at 4 different locations. Wind direction at the meteorological masts was determined to be 326.7 degrees and 331.0 degrees. A comparison with SODAR measurements showed considerable variation of energy yield. Flow simulation studies showed a mean deviation of 2.3 per cent, while calculations by the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP) showed a deviation of 9.1 per cent. The investigation revealed that there were very complex flow patterns at the site, which the flow simulation was able to reproduce. Results of the investigation indicated that very high wind direction resolutions were required to achieve an accurate flow simulation. WaSP was not applicable for the extrapolation of measurement on hub height to the wind turbines. CFD simulation results at a wind farm in Spain with complex terrain showed a percentage error between 0.4 per cent and 6 per cent, and a mean absolute error of between 2.3 per cent and 2.5 per cent. A verification of turbulence intensity results showed an absolute percentage error of between 0 and 7 per cent, and a mean absolute error of between 1.8 and 2.2 per cent. The method allowed wind and turbulence fields to be simulated over

  8. Assessment of methods for mapping snow cover from MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittger, Karl; Painter, Thomas H.; Dozier, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of snow is critical for understanding Earth’s water and energy cycles. Maps of snow from MODIS have seen growing use in investigations of climate, hydrology, and glaciology, but the lack of rigorous validation of different snow mapping methods compromises these studies. We examine three widely used MODIS snow products: the “binary” (i.e., snow yes/no) global snow maps that were among the initial MODIS standard products; a more recent standard MODIS fractional snow product; and another fractional snow product, MODSCAG, based on spectral mixture analysis. We compare them to maps of snow obtained from Landsat ETM+ data, whose 30 m spatial resolution provides nearly 300 samples within a 500 m MODIS nadir pixel. The assessment uses 172 images spanning a range of snow and vegetation conditions, including the Colorado Rocky Mountains, the Upper Rio Grande, California’s Sierra Nevada, and the Nepal Himalaya. MOD10A1 binary and fractional fail to retrieve snow in the transitional periods during accumulation and melt while MODSCAG consistently maintains its retrieval ability during these periods. Averaged over all regions, the RMSE for MOD10A1 fractional is 0.23, whereas the MODSCAG RMSE is 0.10. MODSCAG performs the most consistently through accumulation, mid-winter and melt, with median differences ranging from -0.16 to 0.04 while differences for MOD10A1 fractional range from -0.34 to 0.35. MODSCAG maintains its performance over all land cover classes and throughout a larger range of land surface properties. Characterizing snow cover by spectral mixing is more accurate than empirical methods based on the normalized difference snow index, both for identifying where snow is and is not and for estimating the fractional snow cover within a sensor’s instantaneous field-of-view. Determining the fractional value is particularly important during spring and summer melt in mountainous terrain, where large variations in snow, vegetation and soil occur over

  9. Subsoil compaction assessed by visual evaluation and laboratory methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obour, Peter Bilson; Schjønning, Per; Peng, Yi

    2017-01-01

    ) of a tractor-trailer combination with max. wheel load of 8 Mg. The tire inflation pressure was generally above the recommended pressure in order to mimic the inflation pressures commonly used in practice. The treatments were applied track-by-track in the spring of 2010–2013 when the soil water content...... used i) non-compacted reference, ii) Treatment M3, where soil was subjected to multiple passes (five wheel passes per compaction event annually) of a tractor-trailer combination with max. wheel load of 3 Mg, and iii) M8, with multiple passes (four wheel passes per compaction event annually...... was close to field capacity. Spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was established every year after a shallow secondary tillage to 0.05 m depth to loosen the uppermost layer. Sampling and field evaluation were done on May 7, 2014, i.e. after four years of compaction treatments (2010–2013) and one year...

  10. Early cephalometric characteristics in Class III malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Costa Farias

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Early identification of craniofacial morphological characteristics allows orthopedic segmented interventions to attenuate dentoskeletal discrepancies, which may be partially disguised by natural dental compensation. To investigate the morphological characteristics of Brazilian children with Class III malocclusion, in stages I and II of cervical vertebrae maturation and compare them with the characteristics of Class I control patients. METHODS: Pre-orthodontic treatment records of 20 patients with Class III malocclusion and 20 control Class I patients, matched by the same skeletal maturity index and sex, were selected. The craniofacial structures and their relationships were divided into different categories for analysis. Angular and linear measures were adopted from the analyses previously described by Downs, Jarabak, Jacobson and McNamara. The differences found between the groups of Class III patients and Class I control group, both subdivided according to the stage of cervical vertebrae maturation (I or II, were assessed by analysis of variance (ANOVA, complemented by Bonferroni's multiple mean comparisons test. RESULTS: The analysis of variance showed statistically significant differences in the different studied groups, between the mean values found for some angular (SNA, SNB, ANB and linear variables (Co - Gn, N - Perp Pog, Go - Me, Wits, S - Go, Ar - Go. CONCLUSION: Assessed children displaying Class III malocclusion show normal anterior base of skull and maxilla, and anterior positioning of the mandible partially related to increased posterior facial height with consequent mandibular counterclockwise rotation.

  11. When Educational Material Is Delivered: A Mixed Methods Content Validation Study of the Information Assessment Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background The Information Assessment Method (IAM) allows clinicians to report the cognitive impact, clinical relevance, intention to use, and expected patient health benefits associated with clinical information received by email. More than 15,000 Canadian physicians and pharmacists use the IAM in continuing education programs. In addition, information providers can use IAM ratings and feedback comments from clinicians to improve their products. Objective Our general objective was to validate the IAM questionnaire for the delivery of educational material (ecological and logical content validity). Our specific objectives were to measure the relevance and evaluate the representativeness of IAM items for assessing information received by email. Methods A 3-part mixed methods study was conducted (convergent design). In part 1 (quantitative longitudinal study), the relevance of IAM items was measured. Participants were 5596 physician members of the Canadian Medical Association who used the IAM. A total of 234,196 ratings were collected in 2012. The relevance of IAM items with respect to their main construct was calculated using descriptive statistics (relevance ratio R). In part 2 (qualitative descriptive study), the representativeness of IAM items was evaluated. A total of 15 family physicians completed semistructured face-to-face interviews. For each construct, we evaluated the representativeness of IAM items using a deductive-inductive thematic qualitative data analysis. In part 3 (mixing quantitative and qualitative parts), results from quantitative and qualitative analyses were reviewed, juxtaposed in a table, discussed with experts, and integrated. Thus, our final results are derived from the views of users (ecological content validation) and experts (logical content validation). Results Of the 23 IAM items, 21 were validated for content, while 2 were removed. In part 1 (quantitative results), 21 items were deemed relevant, while 2 items were deemed not relevant

  12. DECOVALEX III III/BENCHPAR PROJECTS. Approaches to Upscaling Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical Processes in a Fractured Rock. Mass and its Significance for Large-Scale Repository Performance Assessment. Summary of Findings. Report of BMT2/WP3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan (comp.) [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden); Staub, Isabelle (comp.) [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Knight, Les (comp.) [Nirex UK Ltd, Oxon (United Kingdom)

    2005-02-15

    The Benchmark Test 2 of DECOVALEX III and Work Package 3 of BENCHPAR concerns the upscaling Thermal (T), Hydrological (H) and Mechanical (M) processes in a fractured rock mass and its significance for large-scale repository performance assessment. The work is primarily concerned with the extent to which various thermo-hydro-mechanical couplings in a fractured rock mass adjacent to a repository are significant in terms of solute transport typically calculated in large-scale repository performance assessments. Since the presence of even quite small fractures may control the hydraulic, mechanical and coupled hydromechanical behaviour of the rock mass, a key of the work has been to explore the extent to which these can be upscaled and represented by 'equivalent' continuum properties appropriate PA calculations. From these general aims the BMT was set-up as a numerical study of a large scale reference problem. Analysing this reference problem should: help explore how different means of simplifying the geometrical detail of a site, with its implications on model parameters, ('upscaling') impacts model predictions of relevance to repository performance, explore to what extent the THM-coupling needs to be considered in relation to PA-measures, compare the uncertainties in upscaling (both to uncertainty on how to upscale or uncertainty that arises due to the upscaling processes) and consideration of THM couplings with the inherent uncertainty and spatial variability of the site specific data. Furthermore, it has been an essential component of the work that individual teams not only produce numerical results but are forced to make their own judgements and to provide the proper justification for their conclusions based on their analysis. It should also be understood that conclusions drawn will partly be specific to the problem analysed, in particular as it mainly concerns a 2D application. This means that specific conclusions may have limited applicability

  13. Assessment of Automated Measurement and Verification (M&V) Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granderson, Jessica [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Touzani, Samir [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Custodio, Claudine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sohn, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fernandes, Samuel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jump, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report documents the application of a general statistical methodology to assess the accuracy of baseline energy models, focusing on its application to Measurement and Verification (M&V) of whole-building energy savings.

  14. Flood risk assessment in France: comparison of extreme flood estimation methods (EXTRAFLO project, Task 7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavaglia, F.; Paquet, E.; Lang, M.; Renard, B.; Arnaud, P.; Aubert, Y.; Carre, J.

    2013-12-01

    In flood risk assessment the methods can be divided in two families: deterministic methods and probabilistic methods. In the French hydrologic community the probabilistic methods are historically preferred to the deterministic ones. Presently a French research project named EXTRAFLO (RiskNat Program of the French National Research Agency, https://extraflo.cemagref.fr) deals with the design values for extreme rainfall and floods. The object of this project is to carry out a comparison of the main methods used in France for estimating extreme values of rainfall and floods, to obtain a better grasp of their respective fields of application. In this framework we present the results of Task 7 of EXTRAFLO project. Focusing on French watersheds, we compare the main extreme flood estimation methods used in French background: (i) standard flood frequency analysis (Gumbel and GEV distribution), (ii) regional flood frequency analysis (regional Gumbel and GEV distribution), (iii) local and regional flood frequency analysis improved by historical information (Naulet et al., 2005), (iv) simplify probabilistic method based on rainfall information (i.e. Gradex method (CFGB, 1994), Agregee method (Margoum, 1992) and Speed method (Cayla, 1995)), (v) flood frequency analysis by continuous simulation approach and based on rainfall information (i.e. Schadex method (Paquet et al., 2013, Garavaglia et al., 2010), Shyreg method (Lavabre et al., 2003)) and (vi) multifractal approach. The main result of this comparative study is that probabilistic methods based on additional information (i.e. regional, historical and rainfall information) provide better estimations than the standard flood frequency analysis. Another interesting result is that, the differences between the various extreme flood quantile estimations of compared methods increase with return period, staying relatively moderate up to 100-years return levels. Results and discussions are here illustrated throughout with the example

  15. Comparing Yes/No Angoff and Bookmark Standard Setting Methods in the Context of English Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Mingchuan

    2013-01-01

    The Yes/No Angoff and Bookmark method for setting standards on educational assessment are currently two of the most popular standard-setting methods. However, there is no research into the comparability of these two methods in the context of language assessment. This study compared results from the Yes/No Angoff and Bookmark methods as applied to…

  16. Friends in the Classroom: A Comparison between Two Methods for the Assessment of Students' Friendship Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijl, Sip Jan; Koster, Marloes; Hannink, Anne; Stratingh, Anna

    2011-01-01

    One of the methods used most often to assess students' friendships and friendship networks is the reciprocal nomination method. However, an often heard complaint is that this technique produces rather negative outcomes. This study compares the reciprocal nomination method with another method to assess students' friendships and friendship networks:…

  17. Relative Contributions of Three Descriptive Methods: Implications for Behavioral Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Sacha T.; Roscoe, Eileen M.; Bourret, Jason C.; Ahearn, William H.

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the outcomes of three descriptive analysis methods--the ABC method, the conditional probability method, and the conditional and background probability method--to each other and to the results obtained from functional analyses. Six individuals who had been diagnosed with developmental delays and exhibited problem behavior…

  18. An assessment of user-driven innovation methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Alexia; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Gorm Hansen, Katrine

    This publication serves to test a number of methods that have been presented in the ‘method-graph’, which was created in connection with Project InnoDoors. The primary function of the test will be to further improve the ‘method-graph’ by refining and advancing some of the user-driven methods...

  19. Rapid and sensitive lateral flow immunoassay method for determining alpha fetoprotein in serum using europium (III) chelate microparticles-based lateral flow test strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Rong-Liang; Xu, Xu-Ping; Liu, Tian-Cai; Zhou, Jian-Wei; Wang, Xian-Guo; Ren, Zhi-Qi; Hao, Fen; Wu, Ying-Song

    2015-09-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), a primary marker for many diseases including various cancers, is important in clinical tumor diagnosis and antenatal screening. Most immunoassays provide high sensitivity and accuracy for determining AFP, but they are expensive, often complex, time-consuming procedures. A simple and rapid point-of-care system that integrates Eu (III) chelate microparticles with lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) has been developed to determine AFP in serum with an assay time of 15 min. The approach is based on a sandwich immunoassay performed on lateral flow test strips. A fluorescence strip reader was used to measure the fluorescence peak heights of the test line (HT) and the control line (HC); the HT/HC ratio was used for quantitation. The Eu (III) chelate microparticles-based LFIA assay exhibited a wide linear range (1.0-1000 IU mL(-1)) for AFP with a low limit of detection (0.1 IU mL(-1)) based on 5ul of serum. Satisfactory specificity and accuracy were demonstrated and the intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation (CV) for AFP were both chelate microparticles-based LFIA system provided a rapid, sensitive and reliable method for determining AFP in serum, indicating that it would be suitable for development in point-of-care testing.

  20. Analytic methods in assessment of optic nerve cupping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindra, L F; Kuběna, T; Gaudino, R N

    2014-06-01

    The intent of this paper is to provide a systems-based analysis of the methods used to evaluate optic nerve cupping, identify potential flaws in these systems, and propose alternatives better to assess this anatomic quantity. Estimation of optic nerve cupping requires an analytic understanding of both the psychophysical as well as the mathematical bases inherent in this measure. When the (decimal-based) cup-to-disc ratio is used to quantitate optic nerve cupping, a one-dimensional, linear estimate is produced, which in turn is derived from two- or three-dimensional, non-linear physical quantities of area or volume, respectively. When extrapolating from volume, to area, to linear measures, due to the psychophysical constraints which limit this task, such a data-compressed estimate of optic nerve cupping may neither accurately reflect, nor correctly represent, the true amount of cupping actually present in the optic nerve head. This type of one-dimensional metric (when comparing calculations from two- or three-dimensional measures over a range of optic nerve cupping), appears to introduce errors which, while most pronounced earlier on in the disease progression, often overestimate the amount of relative cupping (percent cupping) present in a pathological process like glaucoma. The same systemic errors can also lead to overestimation of the progression in cupping, especially in optic nerves with low cup-to disc values. To provide clinically meaningful estimates of optic nerve cupping, the practitioner needs to be aware of psychophysical and mathematical limitations inherent in using a linear cup-to-disc ratio to estimate the amount of cupping observed in a physical structure like the optic disc. The resultant flaws introduced by observer extrapolation from three, to two, to one dimensions (volume, area, and linear); transposition from non-linear to linear quantities; and optical illusions, caused by factors like disc topology, morphology, and ametropia, can all

  1. The (G′/G-Expansion Method and Its Application for Higher-Order Equations of KdV (III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huizhang Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New exact traveling wave solutions of a higher-order KdV equation type are studied by the (G′/G-expansion method, where G=G(ξ satisfies a second-order linear differential equation. The traveling wave solutions are expressed by the hyperbolic functions, the trigonometric functions, and the rational functions. The property of this method is that it is quite simple and understandable.

  2. Complexation of biological ligands with lanthanides(III) for MRI: Structure, thermodynamic and methods; Complexation des cations lanthanides trivalents par des ligands d'origine biologique pour l'IRM: Structure, thermodynamique et methodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnet, C

    2006-07-15

    New cyclic ligands derived from sugars and amino-acids form a scaffold carrying a coordination sphere of oxygen atoms suitable to complex Ln(III) ions. In spite of their rather low molecular weights, the complexes display surprisingly high relaxivity values, especially at high field. The ACX and BCX ligands, which are acidic derivatives of modified and cyclo-dextrins, form mono and bimetallic complexes with Ln(III). The LnACX and LnBCX complexes show affinities towards Ln(III) similar to those of tri-acidic ligands. In the bimetallic Lu2ACX complex, the cations are deeply embedded in the cavity of the ligand, as shown by the X-ray structure. In aqueous solution, the number of water molecules coordinated to the cation in the LnACX complex depends on the nature and concentration of the alkali ions of the supporting electrolyte, as shown by luminescence and relaxometric measurements. There is only one water molecule coordinated in the LnBCX complex, which enables us to highlight an important second sphere contribution to relaxivity. The NMR study of the RAFT peptidic ligand shows the complexation of Ln(III), with an affinity similar to those of natural ligands derived from calmodulin. The relaxometric study also shows an important second sphere contribution to relaxivity. To better understand the intricate molecular factors affecting relaxivity, we developed new relaxometric methods based on probe solutes. These methods allow us to determine the charge of the complex, weak affinity constants, trans-metallation constants, and the electronic relaxation rate. (author)

  3. Integration of data-driven and physically-based methods to assess shallow landslides susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajas, Sara; Oliveira, Sérgio C.; Zêzere, José Luis

    2016-04-01

    Approaches used to assess shallow landslides susceptibility at the basin scale are conceptually different depending on the use of statistic or deterministic methods. The data-driven methods are sustained in the assumption that the same causes are likely to produce the same effects and for that reason a present/past landslide inventory and a dataset of factors assumed as predisposing factors are crucial for the landslide susceptibility assessment. The physically-based methods are based on a system controlled by physical laws and soil mechanics, where the forces which tend to promote movement are compared with forces that tend to promote resistance to movement. In this case, the evaluation of susceptibility is supported by the calculation of the Factor of safety (FoS), and dependent of the availability of detailed data related with the slope geometry and hydrological and geotechnical properties of the soils and rocks. Within this framework, this work aims to test two hypothesis: (i) although conceptually distinct and based on contrasting procedures, statistic and deterministic methods generate similar shallow landslides susceptibility results regarding the predictive capacity and spatial agreement; and (ii) the integration of the shallow landslides susceptibility maps obtained with data-driven and physically-based methods, for the same study area, generate a more reliable susceptibility model for shallow landslides occurrence. To evaluate these two hypotheses, we select the Information Value data-driven method and the physically-based Infinite Slope model to evaluate shallow landslides in the study area of Monfalim and Louriceira basins (13.9 km2), which is located in the north of Lisbon region (Portugal). The landslide inventory is composed by 111 shallow landslides and was divide in two independent groups based on temporal criteria (age ≤ 1983 and age > 1983): (i) the modelling group (51 cases) was used to define the weights for each predisposing factor

  4. Comparison of the methods of fibrinolysis by tube thoracostomy and thoracoscopic decortication in children with stage II and III empyema: a prospective randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Cobanoglu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, in spite of the developments in imaging methods and antibiotherapy, childhood pleural empyema is a prominent cause of morbidity and mortality. In recent years, it has been shown that there has been an increase in the frequency of pleural empyema in children, and antibiotic resistance in microorganisms causing pleural empyema has made treatment difficult. Despite the many studies investigating thoracoscopic debridement and fibrinolytic treatment separately in the management of this disease, there is are not enough studies comparing these two treatments. The aim of this study was to prospectively compare the efficacy of two different treatment methods in stage II and III empyema cases and to present a perspective for treatment options. We excluded from the study cases with: i thoracoscopic intervention and fibrinolytic agent were contraindicated; ii immunosuppression or additional infection focus; iii concomitant diseases, those with bronchopleural fistula diagnosed radiologically, and Stage I cases. This gave a total of 54 cases: 23 (42.6% in stage II, and 31 (57.4% cases in stage III. These patients were randomized into two groups of 27 cases each for debridement or fibrinolytic agent application by video-assisted thoracoscopic decortication (VATS. The continuity of symptoms after the operation, duration of thoracic tube in situ, and the length of hospital stay in the VATS group were of significantly shorter duration than in the streptokinase applications (P=0.0001. In 19 of 27 cases (70.37% in which fibrinolytic treatment was applied and in 21 cases of 27 (77.77% in which VATS was applied, the lung was fully expanded and the procedure was considered successful. There was no significant difference with respect to success rates between the two groups (P=0.533. The complication rate in our cases was 12.96% and no mortality was observed. Similar success rates in thoracoscopic drainage and enzymatic debridement, and the low cost of enzymatic

  5. The Assessment Methods of Laryngeal Muscle Activity in Muscle Tension Dysphonia: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Seyyedeh Maryam Khoddami; Noureddin Nakhostin Ansari; Farzad Izadi; Saeed Talebian Moghadam

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the methods used for the assessment of muscular tension dysphonia (MTD). The MTD is a functional voice disorder associated with abnormal laryngeal muscle activity. Various assessment methods are available in the literature to evaluate the laryngeal hyperfunction. The case history, laryngoscopy, and palpation are clinical methods for the assessment of patients with MTD. Radiography and surface electromyography (EMG) are objective methods to provide physio...

  6. [Methods applied to muscle fatigue assessment using surface myoelectric signals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Xitian; Chen, Feng; Peng, Chenglin; Zheng, Erxin

    2006-02-01

    Surface myoelectric signal analysis has proved effective for assessing the electrical manifestations of localized muscle fatigue. In the past, the analysis of muscle fatigue was restricted to isometric, constant force contractions due to the limitation of signal processing technique. The development and recent availability of spectral estimation techniques specifically designed for nonstationary signal analysis have made it possible to extend the employment of muscle fatigue assessment to dynamic contractions, thus opening new application fields such as ergonomics rehabilitation and sports medicine. This paper reviews the current study achievements of using surface myoelectric signals in muscle fatigue assessment, particularly in that during dynamic contractions. The conclusions provide theoretical bases for encouraging further studies on the mechanisms of muscle fatigue.

  7. Quantitative risk assessment methods for cancer and noncancer effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baynes, Ronald E

    2012-01-01

    Human health risk assessments have evolved from the more qualitative approaches to more quantitative approaches in the past decade. This has been facilitated by the improvement in computer hardware and software capability and novel computational approaches being slowly recognized by regulatory agencies. These events have helped reduce the reliance on experimental animals as well as better utilization of published animal toxicology data in deriving quantitative toxicity indices that may be useful for risk management purposes. This chapter briefly describes some of the approaches as described in the guidance documents from several of the regulatory agencies as it pertains to hazard identification and dose-response assessment of a chemical. These approaches are contrasted with more novel computational approaches that provide a better grasp of the uncertainty often associated with chemical risk assessments.

  8. Self-Assessment Methods in the Higher Education Quality Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka SMUTNÁ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Organizational performance is maximized when it is based on the management and sharing of knowledge within a culture of continuous learning, innovation and improvement. The methodology embodies the principle of self-evaluation or self-assessment. The higher education institutions would learn from feedback by reviewing impact of strategies and actions, trends in results and by comparing through benchmarking. The focus of this paper is the implementation of EFQM excellence model in the higher education (HE sector. This paper describes the specific issues in implementing the model in HE institutions, with a particular focus on the choice of self-assessment methodology. The early signs are that EFQM excellence model self-assessment can help to produce a more customer-oriented culture in HE institutions, providing that the lessons learned from the wider public sector are put into practice.

  9. USING OF MULTI-CRITERIAL EVALUATION METHODS TO ASSESS POSITION OF THE OBJECT IN THE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Ižaríková

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the evaluation of the firm's position. Recognition of market position among competitors but also among customers is important for the development of the company. A comparison can be made by using multicriterial methods. The ranking of companies is based on different methods (method of simple order, weighted order sum method, point methods, standardized variable method. Compliance order will be assessed by the rank correlation coefficients. Acquired assessment of market state allows us to design a strategic.

  10. Computerized method for arm movement assessment in Parkinson's disease and cerebellar syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Olivera

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In clinical setting, the symptoms of the impaired motor behavior in patients with different neurological diseases are identified by classical tests incorporated in clinical neurological examination. New computerized methods for objective motor assessment have been recently suggested in the literature. We developed computerized method for assessment and evaluation of arm movement in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD in early phase and in patients with cerebellar syndrome. Method is based on automatic acquisition of hand coordinates during drawing of line and circle, and offline analysis of kinematic parameters (time duration, path length, mean and maximal velocity, velocity profile, and precision. Clinical application is in recognition and follow-up of the impaired kinematic parameters, specific for these two groups of patients. AIM We propose computerized method that consists of two motor tasks: Task 1- drawing a line defined with end points; and Task 2 - drawing a circle defined by referential model. The first task was rather simple with defined direction, and the second included continuous change of the direction that required permanent adjustment. The aim was to detect which kinematic parameters were particularly different in PD and in patients with cerebellar syndrome in relation to healthy controls, and then to apply this method as an additional instrument in clinical evaluation. METHODS Hand trajectories were assessed during simple self-paced 1 point-to-point movement-Task 1; and 2 circle-Task 2, by cordless magnetic mouse in a hand on digitizing board (Drawing board III, 305x457 mm, GTCO Cal Comp Inc. The subjects were seated in a relaxed manner on the chair adjusted to the table height, and instructed not to correct drawn line during performance of a task. The first session was for practicing the tests only, and in the next session, the subjects repeated 5 times each task. All sessions were videotaped with CCD camera. Testing

  11. Content validity across methods of malnutrition assessment in patients with cancer is limited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sealy, Martine J.; Nijholt, Willemke; Stuiver, Martijn M.; van der Berg, Marit M.; Roodenburg, Jan L. N.; Schans, van der Cees P.; Ottery, Faith D.; Jager-Wittenaar, Harriet

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify malnutrition assessment methods in cancer patients and assess their content validity based on internationally accepted definitions for malnutrition. Study Design and Setting: Systematic review of studies in cancer patients that operationalized malnutrition as a variable, publi

  12. RECOVERY ACT - Methods for Decision under Technological Change Uncertainty and Risk Assessment for Integrated Assessment of Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, Mort David [MIT

    2015-03-10

    This report presents the final outcomes and products of the project as performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The research project consists of three main components: methodology development for decision-making under uncertainty, improving the resolution of the electricity sector to improve integrated assessment, and application of these methods to integrated assessment. Results in each area is described in the report.

  13. RECOVERY ACT - Methods for Decision under Technological Change Uncertainty and Risk Assessment for Integrated Assessment of Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, Mort D. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Energy and Mineral Engineering

    2015-11-30

    This report presents the final outcomes and products of the project as performed both at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and subsequently at Pennsylvania State University. The research project can be divided into three main components: methodology development for decision-making under uncertainty, improving the resolution of the electricity sector to improve integrated assessment, and application of these methods to integrated assessment.

  14. Estimation and Mapping Forest Attributes Using “k Nearest Neighbor” Method on IRS-P6 LISS III Satellite Image Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Eslam Bonyad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we explored the utility of k Nearest Neighbor (kNN algorithm to integrate IRS-P6 LISS III satellite imagery data and ground inventory data for application in forest attributes (DBH, trees height, volume, basal area, density and forest cover type estimation and mapping. The ground inventory data was based on a systematic-random sampling grid and the numbers of sampling plots were 408 circular plots in a plantation in Guilan province, north of Iran. We concluded that kNN method was useful tool for mapping at a fine accuracy between 80% and 93.94%. Values of k between 5 and 8 seemed appropriate. The best distance metrics were found Euclidean, Fuzzy and Mahalanobis. Results showed that kNN was accurate enough for practical applicability for mapping forest areas.

  15. Methodical Approaches to the Assessment of Personnel Adaptation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Aleksandrovna Petrova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The formation of system of adaptation of the personnel is a necessary link of personnel management. Unfortunately, importance of actions for career guidance and adaptation of workers is not seriously perceived by HR departments. Many state enterprises and commercial organizations still have no basic programs of adaptation. Introduction of a control system of adaptation in the enterprises represents rather complex challenge, but the solution of such important tasks for the enterprise depends on: the reduction of starting expenses, the reduction of staff turnover; perhaps faster achievement of the working indicators accepted for the organization – the employer. Adaptation process demands certain temporal and financial investments from the company. Therefore it is necessary to offer the mechanism of an assessment of efficiency of these expenses. It is revealed that now general indicators of assessment of efficiency of adaptation of only three types are used: professional, psychophysiological and social, and psychological. The conclusion is also drawn that, it is not enough for complex definition of results of this process: criteria by which it is possible to carry out a quantitative assessment, have to be “in a sheaf” with the purposes and problems of adaptation. On the example of the concrete organization, the technique of application of universal tool of an assessment of system effectiveness of adaptation of the personnel which can be used in any organization is offered and described.

  16. Assessment of in silico methods to estimate aquatic species sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determining the sensitivity of a diversity of species to environmental contaminants continues to be a significant challenge in ecological risk assessment because toxicity data are generally limited to a few standard species. In many cases, QSAR models are used to estimate toxici...

  17. A methodical approach for the assessment of waste sorting plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feil, Alexander; Pretz, Thomas; Vitz, Philipp; Thoden van Velzen, Ulphard

    2017-01-01

    A techno-economical evaluation of the processing result of waste sorting plants should at least provide a realistic assessment of the recovery yields of valuable materials and of the qualities of the obtained products. This practical data is generated by weighing all the output products and sampl

  18. "Portfolios" as a method of assessment in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldane, Thea

    2014-01-01

    Portfolios are increasingly used in postgraduate medical education and in gastroenterology training as an assessment tool, as documentation of competence, a database of procedure experience (for example endoscopy experience) and for revalidation purposes. In this paper the educational theory behind their use is described and the evidence for their use is discussed.

  19. Environmental Methods Review: Retooling Impact Assessment for the New Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Nations Industrial Development Organisation ( UNIDO ). 1994. -Environmental considerations in project design: Learning Unit 9. UNlDO Training Course on...Ecologically Sustainable Development. New York: UNIDO Verheem. R. 1992. Environmental assessment at the strategic level in the Netherlands. Project...economic goods such as houses are really just aggregates of different characteristics. It is the combination of characteris- tics that determines what a

  20. Test method to assess interface adhesion in composite bonding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teixeira de Freitas, S.; Sinke, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a new type of peel tests dedicated to composite bonding: Composite Peel Tests. This test is inspired on the standard floating roller peel test widely used for metal bonding. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of the Composite Peel Test to assess interface ad

  1. Collaborative assessment and management of suicidality method shows effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ann Colleen; Alberdi Olano, Francisco Javier Lorenzo; Rosenbaum, Bent

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies confirm the effect of collaborative assessment and management of suicidality (CAMS) in an experimental setup, but there is a need to test CAMS with regard to its effectiveness and feasibility in a real-life clinical context. The purpose of this study was to investigate CAMS...

  2. Story-Telling: A Method for Assessing Children's Creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Beth Ann; Amabile, Teresa M.

    1988-01-01

    The subjective judgment of observers was used to assess verbal creativity. Students, aged 5-10, told a story to accompany a picture series. Teachers rated the stories relative to one another. Interjudge reliability of the creativity measure was highly satisfactory. Two subsequent studies affirmed the results, with slightly lower interjudge…

  3. Performance Assessment of Water Sectors: Methods and considerations for application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieriks, M.

    2011-01-01

    With the rise of principles for water management in the 1990’s such as concepts as Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM), many countries have come to review their water policy and sectors. But how does one start in the assessment of a water sector

  4. Collaborative assessment and management of suicidality method shows effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ann Colleen; Alberdi Olano, Francisco Javier Lorenzo; Rosenbaum, Bent

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies confirm the effect of collaborative assessment and management of suicidality (CAMS) in an experimental setup, but there is a need to test CAMS with regard to its effectiveness and feasibility in a real-life clinical context. The purpose of this study was to investigate CAMS in a ...

  5. Methods for uncertainty propagation in life cycle assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, E.A.; Heijungs, R.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) calculates the environmental impact of a product over its entire life cycle. Uncertainty analysis is an important aspect in LCA, and is usually performed using Monte Carlo sampling. In this study, Monte Carlo sampling, Latin hypercube sampling, quasi Monte Carlo sampling,

  6. A Brief Method for Conducting a Negative-Reinforcement Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Crosland, Kimberly; Fisher, Wayne W.; Worsdell, April S.; Herman, Kelly

    1999-01-01

    A brief negative-reinforcement assessment was conducted with five children (ages 4 to 14) with developmental disabilities with severe destructive behavior. Children were trained to engage in an escape response and were presented with a variety of stimuli. For each child, several stimuli were identified that may serve as effective negative…

  7. Out of This World Genetics: A Fun, Simple Assessment Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Julie M.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a science activity in genetics that explains concepts such as dominant and recessive traits, monohybrid and dihybrid crosses, Punnett squares, and Mendel's Laws of Segregation and Independent Assortment. Uses the activity as an assessment tool to measure students' fundamental understanding. (YDS)

  8. An improved multivariate analytical method to assess the accuracy of acoustic sediment classification maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondo, M.; Bartholomä, A.

    2014-12-01

    High resolution hydro acoustic methods have been successfully employed for the detailed classification of sedimentary habitats. The fine-scale mapping of very heterogeneous, patchy sedimentary facies, and the compound effect of multiple non-linear physical processes on the acoustic signal, cause the classification of backscatter images to be subject to a great level of uncertainty. Standard procedures for assessing the accuracy of acoustic classification maps are not yet established. This study applies different statistical techniques to automated classified acoustic images with the aim of i) quantifying the ability of backscatter to resolve grain size distributions ii) understanding complex patterns influenced by factors other than grain size variations iii) designing innovative repeatable statistical procedures to spatially assess classification uncertainties. A high-frequency (450 kHz) sidescan sonar survey, carried out in the year 2012 in the shallow upper-mesotidal inlet the Jade Bay (German North Sea), allowed to map 100 km2 of surficial sediment with a resolution and coverage never acquired before in the area. The backscatter mosaic was ground-truthed using a large dataset of sediment grab sample information (2009-2011). Multivariate procedures were employed for modelling the relationship between acoustic descriptors and granulometric variables in order to evaluate the correctness of acoustic classes allocation and sediment group separation. Complex patterns in the acoustic signal appeared to be controlled by the combined effect of surface roughness, sorting and mean grain size variations. The area is dominated by silt and fine sand in very mixed compositions; in this fine grained matrix, percentages of gravel resulted to be the prevailing factor affecting backscatter variability. In the absence of coarse material, sorting mostly affected the ability to detect gradual but significant changes in seabed types. Misclassification due to temporal discrepancies

  9. [Aesthetics theory and method of landscape resource assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baozhong; Wang, Baoming; He, Ping

    2006-09-01

    With the destruction of natural environment by human beings, scenic resources are no longer inexhaustible in supply and use. Human beings begin to lay the scenic resources on the same important strategic status as other natural resources, while landscape resources assessment is the prerequisite of their sustainable exploitation and conservation. This paper illustrated the psychological mechanisms of aesthetic and its approaches, compared with the methodologies of traditional and modem landscape aesthetic research, discussed the characteristics of important aesthetic theories (Platonism, Kant paradigm, Empathizing theory, Gestalt paradigm, Marxism aesthetics theory, and Appleton theory) and the landscape assessment theories of 4 paradigms (expert, psychological, cognitive, and empirical) and 2 groups (landscape environment science and landscape architecture culture), and summarized the important practices and successful examples at home and abroad. It was demonstrated that the historical development of landscape assessment had the feature of a contest between expert- and perception-based approaches, with the expert approach dominated in landscape management, while the perception-based approach dominated in landscape research. Both of these approaches generallty accepted that landscape quality was derived from the interaction between the biophysical features of landscape and the percepultual (judgmental) processes of human viewer. In the future, landscape quality assessment will evolve toward a shaky marriage, both expert- and perceptual approaches will be applied in parallel and merged in the final landscape management decision-making process in some but unspecified way, landscape information and complex geo-temporal dynamics representation central to scenic ecosystem management will present major challenges to the traditional landscape aesthetic assessment, and modem science and technology will continue to help meet these challenges. The main trends of landscape

  10. PHYSALIS: a new method for particle flow simulation. Part III: convergence analysis of two-dimensional flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huaxiong; Takagi, Shu

    2003-08-01

    In this paper, we study the convergence property of PHYSALIS when it is applied to incompressible particle flows in two-dimensional space. PHYSALIS is a recently proposed iterative method which computes the solution without imposing the boundary conditions on the particle surfaces directly. Instead, a consistency equation based on the local (near particle) representation of the solution is used as the boundary conditions. One of the important issues needs to be addressed is the convergence properties of the iterative procedure. In this paper, we present the convergence analysis using Laplace and biharmonic equations as two model problems. It is shown that convergence of the method can be achieved but the rate of convergence depends on the relative locations of the cages. The results are directly related to potential and Stokes flows. However, they are also relevant to Navier-Stokes flows, heat conduction in composite media, and other problems.

  11. Fe(II)–Al(III) layered double hydroxides prepared by ultrasound-assisted co-precipitation method for the reduction of bromate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Yu [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Yang, Qi, E-mail: yangqi@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Luo, Kun; Wu, Xiuqiong [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Li, Xiaoming, E-mail: xmli@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Liu, Yang [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Urban and Rural Garbage Disposal Technology Research Center, Hunan Province, Changsha 410082 (China); Tang, Wangwang; Zeng, Guangming; Peng, Bo [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Fe(II)–Al(III) LDHs were synthesized by ultrasound-assisted co-precipitation method. ► The Fe–Al (30 min) exhibited highly reduction reactivity on bromate. ► Pseudo-first-order model described the experimental data well. ► The mechanisms of bromate removal were proposed. -- Abstract: Bromate is recognized as an oxyhalide disinfection byproduct in drinking water. In this paper, Fe(II)–Al(III) layered double hydroxides (Fe–Al LDHs) prepared by the ultrasound-assisted co-precipitation method were used for the reduction of bromate in solution. The Fe–Al LDHs particles were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetry–differential scanning calorimetry. It was found that ultrasound irradiation assistance promoted the formation of the hydrotalcite-like phase and then improved the removal efficiency of bromate. In addition, the effects of solid-to-solution ratio, contact time, initial bromate concentration, initial pH, coexisting anions on the bromate removal were investigated. The results showed the bromate with an initial concentration of 1.56 μmol/L could be completely removed from solution by Fe–Al LDHs within 120 min. When the initial bromate concentration was 7.81 μmol/L, the Fe–Al LDHs with irradiation time of 30 min exhibited the optimum removal efficiency and the bromate removal capacity (q{sub e}) was 6.80 μmol/g. In addition, the appearance of sulfate and production of bromide were observed simultaneously in this process, which suggested that ion-exchange between sulfate and bromate, and the reduction of bromate to bromide by Fe{sup 2+} were the main mechanisms responsible for the bromate removal by Fe–Al LDHs.

  12. Tomo III

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Memorias, histórico, físicas, crítico, apologéticas de la América Meridional con unas breves advertencias y noticias útiles, a los que de orden de Su Majestad, hubiesen de viajar y describir aquellas vastas regiones. Reino Animal. Tomo III. Por un anónimo americano en Cádiz por los años de 1757. Primera Parte Prólogo Artículo 1°De los cuadrúpedos útiles al hombre a varios usos y a su sustento. Vaca Caballos Carneros de la tierra, especie de camellos Vicuña Guanacos Puercos monteses Artículo 2...

  13. State university preparatory class EFL instructors' attitudes towards assessment methods used at their institutions and portfolios as a method of alternative assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Oğuz, Şebnem

    2003-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. The purpose of this study was to investigate preparatory class instructors’ attitudes towards the methods of assessment they are currently using at their institutions, and their knowledge about and attitudes towards portfolios as an alternative method of assessment. The study was conducted with 386 English instructors from the preparatory class programs of 14 Turkish state universities. Data were collected through a fourpart questio...

  14. The potential for new methods to assess human reproductive genotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, M.L.

    1987-09-01

    The immediate prospects are not good for practical methods for measuring the human heritable mutation rate. The methods discussed here range from speculative to impractical, and at best are sensitive enough only for large numbers of subjects. Given the rapid development of DNA methods and the current status of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, there is some hope that the intermediate prospects may be better. In contrast, the prospects for useful cellular-based male germinal methods seem more promising and immediate. Effective specific locus methods for sperm are already conceivable and may be practical in a few years. Obviously such methods will not predict heritable effects definitively, but they will provide direct information on reproductive genotoxicity and should contribute significantly to many current medical and environmental situations where genetic damage is suspected. 22 refs.

  15. Statistical Diagnosis of the Best Weibull Methods for Wind Power Assessment for Agricultural Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Abul Kalam Azad; Mohammad Golam Rasul; Talal Yusaf

    2014-01-01

    The best Weibull distribution methods for the assessment of wind energy potential at different altitudes in desired locations are statistically diagnosed in this study. Seven different methods, namely graphical method (GM), method of moments (MOM), standard deviation method (STDM), maximum likelihood method (MLM), power density method (PDM), modified maximum likelihood method (MMLM) and equivalent energy method (EEM) were used to estimate the Weibull parameters and six statistical tools, name...

  16. Assessment of Microleakage of a Composite Resin Restoration in Primary Teeth Following Class III Cavity Preparation Using Er, Cr: YSGG laser: An In Vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Priya; Pandey, Annu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Marginal seal integrity is important for a successful adhesive dental restoration. Alterations caused by laser irradiation in the enamel and dentin surface can affect the marginal integrity of adhesive restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microleakage of a composite resin restoration in primary teeth following laser irradiation of enamel and dentin. Methods: Forty freshly extracted sound human primary maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth were used in this study. The teeth were randomly divided into two groups (I and II), with 20 teeth in each. In group I, proximal cavities (Class III) were prepared using an airotor hand –piece and diamond bur. The cavities were etched for 15 seconds with 35% phosphoric acid gel, rinsed with water for 15 seconds, air dried and a bonding agent was applied onto the cavity surfaces and light cured for 20 seconds. The cavities were restored with composite resin and light cured for 40 seconds. In group II, proximal (Class III) cavities were prepared using Erbium, Chromium: Yttrium Scandium Gallium Garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) (Er,Cr:YSGG) (Biolaseiplus, wave length 2.78 μm). The cavity was then rinsed, air dried and without etching, a bonding agent was applied and light cured for 20 seconds. The cavities were restored in the same manner as that of group I. The treated teeth were mounted on acrylic resin blocks and were subjected to a thermocycling regimen. Following, the teeth were immersed in 2% methylene blue for 24 hours. The teeth were sectioned longitudinally in a bucco-lingual direction using a diamond disc at slow speed. The sections of all the groups were examined under a stereomicroscope for micro-leakage. Results: The mean scores for microleakage in group I was 1.95 ± 1.31 and in group II it was 1.4 ± 1.27. There was no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.882). Conclusion: No significant difference in microleakage was noticed between the composite resin bonded to lased enamel and

  17. Evaluation of pump pulsation in respirable size-selective sampling: Part III. Investigation of European standard methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Jhy-Charm; Lee, Eun Gyung; Lee, Larry A; Kashon, Michael L; Harper, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Lee et al. (Evaluation of pump pulsation in respirable size-selective sampling: part I. Pulsation measurements. Ann Occup Hyg 2014a;58:60-73) introduced an approach to measure pump pulsation (PP) using a real-world sampling train, while the European Standards (EN) (EN 1232-1997 and EN 12919-1999) suggest measuring PP using a resistor in place of the sampler. The goal of this study is to characterize PP according to both EN methods and to determine the relationship of PP between the published method (Lee et al., 2014a) and the EN methods. Additional test parameters were investigated to determine whether the test conditions suggested by the EN methods were appropriate for measuring pulsations. Experiments were conducted using a factorial combination of personal sampling pumps (six medium- and two high-volumetric flow rate pumps), back pressures (six medium- and seven high-flow rate pumps), resistors (two types), tubing lengths between a pump and resistor (60 and 90 cm), and different flow rates (2 and 2.5 l min(-1) for the medium- and 4.4, 10, and 11.2 l min(-1) for the high-flow rate pumps). The selection of sampling pumps and the ranges of back pressure were based on measurements obtained in the previous study (Lee et al., 2014a). Among six medium-flow rate pumps, only the Gilian5000 and the Apex IS conformed to the 10% criterion specified in EN 1232-1997. Although the AirChek XR5000 exceeded the 10% limit, the average PP (10.9%) was close to the criterion. One high-flow rate pump, the Legacy (PP=8.1%), conformed to the 10% criterion in EN 12919-1999, while the Elite12 did not (PP=18.3%). Conducting supplemental tests with additional test parameters beyond those used in the two subject EN standards did not strengthen the characterization of PPs. For the selected test conditions, a linear regression model [PPEN=0.014+0.375×PPNIOSH (adjusted R2=0.871)] was developed to determine the PP relationship between the published method (Lee et al., 2014a) and the EN methods

  18. Peer Assessment in Group Projects Accounting for Assessor Reliability by an Iterative Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Sung-Seok

    2014-01-01

    This study proposes an advanced method to factor in the contributions of individual group members engaged in an integrated group project using peer assessment procedures. Conway et al. proposed the Individual Weight Factor (IWF) method for peer assessment which has been extensively developed over the years. However, most methods associated with…

  19. Assessing Key Assumptions of Network Meta-Analysis: A Review of Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donegan, Sarah; Williamson, Paula; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Tudur Smith, Catrin

    2013-01-01

    Background: Homogeneity and consistency assumptions underlie network meta-analysis (NMA). Methods exist to assess the assumptions but they are rarely and poorly applied. We review and illustrate methods to assess homogeneity and consistency. Methods: Eligible articles focussed on indirect comparison or NMA methodology. Articles were sought by…

  20. Data-driven assessment of eQTL mapping methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schughart Klaus

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The analysis of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL is a potentially powerful way to detect transcriptional regulatory relationships at the genomic scale. However, eQTL data sets often go underexploited because legacy QTL methods are used to map the relationship between the expression trait and genotype. Often these methods are inappropriate for complex traits such as gene expression, particularly in the case of epistasis. Results Here we compare legacy QTL mapping methods with several modern multi-locus methods and evaluate their ability to produce eQTL that agree with independent external data in a systematic way. We found that the modern multi-locus methods (Random Forests, sparse partial least squares, lasso, and elastic net clearly outperformed the legacy QTL methods (Haley-Knott regression and composite interval mapping in terms of biological relevance of the mapped eQTL. In particular, we found that our new approach, based on Random Forests, showed superior performance among the multi-locus methods. Conclusions Benchmarks based on the recapitulation of experimental findings provide valuable insight when selecting the appropriate eQTL mapping method. Our battery of tests suggests that Random Forests map eQTL that are more likely to be validated by independent data, when compared to competing multi-locus and legacy eQTL mapping methods.

  1. Test method to assess interface adhesion in composite bonding

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a new type of peel tests dedicated to composite bonding: Composite Peel Tests. This test is inspired on the standard floating roller peel test widely used for metal bonding. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of the Composite Peel Test to assess interface adhesion in composite bonded structures. To this end, peel tests were performed with nine different types of adhesives and at two environmental temperatures, room temperature and +80°C. The results we...

  2. System Maturity and Architecture Assessment Methods, Processes, and Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    1 For a detailed description of the SRL methodology see Sauser, B., J.E. Ramirez- Marquez , D. Nowicki, A...and Ramirez- Marquez 2009; Magnaye, Sauser et al. 2010). Although there are guidelines and tools to support the assessment process (Nolte, Kennedy...employ these metrics (Tan, Sauser et al. 2011). Graettinger, et al. (Graettinger, Garcia et al. 2002) reports that approaches for readiness level

  3. Methods of the Quality of Higher Education Social Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artushina, Irina; Troyan, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the methodical problems of the ranking of Russian universities by the independent ranking agency RatER. The main features of this ranking system are public estimations of the quality of the higher education in Russia. The results of the sociological study were processed by the original statistical methods. The procedure…

  4. A Novel Method for Assessment of Polyethylene Liner Wear in Radiopaque Tantalum Acetabular Cups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsen, Anders; Greene, Meridith E; Ayers, David C

    2015-01-01

    Conventional radiostereometric analysis (RSA) for wear is not possible in patients with tantalum cups. We propose a novel method for wear analysis in tantalum cups. Wear was assessed by gold standard RSA and the novel method in total hip arthroplasty patients enrolled in a randomized controlled...... to the gold standard in titanium cups. The novel method offered accurate assessment and is a viable solution for assessment of wear in studies with tantalum cups....

  5. Reproducibility of an organoleptic method for halitosis assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Késsia Suênia Fidelis de Mesquita-Guimarães

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The organoleptic evaluation is considered the gold standard between evaluation methods of halitosis, but its main drawback is the difficulty of reproducibility. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of an organoleptic evaluation method using three levels of scores (0 = no odor, 1 = moderate odor, and 2 = strong odor to increase reliability between researchers and clinicians. Methods: The evaluation was blindly conducted by two examiners previously calibrated by the Smell Identification Test and compliance in clinical trials. Statistical calculations were done with STATA ® software version 9.0. Results: The degree of agreement between examiners was 82.5%, with estimated Kappa (κ =0.69, with substantial agreement.   Conclusion: The scale used in this study by organoleptic method was effective and reproducible but must be repeated and compared to other methods for better consistency of results.

  6. DECOVALEX III III/BENCHPAR PROJECTS. Approaches to Upscaling Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical Processes in a Fractured Rock. Mass and its Significance for Large-Scale Repository Performance Assessment. Summary of Findings. Report of BMT2/WP3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan (comp.) [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden); Staub, Isabelle (comp.) [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Knight, Les (comp.) [Nirex UK Ltd, Oxon (United Kingdom)

    2005-02-15

    The Benchmark Test 2 of DECOVALEX III and Work Package 3 of BENCHPAR concerns the upscaling Thermal (T), Hydrological (H) and Mechanical (M) processes in a fractured rock mass and its significance for large-scale repository performance assessment. The work is primarily concerned with the extent to which various thermo-hydro-mechanical couplings in a fractured rock mass adjacent to a repository are significant in terms of solute transport typically calculated in large-scale repository performance assessments. Since the presence of even quite small fractures may control the hydraulic, mechanical and coupled hydromechanical behaviour of the rock mass, a key of the work has been to explore the extent to which these can be upscaled and represented by 'equivalent' continuum properties appropriate PA calculations. From these general aims the BMT was set-up as a numerical study of a large scale reference problem. Analysing this reference problem should: help explore how different means of simplifying the geometrical detail of a site, with its implications on model parameters, ('upscaling') impacts model predictions of relevance to repository performance, explore to what extent the THM-coupling needs to be considered in relation to PA-measures, compare the uncertainties in upscaling (both to uncertainty on how to upscale or uncertainty that arises due to the upscaling processes) and consideration of THM couplings with the inherent uncertainty and spatial variability of the site specific data. Furthermore, it has been an essential component of the work that individual teams not only produce numerical results but are forced to make their own judgements and to provide the proper justification for their conclusions based on their analysis. It should also be understood that conclusions drawn will partly be specific to the problem analysed, in particular as it mainly concerns a 2D application. This means that specific conclusions may have limited applicability

  7. An investigation of the reliability of Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) as a method of assessment of children's computing posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockrell, Sara; O'Grady, Eleanor; Bennett, Kathleen; Mullarkey, Clare; Mc Connell, Rachel; Ruddy, Rachel; Twomey, Seamus; Flannery, Colleen

    2012-05-01

    Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) is a quick observation method of posture analysis. RULA has been used to assess children's computer-related posture, but the reliability of RULA on a paediatric population has not been established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the inter-rater and intra-rater reliability of the use of RULA with children. Video recordings of 24 school children were independently viewed by six trained raters who assessed their postures using RULA, on two separate occasions. RULA demonstrated higher intra-rater reliability than inter-rater reliability although both were moderate to good. RULA was more reliable when used for assessing the older children (8-12 years) than with the younger children (4-7 years). RULA may prove useful as part of an ergonomic assessment, but its level of reliability warrants caution for its sole use when assessing children, and in particular, younger children.

  8. The Assessment Methods of Laryngeal Muscle Activity in Muscle Tension Dysphonia: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyedeh Maryam Khoddami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review the methods used for the assessment of muscular tension dysphonia (MTD. The MTD is a functional voice disorder associated with abnormal laryngeal muscle activity. Various assessment methods are available in the literature to evaluate the laryngeal hyperfunction. The case history, laryngoscopy, and palpation are clinical methods for the assessment of patients with MTD. Radiography and surface electromyography (EMG are objective methods to provide physiological information about MTD. Recent studies show that surface EMG can be an effective tool for assessing muscular tension in MTD.

  9. The assessment methods of laryngeal muscle activity in muscle tension dysphonia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoddami, Seyyedeh Maryam; Nakhostin Ansari, Noureddin; Izadi, Farzad; Talebian Moghadam, Saeed

    2013-11-04

    The purpose of this paper is to review the methods used for the assessment of muscular tension dysphonia (MTD). The MTD is a functional voice disorder associated with abnormal laryngeal muscle activity. Various assessment methods are available in the literature to evaluate the laryngeal hyperfunction. The case history, laryngoscopy, and palpation are clinical methods for the assessment of patients with MTD. Radiography and surface electromyography (EMG) are objective methods to provide physiological information about MTD. Recent studies show that surface EMG can be an effective tool for assessing muscular tension in MTD.

  10. Comparative assessment of bioanalytical method validation guidelines for pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadian, Naveen; Raju, Kanumuri Siva Rama; Rashid, Mamunur; Malik, Mohd Yaseen; Taneja, Isha; Wahajuddin, Muhammad

    2016-07-15

    The concepts, importance, and application of bioanalytical method validation have been discussed for a long time and validation of bioanalytical methods is widely accepted as pivotal before they are taken into routine use. United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) guidelines issued in 2001 have been referred for every guideline released ever since; may it be European Medical Agency (EMA) Europe, National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) Brazil, Ministry of Health and Labour Welfare (MHLW) Japan or any other guideline in reference to bioanalytical method validation. After 12 years, USFDA released its new draft guideline for comments in 2013, which covers the latest parameters or topics encountered in bioanalytical method validation and approached towards the harmonization of bioanalytical method validation across the globe. Even though the regulatory agencies have general agreement, significant variations exist in acceptance criteria and methodology. The present review highlights the variations, similarities and comparison between bioanalytical method validation guidelines issued by major regulatory authorities worldwide. Additionally, other evaluation parameters such as matrix effect, incurred sample reanalysis including other stability aspects have been discussed to provide an ease of access for designing a bioanalytical method and its validation complying with the majority of drug authority guidelines.

  11. The assessment of irritation using clinical methods and questionnaires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Søren K.; Hogdson, M.

    2001-01-01

    Sensory irritant responses to chemical exposures are measured by a variety of methods; however, studies can be influenced from biases associated with study design and subject responses. This article reviews the different methods used to quantitate irritation. These methods primarily focus on eye......, and hyperemia. Methods for detecting nasal mucosa irritation include measuring swelling of the nasal mucosa, peak airflows through the nose, acoustic rhinometry, and rhinostereometry, which measures thickness of the anterior nasal turbinate. Questionnaires are useful for defining a set of symptoms in an attempt...... to characterize dose-response relationships from controlled exposure studies or field studies, to compare rates of events in field studies, or to screen for disease. However, it is important to consider carefully the study design, goal of utilization, and constraints surrounding their application. Whichever...

  12. Assessment of Soil Liquefaction Potential Based on Numerical Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choobasti, A. Janalizadeh; Vahdatirad, Mohammad Javad; Torabi, M.

    2012-01-01

    simplified method have been developed over the years. Although simplified methods are available in calculating the liquefaction potential of a soil deposit and shear stresses induced at any point in the ground due to earthquake loading, these methods cannot be applied to all earthquakes with the same...... accuracy, also they lack the potential to predict the pore pressure developed in the soil. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out a ground response analysis to obtain pore pressures and shear stresses in the soil due to earthquake loading. Using soil historical, geological and compositional criteria......, a zone of the corridor of Tabriz urban railway line 2 susceptible to liquefaction was recognized. Then, using numerical analysis and cyclic stress method using QUAKE/W finite element code, soil liquefaction potential in susceptible zone was evaluated based on design earthquake....

  13. New methods to assess bacterial injury in water.

    OpenAIRE

    Zaske, S K; Dockins, W S; Schillinger, J. E.; McFeters, G A

    1980-01-01

    Two methods are described for measurement of bacterial injury in water. Laboratory time preceding cell division measured with slide cultures and spheroplast formation after lysozyme treatment were accurate and rapid measurements of bacterial damage.

  14. Caries assessment: establishing mathematical link of clinical and benchtop method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaechi, Bennett T.

    2009-02-01

    It is well established that the development of new technologies for early detection and quantitative monitoring of dental caries at its early stage could provide health and economic benefits ranging from timely preventive interventions to reduction of the time required for clinical trials of anti-caries agents. However, the new technologies currently used in clinical setting cannot assess and monitor caries using the actual mineral concentration within the lesion, while a laboratory-based microcomputed tomography (MCT) has been shown to possess this capability. Thus we envision the establishment of mathematical equations relating the measurements of each of the clinical technologies to that of MCT will enable the mineral concentration of lesions detected and assessed in clinical practice to be extrapolated from the equation, and this will facilitate preventitive care in dentistry to lower treatment cost. We utilize MCT and the two prominent clinical caries assessment devices (Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence [QLF] and Diagnodent) to longitudinally monitor the development of caries in a continuous flow mixed-organisms biofilm model (artificial mouth), and then used the collected data to establish mathematical equation relating the measurements of each of the clinical technologies to that of MCT. A linear correlation was observed between the measurements of MicroCT and that of QLF and Diagnodent. Thus mineral density in a carious lesion detected and measured using QLF or Diagnodent can be extrapolated using the developed equation. This highlights the usefulness of MCT for monitoring the progress of an early caries being treated with therapeutic agents in clinical practice or trials.

  15. Anti-aging cosmetics and its efficacy assessment methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang

    2015-07-01

    The mechanisms of skin aging, the active ingredients used in anti-aging cosmetics and evaluation methods for anti-aging cosmetics were surmised in this paper. And the mechanisms of skin aging were introduced in the intrinsic and extrinsic ways. Meanwhile, the anti-aging cosmetic active ingredients were classified in accordance with the mechanism of action. Various evaluation methods such as human evaluation, in vitro evaluation were also summarized.

  16. Image cytometer method for automated assessment of human spermatozoa concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, D L; Kjaerulff, S; Hansen, C

    2013-01-01

    to investigator bias. Here we show that image cytometry can be used to accurately measure the sperm concentration of human semen samples with great ease and reproducibility. The impact of several factors (pipetting, mixing, round cell content, sperm concentration), which can influence the read-out as well......In the basic clinical work-up of infertile couples, a semen analysis is mandatory and the sperm concentration is one of the most essential variables to be determined. Sperm concentration is usually assessed by manual counting using a haemocytometer and is hence labour intensive and may be subjected...... and easy measurement of human sperm concentration....

  17. Signal Processing Methods for Liquid Rocket Engine Combustion Stability Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, R. Jeremy; Lee, Erik; Hulka, James R.; Casiano, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The J2X Gas Generator engine design specifications include dynamic, spontaneous, and broadband combustion stability requirements. These requirements are verified empirically based high frequency chamber pressure measurements and analyses. Dynamic stability is determined with the dynamic pressure response due to an artificial perturbation of the combustion chamber pressure (bomb testing), and spontaneous and broadband stability are determined from the dynamic pressure responses during steady operation starting at specified power levels. J2X Workhorse Gas Generator testing included bomb tests with multiple hardware configurations and operating conditions, including a configuration used explicitly for engine verification test series. This work covers signal processing techniques developed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to help assess engine design stability requirements. Dynamic stability assessments were performed following both the CPIA 655 guidelines and a MSFC in-house developed statistical-based approach. The statistical approach was developed to better verify when the dynamic pressure amplitudes corresponding to a particular frequency returned back to pre-bomb characteristics. This was accomplished by first determining the statistical characteristics of the pre-bomb dynamic levels. The pre-bomb statistical characterization provided 95% coverage bounds; these bounds were used as a quantitative measure to determine when the post-bomb signal returned to pre-bomb conditions. The time for post-bomb levels to acceptably return to pre-bomb levels was compared to the dominant frequency-dependent time recommended by CPIA 655. Results for multiple test configurations, including stable and unstable configurations, were reviewed. Spontaneous stability was assessed using two processes: 1) characterization of the ratio of the peak response amplitudes to the excited chamber acoustic mode amplitudes and 2) characterization of the variability of the peak response

  18. Angulação dos caninos em indivíduos portadores de má oclusão de Classe I e de Classe III: análise comparativa através de um novo método utilizando imagens digitalizadas Canine angulation in Class I and Class III individuals: a comparative analysis with a new method using digital images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyana Ramos Azevedo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: determinar as angulações mesiodistais das coroas dos caninos em indivíduos portadores de má oclusão de Classe III, comparando-os a indivíduos Classe I. MÉTODOS: foram empregadas medidas tomadas em fotografias digitalizadas de modelos de gesso e transportadas para um programa gráfico para leitura das medidas (Image Tool. Tais procedimentos foram repetidos para avaliação do erro do método casual (fórmula de Dahlberg e para a análise da reprodutibilidade através da Correlação intraclasse. A amostra constituiu-se de 57 pacientes com dentição permanente completa e não tratados ortodonticamente, dividida em dois grupos, de acordo com a má oclusão apresentada: o grupo I foi constituído por 33 pacientes portadores de má oclusão de Classe I, sendo 16 do sexo masculino e 17 do feminino, com média de idades de 27 anos; o grupo II era representado por 24 pacientes portadores de má oclusão de Classe III, 20 do sexo masculino e 4 do feminino, com média de idades de 22 anos. RESULTADOS: o erro casual mostrou-se com uma variação de 1,54 a 1,96 graus para a angulação dos caninos. A análise estatística revelou que o método apresenta uma excelente reprodutibilidade (pOBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the mesiodistal angulation of canine crowns in individuals with Class III malocclusion in comparison with Class I individuals. METHODS: Measurements were taken from digital photographs of plaster models and imported into an imaging program (Image Tool. These procedures were repeated to assess random method error (Dahlberg's formula, and analyze reproducibility by intraclass correlation. The sample consisted of 57 patients with complete permanent dentition, untreated orthodontically and divided into two groups according to their malocclusion: Group I consisted of 33 patients with Class I malocclusion, 16 males and 17 females, mean age 27 years; Group II comprised 24 patients with Class III malocclusion, 20 males and

  19. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE MESHLESS WEIGHTED LEAST-SQUARE METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PanXiaofei; SzeKimYim; ZhangXiong

    2004-01-01

    The meshless weighted least-square (MWLS) method was developed based on the weighted least-square method. The method possesses several advantages, such as high accuracy, high stability and high efficiency. Moreover, the coefficient matrix obtained is symmetric and semipositive definite. In this paper, the method is further examined critically. The effects of several parameters on the results of MWLS are investigated systematically by using a cantilever beam and an infinite plate with a central circular hole. The numerical results are compared with those obtained by using the collocation-based meshless method (CBMM) and Galerkin-based meshless method (GBMM). The investigated parameters include the type of approximations, the type of weight functions, the number of neighbors of an evaluation point, as well as the manner in which the neighbors of an evaluation point are determined. This study shows that the displacement accuracy and convergence rate obtained by MWLS is comparable to that of the GBMM while the stress accuracy and convergence rate yielded by MWLS is even higher than that of GBMM. Furthermore, MWLS is much more efficient than GBMM. This study also shows that the instability of CBMM is mainly due to the neglect of the equilibrium residuals at boundary nodes. In MWLS, the residuals of all the governing equations are minimized in a weighted least-square sense.

  20. Impact of Different Obesity Assessment Methods after Acute Coronary Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline N. M. Nunes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abdominal obesity is an important cardiovascular risk factor. Therefore, identifying the best method for measuring waist circumference (WC is a priority. Objective: To evaluate the eight methods of measuring WC in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS as a predictor of cardiovascular complications during hospitalization. Methods: Prospective study of patients with ACS. The measurement of WC was performed by eight known methods: midpoint between the last rib and the iliac crest (1, point of minimum circumference (2; immediately above the iliac crest (3, umbilicus (4, one inch above the umbilicus (5, one centimeter above the umbilicus (6, smallest rib and (7 the point of greatest circumference around the waist (8. Complications included: angina, arrhythmia, heart failure, cardiogenic shock, hypotension, pericarditis and death. Logistic regression tests were used for predictive factors. Results: A total of 55 patients were evaluated. During the hospitalization period, which corresponded on average to seven days, 37 (67% patients had complications, with the exception of death, which was not observed in any of the cases. Of these complications, the only one that was associated with WC was angina, and with every cm of WC increase, the risk for angina increased from 7.5 to 9.9%, depending on the measurement site. It is noteworthy the fact that there was no difference between the different methods of measuring WC as a predictor of angina. Conclusion: The eight methods of measuring WC are also predictors of recurrent angina after acute coronary syndromes.

  1. Real-time Continuous Assessment Method for Mental and Physiological Condition using Heart Rate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Kiyoko; Ishii, Naohiro

    It is necessary to monitor the daily health condition for preventing stress syndrome. In this study, it was proposed the method assessing the mental and physiological condition, such as the work stress or the relaxation, using heart rate variability at real time and continuously. The instantanuous heart rate (HR), and the ratio of the number of extreme points (NEP) and the number of heart beats were calculated for assessing mental and physiological condition. In this method, 20 beats heart rate were used to calculate these indexes. These were calculated in one beat interval. Three conditions, which are sitting rest, performing mental arithmetic and watching relaxation movie, were assessed using our proposed algorithm. The assessment accuracies were 71.9% and 55.8%, when performing mental arithmetic and watching relaxation movie respectively. In this method, the mental and physiological condition was assessed using only 20 regressive heart beats, so this method is considered as the real time assessment method.

  2. A sensitive inhibition chemiluminescence method for the determination of 6-mercaptopurine in tablet and biological fluid using the reaction of luminol-Ag(III) complex in alkaline medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Hanwen, E-mail: hanwen@hbu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Hebei University, Key Laboratory of Analytical Science and Technology of Hebei Province, Baoding 071002 (China); Wang, Ting; Liu, Xuyang; Chen, Peiyun [College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Hebei University, Key Laboratory of Analytical Science and Technology of Hebei Province, Baoding 071002 (China)

    2013-02-15

    A sensitive inhibition chemiluminescence (CL) method for the determination of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) is developed. The mechanism of the CL reaction between Ag(III) complex {l_brace}[Ag(HIO{sub 6}){sub 2}]{sup 5-}{r_brace} and luminol in alkaline solution was proposed, along with the inhibition mechanism of 6-MP on the CL emission. The inhibition degree of CL emission was proportional to the logarithm of 6-MP concentration. The effects of the reaction conditions on CL emission and inhibition were examined. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limit (s/n=3) was 3.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} g ml{sup -1}. The recoveries of 6-MP were in the range of 97.7-105% with the RSD of 2.1-3.4% (n=5) for tablet samples, 103-106% with the RSDs of 1.1-2.1% for spiked serum sample, and 97.2-101% with the RSD of 2.0-4.5% for spiked urine sample. The accuracy of this method for the tablet analysis was examined by comparing with the pharmacopoeia method. The proposed method was used for the determination of 6-MP at clinically relevant concentrations in real urine and serum samples with satisfactory results. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A sensitive inhibition chemiluminescence (CL) method for the determination of 6-MP is developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The inhibition mechanism of 6-MP on the CL emission was proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The detection limit was 3.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} g ml{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The accuracy was examined by comparing with the pharmacopoeia method.

  3. Mitigation and adaptation cost assessment: Concepts, methods and appropriate use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The present report on mitigation and adaptation costs addresses the complex issue of identifying synergies and tradeoffs between national priorities and mitigation policies, an issue that requires the integration of various disciplines so as to provide a comprehensive overview of future development trends, available technologies and economic policies. Further, the report suggests a new conceptual framework for treating the social aspects in assessing mitigation and adaptation costs in climate change studies. The impacts of certain sustainability indicators such as employment and poverty reduction on mitigation costing are also discussed in the report. Among the topics to be considered by over 120 distinguished international experts, are the elements of costing methodologies at both the micro and macro levels. Special effort will be made to include the impacts of such parameters as income, equity, poverty, employment and trade. Hence, the contents of this report are highly relevant to the authors of the Third Working Group in the development of the TAR. The report contains a chapter on Special Issues and Problems Related to Cost Assessment for Developing Countries. This chapter will provide valuable background in the further development of these concepts in the TAR because it is an area that has not received due attention in previous work. (au)

  4. Impact of Different Obesity Assessment Methods after Acute Coronary Syndromes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Caroline N. M.; Minicucci, Marcos F.; Farah, Elaine; Fusco, Daniéliso; Azevedo, Paula S.; Paiva, Sergio A. R.; Zornoff, Leonardo A. M., E-mail: lzornoff@cardiol.br [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-15

    Abdominal obesity is an important cardiovascular risk factor. Therefore, identifying the best method for measuring waist circumference (WC) is a priority. To evaluate the eight methods of measuring WC in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) as a predictor of cardiovascular complications during hospitalization. Prospective study of patients with ACS. The measurement of WC was performed by eight known methods: midpoint between the last rib and the iliac crest (1), point of minimum circumference (2); immediately above the iliac crest (3), umbilicus (4), one inch above the umbilicus (5), one centimeter above the umbilicus (6), smallest rib and (7) the point of greatest circumference around the waist (8). Complications included: angina, arrhythmia, heart failure, cardiogenic shock, hypotension, pericarditis and death. Logistic regression tests were used for predictive factors. A total of 55 patients were evaluated. During the hospitalization period, which corresponded on average to seven days, 37 (67%) patients had complications, with the exception of death, which was not observed in any of the cases. Of these complications, the only one that was associated with WC was angina, and with every cm of WC increase, the risk for angina increased from 7.5 to 9.9%, depending on the measurement site. It is noteworthy the fact that there was no difference between the different methods of measuring WC as a predictor of angina. The eight methods of measuring WC are also predictors of recurrent angina after acute coronary syndromes.

  5. An automated method for fibrin clot permeability assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ząbczyk, Michał; Piłat, Adam; Awsiuk, Magdalena; Undas, Anetta

    2015-01-01

    The fibrin clot permeability coefficient (Ks) is a useful measure of porosity of the fibrin network, which is determined by a number of genetic and environmental factors. Currently available methods to evaluate Ks are time-consuming, require constant supervision and provide only one parameter. We present an automated method in which drops are weighed individually, buffer is dosed by the pump and well defined clot washing is controlled by the software. The presence of a straight association between drop mass and their dripping time allows to shorten the measurement time twice. In 40 healthy individuals, Ks, the number of drops required to reach the plateau (DTP), the time to achieve the plateau (TTP) and the DTP/TTP ratio (DTR) were calculated. There was a positive association between Ks (r = 0.69, P Ks (r = -0.55, P Ks (r = 0.70, P < 0.0001 for the manual method and r = 0.76, P < 0.0001 for the automated method), fibrinogen (r = -0.58, P < 0.0001) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (r = -0.47, P < 0.01). The automated method might be a suitable tool for research and clinical use and may offer more additional parameters describing fibrin clot structure.

  6. Development of a non-expert risk assessment method for hand-arm related tasks (HARM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douwes, M.; Kraker, H. de

    2014-01-01

    To support health and safety practitioners in their obligation of risk assessment the 'Hand Arm Risk Assessment Method' (HARM) was developed. This tool can be used by any type of company for risk assessment of developing arm, neck or shoulders symptoms (pain) resulting from light manual tasks.This p

  7. Assessing Autonomous Learning in Research Methods Courses: Implementing the Student-Driven Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandiver, Donna M.; Walsh, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    As empirical assessments of teaching strategies increase in many disciplines and across many different courses, a paucity of such assessment seems to exist in courses devoted to social science research methods. This lack of assessment and evaluation impedes progress in developing successful teaching pedagogy. The teaching-learning issue addressed…

  8. Assessment of Load Extrapolation Methods for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Veldkamp, Dick

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper, methods for statistical load extrapolation of wind-turbine response are studied using a stationary Gaussian process model, which has approximately the same spectral properties as the response for the out-of-plane bending moment of a wind-turbine blade. For a Gaussian process......, an approximate analytical solution for the distribution of the peaks is given by Rice. In the present paper, three different methods for statistical load extrapolation are compared with the analytical solution for one mean wind speed. The methods considered are global maxima, block maxima, and the peak over....... By considering Gaussian processes for 12 mean wind speeds, the "fitting before aggregation" and "aggregation before fitting" approaches are studied. The results show that the fitting before aggregation approach gives the best results. [DOI: 10.1115/1.4003416]...

  9. Sequential sampling: a novel method in farm animal welfare assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, C A E; Main, D C J; Mullan, S; Haskell, M J; Browne, W J

    2016-02-01

    Lameness in dairy cows is an important welfare issue. As part of a welfare assessment, herd level lameness prevalence can be estimated from scoring a sample of animals, where higher levels of accuracy are associated with larger sample sizes. As the financial cost is related to the number of cows sampled, smaller samples are preferred. Sequential sampling schemes have been used for informing decision making in clinical trials. Sequential sampling involves taking samples in stages, where sampling can stop early depending on the estimated lameness prevalence. When welfare assessment is used for a pass/fail decision, a similar approach could be applied to reduce the overall sample size. The sampling schemes proposed here apply the principles of sequential sampling within a diagnostic testing framework. This study develops three sequential sampling schemes of increasing complexity to classify 80 fully assessed UK dairy farms, each with known lameness prevalence. Using the Welfare Quality herd-size-based sampling scheme, the first 'basic' scheme involves two sampling events. At the first sampling event half the Welfare Quality sample size is drawn, and then depending on the outcome, sampling either stops or is continued and the same number of animals is sampled again. In the second 'cautious' scheme, an adaptation is made to ensure that correctly classifying a farm as 'bad' is done with greater certainty. The third scheme is the only scheme to go beyond lameness as a binary measure and investigates the potential for increasing accuracy by incorporating the number of severely lame cows into the decision. The three schemes are evaluated with respect to accuracy and average sample size by running 100 000 simulations for each scheme, and a comparison is made with the fixed size Welfare Quality herd-size-based sampling scheme. All three schemes performed almost as well as the fixed size scheme but with much smaller average sample sizes. For the third scheme, an overall

  10. RELIABILITY ASSESSMENT OF ENTROPY METHOD FOR SYSTEM CONSISTED OF IDENTICAL EXPONENTIAL UNITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Youchao; Shi Jun

    2004-01-01

    The reliability assessment of unit-system near two levels is the most important content in the reliability multi-level synthesis of complex systems. Introducing the information theory into system reliability assessment, using the addible characteristic of information quantity and the principle of equivalence of information quantity, an entropy method of data information conversion is presented for the system consisted of identical exponential units. The basic conversion formulae of entropy method of unit test data are derived based on the principle of information quantity equivalence. The general models of entropy method synthesis assessment for system reliability approximate lower limits are established according to the fundamental principle of the unit reliability assessment. The applications of the entropy method are discussed by way of practical examples. Compared with the traditional methods, the entropy method is found to be valid and practicable and the assessment results are very satisfactory.

  11. Methods and validity of dietary assessments in four Scandinavian populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingham, S; Wiggins, H S; Englyst, H;

    1982-01-01

    the survey, thereby implying that dietary habits had not changed as a result of the investigative technique. It is concluded that the dietary data are indicative of current patterns of food consumption and are sufficiently valid for comparison with data on cancer risk in the 4 areas.......Average intakes of nonstarch polysaccharides (dietary fiber), foods, and nutrients were measured in representative samples of 30 men aged 50-59 in 4 Scandinavian populations with a 3-4 fold difference in risk for large bowel cancer. The assessment technique, a 4-day weighed record of food consumed...... between estimates of fat and protein intake obtained by food-table calculations of the 4-day weighed record and the chemically analyzed duplicates. Urinary plus fecal nitrogen excretion was equal to estimated nitrogen intake during the survey, and no discernable changes in urinary output occurred after...

  12. A novel solid fluorescence method for the fast determination of quercetin in biological samples based on the quercetin-Al(III) complex imprinted polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yufei; Feng, Ting; Li, Gongke

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a novel solid fluorescence method was proposed and applied to the fast determination of quercetin in urine and onion skin samples by using metal coordination imprinted polymer membrane, which was regarded as a recognition element. The quercetin-Al(III) imprinted polymer was immobilized in the microporous polypropylene fiber membrane via consecutive in situ polymerization. The CIP membrane had the porous, loose and layer upon layer structure. The CIP membrane was characterized by electron microscope photographs, infrared spectra, thermogravimetric analysis and solvent-resistant investigation. The extraction conditions including extraction solvent, extraction time, desorption solvent were optimized. Compared with MIP and NIP membrane, CIP membrane had been proved to be peculiar selective for quercetin even in presence of the structurally similar compounds such as kaempferol, rutin, naringenin and alpinetin. The CIP membrane was characteristic of high selectivity, stable and sensitive response to quercetin in polar environment. Under the optimum condition, there was a linear relationship between the state fluorescent response and the concentration of quercetin. The linear calibration range was over 0.02 mg L-1-0.80 mg L-1 with a detection limit of 5 μg L-1. The method was characteristic of flexible and good repeatability with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 4.1%. The proposed method was also successfully applied for the determination of quercetin in urine and onion skin samples without complicated pretreatment. The recoveries were 84.0-112.4% and RSDs varied from 1.5% to 6.8%. The results obtained by the proposed method agreed well with those obtained by HPLC method.

  13. Estimation methods for bioaccumulation in risk assessment of organic chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager DT; Hamers T; ECO

    1997-01-01

    Methodes voor het inschatten van bioaccumulatie van organische stoffen worden ge-evalueerd. Deze studie is beperkt tot drie typen organismen: vis, wormen en planten (bladgewassen, wortelgewassen en gras). We stellen een simpel mechanistisch model voor dat goed presteert t.o.v. gemeten waarden. O

  14. Understanding and Assessing: Bibliometrics as a Method of Measuring Interdisciplinarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Irwin

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the author's critique of "Measurement of Central Aspects of Scientific Research: Performance, Interdisciplinarity, Structure," by Anthony F. J. van Raan. The author states that van Raan's article provides an excellent, if tightly compressed, introduction to key findings and innovative methods of the accumulating and…

  15. ASSESSMENT or UNDERSTANDING? The Rorschach method in psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sardena

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available  Abstract: The Rorschach method has been submitted to a teenager who was threatening suicide. The case is examined by experts who meet regularly. From the seminary woks emerge some diagnostic elements which can facilitate the therapeutic relationship.

  16. Assessment of the Usability of the Workbench Faraday Cage Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten; Franek, Ondrej; Christensen, Søren K.

    2011-01-01

    The workbench Faraday Cage method (WBFC) is a time efficient module pre-compliance test regarding radiated emission. This work investigates the method’s usability and credibility and concludes that for this particular case the WBFC perform a tolerable compliance test for frequencies below 360 MHz...

  17. Assessment of mild steel damage characteristics by physical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botvina, L. R.; Soldatenkov, A. P.; Levin, V. P.; Tyutin, M. R.; Demina, Yu. A.; Petersen, T. B.; Dubov, A. A.; Semashko, N. A.

    2016-01-01

    The deformation and fracture localization characteristics are estimated by the methods of replicas, acoustic emission, metal magnetic memory, ultrasonic attenuation, microhardness, and electrical resistance. The relation between the estimated physical parameters on the one hand and the plastic zone size and the microcrack concentration in this zone, on the other, is considered.

  18. Assessment of Load Extrapolation Methods for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper methods for statistical load extrapolation of wind turbine response are studied using a stationary Gaussian process model which has approximately the same spectral properties as the response for the flap bending moment of a wind turbine blade. For a Gaussian process an approx...

  19. Silicon materials task of the low cost solar array project (Phase III). Effect of impurities and processing on silicon solar cells. Phase III summary and seventeenth quarterly report, Volume 1: characterization methods for impurities in silicon and impurity effects data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, R.H.; Davis, J.R.; Rohatgi, A.; Campbell, R.B.; Blais, P.D.; Rai-Choudhury, P.; Stapleton, R.E.; Mollenkopf, H.C.; McCormick, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The object of Phase III of the program has been to investigate the effects of various processes, metal contaminants and contaminant-process interactions on the performance of terrestrial silicon solar cells. The study encompassed a variety of tasks including: (1) a detailed examination of thermal processing effects, such as HCl and POCl/sub 3/ gettering on impurity behavior, (2) completion of the data base and modeling for impurities in n-base silicon, (3) extension of the data base on p-type material to include elements likely to be introduced during the production, refining, or crystal growth of silicon, (4) effects on cell performance on anisotropic impurity distributions in large CZ crystals and silicon webs, and (5) a preliminary assessment of the permanence of the impurity effects. Two major topics are treated: methods to measure and evaluate impurity effects in silicon and comprehensive tabulations of data derived during the study. For example, discussions of deep level spectroscopy, detailed dark I-V measurements, recombination lifetime determination, scanned laser photo-response, and conventional solar cell I-V techniques, as well as descriptions of silicon chemical analysis are included. Considerable data are tabulated on the composition, electrical, and solar cell characteristics of impurity-doped silicon.

  20. The socio-economic impact of noise: a method for assessing noise annoyance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjestland, Truls

    2007-01-01

    Norwegian authorities have developed and adopted a method for assessing the magnitude of noise impact on a community in quantitative terms. The method takes into account all levels of noise annoyance experienced by all the residents in an area and transforms these data into a single quantity that can also be expressed in monetary terms. This method is contrary to other commonly used assessment methods where only a certain fraction of the impacted people, e.g. those "highly annoyed," is considered.

  1. Comparing assessment methods as predictors of student learning in an undergraduate mathematics course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter, Nichole A.; Young, Cynthia Y.

    2011-12-01

    This experiment was designed to determine which assessment method: continuous assessment (in the form of daily in-class quizzes), cumulative assessment (in the form of online homework), or project-based learning, best predicted student learning (dependent upon post-test grades) in an undergraduate mathematics course. Participants included 117 university-level undergraduate freshmen enrolled in a course titled 'Mathematics for Calculus'. A stepwise regression model was formulated to model the relationship between the predictor variables (the continuous assessment, cumulative assessment, and project scores) versus the outcome variable (the post-test scores). Results indicated that ultimately the continuous assessment scores best predicted students' post-test scores.

  2. Measurement properties of existing clinical assessment methods evaluating scapular positioning and function. A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Marie; Juul-Kristensen, B; Lund, H;

    2014-01-01

    analysis) is rarely available in the clinic, the clinician needs applicable assessment tools to characterise scapular alterations.The aims were to compile a schematic overview of the available clinical scapular assessment methods and critically appraise the methodological quality of the involved studies...... an exhaustive list of scapular assessment methods on the basis of an initial search; 2) Additionally search for studies including clinimetric outcome measures of the identified assessment methods; 3) Critically appraise the methodological quality of the identified measurement properties in each study; and 4...

  3. A novel chemiluminescence quenching method for determination of sulfonamides in pharmaceutical and biological fluid based on luminol-Ag(III) complex reaction in alkaline solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hanwen; Chen, Peiyun; Li, Liqing; Cheng, Peng

    2011-05-01

    A novel chemiluminescence (CL) quenching method for the determination of sulfonamides is proposed. The CL reaction between Ag(III) complex [Ag(HIO₆)₂]⁵⁻ and luminol in alkaline solution was investigated. The quenching effect of sulfonamides on CL emission of [Ag(HIO₆)₂]⁵⁻-luminol system was found. Quenching degree of CL emission was proportional to sulfonamide concentration. The effects of the reaction conditions on CL emission and quenching were examined. Under optimal conditions, the detection limits (s/n = 3) were 7.2, 17 and 8.3 ng/mL for sulfadiazine, sulfameter, and sulfadimethoxine, respectively. The recoveries of the three drugs were in the range of 91.3-110% with RSDs of 1.9-2.7% for urine samples, and 106-112% with RSDs of 1.6-2.8% for serum samples. The proposed method was used for the determination of sulfadiazine at clinically relevant concentrations in real urine and serum samples with satisfactory results.

  4. Comparison of geochemical data obtained using four brine sampling methods at the SECARB Phase III Anthropogenic Test CO2 injection site, Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaway, Christopher; Thordsen, James J.; Manning, Michael A.; Cook, Paul J.; Trautz, Robert C.; Thomas, Burt; Kharaka, Yousif K.

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition of formation water and associated gases from the lower Cretaceous Paluxy Formation was determined using four different sampling methods at a characterization well in the Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama, as part of the Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) Phase III Anthropogenic Test, which is an integrated carbon capture and storage project. In this study, formation water and gas samples were obtained from well D-9-8 #2 at Citronelle using gas lift, electric submersible pump, U-tube, and a downhole vacuum sampler (VS) and subjected to both field and laboratory analyses. Field chemical analyses included electrical conductivity, dissolved sulfide concentration, alkalinity, and pH; laboratory analyses included major, minor and trace elements, dissolved carbon, volatile fatty acids, free and dissolved gas species. The formation water obtained from this well is a Na–Ca–Cl-type brine with a salinity of about 200,000 mg/L total dissolved solids. Differences were evident between sampling methodologies, particularly in pH, Fe and alkalinity. There was little gas in samples, and gas composition results were strongly influenced by sampling methods. The results of the comparison demonstrate the difficulty and importance of preserving volatile analytes in samples, with the VS and U-tube system performing most favorably in this aspect.

  5. The oxidation of As(III) in groundwater using biological manganese removal filtration columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Sun, Wenyong; Ge, Huoqing; Yao, Renda

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic is known as a toxic element to humans, and has been reported to co-exist with iron and manganese in groundwater worldwide. The typical method for arsenic removal from groundwater is to oxidize trivalent (As(III)) to pentavalent (As(V)) followed by the As(V) removal. This study aims to evaluate the oxidization efficiency of As(III) in a mature biological manganese (Mn(2+)) removal filtration system with different elevated influent As(III) concentrations. The effects of influent Mn(2+) concentrations, influent As(III) concentrations, filtration rates and dissolved oxygen (DO) levels on the efficiency of As(III) oxidation were assessed. The results showed that As(III) oxidation can be simultaneously achieved with removing Mn(2+) in the filtration system. The oxidation efficiency was not impacted by increasing the influent As(III) concentration up to nearly 2500 µg L(-1), but the filtration rate was limited at 11 m h(-1) for maintaining the effluent As(III) concentration below 10 µg L(-1). The oxidation process followed first-order kinetics with the constant reaching 0.56-0.61 min(-1). The As(III) oxidation process was most likely to be mediated by the bacterial community initially developed for Mn(2+) removal in the filtration system, which performed the catalytic oxidation for As(III).

  6. A molecular method to assess Phytophthora diversity in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scibetta, Silvia; Schena, Leonardo; Chimento, Antonio; Cacciola, Santa O; Cooke, David E L

    2012-03-01

    Current molecular detection methods for the genus Phytophthora are specific to a few key species rather than the whole genus and this is a recognized weakness of protocols for ecological studies and international plant health legislation. In the present study a molecular approach was developed to detect Phytophthora species in soil and water samples using novel sets of genus-specific primers designed against the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. Two different rDNA primer sets were tested: one assay amplified a long product including the ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2 regions (LP) and the other a shorter product including the ITS1 only (SP). Both assays specifically amplified products from Phytophthora species without cross-reaction with the related Pythium s. lato, however the SP assay proved the more sensitive and reliable. The method was validated using woodland soil and stream water from Invergowrie, Scotland. On-site use of a knapsack sprayer and in-line water filters proved more rapid and effective than centrifugation at sampling Phytophthora propagules. A total of 15 different Phytophthora phylotypes were identified which clustered within the reported ITS-clades 1, 2, 3, 6, 7 and 8. The range and type of the sequences detected varied from sample to sample and up to three and five different Phytophthora phylotypes were detected within a single sample of soil or water, respectively. The most frequently detected sequences were related to members of ITS-clade 6 (i.e. P. gonapodyides-like). The new method proved very effective at discriminating multiple species in a given sample and can also detect as yet unknown species. The reported primers and methods will prove valuable for ecological studies, biosecurity and commercial plant, soil or water (e.g. irrigation water) testing as well as the wider metagenomic sampling of this fascinating component of microbial pathogen diversity.

  7. Risk assessment of groundwater level variability using variable Kriging methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina; Kampanis, Nikolaos A.

    2015-04-01

    Assessment of the water table level spatial variability in aquifers provides useful information regarding optimal groundwater management. This information becomes more important in basins where the water table level has fallen significantly. The spatial variability of the water table level in this work is estimated based on hydraulic head measured during the wet period of the hydrological year 2007-2008, in a sparsely monitored basin in Crete, Greece, which is of high socioeconomic and agricultural interest. Three Kriging-based methodologies are elaborated in Matlab environment to estimate the spatial variability of the water table level in the basin. The first methodology is based on the Ordinary Kriging approach, the second involves auxiliary information from a Digital Elevation Model in terms of Residual Kriging and the third methodology calculates the probability of the groundwater level to fall below a predefined minimum value that could cause significant problems in groundwater resources availability, by means of Indicator Kriging. The Box-Cox methodology is applied to normalize both the data and the residuals for improved prediction results. In addition, various classical variogram models are applied to determine the spatial dependence of the measurements. The Matérn model proves to be the optimal, which in combination with Kriging methodologies provides the most accurate cross validation estimations. Groundwater level and probability maps are constructed to examine the spatial variability of the groundwater level in the basin and the associated risk that certain locations exhibit regarding a predefined minimum value that has been set for the sustainability of the basin's groundwater resources. Acknowledgement The work presented in this paper has been funded by the Greek State Scholarships Foundation (IKY), Fellowships of Excellence for Postdoctoral Studies (Siemens Program), 'A simulation-optimization model for assessing the best practices for the

  8. New methods for impact assessment of biotic-resource depletion in life cycle assessment of fisheries : theory and application

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    It is difficult to address all of the direct environmental impacts of fisheries using conventional methods of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). A methodological framework was developed that calculates regionalised characterisation factors for biomass uptake by fishing activities to assess impacts of biotic-resource depletion at both species and ecosystem levels. These two levels were studied to include effects of catch on the collapse of a particular stock of a given species and on total biomass a...

  9. Portfolio Assessment as a Method of Enhancing Preschool Reading Development and Teacher Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esliker, Regina

    2010-01-01

    Technological advances offer new ways and approaches to teaching and learning and have affected traditional methods of instruction and student assessment. Portfolio assessment is one way to document a student's progress over time and has been the subject of considerable research. This mixed method study explored the extent to which portfolio…

  10. A method to assess social sustainability of capture fisheries: An application to a Norwegian trawler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuizen, L.J.L.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Social sustainability assessment of capture fisheries is, both in terms of method development and measurement, not well developed. The objective of this study, therefore, was to develop a method consisting of indicators and rubrics (i.e. categories that articulate levels of performance) to assess so

  11. Development on Vulnerability Assessment Methods of PPS of Nuclear Power Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAO; Qiang; ZHANG; Wen-liang; ZONG; Bo; BU; Li-xin; YIN; Hong-he; FANG; Xin

    2012-01-01

    <正>We present a set of vulnerability assessment methods of physical protection system (PPS) of nuclear power plants after investigating and collecting the experience of assessment in China. The methods have important significance to strengthen and upgrade the security of the nuclear power plants, and also to

  12. Comparison of assessment methods for self-reported alcohol consumption in health interview surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekholm, O; Strandberg-Larsen, K; Christensen, K;

    2008-01-01

    To select a simple method for assessing alcohol consumption and to compare how different reference periods and response categories influence the self-reported frequency of binge drinking.......To select a simple method for assessing alcohol consumption and to compare how different reference periods and response categories influence the self-reported frequency of binge drinking....

  13. A Galvanic Coupling Method for Assessing Hydration Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Ogugua Asogwa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in biomedical sensors, data acquisition techniques, microelectronics and wireless communication systems opened up the use of wearable technology for ehealth monitoring. We introduce a galvanic coupled intrabody communication for monitoring human body hydration. Studies in hydration provide the information necessary for understanding the desired fluid levels for optimal performance of the body’s physiological and metabolic processes during exercise and activities of daily living. Current measurement techniques are mostly suitable for laboratory purposes due to their complexity and technical requirements. Less technical methods such as urine color observation and skin turgor testing are subjective and cannot be integrated into a wearable device. Bioelectrical impedance methods are popular but mostly used for estimating total body water with limited accuracy and sensitive to 800 mL–1000 mL change in body fluid levels. We introduce a non-intrusive and simple method of tracking hydration rates that can detect up to 1.30 dB reduction in attenuation when as little as 100 mL of water is consumed. Our results show that galvanic coupled intrabody signal propagation can provide qualitative hydration and dehydration rates in line with changes in an individual’s urine specific gravity and body mass. The real-time changes in galvanic coupled intrabody signal attenuation can be integrated into wearable electronic devices to evaluate body fluid levels on a particular area of interest and can aid diagnosis and treatment of fluid disorders such as lymphoedema.

  14. Spectrophotometric and pH-Metric Studies of Ce(III, Dy(III, Gd(III,Yb(III and Pr(III Metal Complexes with Rifampicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Sonar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The metal-ligand and proton-ligand stability constant of Ce(III, Dy(III, Gd(III,Yb(III and Pr(III metals with substituted heterocyclic drug (Rifampicin were determined at various ionic strength by pH metric titration. NaClO4 was used to maintain ionic strength of solution. The results obtained were extrapolated to the zero ionic strength using an equation with one individual parameter. The thermodynamic stability constant of the complexes were also calculated. The formation of complexes has been studied by Job’s method. The results obtained were of stability constants by pH metric method is confirmed by Job’s method.

  15. Financial instability in the region: assessment methods and elimination tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Andreevich Ivanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Financial instability is one of the most important factors in the level and sustainability of socio-economic development of territories. However, at present, from the viewpoint of methodology, this concept is developed insufficiently in relation to the elimination and forecasting of economic and financial crisis threats. This problem is especially acute at the regional level. For its solution the article proposes a methodology for assessing the risks of financial instability; it helps to determine the indicators of the current state and development of regional finances that are most liable to volatility in the context of the main institutional sectors (government, business, households; the methodology also helps to forecast the probable maximum change in the indicators in the future with the use of the VaR methodology The calculations carried out according to the proposed methodology on the example of the Republic of Bashkortostan show that regional finances are most vulnerable to fiscal risk. As a tool to eliminate budget risk the authors give several suggestions on improving the efficiency of interbudgetary transfers that make it possible to increase the degree of financial autonomy of the regions and to act as an effective incentive to their innovation development

  16. The Cultural Dimensions of Freshwater Wetland Assessments: Lessons Learned from the Application of US Rapid Assessment Methods in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucherand, Stéphanie; Schwoertzig, Eugénie; Clement, Jean-Christophe; Johnson, Brad; Quétier, Fabien

    2015-07-01

    Given the recent strengthening of wetland restoration and protection policies in France, there is need to develop rapid assessment methods that provide a cost-effective way to assess losses and gains of wetland functions. Such methods have been developed in the US and we tested six of them on a selection of contrasting wetlands in the Isère watershed. We found that while the methods could discriminate sites, they did not always give consistent rankings, thereby revealing the different assumptions they explicitly or implicitly incorporate. The US assessment methods commonly use notions of "old-growth" or "pristine" to define the benchmark conditions against which to assess wetlands. Any reference-based assessment developed in the US would need adaptation to work in the French context. This could be quite straightforward for the evaluation of hydrologic variables as scoring appears to be consistent with the best professional judgment of hydrologic condition made by a panel of French local experts. Approaches to rating vegetation condition and landscape context, however, would require substantial reworking to reflect a novel view of reference standard. Reference standard in the European context must include acknowledgement that many of the best condition and biologically important wetland types in France are the product of intensive, centuries-long management (mowing, grazing, etc.). They must also explicitly incorporate the recent trend in ecological assessment to focus particularly on the wetland's role in landscape-level connectivity. These context-specific, socio-cultural dimensions must be acknowledged and adjusted for when adapting or developing wetland assessment methods in new cultural contexts.

  17. Assessing methods for developing crop forecasting in the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ines, A. V. M.; Capa Morocho, M. I.; Baethgen, W.; Rodriguez-Fonseca, B.; Han, E.; Ruiz Ramos, M.

    2015-12-01

    Seasonal climate prediction may allow predicting crop yield to reduce the vulnerability of agricultural production to climate variability and its extremes. It has been already demonstrated that seasonal climate predictions at European (or Iberian) scale from ensembles of global coupled climate models have some skill (Palmer et al., 2004). The limited predictability that exhibits the atmosphere in mid-latitudes, and therefore de Iberian Peninsula (PI), can be managed by a probabilistic approach based in terciles. This study presents an application for the IP of two methods for linking tercile-based seasonal climate forecasts with crop models to improve crop predictability. Two methods were evaluated and applied for disaggregating seasonal rainfall forecasts into daily weather realizations: 1) a stochastic weather generator and 2) a forecast tercile resampler. Both methods were evaluated in a case study where the impacts of two seasonal rainfall forecasts (wet and dry forecast for 1998 and 2015 respectively) on rainfed wheat yield and irrigation requirements of maize in IP were analyzed. Simulated wheat yield and irrigation requirements of maize were computed with the crop models CERES-wheat and CERES-maize which are included in Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT v.4.5, Hoogenboom et al., 2010). Simulations were run at several locations in Spain where the crop model was calibrated and validated with independent field data. These methodologies would allow quantifying the benefits and risks of a seasonal climate forecast to potential users as farmers, agroindustry and insurance companies in the IP. Therefore, we would be able to establish early warning systems and to design crop management adaptation strategies that take advantage of favorable conditions or reduce the effect of adverse ones. ReferencesPalmer, T. et al., 2004. Development of a European multimodel ensemble system for seasonal-to-interannual prediction (DEMETER). Bulletin of the

  18. Polygraph Test Results Assessment by Regression Analysis Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Leontiev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem of defining the importance of asked questions for the examinee under judicial and psychophysiological polygraph examination by methods of mathematical statistics. It offers the classification algorithm based on the logistic regression as an optimum Bayesian classifier, considering weight coefficients of information for the polygraph-recorded physiological parameters with no condition for independence of the measured signs.Actually, binary classification is executed by results of polygraph examination with preliminary normalization and standardization of primary results, with check of a hypothesis that distribution of obtained data is normal, as well as with calculation of coefficients of linear regression between input values and responses by method of maximum likelihood. Further, the logistic curve divided signs into two classes of the "significant" and "insignificant" type.Efficiency of model is estimated by means of the ROC analysis (Receiver Operator Characteristics. It is shown that necessary minimum sample has to contain results of 45 measurements at least. This approach ensures a reliable result provided that an expert-polygraphologist possesses sufficient qualification and follows testing techniques.

  19. Development of imaging methods to assess adiposity and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, S B

    2008-12-01

    Body composition studies were first recorded around the time of the renaissance, and advances by the mid-twentieth century facilitated growth in the study of physiology, metabolism and pathological states. The field developed during this early period around the 'two-compartment' molecular level model that partitions body weight into fat and fat-free mass. Limited use was also made of X-rays as a means of estimating fat-layer thickness, but the revolutionary advance was brought about by the introduction of three-dimensional images provided by computed tomography (CT) in the mid 1970s, followed soon thereafter by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Complete in vivo reconstruction of all major anatomic body compartments and tissues became possible, thus providing major new research opportunities. This imaging revolution has continued to advance with further methodology refinements including functional MRI, diffusion tensor imaging and combined methods such as positron emission tomography+CT or MRI. The scientific advances made possible by these new and innovative methods continue to unfold today and hold enormous promise for the future of obesity research.

  20. Assessment methods for angiogenesis and current approaches for its quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Hassan AlMalki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is a physiological process which describes the development of new blood vessels from the existing vessels. It is a common and the most important process in the formation and development of blood vessels, so it is supportive in the healing of wounds and granulation of tissues. The different assays for the evaluation of angiogenesis have been described with distinct advantages and some limitations. In order to develop angiogenic and antiangiogenic techniques, continuous efforts have been resulted to give animal models for more quantitative analysis of angiogenesis. Most of the studies on angiogenic inducers and inhibitors rely on various models, both in vitro, in vivo and in ova, as indicators of efficacy. The angiogenesis assays are very much helpful to test efficacy of both pro- and anti- angiogenic agents. The development of non-invasive procedures for quantification of angiogenesis will facilitate this process significantly. The main objective of this review article is to focus on the novel and existing methods of angiogenesis and their quantification techniques. These findings will be helpful to establish the most convenient methods for the detection, quantification of angiogenesis and to develop a novel, well tolerated and cost effective anti-angiogenic treatment in the near future.

  1. Friends in the classroom : a comparison between two methods for the assessment of students' friendship networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijl, Sip Jan; Koster, Marloes; Hannink, Anne; Stratingh, Anna

    2011-01-01

    One of the methods used most often to assess students' friendships and friendship networks is the reciprocal nomination method. However, an often heard complaint is that this technique produces rather negative outcomes. This study compares the reciprocal nomination method with another method to asse

  2. Feasibility studies of safety assessment methods for programmable automation systems. Final report of the AVV project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haapanen, P.; Maskuniitty, M.; Pulkkinen, U. [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland); Heikkinen, J.; Korhonen, J.; Tuulari, E. [VTT Electronics, Espoo (Finland)

    1995-10-01

    Feasibility studies of two different groups of methodologies for safety assessment of programmable automation systems has been executed at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). The studies concerned the dynamic testing methods and the fault tree (FT) and failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) methods. In order to get real experience in the application of these methods, an experimental testing of two realistic pilot systems were executed and a FT/FMEA analysis of a programmable safety function accomplished. The purpose of the studies was not to assess the object systems, but to get experience in the application of methods and assess their potentials and development needs. (46 refs., 21 figs.).

  3. An assessment on epitope prediction methods for protozoa genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resende Daniela M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epitope prediction using computational methods represents one of the most promising approaches to vaccine development. Reduction of time, cost, and the availability of completely sequenced genomes are key points and highly motivating regarding the use of reverse vaccinology. Parasites of genus Leishmania are widely spread and they are the etiologic agents of leishmaniasis. Currently, there is no efficient vaccine against this pathogen and the drug treatment is highly toxic. The lack of sufficiently large datasets of experimentally validated parasites epitopes represents a serious limitation, especially for trypanomatids genomes. In this work we highlight the predictive performances of several algorithms that were evaluated through the development of a MySQL database built with the purpose of: a evaluating individual algorithms prediction performances and their combination for CD8+ T cell epitopes, B-cell epitopes and subcellular localization by means of AUC (Area Under Curve performance and a threshold dependent method that employs a confusion matrix; b integrating data from experimentally validated and in silico predicted epitopes; and c integrating the subcellular localization predictions and experimental data. NetCTL, NetMHC, BepiPred, BCPred12, and AAP12 algorithms were used for in silico epitope prediction and WoLF PSORT, Sigcleave and TargetP for in silico subcellular localization prediction against trypanosomatid genomes. Results A database-driven epitope prediction method was developed with built-in functions that were capable of: a removing experimental data redundancy; b parsing algorithms predictions and storage experimental validated and predict data; and c evaluating algorithm performances. Results show that a better performance is achieved when the combined prediction is considered. This is particularly true for B cell epitope predictors, where the combined prediction of AAP12 and BCPred12 reached an AUC value

  4. Platelet function testing: methods of assessment and clinical utility.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mylotte, Darren

    2011-01-01

    Platelets play a central role in the regulation of both thrombosis and haemostasis yet tests of platelet function have, until recently, been exclusively used in the diagnosis and management of bleeding disorders. Recent advances have demonstrated the clinical utility of platelet function testing in patients with cardiovascular disease. The ex vivo measurement of response to antiplatelet therapies (aspirin and clopidogrel), by an ever-increasing array of platelet function tests, is with some assays, predictive of adverse clinical events and thus, represents an emerging area of interest for both the clinician and basic scientist. This review article will describe the advantages and disadvantages of the currently available methods of measuring platelet function and discuss both the limitations and emerging data supporting the role of platelet function studies in clinical practice.

  5. Platelet function testing: methods of assessment and clinical utility.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mylotte, Darren

    2012-02-01

    Platelets play a central role in the regulation of both thrombosis and haemostasis yet tests of platelet function have, until recently, been exclusively used in the diagnosis and management of bleeding disorders. Recent advances have demonstrated the clinical utility of platelet function testing in patients with cardiovascular disease. The ex vivo measurement of response to antiplatelet therapies (aspirin and clopidogrel), by an ever-increasing array of platelet function tests, is with some assays, predictive of adverse clinical events and thus, represents an emerging area of interest for both the clinician and basic scientist. This review article will describe the advantages and disadvantages of the currently available methods of measuring platelet function and discuss both the limitations and emerging data supporting the role of platelet function studies in clinical practice.

  6. A Critical Assessment of Stellar Mass Measurement Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mobasher, Bahram; Ferguson, Henry C; Acquaviva, Viviana; Barro, Guillermo; Finkelstein, Steven L; Fontana, Adriano; Gruetzbauch, Ruth; Johnson, Seth; Lu, Yu; Papovich, Casey J; Pforr, Janine; Salvato, Mara; Somerville, Rachel S; Wiklind, Tommy; Wuyts, Stijn; Ashby, Matthew L N; Bell, Eric; Conselice, Christopher J; Dickinson, Mark E; Faber, Sandra M; Fazio, Giovanni; Finlator, Kristian; Galametz, Audrey; Gawiser, Eric; Giavalisco, Mauro; Grazian, Andrea; Grogin, Norman A; Guo, Yicheng; Hathi, Nimish; Kocevski, Dale; Koekemoer, Anton M; Koo, David C; Newman, Jeffrey A; Reddy, Naveen; Santini, Paola; Wechsler, Risa H

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we perform a comprehensive study of the main sources of random and systematic errors in stellar mass measurement for galaxies using their Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs). We use mock galaxy catalogs with simulated multi-waveband photometry (from U-band to mid-infrared) and known redshift, stellar mass, age and extinction for individual galaxies. Given different parameters affecting stellar mass measurement (photometric S/N ratios, SED fitting errors, systematic effects, the inherent degeneracies and correlated errors), we formulated different simulated galaxy catalogs to quantify these effects individually. We studied the sensitivity of stellar mass estimates to the codes/methods used, population synthesis models, star formation histories, nebular emission line contributions, photometric uncertainties, extinction and age. For each simulated galaxy, the difference between the input stellar masses and those estimated using different simulation catalogs, $\\Delta\\log(M)$, was calculated and use...

  7. [Unconventional treatment methods in multiple sclerosis and their expert assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eben, E

    1997-10-01

    Unorthodox therapies are used also by MS-patients very frequently. Not all procedures are harmless affecting only the purse. The medical expert working within the German health care system will also be called for questions of compensation of costs. A survey of some paradigmatic unorthodox treatments is given. While the law and the jurisdiction concerning the public health insurance fund pronounce clear standards in respect to the demands on the efficacy shown by modern (biomathematic) methods, it is essentially a more difficult task to bring the jurisdiction of the Federal Supreme Court (BGH) in harmony with basic requirements of a rational and scientific medicine. The interindividual and intraindividual course of MS is most variable, therefore it is very difficult to make a distinction between natural course and effects of a therapy in a single case while the only possibility to estimate individual therapeutic chance is a statistic evidence of efficacy in general.

  8. Assessment of shock capturing schemes for discontinuous Galerkin method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于剑; 阎超; 赵瑞

    2014-01-01

    This paper carries out systematical investigations on the performance of several typical shock-capturing schemes for the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method, including the total variation bounded (TVB) limiter and three artificial diffusivity schemes (the basis function-based (BF) scheme, the face residual-based (FR) scheme, and the element residual-based (ER) scheme). Shock-dominated flows (the Sod problem, the Shu-Osher problem, the double Mach reflection problem, and the transonic NACA0012 flow) are considered, addressing the issues of accuracy, non-oscillatory property, dependence on user-specified constants, resolution of discontinuities, and capability for steady solutions. Numerical results indicate that the TVB limiter is more efficient and robust, while the artificial diffusivity schemes are able to preserve small-scale flow structures better. In high order cases, the artificial diffusivity schemes have demonstrated superior performance over the TVB limiter.

  9. Standards in neurosonology. Part III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Wojczal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents standards related to ultrasound imaging of the cerebral vasculature and structures. The aim of this paper is to standardize both the performance and description of ultrasound imaging of the extracranial and intracranial cerebral arteries as well as a study of a specific brain structure, i.e. substantia nigra hyperechogenicity. The following aspects are included in the description of standards for each ultrasonographic method: equipment requirements, patient preparation, study technique and documentation as well as the required elements of ultrasound description. Practical criteria for the diagnosis of certain pathologies in accordance with the latest literature were also presented. Furthermore, additional comments were included in some of the sections. Part I discusses standards for the performance, documentation and description of different ultrasound methods (Duplex, Doppler. Part II and III are devoted to standards for specific clinical situations (vasospasm, monitoring after the acute stage of stroke, detection of a right-to-left shunts, confirmation of the arrest of the cerebral circulation, an assessment of the functional efficiency of circle of Willis, an assessment of the cerebrovascular vasomotor reserve as well as the measurement of substantia nigra hyperechogenicity.

  10. Standards in neurosonology. Part III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojczal, Joanna; Tomczyk, Tomasz; Luchowski, Piotr; Kozera, Grzegorz; Kaźmierski, Radosław; Stelmasiak, Zbigniew

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents standards related to ultrasound imaging of the cerebral vasculature and structures. The aim of this paper is to standardize both the performance and description of ultrasound imaging of the extracranial and intracranial cerebral arteries as well as a study of a specific brain structure, i.e. substantia nigra hyperechogenicity. The following aspects are included in the description of standards for each ultrasonographic method: equipment requirements, patient preparation, study technique and documentation as well as the required elements of ultrasound description. Practical criteria for the diagnosis of certain pathologies in accordance with the latest literature were also presented. Furthermore, additional comments were included in some of the sections. Part I discusses standards for the performance, documentation and description of different ultrasound methods (Duplex, Doppler). Part II and III are devoted to standards for specific clinical situations (vasospasm, monitoring after the acute stage of stroke, detection of a right-to-left shunts, confirmation of the arrest of the cerebral circulation, an assessment of the functional efficiency of circle of Willis, an assessment of the cerebrovascular vasomotor reserve as well as the measurement of substantia nigra hyperechogenicity).

  11. A video-based observation method to assess musculoskeletal load in kitchen work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehkonen, Irmeli; Ketola, Ritva; Ranta, Riikka; Takala, Esa-Pekka

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a new video-based observation method aimed to assess musculoskeletal load in kitchen work, aspects of its repeatability and validity, and problems confronted by the observers. Two pairs of researchers observed individually 117 video clips recorded in kitchens. Interobserver repeatability was assessed by computing the proportion of agreement and weighted kappa values (kappa(w)). Validity was analyzed by studying the distribution of the assessments over the rating scales and the ratings before and after the interventions, which were compared with expert assessments made from the same intervention targets. The proportion of agreement ranged from 57 to 88%. Interobserver repeatability based on weighted kappa values was mainly good to moderate. The method detected the changes in physical load due to the interventions. Direction of the changes corresponded with the expert assessments. Further development of the method is needed to assess the load on the hands and wrists.

  12. Methods for assessment of innovative medical technologies during early stages of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelmes, Marc; Neumann, Ulrike; Lühmann, Dagmar; Schönermark, Matthias P; Hagen, Anja

    2009-11-05

    Conventional Health Technology Assessment (HTA) is usually conducted at a point in time at which the development of the respective technology may no longer be influenced. By this time developers and/or purchasers may have misinvested resources. Thus the demand for Technology Assessment (TA) which incorporates appropriate methods during early development stages of a technology becomes apparent. Against this health political background, the present report describes methods for a development-accompanying assessment of innovative medical technologies. Furthermore, international research programmes set out to identify or apply such methods will be outlined. A systematic literature search as well as an extensive manual literature search are carried out in order to obtain literature and information. The greatest units of the identified methods consist of assessment concepts, decision support methods, modelling approaches and methods focusing on users and their knowledge. Additionally, several general-purpose concepts have been identified. The identified research programmes INNO-HTA and MATCH (Multidisciplinary-Assessment-of-Technology-Centre-for-Healthcare) are to be seen as pilot projects which so far have not been able to generate final results. MATCH focuses almost entirely on the incorporation of the user-perspective regarding the development of non-pharmaceutical technologies, whereas INNO-HTA is basically concerned with the identification and possible advancement of methods for the early, socially-oriented technology assessment. Most references offer only very vague descriptions of the respective method and the application of greatly differing methods seldom exceeds the character of a pilot implementation. A standardisation much less an institutionalisation of development-accompanying assessment cannot be recognized. It must be noted that there is no singular method with which development-accompanying assessment should be carried out. Instead, a technology and

  13. Methods for assessment of innovative medical technologies during early stages of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen, Anja

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Conventional Health Technology Assessment (HTA is usually conducted at a point in time at which the development of the respective technology may no longer be influenced. By this time developers and/or purchasers may have misinvested resources. Thus the demand for Technology Assessment (TA which incorporates appropriate methods during early development stages of a technology becomes apparent. Against this health political background, the present report describes methods for a development-accompanying assessment of innovative medical technologies. Furthermore, international research programmes set out to identify or apply such methods will be outlined. A systematic literature search as well as an extensive manual literature search are carried out in order to obtain literature and information. The greatest units of the identified methods consist of assessment concepts, decision support methods, modelling approaches and methods focusing on users and their knowledge. Additionally, several general-purpose concepts have been identified. The identified research programmes INNO-HTA and MATCH (Multidisciplinary-Assessment-of-Technology-Centre-for-Healthcare are to be seen as pilot projects which so far have not been able to generate final results. MATCH focuses almost entirely on the incorporation of the user-perspective regarding the development of non-pharmaceutical technologies, whereas INNO-HTA is basically concerned with the identification and possible advancement of methods for the early, socially-oriented technology assessment. Most references offer only very vague descriptions of the respective method and the application of greatly differing methods seldom exceeds the character of a pilot implementation. A standardisation much less an institutionalisation of development-accompanying assessment cannot be recognized. It must be noted that there is no singular method with which development-accompanying assessment should be carried out. Instead, a

  14. Selective adsorption and recovery of Au(III) from three kinds of acidic systems by persimmon residual based bio-sorbent: a method for gold recycling from e-wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ruiyi; Xie, Feng; Guan, Xueliang; Zhang, Qinglin; Luo, Zhengrong

    2014-07-01

    A low cost bio-sorbent, named "PPF resin", was prepared by crosslinking the persimmon residual with formaldehyde. The adsorption behavior of PPF resin towards Au(III) from varied HCl and HNO3 concentration solutions was studied. PPF resin could adsorb almost complete Au(III) from high acidic systems. The influence of dilution ratio, solid-liquid ratio and time towards Au(III) from aqua regia leached PCBs liquor was censored in detail by batch and continuous adsorption methods. The PPF resin before and after adsorption was characterized by FT-IR, XRD and XPS spectra which provided evidences for the reduction of Au(III) to Au(0) with a proposed mechanism of Au(III) adsorption-reduction process. After saturated column adsorption of 0.1g PPF resin, 0.0506 g gold (purity: 99.9%) was obtained by the method of incineration. The present results provide a new approach for gold recovery from the secondary resources.

  15. MERCURY CONTAMINATED MATERIAL DECONTAMINATION METHODS: INVESTIGATION AND ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    Over the years mercury has been recognized as having serious impacts on human health and the environment. This recognition has led to numerous studies that deal with the properties of various mercury forms, the development of methods to quantify and speciate the forms, fate and transport, toxicology studies, and the development of site remediation and decontamination technologies. This report reviews several critical areas that will be used in developing technologies for cleaning mercury from mercury-contaminated surfaces of metals and porous materials found in many DOE facilities. The technologies used for decontamination of water and mixed wastes (solid) are specifically discussed. Many technologies that have recently appeared in the literature are included in the report. Current surface decontamination processes have been reviewed, and the limitations of these technologies for mercury decontamination are discussed. Based on the currently available technologies and the processes published recently in the literature, several processes, including strippable coatings, chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, chemisorbing surface wipes with forager sponge and grafted cotton, and surface/pore fixation through amalgamation or stabilization, have been identified as potential techniques for decontamination of mercury-contaminated metal and porous surfaces. Their potential merits and applicability are discussed. Finally, two processes, strippable coatings and chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, were experimentally investigated in Phase II of this project.

  16. Assessment of Nuclear Fuels using Radiographic Thickness Measurement Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhammad Abir; Fahima Islam; Hyoung Koo Lee; Daniel Wachs

    2014-11-01

    The Convert branch of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) focuses on the development of high uranium density fuels for research and test reactors for nonproliferation. This fuel is aimed to convert low density high enriched uranium (HEU) based fuel to high density low enriched uranium (LEU) based fuel for high performance research reactors (HPRR). There are five U.S. reactors that fall under the HPRR category, including: the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor (MITR), the National Bureau of Standards Reactor (NBSR), the Missouri University Research Reactor (UMRR), the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). U-Mo alloy fuel phase in the form of either monolithic or dispersion foil type fuels, such as ATR Full-size In center flux trap Position (AFIP) and Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR), are being designed for this purpose. The fabrication process1 of RERTR is susceptible to introducing a variety of fuel defects. A dependable quality control method is required during fabrication of RERTR miniplates to maintain the allowable design tolerances, therefore evaluating and analytically verifying the fabricated miniplates for maintaining quality standards as well as safety. The purpose of this work is to analyze the thickness of the fabricated RERTR-12 miniplates using non-destructive technique to meet the fuel plate specification for RERTR fuel to be used in the ATR.

  17. Assessing Partnership Alternatives in an IT Network Employing Analytical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Reza Salamat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main critical success factors for the companies is their ability to build and maintain an effective collaborative network. This is more critical in the IT industry where the development of sustainable competitive advantage requires an integration of various resources, platforms, and capabilities provided by various actors. Employing such a collaborative network will dramatically change the operations management and promote flexibility and agility. Despite its importance, there is a lack of an analytical tool on collaborative network building process. In this paper, we propose an optimization model employing AHP and multiobjective programming for collaborative network building process based on two interorganizational relationships’ theories, namely, (i transaction cost theory and (ii resource-based view, which are representative of short-term and long-term considerations. The five different methods were employed to solve the formulation and their performances were compared. The model is implemented in an IT company who was in process of developing a large-scale enterprise resource planning (ERP system. The results show that the collaborative network formed through this selection process was more efficient in terms of cost, time, and development speed. The framework offers novel theoretical underpinning and analytical solutions and can be used as an effective tool in selecting network alternatives.

  18. Assessment of density functional methods with correct asymptotic behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai, Chen-Wei; Li, Guan-De; Chai, Jeng-Da

    2012-01-01

    Long-range corrected (LC) hybrid functionals and asymptotically corrected (AC) model potentials are two distinct density functional methods with correct asymptotic behavior. They are known to be accurate for properties that are sensitive to the asymptote of the exchange-correlation potential, such as the highest occupied molecular orbital energies and Rydberg excitation energies of molecules. To provide a comprehensive comparison, we investigate the performance of the two schemes and others on a very wide range of applications, including the asymptote problems, self-interaction-error problems, energy-gap problems, charge-transfer problems, and many others. The LC hybrid scheme is shown to consistently outperform the AC model potential scheme. In addition, to be consistent with the molecules collected in the IP131 database [Y.-S. Lin, C.-W. Tsai, G.-D. Li, and J.-D. Chai, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 154109 (2012)], we expand the EA115 and FG115 databases to include, respectively, the vertical electron affinities and f...

  19. Emergy assessment method for wheat cultivar efficiency and environmental sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Jankowiak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The method based on emergy was applied to quantify the fluxes of the energy, matter and monetary investment use (water, seeds, work, fertilizer and plant protecting agents, fuel, goods and services, productivity, environmental services and sustainability in typical wheat cultivar conducted in Wielkopolska. In order to convert all the flows mentioned into common base (seJ a conversion factors (solar transformities were used. In this way it was possible to consider also such flows that are free and generally neglected in the traditional balances. Generally only 52% emergy inflow is delivered by financial investment, while the remaining part, delivered in the form of the environmental services, is free. The Emergy Yield Ratio EYR = 1.14 indicate a low level of output per emergy investment unit. The values of Environmental Loading Ratio ELR = 11 and Emergy Sustainability Index ESI = 0.1 indicate an environmental stress and low level of cultivar sustainability, respectively. The final cultivar product (wheat has the emergy density 4.35 E12 seJ/kg and transformity 26.3 E4 seJ/J.

  20. Water quality assessment in Qu River based on fuzzy water pollution index method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ranran; Zou, Zhihong; An, Yan

    2016-12-01

    A fuzzy improved water pollution index was proposed based on fuzzy inference system and water pollution index. This method can not only give a comprehensive water quality rank, but also describe the water quality situation with a quantitative value, which is convenient for the water quality comparison between the same ranks. This proposed method is used to assess water quality of Qu River in Sichuan, China. Data used in the assessment were collected from four monitoring stations from 2006 to 2010. The assessment results show that Qu River water quality presents a downward trend and the overall water quality in 2010 is the worst. The spatial variation indicates that water quality of Nanbashequ section is the pessimal. For the sake of comparison, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation and grey relational method were also employed to assess water quality of Qu River. The comparisons of these three approaches' assessment results show that the proposed method is reliable.

  1. A Critical Assessment of Stellar Mass Measurement Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobasher, Bahram; Dahlen, Tomas; Ferguson, Henry C.; Acquaviva, Viviana; Barro, Guillermo; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Fontana, Adriano; Gruetzbauch, Ruth; Johnson, Seth; Lu, Yu; Papovich, Casey J.; Pforr, Janine; Salvato, Mara; Somerville, Rachel S.; Wiklind, Tommy; Wuyts, Stijn; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Bell, Eric; Conselice, Christopher J.; Dickinson, Mark E.; Faber, Sandra M.; Fazio, Giovanni; Finlator, Kristian; Galametz, Audrey; Gawiser, Eric; Giavalisco, Mauro; Grazian, Andrea; Grogin, Norman A.; Guo, Yicheng; Hathi, Nimish; Kocevski, Dale; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Koo, David C.; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Reddy, Naveen; Santini, Paola; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2015-07-01

    This is the second paper in a series aimed at investigating the main sources of uncertainty in measuring the observable parameters in galaxies from their spectral energy distributions (SEDs). In the first paper we presented a detailed account of the photometric redshift measurements and an error analysis of this process. In this paper we perform a comprehensive study of the main sources of random and systematic error in stellar mass estimates for galaxies, and their relative contributions to the associated error budget. Since there is no prior knowledge of the stellar mass of galaxies (unlike their photometric redshifts), we use mock galaxy catalogs with simulated multi-waveband photometry and known redshift, stellar mass, age and extinction for individual galaxies. The multi-waveband photometry for the simulated galaxies were generated in 13 filters spanning from U-band to mid-infrared wavelengths. Given different parameters affecting stellar mass measurement (photometric signal-to-noise ratios (S/N), SED fitting errors and systematic effects), the inherent degeneracies and correlated errors, we formulated different simulated galaxy catalogs to quantify these effects individually. For comparison, we also generated catalogs based on observed photometric data of real galaxies in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-South field, spanning the same passbands. The simulated and observed catalogs were provided to a number of teams within the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey collaboration to estimate the stellar masses for individual galaxies. A total of 11 teams participated, with different combinations of stellar mass measurement codes/methods, population synthesis models, star formation histories, extinction and age. For each simulated galaxy, the differences between the input stellar masses, Minput, and those estimated by each team, Mest, is defined as {{Δ }}{log}(M)\\equiv {log}({M}{estimated})-{log}({M}{input}), and used to

  2. Reversed-phase ion-pair liquid chromatographic method for determination of reaction equilibria involving ionic species: exemplification of the method using ligand substitution reactions of ethylenediaminetetraacetatochromium(III) ion with acetate and phosphate ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Emiko; Miya, Seiko; Saitoh, Kazunori; Saito, Shingo; Shibukawa, Masami

    2011-02-18

    A reversed-phase ion-pair liquid chromatographic method is presented for the determination of reaction equilibria involving ionic species of the same charge sign as reactant and product compounds. It has been demonstrated that ion-exchange chromatography or reversed-phase ion-pair chromatography is a useful tool for the determination of equilibrium constants of chemical reactions involving ionic species such as metal complexation reactions. Previous work with these methods has been based on the assumption that the limiting retention factors of the reactant and product species are constant independent of concentration of the chemical species (X) in the mobile phase, which reacts with the analyte compound. However, when all the reactant and product species are ions of the same charge sign as that of the species X, it is virtually impossible to apply these methods to the equilibrium constant determination because the retention factors of both the reactant and product species may depend on the concentration of X. In this study, an alternative approach was developed that estimates the limiting retention factors of ionic species from the dependence of the retention factor on the ionic strength of the mobile phase. Ligand substitution reactions of ethylenediaminetetraacetatochromium(III) ion with acetate and phosphate ions were used as model reactions to test this method. The equilibrium constants determined by this method are in good agreement with those obtained by a UV-visible spectrophotometric method.

  3. THE FAIR VALUE OF AUTHENTIC AND TRUE METHOD OF ASSESSING THE LIABILITIES OF THE COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Travinska

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the nature of the category “assessment” in the scientific literature and normative documents; considered the types of assessments in the domestic and international practice; the methodology to assess the fair value of liabilities in accordance with IFRS; recommended methods for assessment of certain types of current liabilities accounting. Also the author describes the case for the use of different systems assessments of reflection of economic operations of the company. Defined the essence and necessity of application of the fair value in respect of the liabilities that would provide a true assessment of the financial condition of the enterprise and rational management accounting.

  4. Assessment of parameter uncertainty in hydrological model using a Markov-Chain-Monte-Carlo-based multilevel-factorial-analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junlong; Li, Yongping; Huang, Guohe; Chen, Xi; Bao, Anming

    2016-07-01

    Without a realistic assessment of parameter uncertainty, decision makers may encounter difficulties in accurately describing hydrologic processes and assessing relationships between model parameters and watershed characteristics. In this study, a Markov-Chain-Monte-Carlo-based multilevel-factorial-analysis (MCMC-MFA) method is developed, which can not only generate samples of parameters from a well constructed Markov chain and assess parameter uncertainties with straightforward Bayesian inference, but also investigate the individual and interactive effects of multiple parameters on model output through measuring the specific variations of hydrological responses. A case study is conducted for addressing parameter uncertainties in the Kaidu watershed of northwest China. Effects of multiple parameters and their interactions are quantitatively investigated using the MCMC-MFA with a three-level factorial experiment (totally 81 runs). A variance-based sensitivity analysis method is used to validate the results of parameters' effects. Results disclose that (i) soil conservation service runoff curve number for moisture condition II (CN2) and fraction of snow volume corresponding to 50% snow cover (SNO50COV) are the most significant factors to hydrological responses, implying that infiltration-excess overland flow and snow water equivalent represent important water input to the hydrological system of the Kaidu watershed; (ii) saturate hydraulic conductivity (SOL_K) and soil evaporation compensation factor (ESCO) have obvious effects on hydrological responses; this implies that the processes of percolation and evaporation would impact hydrological process in this watershed; (iii) the interactions of ESCO and SNO50COV as well as CN2 and SNO50COV have an obvious effect, implying that snow cover can impact the generation of runoff on land surface and the extraction of soil evaporative demand in lower soil layers. These findings can help enhance the hydrological model

  5. Electrolyte changes: An indirect method to assess irrigation fluid absorption complications during transurethral resection of prostate: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Kumkum

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Fluid absorption is inevitable complication of transuretheral resection of prostate and serum electrolytes changes can indirectly assess the irrigation fluid absorption. Aims: To monitor the extent of 1.5% glycineirrigation fluid absorption during transurethral resection of prostate (TURP, by measuring the changes of serum sodium and potassium levels peri-operatively. Settings and Design: This is a randomized prospective cohort observational study. Materials and Methods: The 86 male patients of ASA grades I to III in the age group of 50 to 80 years, scheduled for elective TURP surgery under central neuraxial block, were studied. Their preoperative and post-operative serum sodium, potassium and calcium levels were measured. When duration of surgery exceeds 60 min, serum sodium and potassium levels were done intra-operatively with venous blood samples by using blood gas analyser. The height of irrigation fluid column was kept constant at 60 cm. These changes were correlated with the volume of irrigating fluid used, duration of procedure and the volume of prostate gland resected. Statistical Analysis Used: The values of pre and postoperative sodium, potassium and calcium serum levels were compared and statistical significance of the difference in values was assessed using Student′s paired t test. Results: Statistically significant reduction of serum sodium levels (hyponatremia and elevation of serum potassium levels (hyperkalemia were observed post-operatively, which was directly proportional to volume of irrigating fluid used, duration of procedure and volume of prostate gland resected. No significant changes in serum calcium level were observed. Conclusions: To measure serum electrolytes changes during TURP surgery, it is simple and economical method for indirect assessment of fluid absorption for early identification of TURP syndrome.

  6. Antithrombin III for critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allingstrup, Mikkel; Wetterslev, Jørn; Ravn, Frederikke B

    2016-01-01

    , bleeding events, the effect on sepsis and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and the length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) and in hospital in general. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases from inception to 27 August 2015: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials......, trauma, obstetrics, and paediatrics), and the effect of AT III in patients with or without the use of concomitant heparin. We assessed the adequacy of the available number of participants and performed trial sequential analysis (TSA) to establish the implications for further research. MAIN RESULTS: We...

  7. LiFePO4 Nanostructures Fabricated from Iron(III) Phosphate (FePO4 x 2H2O) by Hydrothermal Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saji, Viswanathan S; Song, Hyun-Kon

    2015-01-01

    Electrode materials having nanometer scale dimensions are expected to have property enhancements due to enhanced surface area and mass/charge transport kinetics. This is particularly relevant to intrinsically low electronically conductive materials such as lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4), which is of recent research interest as a high performance intercalation electrode material for Li-ion batteries. Many of the reported works on LiFePO4 synthesis are unattractive either due to the high cost of raw materials or due to the complex synthesis technique. In this direction, synthesis of LiFePO4 directly from inexpensive FePO4 shows promise.The present study reports LiFePO4 nanostructures prepared from iron (III) phosphate (FePO4 x 2H2O) by precipitation-hydrothermal method. The sintered powder was characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Inductive coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), and Electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). Two synthesis methods, viz. bulk synthesis and anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) template-assisted synthesis are reported. By bulk synthesis, micro-sized particles having peculiar surface nanostructuring were formed at precipitation pH of 6.0 to 7.5 whereas typical nanosized LiFePO4 resulted at pH ≥ 8.0. An in-situ precipitation strategy inside the pores of AAO utilizing the spin coating was utilized for the AAO-template-assisted synthesis. The template with pores filled with the precipitate was subsequently subjected to hydrothermal process and high temperature sintering to fabricate compact rod-like structures.

  8. An Object Threat Assessment Method Based on Indefinite Multiple Attribute Decision Making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Cui; SU Hai-bin; HOU Chao-zhen; WANG Xiao-yi

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of characteristics of threat assessment of aerial defense, a kind of MADM (multiple attribute decision making) method with unknown attribute weights and biased project on decision-maker is put forward. It can be used in dealing with the object threat assessment problem. A computing formula on project preference of decision-maker and one model of obtaining attribute optimization weight are set up. The method improves the veracity and reliability of computing object threat assessment, and the simulating result shows that this method is valid.

  9. Image and Imaging an Emergency Department: Expense and Benefit of Different Quality Assessment Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Andrea Pfortmueller

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In this era of high-tech medicine, it is becoming increasingly important to assess patient satisfaction. There are several methods to do so, but these differ greatly in terms of cost, time, and labour and external validity. The aim of this study is to describe and compare the structure and implementation of different methods to assess the satisfaction of patients in an emergency department. Methods. The structure and implementation of the different methods to assess patient satisfaction were evaluated on the basis of a 90-minute standardised interview. Results. We identified a total of six different methods in six different hospitals. The average number of patients assessed was 5012, with a range from 230 (M5 to 20 000 patients (M2. In four methods (M1, M3, M5, and M6, the questionnaire was composed by a specialised external institute. In two methods, the questionnaire was created by the hospital itself (M2, M4.The median response rate was 58.4% (range 9–97.8%. With a reminder, the response rate increased by 60% (M3. Conclusion. The ideal method to assess patient satisfaction in the emergency department setting is to use a patient-based, in-emergency department-based assessment of patient satisfaction, planned and guided by expert personnel.

  10. Evaluation and selection of decision-making methods to assess landfill mining projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Robert; Baumgartner, Rupert J; Vorbach, Stefan; Ragossnig, Arne; Pomberger, Roland

    2015-09-01

    For the first time in Austria, fundamental technological and economic studies on recovering secondary raw materials from large landfills have been carried out, based on the 'LAMIS - Landfill Mining Austria' pilot project. A main focus of the research - and the subject of this article - was to develop an assessment or decision-making procedure that allows landfill owners to thoroughly examine the feasibility of a landfill mining project in advance. Currently there are no standard procedures that would sufficiently cover all the multiple-criteria requirements. The basic structure of the multiple attribute decision making process was used to narrow down on selection, conceptual design and assessment of suitable procedures. Along with a breakdown into preliminary and main assessment, the entire foundation required was created, such as definitions of requirements to an assessment method, selection and accurate description of the various assessment criteria and classification of the target system for the present 'landfill mining' vs. 'retaining the landfill in after-care' decision-making problem. Based on these studies, cost-utility analysis and the analytical-hierarchy process were selected from the range of multiple attribute decision-making procedures and examined in detail. Overall, both methods have their pros and cons with regard to their use for assessing landfill mining projects. Merging these methods or connecting them with single-criteria decision-making methods (like the net present value method) may turn out to be reasonable and constitute an appropriate assessment method.

  11. MTA index: a simple 2D-method for assessing atrophy of the medial temporal lobe using clinically available neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel eMenéndez-González

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Despite a strong correlation between severity of Alzheimer disease (AD pathology and medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA, its measurement has not been widely used in daily clinical practice as a criterion in the diagnosis of prodromal and probable AD. This is mainly because the methods available to date are sophisticated and difficult to implement for routine use in most hospitals. In this pilot study we aim to describe a novel, simple and objective method for measuring the rate of MTA in relation to the global atrophy using clinically available neuroimaging and describe the rationale behind this method.Description: This method consists of calculating a ratio of 3 regions traced manually on one single coronal MRI slide at the level of the interpeduncular fossa: i the medial temporal lobe region (A; ii the parenchyma within the medial temporal region, that includes the hippocampus and the parahippocampal gyrus -the fimbriae taenia and choroid plexus are excluded- (B; and iii the body of the ipsilateral lateral ventricle (C. Therefore we can compute the ratio Medial Temporal Atrophy index at both sides as follows: MTAi = (A-B x10/C.Conclusions: The MTAi is a simple 2D-method for measuring the relative extent of atrophy in the MTL in relation to the global brain atrophy. This method can be useful for a more accurate diagnosis of AD in routine clinical practice. Further studies are needed to assess the usefulness of MTAi in the diagnosis of early AD, in tracking the progression of AD and in the differential diagnosis of AD with other dementias.

  12. A Method for Assessing Effects of an Introductory Environmental History Course on Student Worldviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsen, Jennifer L.; Disinger, John F.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a method for assessing the effects of an undergraduate environmental history course on student environmental worldviews, the foundation of which is triangulation of method. A grounded survey instrument was used to supply quantitative and qualitative data which were supplemented by data from open-ended interviews. The method was effective…

  13. 78 FR 25440 - Request for Information and Citations on Methods for Cumulative Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is requesting information and citations on approaches and methods for the... agents or stressors'' using scientifically defensible approaches and methods. The Guidelines will assist... approaches and methods that can be used to plan and conduct cumulative risk assessments (CRA)....

  14. Tools for climate change adaptation in water management - inventory and assessment of methods and tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludwig, F.; Swart, R.

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes an inventory of methods and tools for assessing climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation options, focusing on the water sector. Two questions are central: What are the opportunities for international applications of Dutch methods and tools? And: Which methods and t

  15. Development of the Assessment Items of Debris Flow Using the Delphi Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Yosep; Seong, Joohyun; Kim, Mingi; Park, Kyunghan; Yoon, Hyungkoo

    2016-04-01

    In recent years in Korea, Typhoon and the localized extreme rainfall caused by the abnormal climate has increased. Accordingly, debris flow is becoming one of the most dangerous natural disaster. This study aimed to develop the assessment items which can be used for conducting damage investigation of debris flow. Delphi method was applied to classify the realms of assessment items. As a result, 29 assessment items which can be classified into 6 groups were determined.

  16. Assessment of Effects of Green Construction by Analytic Hierarchy Process and Fuzzy Synthetic Judgment Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Qi-yu; LI Hui-qiang

    2008-01-01

    The index system, code system, and weights of indexes are established to assess the effects of green construction. The index system consists of index level, factor level and sub-factor level. The analytic hierarchy process is used to determine the weights of indexes, and the consistency test indicate that the weight assignment is reasonable. Using fuzzy synthetic judgment method, the assessment model is built, which includes factor set, weight set and conclusion set. An example is given to demonstrate the assessment procedures.

  17. The viability of alternative assessment methods in the Greek upper secondary school: the oral portfolio

    OpenAIRE

    Angeliki Daphni

    2012-01-01

    Τhe final examination of the English language subject, in the context of the Greek state upper secondary education, is a traditional paper-and-pencil test which does not include any assessment of oracy skills. This article explores the viability of the oral portfolio as an alternative assessment and pedagogic method that can facilitate the assessment of speaking and listening skills and create a more motivating learning environment. To this effect, three methodological tools were designed, na...

  18. A method for Effect Modifier Assessment in ergonomic intervention research – The EMA method

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Kasper; Winkel, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction:Ergonomic intervention research includes studies in which researchers arrange (or follow) changes in working conditions to determine the effects in risk factors and/or health. Often this research takes place at workplaces and not in a controlled environment of a laboratory. The effects may thus be due to other factors in addition to the investigated intervention – i.e. due to effect modifiers. Such effect modifiers need to be identified and assessed in terms of potential impact o...

  19. Proposal of Environmental Impact Assessment Method for Concrete in South Korea: An Application in LCA (Life Cycle Assessment).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyoung; Tae, Sung Ho

    2016-11-02

    This study aims to develop a system for assessing the impact of the substances discharged from concrete production process on six environmental impact categories, i.e., global warming (GWP), acidification (AP), eutrophication (EP), abiotic depletion (ADP), ozone depletion (ODP), and photochemical oxidant creation (POCP), using the life a cycle assessment (LCA) method. To achieve this, this study proposed an LCA method specifically applicable to the Korean concrete industry by adapting the ISO standards to suit the Korean situations. The proposed LCA method involves a system that performs environmental impact assessment on the basis of input information on concrete mix design, transport distance, and energy consumption in a batch plant. The Concrete Lifecycle Assessment System (CLAS) thus developed provides user-friendly support for environmental impact assessment with specialized database for concrete mix materials and energy sources. In the case analysis using the CLAS, among the substances discharged from the production of 24 MPa concrete, those contributing to GWP, AP, EP, ADP, ODP, and POCP were assessed to amount to 309 kg-CO₂ eq/m³, 28.7 kg-SO₂ eq/m³, 5.21 kg-PO₄(3-) eq/m³, 0.000049 kg-CFC11 eq/m³, 34 kg/m³, and 21 kg-Ethylene eq/m³, respectively. Of these six environmental impact categories selected for the LCA in this study, ordinary Portland cement (OPC) was found to contribute most intensely to GWP and POCP, and aggregates, to AP, EP, ODP, and ADP. It was also found that the mix design with increased prop proportion of recycled aggregate was found to contribute to reducing the impact in all other categories.

  20. Proposal of Environmental Impact Assessment Method for Concrete in South Korea: An Application in LCA (Life Cycle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hyoung Kim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop a system for assessing the impact of the substances discharged from concrete production process on six environmental impact categories, i.e., global warming (GWP, acidification (AP, eutrophication (EP, abiotic depletion (ADP, ozone depletion (ODP, and photochemical oxidant creation (POCP, using the life a cycle assessment (LCA method. To achieve this, this study proposed an LCA method specifically applicable to the Korean concrete industry by adapting the ISO standards to suit the Korean situations. The proposed LCA method involves a system that performs environmental impact assessment on the basis of input information on concrete mix design, transport distance, and energy consumption in a batch plant. The Concrete Lifecycle Assessment System (CLAS thus developed provides user-friendly support for environmental impact assessment with specialized database for concrete mix materials and energy sources. In the case analysis using the CLAS, among the substances discharged from the production of 24 MPa concrete, those contributing to GWP, AP, EP, ADP, ODP, and POCP were assessed to amount to 309 kg-CO2 eq/m3, 28.7 kg-SO2 eq/m3, 5.21 kg-PO43− eq/m3, 0.000049 kg-CFC11 eq/m3, 34 kg/m3, and 21 kg-Ethylene eq/m3, respectively. Of these six environmental impact categories selected for the LCA in this study, ordinary Portland cement (OPC was found to contribute most intensely to GWP and POCP, and aggregates, to AP, EP, ODP, and ADP. It was also found that the mix design with increased prop proportion of recycled aggregate was found to contribute to reducing the impact in all other categories.